Science.gov

Sample records for reticulum export subcellular

  1. Selective export of autotaxin from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Lin; Wang, Baolu; Xiong, Chaoyang; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-04-28

    Autotaxin (ATX) or ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2) is a secretory glycoprotein and functions as the key enzyme for lysophosphatidic acid generation. The mechanism of ATX protein trafficking is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that p23, a member of the p24 protein family, was the protein-sorting receptor required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export of ATX. A di-phenylalanine (Phe-838/Phe-839) motif in the human ATX C-terminal region was identified as a transport signal essential for the ATX-p23 interaction. Knockdown of individual Sec24 isoforms by siRNA revealed that ER export of ATX was impaired only if Sec24C was down-regulated. These results suggest that ATX is selectively exported from the ER through a p23, Sec24C-dependent pathway. In addition, it was found that AKT signaling played a role in ATX secretion regulation to facilitate ATX ER export by enhancing the nuclear factor of activated T cell-mediated p23 expression. Furthermore, the di-hydrophobic amino acid motifs (FY) also existed in the C-terminal regions of human ENPP1 and ENPP3. Such a p23, Sec24C-dependent selective ER export mechanism is conserved among these ENPP family members. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Metabolic Interplay between Peroxisomes and Other Subcellular Organelles Including Mitochondria and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are unique subcellular organelles which play an indispensable role in several key metabolic pathways which include: (1.) etherphospholipid biosynthesis; (2.) fatty acid beta-oxidation; (3.) bile acid synthesis; (4.) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synthesis; (5.) fatty acid alpha-oxidation; (6.) glyoxylate metabolism; (7.) amino acid degradation, and (8.) ROS/RNS metabolism. The importance of peroxisomes for human health and development is exemplified by the existence of a large number of inborn errors of peroxisome metabolism in which there is an impairment in one or more of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of affected patients differ depending upon the enzyme which is deficient and the extent of the deficiency, the disorders involved are usually (very) severe diseases with neurological dysfunction and early death in many of them. With respect to the role of peroxisomes in metabolism it is clear that peroxisomes are dependent on the functional interplay with other subcellular organelles to sustain their role in metabolism. Indeed, whereas mitochondria can oxidize fatty acids all the way to CO2 and H2O, peroxisomes are only able to chain-shorten fatty acids and the end products of peroxisomal beta-oxidation need to be shuttled to mitochondria for full oxidation to CO2 and H2O. Furthermore, NADH is generated during beta-oxidation in peroxisomes and beta-oxidation can only continue if peroxisomes are equipped with a mechanism to reoxidize NADH back to NAD+, which is now known to be mediated by specific NAD(H)-redox shuttles. In this paper we describe the current state of knowledge about the functional interplay between peroxisomes and other subcellular compartments notably the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum for each of the metabolic pathways in which peroxisomes are involved. PMID:26858947

  3. A Balance Between Two Nuclear Localization Sequences and a Nuclear Export Sequence Governs Extradenticle Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Katherine E.; Mann, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    During animal development, transcription factor activities are modulated by several means, including subcellular localization. The Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd) has a dynamic subcellular localization, such that Exd is cytoplasmic by default, but is nuclear when complexed with another homeodomain protein, Homothorax (Hth). These observations raise the question of whether dimerization with Hth simply induces Exd's nuclear localization or, alternatively, if Hth is also necessary for Exd activity. To address this question, we analyzed the nuclear transport signals in Exd, including a divergent nuclear export signal (NES) and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). We show that, although these signals are weak compared to canonical signals, they balance each other in Exd. We also provide evidence that Exd contains an NLS mask that contributes to its cytoplasmic localization. With these signals characterized, we generated forms of Exd that are nuclear localized in the absence of Hth. Surprisingly, although these Exd forms are functional, they do not phenocopy Hth overexpression. These findings suggest that Hth is required for Exd activity, not simply for inducing its nuclear localization. PMID:17277370

  4. Bap31 enhances the endoplasmic reticulum export and quality control of human class I MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Ladasky, John J; Boyle, Sarah; Seth, Malini; Li, Hewang; Pentcheva, Tsvetelina; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Steinberg, Steven J; Edidin, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The assembly of class I MHC molecules and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is governed by chaperones and accessory proteins. We present evidence that the putative cargo receptor protein Bap31 participates in the transport and the quality control of human class I molecules. Transfection of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa with yellow fluorescent protein-Bap31 chimeras increased surface levels of class I in a dose-dependent manner, by as much as 3.7-fold. The increase in surface class I resulted from an increase in the rate of export of newly synthesized class I molecules to the cell surface and from an increase in the stability of the exported molecules. We propose that Bap31 performs quality control on class I molecules in two distinct phases: first, by exporting peptide-loaded class I molecules to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment, and second, by retrieving class I molecules that have lost peptides in the acidic post-ER environment. This function of Bap31 is conditional or redundant, because we find that Bap31 deficiency does not reduce surface class I levels. Overexpression of the Bap31 homolog, Bap29, decreases surface class levels in HeLa, indicating that it does not substitute for Bap31.

  5. Regulation of calnexin sub-cellular localization modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Delom, Frédéric; Fessart, Delphine; Chevet, Eric

    2007-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular compartment where proteins enter the secretory pathway, undergo post-translational modifications and acquire a correct conformation. If these functions are chronically altered, specific ER stress signals are triggered to promote cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Here, we show that tunicamycin causes significant alteration of calnexin sub-cellular distribution in MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, this correlates with the absence of both tunicamycin-induced calnexin phosphorylation as well as tunicamycin-induced cell death. Under these conditions, calnexin-associated Bap31, an ER integral membrane protein, is subjected to a caspase-8 cleavage pattern within a specific sub-compartment of the ER. These results suggest that MCF-7 resistance to ER stress-induced apoptosis is partially mediated by the expression level of calnexin which in turn controls its sub-cellular localization, and its association with Bap31. These data may delineate a resistance mechanism to the ER stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  6. Bypassing the need for subcellular localization of a polysaccharide export-anchor complex by overexpressing its protein subunits

    PubMed Central

    Javens, June; Wan, Zhe; Hardy, Gail G.; Brun, Yves V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Subcellular protein localization is thought to promote protein-protein interaction by increasing the effective concentration and enabling spatial coordination and proper segregation of proteins. We found that protein overexpression allowed the assembly of a productive polysaccharide biosynthesis-export-anchoring complex in the absence of polar localization in Caulobacter crescentus. Polar localization of the holdfast export protein, HfsD, depends on the presence of the other export proteins, HfsA, and HfsB, and on the polar scaffold protein PodJ. The holdfast deficiency of hfsB and podJ mutants is suppressed by the overexpression of export proteins. Restored holdfasts are randomly positioned and co-localize with a holdfast anchor protein in these strains, indicating that functional complexes can form at non-polar sites. Therefore, overexpression of export proteins surpasses a concentration threshold necessary for holdfast synthesis. Restoration of holdfast synthesis at non-polar sites reduces surface adhesion, consistent with the need to spatially coordinate the holdfast synthesis machinery with the flagellum and pili. These strains lack the cell-specific segregation of the holdfast, resulting in the presence of holdfasts in motile daughter cells. Our results highlight the fact that multiple facets of subcellular localization can be coupled to improve the phenotypic outcome of a protein assembly. PMID:23714375

  7. Sigma-1 receptors (sigma(1) binding sites) form raft-like microdomains and target lipid droplets on the endoplasmic reticulum: roles in endoplasmic reticulum lipid compartmentalization and export.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2003-08-01

    The brain sigma-1 receptors can bind neurosteroids and psychotropic drugs, including neuroleptics and cocaine and are implicated in schizophrenia, depression, and drug dependence. In this study, we found that sigma-1 receptors specifically target lipid storage sites (lipid droplets) on the endoplasmic reticulum by forming a distinct class of lipid microdomains. Both endogenously expressing sigma-1 receptors and transfected C-terminally enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-tagged sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1R-EYFP) target unique "ring-like" structures associated with endoplasmic reticulum reticular networks in NG108-15 cells. The ring-like structures contain neutral lipids and are enlarged by the oleate treatment, indicating that they are endoplasmic reticulum-associated lipid droplets (ER-LDs). sigma-1 receptors colocalize with caveolin-2, a cholesterol-binding protein in lipid rafts on the ER-LDs, but not with adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), a cytosolic lipid droplet (c-LD)-specific protein. When the double-arginine ER retention signal on the N terminus of sigma-1 receptors is truncated, sigma-1 receptors no longer exist on ER-LDs, but predominantly target c-LDs, which contain ADRP. sigma-1 receptors on ER-LDs form detergent-resistant raft-like lipid microdomains, the buoyancy of which is different from that of plasma membrane lipid rafts. (+)-Pentazocine causes sigma-1 receptors to disappear from the microdomains. N-Terminally EYFP-tagged sigma-1 receptors (EYFP-Sig-1R) failed to target ER-LDs. EYFP-Sig-1R-transfected cells showed an unrestricted distribution of neutral lipids all over the endoplasmic reticulum network, decreases in c-LDs and cholesterol in plasma membranes, and the bulbous aggregation of endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, sigma-1 receptors are unique endoplasmic reticulum proteins that regulate the compartmentalization of lipids on the endoplasmic reticulum and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane and c-LDs.

  8. Subcellular distribution of small GTP binding proteins in pancreas: Identification of small GTP binding proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.K. )

    1990-02-01

    Subfractionation of a canine pancreatic homogenate was performed by several differential centrifugation steps, which gave rise to fractions with distinct marker profiles. Specific binding of guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S)) was assayed in each fraction. Enrichment of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding was greatest in the interfacial smooth microsomal fraction, expected to contain Golgi and other smooth vesicles. There was also marked enrichment in the rough microsomal fraction. Electron microscopy and marker protein analysis revealed the rough microsomes (RMs) to be highly purified rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The distribution of small (low molecular weight) GTP binding proteins was examined by a ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot-overlay assay. Several apparent GTP binding proteins of molecular masses 22-25 kDa were detected in various subcellular fractions. In particular, at least two such proteins were found in the Golgi-enriched and RM fractions, suggesting that these small GTP binding proteins were localized to the Golgi and RER. To more precisely localize these proteins to the RER, native RMs and RMs stripped of ribosomes by puromycin/high salt were subjected to isopycnic centrifugation. The total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding, as well as the small GTP binding proteins detected by the ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot overlay, distributed into fractions of high sucrose density, as did the RER marker ribophorin I. Consistent with a RER localization, when the RMS were stripped of ribosomes and subjected to isopycnic centrifugation, the total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding and the small GTP binding proteins detected in the blot-overlay assay shifted to fractions of lighter sucrose density along with the RER marker.

  9. Membrane-anchored prolyl hydroxylase with an export signal from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Koji; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fukuda, Hiroo; Matsuoka, Ken

    2005-01-01

    We cloned a novel prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PH; EC 1.14.11.2) homolog cDNA from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells based on expression sequence tag information. Like other PHs, this tobacco PH polypeptide has two conserved histidine residues, and it comprises 286 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 32 kDa. Interestingly, this protein and homologs in Arabidopsis and rice have predicted transmembrane sequences in their N-terminal regions. This PH homolog was expressed in BY-2 cells as a His-tagged protein, and the expressed protein showed PH activity. Incubation of membranes with high salt, urea, and protease with or without detergents indicated that this protein is an integral membrane protein with a type II configuration. Its membrane-anchored nature is specific for plants because no integral membrane PH has been found in animals. A membrane fractionation study and immunocytochemical studies indicate that this protein localizes in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Analysis of this protein fused to green fluorescent protein indicated that basic amino acids in the cytoplasmic, N-terminal region of the PH play a role in its export from the ER.

  10. GABAB receptor cell surface export is controlled by an endoplasmic reticulum gatekeeper

    PubMed Central

    Doly, Stéphane; Shirvani, Hamasseh; Gäta, Gabriel; Meye, Frank; Emerit, Michel-Boris; Enslen, Hervé; Achour, Lamia; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana; Kwon, Yang Seung; Armand, Vincent; Gardette, Robert; Giros, Bruno; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Mameli, Manuel; Darmon, Michèle; Marullo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and cell surface export of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are tightly regulated. For GABAB receptors of GABA, the major mammalian inhibitory neurotransmitter, the ligand-binding GB1 subunit is maintained in the ER by unknown mechanisms in the absence of hetero-dimerization with the GB2 subunit. We report that GB1 retention is regulated by a specific gatekeeper, PRAF2. This ER resident transmembrane protein binds to GB1, preventing its progression in the biosynthetic pathway. GB1 release occurs upon competitive displacement from PRAF2 by GB2. PRAF2 concentration, relative to that of GB1 and GB2, tightly controls cell surface receptor density and controls GABAB function in neurons. Experimental perturbation of PRAF2 levels in vivo caused marked hyperactivity disorders in mice. These data reveal an unanticipated major impact of specific ER gate-keepers on GPCR function and identify PRAF2 as a new molecular target with therapeutic potential for psychiatric and neurological diseases involving GABAB function. PMID:26033241

  11. Quercetin attenuates the effects of H2O2 on endoplasmic reticulum morphology and tyrosinase export from the endoplasmic reticulum in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cuiping; Xu, Wen; Hong, Weisong; Zhou, Miaoni; Lin, Fuquan; Fu, Lifang; Liu, Dongyin; Xu, Aie

    2015-06-01

    Swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is commonly observed in the melanocytes of vitiligo patients; however, the cause and proteins involved in this remain to be elucidated. Oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced melanocyte apoptosis, whereas quercetin exhibited cytoprotective activities against the effects of H2O2. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of H2O2 in the ER of melanocytes as well as its role in the export of tyrosinase from ER; in addition, the present study aimed to determine the mechanism by which quercetin protects against the effects of H2O2. The results demonstrated that melanocyte cells treated with H2O2 presented with swollen ER; however, a normal ER configuration was observed in untreated cells as well as quercetin/H2O2‑treated cells. Furthermore, H2O2 inhibited tyrosinase export from the ER and decreased expression levels of tyrosinase; however, quercetin was found to attenuate the effects induced by H2O2. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirmed the hypothesis that H2O2 induced ER dilation and hindered functional tyrosinase export from the ER of melanocytes. It was also found that quercetin significantly weakened these effects mediated by H2O2, therefore it may have the potential for use in the treatment of vitiligo.

  12. SLY1 and Syntaxin 18 specify a distinct pathway for procollagen VII export from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Cristina; Erlmann, Patrik; Villeneuve, Julien; Santos, António JM; Martínez-Alonso, Emma; Martínez-Menárguez, José Ángel; Malhotra, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    TANGO1 binds and exports Procollagen VII from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we report a connection between the cytoplasmic domain of TANGO1 and SLY1, a protein that is required for membrane fusion. Knockdown of SLY1 by siRNA arrested Procollagen VII in the ER without affecting the recruitment of COPII components, general protein secretion, and retrograde transport of the KDEL-containing protein BIP, and ERGIC53. SLY1 is known to interact with the ER-specific SNARE proteins Syntaxin 17 and 18, however only Syntaxin 18 was required for Procollagen VII export. Neither SLY1 nor Syntaxin 18 was required for the export of the equally bulky Procollagen I from the ER. Altogether, these findings reveal the sorting of bulky collagen family members by TANGO1 at the ER and highlight the existence of different export pathways for secretory cargoes one of which is mediated by the specific SNARE complex containing SLY1 and Syntaxin 18. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02784.001 PMID:24842878

  13. The endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondria interface: a subcellular platform for the orchestration of the functions of the PINK1-Parkin pathway?

    PubMed

    Erpapazoglou, Zoi; Corti, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of both idiopathic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the PARK2 and PARK6 genes, coding for the cytosolic E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase PINK1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1], lead to clinically similar early-onset Parkinsonian syndromes. PINK1 and Parkin cooperate within a conserved pathway to preserve mitochondrial quality through the regulation of a variety of processes, including mitochondrial dynamics, transport, bioenergetics, biogenesis and turnover. The molecular mechanisms behind the orchestration of this plethora of functions remain poorly understood. In the present review, we emphasize the functional overlap between the PINK1-Parkin pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria interface, a subcellular compartment critically involved in neurodegeneration. We discuss how this compartment may constitute a hub for the spatiotemporal organization of the activities of the PINK1-Parkin pathway.

  14. A leucine-rich nuclear export signal in the p53 tetramerization domain: regulation of subcellular localization and p53 activity by NES masking.

    PubMed Central

    Stommel, J M; Marchenko, N D; Jimenez, G S; Moll, U M; Hope, T J; Wahl, G M

    1999-01-01

    Appropriate subcellular localization is crucial for regulating p53 function. We show that p53 export is mediated by a highly conserved leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) located in its tetramerization domain. Mutation of NES residues prevented p53 export and hampered tetramer formation. Although the p53-binding protein MDM2 has an NES and has been proposed to mediate p53 export, we show that the intrinsic p53 NES is both necessary and sufficient for export. This report also demonstrates that the cytoplasmic localization of p53 in neuroblastoma cells is due to its hyperactive nuclear export: p53 in these cells can be trapped in the nucleus by the export-inhibiting drug leptomycin B or by binding a p53-tetramerization domain peptide that masks the NES. We propose a model in which regulated p53 tetramerization occludes its NES, thereby ensuring nuclear retention of the DNA-binding form. We suggest that attenuation of p53 function involves the conversion of tetramers into monomers or dimers, in which the NES is exposed to the proteins which mediate their export to the cytoplasm. PMID:10075936

  15. TANGO1 and Mia2/cTAGE5 (TALI) cooperate to export bulky pre-chylomicrons/VLDLs from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António J.M.; Nogueira, Cristina; Ortega-Bellido, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Procollagens, pre-chylomicrons, and pre–very low-density lipoproteins (pre-VLDLs) are too big to fit into conventional COPII-coated vesicles, so how are these bulky cargoes exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? We have shown that TANGO1 located at the ER exit site is necessary for procollagen export. We report a role for TANGO1 and TANGO1-like (TALI), a chimeric protein resulting from fusion of MIA2 and cTAGE5 gene products, in the export of pre-chylomicrons and pre-VLDLs from the ER. TANGO1 binds TALI, and both interact with apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and are necessary for the recruitment of ApoB-containing lipid particles to ER exit sites for their subsequent export. Although export of ApoB requires the function of both TANGO1 and TALI, the export of procollagen XII by the same cells requires only TANGO1. These findings reveal a general role for TANGO1 in the export of bulky cargoes from the ER and identify a specific requirement for TALI in assisting TANGO1 to export bulky lipid particles. PMID:27138255

  16. TANGO1 and Mia2/cTAGE5 (TALI) cooperate to export bulky pre-chylomicrons/VLDLs from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Santos, António J M; Nogueira, Cristina; Ortega-Bellido, Maria; Malhotra, Vivek

    2016-05-09

    Procollagens, pre-chylomicrons, and pre-very low-density lipoproteins (pre-VLDLs) are too big to fit into conventional COPII-coated vesicles, so how are these bulky cargoes exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? We have shown that TANGO1 located at the ER exit site is necessary for procollagen export. We report a role for TANGO1 and TANGO1-like (TALI), a chimeric protein resulting from fusion of MIA2 and cTAGE5 gene products, in the export of pre-chylomicrons and pre-VLDLs from the ER. TANGO1 binds TALI, and both interact with apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and are necessary for the recruitment of ApoB-containing lipid particles to ER exit sites for their subsequent export. Although export of ApoB requires the function of both TANGO1 and TALI, the export of procollagen XII by the same cells requires only TANGO1. These findings reveal a general role for TANGO1 in the export of bulky cargoes from the ER and identify a specific requirement for TALI in assisting TANGO1 to export bulky lipid particles.

  17. GOLGI TRANSPORT 1B Regulates Protein Export from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Rice Endosperm Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihua; Liu, Feng; Ren, Yulong; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Xi; Long, Wuhua; Wang, Di; Zhu, Jianping; Zhu, Xiaopin; Jing, Ruonan; Wu, Mingming; Hao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Haiyang; Bao, Yiqun; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the first step of anterograde transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other endomembrane compartments in eukaryotes. A group of evolutionarily conserved proteins (Sar1, Sec23, Sec24, Sec13, and Sec31) constitutes the basic COPII coat machinery; however, the details of how the COPII coat assembly is regulated remain unclear. Here, we report a protein transport mutant of rice (Oryza sativa), named glutelin precursor accumulation4 (gpa4), which accumulates 57-kD glutelin precursors and forms two types of ER-derived abnormal structures. GPA4 encodes the evolutionarily conserved membrane protein GOT1B (also known as GLUP2), homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GOT1p. The rice GOT1B protein colocalizes with Arabidopsis thaliana Sar1b at Golgi-associated ER exit sites (ERESs) when they are coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana Moreover, GOT1B physically interacts with rice Sec23, and both proteins are present in the same complex(es) with rice Sar1b. The distribution of rice Sar1 in the endomembrane system, its association with rice Sec23c, and the ERES organization pattern are significantly altered in the gpa4 mutant. Taken together, our results suggest that GOT1B plays an important role in mediating COPII vesicle formation at ERESs, thus facilitating anterograde transport of secretory proteins in plant cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. A neuroligin-4 missense mutation associated with autism impairs neuroligin-4 folding and endoplasmic reticulum export.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Milunsky, Jeff M; Newton, Stephanie; Ko, Jaewon; Zhao, Geping; Maher, Tom A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Bolliger, Marc F; Carter, Alice S; Boucard, Antony A; Powell, Craig M; Südhof, Thomas C

    2009-09-02

    Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules essential for normal synapse function. Mutations in neuroligin-4 (NL4) (gene symbol: NLGN4) have been reported in some patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental impairments. However, the low frequency of NL4 mutations and the limited information about the affected patients and the functional consequences of their mutations cast doubt on the causal role of NL4 mutations in these disorders. Here, we describe two brothers with classical ASD who carry a single amino-acid substitution in NL4 (R87W). This substitution was absent from the brothers' asymptomatic parents, suggesting that it arose in the maternal germ line. R87 is conserved in all NL isoforms, and the R87W substitution is not observed in control individuals. At the protein level, the R87W substitution impaired glycosylation processing of NL4 expressed in HEK293 and COS cells, destabilized NL4, caused NL4 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum in non-neuronal cells and neurons, and blocked NL4 transport to the cell surface. As a result, the R87W substitution inactivated the synapse-formation activity of NL4 and abolished the functional effect of NL4 on synapse strength. Viewed together, these observations suggest that a point mutation in NL4 can cause ASD by a loss-of-function mechanism.

  19. CRM1-dependent nuclear export and dimerization with hMSH5 contribute to the regulation of hMSH4 subcellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Neyton, Sophie; Lespinasse, Francoise; Lahaye, Francois; Staccini, Pascal; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique; Santucci-Darmanin, Sabine

    2007-10-15

    MSH4 and MSH5 are members of the MutS homolog family, a conserved group of proteins involved in DNA mismatch correction and homologous recombination. Although several studies have provided compelling evidences suggesting that MSH4 and MSH5 could act together in early and late stages of meiotic recombination, their precise roles are poorly understood and recent findings suggest that the human MSH4 protein may also exert a cytoplasmic function. Here we show that MSH4 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of both testicular cells and transfected somatic cells. Confocal studies on transfected cells provide the first evidence that the subcellular localization of MSH4 is regulated, at least in part, by an active nuclear export pathway dependent on the exportin CRM1. We used deletion mapping and mutagenesis to define two functional nuclear export sequences within the C-terminal part of hMSH4 that mediate nuclear export through the CRM1 pathway. Our results suggest that CRM1 is also involved in MSH5 nuclear export. In addition, we demonstrate that dimerization of MSH4 and MSH5 facilitates their nuclear localization suggesting that dimerization may regulate the intracellular trafficking of these proteins. Our findings suggest that nucleocytoplasmic traffic may constitute a regulatory mechanism for MSH4 and MSH5 functions.

  20. Export of cellubrevin from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by BAP31.

    PubMed

    Annaert, W G; Becker, B; Kistner, U; Reth, M; Jahn, R

    1997-12-15

    Cellubrevin is a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that is localized to endosomes throughout the endocytotic pathway and functions in constitutive exocytosis. We report that cellubrevin binds with high specificity to BAP31, a representative of a highly conserved family of integral membrane proteins that has recently been discovered to be binding proteins of membrane immunoglobulins. The interaction between BAP31 and cellubrevin is sensitive to high ionic strength and appears to require the transmembrane regions of both proteins. No other proteins of liver membrane extracts copurified with BAP31 on immobilized recombinant cellubrevin, demonstrating that the interaction is specific. Synaptobrevin I bound to BAP31 with comparable affinity, whereas only weak binding was detectable with synaptobrevin II. Furthermore, a fraction of BAP31 and cellubrevin was complexed when each of them was quantitatively immunoprecipitated from detergent extracts of fibroblasts (BHK 21 cells). During purification of clathrin-coated vesicles or early endosomes, BAP31 did not cofractionate with cellubrevin. Rather, the protein was enriched in ER-containing fractions. When BHK cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, BAP31 did not overlap with cellubrevin, but rather colocalized with resident proteins of the ER. In addition, immunoreactive vesicles were clustered in a paranuclear region close to the microtubule organizing center, but different from the Golgi apparatus. When microtubules were depolymerized with nocodazole, this accumulation disappeared and BAP31 was confined to the ER. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of BAP31 prevented export of cellubrevin, but not of the transferrin receptor from the ER. We conclude that BAP31 represents a novel class of sorting proteins that controls anterograde transport of certain membrane proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex.

  1. Small GTPase Sar1 is crucial for proglutelin and α-globulin export from the endoplasmic reticulum in rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lihong; Dai, Ling Ling; Yin, Zhi Jie; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Dong, Xiang Bai; Xu, Xiu Ping; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-07-01

    Rice seed storage proteins glutelin and α-globulin are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and deposited in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). Sar1, a small GTPase, acts as a molecular switch to regulate the assembly of coat protein complex II, which exports secretory protein from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. To reveal the route by which glutelin and α-globulin exit the ER, four putative Sar1 genes (OsSar1a/b/c/d) were cloned from rice, and transgenic rice were generated with Sar1 overexpressed or suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) specifically in the endosperm under the control of the rice glutelin promoter. Overexpression or suppression of any OsSar1 did not alter the phenotype. However, simultaneous knockdown of OsSar1a/b/c resulted in floury and shrunken seeds, with an increased level of glutelin precursor and decreased level of the mature α- and β-subunit. OsSar1abc RNAi endosperm generated numerous, spherical, novel protein bodies with highly electron-dense matrixes containing both glutelin and α-globulin. Notably, the novel protein bodies were surrounded by ribosomes, showing that they were derived from the ER. Some of the ER-derived dense protein bodies were attached to a blebbing structure containing prolamin. These results indicated that OsSar1a/b/c play a crucial role in storage proteins exiting from the ER, with functional redundancy in rice endosperm, and glutelin and α-globulin transported together from the ER to the Golgi apparatus by a pathway mediated by coat protein complex II.

  2. Inhibition of Cellular Protein Secretion by Norwalk Virus Nonstructural Protein p22 Requires a Mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum Export Signal

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Guix, Susana; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Crawford, Sue E.; Estes, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus is central to cellular homeostasis. ER export signals are utilized by a subset of proteins to rapidly exit the ER by direct uptake into COPII vesicles for transport to the Golgi. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 contains a YXΦESDG motif that mimics a di-acidic ER export signal in both sequence and function. However, unlike normal ER export signals, the ER export signal mimic of p22 is necessary for apparent inhibition of normal COPII vesicle trafficking, which leads to Golgi disassembly and antagonism of Golgi-dependent cellular protein secretion. This is the first reported function for p22. Disassembly of the Golgi apparatus was also observed in cells replicating Norwalk virus, which may contribute to pathogenesis by interfering with cellular processes that are dependent on an intact secretory pathway. These results indicate that the ER export signal mimic is critical to the antagonistic function of p22, shown herein to be a novel antagonist of ER/Golgi trafficking. This unique and well-conserved human norovirus motif is therefore an appealing target for antiviral drug development. PMID:20976190

  3. Spastin subcellular localization is regulated through usage of different translation start sites and active export from the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Claudiani, Pamela; Riano, Elena; Errico, Alessia; Andolfi, Gennaro; Rugarli, Elena I. . E-mail: rugarli@tigem.it

    2005-10-01

    Most cases of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia are linked to mutations in SPG4 encoding spastin, a protein involved in microtubule dynamics and membrane trafficking. In pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex and in immortalized motor neurons, spastin is localized to the synaptic terminals and growth cones. However, in other neurons and in proliferating cells spastin is prevalently nuclear. The mechanisms that determine targeting of spastin to the nucleus or the cytoplasm are unknown. We show here that the SPG4 mRNA is able to direct synthesis of two spastin isoforms, 68 and 60 kDa, respectively, through usage of two different translational start sites. Both isoforms are imported into the nucleus, but the 68-kDa isoform contains two nuclear export signals that efficiently drive export to the cytoplasm. Nuclear export is leptomycin-B sensitive. The cytoplasmic 68-kDa spastin isoform is more abundant in the brain and the spinal cord than in other tissues. Our data indicate that spastin function is modulated through usage of alternative translational start sites and active nuclear import and export, and open new perspectives for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  4. Subcellular trafficking signals of constitutive androstane receptor: evidence for a nuclear export signal in the DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Kemper, Byron

    2007-09-01

    Translocation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus is induced by phenobarbital-like drugs. Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and a sequence [xenochemical response signal (XRS)] required for xenobiotic-induced nuclear translocation have been defined in rat and human CAR, but a nuclear export signal (NES) has not been identified. To identify cellular localization signals of CAR, the localization of fragments and mutants of mouse CAR expressed in mouse hepatocytes in vivo was examined. Consistent with other studies, an NLS in the hinge region, a diffuse NLS in the ligand-binding domain, and a cytoplasmic retention sequence were identified, and mutation of the XRS blocked nuclear accumulation both in phenobarbital-treated mice in vivo and in untreated HepG2 cells. Fusing the simian virus 40 NLS to the mutant proteins reversed the localization defect resulting from mutation of the hinge NLS but not that from mutation of the XRS, indicating that the XRS is not simply a novel phenobarbital-responsive NLS. In the DNA-binding domain, a sequence in CAR is conserved with an NES identified in other nuclear receptors. Mutation of two conserved phenylalanines in this sequence resulted in increased nuclear localization of both full-length CAR and a CAR fragment containing the DNA-binding domain. The DNA-binding domain sequence, therefore, may contain an NES, which is consistent with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of CAR. The results demonstrate that regulation of the cellular localization of CAR is complex, with multiple sequences mediating nuclear import and export and retention in the cytoplasm.

  5. Subcellular calcium localization and AT0-dependent Ca2+-uptake by smooth endoplasmic reticulum in an invertebrate photoreceptor cell. An ultrastrucutral, cytochemical and X-ray microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Walz, B

    1979-10-01

    In Hirudo medicinalis an extensive and highly elaborate three dimensional network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae is found in very close structural relationship to the receptive (microvillar) membrane, as reported for many other invertebrates. A variant of the potassium pyroantimonate technique showed that these submicrovillar endoplasmic reticulum cisternae (SMC) and mitochondria are major intracellular calcium stores. Furthermore, using saponine-skinned photoreceptors for an in situ accumulation experiment, calcium oxalate precipitates in SMC demonstrate that this organelle is able to accumulate Ca2+ from a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) M, when ATP, Mg2+, and oxalate ions are present in the accumulation medium. This result provides direct evidence for the hypothesis that SMC may play a particularly important role in the regulation of intracellular ionized calcium in invertebrate photoreceptor cells. Morphological evidence supports this view.

  6. Reversible Oxidation of a Conserved Methionine in the Nuclear Export Sequence Determines Subcellular Distribution and Activity of the Fungal Nitrate Regulator NirA.

    PubMed

    Gallmetzer, Andreas; Silvestrini, Lucia; Schinko, Thorsten; Gesslbauer, Bernd; Hortschansky, Peter; Dattenböck, Christoph; Muro-Pastor, María Isabel; Kungl, Andreas; Brakhage, Axel A; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Strauss, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    The assimilation of nitrate, a most important soil nitrogen source, is tightly regulated in microorganisms and plants. In Aspergillus nidulans, during the transcriptional activation process of nitrate assimilatory genes, the interaction between the pathway-specific transcription factor NirA and the exportin KapK/CRM1 is disrupted, and this leads to rapid nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of NirA. In this work by mass spectrometry, we found that in the absence of nitrate, when NirA is inactive and predominantly cytosolic, methionine 169 in the nuclear export sequence (NES) is oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (Metox169). This oxidation depends on FmoB, a flavin-containing monooxygenase which in vitro uses methionine and cysteine, but not glutathione, as oxidation substrates. The function of FmoB cannot be replaced by alternative Fmo proteins present in A. nidulans. Exposure of A. nidulans cells to nitrate led to rapid reduction of NirA-Metox169 to Met169; this reduction being independent from thioredoxin and classical methionine sulfoxide reductases. Replacement of Met169 by isoleucine, a sterically similar but not oxidizable residue, led to partial loss of NirA activity and insensitivity to FmoB-mediated nuclear export. In contrast, replacement of Met169 by alanine transformed the protein into a permanently nuclear and active transcription factor. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis of NirA-KapK interactions and subcellular localization studies of NirA mutants lacking different parts of the protein provided evidence that Met169 oxidation leads to a change in NirA conformation. Based on these results we propose that in the presence of nitrate the activation domain is exposed, but the NES is masked by a central portion of the protein (termed nitrate responsive domain, NiRD), thus restricting active NirA molecules to the nucleus. In the absence of nitrate, Met169 in the NES is oxidized by an FmoB-dependent process leading to loss of protection by the Ni

  7. GOLGI TRANSPORT 1B Regulates Protein Export from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Rice Endosperm Cells[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Xi; Wang, Di; Zhu, Xiaopin; Jing, Ruonan; Wu, Mingming; Hao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming

    2016-01-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the first step of anterograde transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other endomembrane compartments in eukaryotes. A group of evolutionarily conserved proteins (Sar1, Sec23, Sec24, Sec13, and Sec31) constitutes the basic COPII coat machinery; however, the details of how the COPII coat assembly is regulated remain unclear. Here, we report a protein transport mutant of rice (Oryza sativa), named glutelin precursor accumulation4 (gpa4), which accumulates 57-kD glutelin precursors and forms two types of ER-derived abnormal structures. GPA4 encodes the evolutionarily conserved membrane protein GOT1B (also known as GLUP2), homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GOT1p. The rice GOT1B protein colocalizes with Arabidopsis thaliana Sar1b at Golgi-associated ER exit sites (ERESs) when they are coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Moreover, GOT1B physically interacts with rice Sec23, and both proteins are present in the same complex(es) with rice Sar1b. The distribution of rice Sar1 in the endomembrane system, its association with rice Sec23c, and the ERES organization pattern are significantly altered in the gpa4 mutant. Taken together, our results suggest that GOT1B plays an important role in mediating COPII vesicle formation at ERESs, thus facilitating anterograde transport of secretory proteins in plant cells. PMID:27803308

  8. Subcellular Partitioning of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B to the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria Depends Sensitively on the Composition of Its Tail Anchor

    PubMed Central

    Fueller, Julia; Egorov, Mikhail V.; Walther, Kirstin A.; Sabet, Ola; Mallah, Jana; Grabenbauer, Markus; Kinkhabwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The canonical protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of diverse cellular signaling networks. PTP1B has long been thought to exert its influence solely from its perch on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); however, an additional subpopulation of PTP1B has recently been detected in mitochondria extracted from rat brain tissue. Here, we show that PTP1B’s mitochondrial localization is general (observed across diverse mammalian cell lines) and sensitively dependent on the transmembrane domain length, C-terminal charge and hydropathy of its short (≤35 amino acid) tail anchor. Our electron microscopy of specific DAB precipitation revealed that PTP1B localizes via its tail anchor to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy establishing that this OMM pool contributes to the previously reported cytoplasmic interaction of PTP1B with endocytosed epidermal growth factor receptor. We additionally examined the mechanism of PTP1B’s insertion into the ER membrane through heterologous expression of PTP1B’s tail anchor in wild-type yeast and yeast mutants of major conserved ER insertion pathways: In none of these yeast strains was ER targeting significantly impeded, providing in vivo support for the hypothesis of spontaneous membrane insertion (as previously demonstrated in vitro). Further functional elucidation of the newly recognized mitochondrial pool of PTP1B will likely be important for understanding its complex roles in cellular responses to external stimuli, cell proliferation and diseased states. PMID:26431424

  9. Expanded polyglutamine domain possesses nuclear export activity which modulates subcellular localization and toxicity of polyQ disease protein via exportin-1.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Man; Tsoi, Ho; Wu, Chi Chung; Wong, Chi Hang; Cheng, Tat Cheung; Li, Hoi Yeung; Lau, Kwok Fai; Shaw, Pang Chui; Perrimon, Norbert; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin

    2011-05-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of late-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the coding region of disease genes. The cell nucleus is an important site of pathology in polyQ diseases, and transcriptional dysregulation is one of the pathologic hallmarks observed. In this study, we showed that exportin-1 (Xpo1) regulates the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of expanded polyQ protein. We found that expanded polyQ protein, but not its unexpanded form, possesses nuclear export activity and interacts with Xpo1. Genetic manipulation of Xpo1 expression levels in transgenic Drosophila models of polyQ disease confirmed the specific nuclear export role of Xpo1 on expanded polyQ protein. Upon Xpo1 knockdown, the expanded polyQ protein was retained in the nucleus. The nuclear disease protein enhanced polyQ toxicity by binding to heat shock protein (hsp) gene promoter and abolished hsp gene induction. Further, we uncovered a developmental decline of Xpo1 protein levels in vivo that contributes to the accumulation of expanded polyQ protein in the nucleus of symptomatic polyQ transgenic mice. Taken together, we first showed that Xpo1 is a nuclear export receptor for expanded polyQ domain, and our findings establish a direct link between protein nuclear export and the progressive nature of polyQ neurodegeneration.

  10. ER reorganization is remarkably induced in COS-7 cells accumulating transmembrane protein receptors not competent for export from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Massimo; Crespi, Arianna; Polishchuk, Elena; Generoso, Serena; Martire, Gianluca; Colombo, Sara Francesca; Bonatti, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    The newly synthesized mutant L501fsX533 Frizzled-4 form and the alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in the absence of nicotine accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum of COS-7 cells and induce the formation of large areas of smooth and highly convoluted cisternae. This results in a generalized block of the transport to the Golgi complex of newly synthesized proteins. Intriguingly, both effects happen peculiarly in COS-7 cells; HeLa, Huh-7, and HEK293 cells expressing the two receptors at similar level than COS-7 cells show normal ER and normal transport toward the plasma membrane. These results question the conclusion that a dominant-negative mechanism would explain the dominance of the mutant L501fsX533 Fz4 allele in the transmission of a form of Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Moreover, they indicate that the coordination of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in COS-7 cells is particularly error prone. This finding suggests that COS-7 cells may be extremely useful to study the molecular mechanisms regulating endoplasmic reticulum size and architecture.

  11. Subcellular Size

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Wallace F.

    2015-01-01

    All of the same conceptual questions about size in organisms apply equally at the level of single cells. What determines the size, not only of the whole cell, but of all of its parts? What ensures that subcellular components are properly proportioned relative to the whole cell? How does alteration in organelle size affect biochemical function? Answering such fundamental questions requires us to understand how the size of individual organelles and other cellular structures is determined. Knowledge of organelle biogenesis and dynamics has advanced rapidly in recent years. Does this knowledge give us enough information to formulate reasonable models for organelle size control, or are we still missing something? PMID:25957302

  12. The Dual Roles of the Golgi Transport 1 (GOT1B): RNA Localization to the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Export of Proglutelin and α-Globulin from the Cortical ER to the Golgi.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masako; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Murakami, Takahiro; Washida, Haruhiko; Sugino, Aya; Nagamine, Ai; Okita, Thomas W; Ogawa, Masahiro; Kumamaru, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    The rice glup2 lines are characterized by their abnormally high levels of endosperm 57 kDa proglutelins and of the luminal chaperone binding protein (BiP), features characteristic of a defect within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To elucidate the underlying genetic basis, the glup2 locus was identified by map based cloning. DNA sequencing of the genomes of three glup2 alleles and wild type demonstrated that the underlying genetic basis was mutations in the Golgi transport 1 (GOT1B) coding sequence. This conclusion was further validated by restoration of normal proglutelin levels in a glup2 line complemented by a GOT1B gene. Microscopic analyses indicated the presence of proglutelin-α-globulin-containing intracisternal granules surrounded by prolamine inclusions within the ER lumen. As assessed by in situ reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of developing endosperm sections, prolamine and α-globulin RNAs were found to be mis-targeted from their usual sites on the protein body ER to the cisternal ER, the normal sites of proglutelin synthesis. Our results indicate that GLUP2/GOT1B has a dual role during rice endosperm development. It is required for localization of prolamine and α-globulin RNAs to the protein body ER and for efficient export of proglutelin and α-globulin proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2013-09-01

    The human endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) 1 and 2 proteins were initially identified as homologues of human placental leucine aminopeptidase/insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. They are categorized as a unique class of proteases based on their subcellular localization on the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. ERAPs play an important role in the N-terminal processing of the antigenic precursors that are presented on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. ERAPs are also implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological phenomena and pathogenic conditions. In this review, the current knowledge on ERAPs is summarized.

  14. Subcellular localization and trafficking of phytolongins (non-SNARE longins) in the plant secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Marcos Lousa, Carine; Soubeyrand, Eric; Bolognese, Paolo; Wattelet-Boyer, Valerie; Bouyssou, Guillaume; Marais, Claireline; Boutté, Yohann; Filippini, Francesco; Moreau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    SNARE proteins are central elements of the machinery involved in membrane fusion of eukaryotic cells. In animals and plants, SNAREs have diversified to sustain a variety of specific functions. In animals, R-SNARE proteins called brevins have diversified; in contrast, in plants, the R-SNARE proteins named longins have diversified. Recently, a new subfamily of four longins named ‘phytolongins’ (Phyl) was discovered. One intriguing aspect of Phyl proteins is the lack of the typical SNARE motif, which is replaced by another domain termed the ‘Phyl domain’. Phytolongins have a rather ubiquitous tissue expression in Arabidopsis but still await intracellular characterization. In this study, we found that the four phytolongins are distributed along the secretory pathway. While Phyl2.1 and Phyl2.2 are strictly located at the endoplasmic reticulum network, Phyl1.2 associates with the Golgi bodies, and Phyl1.1 locates mainly at the plasma membrane and partially in the Golgi bodies and post-Golgi compartments. Our results show that export of Phyl1.1 from the endoplasmic reticulum depends on the GTPase Sar1, the Sar1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12, and the SNAREs Sec22 and Memb11. In addition, we have identified the Y48F49 motif as being critical for the exit of Phyl1.1 from the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results provide the first characterization of the subcellular localization of the phytolongins, and we discuss their potential role in regulating the secretory pathway. PMID:26962210

  15. Controlling subcellular delivery to optimize therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Dixon, Andrew S; Lim, Carol S

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on drug targeting to specific cellular organelles for therapeutic purposes. Drugs can be delivered to all major organelles of the cell (cytosol, endosome/lysosome, nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes and proteasomes) where they exert specific effects in those particular subcellular compartments. Delivery can be achieved by chemical (e.g., polymeric) or biological (e.g., signal sequences) means. Unidirectional targeting to individual organelles has proven to be immensely successful for drug therapy. Newer technologies that accommodate multiple signals (e.g., protein switch and virus-like delivery systems) mimic nature and allow for a more sophisticated approach to drug delivery. Harnessing different methods of targeting multiple organelles in a cell will lead to better drug delivery and improvements in disease therapy. PMID:21113240

  16. [The contractile heart. Cellular and subcellular aspects].

    PubMed

    Larsen, T H

    1994-12-10

    The excitation-contraction coupling can be defined as the mechanisms involved when the action potential initiates a contraction response of the cardiac muscle cell. The action potential is conducted from cell to cell, resulting in a synchronized contraction of the myocardium. Both the propagation of the action potential and the myofibrillar contraction are dependent on changes in free Ca++ concentrations. Recently, the mediators and the molecular and structural components involved in the subcellular transforming of the action potential into a contraction have been characterized. The opening of voltage-dependent L-type Ca(++)-channels in the cell membrane stimulates a release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This Ca(++)-mediated Ca(++)-release appears to be a graded mechanism and is associated with the presence of structural couplings (Ca++ synapses) in the cardiac muscle cell.

  17. Subcellular localization of the yeast proteome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Agarwal, Seema; Heyman, John A; Matson, Sandra; Heidtman, Matthew; Piccirillo, Stacy; Umansky, Lara; Drawid, Amar; Jansen, Ronald; Liu, Yang; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Miller, Perry; Gerstein, Mark; Roeder, G Shirleen; Snyder, Michael

    2002-03-15

    Protein localization data are a valuable information resource helpful in elucidating eukaryotic protein function. Here, we report the first proteome-scale analysis of protein localization within any eukaryote. Using directed topoisomerase I-mediated cloning strategies and genome-wide transposon mutagenesis, we have epitope-tagged 60% of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. By high-throughput immunolocalization of tagged gene products, we have determined the subcellular localization of 2744 yeast proteins. Extrapolating these data through a computational algorithm employing Bayesian formalism, we define the yeast localizome (the subcellular distribution of all 6100 yeast proteins). We estimate the yeast proteome to encompass approximately 5100 soluble proteins and >1000 transmembrane proteins. Our results indicate that 47% of yeast proteins are cytoplasmic, 13% mitochondrial, 13% exocytic (including proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles), and 27% nuclear/nucleolar. A subset of nuclear proteins was further analyzed by immunolocalization using surface-spread preparations of meiotic chromosomes. Of these proteins, 38% were found associated with chromosomal DNA. As determined from phenotypic analyses of nuclear proteins, 34% are essential for spore viability--a percentage nearly twice as great as that observed for the proteome as a whole. In total, this study presents experimentally derived localization data for 955 proteins of previously unknown function: nearly half of all functionally uncharacterized proteins in yeast. To facilitate access to these data, we provide a searchable database featuring 2900 fluorescent micrographs at http://ygac.med.yale.edu.

  18. Subcellular localization of the yeast proteome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Agarwal, Seema; Heyman, John A.; Matson, Sandra; Heidtman, Matthew; Piccirillo, Stacy; Umansky, Lara; Drawid, Amar; Jansen, Ronald; Liu, Yang; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Miller, Perry; Gerstein, Mark; Roeder, G. Shirleen; Snyder, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Protein localization data are a valuable information resource helpful in elucidating eukaryotic protein function. Here, we report the first proteome-scale analysis of protein localization within any eukaryote. Using directed topoisomerase I-mediated cloning strategies and genome-wide transposon mutagenesis, we have epitope-tagged 60% of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. By high-throughput immunolocalization of tagged gene products, we have determined the subcellular localization of 2744 yeast proteins. Extrapolating these data through a computational algorithm employing Bayesian formalism, we define the yeast localizome (the subcellular distribution of all 6100 yeast proteins). We estimate the yeast proteome to encompass ∼5100 soluble proteins and >1000 transmembrane proteins. Our results indicate that 47% of yeast proteins are cytoplasmic, 13% mitochondrial, 13% exocytic (including proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles), and 27% nuclear/nucleolar. A subset of nuclear proteins was further analyzed by immunolocalization using surface-spread preparations of meiotic chromosomes. Of these proteins, 38% were found associated with chromosomal DNA. As determined from phenotypic analyses of nuclear proteins, 34% are essential for spore viability—a percentage nearly twice as great as that observed for the proteome as a whole. In total, this study presents experimentally derived localization data for 955 proteins of previously unknown function: nearly half of all functionally uncharacterized proteins in yeast. To facilitate access to these data, we provide a searchable database featuring 2900 fluorescent micrographs at http://ygac.med.yale.edu. PMID:11914276

  19. Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plants

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana). Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer which is involved in many metabolic processes including plant defense. Thus information on the subcellular distribution in these model plants especially during stress situations provides a deeper insight into compartment specific defense reactions and reflects the occurrence of compartment specific oxidative stress. With immunogold cytochemistry and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy glutathione could be localized in highest contents in mitochondria, followed by nuclei, peroxisomes, the cytosol, and plastids. Within chloroplasts and mitochondria, glutathione was restricted to the stroma and matrix, respectively, and did not occur in the lumen of cristae and thylakoids. Glutathione was also found at the membrane and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It was also associated with the trans and cis side of dictyosomes. None or only very little glutathione was detected in vacuoles and the apoplast of mesophyll and root cells. Additionally, glutathione was found in all cell compartments of phloem vessels, vascular parenchyma cells (including vacuoles) but was absent in xylem vessels. The specificity of this method was supported by the reduction of glutathione labeling in all cell compartments (up to 98%) of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana rml1 mutant. Additionally, we found a similar distribution of glutathione in samples after conventional fixation and rapid microwave-supported fixation. Thus, indicating that a redistribution of glutathione does not occur during sample preparation. Summing up, this study gives a detailed insight into the subcellular distribution of glutathione in plants and presents solid evidence for the accuracy and specificity of the applied method. PMID:20186447

  20. Membrane trafficking: ER export encounters dualism.

    PubMed

    Barlowe, Charles

    2015-02-16

    Cytoplasmic coat protein complexes perform central roles in sorting protein constituents within the endomembrane system. A new study reveals that the COPII coat operates through dual recognition of signals in a sorting receptor and its bound cargo to promote efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatic subcellular distribution of (tritium)T-2 toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, J.G.; Watts, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic subcellular distribution of ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin. The subcellular distribution of T-2 mycotoxin and its metabolites was studied in isolated rat livers perfused with ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin. After a 120-min perfusion, the distribution of radiolabel was to bile 53%, perfusate 38% and liver 7%. Livers were fractionated into mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), plasma membrane and nuclei. Plasma membrane fractions contained 38% of the radiolabel within 5 min, decreasing to <1% at the end of the 120-min perfusion. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum contained 27% of the radiolabel by 5 min and increased to 43% over the 120-min perfusion. The mitochondrial fraction contained 3% of the radiolabel by 30 min and increased to 10% after 120-min perfusion. Label in the nuclear fraction remained constant at 7% from 30 to 120 min. By 15 min, only the parent toxin was detected in the mitochondrial fraction. In the other fractions, radiolabel was associated with HT-2, 4-deacetylneosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, and glucuronide conjugates. Glucuronide conjugates accounted for radiolabel eliminated via the bile. The time course for distribution of radiolabel in liver suggested an immediate association of ({sup 3}H)T-2 with plasma membranes and a subsequent association of toxin and metabolites with endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclei, the known sites of action of this toxin.

  2. Lipid Transport between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Flis, Vid V.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are partially autonomous organelles that depend on the import of certain proteins and lipids to maintain cell survival and membrane formation. Although phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylethanolamine are synthesized by mitochondrial enzymes, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and sterols need to be imported from other organelles. The origin of most lipids imported into mitochondria is the endoplasmic reticulum, which requires interaction of these two subcellular compartments. Recently, protein complexes that are involved in membrane contact between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were identified, but their role in lipid transport is still unclear. In the present review, we describe components involved in lipid translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and discuss functional as well as regulatory aspects that are important for lipid homeostasis. PMID:23732475

  3. Regulation of intracellular heme trafficking revealed by subcellular reporters

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Rietzschel, Nicole; Walter Nuno, Ana Beatriz; Hanna, David A.; Phillips, John D.; Raven, Emma L.; Reddi, Amit R.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group in proteins that reside in virtually every subcellular compartment performing diverse biological functions. Irrespective of whether heme is synthesized in the mitochondria or imported from the environment, this hydrophobic and potentially toxic metalloporphyrin has to be trafficked across membrane barriers, a concept heretofore poorly understood. Here we show, using subcellular-targeted, genetically encoded hemoprotein peroxidase reporters, that both extracellular and endogenous heme contribute to cellular labile heme and that extracellular heme can be transported and used in toto by hemoproteins in all six subcellular compartments examined. The reporters are robust, show large signal-to-background ratio, and provide sufficient range to detect changes in intracellular labile heme. Restoration of reporter activity by heme is organelle-specific, with the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum being important sites for both exogenous and endogenous heme trafficking. Expression of peroxidase reporters in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that environmental heme influences labile heme in a tissue-dependent manner; reporter activity in the intestine shows a linear increase compared with muscle or hypodermis, with the lowest heme threshold in neurons. Our results demonstrate that the trafficking pathways for exogenous and endogenous heme are distinct, with intrinsic preference for specific subcellular compartments. We anticipate our results will serve as a heuristic paradigm for more sophisticated studies on heme trafficking in cellular and whole-animal models. PMID:27528661

  4. Subcellular proteomics in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Li, Ka Wan; Smit, August B

    2008-05-01

    The brain is the most complex and dynamically organized organ of the human body, with a high degree of computation capability enabling the execution of a wide spectrum of physiological processes and behaviors. In the past decades a large number of genomics studies have been undertaken to investigate brain function and brain disorders, but despite these efforts many of the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. The implementation of mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics in recent years enabled to tap into condition-specific protein trafficking and protein interaction that are the key to organelle proteome (dys)function. The technology for neuroproteomics is still evolving; currently there are no standardized protocols. In this review we describe the most commonly used methods to prepare brain subcellular fractions suitable for proteomics analysis, and highlight the various approaches for quantitative neuroproteomics.

  5. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons.

    PubMed

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, C L; Kaul, M; Singh, K K

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons.

  6. Intracellular Mannose Binding Lectin Mediates Subcellular Trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, CL; Kaul, M; Singh, KK

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus -1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons. PMID:24825317

  7. Isolation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Fractions from Mammary Epithelial Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chanat, Eric; Le Parc, Annabelle; Lahouassa, Hichem; Badaoui, Bouabid

    2016-06-01

    In the mammary glands of lactating animals, the mammary epithelial cells that surround the lumen of the acini produce and secrete copious amounts of milk. Functional differentiation of these mammary epithelial cells depends on the development of high-efficiency secretory pathways, notably for protein and lipid secretion. Protein secretion is a fundamental process common to all animal cells that involves a subset of cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, en masse secretion of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in the form of milk fat globules is a unique feature of the mammary epithelial cell. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets, the intracellular precursors of milk fat globules, originate from the endoplasmic reticulum, as do most milk-specific proteins. This organelle is therefore pivotal in the biogenesis of milk components. Fractionation of the cell into its subcellular parts is an approach that has proven very powerful for understanding organelle function and for studying the specific role of an organelle in a given cell activity. Here we describe a method for the purification of both smooth and rough microsomes, the membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum fragments that form from endoplasmic reticulum domains when cells are broken up, from mammary gland tissue at lactation.

  8. Automated identification of subcellular organelles by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    El-Mashtoly, Samir F; Niedieker, Daniel; Petersen, Dennis; Krauss, Sascha D; Freier, Erik; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Mosig, Axel; Hahn, Stephan; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-05-06

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is an emerging tool for label-free characterization of living cells. Here, unsupervised multivariate analysis of CARS datasets was used to visualize the subcellular compartments. In addition, a supervised learning algorithm based on the "random forest" ensemble learning method as a classifier, was trained with CARS spectra using immunofluorescence images as a reference. The supervised classifier was then used, to our knowledge for the first time, to automatically identify lipid droplets, nucleus, nucleoli, and endoplasmic reticulum in datasets that are not used for training. These four subcellular components were simultaneously and label-free monitored instead of using several fluorescent labels. These results open new avenues for label-free time-resolved investigation of subcellular components in different cells, especially cancer cells.

  9. STUDIES ON THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    PubMed Central

    Palade, George E.

    1955-01-01

    A survey of a large number of different cell types has indicated the presence of a network of membrane-bound cavities (the endoplasmic reticulum) in the cytoplasm of all cell types examined, with the exception of the mature erythrocyte. In its simplest form, encountered in seminal epithelia and in leucocytes, the reticulum consists mainly of interconnected strings of vesicles and appears to be randomly disposed in three dimensions. Local differentiations occur within the endoplasmic reticulum of all the cell types studied. The membrane limiting the cavities of the endoplasmic reticulum appears to be continuous with the cell membrane and the nuclear membranes. PMID:13278367

  10. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  11. Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Laurindo, Francisco R M; Araujo, Thaís L S; Abrahão, Thalita B

    2014-06-10

    Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between Noxes and the ER may provide relevant insights in Nox-related (patho)physiology.

  12. Differential Site Accessibility Mechanistically Explains Subcellular-Specific N-Glycosylation Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ling Yen; Lin, Chi-Hung; Fanayan, Susan; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins perform extra- and intracellular functions in innate and adaptive immunity by lectin-based interactions to exposed glyco-determinants. Herein, we document and mechanistically explain the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation determinants on glycoproteins trafficking through the shared biosynthetic machinery of human cells. LC-MS/MS-based quantitative glycomics showed that the secreted glycoproteins of eight human breast epithelial cells displaying diverse geno- and phenotypes consistently displayed more processed, primarily complex type, N-glycans than the high-mannose-rich microsomal glycoproteins. Detailed subcellular glycome profiling of proteins derived from three breast cell lines (MCF7/MDA468/MCF10A) demonstrated that secreted glycoproteins displayed significantly more α-sialylation and α1,6-fucosylation, but less α-mannosylation, than both the intermediately glycan-processed cell-surface glycoproteomes and the under-processed microsomal glycoproteomes. Subcellular proteomics and gene ontology revealed substantial presence of endoplasmic reticulum resident glycoproteins in the microsomes and confirmed significant enrichment of secreted and cell-surface glycoproteins in the respective subcellular fractions. The solvent accessibility of the glycosylation sites on maturely folded proteins of the 100 most abundant putative N-glycoproteins observed uniquely in the three subcellular glycoproteomes correlated with the glycan type processing thereby mechanistically explaining the formation of subcellular-specific N-glycosylation. In conclusion, human cells have developed mechanisms to simultaneously and reproducibly generate subcellular-specific N-glycosylation using a shared biosynthetic machinery. This aspect of protein-specific glycosylation is important for structural and functional glycobiology and discussed here in the context of the spatio-temporal interaction of glyco-determinants with lectins central to infection and immunity

  13. Methods to Study PTEN in Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Missiroli, Sonia; Morganti, Claudia; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Although PTEN has been widely described as a nuclear and cytosolic protein, in the last 2 years, alternative organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), pure mitochondria, and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), have been recognized as pivotal targets of PTEN activity.Here, we describe different methods that have been used to highlight PTEN subcellular localization.First, a protocol to extract nuclear and cytosolic fractions has been described to assess the "canonical" PTEN localization. Moreover, we describe a protocol for mitochondria isolation with proteinase K (PK) to further discriminate whether PTEN associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) or resides within the mitochondria. Finally, we focus our attention on a subcellular fractionation protocol of cells that permits the isolation of MAMs containing unique regions of ER membranes attached to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and mitochondria without contamination from other organelles. In addition to biochemical fractionations, immunostaining can be used to determine the subcellular localization of proteins; thus, a detailed protocol to obtain good immunofluorescence (IF) is described. The employment of these methodological approaches could facilitate the identification of different PTEN localizations in several physiopathological contexts.

  14. Subcellular localization of hepatitis E virus (HEV) replicase

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, Shagufta; Kapur, Neeraj; Durgapal, Hemlata; Panda, Subrat Kumar

    2008-01-05

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a hepatotropic virus with a single sense-strand RNA genome of {approx} 7.2 kb in length. Details of the intracellular site of HEV replication can pave further understanding of HEV biology. In-frame fusion construct of functionally active replicase-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was made in eukaryotic expression vector. The functionality of replicase-EGFP fusion protein was established by its ability to synthesize negative-strand viral RNA in vivo, by strand-specific anchored RT-PCR and molecular beacon binding. Subcellular co-localization was carried out using organelle specific fluorophores and by immuno-electron microscopy. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) demonstrated the interaction of this protein with the 3' end of HEV genome. The results show localization of replicase on the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The protein regions responsible for membrane localization was predicted and identified by use of deletion mutants. Endoplasmic reticulum was identified as the site of replicase localization and possible site of replication.

  15. Plasma effects on subcellular structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Daeyeon; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2010-03-08

    Atmospheric pressure helium plasma treated human hepatocytes exhibit distinctive zones of necrotic and live cells separated by a void. We propose that plasma induced necrosis is attributed to plasma species such as oxygen radicals, charged particles, metastables and/or severe disruption of charged cytoskeletal proteins. Interestingly, uncharged cytoskeletal intermediate filaments are only minimally disturbed by plasma, elucidating the possibility of plasma induced electrostatic effects selectively destroying charged proteins. These bona fide plasma effects, which inflict alterations in specific subcellular structures leading to necrosis and cellular detachment, were not observed by application of helium flow or electric field alone.

  16. Lipid trafficking at endoplasmic reticulum-chloroplast membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2015-08-01

    Glycerolipid synthesis in plant cells is characterized by an intense trafficking of lipids between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and chloroplasts. Initially, fatty acids are synthesized within chloroplasts and are exported to the ER where they are used to build up phospholipids and triacylglycerol. Ultimately, derivatives of these phospholipids return to chloroplasts to form galactolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, the main and essential lipids of photosynthetic membranes. Lipid trafficking was proposed to transit through membrane contact sites (MCSs) connecting both organelles. Here, we review recent insights into ER-chloroplast MCSs and lipid trafficking between chloroplasts and the ER.

  17. Subcellular compartmentalization of saccharide moieties in cultured normal and malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    We studied subcellular localization of saccharide moieties in cultured normal and malignant cells fixed in paraformaldehyde and treated with a nonionic detergent, using lectins specific for various surgar residues as probes in fluorescence microscopy. In normal cells, concanavalin A and Lens culinaris agglutinin, specific for mannose-rich carbohydrate cores in glycoproteins, labeled the endoplasmic reticulum as a wide perinuclear region. Other lectins, on the other hand, stained the Golgi apparatus as a juxtanuclear reticular structure. A similar compartmentalization was also seen in all malignant cells studied, although the Golgi apparatus in these cells was distinctly vesicular in appearance. Our results indicate that saccharide moieties in both normal and malignant cells are similarly compartmentalized, and thus speak in favor of a unidirectional subcellular flow for both membrane and secreted glycoconjugates. PMID:7372714

  18. Subcellular compartmentalization of saccharide moieties in cultured normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, I; Ekblom, P; Laurila, P

    1980-05-01

    We studied subcellular localization of saccharide moieties in cultured normal and malignant cells fixed in paraformaldehyde and treated with a nonionic detergent, using lectins specific for various surgar residues as probes in fluorescence microscopy. In normal cells, concanavalin A and Lens culinaris agglutinin, specific for mannose-rich carbohydrate cores in glycoproteins, labeled the endoplasmic reticulum as a wide perinuclear region. Other lectins, on the other hand, stained the Golgi apparatus as a juxtanuclear reticular structure. A similar compartmentalization was also seen in all malignant cells studied, although the Golgi apparatus in these cells was distinctly vesicular in appearance. Our results indicate that saccharide moieties in both normal and malignant cells are similarly compartmentalized, and thus speak in favor of a unidirectional subcellular flow for both membrane and secreted glycoconjugates.

  19. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  20. RNALocate: a resource for RNA subcellular localizations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Tan, Puwen; Wang, Liqiang; Jin, Nana; Li, Yana; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Huan; Hu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Lining; Hu, Chunyu; Li, Chunhua; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Changjian; Huang, Yan; Li, Kongning; Lin, Hao; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-04

    Increasing evidence has revealed that RNA subcellular localization is a very important feature for deeply understanding RNA's biological functions after being transported into intra- or extra-cellular regions. RNALocate is a web-accessible database that aims to provide a high-quality RNA subcellular localization resource and facilitate future researches on RNA function or structure. The current version of RNALocate documents more than 37 700 manually curated RNA subcellular localization entries with experimental evidence, involving more than 21 800 RNAs with 42 subcellular localizations in 65 species, mainly including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae etc. Besides, RNA homology, sequence and interaction data have also been integrated into RNALocate. Users can access these data through online search, browse, blast and visualization tools. In conclusion, RNALocate will be of help in elucidating the entirety of RNA subcellular localization, and developing new prediction methods. The database is available at http://www.rna-society.org/rnalocate/.

  1. RNALocate: a resource for RNA subcellular localizations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Tan, Puwen; Wang, Liqiang; Jin, Nana; Li, Yana; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Huan; Hu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Lining; Hu, Chunyu; Li, Chunhua; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Changjian; Huang, Yan; Li, Kongning; Lin, Hao; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that RNA subcellular localization is a very important feature for deeply understanding RNA's biological functions after being transported into intra- or extra-cellular regions. RNALocate is a web-accessible database that aims to provide a high-quality RNA subcellular localization resource and facilitate future researches on RNA function or structure. The current version of RNALocate documents more than 37 700 manually curated RNA subcellular localization entries with experimental evidence, involving more than 21 800 RNAs with 42 subcellular localizations in 65 species, mainly including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae etc. Besides, RNA homology, sequence and interaction data have also been integrated into RNALocate. Users can access these data through online search, browse, blast and visualization tools. In conclusion, RNALocate will be of help in elucidating the entirety of RNA subcellular localization, and developing new prediction methods. The database is available at http://www.rna-society.org/rnalocate/. PMID:27543076

  2. Trichoplein/mitostatin regulates endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria juxtaposition.

    PubMed

    Cerqua, Cristina; Anesti, Vassiliki; Pyakurel, Aswin; Liu, Dan; Naon, Deborah; Wiche, Gerhard; Baffa, Raffaele; Dimmer, Kai S; Scorrano, Luca

    2010-11-01

    Trichoplein/mitostatin (TpMs) is a keratin-binding protein that partly colocalizes with mitochondria and is often downregulated in epithelial cancers, but its function remains unclear. In this study, we report that TpMs regulates the tethering between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2)-dependent manner. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that TpMs is present at the interface between mitochondria and ER. The expression of TpMs leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and loosens tethering with ER, whereas its silencing has opposite effects. Functionally, the reduced tethering by TpMs inhibits apoptosis by Ca(2+)-dependent stimuli that require ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Biochemical and genetic evidence support a model in which TpMs requires Mfn2 to modulate mitochondrial shape and tethering. Thus, TpMs is a new regulator of mitochondria-ER juxtaposition.

  3. ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.

    PubMed Central

    Fath, M J; Kolter, R

    1993-01-01

    The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

  4. Cellular and subcellular localization of Marlin-1 in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, René L; Valenzuela, José I; Luján, Rafael; Couve, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Background Marlin-1 is a microtubule binding protein that associates specifically with the GABAB1 subunit in neurons and with members of the Janus kinase family in lymphoid cells. In addition, it binds the molecular motor kinesin-I and nucleic acids, preferentially single stranded RNA. Marlin-1 is expressed mainly in the central nervous system but little is known regarding its cellular and subcellular distribution in the brain. Results Here we have studied the localization of Marlin-1 in the rodent brain and cultured neurons combining immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and pre-embedding electron microscopy. We demonstrate that Marlin-1 is enriched in restricted areas of the brain including olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. Marlin-1 is abundant in dendrites and axons of GABAergic and non-GABAergic hippocampal neurons. At the ultrastructural level, Marlin-1 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of CA1 neurons in the hippocampus. In the cytoplasm it associates to microtubules in the dendritic shaft and occasionally with the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and dendritic spines. In the nucleus, clusters of Marlin-1 associate to euchromatin. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that Marlin-1 is expressed in discrete areas of the brain. They also confirm the microtubule association at the ultrastructural level in neurons. Together with the abundance of the protein in dendrites and axons they are consistent with the emerging role of Marlin-1 as an intracellular protein linking the cytoskeleton and transport. Our study constitutes the first detailed description of the cellular and subcellular distribution of Marlin-1 in the brain. As such, it will set the basis for future studies on the functional implications of Marlin-1 in protein trafficking. PMID:19386132

  5. Mammalian vesicle trafficking proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hay, J C; Hirling, H; Scheller, R H

    1996-03-08

    Vesicle traffic propagates and maintains distinct subcellular compartments and routes secretory products from their site of synthesis to their final destinations. As a basis for the specificity of vesicular transport reactions, each step in the secretory pathway appears to be handled by a distinct set of evolutionarily conserved proteins. Mammalian proteins responsible for vesicle trafficking at early steps in the secretory pathway are not well understood. In this report, we describe rat sec22 (rsec22) and rat bet1 (rbet1), mammalian sequence homologs of yeast proteins identified as mediators of endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi protein transport. rsec22 and rbet1 were expressed widely in mammalian tissues, as anticipated for proteins involved in fundamental membrane trafficking reactions. Recombinant rsec22 and rbet1 proteins behaved as integral membrane components of 28 and 18 kDa, respectively, consistent with their primary structures, which contain a predicted transmembrane domain at or near the carboxyl terminus. Recombinant rsec22 and rbet1 had distinct subcellular localizations, with rsec22 residing on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and rbet1 found on Golgi membranes. Studies with brefeldin A and nocodazole indicated that rbet1 function might involve interaction with or retention in the intermediate compartment. The distinct localizations of rsec22 and rbet1 may reflect their participation in opposite directions of membrane flow between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol; Woo, Je Moon; Son, Yong; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  7. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  8. Analysis of the subcellular localization of the human histone methyltransferase SETDB1

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Gotoh, Eiko; Kawamata, Natsuko; Ishimoto, Kenji; Uchihara, Yoshie; Iwanari, Hiroko; Sugiyama, Akira; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiya; Sakai, Juro; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; and others

    2015-10-02

    SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) is a histone methyltransferase that methylates lysine 9 on histone H3. Although it is important to know the localization of proteins to elucidate their physiological function, little is known of the subcellular localization of human SETDB1. In the present study, to investigate the subcellular localization of hSETDB1, we established a human cell line constitutively expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein fused to hSETDB1. We then generated a monoclonal antibody against the hSETDB1 protein. Expression of both exogenous and endogenous hSETDB1 was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of various human cell lines. Combined treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 led to the accumulation of hSETDB1 in the nucleus. These findings suggest that hSETDB1, localized in the nucleus, might undergo degradation by the proteasome and be exported to the cytosol, resulting in its detection mainly in the cytosol. - Highlights: • Endogenous human SETDB1 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm. • Combined treatment with LMB and MG132 led to accumulation of human SETDB1 in the nucleus. • HeLa cells expressing EFGP-hSETDB1 are useful for subcellular localization analyses.

  9. Transcutical imaging with cellular and subcellular resolution.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lin, Hui-Hao; Lam, Tuwin; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Wang, Jing W; Kubby, Joel

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate transcutical structural and functional imaging of neurons labeled with genetically encoded red fluorescent proteins and calcium indicators in the living Drosophila brain with cellular and subcellular resolution.

  10. Transcutical imaging with cellular and subcellular resolution

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiaodong; Lin, Hui-Hao; Lam, Tuwin; Rodriguez, Ramiro; Wang, Jing W.; Kubby, Joel

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate transcutical structural and functional imaging of neurons labeled with genetically encoded red fluorescent proteins and calcium indicators in the living Drosophila brain with cellular and subcellular resolution. PMID:28663828

  11. Molecular Characterization of Viral Responsive Protein 15 and Its Possible Role in Nuclear Export of Virus in Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Jaturontakul, Krisadaporn; Jatuyosporn, Thapanan; Laohawutthichai, Pasunee; Kim, Sun-Yong; Mori, Tomoyuki; Supungul, Premruethai; Hakoshima, Toshio; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Krusong, Kuakarun

    2017-07-26

    A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP15 was found in heavy and light membrane fractions, indicating that PmVRP15 may be associated with endoplasmic reticulum. Double-stranded RNAi-mediated knockdown of PmVRP15 gene expression in vitro showed no effect on WSSV copy number in whole hemocyte cells. However, PmVRP15 silencing resulted in an accumulation of WSSV DNA in the nucleus of PmVRP15-silenced hemocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that PmVRP15 knockdown hemocytes had a much lower level of VP28 (WSSV envelope protein), in comparison to that in the control. It is likely that PmVRP15 may play a role in viral nuclear egress.

  12. Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Focusing on Subcellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy–lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles. PMID:25366597

  13. Neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage: focusing on subcellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy-lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles.

  14. A Molecular Fluorescent Probe for Targeted Visualization of Temperature at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Satoshi; Lee, Sung-Chan; Zhai, Duanting; Suzuki, Madoka; Chang, Young Tae

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of cellular heat production and propagation remains elusive at a subcellular level. Here we report the first small molecule fluorescent thermometer selectively targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER thermo yellow), with the highest sensitivity reported so far (3.9%/°C). Unlike nanoparticle thermometers, ER thermo yellow stains the target organelle evenly without the commonly encountered problem of aggregation, and successfully demonstrates the ability to monitor intracellular temperature gradients generated by external heat sources in various cell types. We further confirm the ability of ER thermo yellow to monitor heat production by intracellular Ca2+ changes in HeLa cells. Our thermometer anchored at nearly-zero distance from the ER, i.e. the heat source, allowed the detection of the heat as it readily dissipated, and revealed the dynamics of heat production in real time at a subcellular level.

  15. A Molecular Fluorescent Probe for Targeted Visualization of Temperature at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Satoshi; Lee, Sung-Chan; Zhai, Duanting; Suzuki, Madoka; Chang, Young Tae

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of cellular heat production and propagation remains elusive at a subcellular level. Here we report the first small molecule fluorescent thermometer selectively targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER thermo yellow), with the highest sensitivity reported so far (3.9%/°C). Unlike nanoparticle thermometers, ER thermo yellow stains the target organelle evenly without the commonly encountered problem of aggregation, and successfully demonstrates the ability to monitor intracellular temperature gradients generated by external heat sources in various cell types. We further confirm the ability of ER thermo yellow to monitor heat production by intracellular Ca2+ changes in HeLa cells. Our thermometer anchored at nearly-zero distance from the ER, i.e. the heat source, allowed the detection of the heat as it readily dissipated, and revealed the dynamics of heat production in real time at a subcellular level. PMID:25330751

  16. Subcellular distribution of glycogen and decreased tetanic Ca2+ in fatigued single intact mouse muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Joachim; Cheng, Arthur J; Ørtenblad, Niels; Westerblad, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    In skeletal muscle fibres, glycogen has been shown to be stored at different subcellular locations: (i) between the myofibrils (intermyofibrillar); (ii) within the myofibrils (intramyofibrillar); and (iii) subsarcolemmal. Of these, intramyofibrillar glycogen has been implied as a critical regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. The aim of the present study was to test directly how the decrease in cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) during repeated tetanic contractions relates to the subcellular glycogen distribution. Single fibres of mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles were fatigued with 70 Hz, 350 ms tetani given at 2 s (high-intensity fatigue, HIF) or 10 s (low-intensity fatigue, LIF) intervals, while force and [Ca(2+)]i were measured. Stimulation continued until force decreased to 30% of its initial value. Fibres were then prepared for analyses of subcellular glycogen distribution by transmission electron microscopy. At fatigue, tetanic [Ca(2+)]i was reduced to 70 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of the initial in HIF (P < 0.01, n = 9) and LIF (P < 0.01, n = 5) fibres, respectively. At fatigue, the mean inter- and intramyofibrillar glycogen content was 60-75% lower than in rested control fibres (P < 0.05), whereas subsarcolemmal glycogen was similar to control. Individual fibres showed a good correlation between the fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca(2+)]i and the reduction in intermyofibrillar (P = 0.051) and intramyofibrillar (P = 0.0008) glycogen. In conclusion, the fatigue-induced decrease in tetanic [Ca(2+)]i, and hence force, is accompanied by major reductions in inter- and intramyofibrillar glycogen. The stronger correlation between decreased tetanic [Ca(2+)]i and reduced intramyofibrillar glycogen implies that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release critically depends on energy supply from the intramyofibrillar glycogen pool.

  17. Predicting eukaryotic protein subcellular location by fusing optimized evidence-theoretic K-Nearest Neighbor classifiers.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2006-08-01

    Facing the explosion of newly generated protein sequences in the post genomic era, we are challenged to develop an automated method for fast and reliably annotating their subcellular locations. Knowledge of subcellular locations of proteins can provide useful hints for revealing their functions and understanding how they interact with each other in cellular networking. Unfortunately, it is both expensive and time-consuming to determine the localization of an uncharacterized protein in a living cell purely based on experiments. To tackle the challenge, a novel hybridization classifier was developed by fusing many basic individual classifiers through a voting system. The "engine" of these basic classifiers was operated by the OET-KNN (Optimized Evidence-Theoretic K-Nearest Neighbor) rule. As a demonstration, predictions were performed with the fusion classifier for proteins among the following 16 localizations: (1) cell wall, (2) centriole, (3) chloroplast, (4) cyanelle, (5) cytoplasm, (6) cytoskeleton, (7) endoplasmic reticulum, (8) extracell, (9) Golgi apparatus, (10) lysosome, (11) mitochondria, (12) nucleus, (13) peroxisome, (14) plasma membrane, (15) plastid, and (16) vacuole. To get rid of redundancy and homology bias, none of the proteins investigated here had >/=25% sequence identity to any other in a same subcellular location. The overall success rates thus obtained via the jack-knife cross-validation test and independent dataset test were 81.6% and 83.7%, respectively, which were 46 approximately 63% higher than those performed by the other existing methods on the same benchmark datasets. Also, it is clearly elucidated that the overwhelmingly high success rates obtained by the fusion classifier is by no means a trivial utilization of the GO annotations as prone to be misinterpreted because there is a huge number of proteins with given accession numbers and the corresponding GO numbers, but their subcellular locations are still unknown, and that the

  18. Quantitative assay and subcellular distribution of enzymes acting on dolichyl phosphate in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Ravoet, A; Amar-Costesec, A; Godelaine, D; Beaufay, H

    1981-01-01

    To establish on a quantitative basis the subcellular distribution of the enzymes that glycosylate dolichyl phosphate in rat liver, preliminary kinetic studies on the transfer of mannose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate from the respective (14)C- labeled nucleotide sugars to exogenous dolichyl phosphate were conducted in liver microsomes. Mannosyltransferase, glucosyltransferase, and, to a lesser extent, N- acetylglucosamine-phosphotransferase were found to be very unstable at 37 degrees C in the presence of Triton X-100, which was nevertheless required to disperse the membranes and the lipid acceptor in the aqueous reaction medium. The enzymes became fairly stable in the range of 10-17 degrees C and the reactions then proceeded at a constant velocity for at least 15 min. Conditions under which the reaction products are formed in amount proportional to that of microsomes added are described. For N- acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase it was necessary to supplement the incubation medium with microsomal lipids. Subsequently, liver homogenates were fractionated by differential centrifugation, and the microsome fraction, which contained the bulk of the enzymes glycosylating dolichyl phosphate, was analyzed by isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose gradient without any previous treatment, or after addition of digitonin. The centrifugation behavior of these enzymes was compared to that of a number of reference enzymes for the endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi complex, the plasma membranes, and mitochondria. It was very simily to that of enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum, especially glucose-6-phosphatase. Subcellular preparations enriched in golgi complex elements, plasma membranes, outer membranes of mitochondira, or mitoplasts showed for the transferases acting on dolichyl phosphate relative activities similar to that of glucose- 6-phosphatase. It is concluded that glycosylations of dolichyl phosphate into mannose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine-1

  19. STUDIES ON THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Keith R.; Yamada, Eichi

    1960-01-01

    Pigment epithelial cells of the frog's retina have been examined by methods of electron microscopy with special attention focused on the fine structure of the endoplasmic reticulum and the myeloid bodies. These cells, as reported previously, send apical prolongations into the spaces between the rod outer segments, and within these extensions, pigment migrates in response to light stimulation. The cytoplasm of these cells is filled with a compact lattice of membrane-limited tubules, the surfaces of which are smooth or particle-free. In this respect, the endoplasmic reticulum here resembles that encountered in cells which produce lipid-rich secretions. The myeloid bodies comprise paired membranes arranged in stacks shaped like biconvex lenses. At their margins the membranes are continuous with elements of the ER and in consequence of this the myeloid body is referred to as a differentiation of the reticulum. The paired membranes resemble in their thickness and spacings those which make up the outer segments; they are therefore regarded as intracellular photoreceptors of possible significance in the activation of pigment migration and other physiologic functions of these cells. The fuscin granules are enclosed in membranes which are also continuous with those of the ER. The granules seem to move independently of the prolongations in which they are contained. The report also describes the fine structure of the terminal bar apparatus, the fibrous layer intervening between the epithelium and the choroid blood vessels, and comments on the functions of the organelles depicted. PMID:13737277

  20. Birth and Rapid Subcellular Adaptation of a Hominoid-Specific CDC14 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Weier, Manuela; Lambert, Nelle; Lambot, Marie-Alexandra; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Gene duplication was prevalent during hominoid evolution, yet little is known about the functional fate of new ape gene copies. We characterized the CDC14B cell cycle gene and the functional evolution of its hominoid-specific daughter gene, CDC14Bretro. We found that CDC14B encodes four different splice isoforms that show different subcellular localizations (nucleus or microtubule-associated) and functional properties. A microtubular CDC14B variant spawned CDC14Bretro through retroposition in the hominoid ancestor 18–25 million years ago (Mya). CDC14Bretro evolved brain-/testis-specific expression after the duplication event and experienced a short period of intense positive selection in the African ape ancestor 7–12 Mya. Using resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that by virtue of amino acid substitutions in distinct protein regions during this time, the subcellular localization of CDC14Bretro progressively shifted from the association with microtubules (stabilizing them) to an association with the endoplasmic reticulum. CDC14Bretro evolution represents a paradigm example of rapid, selectively driven subcellular relocalization, thus revealing a novel mode for the emergence of new gene function. PMID:18547142

  1. Amyloid-β peptides are generated in mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Bernadette; Hedskog, Louise; Wiehager, Birgitta; Ankarcrona, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular aggregates of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) are a hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Recent findings suggest that Aβ is generated intracellularly and potential production sites include endosomes and trans-Golgi network. We determined the production of Aβ in subcellular fractions isolated from mouse brain. We found that a considerable amount of Aβ is produced at mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites including outer mitochondrial membrane and mitochondria-associated ER membranes. Enhanced Aβ production at this site may disturb ER, mitochondrial and mitochondria-ER contact site function. This may be one key step in the cascade of events eventually leading to neurodegeneration in AD.

  2. Exportin-5 mediates nuclear export of SRP RNA in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Takeiwa, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ichiro; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2015-04-01

    The signal recognition particle is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is essential for the translocation of nascent proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum. It has been shown that the RNA component (SRP RNA) is exported from the nucleus by CRM1 in the budding yeast. However, how SRP RNA is exported in higher species has been elusive. Here, we show that SRP RNA does not use the CRM1 pathway in Xenopus oocytes. Instead, SRP RNA uses the same export pathway as pre-miRNA and tRNA as showed by cross-competition experiments. Consistently, the recombinant Exportin-5 protein specifically stimulated export of SRP RNA as well as of pre-miRNA and tRNA, whereas an antibody raised against Exportin-5 specifically inhibited export of the same RNA species. Moreover, biotinylated SRP RNA can pull down Exportin-5 but not CRM1 from HeLa cell nuclear extracts in a RanGTP-dependent manner. These results, taken together, strongly suggest that the principal export receptor for SRP RNA in vertebrates is Exportin-5 unlike in the budding yeast.

  3. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  4. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  5. JPL Export Compliance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momjian, E.; Lam, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transfer of commodities, software, or technlogies to foreign persons is subject to U.S. export control laws and regulations. These export controls are applicable, regardless of whether the transfer occurs in the U.S. or outside of the U.S.

  6. Sub-cellular proteomics of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S.; Sumner, Lloyd W.

    2013-01-01

    Medicago truncatula is a leading model species and substantial molecular, genetic, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics resources have been developed for this species to facilitate the study of legume biology. Currently, over 60 proteomics studies of M. truncatula have been published. Many of these have focused upon the unique symbiosis formed between legumes and nitrogen fixing rhizobia bacteria, while others have focused on seed development and the specialized proteomes of distinct tissues/organs. These include the characterization of sub-cellular organelle proteomes such as nuclei and mitochondria, as well as proteins distributed in plasma or microsomal membranes from various tissues. The isolation of sub-cellular proteins typically requires a series of steps that are labor-intensive. Thus, efficient protocols for sub-cellular fractionation, purification, and enrichment are necessary for each cellular compartment. In addition, protein extraction, solubilization, separation, and digestion prior to mass spectral identification are important to enhance the detection of low abundance proteins and to increase the overall detectable proportion of the sub-cellular proteome. This review summarizes the sub-cellular proteomics studies in M. truncatula. PMID:23641248

  7. A Mouse Model Suggests Two Mechanisms for Thyroid Alterations in Infantile Cystinosis: Decreased Thyroglobulin Synthesis Due to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/Unfolded Protein Response and Impaired Lysosomal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Gaide Chevronnay, H. P.; Janssens, V.; Van Der Smissen, P.; Liao, X. H.; Abid, Y.; Nevo, N.; Antignac, C.; Refetoff, S.; Cherqui, S.; Pierreux, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are released from thyroglobulin (Tg) in lysosomes, which are impaired in infantile/nephropathic cystinosis. Cystinosis is a lysosomal cystine storage disease due to defective cystine exporter, cystinosin. Cystinotic children develop subclinical and then overt hypothyroidism. Why hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication of cystinosis is unknown. We here defined early alterations in Ctns−/− mice thyroid and identified subcellular and molecular mechanisms. At 9 months, T4 and T3 plasma levels were normal and TSH was moderately increased (∼4-fold). By histology, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of most follicles preceded colloid exhaustion. Increased immunolabeling for thyrocyte proliferation and apoptotic shedding indicated accelerated cell turnover. Electron microscopy revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation, apical lamellipodia indicating macropinocytic colloid uptake, and lysosomal cystine crystals. Tg accumulation in dilated ER contrasted with mRNA down-regulation. Increased expression of ER chaperones, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa and protein disulfide isomerase, associated with alternative X-box binding protein-1 splicing, revealed unfolded protein response (UPR) activation by ER stress. Decreased Tg mRNA and ER stress suggested reduced Tg synthesis. Coordinated increase of UPR markers, activating transcription factor-4 and C/EBP homologous protein, linked ER stress to apoptosis. Hormonogenic cathepsins were not altered, but lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 immunolabeling disclosed enlarged vesicles containing iodo-Tg and impaired lysosomal fusion. Isopycnic fractionation showed iodo-Tg accumulation in denser lysosomes, suggesting defective lysosomal processing and hormone release. In conclusion, Ctns−/− mice showed the following alterations: 1) compensated primary hypothyroidism and accelerated thyrocyte turnover; 2) impaired Tg production linked to ER stress/UPR response; and 3) altered

  8. Co-chaperones of the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Armin; Rieger, Heiko; Zimmermann, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the rough endoplasmic reticulum or ER plays a central role in the biogenesis of most extracellular plus many organellar proteins and in cellular calcium homeostasis. Therefore, this organelle comprises molecular chaperones that are involved in import, folding/assembly, export, and degradation of polypeptides in millimolar concentrations. In addition, there are calcium channels/pumps and signal transduction components present in the ER membrane that affect and are affected by these processes. The ER lumenal Hsp70, termed immunoglobulin-heavy chain binding protein or BiP, is the central player in all these activities and involves up to seven different co-chaperones, i.e. ER-membrane integrated as well as ER-lumenal Hsp40s, which are termed ERj or ERdj, and two nucleotide exchange factors.

  9. Assembly of MHC class I molecules within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Williams, David B

    2006-01-01

    MHC class I molecules bind cytosolically derived peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and present them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. A major focus of our laboratory has been to understand the functions of the diverse proteins involved in the intracellular assembly of MHC class I molecules. These include the molecular chaperones calnexin and calreticulin, which enhance the proper folding and subunit assembly of class I molecules and also retain assembly intermediates within the ER; ERp57, a thiol oxidoreductase that promotes heavy chain disulfide formation and proper assembly of the peptide loading complex; tapasin, which recruits class I molecules to the TAP peptide transporter and enhances the loading of high affinity peptide ligands; and Bap31, which is involved in clustering assembled class I molecules at ER exit sites for export along the secretory pathway. This review describes our contributions to elucidating the functions of these proteins; the combined effort of many dedicated students and postdoctoral fellows.

  10. Structural and functional plasticity of subcellular tethering, targeting and processing of RPGRIP1 by RPGR isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Hemangi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R.; Cho, Kyoung-in; Yi, Haiqing; Orry, Andrew; Kim, Hyesung; Ferreira, Paulo A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mutations affecting the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1) interactome cause syndromic retinal dystrophies. RPGRIP1 interacts with the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) through a domain homologous to RCC1 (RHD), a nucleotide exchange factor of Ran GTPase. However, functional relationships between RPGR and RPGRIP1 and their subcellular roles are lacking. We show by molecular modeling and analyses of RPGR disease-mutations that the RPGR-interacting domain (RID) of RPGRIP1 embraces multivalently the shared RHD of RPGR1–19 and RPGRORF15 isoforms and the mutations are non-overlapping with the interface found between RCC1 and Ran GTPase. RPGR disease-mutations grouped into six classes based on their structural locations and differential impairment with RPGRIP1 interaction. RPGRIP1α1 expression alone causes its profuse self-aggregation, an effect suppressed by co-expression of either RPGR isoform before and after RPGRIP1α1 self-aggregation ensue. RPGR1–19 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas RPGRORF15 presents cytosolic distribution and they determine uniquely the subcellular co-localization of RPGRIP1α1. Disease mutations in RPGR1–19, RPGRORF15, or RID of RPGRIP1α1, singly or in combination, exert distinct effects on the subcellular targeting, co-localization or tethering of RPGRIP1α1 with RPGR1–19 or RPGRORF15 in kidney, photoreceptor and hepatocyte cell lines. Additionally, RPGRORF15, but not RPGR1–19, protects the RID of RPGRIP1α1 from limited proteolysis. These studies define RPGR- and cell-type-dependent targeting pathways with structural and functional plasticity modulating the expression of mutations in RPGR and RPGRIP1. Further, RPGR isoforms distinctively determine the subcellular targeting of RPGRIP1α1, with deficits in RPGRORF15-dependent intracellular localization of RPGRIP1α1 contributing to pathomechanisms shared by etiologically distinct syndromic retinal dystrophies. PMID

  11. Prion subcellular fractionation reveals infectivity spectrum, with a high titre-low PrPres level disparity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prion disease transmission and pathogenesis are linked to misfolded, typically protease resistant (PrPres) conformers of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC), with the former posited to be the principal constituent of the infectious 'prion'. Unexplained discrepancies observed between detectable PrPres and infectivity levels exemplify the complexity in deciphering the exact biophysical nature of prions and those host cell factors, if any, which contribute to transmission efficiency. In order to improve our understanding of these important issues, this study utilized a bioassay validated cell culture model of prion infection to investigate discordance between PrPres levels and infectivity titres at a subcellular resolution. Findings Subcellular fractions enriched in lipid rafts or endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial marker proteins were equally highly efficient at prion transmission, despite lipid raft fractions containing up to eight times the levels of detectable PrPres. Brain homogenate infectivity was not differentially enhanced by subcellular fraction-specific co-factors, and proteinase K pre-treatment of selected fractions modestly, but equally reduced infectivity. Only lipid raft associated infectivity was enhanced by sonication. Conclusions This study authenticates a subcellular disparity in PrPres and infectivity levels, and eliminates simultaneous divergence of prion strains as the explanation for this phenomenon. On balance, the results align best with the concept that transmission efficiency is influenced more by intrinsic characteristics of the infectious prion, rather than cellular microenvironment conditions or absolute PrPres levels. PMID:22534096

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the world has seen an alarming increase in obesity and closely associated with insulin resistance which is a state of low-grade inflammation, the latter characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood and tissues. A shift in energy balance alters systemic metabolic regulation and the important role that chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play in this process.Why obesity is so closely associated with insulin resistance and inflammation is not understood well. This suggests that there are probably other causes for obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation. One of these appears to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.The ER is a vast membranous network responsible for the trafficking of a wide range of proteins and plays a central role in integrating multiple metabolic signals critical in cellular homeostasis. Conditions that may trigger unfolded protein response activation include increased protein synthesis, the presence of mutant or misfolded proteins, inhibition of protein glycosylation, imbalance of ER calcium levels, glucose and energy deprivation, hypoxia, pathogens or pathogen-associated components and toxins. Thus, characterizing the mechanisms contributing to obesity and identifying potential targets for its prevention and treatment will have a great impact on the control of associated conditions, particularly T2D.

  13. Neuronal Computations Made Visible with Subcellular Resolution.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Richard; Salecker, Iris

    2016-06-30

    Sensory information is gradually processed within dedicated neural circuits to generate specific behaviors. In this issue, Yang et al. push technology boundaries to measure both voltage and calcium signals from subcellular compartments of genetically defined interconnected neurons and shed light on local neural computations critical for motion detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of Subcellular Force Generation in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Matthew; Lamoureux, Phillip; Miller, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Forces are important for neuronal outgrowth during the initial wiring of the nervous system and after trauma, yet subcellular force generation over the microtubule-rich region at the rear of the growth cone and along the axon has never, to our knowledge, been directly measured. Because previous studies have indicated microtubule polymerization and the microtubule-associated proteins Kinesin-1 and dynein all generate forces that push microtubules forward, a major question is whether the net forces in these regions are contractile or expansive. A challenge in addressing this is that measuring local subcellular force generation is difficult. Here we develop an analytical mathematical model that describes the relationship between unequal subcellular forces arranged in series within the neuron and the net overall tension measured externally. Using force-calibrated towing needles to measure and apply forces, in combination with docked mitochondria to monitor subcellular strain, we then directly measure force generation over the rear of the growth cone and along the axon of chick sensory neurons. We find the rear of the growth cone generates 2.0 nN of contractile force, the axon generates 0.6 nN of contractile force, and that the net overall tension generated by the neuron is 1.3 nN. This work suggests that the forward bulk flow of the cytoskeletal framework that occurs during axonal elongation and growth-cone pauses arises because strong contractile forces in the rear of the growth cone pull material forward. PMID:25762315

  15. Nuclear Export Signal Masking Regulates HIV-1 Rev Trafficking and Viral RNA Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Ryan T; Aligeti, Mounavya; Pocock, Ginger M; Higgins, Christina A; Sherer, Nathan M

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homo-oligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study, we used a functional fluorescently tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found that Rev activity was remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences, including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores. Rev's ability to tolerate a SNES was both position and multimerization dependent, an observation consistent with a model wherein Rev self-association acts to transiently mask the NES peptide(s), thereby biasing Rev's trafficking into the nucleus. Combined imaging and functional assays also indicated that NES masking underpins Rev's well-known tendency to accumulate at the nucleolus, as well as Rev's capacity to activate optimal levels of late viral gene expression. We propose that Rev multimerization and NES masking regulates Rev's trafficking to and retention within the nucleus even prior to RNA binding.

  16. [Mechanism for subcellular localization of nuclear receptor CAR].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Inouye, Yoshio

    2011-03-01

    Animals including human beings have defense mechanisms against the toxicity of xenobiotics such as medicinal compounds and environmental pollutants. Receptor-type transcriptional factors, such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), play important roles in the defense against xenobiotic toxicities. In the absence of stimuli, these receptors are distributed predominantly in the cytoplasmic compartment. Following xenobiotic stimuli, receptors translocate into the nucleus and transactivate its target genes. However, the exogenously expressed CAR translocates spontaneously into the nucleus in immortal cells. Previously, we identified subcellular localization signals in rat CAR: nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and cytoplasmic retention region (CRR). Lack of CRR function might be responsible for the spontaneous nuclear accumulation of CAR in immortal cells. Further, the nuclear import of CAR is regulated by the importin-Ran system, which is required for maintaining an intact microtubule network. Clarifying the mechanisms underlying the nuclear translocation of CAR would be useful for the establishment of novel assay systems for the screening of ligands and activators of CAR using immortal cells without sacrificing animals.

  17. Identification of a calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, B.; Ichida, A.; Wang, Y.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    A unique subfamily of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPases was recently identified in plants. In contrast to the most closely related pumps in animals, plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPases, members of this new subfamily are distinguished by a calmodulin-regulated autoinhibitor located at the N-terminal instead of a C-terminal end. In addition, at least some isoforms appear to reside in non-plasma membrane locations. To begin delineating their functions, we investigated the subcellular localization of isoform ACA2p (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2 protein) in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ACA2p resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In buoyant density sucrose gradients performed with and without Mg2+, ACA2p cofractionated with an ER membrane marker and a typical "ER-type" Ca2+-ATPase, ACA3p/ECA1p. To visualize its subcellular localization, ACA2p was tagged with a green fluorescence protein at its C terminus (ACA2-GFPp) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. We collected fluorescence images from live root cells using confocal and computational optical-sectioning microscopy. ACA2-GFPp appeared as a fluorescent reticulum, consistent with an ER location. In addition, we observed strong fluorescence around the nuclei of mature epidermal cells, which is consistent with the hypothesis that ACA2p may also function in the nuclear envelope. An ER location makes ACA2p distinct from all other calmodulin-regulated pumps identified in plants or animals.

  18. Identification of a calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, B.; Ichida, A.; Wang, Y.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    A unique subfamily of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPases was recently identified in plants. In contrast to the most closely related pumps in animals, plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPases, members of this new subfamily are distinguished by a calmodulin-regulated autoinhibitor located at the N-terminal instead of a C-terminal end. In addition, at least some isoforms appear to reside in non-plasma membrane locations. To begin delineating their functions, we investigated the subcellular localization of isoform ACA2p (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2 protein) in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ACA2p resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In buoyant density sucrose gradients performed with and without Mg2+, ACA2p cofractionated with an ER membrane marker and a typical "ER-type" Ca2+-ATPase, ACA3p/ECA1p. To visualize its subcellular localization, ACA2p was tagged with a green fluorescence protein at its C terminus (ACA2-GFPp) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. We collected fluorescence images from live root cells using confocal and computational optical-sectioning microscopy. ACA2-GFPp appeared as a fluorescent reticulum, consistent with an ER location. In addition, we observed strong fluorescence around the nuclei of mature epidermal cells, which is consistent with the hypothesis that ACA2p may also function in the nuclear envelope. An ER location makes ACA2p distinct from all other calmodulin-regulated pumps identified in plants or animals.

  19. Role of the Plasmodium Export Element in Trafficking Parasite Proteins to the Infected Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Boddey, Justin A; Moritz, Robert L; Simpson, Richard J; Cowman, Alan F

    2009-01-01

    The intracellular survival of Plasmodium falciparum within human erythrocytes is dependent on export of parasite proteins that remodel the host cell. Most exported proteins require a conserved motif (RxLxE/Q/D), termed the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) or vacuolar targeting sequence (VTS), for targeting beyond the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and into the host cell; however, the precise role of this motif in export is poorly defined. We used transgenic P. falciparum expressing chimeric proteins to investigate the function of the PEXEL motif for export. The PEXEL constitutes a bifunctional export motif comprising a protease recognition sequence that is cleaved, in the endoplasmic reticulum, from proteins destined for export, in a PEXEL arginine- and leucine-dependent manner. Following processing, the remaining conserved PEXEL residue is required to direct the mature protein to the host cell. Furthermore, we demonstrate that N acetylation of proteins following N-terminal processing is a PEXEL-independent process that is insufficient for correct export to the host cell. This work defines the role of each residue in the PEXEL for export into the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte. PMID:19055692

  20. The signal sequence coding region promotes nuclear export of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Alexander F; Springer, Michael; Shibata, Yoko; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha P; Rapoport, Tom A

    2007-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, most mRNAs are exported from the nucleus by the transcription export (TREX) complex, which is loaded onto mRNAs after their splicing and capping. We have studied in mammalian cells the nuclear export of mRNAs that code for secretory proteins, which are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by hydrophobic signal sequences. The mRNAs were injected into the nucleus or synthesized from injected or transfected DNA, and their export was followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We made the surprising observation that the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can serve as a nuclear export signal of an mRNA that lacks an intron or functional cap. Even the export of an intron-containing natural mRNA was enhanced by its SSCR. Like conventional export, the SSCR-dependent pathway required the factor TAP, but depletion of the TREX components had only moderate effects. The SSCR export signal appears to be characterized in vertebrates by a low content of adenines, as demonstrated by genome-wide sequence analysis and by the inhibitory effect of silent adenine mutations in SSCRs. The discovery of an SSCR-mediated pathway explains the previously noted amino acid bias in signal sequences and suggests a link between nuclear export and membrane targeting of mRNAs.

  1. Application of proteomic marker ensembles to subcellular organelle identification.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Alexander Y; Shen, Zhouxin; Guan, Ziqiang; Ryan, Andrea; Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raetz, Christian R H; Briggs, Steven; Dennis, Edward A

    2010-02-01

    Compartmentalization of biological processes and the associated cellular components is crucial for cell function. Typically, the location of a component is revealed through a co-localization and/or co-purification with an organelle marker. Therefore, the identification of reliable markers is critical for a thorough understanding of cellular function and dysfunction. We fractionated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, both in the resting and endotoxin-activated states, into six fractions representing the major organelles/compartments: nuclei, mitochondria, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane as well as an additional dense microsomal fraction. The identity of the first five of these fractions was confirmed via the distribution of conventional enzymatic markers. Through a quantitative liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis of the fractions, we identified 50-member ensembles of marker proteins ("marker ensembles") specific for each of the corresponding organelles/compartments. Our analysis attributed 206 of the 250 marker proteins ( approximately 82%) to organelles that are consistent with the location annotations in the public domain (obtained using DAVID 2008, EntrezGene, Swiss-Prot, and references therein). Moreover, we were able to correct locations for a subset of the remaining proteins, thus proving the superior power of analysis using multiple organelles as compared with an analysis using one specific organelle. The marker ensembles were used to calculate the organelle composition of the six above mentioned subcellular fractions. Knowledge of the precise composition of these fractions can be used to calculate the levels of metabolites in the pure organelles. As a proof of principle, we applied these calculations to known mitochondria-specific lipids (cardiolipins and ubiquinones) and demonstrated their exclusive mitochondrial location. We speculate that the organelle-specific protein ensembles may be used to

  2. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants.

  3. Impaired trafficking and subcellular localization of a mutant lactase associated with congenital lactase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Marc; Keiser, Markus; Hoch, Melanie; Naim, Hassan Y

    2009-06-01

    Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD) is a cause of disaccharide intolerance and malabsorption characterized by watery diarrhea in infants fed breast milk or lactose-containing formulas. The molecular basis of CLD is unknown. Mutations in the coding region of the brush border enzyme lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) were found to cause CLD in a study of 19 Finnish families. We analyzed the effects of one of these mutations, G1363S, on LPH folding, trafficking, and function. We introduced a mutation into the LPH complementary DNA that resulted in the amino acid substitution G1363S. The mutant gene was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells, and the effects were assessed at the protein, structural, and subcellular levels. The mutant protein LPH-G1363S was misfolded and could not exit the endoplasmic reticulum. Interestingly, the mutation creates an additional N-glycosylation site that is characteristic of a temperature-sensitive protein. The intracellular transport and enzymatic activity, but not correct folding, of LPH-G1363S were partially restored by expression at 20 degrees C. However, a form of LPH that contains the mutations G1363S and N1361A, which eliminates the N-glycosylation site, did not restore the features of wild-type LPH. Thus, the additional glycosyl group is not required for the LPH-G1363S defects. This is the first characterization, at the molecular and subcellular levels, of a mutant form of LPH that is involved in the pathogenesis of CLD. Mutant LPH accumulates predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum but can partially mature at a permissive temperature; these features are unique for a protein involved in a carbohydrate malabsorption defect implicating LPH.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum PI(3)P lipid binding targets malaria proteins to the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Stahelin, Robert V.; Speicher, Kaye D.; Speicher, David W.; Haldar, Kasturi

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Hundreds of effector proteins of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum constitute a `secretome', carrying a host-targeting (HT) signal, which predicts their export from the intracellular pathogen into the surrounding erythrocyte. Cleavage of the HT signal by a parasite endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protease, plasmepsin V, is the proposed export mechanism. Here we show that the HT signal exports by recognition of the lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) in the ER, prior to and independent of protease action. Secretome HT signals, including those of major virulence determinants bind PI(3)P with nanomolar affinity and amino acid specificities displayed by HT-mediated export. PI(3)P-enriched regions are detected within the parasite's ER, co-localize with endogenous HT signal on ER precursors, which also display high affinity binding to PI(3)P. A related, pathogenic oomycete's HT signal export is dependent on PI(3)P binding, without cleavage by plasmepsin V. Thus PI(3)P in the ER functions in mechanisms of secretion and pathogenesis. PMID:22265412

  5. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  6. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology.

  7. Subcellular Ca2+ alternans represents a novel mechanism for the generation of arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves in cat atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kockskämper, Jens; Blatter, Lothar A

    2002-01-01

    Ca2+ alternans is a potentially arrhythmogenic beat-to-beat alternation of the amplitude of the action potential-induced [Ca2+]i transient in cardiac myocytes. Despite its pathophysiological significance the cellular mechanisms underlying Ca2+ alternans are poorly understood. Recent evidence, however, points to the modulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by localized alterations in energy metabolism as an important determinant of Ca2+ alternans. We therefore studied the subcellular properties of Ca2+ alternans in field-stimulated cat atrial myocytes employing fast two-dimensional fluorescence confocal microscopy. Ca2+ alternans was elicited by an increase in stimulation frequency or by metabolic interventions targeting glycolysis. Marked subcellular variations in the time of onset, the magnitude, and the phase of alternans were observed. Longitudinal and transverse gradients of Ca2+ alternans were found as well as neighbouring subcellular regions alternating out-of-phase. Moreover, focal inhibition of glycolysis resulted in spatially restricted Ca2+ alternans. When two adjacent regions within a myocyte alternated out-of-phase, steep [Ca2+]i gradients developed at their border giving rise to delayed propagating Ca2+ waves. The results demonstrate that Ca2+ alternans is a subcellular phenomenon caused by modulation of SR Ca2+ release, which is mediated, at least in part, by local inhibition of energy metabolism. The generation of arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves by subcellular variations in the phase of Ca2+ alternans represents a novel mechanism for the development of atrial disrhythmias. PMID:12433950

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum localization and activity of maize auxin biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Seo, Hyesu; Park, Woong June; Hawes, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is a major growth hormone in plants and the first plant hormone to be discovered and studied. Active research over >60 years has shed light on many of the molecular mechanisms of its action including transport, perception, signal transduction, and a variety of biosynthetic pathways in various species, tissues, and developmental stages. The complexity and redundancy of the auxin biosynthetic network and enzymes involved raises the question of how such a system, producing such a potent agent as auxin, can be appropriately controlled at all. Here it is shown that maize auxin biosynthesis takes place in microsomal as well as cytosolic cellular fractions from maize seedlings. Most interestingly, a set of enzymes shown to be involved in auxin biosynthesis via their activity and/or mutant phenotypes and catalysing adjacent steps in YUCCA-dependent biosynthesis are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Positioning of auxin biosynthetic enzymes at the ER could be necessary to bring auxin biosynthesis in closer proximity to ER-localized factors for transport, conjugation, and signalling, and allow for an additional level of regulation by subcellular compartmentation of auxin action. Furthermore, it might provide a link to ethylene action and be a factor in hormonal cross-talk as all five ethylene receptors are ER localized.

  9. Arachidonoyl-Specific Diacylglycerol Kinase ε and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Matsui, Hirooki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Iseki, Ken; Kawamae, Kaneyuki; Goto, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises an interconnected membrane network, which is made up of lipid bilayer and associated proteins. This organelle plays a central role in the protein synthesis and sorting. In addition, it represents the synthetic machinery of phospholipids, the major constituents of the biological membrane. In this process, phosphatidic acid (PA) serves as a precursor of all phospholipids, suggesting that PA synthetic activity is closely associated with the ER function. One enzyme responsible for PA synthesis is diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to PA. DGK is composed of a family of enzymes with distinct features assigned to each isozyme in terms of structure, enzymology, and subcellular localization. Of DGKs, DGKε uniquely exhibits substrate specificity toward arachidonate-containing DG and is shown to reside in the ER. Arachidonic acid, a precursor of bioactive eicosanoids, is usually acylated at the sn-2 position of phospholipids, being especially enriched in phosphoinositide. In this review, we focus on arachidonoyl-specific DGKε with respect to the historical context, molecular basis of the substrate specificity and ER-targeting, and functional implications in the ER. PMID:27917381

  10. Proteome-wide Subcellular Topologies of E. coli Polypeptides Database (STEPdb)*

    PubMed Central

    Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Economou, Anastassios

    2014-01-01

    Cell compartmentalization serves both the isolation and the specialization of cell functions. After synthesis in the cytoplasm, over a third of all proteins are targeted to other subcellular compartments. Knowing how proteins are distributed within the cell and how they interact is a prerequisite for understanding it as a whole. Surface and secreted proteins are important pathogenicity determinants. Here we present the STEP database (STEPdb) that contains a comprehensive characterization of subcellular localization and topology of the complete proteome of Escherichia coli. Two widely used E. coli proteomes (K-12 and BL21) are presented organized into thirteen subcellular classes. STEPdb exploits the wealth of genetic, proteomic, biochemical, and functional information on protein localization, secretion, and targeting in E. coli, one of the best understood model organisms. Subcellular annotations were derived from a combination of bioinformatics prediction, proteomic, biochemical, functional, topological data and extensive literature re-examination that were refined through manual curation. Strong experimental support for the location of 1553 out of 4303 proteins was based on 426 articles and some experimental indications for another 526. Annotations were provided for another 320 proteins based on firm bioinformatic predictions. STEPdb is the first database that contains an extensive set of peripheral IM proteins (PIM proteins) and includes their graphical visualization into complexes, cellular functions, and interactions. It also summarizes all currently known protein export machineries of E. coli K-12 and pairs them, where available, with the secretory proteins that use them. It catalogs the Sec- and TAT-utilizing secretomes and summarizes their topological features such as signal peptides and transmembrane regions, transmembrane topologies and orientations. It also catalogs physicochemical and structural features that influence topology such as abundance

  11. Multitask learning for protein subcellular location prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Pan, Sinno Jialin; Xue, Hannah Hong; Yang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization is concerned with predicting the location of a protein within a cell using computational methods. The location information can indicate key functionalities of proteins. Thus, accurate prediction of subcellular localizations of proteins can help the prediction of protein functions and genome annotations, as well as the identification of drug targets. Machine learning methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have been used in the past for the problem of protein subcellular localization, but have been shown to suffer from a lack of annotated training data in each species under study. To overcome this data sparsity problem, we observe that because some of the organisms may be related to each other, there may be some commonalities across different organisms that can be discovered and used to help boost the data in each localization task. In this paper, we formulate protein subcellular localization problem as one of multitask learning across different organisms. We adapt and compare two specializations of the multitask learning algorithms on 20 different organisms. Our experimental results show that multitask learning performs much better than the traditional single-task methods. Among the different multitask learning methods, we found that the multitask kernels and supertype kernels under multitask learning that share parameters perform slightly better than multitask learning by sharing latent features. The most significant improvement in terms of localization accuracy is about 25 percent. We find that if the organisms are very different or are remotely related from a biological point of view, then jointly training the multiple models cannot lead to significant improvement. However, if they are closely related biologically, the multitask learning can do much better than individual learning.

  12. Scaling factors: transcription factors regulating subcellular domains.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jason C; Taghert, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Developing cells acquire mature fates in part by selective (i.e. qualitatively different) expression of a few cell-specific genes. However, all cells share the same basic repertoire of molecular and subcellular building blocks. Therefore, cells must also specialize according to quantitative differences in cell-specific distributions of those common molecular resources. Here we propose the novel hypothesis that evolutionarily-conserved transcription factors called scaling factors (SFs) regulate quantitative differences among mature cell types. SFs: (1) are induced during late stages of cell maturation; (2) are dedicated to specific subcellular domains; and, thus, (3) allow cells to emphasize specific subcellular features. We identify candidate SFs and discuss one in detail: MIST1 (BHLHA15, vertebrates)/DIMM (CG8667, Drosophila); professional secretory cells use this SF to scale up regulated secretion. Because cells use SFs to develop their mature properties and also to adapt them to ever-changing environmental conditions, SF aberrations likely contribute to diseases of adult onset.

  13. Hum-PLoc: a novel ensemble classifier for predicting human protein subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2006-08-18

    Predicting subcellular localization of human proteins is a challenging problem, especially when unknown query proteins do not have significant homology to proteins of known subcellular locations and when more locations need to be covered. To tackle the challenge, protein samples are expressed by hybridizing the gene ontology (GO) database and amphiphilic pseudo amino acid composition (PseAA). Based on such a representation frame, a novel ensemble classifier, called "Hum-PLoc", was developed by fusing many basic individual classifiers through a voting system. The "engine" of these basic classifiers was operated by the KNN (K-nearest neighbor) rule. As a demonstration, tests were performed with the ensemble classifier for human proteins among the following 12 locations: (1) centriole; (2) cytoplasm; (3) cytoskeleton; (4) endoplasmic reticulum; (5) extracell; (6) Golgi apparatus; (7) lysosome; (8) microsome; (9) mitochondrion; (10) nucleus; (11) peroxisome; (12) plasma membrane. To get rid of redundancy and homology bias, none of the proteins investigated here had > or = 25% sequence identity to any other in a same subcellular location. The overall success rates thus obtained via the jackknife cross-validation test and independent dataset test were 81.1% and 85.0%, respectively, which are more than 50% higher than those obtained by the other existing methods on the same stringent datasets. Furthermore, an incisive and compelling analysis was given to elucidate that the overwhelmingly high success rate obtained by the new predictor is by no means due to a trivial utilization of the GO annotations. This is because, for those proteins with "subcellular location unknown" annotation in Swiss-Prot database, most (more than 99%) of their corresponding GO numbers in GO database are also annotated with "cellular component unknown". The information and clues for predicting subcellular locations of proteins are actually buried into a series of tedious GO numbers, just like they

  14. Role of plasmepsin V in export of diverse protein families from the Plasmodium falciparum exportome.

    PubMed

    Boddey, Justin A; Carvalho, Teresa G; Hodder, Anthony N; Sargeant, Tobias J; Sleebs, Brad E; Marapana, Danushka; Lopaticki, Sash; Nebl, Thomas; Cowman, Alan F

    2013-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum exports several hundred effector proteins that remodel the host erythrocyte and enable parasites to acquire nutrients, sequester in the circulation and evade immune responses. The majority of exported proteins contain the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL; RxLxE/Q/D) in their N-terminus, which is proteolytically cleaved in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum by Plasmepsin V, and is necessary for export. Several exported proteins lack a PEXEL or contain noncanonical motifs. Here, we assessed whether Plasmepsin V could process the N-termini of diverse protein families in P. falciparum. We show that Plasmepsin V cleaves N-terminal sequences from RIFIN, STEVOR and RESA multigene families, the latter of which contain a relaxed PEXEL (RxLxxE). However, Plasmepsin V does not cleave the N-terminal sequence of the major exported virulence factor erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) or the PEXEL-negative exported proteins SBP-1 or REX-2. We probed the substrate specificity of Plasmepsin V and determined that lysine at the PEXEL P3 position, which is present in PfEMP1 and other putatively exported proteins, blocks Plasmepsin V activity. Furthermore, isoleucine at position P1 also blocked Plasmepsin V activity. The specificity of Plasmepsin V is therefore exquisitely confined and we have used this novel information to redefine the predicted P. falciparum PEXEL exportome.

  15. Engineering an effective Mn-binding MRI reporter protein by subcellular targeting

    PubMed Central

    Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Mana, Miyeko D.; Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Rodriguez, Joe J.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Manganese (Mn) is an effective contrast agent and biologically active metal, which has been widely utilized for Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). The purpose of this study was to develop and test a Mn binding protein for use as an genetic reporter for MEMRI. Methods The bacterial Mn-binding protein, MntR was identified as a candidate reporter protein. MntR was engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and targeted to different subcellular organelles, including the Golgi Apparatus where cellular Mn is enriched. Transfected HEK293 cells and B16 melanoma cells were tested in vitro and in vivo, using immunocytochemistry and MR imaging and relaxometry. Results Subcellular targeting of MntR to the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus was verified with immunocytochemistry. After targeting to the Golgi, MntR expression produced robust R1 changes and T1 contrast in cells, in vitro and in vivo. Co-expression with the divalent metal transporter DMT1, a previously described Mn-based reporter, further enhanced contrast in B16 cells in culture, but in the in vivo B16 tumor model tested was not significantly better than MntR alone. Conclusion This second-generation reporter system both expands the capabilities of genetically-encoded reporters for imaging with MEMRI and provides important insights into the mechanisms of Mn biology which create endogenous MEMRI contrast. PMID:25522343

  16. Calcium signaling in live cells on elastic gels under mechanical vibration at subcellular levels.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Wagner Shin; Saif, Taher A; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-01-01

    A new device was designed to generate a localized mechanical vibration of flexible gels where human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured to mechanically stimulate these cells at subcellular locations. A Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based calcium biosensor (an improved Cameleon) was used to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of intracellular calcium concentrations in the cells upon this mechanical stimulation. A clear increase in intracellular calcium concentrations over the whole cell body (global) can be observed in the majority of cells under mechanical stimulation. The chelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA or the blockage of stretch-activated calcium channels on the plasma membrane with streptomycin or gadolinium chloride significantly inhibited the calcium responses upon mechanical stimulation. Thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump inhibitor, or U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, resulted in mainly local calcium responses occurring at regions close to the stimulation site. The disruption of actin filaments with cytochalasin D or inhibition of actomyosin contractility with ML-7 also inhibited the global calcium responses. Therefore, the global calcium response in HUVEC depends on the influx of calcium through membrane stretch-activated channels, followed by the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) via PLC activation to trigger the ER calcium release. Our newly developed mechanical stimulation device can also provide a powerful tool for the study of molecular mechanism by which cells perceive the mechanical cues at subcellular levels.

  17. Calcium Signaling in Live Cells on Elastic Gels under Mechanical Vibration at Subcellular Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Wagner Shin; Saif, Taher A.; Wang, Yingxiao

    2011-01-01

    A new device was designed to generate a localized mechanical vibration of flexible gels where human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured to mechanically stimulate these cells at subcellular locations. A Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based calcium biosensor (an improved Cameleon) was used to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of intracellular calcium concentrations in the cells upon this mechanical stimulation. A clear increase in intracellular calcium concentrations over the whole cell body (global) can be observed in the majority of cells under mechanical stimulation. The chelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA or the blockage of stretch-activated calcium channels on the plasma membrane with streptomycin or gadolinium chloride significantly inhibited the calcium responses upon mechanical stimulation. Thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump inhibitor, or U73122, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, resulted in mainly local calcium responses occurring at regions close to the stimulation site. The disruption of actin filaments with cytochalasin D or inhibition of actomyosin contractility with ML-7 also inhibited the global calcium responses. Therefore, the global calcium response in HUVEC depends on the influx of calcium through membrane stretch-activated channels, followed by the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) via PLC activation to trigger the ER calcium release. Our newly developed mechanical stimulation device can also provide a powerful tool for the study of molecular mechanism by which cells perceive the mechanical cues at subcellular levels. PMID:22053183

  18. Engineering an effective Mn-binding MRI reporter protein by subcellular targeting.

    PubMed

    Bartelle, Benjamin B; Mana, Miyeko D; Suero-Abreu, Giselle A; Rodriguez, Joe J; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2015-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an effective contrast agent and biologically active metal, which has been widely used for Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). The purpose of this study was to develop and test a Mn binding protein for use as a genetic reporter for MEMRI. The bacterial Mn-binding protein, MntR was identified as a candidate reporter protein. MntR was engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and targeted to different subcellular organelles, including the Golgi Apparatus where cellular Mn is enriched. Transfected HEK293 cells and B16 melanoma cells were tested in vitro and in vivo, using immunocytochemistry, MR imaging and relaxometry. Subcellular targeting of MntR to the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus was verified with immunocytochemistry. After targeting to the Golgi, MntR expression produced robust R1 changes and T1 contrast in cells, in vitro and in vivo. Co-expression with the divalent metal transporter DMT1, a previously described Mn-based reporter, further enhanced contrast in B16 cells in culture, but in the in vivo B16 tumor model tested was not significantly better than MntR alone. This second-generation reporter system both expands the capabilities of genetically encoded reporters for imaging with MEMRI and provides important insights into the mechanisms of Mn biology which create endogenous MEMRI contrast. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Subcellular distribution of calcium-binding proteins and a calcium-ATPase in canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.K.; Towers, T. )

    1990-07-01

    Using a 45Ca blot-overlay assay, we monitored the subcellular fractionation pattern of several Ca binding proteins of apparent molecular masses 94, 61, and 59 kD. These proteins also appeared to stain blue with Stains-All. Additionally, using a monoclonal antiserum raised against canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase, we examined the subcellular distribution of a canine pancreatic 110-kD protein recognized by this antiserum. This protein had the same electrophoretic mobility as the cardiac protein against which the antiserum was raised. The three Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase cofractionated into the rough microsomal fraction (RM), previously shown to consist of highly purified RER, in a pattern highly similar to that of the RER marker, ribophorin I. To provide further evidence for an RER localization, native RM were subjected to isopycnic flotation in sucrose gradients. The Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase were found in dense fractions, along with ribophorin I. When RM were stripped of ribosomes with puromycin/high salt, the Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase exhibited a shift to less dense fractions, as did ribophorin I. We conclude that, in pancreas, the Ca binding proteins and Ca-ATPase we detect are localized to the RER (conceivably a subcompartment of the RER) or, possibly, a structure intimately associated with the RER.

  20. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  1. Subcellular targeting and dynamic regulation of PTEN: implications for neuronal cells and neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kreis, Patricia; Leondaritis, George; Lieberam, Ivo; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2014-01-01

    PTEN is a lipid and protein phosphatase that regulates a diverse range of cellular mechanisms. PTEN is mainly present in the cytosol and transiently associates with the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate PI(3,4,5)P3, thereby antagonizing the PI3-Kinase signaling pathway. Recently, PTEN has been shown to associate also with organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria, or the nucleus, and to be secreted outside of the cell. In addition, PTEN dynamically localizes to specialized sub-cellular compartments such as the neuronal growth cone or dendritic spines. The diverse localizations of PTEN imply a tight temporal and spatial regulation, orchestrated by mechanisms such as posttranslational modifications, formation of distinct protein–protein interactions, or the activation/recruitment of PTEN downstream of external cues. The regulation of PTEN function is thus not only important at the enzymatic activity level, but is also associated to its spatial distribution. In this review we will summarize (i) recent findings that highlight mechanisms controlling PTEN movement and sub-cellular localization, and (ii) current understanding of how PTEN localization is achieved by mechanisms controlling posttranslational modification, by association with binding partners and by PTEN structural or activity requirements. Finally, we will discuss the possible roles of compartmentalized PTEN in developing and mature neurons in health and disease. PMID:24744697

  2. Subcellular Localization of the Sigma-1 Receptor in Retinal Neurons — an Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-01-01

    The Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is known to play a protective role in the central nervous system including the retina. A major barrier for understanding the underlying mechanism is an ambiguity of S1R subcellular localizations. We thus conducted the first electron microscopy (EM) study of S1R subcellular distribution in the mouse retina. Immuno-EM imaging showed previously under-appreciated S1R presence in photoreceptor cells. Unlike in other cell types in previous reports, in photoreceptor cells S1R was found in the nuclear envelope but not localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising a possibility of S1R-mediated modulatory mechanisms different than conventionally thought. While in bipolar cells S1R was detected only in the nuclear envelope, in ganglion cells S1R was identified predominantly in the nuclear envelope and found in the ER as well. A predominant localization of S1R in the nuclear envelope in all three retinal neurons implicates a potential role of S1R in modulating nuclear activities. Moreover, its absence in the plasma membrane and presence in the subsurface ER cisternae that are juxtaposed to the plasma membrane in ganglion cells may lend mechanistic insights generally important for frequently reported S1R modulations of ion channels in neurons. PMID:26033680

  3. Subcellular localization and function of melanogenic enzymes in the ink gland of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, A; di Cosmo, A; Gesualdo, I; Hearing, V J

    1997-01-01

    The ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis has traditionally been regarded as a convenient model system for investigating melanogenesis. This gland has been shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, a dopachrome-rearranging enzyme and peroxidase. However, whether and to what extent these enzymes co-localize in the melanogenic compartments and interact is an open question. Using polyclonal antibodies that recognize the corresponding Sepia proteins, we have been able to demonstrate that peroxidase has a different subcellular localization pattern from tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme. Whereas peroxidase is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the matrix of premelanosomes and melanosomes, tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme are present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport system, at the level of trans-Golgi cisternae, trans-Golgi network and coated vesicles, and in melanosomes on pigmented granules. These results fill a longstanding gap in our knowledge of the melanin-producing system in Sepia and provide the necessary background for dissection at the molecular level of the complex interaction between melanogenic enzymes. Moreover, the peculiar and complex organization of melanin in an invertebrate such as Sepia officinalis is surprising and could provide the basis for understanding the process in more evolved systems such as that of mammals. PMID:9169609

  4. Subcellular localization of human heparanase and its alternative splice variant in COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mayumi; Amemiya, Kana; Hayakawa, Sumio; Munakata, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    Heparanase, the enzyme that degrades heparan sulfate, has been implicated to play important and characteristic roles in organogenesis, tissue organization, cell migration, and tumor metastasis. Clarification of its expression, its intracellular sorting, and its secretion is, therefore, of much importance to understand its role in cell biology. In addition to the 1.7 Kb transcript previously reported, we detected a 1.5 Kb transcript of human heparanase by RT-PCR. The smaller transcript was shown to be an alternatively spliced variant lacking exon 5, which contains the essential glutamic acid residue required for enzyme activity. When expressed in COS-7 cells this variant did not show any heparanase activity. Full-length heparanase and the exon 5-deleted splice variant were expressed in COS-7 cells and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Both proteins co-localized with calnexin, a marker protein for the endoplasmic reticulum, and they co-immunoprecipitated with calnexin. Both proteins were postulated to be precursors based upon the results of SDS-PAGE analyses. Treatment with endoglycosidases revealed that all potential N-glycosylation sites in the proteins were glycosylated. Tunicamycin treatment of transfected COS-7 cells inhibited N-glycosylation but did not change the subcellular localization. These results indicate that overexpressed heparanase and its splice variant localize to the endoplasmic reticulum independent of glycosylation in COS-7 cells.

  5. Subcellular distribution of apolipoprotein E along the lipoprotein synthetic pathway of rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, T.G.; Stockhausen, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is synthesized by the liver and is secreted as a component of VLDL. To define the intracellular locations of apoE, liver from 10 nonfasted male rats were removed and subcellular organelles prepared by differential pelleting through sucrose gradients. Mass of apoE was measured by radioimmunoassay. Approximately 10% of total hepatic apoE was recovered in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and Golgi fractions. Concentrations of apoE (ng/mg protein) were: homogenate, 302 +/- 59; RER, 653 +/- 251; SER, 1250 +/- 471; Golgi, 11,044 +/- 4291. Total apoE content of each reaction (..mu..g/organelle) was: homogenate (whole liver), 517 +/- 103; RER, 15 +/- 3; SER, 9 +/- 3; Golgi, 28 +/- 8. These data indicate that along the putative pathway of lipoprotein synthesis (RER->SER->Golgi), apoE concentration increases in each successive organelle and that flux of apoE is apparently most rapid through SER. Furthermore, the majority of apoE in the rat liver is apparently not directly associated with the lipoprotein synthetic pathway and may be associated with internalized lipoproteins or may be involved in non-lipoprotein related functions.

  6. Oligomerization status influences subcellular deposition and glycosylation of recombinant butyrylcholinesterase in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jeannine D; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Castilho, Alexandra; Gruber, Clemens; Werner, Stefan; Mach, Lukas; Klimyuk, Victor; Mor, Tsafrir S; Steinkellner, Herta

    2014-01-01

    Plants have a proven track record for the expression of biopharmaceutically interesting proteins. Importantly, plants and mammals share a highly conserved secretory pathway that allows similar folding, assembly and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a highly sialylated, tetrameric serum protein, investigated as a bioscavenger for organophosphorous nerve agents. Expression of recombinant BChE (rBChE) in Nicotiana benthamiana results in accumulation of both monomers as well as assembled oligomers. In particular, we show here that co-expression of BChE with a novel gene-stacking vector, carrying six mammalian genes necessary for in planta protein sialylation, resulted in the generation of rBChE decorated with sialylated N-glycans. The N-glycosylation profile of monomeric rBChE secreted to the apoplast largely resembles the plasma-derived orthologue. In contrast, rBChE purified from total soluble protein extracts was decorated with a significant portion of ER-typical oligomannosidic structures. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging experiments indicated that impaired N-glycan processing is due to aberrant deposition of rBChE oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum or endoplasmic-reticulum-derived compartments. In summary, we show the assembly of rBChE multimers, however, also points to the need for in-depth studies to explain the unexpected subcellular targeting of oligomeric BChE in plants. PMID:24618259

  7. Nuclear Export Signal Masking Regulates HIV-1 Rev Trafficking and Viral RNA Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Ryan T.; Aligeti, Mounavya; Pocock, Ginger M.; Higgins, Christina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homo-oligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study, we used a functional fluorescently tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found that Rev activity was remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences, including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores. Rev's ability to tolerate a SNES was both position and multimerization dependent, an observation consistent with a model wherein Rev self-association acts to transiently mask the NES peptide(s), thereby biasing Rev's trafficking into the nucleus. Combined imaging and functional assays also indicated that NES masking underpins Rev's well-known tendency to accumulate at the nucleolus, as well as Rev's capacity to activate optimal levels of late viral gene expression. We propose that Rev multimerization and NES masking regulates Rev's trafficking to and retention within the nucleus even prior to RNA binding. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infects more than 34 million people worldwide causing >1 million deaths per year. Infectious virion production is activated by the essential viral Rev protein that mediates nuclear export of intron-bearing late-stage viral mRNAs. Rev's shuttling into and out of the nucleus is regulated by the antagonistic activities of both a peptide-encoded N-terminal nuclear localization signal and C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES). How Rev and related viral proteins balance strong import and export activities in order to achieve optimal levels of viral gene expression is incompletely understood. We provide evidence that multimerization provides a mechanism by which Rev transiently masks

  8. Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase1

    PubMed Central

    Leivar, Pablo; González, Víctor M.; Castel, Susanna; Trelease, Richard N.; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Arró, Montserrat; Boronat, Albert; Campos, Narciso; Ferrer, Albert; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Plants produce diverse isoprenoids, which are synthesized in plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the nonorganellar cytoplasm. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the synthesis of mevalonate, a rate-limiting step in the cytoplasmic pathway. Several branches of the pathway lead to the synthesis of structurally and functionally varied, yet essential, isoprenoids. Several HMGR isoforms have been identified in all plants examined. Studies based on gene expression and on fractionation of enzyme activity suggested that subcellular compartmentalization of HMGR is an important intracellular channeling mechanism for the production of the specific classes of isoprenoids. Plant HMGR has been shown previously to insert in vitro into the membrane of microsomal vesicles, but the final in vivo subcellular localization(s) remains controversial. To address the latter in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cells, we conducted a multipronged microscopy and cell fractionation approach that included imaging of chimeric HMGR green fluorescent protein localizations in transiently transformed cell leaves, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy in wild-type and stably transformed seedlings, immunogold electron microscopy examinations of endogenous HMGR in seedling cotyledons, and sucrose density gradient analyses of HMGR-containing organelles. Taken together, the results reveal that endogenous Arabidopsis HMGR is localized at steady state within ER as expected, but surprisingly also predominantly within spherical, vesicular structures that range from 0.2- to 0.6-μm diameter, located in the cytoplasm and within the central vacuole in differentiated cotyledon cells. The N-terminal region, including the transmembrane domain of HMGR, was found to be necessary and sufficient for directing HMGR to ER and the spherical structures. It is believed, although not directly demonstrated, that these vesicle-like structures are derived from segments of HMGR

  9. Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.

    PubMed

    Leivar, Pablo; González, Víctor M; Castel, Susanna; Trelease, Richard N; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Arró, Montserrat; Boronat, Albert; Campos, Narciso; Ferrer, Albert; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Plants produce diverse isoprenoids, which are synthesized in plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the nonorganellar cytoplasm. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the synthesis of mevalonate, a rate-limiting step in the cytoplasmic pathway. Several branches of the pathway lead to the synthesis of structurally and functionally varied, yet essential, isoprenoids. Several HMGR isoforms have been identified in all plants examined. Studies based on gene expression and on fractionation of enzyme activity suggested that subcellular compartmentalization of HMGR is an important intracellular channeling mechanism for the production of the specific classes of isoprenoids. Plant HMGR has been shown previously to insert in vitro into the membrane of microsomal vesicles, but the final in vivo subcellular localization(s) remains controversial. To address the latter in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cells, we conducted a multipronged microscopy and cell fractionation approach that included imaging of chimeric HMGR green fluorescent protein localizations in transiently transformed cell leaves, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy in wild-type and stably transformed seedlings, immunogold electron microscopy examinations of endogenous HMGR in seedling cotyledons, and sucrose density gradient analyses of HMGR-containing organelles. Taken together, the results reveal that endogenous Arabidopsis HMGR is localized at steady state within ER as expected, but surprisingly also predominantly within spherical, vesicular structures that range from 0.2- to 0.6-microm diameter, located in the cytoplasm and within the central vacuole in differentiated cotyledon cells. The N-terminal region, including the transmembrane domain of HMGR, was found to be necessary and sufficient for directing HMGR to ER and the spherical structures. It is believed, although not directly demonstrated, that these vesicle-like structures are derived from segments of

  10. Noninvasive measurement of the pH of the endoplasmic reticulum at rest and during calcium release

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hong; Johannes, Ludger; Goud, Bruno; Antony, Claude; Lingwood, Clifford A.; Daneman, Richard; Grinstein, Sergio

    1998-01-01

    The pH within individual organelles of the secretory pathway is believed to be an important determinant of their biosynthetic activity. However, little is known about the determinants and regulation of the pH in the secretory organelles, which cannot be readily accessed by [H+]-sensitive probes. We devised a procedure for the dynamic, noninvasive measurement of pH in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum in intact mammalian cells. A recombinant form of the B subunit of Shiga toxin, previously modified to include a carboxyl-terminal KDEL sequence and a pH-sensitive fluorophore, was used for a two-stage delivery strategy. Retrograde traffic of endogenous lipids was harnessed to target this protein to the Golgi complex, followed by retrieval to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by KDEL receptors. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy were used to verify the subcellular localization of the modified B fragment. Fluorescence ratio imaging and two independent calibration procedures were applied to determine the pH of the ER in situ. We found that the pH of the endoplasmic reticulum is near neutral and is unaffected during agonist-induced release of calcium. The ER was found to be highly permeable to H+ (equivalents), so that the prevailing [H+] is susceptible to alterations in the cytosolic pH. Plasmalemmal acid-base transporters were shown to indirectly regulate the endoplasmic reticulum pH. PMID:9501204

  11. Hepatic Subcellular Compartmentation of Cytoplasmic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Determined by Immunogold Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kuixiong; Cardell, Emma Lou; Morris, Randal E.; Giffin, Bruce F.; Cardell, Robert R.

    1995-08-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is the rate-limiting gluconeogenic enzyme and in liver occurs in a lobular gradient from periportal to pericentral regions. The subcellular distribution of cytoplasmic PEPCK molecules within hepatocytes and its relationship to organelles have not been determined previously. In this study, we have used immunogold electron microscopy to evaluate the subcellar distribution of the enzyme, in addition to brightfield and epipolarized light microscopy. Cryosections (10 [mu]m) of perfusion-fixed rat liver were collected on silanated slides and immunostained using goat anti-rat PEPCK followed by 5-nm gold-labeled secondary and tertiary antibodies. Additionally, free-floating vibratome sections (25, 50, and 100 [mu]m) of perfusion-immersion-fixed rat liver were immunogold stained using goat anti-rat PEPCK and 5-nm gold-labeled secondary antibody, with and without silver enhancement. The immunogold labeled sections from both procedures were embedded in epoxy resin for the preparation of thin sections for electron microscopy. The results showed that the gold-labeled antibodies penetrated the entire thickness of cryosections, resulting in a high signal for PEPCK, but membranes in general, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in particular, were not identifiable as electron dense unit membranes. On the other hand, the vibratome sections of well-fixed tissue allowed good visualization of the ultrastructure of cellular organelles, with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum appearing as vesicles and tubules with electron dense unit membranes; however, the penetration of the gold-labeled antibody was limited to cells at the surface of the vibratome sections. In both procedures, PEPCK, as indicated by gold particles, is predominantly in the glycogen areas of the cytosome and not in mitochondria, nuclei, Golgi apparatus, or other cell organelles. Hepatocytes in periportal regions have a compact subcellular distribution of PEPCK shown by gold particles

  12. Subcellular site of synthesis of the N-acetylgalactosamine (alpha 1-0) serine (or threonine) linkage in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1987-03-25

    We have studied the subcellular site of synthesis of the GalNAc(alpha-1-0) Ser/Thr linkage in rat liver. The specific and total activities of polypeptide:N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (using apomucin as exogenous acceptor) were highly enriched in membrane fractions derived from the Golgi apparatus; virtually no activity was detected in membranes from the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Vesicles of the above organelles (which were sealed and of the same membrane topographical orientation as in vivo) were able to translocate UDP-GalNAc into their lumen in an assay in vitro; the initial translocation rate into Golgi vesicles was 4-6-fold higher than that into vesicles from the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Translocation of UDP-GalNAc into Golgi vesicles was temperature dependent and saturable with an apparent Km of 8-10 microM. UDP-GalNAc labeled with different radioisotopes in the uridine and sugar was used to determine that the intact sugar nucleotide was being translocated in a reaction coupled to the exit of luminal UMP. Following translocation of UDP-GalNAc, transfer of GalNAc into endogenous macromolecular acceptors was detected in Golgi vesicles and not in those from the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The above results together with previous studies on the O-xylosylation of the linkage region of proteoglycans strongly suggest that, in rat liver, the bulk of O-glycosylation reactions occur in the Golgi apparatus.

  13. 78 FR 37787 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Manuel Mario Pavon... Pavon (``Pavon'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778... exporting and causing to be exported and attempting to export and attempting to cause to be exported from...

  14. Studies on the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Keith R.; Machado, Raul D.

    1960-01-01

    Cells of onion and garlic root tips were examined under the electron and phase contrast microscopes after fixation in KMnO4. Special attention was focused on the distribution and behavior of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during the several phases of mitosis. Slender profiles, recognized as sections through thin lamellar units of the ER (most prominent in KMnO4-fixed material), are distributed more or less uniformly in the cytoplasm of interphase cells and show occasional continuity with the nuclear envelope. In late prophase the nuclear envelope breaks down and its remnants plus cytoplasmic elements of the ER, which are morphologically identical, surround the spindle in a zone from which mitochondria, etc., are excluded. During metaphase these ER elements persist and concentrate as two separate systems in the polar caps or zones of the spindle. At about this same time they begin to proliferate and to invade the ends of the spindle. The invading lamellar units form drape-like partitions between the anaphase chromosomes. In late anaphase, their advancing margins reach the middle zone of the spindle and begin to fray out. Finally, in telophase, while elements of the ER in the poles of the spindle coalesce around the chromosomes to form the new envelope, the advancing edges of those in the middle zone reticulate at the level of the equator to form a close lattice of tubular elements. Within this, which is identified as the phragmoplast, the earliest signs of the cell plate appear in the form of small vesicles. These subsequently grow and fuse to complete the separation of the two protoplasts. Other morphological units apparently participating in mitosis are described. Speculation is provided on the equal division or not of the nuclear envelope and the contribution the envelope fragments make to the ER of the new cell. PMID:14434278

  15. Subcellular taxonomy: An ultrastructural classification system with diagnostic applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLay, A.L.C.; Toner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Ultrastructure, Nomenclature, and Disease; Numerical Listing: YX Cellular and Subcellular Structure; Alphabetical Listing; and Appendix: Proposed Revised Listing of M-6 Codes.

  16. How viruses use the endoplasmic reticulum for entry, replication, and assembly.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takamasa; Tsai, Billy

    2013-01-01

    To cause infection, a virus enters a host cell, replicates, and assembles, with the resulting new viral progeny typically released into the extracellular environment to initiate a new infection round. Virus entry, replication, and assembly are dynamic and coordinated processes that require precise interactions with host components, often within and surrounding a defined subcellular compartment. Accumulating evidence pinpoints the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a crucial organelle supporting viral entry, replication, and assembly. This review focuses on the molecular mechanism by which different viruses co-opt the ER to accomplish these crucial infection steps. Certain bacterial toxins also hijack the ER for entry. An interdisciplinary approach, using rigorous biochemical and cell biological assays coupled with advanced microscopy strategies, will push to the next level our understanding of the virus-ER interaction during infection.

  17. Isolation of intracellular membranes by means of sodium carbonate treatment: application to endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the isolation of membranes from subcellular organelles is described. The procedure consists of diluting the organelles in ice-cold 100 mM Na2CO3 followed by centrifugation to pellet the membranes. Closed vesicles are converted to open membrane sheets, and content proteins and peripheral membrane proteins are released in soluble form. Here we document the method by applying it to various subfractions of a rat liver microsomal fraction, prepared by continuous density gradient centrifugation according to Beaufay et al. (1974, J. Cell Biol. 61:213-231). The results confirm and extend those of previous investigators on the distribution of enzymes and proteins among the membranes of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the accompanying paper (1982, J. Cell Biol. 93:103-110) the procedure is applied to peroxisomes and mitochondria. PMID:7068762

  18. Retrograde transport of toxins across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Lord, J M; Deeks, E; Marsden, C J; Moore, K; Pateman, C; Smith, D C; Spooner, R A; Watson, P; Roberts, L M

    2003-12-01

    Several protein toxins, including the A chain of the plant protein ricin (RTA), enter mammalian cells by endocytosis and catalytically modify cellular components to disrupt essential cellular processes. In the case of ricin, the process inhibited is protein synthesis. In order to reach their cytosolic substrates, several toxins undergo retrograde transport to the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) before translocating across the ER membrane. To achieve this export, these toxins exploit the ERAD (ER-associated protein degradation) pathway but must escape, at least in part, the normal degradative fate of ERAD substrates in order to intoxicate the cell. Toxins that translocate from the ER have an unusually low lysine content that reduces the likelihood of ubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. We have changed the two lysyl residues normally present in RTA to arginyl residues. Their replacement in RTA did not have a significant stabilizing effect on the protein, suggesting that the endogenous lysyl residues are not sites for ubiquitin attachment. However, when four additional lysyl residues were introduced into RTA in a way that did not compromise the activity, structure or stability of the toxin, degradation was significantly enhanced. Enhanced degradation resulted from ubiquitination that predisposed the toxin to proteasomal degradation. Treatment with the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin increased the cytotoxicity of the lysine-enriched RTA to a level approaching that of wild-type RTA.

  19. Protein quality control, retention, and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Benyair, Ron; Ron, Efrat; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2011-01-01

    In order to maintain proper cellular functions, all living cells, from bacteria to mammalian cells, must carry out a rigorous quality control process in which nascent and newly synthesized proteins are examined. An important role of this process is to protect cells against pathological accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has evolved as a staging ground for secretory protein synthesis with distinct sites for entry, quality control, and exit. In the ER, most proteins are N-glycosylated, a posttranslational modification that defines the quality control pathway that the protein will undergo. The folding state of glycoproteins is revealed by specific modifications of their N-glycans. Regardless of size and posttranslational modifications, the folding states of all proteins must be identified as unfolded, properly folded, or terminally misfolded and accordingly subjected to ER retention and continued folding attempts, export and maturation, or retrotranslocation to the cytosol for degradation. These processes involve specialized machineries that utilize molecular chaperones, protein- and N-glycan-modifying enzymes, and lectins for protein folding and quality control and ubiquitination and degradation machineries for disposal. All these machineries are regulated by a signaling pathway, the unfolded protein response, which upregulates ER functions when under the stress of high protein load. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms that are implicated and discuss recent data that underline the importance of compartmentalization in the segregation of the various functions of the ER for their correct function.

  20. PROTEOMICS ANALYSIS OF ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM IN PANCREATIC BETA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-sook; Wu, Yanning; Skallos, Patracia; Fang, Jingye; Zhang, Xuebao; Karnovsky, Alla; Woods, James; Stemmer, Paul M.; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Kezhong; Chen, Xuequn

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cells have well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate for the massive production and secretion of insulin. ER homeostasis is vital for normal beta cell function. Perturbation of ER homeostasis contributes to beta cell dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. To systematically identify the molecular machinery responsible for proinsulin biogenesis and maintenance of beta cell ER homeostasis, a widely used mouse pancreatic beta cell line, MIN6 cell was used to purify rough ER. Two different purification schemes were utilized. In each experiment, the ER pellets were solubilized and analyzed by one dimensional SDS-PAGE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS. A total of 1467 proteins were identified in three experiments with ≥95% confidence, among which 1117 proteins were found in at least two separate experiments and 737 proteins found in all three experiments. Gene ontology analysis revealed a comprehensive profile of known and novel players responsible for proinsulin biogenesis and ER homeostasis. Further bioinformatics analysis also identified potential beta cell specific ER proteins as well as ER proteins present in the risk genetic loci of type 2 diabetes. This dataset defines a molecular environment in the ER for proinsulin synthesis, folding and export and laid a solid foundation for further characterizations of altered ER homeostasis under diabetes-causing conditions. PMID:25546123

  1. Subcellular localization of the Schlafen protein family.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Brent; Zhao, Liang; Murphy, Kathleen; Gonda, Thomas J

    2008-05-23

    Although the first members of the Schlafen gene family were first described almost 10 years ago, the precise molecular/biochemical functions of the proteins they encode still remain largely unknown. Roles in cell growth, haematopoietic cell differentiation, and T cell development/maturation have, with some experimental support, been postulated, but none have been conclusively verified. Here, we have determined the subcellular localization of Schlafens 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9, representing all three of the murine subgroups. We show that the proteins from subgroups I and II localize to the cytoplasm, while the longer forms in subgroup III localize exclusively to the nuclear compartment. We also demonstrate upregulation of Schlafen2 upon differentiation of haematopoietic cells and show this endogenous protein localizes to the cytoplasm. Thus, we propose the different subgroups of Schlafen proteins are likely to have functionally distinct roles, reflecting their differing localizations within the cell.

  2. Subcellular localization of the Schlafen protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Brent; Zhao Liang; Murphy, Kathleen; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2008-05-23

    Although the first members of the Schlafen gene family were first described almost 10 years ago, the precise molecular/biochemical functions of the proteins they encode still remain largely unknown. Roles in cell growth, haematopoietic cell differentiation, and T cell development/maturation have, with some experimental support, been postulated, but none have been conclusively verified. Here, we have determined the subcellular localization of Schlafens 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9, representing all three of the murine subgroups. We show that the proteins from subgroups I and II localize to the cytoplasm, while the longer forms in subgroup III localize exclusively to the nuclear compartment. We also demonstrate upregulation of Schlafen2 upon differentiation of haematopoietic cells and show this endogenous protein localizes to the cytoplasm. Thus, we propose the different subgroups of Schlafen proteins are likely to have functionally distinct roles, reflecting their differing localizations within the cell.

  3. Tuning the Catalytic Activity of Subcellular Nanoreactors.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Christopher M; Chen, Yiqun; Slininger, Marilyn F; Valdivia, Elias; Kim, Edward Y; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2016-07-31

    Bacterial microcompartments are naturally occurring subcellular organelles of bacteria and serve as a promising scaffold for the organization of heterologous biosynthetic pathways. A critical element in the design of custom biosynthetic organelles is quantitative control over the loading of heterologous enzymes to the interior of the organelles. We demonstrate that the loading of heterologous proteins to the 1,2-propanediol utilization microcompartment of Salmonella enterica can be controlled using two strategies: by modulating the transcriptional activation of the microcompartment container and by coordinating the expression of the microcompartment container and the heterologous cargo. These strategies allow general control over the loading of heterologous proteins localized by two different N-terminal targeting peptides and represent an important step toward tuning the catalytic activity of bacterial microcompartments for increased biosynthetic productivity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Celestial Blast in Bleak Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    The southern Reticulum constellation [1] certainly isn't a big hit for amateur astronomers. This tiny, bleak and diamond-shaped constellation, not far on the sky from the Large Magellanic Cloud, is often overlooked. But recently, astronomers had a closer look at a galaxy situated inside it. And more precisely at an exploding star hosted by the spiral galaxy NGC 1559 [2]. On the night of August 4, 2005, the renowned Australian amateur astronomer and SN discoverer Reverend Robert Evans discovered a supernova just North of the galaxy with his 0.31-m telescope. The supernova - the explosion of a star - was of magnitude 13.8, that is, only 20 times fainter than the entire host galaxy. Being the 104th supernova discovered in 2005, it received the name SN 2005df. Notably, Evans had already discovered 2 other supernovae in the same galaxy: in 1984 (SN 1984J) and in 1986 (SN 1986L). The following night, astronomer Marilena Salvo and her Australian colleagues classified the supernova as a somewhat unusual type Ia supernova, caught probably 10 days before it reached its maximum brightness. Such a supernova is thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf [3] - inside a binary system. As its companion was continuously spilling matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reached a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. These are exactly a kind of supernovae in which Dietrich Baade, Ferdinando Patat (ESO), Lifan Wang (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA), and their colleagues are interested. In particular, they study the polarization properties of this kind of supernova in order to learn more about their asphericity, which holds important clues to the detailed physics that governs this terminal catastrophe in the life of such stars. Having an accepted observing programme that uses the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on Kueyen, one of the four Unit Telescopes of ESO's 8.2m Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal

  5. Application of femtosecond lasers for subcellular nanosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Iva

    This dissertation offers a study of femtosecond laser disruption in single cells. Cells and tissues do not ordinarily absorb light in the near-IR wavelength range of femtosecond lasers. However, the peak intensity of a femtosecond laser pulse is very high and material disruption is possible through nonlinear absorption and plasma generation. Because the pulse duration is very short, it is possible to reach the intensity of optical breakdown at only nanojoules of energy per pulse. The low energy deposition and the high spatial localization of the nonlinear absorption, make femtosecond laser pulses an ideal tool for minimally disruptive subcellular nanosurgery. We show definitively that there can be bulk ablation within a single cell by studying the disrupted region under a transmission electron microscope. The width of the ablated area can be as small as 250 nm in diameter at energies near the ablation threshold. We also studied the effect of the laser repetition rate on the subcellular disruption threshold. We compared the pulse energies for kHz and MHz pulse trains, and found that in the MHz regime heat accumulation in the focal volume needs to be accounted for. For this repetition rate the minimum pulse energy necessary for disruption depends on the laser irradiation time. We used femtosecond laser nanosurgery to probe tension in actin stress fibers in living endothelial cells. By severing an individual stress fiber and visualizing its retraction, we showed that actin carries prestress in adherent, non-contractile cells. By plating the cells on softer, more compliant substrates, we measured the deflection of the substrate and extrapolated the force contribution of a stress filament on total amount of force exerted by the cell.

  6. Nuclear export signal of PRRSV NSP1α is necessary for type I IFN inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Shaoning; Sun, Wenbo; Chen, Lei; Yoo, Dongwan; Li, Feng; Ren, Sufang; Guo, Lihui; Cong, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun; Zhou, Shun; Wu, Jiaqiang; Du, Yijun; Wang, Jinbao

    2016-12-01

    The nonstructural protein 1α (NSP1α) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic protein that suppresses the production of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we investigated the relationship between the subcellular distribution of NSP1α and its inhibition of type I IFN. NSP1α was found to contain the classical nuclear export signal (NES) and NSP1α nuclear export was CRM-1-mediated. NSP1α was shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also showed that the nuclear export of NSP1α was necessary for its ability for type I IFN inhibition. NSP1α was also found to interact with CBP, which implies a possible mechanism of CBP degradation by NSP1α. Taken together, our results describe a novel mechanism of PRRSV NSP1α for type I IFN inhibition and suppression of the host innate antiviral response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. RNA Processing and Export

    PubMed Central

    Hocine, Sami; Singer, Robert H.; Grünwald, David

    2010-01-01

    Messenger RNAs undergo 5' capping, splicing, 3'-end processing, and export before translation in the cytoplasm. It has become clear that these mRNA processing events are tightly coupled and have a profound effect on the fate of the resulting transcript. This processing is represented by modifications of the pre-mRNA and loading of various protein factors. The sum of protein factors that stay with the mRNA as a result of processing is modified over the life of the transcript, conferring significant regulation to its expression. PMID:20961978

  8. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  9. 19 CFR 10.38 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exported from another port, they shall be forwarded to the port of exportation under a transportation and... shall be endorsed on each package to be so exported and signed by the exporter. (f) Whenever the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation. 10.38 Section 10.38 Customs Duties...

  10. 19 CFR 10.430 - Export requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export requirements. 10.430 Section 10.430 Customs... Export Requirements § 10.430 Export requirements. (a) Submission of certification to CBP. An exporter or producer in the United States that signs a certification of origin for a good exported from the...

  11. 15 CFR 752.15 - Export clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export clearance. 752.15 Section 752... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.15 Export clearance. (a) Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export...

  12. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Gerardo Domingo... Domingo Rodriguez-Rivera (``Rodriguez-Rivera'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the ] Arms Export... convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to be exported and attempting to export and...

  13. The rough endoplasmatic reticulum is a central nucleation site of siRNA-mediated RNA silencing

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Lukas; Heusermann, Wolf; Sokol, Lena; Trojer, Dominic; Wirz, Joel; Hean, Justin; Fritzsche, Anja; Aeschimann, Florian; Pfanzagl, Vera; Basselet, Pascal; Weiler, Jan; Hintersteiner, Martin; Morrissey, David V; Meisner-Kober, Nicole C

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress in mechanistic understanding of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways, the subcellular sites of RNA silencing remain under debate. Here we show that loading of lipid-transfected siRNAs and endogenous microRNAs (miRNA) into RISC (RNA-induced silencing complexes), encounter of the target mRNA, and Ago2-mediated mRNA slicing in mammalian cells are nucleated at the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Although the major RNAi pathway proteins are found in most subcellular compartments, the miRNA- and siRNA-loaded Ago2 populations co-sediment almost exclusively with the rER membranes, together with the RISC loading complex (RLC) factors Dicer, TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) and protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase (PACT). Fractionation and membrane co-immune precipitations further confirm that siRNA-loaded Ago2 physically associates with the cytosolic side of the rER membrane. Additionally, RLC-associated double-stranded siRNA, diagnostic of RISC loading, and RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage products exclusively co-sediment with rER. Finally, we identify TRBP and PACT as key factors anchoring RISC to ER membranes in an RNA-independent manner. Together, our findings demonstrate that the outer rER membrane is a central nucleation site of siRNA-mediated RNA silencing. PMID:23511973

  14. Nuclear export of Far1p in response to pheromones requires the export receptor Msn5p/Ste21p

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Marc; Alepuz, Paula M.; Huang, Linda S.; Shaham, Shai; Ammerer, Gustav; Peter, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    Far1p is a bifunctional protein that is required to arrest the cell cycle and to establish cell polarity during yeast mating. Far1p is localized predominantly in the nucleus but accumulates in the cytoplasm in cells exposed to pheromones. Here we show that Far1p functions in both subcellular compartments: nuclear Far1p is required to arrest the cell cycle, whereas cytoplasmic Far1p is involved in the establishment of cell polarity. The subcellular localization of Far1p is regulated by two mechanisms: (1) Far1p contains a functional bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS), and (2) Far1p is exported from the nucleus by Msn5p/Ste21p, a member of the exportin family. Cells deleted for Msn5p/Ste21p failed to export Far1p in response to pheromones, whereas overexpression of Msn5p/Ste21p was sufficient to accumulate Far1p in the cytoplasm in the absence of pheromones. Msn5p/Ste21p was localized in the nucleus and interacted with Far1p in a manner dependent on GTP-bound Gsp1p. Two-hybrid analysis identified a small fragment within Far1p that is necessary and sufficient for binding to Msn5p/Ste21p, and is also required to export Far1p in vivo. Finally, similar to Δmsn5/ste21 strains, cells expressing a mutant Far1p, which can no longer be exported, exhibit a mating defect, but are able to arrest their cell cycle in response to pheromones. Taken together, our results suggest that nuclear export of Far1p by Msn5p/Ste21p coordinates the two separable functions of Far1p during mating. PMID:10485850

  15. Regulation of α2B-Adrenerigc Receptor Export Trafficking by Specific Motifs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangyu; Davis, Jason E; Zhang, Maoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular trafficking and precise targeting to specific locations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control the physiological functions of the receptors. Compared to the extensive efforts dedicated to understanding the events involved in the endocytic and recycling pathways, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport of the GPCR superfamily from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to the plasma membrane are relatively less well defined. Over the past years, we have used α(2B)-adrenergic receptor (α(2B)-AR) as a model to define the factors that control GPCR export trafficking. In this chapter, we will review specific motifs identified to mediate the export of nascent α(2B)-AR from the ER and the Golgi and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. As these motifs are highly conserved among GPCRs, they may provide common mechanisms for export trafficking of these receptors.

  16. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ (SERCA)-pumps: link to heart beats and calcium waves.

    PubMed

    Misquitta, C M; Mack, D P; Grover, A K

    1999-04-01

    Mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ is pivotal to the ability of a cell to send or respond to stimuli. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPases, termed SERCA pumps, sequester Ca2+ into the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum. There are several SERCA protein isoforms encoded by three genes. This paper summarizes the structure, function, tissue and subcellular distribution, and regulation of various SERCA isoforms. Then it attempts to link divergence in the signal transduction processes of cells to the types and levels of SERCA proteins they express and to how the cells regulate their SERCA pump activity. The paper examines possible linkages between SERCA pumps and receptor-activated Ca2+ entry, SERCA isoform localization and Ca(2+)-waves, and the role of SERCA pumps in nuclear Ca2+ in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Then it uses available information on cardiac function and chronic stimulation of the fast-twitch muscle to answer a series of basic questions on the regulation of SERCA activity and expression and their linkage to signal transduction. Finally, it discusses the possibility that neurons exhibit complex Ca(2+)-waves whose interactions have the potential to explain the operational basis of neural networks. A series of unanswered questions emerge based on this synthesis, including the unsettling issue of whether all the isoforms are needed to achieve the divergence in signal transduction or if there is a degree of redundancy in the system.

  17. Focal calcium monitoring with targeted nanosensors at the cytosolic side of endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yanyan; Arai, Satoshi; Takei, Yoshiaki; Murata, Atsushi; Takeoka, Shinji; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ca2+ distribution is spatially and temporally non-uniform inside cells due to cellular compartmentalization. However, Ca2+ sensing with small organic dyes, such as fura-2 and fluo-4, has been practically applied at a single cell level where the averaged signal from freely diffusing dye molecules is acquired. In this study, we aimed to target azide-functionalized fura-2 (N3-fura-2) to a specific site of subcellular compartments to realize focal Ca2+ sensing. Using scAVD (single-chain avidin)–biotin interaction and a copper-free click reaction system, we linked N3-fura-2 to specifically-targeted scAVD protein fused with a red fluorescent protein mCherry, so that Ca2+ sensors conjugated with four N3-fura-2 dyes with dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-PEG4-biotin as a linker were generated at subcellular compartments in living cells. In cytoplasm, N3-fura-2 showed a prolonged retention period after binding to scAVD. Furthermore, the reacted N3-fura-2 was retained inside cells even after free dyes were washed out by methanol fixation. When scAVD was overexpressed on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, N3-fura-2 was accumulated on ER membranes. Upon histamine stimulation, which increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, ER-localized N3-fura-2 successfully sensed the Ca2+ level changes at the cytosolic side of ER membrane. Our study demonstrated specific targeting of N3-fura-2 to subcellular compartments and the ability of sensing focal Ca2+ level changes with the specifically targeted Ca2+ sensors. PMID:27877882

  18. Focal calcium monitoring with targeted nanosensors at the cytosolic side of endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanyan; Arai, Satoshi; Takei, Yoshiaki; Murata, Atsushi; Takeoka, Shinji; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) distribution is spatially and temporally non-uniform inside cells due to cellular compartmentalization. However, Ca(2+) sensing with small organic dyes, such as fura-2 and fluo-4, has been practically applied at a single cell level where the averaged signal from freely diffusing dye molecules is acquired. In this study, we aimed to target azide-functionalized fura-2 (N3-fura-2) to a specific site of subcellular compartments to realize focal Ca(2+) sensing. Using scAVD (single-chain avidin)-biotin interaction and a copper-free click reaction system, we linked N3-fura-2 to specifically-targeted scAVD protein fused with a red fluorescent protein mCherry, so that Ca(2+) sensors conjugated with four N3-fura-2 dyes with dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-PEG4-biotin as a linker were generated at subcellular compartments in living cells. In cytoplasm, N3-fura-2 showed a prolonged retention period after binding to scAVD. Furthermore, the reacted N3-fura-2 was retained inside cells even after free dyes were washed out by methanol fixation. When scAVD was overexpressed on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, N3-fura-2 was accumulated on ER membranes. Upon histamine stimulation, which increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, ER-localized N3-fura-2 successfully sensed the Ca(2+) level changes at the cytosolic side of ER membrane. Our study demonstrated specific targeting of N3-fura-2 to subcellular compartments and the ability of sensing focal Ca(2+) level changes with the specifically targeted Ca(2+) sensors.

  19. The transmembrane domains of the prM and E proteins of yellow fever virus are endoplasmic reticulum localization signals.

    PubMed

    Op De Beeck, Anne; Rouillé, Yves; Caron, Mélanie; Duvet, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Jean

    2004-11-01

    The immature flavivirus particle contains two envelope proteins, prM and E, that are associated as a heterodimer. Virion morphogenesis of the flaviviruses occurs in association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, suggesting that there should be accumulation of the virion components in this compartment. This also implies that ER localization signals must be present in the flavivirus envelope proteins. In this work, we looked for potential subcellular localization signals in the yellow fever virus envelope proteins. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis of the subcellular localization of the E protein in yellow fever virus-infected cells indicated that this protein accumulates in the ER. Similar results were obtained with cells expressing only prM and E. Chimeric proteins containing the ectodomain of CD4 or CD8 fused to the transmembrane domains of prM or E were constructed, and their subcellular localization was studied by confocal immunofluorescence and by analyzing the maturation of their associated glycans. Although a small fraction was detected in the ER-to-Golgi intermediate and Golgi compartments, these chimeric proteins were located mainly in the ER. The C termini of prM and E form two antiparallel transmembrane alpha-helices. Interestingly, the first transmembrane passage contains enough information for ER localization. Taken altogether, these data indicate that, besides their role as membrane anchors, the transmembrane domains of yellow fever virus envelope proteins are ER retention signals. In addition, our data show that the mechanisms of ER retention of the flavivirus and hepacivirus envelope proteins are different.

  20. Implication of caspases and subcellular compartments in tert-butylhydroperoxide induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Haidara, Khadidja; Marion, Michel; Gascon-Barré, Marielle; Denizeau, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2008-05-15

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in many physiopathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and in mechanisms of action of environmental toxicants. tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) is an organic lipid hydroperoxide analogue, which is commonly used as a pro-oxidant for evaluating mechanisms involving oxidative stress in cells and tissues. This study investigates mechanisms of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in hepatocytes, in particular, the involvement of caspases and subcellular compartments. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to 0.4 mM t-BHP during 1 h. A general caspase inhibitor, Boc-D-FMK, reduced t-BHP-induced apoptosis (chromatin condensation), confirming the involvement of caspases in apoptosis. A caspase-9 inhibitor, Z-LEHD-FMK, also reduced t-BHP-induced apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-9 plays a critical role in this process. Procaspase-9 underwent cleavage in mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus, where increased caspase-9 activity was detected. The caspase-9 substrates, caspase-3 and caspase-7, were not activated. Caspase-7 was translocated from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it underwent processing; however, enzymatic activity of caspase-7 was inhibited by t-BHP. t-BHP caused cleavage of procaspase-12 at the ER and its subsequent translocation to the nucleus, where increased caspase-12 activity was found. t-BHP caused translocation of calpain from the cytosol to the ER. Calpain inhibition reduced chromatin condensation and caspase-12 activity in the nucleus, suggesting that calpain is involved in caspase-12 activation and apoptosis. This study demonstrates that caspase-9 and caspase-12 are activated in t-BHP-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. We highlight the importance of subcellular compartments such as mitochondria, ER and nuclei in the apoptotic process.

  1. Manipulating volatile emission in tobacco leaves by expressing Aspergillus nigerbeta-glucosidase in different subcellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu; Marton, Ira; Dekel, Mara; Shalitin, Dror; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Bravdo, Ben-Ami; Shoseyov, Oded

    2004-07-01

    Expression of the Aspergillus nigerbeta-glucosidase gene, BGL1, in Nicotiana tabacum plants (cv. Xanthi) had a profound effect on the volatile emissions of intact and crushed leaves. BGL1 was expressed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and targeted to the cytoplasm, cell wall, lytic vacuole (LV), chloroplast or endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Subcellular localization was confirmed by gold immunolabelling, followed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significant beta-glucosidase activity was observed in transgenic plants expressing BGL1 in the cell wall, LV and ER. Compared with controls, all intact transgenic leaves were found to emit increased levels of 2-ethylhexanol, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the headspace volatiles. Plants expressing BGL1 in the cell wall (Tcw) emitted more trans-caryophyllene than did non-transgenic controls, whereas plants expressing BGL1 in the ER (Ter) and LV (Tvc) emitted more cembrene than did non-transgenic controls. Volatiles released from crushed transgenic leaves and collected with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) polydimethylsiloxane fibre were distinctly enhanced. Significant increases in linalool, nerol, furanoid cis-linalool oxide, 4-methyl-1-pentanol, 6-methyl-hept-5-en-2-ol and 2-ethylhexanol were detected in transgenic plants when compared with wild-type controls. 3-Hydroxyl-beta-ionone levels were increased in crushed Tcw and Ter leaves, but were undetectable in Tvc leaves. The addition of glucoimidazole, a beta-glucosidase inhibitor, abolished the increased emission of these volatiles. These results indicate that the expression of a fungal beta-glucosidase gene in different subcellular compartments has the potential to affect the emission of plant volatiles, and thereby to modify plant-environment communication and aroma of agricultural products.

  2. Expression and Subcellular Targeting of Human Complement Factor C5a in Nicotiana species

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Henrik; Mischofsky, Heike; Koslowski, Roswitha; Meyer, Udo; Broer, Inge; Huckauf, Jana

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated transgenic tobacco plants as an alternative to Escherichia coli for the production of recombinant human complement factor 5a (C5a). C5a has not been expressed in plants before and is highly unstable in vivo in its native form, so it was necessary to establish the most suitable subcellular targeting strategy. We used the strong and constitutive CaMV 35S promoter to drive transgene expression and compared three different subcellular compartments. The yields of C5a in the T0 transgenic plants were low in terms of the proportion of total soluble protein (TSP) when targeted to the apoplast (0.0002% TSP) or endoplasmic reticulum (0.0003% TSP) but was one order of magnitude higher when targeted to the vacuole (0.001% TSP). The yields could be increased by conventional breeding (up to 0.014% TSP in the T2 generation). C5a accumulated to the same level in seeds and leaves when targeted to the apoplast but was up to 1.7-fold more abundant in the seeds when targeted to the ER or vacuole, although this difference was less striking in the better-performing lines. When yields were calculated as an amount per gram fresh weight of transgenic plant tissue, the vacuole targeting strategy was clearly more efficient in seeds, reaching 35.8 µg C5a per gram of fresh seed weight compared to 10.62 µg C5a per gram fresh weight of leaves. Transient expression of C5aER and C5aVac in N. benthamiana, using MagnICON vectors, reached up to 0.2% and 0.7% of TSP, respectively, but was accompanied by cytotoxic effects and induced leaf senescence. Western blot of the plant extracts revealed a band matching the corresponding glycosylated native protein and the bioassay demonstrated that recombinant C5a was biologically active. PMID:23285250

  3. Implication of caspases and subcellular compartments in tert-butylhydroperoxide induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Haidara, Khadidja; Marion, Michel; Gascon-Barre, Marielle; Denizeau, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A.

    2008-05-15

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in many physiopathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and in mechanisms of action of environmental toxicants. tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) is an organic lipid hydroperoxide analogue, which is commonly used as a pro-oxidant for evaluating mechanisms involving oxidative stress in cells and tissues. This study investigates mechanisms of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in hepatocytes, in particular, the involvement of caspases and subcellular compartments. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed to 0.4 mM t-BHP during 1 h. A general caspase inhibitor, Boc-D-FMK, reduced t-BHP-induced apoptosis (chromatin condensation), confirming the involvement of caspases in apoptosis. A caspase-9 inhibitor, Z-LEHD-FMK, also reduced t-BHP-induced apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-9 plays a critical role in this process. Procaspase-9 underwent cleavage in mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus, where increased caspase-9 activity was detected. The caspase-9 substrates, caspase-3 and caspase-7, were not activated. Caspase-7 was translocated from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it underwent processing; however, enzymatic activity of caspase-7 was inhibited by t-BHP. t-BHP caused cleavage of procaspase-12 at the ER and its subsequent translocation to the nucleus, where increased caspase-12 activity was found. t-BHP caused translocation of calpain from the cytosol to the ER. Calpain inhibition reduced chromatin condensation and caspase-12 activity in the nucleus, suggesting that calpain is involved in caspase-12 activation and apoptosis. This study demonstrates that caspase-9 and caspase-12 are activated in t-BHP-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. We highlight the importance of subcellular compartments such as mitochondria, ER and nuclei in the apoptotic process.

  4. Subcellular localization of the PGE2 synthesis activity in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish, on a quantitative basis, the subcellular distribution of the enzyme system that converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin (PG) E2 in mouse resident peritoneal (MRP) macrophages. Kinetic studies were conducted on cell-free extracts derived from cells cultivated for 1 d, using [1-14C]arachidonic acid as substrate and measuring the label in PGE2 after extraction and thin layer chromatography. The activity was synergistically enhanced by L- adrenaline and reduced glutathione, inhibited by indomethacin, and linearly related to the concentration of the cell-free extract. It was labile at 0 degrees C in the medium used for homogenization and fractionation of the cells (half-life less than 2 h). Addition of catalase (0.15 mg/ml) to the suspension medium increased the initial activity (by congruent to 70%) and the stability (half-life congruent to 6 h) of the enzyme in cytoplasmic extracts. It enabled us to establish the density distribution after isopycnic centrifugation in a linear gradient of sucrose. The sample centrifuged consisted of untreated cytoplasmic extracts, or cytoplasmic extracts treated with digitonin and Na pyrophosphate. Comparison of the centrifugation behavior of PGE2 synthesis activity with that of various enzymes used as reference for the major subcellular entities has revealed that PGE2 synthesis fairly fits the density profile of sulfatase C in each case. The conclusion is that at least the rate-limiting reaction in the conversion of arachidonic acid into PGE2 is catalyzed by an enzyme associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:6420497

  5. Accounting for Protein Subcellular Localization: A Compartmental Map of the Rat Liver Proteome.

    PubMed

    Jadot, Michel; Boonen, Marielle; Thirion, Jaqueline; Wang, Nan; Xing, Jinchuan; Zhao, Caifeng; Tannous, Abla; Qian, Meiqian; Zheng, Haiyan; Everett, John K; Moore, Dirk F; Sleat, David E; Lobel, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Accurate knowledge of the intracellular location of proteins is important for numerous areas of biomedical research including assessing fidelity of putative protein-protein interactions, modeling cellular processes at a system-wide level and investigating metabolic and disease pathways. Many proteins have not been localized, or have been incompletely localized, partly because most studies do not account for entire subcellular distribution. Thus, proteins are frequently assigned to one organelle whereas a significant fraction may reside elsewhere. As a step toward a comprehensive cellular map, we used subcellular fractionation with classic balance sheet analysis and isobaric labeling/quantitative mass spectrometry to assign locations to >6000 rat liver proteins. We provide quantitative data and error estimates describing the distribution of each protein among the eight major cellular compartments: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, plasma membrane and cytosol. Accounting for total intracellular distribution improves quality of organelle assignments and assigns proteins with multiple locations. Protein assignments and supporting data are available online through the Prolocate website (http://prolocate.cabm.rutgers.edu). As an example of the utility of this data set, we have used organelle assignments to help analyze whole exome sequencing data from an infant dying at 6 months of age from a suspected neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder of unknown etiology. Sequencing data was prioritized using lists of lysosomal proteins comprising well-established residents of this organelle as well as novel candidates identified in this study. The latter included copper transporter 1, encoded by SLC31A1, which we localized to both the plasma membrane and lysosome. The patient harbors two predicted loss of function mutations in SLC31A1, suggesting that this may represent a heretofore undescribed recessive lysosomal storage disease

  6. An in vitro study of the sub-cellular distribution of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Devillers-Thiéry, A; Bourgeois, J P; Pons, S; Le Sourd, A; Pucci, B; Changeux, J P

    2003-09-01

    Nicotinic and serotoninergic 5HT3 receptors share important sequence identities except for their cytoplasmic loop. Both ends of this loop display conserved 3D helical structures with distinct primary sequences. We decided to check whether these two helices named F and G play a role in the sub-cellular distribution of different nicotinic receptors. We systematically exchanged each helix with the equivalent sequence of neuronal nicotinic and alpha4, beta2 and alpha7 subunits in the functional chimeric alpha7-5HT3 receptor used as a model system. The new chimeras were expressed in vitro in polarized epithelial cells from pig kidney. We quantified synthesis and export of the receptors to the cell surface by measuring alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites. Immunogold labelling was used, at the electron microscope level, to determine the amount of each chimera present at either domain, apical and/or basolateral, of these cells. We noticed that in epithelial cells the majority of alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites remained sequestered in the cytoplasm as already observed in neurons in vivo. The majority of the pentamers present at the cell surface were located at the apical domain. Our results suggest that helix F and G differently regulate assembly and export to the cell surface of alpha-bungarotoxin binding receptors.

  7. Imaging of oxidative stress at subcellular level by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescent derivatization of cellular carbonyls.

    PubMed Central

    Pompella, A.; Comporti, M.

    1993-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy plus image videoanalysis was used to visualize the tissue areas and the subcellular sites first involved by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, in the well-established experimental model of lipid peroxidation induced by haloalkane intoxication in the liver cell. The fluorescent reagent 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid hydrazide was employed to derivativize the carbonyl functions originating from the lipoperoxidative process in situ, in liver cryostat sections from in vivo intoxicated rats, as well as in isolated hepatocytes exposed in vitro to the pro-oxidant action of haloalkanes. The results obtained indicate that: 1) the detection of fluorescent derivatives of carbonyls indeed offers a gain in sensitivity, 2) haloalkane-induced lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes primarily involves the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the plasma membrane and the nuclear compartment are unaffected, and 3) lipid peroxidation also induces an increase of liver autofluorescence. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8494040

  8. The south's timer export potential

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  9. Defective Anks1a disrupts the export of receptor tyrosine kinases from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soochul

    2016-01-01

    EphA2 has been implicated in amplifying ErbB2 tumorigenic signaling. One protein that interacts with EphA2 is the Anks1a PTB adaptor. However, the precise role of Anks1a in EphA2-mediated tumorigenesis is unclear. We demonstrated that Anks1a localizes to the ER upon phosphorylation and that the Ankyrin repeats and PTB of Anks1a bind to EphA2 and Sec23, respectively. Thus, Anks1a facilitates the selective packaging of EphA2 into COPII vesicles. Additionally, Anks1a knockout mice, a phenocopy of EphA2 knockout mice, exhibited markedly reduced ErbB2-induced breast tumorigenesis. Strikingly, ErbB2 did not localize to the cell surface following Anks1a knockdown in primary mammary tumor cells over-expressing ErbB2. Importantly, EphA2 was critical for stabilizing ErbB2 through complex formation, but its interaction with Anks1a also facilitated ErbB2 loading into COPII carriers. These findings suggest a novel role for Anks1a in the molecular pathogenesis of breast tumors and possibly other human diseases. PMID:27802842

  10. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  11. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  12. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  13. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  14. 7 CFR 1218.6 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.6 Exporter. Exporter means a person involved in exporting blueberries from another country to the United States....

  15. 7 CFR 1280.106 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.106 Exporter. Exporter means any person who exports domestic live lambs from the United States....

  16. Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

  17. Tau regulates the subcellular localization of calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Barreda, Elena Gomez de

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} In this work we have tried to explain how a cytoplasmic protein could regulate a cell nuclear function. We have tested the role of a cytoplasmic protein (tau) in regulating the expression of calbindin gene. We found that calmodulin, a tau-binding protein with nuclear and cytoplasmic localization, increases its nuclear localization in the absence of tau. Since nuclear calmodulin regulates calbindin expression, a decrease in nuclear calmodulin, due to the presence of tau that retains it at the cytoplasm, results in a change in calbindin expression. -- Abstract: Lack of tau expression in neuronal cells results in a change in the expression of few genes. However, little is known about how tau regulates gene expression. Here we show that the presence of tau could alter the subcellular localization of calmodulin, a protein that could be located at the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Nuclear calmodulin binds to co-transcription factors, regulating the expression of genes like calbindin. In this work, we have found that in neurons containing tau, a higher proportion of calmodulin is present in the cytoplasm compared with neurons lacking tau and that an increase in cytoplasmic calmodulin correlates with a higher expression of calbindin.

  18. Subcellular distribution of potassium in striated muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Edelmann, L.

    1984-01-01

    Microanalytical experiments have been performed to answer the question whether the main cellular cation, K+, follows the water distribution in the striated muscle cell or whether K+ follows the distribution of negative fixed charges (beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues). Subcellular localization of K and/or of the K surrogates Rb, Cs, and Tl has been investigated by the following methods: Chemical precipitation of K with tetraphenylborate. Autoradiography of alkali-metals and Tl in air-dried and frozen-hydrated preparations. TEM visualization of electron dense Cs and Tl in sections of freeze-dried and plastic embedded muscle. X-ray microanalysis of air-dried myofibrils and muscle cryosections. The experiments consistently show that K, Rb, Cs, and Tl do not follow the water distribution but are mainly accumulated in the A band, especially in the marginal regions, and at Z lines. The same sites preferentially accumulate Cs or uranyl cations when sections of freeze-dried, embedded muscle are exposed to these electron microscopic stains. It is concluded that the detected uneven distribution of K, Rb, Cs, and Tl in muscle is neither a freeze-drying artifact nor an embedding artifact and may result from a weak ion binding to the beta- and gamma-carboxyl groups of cellular proteins.

  19. A Formal Ontology of Subcellular Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Stephen D.; Fong, Lisa L.; Gupta, Amarnath; Condit, Christopher; Bug, William J.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of the nervous system requires high-resolution microscopy to resolve the detailed 3D structure of nerve cells and supracellular domains. The analysis of such imaging data to extract cellular surfaces and cell components often requires the combination of expert human knowledge with carefully engineered software tools. In an effort to make better tools to assist humans in this endeavor, create a more accessible and permanent record of their data, and to aid the process of constructing complex and detailed computational models, we have created a core of formalized knowledge about the structure of the nervous system and have integrated that core into several software applications. In this paper, we describe the structure and content of a formal ontology whose scope is the subcellular anatomy of the nervous system (SAO), covering nerve cells, their parts, and interactions between these parts. Many applications of this ontology to image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of shared data across scales and researchers are also described. PMID:18974798

  20. Subcellular proteomics of Trypanosoma cruzi reservosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Celso; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Pereira, Miria G.; Lourenço, Daniela; de Souza, Wanderley; Almeida, Igor C.; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa L.

    2009-01-01

    Reservosomes are the endpoint of the endocytic pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. These organelles have the particular ability to concentrate proteins and lipids obtained from medium together with the main proteolytic enzymes originated from the secretory pathway, being at the same time a storage organelle and the main site of protein degradation. Subcellular proteomics have been extensively used for profiling organelles in different cell types. Here, we combine cell fractionation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify reservosome-resident proteins. Starting from a purified reservosome fraction, we established a protocol to isolate reservosome membranes. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to confirm the purity of the fractions. To achieve a better coverage of identified proteins we analyzed the fractions separately and combined the results. LC-MS/MS analysis identified in total 709 T. cruzi-specific proteins; of these, 456 had predicted function and 253 were classified as hypothetical proteins. We could confirm the presence of most of the proteins validated by previous work and identify new proteins from different classes such as enzymes, proton pumps, transport proteins and others. The definition of the reservosome protein profile is a good tool to assess their molecular signature, identify molecular markers, and understand their relationship with different organelles. PMID:19288526

  1. Neuropeptide accretions in the endoplasmic reticulum of oxytocinergic neurons in cats, monkeys and rabbits: a widespread phenomenon.

    PubMed Central

    Pow, D V

    1992-01-01

    Light microscopic observations using Nomarski optics on the aldehyde-fixed hypothalamus of normal adult cats, monkeys and rabbits revealed the presence of cells in the supraoptic, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei which possessed yellow birefringent inclusions. Immunogold labelling showed that in each species the cells displayed oxytocin-like immunoreactivity, both in electron-dense inclusions within some (but not all) cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum and in secretory granules. The cells in cats and rabbits were in all respects indistinguishable from the homologous 'birefringent' cells previously described in rats, but in monkeys, cells frequently contained additional inclusions in cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum which did not display oxytocin or vasopressin-like immunoreactivity, even after trypsin, pepsin or chymotrypsin treatment of sections. Observations on cats and rabbits using fluorescence microscopy revealed that the birefringent cells possessed bright autofluorescence which facilitated the identification of more cells than were seen using Nomarski optics alone. Autofluorescence was abolished when sections were mounted in glycerol, or when exposed to light for protracted periods of time. Attempts to label for monoamines in these cells were not successful, suggesting that the fluorescence is not due to aldehyde-induced amine fluorescence. It is not clear why neuropeptides are retained in some rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. It is possible that these birefringent cells contain a peptide, or peptides, which are abnormal in some manner, or which may be other members of the oxytocin gene family. Alternatively, the processing of neuropeptides to permit their export to the Golgi apparatus may be deficient. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry revealed that, unlike other oxytocin neurons, cells with intracellular accretions lacked detectable acetyl cholinesterase. As AChE is a known peptidase, it may be involved in regulating

  2. Support vector machine approach for protein subcellular localization prediction.

    PubMed

    Hua, S; Sun, Z

    2001-08-01

    Subcellular localization is a key functional characteristic of proteins. A fully automatic and reliable prediction system for protein subcellular localization is needed, especially for the analysis of large-scale genome sequences. In this paper, Support Vector Machine has been introduced to predict the subcellular localization of proteins from their amino acid compositions. The total prediction accuracies reach 91.4% for three subcellular locations in prokaryotic organisms and 79.4% for four locations in eukaryotic organisms. Predictions by our approach are robust to errors in the protein N-terminal sequences. This new approach provides superior prediction performance compared with existing algorithms based on amino acid composition and can be a complementary method to other existing methods based on sorting signals. A web server implementing the prediction method is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn/SubLoc/. Supplementary material is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn/SubLoc/.

  3. Tracking variable number of multiple subcellular structures in 3D.

    PubMed

    Wen, Quan; Gao, Jean

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of sensitive and fast electronic imaging devices and the development of biological methods to tag proteins of interest by green fluorescent proteins (GFP), it has now become critical to develop automatic quantitative data analysis tools to study the live cell dynamics at subcellular level. In this paper, a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method to track variable number of multiple 3D subcellular structures is proposed. First, multiple subcellular structures are represented by a joint state. Then the distribution of the dimension changing joint state is sampled efficiently by the reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) method designed with update move, identity switch move, disappearing move, and appearing move. The experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully track multiple 3D subcellular structures with different motion modalities such as object appearing and disappearing.

  4. Predicting multisite protein subcellular locations: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Du, Pufeng; Xu, Chao

    2013-06-01

    In the last two decades, predicting protein subcellular locations has become a hot topic in bioinformatics. A number of algorithms and online services have been developed to computationally assign a subcellular location to a given protein sequence. With the progress of many proteome projects, more and more proteins are annotated with more than one subcellular location. However, multisite prediction has only been considered in a handful of recent studies, in which there are several common challenges. In this special report, the authors discuss what these challenges are, why these challenges are important and how the existing studies gave their solutions. Finally, a vision of the future of predicting multisite protein subcellular locations is given.

  5. Trimethyltin retinopathy: relationship of subcellular response to neuronal subspecialization

    SciTech Connect

    Bouldin, T.W.; Goines, N.D.; Krigman, M.R.

    1984-03-01

    Retinal neurons from rats acutely intoxicated with trimethyltin (TMT) were examined by light and electron microscopy to determine if there is a relationship between the subcellular response of a neuron to TMT and its morphologic subspecialization. Subcellular pathologic alterations were present in neurons from all three cellular layers of the sensory retina. However, the type and degree of subcellular response varied among the highly subspecialized neurons of the different retinal layers. Clusters of dense-cored vesicles and tubules were mainly limited to neurons of the ganglion-cell layer, large accumulations of dense bodies were mainly limited to neurons of the inner nuclear layer, and neuronal necrosis was mainly limited to the photoreceptor cells. The inner segment of the photoreceptor cell shared with the perikaryon of more conventional neurons a special vulnerability to TMT cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that the subspecialization of neurons affects the type and the degree of subcellular response to TMT.

  6. Role of NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Kostsin, Dzmitry G.; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Morita, Masashi

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms.

  7. Transport and transporters in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Csala, Miklós; Marcolongo, Paola; Lizák, Beáta; Senesi, Silvia; Margittai, Eva; Fulceri, Rosella; Magyar, Judit E; Benedetti, Angelo; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2007-06-01

    Enzyme activities localized in the luminal compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum are integrated into the cellular metabolism by transmembrane fluxes of their substrates, products and/or cofactors. Most compounds involved are bulky, polar or even charged; hence, they cannot be expected to diffuse through lipid bilayers. Accordingly, transport processes investigated so far have been found protein-mediated. The selective and often rate-limiting transport processes greatly influence the activity, kinetic features and substrate specificity of the corresponding luminal enzymes. Therefore, the phenomenological characterization of endoplasmic reticulum transport contributes largely to the understanding of the metabolic functions of this organelle. Attempts to identify the transporter proteins have only been successful in a few cases, but recent development in molecular biology promises a better progress in this field.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  9. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

    2014-12-02

    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

  10. Intracellular transport of endocytosed chylomicron (TH)retinyl ester in rat liver parenchymal cells. Evidence for translocation of a (TH)retinoid from endosomes to endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Blomhoff, R.; Eskild, W.; Kindberg, G.M.; Prydz, K.; Berg, T.

    1985-11-05

    The intracellular transport of chylomicron remnants labeled with (TH)retinyl ester was studied in rat liver parenchymal cells by means of subcellular fractionation in Nycodenz and sucrose density gradients. The data presented indicate that endocytosed chylomicron remnant (TH)retinyl ester initially is located in low density endosomes. Radioactivity is subsequently transferred to a denser vesicle. Equilibrium as well as rate zonal centrifugation suggest that this denser (TH) retinoid-containing vesicle may represent endoplasmic reticulum. We have compared the intracellular transport of chylomicron remnant (TH)retinyl ester and SVI-asialofetuin. The receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in rat liver parenchymal cells is a thoroughly studied system. Our results suggest that the (TH) retinoid and SVI-asialofetuin follow the same path initially to the endosomes. After transit in endosomes, the intracellular transport differs. While asialofetuin is transported to the lysosomes, the retinoid is probably transferred to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. Development of a family of redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein indicators for use in relatively oxidizing subcellular environments.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Remington, S James

    2008-08-19

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicators were previously developed that rapidly and quantitatively respond to changes in the thiol/disulfide equilibrium within subcellular compartments. In these indicators, surface-exposed cysteines residues were introduced so as to form a labile redox-active disulfide that in turn controls the emission properties of the internal chromophore. The biosensors have been shown to be effective reporters of the thiol/disulfide status within reducing compartments such as the mitochondria and cytosol for several cell types. However, due to the high thermodynamic stability of the introduced disulfide bond, the indicators are not useful for quantitative analysis within more oxidizing compartments such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we report the development of a new family of GFP-based redox indicators (roGFP1-iX) in which the thermodynamic stability of the disulfide is substantially lowered by insertion of a single amino acid into the main chain, adjacent to cysteine 147. The insertions result in indicators with midpoint potentials of -229 to -246 mV and are thus better suited for study of relatively oxidizing subcellular compartments. Atomic resolution crystallographic analyses suggest that two important factors act to destabilize the disulfide linkage in roGFP1-iX. In the oxidized state, an unusual non-proline cis-peptide bond adjacent to one of the cysteines introduces geometric strain into the system, while in the reduced state, a dramatic loop opening lowers the effective concentration of the reacting species.

  12. Current Gaps in the Understanding of the Subcellular Distribution of Exogenous and Endogenous Protein TorsinA.

    PubMed

    Harata, N Charles

    2014-01-01

    An in-frame deletion leading to the loss of a single glutamic acid residue in the protein torsinA (ΔE-torsinA) results in an inherited movement disorder, DYT1 dystonia. This autosomal dominant disease affects the function of the brain without causing neurodegeneration, by a mechanism that remains unknown. We evaluated the literature regarding the subcellular localization of torsinA. Efforts to elucidate the pathophysiological basis of DYT1 dystonia have relied partly on examining the subcellular distribution of the wild-type and mutated proteins. A typical approach is to introduce the human torsinA gene (TOR1A) into host cells and overexpress the protein therein. In both neurons and non-neuronal cells, exogenous wild-type torsinA introduced in this manner has been found to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas exogenous ΔE-torsinA is predominantly in the nuclear envelope or cytoplasmic inclusions. Although these outcomes are relatively consistent, findings for the localization of endogenous torsinA have been variable, leaving its physiological distribution a matter of debate. As patients' cells do not overexpress torsinA proteins, it is important to understand why the reported distributions of the endogenous proteins are inconsistent. We propose that careful optimization of experimental methods will be critical in addressing the causes of the differences among the distributions of endogenous (non-overexpressed) vs. exogenously introduced (overexpressed) proteins.

  13. Current Gaps in the Understanding of the Subcellular Distribution of Exogenous and Endogenous Protein TorsinA

    PubMed Central

    Harata, N. Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background An in-frame deletion leading to the loss of a single glutamic acid residue in the protein torsinA (ΔE-torsinA) results in an inherited movement disorder, DYT1 dystonia. This autosomal dominant disease affects the function of the brain without causing neurodegeneration, by a mechanism that remains unknown. Methods We evaluated the literature regarding the subcellular localization of torsinA. Results Efforts to elucidate the pathophysiological basis of DYT1 dystonia have relied partly on examining the subcellular distribution of the wild-type and mutated proteins. A typical approach is to introduce the human torsinA gene (TOR1A) into host cells and overexpress the protein therein. In both neurons and non-neuronal cells, exogenous wild-type torsinA introduced in this manner has been found to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas exogenous ΔE-torsinA is predominantly in the nuclear envelope or cytoplasmic inclusions. Although these outcomes are relatively consistent, findings for the localization of endogenous torsinA have been variable, leaving its physiological distribution a matter of debate. Discussion As patients’ cells do not overexpress torsinA proteins, it is important to understand why the reported distributions of the endogenous proteins are inconsistent. We propose that careful optimization of experimental methods will be critical in addressing the causes of the differences among the distributions of endogenous (non-overexpressed) vs. exogenously introduced (overexpressed) proteins. PMID:25279252

  14. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations § 1493.80 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The exporter is required to provide CCC an evidence of export...

  15. 7 CFR 1493.80 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) and CCC Intermediate Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-103) Operations § 1493.80 Evidence of export. (a) Report of export. The exporter is required to provide CCC an evidence of export...

  16. Subcellular Fractionation Enhances Proteome Coverage of Pancreatic Duct Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Gaun, Aleksandr; Kadiyala, Vivek; Ghoulidi, Ali; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Steen, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Subcellular fractionation of whole cell lysates offers a means of simplifying protein mixtures, potentially permitting greater depth of proteomic analysis. Here we compare proteins identified from pancreatic duct cells (PaDC) following organelle enrichment to those identified from PaDC whole cell lysates to determine if the additional procedures of subcellular fractionation increases proteome coverage. Methods We used differential centrifugation to enrich for nuclear, mitochondrial, membrane, and cytosolic proteins. We then compared - via mass spectrometry-based analysis - the number of proteins identified from these four fractions with four biological replicates of PaDC whole cell lysates. Results We identified similar numbers of proteins among all samples investigated. In total, 1658 non-redundant proteins were identified in the replicate samples, while 2196 were identified in the subcellular fractionation samples, corresponding to a 30% increase. Additionally, we noted that each organelle fraction was in fact enriched with proteins specific to the targeted organelle. Conclusions Subcellular fractionation of PaDC resulted in greater proteome coverage compared to PaDC whole cell lysate analysis. Although more labor intensive and time consuming, subcellular fractionation provides greater proteome coverage, and enriches for compartmentalized sub-populations of proteins. Application of this subcellular fractionation strategy allows for a greater depth of proteomic analysis and thus a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic disease. PMID:23352835

  17. Subcellular localization of full-length human myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is independent of 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Molzan, Manuela; Ottmann, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is associated with the development of leukemic diseases such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, information on the physiological function of MLF1 is limited and mostly derived from studies identifying MLF1 interaction partners like CSN3, MLF1IP, MADM, Manp and the 14-3-3 proteins. The 14-3-3-binding site surrounding S34 is one of the only known functional features of the MLF1 sequence, along with one nuclear export sequence (NES) and two nuclear localization sequences (NLS). It was recently shown that the subcellular localization of mouse MLF1 is dependent on 14-3-3 proteins. Based on these findings, we investigated whether the subcellular localization of human MLF1 was also directly 14-3-3-dependent. Live cell imaging with GFP-fused human MLF1 was used to study the effects of mutations and deletions on its subcellular localization. Surprisingly, we found that the subcellular localization of full-length human MLF1 is 14-3-3-independent, and is probably regulated by other as-yet-unknown proteins.

  18. Analysis of subcellular metabolite distributions within Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue: a primer for subcellular metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Stephan; Steinhauser, Dirk; Lisec, Jan; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Every biological organism relies for its proper function on interactions between a multitude of molecular entities like RNA, proteins, and metabolites. The comprehensive measurement and the analysis of all these entities would therefore provide the basis for our functional and mechanistic understanding of most biological processes. Next to their amount and identity, it is most crucial to also gain information about the subcellular distribution and the flux of the measured compounds between the cellular compartments. That is, we want to understand not only the individual functions of cellular components but also their functional implications within the whole organism. While the analysis of macromolecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins is quite established and robust, analytical techniques for small metabolites, which are prone to diffusion and degradation processes, provide a host of unsolved challenges. The major limitations here are the metabolite conversion and relocation processes. In this protocol we describe a methodological workflow which includes a nonaqueous fractionation method, a fractionated two-phase liquid/liquid extraction protocol, and a software package, which together allow extracting and analyzing starch, proteins, and especially polar and lipophilic metabolites from a single sample towards the estimation of their subcellular distributions.

  19. Central Role of the Oxygen-dependent Degradation Domain of Drosophila HIFα/Sima in Oxygen-dependent Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Irisarri, Maximiliano; Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Romero, Nuria M.; Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila HIFα homologue, Sima, is localized mainly in the cytoplasm in normoxia and accumulates in the nucleus upon hypoxic exposure. We have characterized the mechanism governing Sima oxygen-dependent subcellular localization and found that Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have previously shown that nuclear import depends on an atypical bipartite nuclear localization signal mapping next to the C-terminus of the protein. We show here that nuclear export is mediated in part by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal localized in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODDD). CRM1-dependent nuclear export requires both oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of a specific prolyl residue (Pro850) in the ODDD, and the activity of the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor factor. At high oxygen tension rapid nuclear export of Sima occurs, whereas in hypoxia, Sima nuclear export is largely inhibited. HIFα/Sima nucleo-cytoplasmic localization is the result of a dynamic equilibrium between nuclear import and nuclear export, and nuclear export is modulated by oxygen tension. PMID:19587118

  20. β-lactamase can function as a reporter of bacterial protein export during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of host cells

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Jessica R.; McDonough, Justin A.; Pavelka, Martin S.; Braunstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that is able to avoid destruction by host immune defenses. Exported proteins of M. tuberculosis, which include proteins localized to the bacterial surface or secreted into the extracellular environment, are ideally situated to interact with host factors. As a result, these proteins are attractive candidates for virulence factors, drug targets, and vaccine components. Here we describe a new β-lactamase reporter system capable of identifying exported proteins of M. tuberculosis during growth in host cells. Because β-lactams target bacterial cell wall synthesis, β-lactamases must be exported beyond the cytoplasm to protect against these drugs. When used in protein fusions, β-lactamase can report on the subcellular location of another protein as measured by protection from β-lactam antibiotics. Here we demonstrate that a truncated TEM-1 β-lactamase lacking a signal sequence for export (‘BlaTEM-1) can be used in this manner directly in a mutant strain of M. tuberculosis lacking the major β-lactamase, BlaC. The ‘BlaTEM-1 reporter conferred β-lactam resistance when fused to both Sec and Tat export signal sequences. We further demonstrate that β-lactamase fusion proteins report on protein export while M. tuberculosis is growing in THP-1 macrophage-like cells. This genetic system should facilitate the study of proteins exclusively exported in the host environment by intracellular M. tuberculosis. PMID:17906134

  1. Central role of the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of Drosophila HIFalpha/Sima in oxygen-dependent nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Irisarri, Maximiliano; Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Romero, Nuria M; Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2009-09-01

    The Drosophila HIFalpha homologue, Sima, is localized mainly in the cytoplasm in normoxia and accumulates in the nucleus upon hypoxic exposure. We have characterized the mechanism governing Sima oxygen-dependent subcellular localization and found that Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have previously shown that nuclear import depends on an atypical bipartite nuclear localization signal mapping next to the C-terminus of the protein. We show here that nuclear export is mediated in part by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal localized in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODDD). CRM1-dependent nuclear export requires both oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of a specific prolyl residue (Pro850) in the ODDD, and the activity of the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor factor. At high oxygen tension rapid nuclear export of Sima occurs, whereas in hypoxia, Sima nuclear export is largely inhibited. HIFalpha/Sima nucleo-cytoplasmic localization is the result of a dynamic equilibrium between nuclear import and nuclear export, and nuclear export is modulated by oxygen tension.

  2. Immunocytochemical localization and subcellular site of lectin synthesis in developing wheat embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Raikhel, N.V.; Peumans, W.J.

    1986-04-01

    Appearance of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) during wheat germ embryogenesis was studied using indirect immunocytochemical methods at the light and electron microscope levels. Developing embryos were labelled with (/sup 35/S) cysteine in pulse and pulse-chase experiments to study the synthesis and transport of the lectin to protein bodies (PB). The radical, and coleorhiza first accumulated WGA around 10 days post anthesis (DPA), while WGA was found in the epiblast and coleoptile 15 and 20 DPA respectively. At the subcellular level WGA can be seen first in a small developing PB which later fused with larger ones. WGA was distributed evenly throughout the PB. When tissue was pulse-labelled, fractionated on an isopycnic sucrose gradient and exposed to detergent, the incorporated radioactivity of released lectin coincided with the position of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker enzyme NADH-cytochrome c reductase. Both radioactivity and enzyme activity shifted to a higher density in the presence of 2 mM Mg acetate, indicating that radioactive lectin was associated with the rough ER.

  3. Subcellular localization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mei-Chu; Chou, Shu-Jen; Kuang, Lin-Yun; Charng, Yee-Yung; Yang, Shang Fa

    2002-05-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of ACC to the gaseous plant hormone, ethylene. Although the enzyme does not contain a typical N-terminal consensus sequence for the transportation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), it has recently been shown to locate extracellularly by immunolocalization study. It was of interest to examine whether the enzyme contains a signal peptide that is overlooked by structure prediction. We observed that the in vitro translated apple ACC oxidase was not co-processed or imported by the canine pancreatic rough microsomes, a system widely used to identify signal peptide for protein translocation across ER, suggesting that apple ACC oxidase does not contain a signal peptide for ER transport. A highly specific polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant apple ACC oxidase was used to examine the subcellular localization of the enzyme in apple fruit (Malus domestica, var. Golden Delicious). The location of ACC oxidase appeared to be mainly in the cytosol of the apple fruit pericarp tissue as was demonstrated by electron microscopy using immunogold-labeled antibodies. The pre-immune serum or pre-climacteric fruit control gave essentially no positive signal. Based on these observations, we conclude that ACC oxidase is a cytosolic protein.

  4. Expression and Subcellular Distribution of GFP-Tagged Human Tetraspanin Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, Karin; Korza, Henryk J.; Tarry, Michael; Sekyrova, Petra; Högbom, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are integral membrane proteins that function as organizers of multimolecular complexes and modulate function of associated proteins. Mammalian genomes encode approximately 30 different members of this family and remotely related eukaryotic species also contain conserved tetraspanin homologs. Tetraspanins are involved in a number of fundamental processes such as regulation of cell migration, fusion, immunity and signaling. Moreover, they are implied in numerous pathological states including mental disorders, infectious diseases or cancer. Despite the great interest in tetraspanins, the structural and biochemical basis of their activity is still largely unknown. A major bottleneck lies in the difficulty of obtaining stable and homogeneous protein samples in large quantities. Here we report expression screening of 15 members of the human tetraspanin superfamily and successful protocols for the production in S. cerevisiae of a subset of tetraspanins involved in human cancer development. We have demonstrated the subcellular localization of overexpressed tetraspanin-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in S. cerevisiae and found that despite being mislocalized, the fusion proteins are not degraded. The recombinantly produced tetraspanins are dispersed within the endoplasmic reticulum membranes or localized in granule-like structures in yeast cells. The recombinantly produced tetraspanins can be extracted from the membrane fraction and purified with detergents or the poly (styrene-co-maleic acid) polymer technique for use in further biochemical or biophysical studies. PMID:26218426

  5. Role of flippases, scramblases and transfer proteins in phosphatidylserine subcellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Hannah M; Baldridge, Ryan D; Xu, Peng; Graham, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that lipids are heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Most lipid species are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then distributed to different cellular locations in order to create the distinct membrane compositions observed in eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms by which specific lipid species are trafficked to and maintained in specific areas of the cell are poorly understood and constitute an active area of research. Of particular interest is the distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS), an anionic lipid that is enriched in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane. PS transport occurs by both vesicular and non-vesicular routes, with members of the oxysterol-binding protein family (Osh6 and Osh7) recently implicated in the latter route. In addition, the flippase activity of P4-ATPases helps build PS membrane asymmetry by preferentially translocating PS to the cytosolic leaflet. This asymmetric PS distribution can be used as a signaling device by the regulated activation of scramblases, which rapidly expose PS on the extracellular leaflet and play important roles in blood clotting and apoptosis. This review will discuss recent advances made in the study of phospholipid flippases, scramblases and PS-specific lipid transfer proteins, as well as how these proteins contribute to subcellular PS distribution.

  6. Subcellular Evidence for Biogenesis of Autophagosomal Membrane during Spermiogenesis In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yufei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Tengfei; Chen, Hong; Chu, Xiaoya; Ahmad, Nisar; Zhang, Qian; Li, Quanfu; Hu, Lisi; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    Although autophagosome formation has attracted substantial attention, the origin and the source of the autophagosomal membrane remains unresolved. The present study was designed to investigate in vivo subcellular evidence for the biogenesis of autophagosomal membrane during spermiogenesis using transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), Western blots and immunohistochemistry in samples from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. The testis expressed LC3-II protein, which was located within spermatids at different stages of differentiation and indicated active autophagy. TEM showed that numerous autophagosomes were developed inside spermatids. Many endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were transferred into a special “Chrysanthemum flower center” (CFC) in which several double-layer isolation membranes (IM) were formed and extended. The elongated IM always engulfed some cytoplasm and various structures. Narrow tubules connected the ends of multiple ER and the CFC. The CFC was more developed in spermatids with compact nuclei than in spermatids with granular nuclei. An IM could also be transformed from a single ER. Sometimes an IM extended from a trans-Golgi network and wrapped different structures. The plasma membrane of the spermatid invaginated to form vesicles that were distributed among various endosomes around the CFC during spermiogenesis. All this cellular evidence suggests that, in vivo, IM was developed mainly by CFC produced from ER within differentiating spermatids during spermiogenesis. Vesicles from Golgi complexes, plasma membranes and endosomes might also be the sources of the autophagosome membrane. PMID:27803675

  7. Aberrant Subcellular Neuronal Calcium Regulation in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    In this mini-review/opinion article we describe evidence that multiple cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis involve perturbed cellular calcium regulation, and that alterations in synaptic calcium handling may be early and pivotal events in the disease process. With advancing age neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular calcium dynamics. Altered proteolytic cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to the aging process in combination with genetic and environmental factors results in the production and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ ). Aβ undergoes a self-aggregation process and concomitantly generates reactive oxygen species that can trigger membrane-associated oxidative stress which, in turn, impairs the functions of ion-motive ATPases and glutamate and glucose transporters thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Mutations in presenilin-1 that cause early-onset AD increase Aβ production, but also result in an abnormal increase in the size of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Some of the events in the neurodegenerative cascade can be counteracted in animal models by manipulations that stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis including dietary energy restriction, agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and drugs that activate mitochondrial potassium channels. Emerging knowledge of the actions of calcium upstream and downstream of Aβ provides opportunities to develop novel preventative and therapeutic interventions for AD. PMID:20950656

  8. Subcellular compartmentalization of maize storage proteins in Xenopus oocytes injected with zein messenger RNAs

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Maize storage proteins synthesized in oocytes were compartmentalized in membrane vesicles because they were resistant to hydrolysis by protease, unless detergent was present. The site of storage protein deposition within the oocyte was determined by subcellular fractionation. Optimal separation of oocyte membranes and organelles was obtained when EDTA and high concentrations of NaCl were included in the homogenization and gradient buffers. Under these conditions, fractions in sucrose gradients containing a heterogeneous mixture of smooth membranes (presumably endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane, density = 1.10-1.12 g/cm3), mitochondria (densities = 1.14 and 1.16 g/cm3), yolk platelets (density = 1.21 g/cm3), and a dense matrix material (density = 1.22 g/cm3) could be separated. Some zein proteins were recovered in the mixed membrane fraction, but the majority occurred in vesicles sedimenting with yolk platelets and granular material at a density of approximately 1.22 g/cm3. When metrizamide was included in the gradient to increase the density, little of the dense matrix material was isolated, and vesicles containing zein proteins were separated from other oocyte components. These vesicles were similar to protein bodies in maize endosperm because they were of identical density and contained the same group of polypeptides. PMID:7251653

  9. Export of malaria proteins requires co-translational processing of the PEXEL motif independent of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding

    PubMed Central

    Boddey, Justin A.; O'Neill, Matthew T.; Lopaticki, Sash; Carvalho, Teresa G.; Hodder, Anthony N.; Nebl, Thomas; Wawra, Stephan; van West, Pieter; Ebrahimzadeh, Zeinab; Richard, Dave; Flemming, Sven; Spielmann, Tobias; Przyborski, Jude; Babon, Jeff J.; Cowman, Alan F.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum exports proteins into erythrocytes using the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL) motif, which is cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by plasmepsin V (PMV). A recent study reported that phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) concentrated in the ER binds to PEXEL motifs and is required for export independent of PMV, and that PEXEL motifs are functionally interchangeable with RxLR motifs of oomycete effectors. Here we show that the PEXEL does not bind PI(3)P, and that this lipid is not concentrated in the ER. We find that RxLR motifs cannot mediate export in P. falciparum. Parasites expressing a mutated version of KAHRP, with the PEXEL motif repositioned near the signal sequence, prevented PMV cleavage. This mutant possessed the putative PI(3)P-binding residues but is not exported. Reinstatement of PEXEL to its original location restores processing by PMV and export. These results challenge the PI(3)P hypothesis and provide evidence that PEXEL position is conserved for co-translational processing and export. PMID:26832821

  10. Nuclear export of the glucocorticoid receptor is accelerated by cell fusion-dependent release of calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Walther, Rhian F; Lamprecht, Claudia; Ridsdale, Andrew; Groulx, Isabelle; Lee, Stephen; Lefebvre, Yvonne A; Haché, Robert J G

    2003-09-26

    Nucleocytoplasmic exchange of nuclear hormone receptors is hypothesized to allow for rapid and direct interactions with cytoplasmic signaling factors. In addition to recycling between a naïve, chaperone-associated cytoplasmic complex and a liganded chaperone-free nuclear form, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been observed to shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear export of GR and other nuclear receptors has been proposed to depend on direct interactions with calreticulin, which is predominantly localized to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that rapid calreticulin-mediated nuclear export of GR is a specific response to transient disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum that occurs during polyethylene glycol-mediated cell fusion. Using live and digitonin-permeabilized cells we demonstrate that, in the absence of cell fusion, GR nuclear export occurs slowly over a period of many hours independent of direct interaction with calreticulin. Our findings temper expectations that nuclear receptors respond rapidly and directly to cytoplasmic signals in the absence of additional regulatory control. These results highlight the importance of verifying findings of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking using techniques in addition to heterokaryon cell fusion.

  11. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is..., Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, Office of...

  12. 19 CFR 18.42 - Direct exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct exportation. 18.42 Section 18.42 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet § 18.42 Direct exportation. At the port of exportation, the container...

  13. 19 CFR 18.26 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  14. 77 FR 72322 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Kue Sang Chun... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chun was convicted of knowingly exporting and causing the export from the United States to...

  15. 77 FR 40493 - Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 740, 742, 748, 750, 752, and 760 Export Administration... heading of paragraph (d) to read ``Shippers Export Declaration or Automated Export System Record''. 0 2...): Once a mass market classification request is accepted in SNAP-R, you may export and reexport...

  16. 77 FR 60377 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Jirair Avanessian, a/k... be violated the United States trade restriction with Iran by exporting and attempting to export... Foreign Assets Control for such an export. Avanessian was also convicted of one count of conspiracy (18...

  17. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...

  18. 40 CFR 89.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 89.909 Section 89....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged..., 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. New nonroad engines exported to such countries must...

  19. 78 FR 58995 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Iman Kazerani, 153... was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing the exportation of laptop computers..., a $10,000 criminal fine and an assessment of $100. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration...

  20. 15 CFR 2012.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2012.3 Section... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.3 Export certificates... export certificate is in effect with respect to the beef. (b) To be valid, an export certificate shall...

  1. 40 CFR 92.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 92.909 Section 92....909 Export exemptions. (a) A new locomotive or locomotive engine intended solely for export, and so... from EPA standards. (c) It is a condition of any exemption for the purpose of export under paragraph (a...

  2. 40 CFR 94.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 94.909 Section 94... Export exemptions. (a) A new engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside... of export under paragraph (a) of this section, that such exemption is void ab initio with respect to...

  3. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a) (1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such universal...

  4. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports. A... exporter in 40 CFR 262.53, 262.56(a)(1) through (4), (6), and (b) and 262.57; (b) Export such universal...

  5. 75 FR 52929 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the National Export Initiative, and advice from the President's Export Council as to how to promote U.S. exports, jobs, and growth...: Background: The President's Export Council was first established by Executive Order on December 20, 1973 to...

  6. 77 FR 8807 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting The President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration (PECSEA) will... pertinent to those portions of the Export Administration Act, as amended, that deal with United...

  7. Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is associated with a decrease in calcium release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a chronic rabbit model.

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, D A; Atkinson, J B; Olson, R D; Buck, S; Cusack, B J; Fleischer, S; Boucek, R J

    1993-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective cancer chemotherapeutic agent that produces a dose-dependent cardiomyopathy that limits its clinical usefulness. Clinical and animal studies of morphological changes during the early stages of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy have suggested that the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the intracellular membrane system responsible for myoplasmic calcium regulation in adult mammalian heart, may be the early target of doxorubicin. To detect changes in the calcium pump protein or the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum during chronic doxorubicin treatment, rabbits were treated with intravenous doxorubicin (1 mg/kg) twice weekly for 12 to 18 doses. Pair-fed controls received intravenous normal saline. The severity of cardiomyopathy was scored by light and electron microscopy of left ventricular papillary muscles. Developed tension was measured in isolated atrial strips. In subcellular fractions from heart, [3H]ryanodine binding was decreased in doxorubicin-treated rabbits (0.33 +/- 0.03 pmol/mg) compared with control rabbits (0.66 +/- 0.02 pmol/mg; P < 0.0001). The magnitude of the decrease in [3H]ryanodine binding correlated with both the severity of the cardiomyopathy graded by pathology score (light and electron microscopy) and the decrease in developed tension in isolated atrial strips. Bmax for [3H]ryanodine binding and the amount of immunoreactive ryanodine receptor by Western blot analysis using sequence-specific antibody were both decreased, consistent with a decrease in the amount of calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum in doxorubicin-treated rabbits. In contrast, there was no decrease in the amount or the activity of the calcium pump protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in doxorubicin-treated rabbits. Doxorubicin treatment did not decrease [3H]ryanodine binding or the amount of immunoreactive calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle. Since the sarcoplasmic

  8. Trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Manuel; Riezman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, many cell surface proteins are attached to the plasma membrane via a glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) receive the GPI anchor as a conserved posttranslational modification in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After anchor attachment, the GPI anchor is structurally remodeled to function as a transport signal that actively triggers the delivery of GPI-APs from the ER to the plasma membrane, via the Golgi apparatus. The structure and composition of the GPI anchor confer a special mode of interaction with membranes of GPI-APs within the lumen of secretory organelles that lead them to be differentially trafficked from other secretory membrane proteins. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which GPI-APs are selectively transported through the secretory pathway, with special focus on the recent progress made in their actively regulated export from the ER and the trans-Golgi network. PMID:26450970

  9. Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

  10. Protein Translocation across the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Elisabet C.; Trueman, Steven F.; Gilmore, Reid

    2013-01-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a major site of protein biosynthesis in all eukaryotic cells, serving as the entry point for the secretory pathway and as the initial integration site for the majority of cellular integral membrane proteins. The core components of the protein translocation machinery have been identified, and high-resolution structures of the targeting components and the transport channel have been obtained. Research in this area is now focused on obtaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein translocation and membrane protein integration. PMID:23251026

  11. Subcellular Localization of HIV-1 gag-pol mRNAs Regulates Sites of Virion Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jordan T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Full-length unspliced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNAs serve dual roles in the cytoplasm as mRNAs encoding the Gag and Gag-Pol capsid proteins as well as genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged by Gag into virions undergoing assembly at the plasma membrane (PM). Because Gag is sufficient to drive the assembly of virus-like particles even in the absence of gRNA binding, whether viral RNA trafficking plays an active role in the native assembly pathway is unknown. In this study, we tested the effects of modulating the cytoplasmic abundance or distribution of full-length viral RNAs on Gag trafficking and assembly in the context of single cells. Increasing full-length viral RNA abundance or distribution had little-to-no net effect on Gag assembly competency when provided in trans. In contrast, artificially tethering full-length viral RNAs or surrogate gag-pol mRNAs competent for Gag synthesis to non-PM membranes or the actin cytoskeleton severely reduced net virus particle production. These effects were explained, in large part, by RNA-directed changes to Gag's distribution in the cytoplasm, yielding aberrant subcellular sites of virion assembly. Interestingly, RNA-dependent disruption of Gag trafficking required either of two cis-acting RNA regulatory elements: the 5′ packaging signal (Psi) bound by Gag during genome encapsidation or, unexpectedly, the Rev response element (RRE), which regulates the nuclear export of gRNAs and other intron-retaining viral RNAs. Taken together, these data support a model for native infection wherein structural features of the gag-pol mRNA actively compartmentalize Gag to preferred sites within the cytoplasm and/or PM. IMPORTANCE The spatial distribution of viral mRNAs within the cytoplasm can be a crucial determinant of efficient translation and successful virion production. Here we provide direct evidence that mRNA subcellular trafficking plays an important role in regulating the assembly of human immunodeficiency

  12. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  13. Feature Fusion Based SVM Classifier for Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Julia; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Islam, Md Khaled Ben; Hasan, Md Al Mehedi

    2016-12-18

    For the importance of protein subcellular localization in different branches of life science and drug discovery, researchers have focused their attentions on protein subcellular localization prediction. Effective representation of features from protein sequences plays a most vital role in protein subcellular localization prediction specially in case of machine learning techniques. Single feature representation-like pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), physiochemical property models (PPM), and amino acid index distribution (AAID) contains insufficient information from protein sequences. To deal with such problems, we have proposed two feature fusion representations, AAIDPAAC and PPMPAAC, to work with Support Vector Machine classifiers, which fused PseAAC with PPM and AAID accordingly. We have evaluated the performance for both single and fused feature representation of a Gram-negative bacterial dataset. We have got at least 3% more actual accuracy by AAIDPAAC and 2% more locative accuracy by PPMPAAC than single feature representation.

  14. Subcellular optogenetics – controlling signaling and single-cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Karunarathne, W. K. Ajith; O'Neill, Patrick R.; Gautam, Narasimhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Variation in signaling activity across a cell plays a crucial role in processes such as cell migration. Signaling activity specific to organelles within a cell also likely plays a key role in regulating cellular functions. To understand how such spatially confined signaling within a cell regulates cell behavior, tools that exert experimental control over subcellular signaling activity are required. Here, we discuss the advantages of using optogenetic approaches to achieve this control. We focus on a set of optical triggers that allow subcellular control over signaling through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling proteins, as well as those that inhibit endogenous signaling proteins. We also discuss the specific insights with regard to signaling and cell behavior that these subcellular optogenetic approaches can provide. PMID:25433038

  15. Compressed learning and its applications to subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong-Long; Guo, Li; Jia, Jiong; Xie, Chen-Mao; Zeng, Wen-Cai; Yang, Jie

    2011-09-01

    One of the main challenges faced by biological applications is to predict protein subcellular localization in automatic fashion accurately. To achieve this in these applications, a wide variety of machine learning methods have been proposed in recent years. Most of them focus on finding the optimal classification scheme and less of them take the simplifying the complexity of biological systems into account. Traditionally, such bio-data are analyzed by first performing a feature selection before classification. Motivated by CS (Compressed Sensing) theory, we propose the methodology which performs compressed learning with a sparseness criterion such that feature selection and dimension reduction are merged into one analysis. The proposed methodology decreases the complexity of biological system, while increases protein subcellular localization accuracy. Experimental results are quite encouraging, indicating that the aforementioned sparse methods are quite promising in dealing with complicated biological problems, such as predicting the subcellular localization of Gram-negative bacterial proteins.

  16. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in apoptosis of detrusor muscle in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongwen; Yuan, Xiaobin; Hu, Caoyang; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Hongfei; Wang, Dong; Chi, Junjie; Jing, Qiang; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been proven to be associated with apoptosis and plays a critical role in the development of many diabetic complications. In the pathogenesis of diabetic cystopathy (DCP), the role of ERS is still unclear. Our study is aimed at the investigation of the involvement of ERS-associated detrusor muscle apoptosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. At different timepoints (4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction of type 1 diabetic rat models), hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining was performed to assess the histological changes of the diabetic detrusor; the sub-cellular ultrastructure, especially the zone of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to identify the enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of three hallmarks of ERS-associated apoptosis, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase12, was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Light microscopic impairments of histology, including progressive loosely packed muscle bundles and increased fibrous tissue, can be seen; the ultrastructural changes featuring the swollen and fused cisternaes in ER zone and deformed nucleus were also observed in the detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). Increased apoptosis and elevated expression of GRP78, CHOP, and caspase12 at both protein and mRNA levels in a time-dependent fashion were detected. The occurrence of ERS-associated apoptosis may be involved in the development of DCP and may contribute to the diabetic detrusor impairment. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:65-72, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  19. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC. PMID:25802992

  20. Detection and subcellular localization of dehydrin-like proteins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) embryos.

    PubMed

    Carjuzaa, P; Castellión, M; Distéfano, A J; del Vas, M; Maldonado, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dehydrin content in mature embryos of two quinoa cultivars, Sajama and Baer La Unión. Cultivar Sajama grows at 3600-4000 m altitude and is adapted to the very arid conditions characteristic of the salty soils of the Bolivian Altiplano, with less than 250 mm of annual rain and a minimum temperature of -1 degrees C. Cultivar Baer La Unión grows at sea-level regions of central Chile and is adapted to more humid conditions (800 to 1500 mm of annual rain), fertile soils, and temperatures above 5 degrees C. Western blot analysis of embryo tissues from plants growing under controlled greenhouse conditions clearly revealed the presence of several dehydrin bands (at molecular masses of approximately 30, 32, 50, and 55 kDa), which were common to both cultivars, although the amount of the 30 and 32 kDa bands differed. Nevertheless, when grains originated from their respective natural environments, three extra bands (at molecular masses of approximately 34, 38, and 40 kDa), which were hardly visible in Sajama, and another weak band (at a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa) were evident in Baer La Unión. In situ immunolocalization microscopy detected dehydrin-like proteins in all axis and cotyledon tissues. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, dehydrins were found associated with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, and proplastid membranes. The presence of dehydrins was also recognized in the matrix of protein bodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were associated with the euchromatin. Upon examining dehydrin composition and subcellular localization in two quinoa cultivars belonging to highly contrasting environments, we conclude that most dehydrins detected here were constitutive components of the quinoa seed developmental program, but some of them (specially the 34, 38, and 40 kDa bands) may reflect quantitative molecular differences

  1. A nuclear export signal in the N-terminal regulatory domain of IκBα controls cytoplasmic localization of inactive NF-κB/IκBα complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tony T.; Kudo, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Minoru; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate subcellular localization is crucial for regulation of NF-κB function. Herein, we show that latent NF-κB complexes can enter and exit the nucleus in preinduction states. The nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) sequestered NF-κB/IκBα complexes in the nucleus. Using deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a previously uncharacterized nuclear export sequence in residues 45–54 of IκBα that was required for cytoplasmic localization of inactive complexes. This nuclear export sequence also caused nuclear exclusion of heterologous proteins in a LMB-sensitive manner. Importantly, a LMB-insensitive CRM1 mutant (Crm1-K1) abolished LMB-induced nuclear accumulation of the inactive complexes. Moreover, a cell-permeable p50 NF-κB nuclear localization signal peptide also blocked these LMB effects. These results suggest that NF-κB/IκBα complexes shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus by a nuclear localization signal-dependent nuclear import and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export. The LMB-induced nuclear complexes could not bind DNA and were inaccessible to signaling events, because LMB inhibited NF-κB activation without affecting the subcellular localization of upstream kinases IKKβ and NIK. Our findings indicate that the dominant nuclear export over nuclear import contributes to the largely cytoplasmic localization of the inactive complexes to achieve efficient NF-κB activation by extracellular signals. PMID:10655476

  2. Regulation of the Drosophila hypoxia-inducible factor alpha Sima by CRM1-dependent nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Romero, Nuria M; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Roth, Peggy; Cauerhff, Ana; Samakovlis, Christos; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-05-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-alpha) proteins are regulated by oxygen levels through several different mechanisms that include protein stability, transcriptional coactivator recruitment, and subcellular localization. It was previously reported that these transcription factors are mainly nuclear in hypoxia and cytoplasmic in normoxia, but so far the molecular basis of this regulation is unclear. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster HIF-alpha protein Sima shuttles continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We identified the relevant nuclear localization signal and two functional nuclear export signals (NESs). These NESs are in the Sima basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and promote CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Site-directed mutagenesis of either NES provoked Sima nuclear retention and increased transcriptional activity, suggesting that nuclear export contributes to Sima regulation. The identified NESs are conserved and probably functional in the bHLH domains of several bHLH-PAS proteins. We propose that rapid nuclear export of Sima regulates the duration of cellular responses to hypoxia.

  3. Nuclear export of the yeast hexokinase 2 protein requires the Xpo1 (Crm1)-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Rafael; Herrero, Pilar; Moreno, Fernando

    2009-07-31

    Hexokinase 2 (Hxk2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was one of the first metabolic enzymes described as a multifunctional protein. Hxk2 has a double subcellular localization; it functions as a glycolytic enzyme in the cytoplasm and as a regulator of gene transcription of several Mig1-regulated genes in the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which Hxk2 enters and leaves the nucleus is still unknown. In low glucose conditions, Hxk2 is phosphorylated at serine 14, but how this phosphorylation may affect glucose signaling is also unknown at the moment. Here we report that the Hxk2 protein is an export substrate of the carrier protein Xpo1 (Crm1). We also show that the Hxk2 nuclear export and the binding of Hxk2 and Xpo1 involve two leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NES) located between leucine 23 and isoleucine 33 (NES1) and between leucine 310 and leucine 318 (NES2). We also show that the Hxk2 phosphorylation at serine 14 promotes Hxk2 export by facilitating the association of Hxk2 with Xpo1. Our study uncovers a new cargo for the Xpo1 yeast exportin and identifies Hxk2 phosphorylation at serine 14 as a regulatory mechanism that controls its nuclear exit in function of the glucose levels.

  4. Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Engerer, Peter; Plucinska, Gabriela; Thong, Rachel; Trovò, Laura; Paquet, Dominik; Godinho, Leanne

    2016-04-02

    In vivo imaging provides unprecedented access to the dynamic behavior of cellular and subcellular structures in their natural context. Performing such imaging experiments in higher vertebrates such as mammals generally requires surgical access to the system under study. The optical accessibility of embryonic and larval zebrafish allows such invasive procedures to be circumvented and permits imaging in the intact organism. Indeed the zebrafish is now a well-established model to visualize dynamic cellular behaviors using in vivo microscopy in a wide range of developmental contexts from proliferation to migration and differentiation. A more recent development is the increasing use of zebrafish to study subcellular events including mitochondrial trafficking and centrosome dynamics. The relative ease with which these subcellular structures can be genetically labeled by fluorescent proteins and the use of light microscopy techniques to image them is transforming the zebrafish into an in vivo model of cell biology. Here we describe methods to generate genetic constructs that fluorescently label organelles, highlighting mitochondria and centrosomes as specific examples. We use the bipartite Gal4-UAS system in multiple configurations to restrict expression to specific cell-types and provide protocols to generate transiently expressing and stable transgenic fish. Finally, we provide guidelines for choosing light microscopy methods that are most suitable for imaging subcellular dynamics.

  5. Subcellular localization of mammalian type II membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Aturaliya, Rajith N; Fink, J Lynn; Davis, Melissa J; Teasdale, Melvena S; Hanson, Kelly A; Miranda, Kevin C; Forrest, Alistair R R; Grimmond, Sean M; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kanamori, Mutsumi; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Teasdale, Rohan D

    2006-05-01

    Application of a computational membrane organization prediction pipeline, MemO, identified putative type II membrane proteins as proteins predicted to encode a single alpha-helical transmembrane domain (TMD) and no signal peptides. MemO was applied to RIKEN's mouse isoform protein set to identify 1436 non-overlapping genomic regions or transcriptional units (TUs), which encode exclusively type II membrane proteins. Proteins with overlapping predicted InterPro and TMDs were reviewed to discard false positive predictions resulting in a dataset comprised of 1831 transcripts in 1408 TUs. This dataset was used to develop a systematic protocol to document subcellular localization of type II membrane proteins. This approach combines mining of published literature to identify subcellular localization data and a high-throughput, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach to experimentally characterize subcellular localization. These approaches have provided localization data for 244 and 169 proteins. Type II membrane proteins are localized to all major organelle compartments; however, some biases were observed towards the early secretory pathway and punctate structures. Collectively, this study reports the subcellular localization of 26% of the defined dataset. All reported localization data are presented in the LOCATE database (http://www.locate.imb.uq.edu.au).

  6. SUBCELLULAR PHARMACOKINETICS AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR LIBRARY FOCUSING (R826652)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Subcellular pharmacokinetics (SP) optimizes biology-related factors in the design of libraries for high throughput screening by defining comparatively narrow ranges of properties (lipophilicity, amphiphilicity, acidity, reactivity, 3D-structural features) of t...

  7. Regulating Subcellular Metal Homeostasis: The Key to Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Khurram; Rasheed, Sultana; Kobayashi, Takanori; Seki, Motoaki; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) are essential micronutrient mineral elements for living organisms, as they regulate essential cellular processes, such as chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis (Fe, Cu, and Mn), respiration (Fe and Cu), and transcription (Zn). The storage and distribution of these minerals in various cellular organelles is strictly regulated to ensure optimal metabolic rates. Alteration of the balance in uptake, distribution, and/or storage of these minerals severely impairs cellular metabolism and significantly affects plant growth and development. Thus, any change in the metal profile of a cellular compartment significantly affects metabolism. Different subcellular compartments are suggested to be linked through complex retrograde signaling networks to regulate cellular metal homeostasis. Various genes regulating cellular and subcellular metal distribution have been identified and characterized. Understanding the role of these transporters is extremely important to elaborate the signaling between various subcellular compartments. Moreover, modulation of the proteins involved in cellular metal homeostasis may help in the regulation of metabolism, adaptability to a diverse range of environmental conditions, and biofortification. Here, we review progress in the understanding of different subcellular metal transport components in plants and discuss the prospects of regulating cellular metabolism and strategies to develop biofortified crop plants. PMID:27547212

  8. Bioavailability of purified subcellular metals to a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Yao, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the authors used a supply of naturally contaminated oysters to investigate how the subcellular metal distribution and the metal burden in prey affected the transfer of metals to a marine fish, the grunt Terapon jarbua. The oysters, Crassostrea hongkongensis, each with different contamination histories, were collected and separated into 3 subcellular fractions: 1) metal-rich granules, 2) cellular debris, and 3) a combined fraction of organelles, heat-denatured proteins, and metallothionein-like proteins, defined as the trophically available metal (TAM). These purified fractions showed a wide range of metal concentrations and were fed to the fish for a period of 7 d at a daily comparable feeding rate of 3% of fish body weight. After 7 d exposure, the newly absorbed metals were mainly distributed in the intestine and liver, indicating a significant tissue-specific trophic transfer, especially for Cd and Cu. The trophic transfer factors (TTFs) showed a sequence of cellular debris >TAM > metal-rich granules, suggesting the impact of subcellular distribution in prey on metal bioavailability. However, significant inverse relationships between the TTFs and the metal concentrations in diets were also found in the present study, especially for Cd and Zn. The subcellular metal compartmentalization might be less important than the metal concentration in prey influencing the trophic transfer. The authors' results have important implications for bioavailability and environmental assessment of dietary metals.

  9. SUBCELLULAR PHARMACOKINETICS AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR LIBRARY FOCUSING (R826652)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Subcellular pharmacokinetics (SP) optimizes biology-related factors in the design of libraries for high throughput screening by defining comparatively narrow ranges of properties (lipophilicity, amphiphilicity, acidity, reactivity, 3D-structural features) of t...

  10. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  11. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  12. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  13. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  14. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  15. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  16. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  17. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  18. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  19. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120 through 130, and the Export Administration... authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including software) pursuant to the exemption at...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 22 CFR Parts 120 through 130, and the Export Administration... authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including software) pursuant to the exemption at...

  2. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  3. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  4. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  5. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  6. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  7. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  8. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  9. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  10. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  11. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  14. Protein quality control at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Kathleen; Braakman, Ineke

    2016-10-15

    The ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is the protein folding 'factory' of the secretory pathway. Virtually all proteins destined for the plasma membrane, the extracellular space or other secretory compartments undergo folding and maturation within the ER. The ER hosts a unique PQC (protein quality control) system that allows specialized modifications such as glycosylation and disulfide bond formation essential for the correct folding and function of many secretory proteins. It is also the major checkpoint for misfolded or aggregation-prone proteins that may be toxic to the cell or extracellular environment. A failure of this system, due to aging or other factors, has therefore been implicated in a number of serious human diseases. In this article, we discuss several key features of ER PQC that maintain the health of the cellular secretome. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  16. Endoplasmic-Reticulum Calcium Depletion and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bultynck, Geert; Parys, Jan B.; De Smedt, Humbert; Missiaen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an intracellular Ca2+ store not only sets up cytosolic Ca2+ signals, but, among other functions, also assembles and folds newly synthesized proteins. Alterations in ER homeostasis, including severe Ca2+ depletion, are an upstream event in the pathophysiology of many diseases. On the one hand, insufficient release of activator Ca2+ may no longer sustain essential cell functions. On the other hand, loss of luminal Ca2+ causes ER stress and activates an unfolded protein response, which, depending on the duration and severity of the stress, can reestablish normal ER function or lead to cell death. We will review these various diseases by mainly focusing on the mechanisms that cause ER Ca2+ depletion. PMID:21441595

  17. Nonvesicular Lipid Transfer from the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The transport of lipids from their synthesis site at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to different target membranes could be mediated by both vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms. Nonvesicular lipid transport appears to be the major transport route of certain lipid species, and could be mediated by either spontaneous lipid transport or by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). Although nonvesicular lipid transport has been extensively studied for more than four decades, its underlying mechanism, advantage and regulation, have not been fully explored. In particular, the function of LTPs and their involvement in intracellular lipid movement remain largely controversial. In this article, we describe the pathways by which lipids are synthesized at the ER and delivered to different cellular membranes, and discuss the role of LTPs in lipid transport both in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:23028121

  18. An endoplasmic reticulum-specific cyclophilin.

    PubMed Central

    Hasel, K W; Glass, J R; Godbout, M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1991-01-01

    Cyclophilin is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that is inhibited by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. A degenerate oligonucleotide based on a conserved cyclophilin sequence was used to isolate cDNA clones representing a ubiquitously expressed mRNA from mice and humans. This mRNA encodes a novel 20-kDa protein, CPH2, that shares 64% sequence identity with cyclophilin. Bacterially expressed CPH2 binds cyclosporin A and is a cyclosporin A-inhibitable peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Cell fractionation of rat liver followed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that CPH2 is not cytosolic but rather is located exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that cyclosporin A mediates its effect on cells through more than one cyclophilin and that cyclosporin A-induced misfolding of T-cell membrane proteins normally mediated by CPH2 plays a role in immunosuppression. Images PMID:1710767

  19. Structural organization of the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Voeltz, Gia K.; Rolls, Melissa M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2002-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system but consists of various domains that perform different functions. Structurally distinct domains of this organelle include the nuclear envelope (NE), the rough and smooth ER, and the regions that contact other organelles. The establishment of these domains and the targeting of proteins to them are understood to varying degrees. Despite its complexity, the ER is a dynamic structure. In mitosis it must be divided between daughter cells and domains must be re-established, and even in interphase it is constantly rearranged as tubules extend along the cytoskeleton. Throughout these rearrangements the ER maintains its basic structure. How this is accomplished remains mysterious, but some insight has been gained from in vitro systems. PMID:12370207

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yueh; Kanehara, Kazue

    2017-01-01

    Roots are the frontier of plant body to perceive underground environmental change. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response represents circumvention of cellular stress caused by various environmental changes; however, a limited number of studies are available on the ER stress responses in roots. Here, we report the tunicamycin (TM) -induced ER stress response in Arabidopsis roots by monitoring expression patterns of immunoglobulin-binding protein 3 (BiP3), a representative marker for the response. Roots promptly responded to the TM-induced ER stress through the induction of similar sets of ER stress-responsive genes. However, not all cells responded uniformly to the TM-induced ER stress in roots, as BiP3 was highly expressed in root tips, an outer layer in elongation zone, and an inner layer in mature zone of roots. We suggest that ER stress response in roots has tissue specificity. PMID:28298914

  1. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2017-06-20

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a broad localization throughout the cell and forms direct physical contacts with all other classes of membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM). A number of protein tethers that mediate these contacts have been identified, and study of these protein tethers has revealed a multiplicity of roles in cell physiology, including regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and signaling as well as control of lipid traffic and homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the cross talk between the ER and the PM mediated by direct contacts. We review factors that tether the two membranes, their properties, and their dynamics in response to the functional state of the cell. We focus in particular on the role of ER-PM contacts in nonvesicular lipid transport between the two bilayers mediated by lipid transfer proteins.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kaser, A; Blumberg, R S

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) is increasingly recognized to play a prominent role as an important intermediary between the commensal microbiota and the intestinal immune system. Moreover, it is now recognized that intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may arise primarily from IEC dysfunction due to unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a consequence of genetic disruption of X box binding protein-1 function. In addition to primary (genetic) abnormalities of the unfolded protein response, a variety of secondary (inflammation and environmental) factors are also likely to be important regulators of ER stress. ER stress pathways are also well known to regulate (and be regulated by) autophagy pathways. Therefore, the host's ability to manage ER stress is likely to be a major pathway in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation that arises primarily from the IEC. Herein we discuss ER stress in the IEC as both an originator and perpetuator of intestinal inflammation in IBD.

  4. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Hirakawa, Tomoya; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption.

  5. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Hirakawa, Tomoya; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption. PMID:27437400

  6. Log exports by port, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Volumes and average values of log exports by port have been compiled by quarter for 1987. The tables show the four Northwest customs districts by ports, species, and destinations. These data were received from the U.S. Department of Commerce too late to be published in the 1987 quarterly reports, "Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest...

  7. Hardwood Blanks Expand Export Opportunities

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Hansen; Philip A. Araman

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the latest statistics pertaining to the export of hardwood lumber to the Pacific Rim; discusses possible reasons for the emergence and growth of this market; offers alternatives to rough hardwood lumber (two forms of value-added, hardwood blanks); and develops estimates of prices needed at the mill to earn a 30% return on investment from the...

  8. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  9. Physicist sentenced for export violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-08-01

    J Reece Roth, a retired University of Tennessee plasma physicist convicted of violating the American Arms Export Control Act, is planning to appeal against a four-year prison sentence handed down last month. "It's an appeal against everything, including the verdict and the sentence," says his lawyer Thomas Dundon.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-10-14

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity.

  11. Lifeguard Inhibits Fas Ligand-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum-Calcium Release Mandatory for Apoptosis in Type II Apoptotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Urresti, Jorge; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Coccia, Elena; Arévalo, Juan Carlos; Castellano, José; Fernández-Sanz, Celia; Galenkamp, Koen M O; Planells-Ferrer, Laura; Moubarak, Rana S; Llecha-Cano, Núria; Reix, Stéphanie; García-Dorado, David; Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Comella, Joan X

    2016-01-15

    Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Lifeguard (LFG) is a death receptor antagonist mainly expressed in the nervous system that specifically blocks Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis. To investigate its mechanism of action, we studied its subcellular localization and its interaction with members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. We performed an analysis of LFG subcellular localization in murine cortical neurons and found that LFG localizes mainly to the ER and Golgi. We confirmed these results with subcellular fractionation experiments. Moreover, we show by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that LFG interacts with Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, but not with Bax or Bak, and this interaction likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. We further investigated the relationship between LFG and Bcl-XL in the inhibition of apoptosis and found that LFG protects only type II apoptotic cells from FasL-induced death in a Bcl-XL dependent manner. The observation that LFG itself is not located in mitochondria raises the question as to whether LFG in the ER participates in FasL-induced death. Indeed, we investigated the degree of calcium mobilization after FasL stimulation and found that LFG inhibits calcium release from the ER, a process that correlates with LFG blockage of cytochrome c release to the cytosol and caspase activation. On the basis of our observations, we propose that there is a required step in the induction of type II apoptotic cell death that involves calcium mobilization from the ER and that this step is modulated by LFG.

  12. Lifeguard Inhibits Fas Ligand-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum-Calcium Release Mandatory for Apoptosis in Type II Apoptotic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Urresti, Jorge; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Coccia, Elena; Arévalo, Juan Carlos; Castellano, José; Fernández-Sanz, Celia; Galenkamp, Koen M. O.; Planells-Ferrer, Laura; Moubarak, Rana S.; Llecha-Cano, Núria; Reix, Stéphanie; García-Dorado, David; Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Comella, Joan X.

    2016-01-01

    Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Lifeguard (LFG) is a death receptor antagonist mainly expressed in the nervous system that specifically blocks Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis. To investigate its mechanism of action, we studied its subcellular localization and its interaction with members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. We performed an analysis of LFG subcellular localization in murine cortical neurons and found that LFG localizes mainly to the ER and Golgi. We confirmed these results with subcellular fractionation experiments. Moreover, we show by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that LFG interacts with Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, but not with Bax or Bak, and this interaction likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. We further investigated the relationship between LFG and Bcl-XL in the inhibition of apoptosis and found that LFG protects only type II apoptotic cells from FasL-induced death in a Bcl-XL dependent manner. The observation that LFG itself is not located in mitochondria raises the question as to whether LFG in the ER participates in FasL-induced death. Indeed, we investigated the degree of calcium mobilization after FasL stimulation and found that LFG inhibits calcium release from the ER, a process that correlates with LFG blockage of cytochrome c release to the cytosol and caspase activation. On the basis of our observations, we propose that there is a required step in the induction of type II apoptotic cell death that involves calcium mobilization from the ER and that this step is modulated by LFG. PMID:26582200

  13. De novo translation initiation on membrane-bound ribosomes as a mechanism for localization of cytosolic protein mRNAs to the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Sujatha; Reid, David W.; Cox, Amanda H.

    2014-01-01

    The specialized protein synthesis functions of the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum compartments are conferred by the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway, which directs the cotranslational trafficking of signal sequence-encoding mRNAs from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although subcellular mRNA distributions largely mirror the binary pattern predicted by the SRP pathway model, studies in mammalian cells, yeast, and Drosophila have also demonstrated that cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs are broadly represented on ER-bound ribosomes. A mechanism for such noncanonical mRNA localization remains, however, to be identified. Here, we examine the hypothesis that de novo translation initiation on ER-bound ribosomes serves as a mechanism for localizing cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs to the ER. As a test of this hypothesis, we performed single molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of subcellular mRNA distributions and report that a substantial fraction of mRNAs encoding the cytosolic protein GAPDH resides in close proximity to the ER. Consistent with these data, analyses of subcellular mRNA and ribosome distributions in multiple cell lines demonstrated that cytosolic protein mRNA-ribosome distributions were strongly correlated, whereas signal sequence-encoding mRNA-ribosome distributions were divergent. Ribosome footprinting studies of ER-bound polysomes revealed a substantial initiation codon read density enrichment for cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs. We also demonstrate that eukaryotic initiation factor 2α is bound to the ER via a salt-sensitive, ribosome-independent mechanism. Combined, these data support ER-localized translation initiation as a mechanism for mRNA recruitment to the ER. PMID:25142066

  14. De novo translation initiation on membrane-bound ribosomes as a mechanism for localization of cytosolic protein mRNAs to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Sujatha; Reid, David W; Cox, Amanda H; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2014-10-01

    The specialized protein synthesis functions of the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum compartments are conferred by the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway, which directs the cotranslational trafficking of signal sequence-encoding mRNAs from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although subcellular mRNA distributions largely mirror the binary pattern predicted by the SRP pathway model, studies in mammalian cells, yeast, and Drosophila have also demonstrated that cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs are broadly represented on ER-bound ribosomes. A mechanism for such noncanonical mRNA localization remains, however, to be identified. Here, we examine the hypothesis that de novo translation initiation on ER-bound ribosomes serves as a mechanism for localizing cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs to the ER. As a test of this hypothesis, we performed single molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of subcellular mRNA distributions and report that a substantial fraction of mRNAs encoding the cytosolic protein GAPDH resides in close proximity to the ER. Consistent with these data, analyses of subcellular mRNA and ribosome distributions in multiple cell lines demonstrated that cytosolic protein mRNA-ribosome distributions were strongly correlated, whereas signal sequence-encoding mRNA-ribosome distributions were divergent. Ribosome footprinting studies of ER-bound polysomes revealed a substantial initiation codon read density enrichment for cytosolic protein-encoding mRNAs. We also demonstrate that eukaryotic initiation factor 2α is bound to the ER via a salt-sensitive, ribosome-independent mechanism. Combined, these data support ER-localized translation initiation as a mechanism for mRNA recruitment to the ER. © 2014 Jagannathan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  15. Cholesterol Depletion Alters Cardiomyocyte Subcellular Signaling and Increases Contractility

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Victoria J.; Abou Samra, Abdul B.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Lasley, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane cholesterol levels play an important factor in regulating cell function. Sarcolemmal cholesterol is concentrated in lipid rafts and caveolae, which are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. The scaffolding protein caveolin permits the enrichment of cholesterol in caveolae, and caveolin interactions with numerous proteins regulate their function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute reductions in cardiomyocyte cholesterol levels alter subcellular protein kinase activation, intracellular Ca2+ and contractility. Methods: Ventricular myocytes, isolated from adult Sprague Dawley rats, were treated with the cholesterol reducing agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, 5 mM, 1 hr, room temperature). Total cellular cholesterol levels, caveolin-3 localization, subcellular, ERK and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, contractility, and [Ca2+]i were assessed. Results: Treatment with MβCD reduced cholesterol levels by ~45 and shifted caveolin-3 from cytoskeleton and triton-insoluble fractions to the triton-soluble fraction, and increased ERK isoform phosphorylation in cytoskeletal, cytosolic, triton-soluble and triton-insoluble membrane fractions without altering their subcellular distributions. In contrast the primary effect of MβCD was on p38 subcellular distribution of p38α with little effect on p38 phosphorylation. Cholesterol depletion increased cardiomyocyte twitch amplitude and the rates of shortening and relaxation in conjunction with increased diastolic and systolic [Ca2+]i. Conclusions: These results indicate that acute reductions in membrane cholesterol levels differentially modulate basal cardiomyocyte subcellular MAPK signaling, as well as increasing [Ca2+]i and contractility. PMID:27441649

  16. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit... financial period is 12 months or less, the exporter shall furnish a certification to the Treasurer, CCC... Assistant Treasurer, CCC, certifying that the commodities have been exported. The certification must include...

  17. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit... financial period is 12 months or less, the exporter shall furnish a certification to the Treasurer, CCC... Assistant Treasurer, CCC, certifying that the commodities have been exported. The certification must include...

  18. 7 CFR 1488.9a - Evidence of export for commodities delivered before export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMODITIES Financing of Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit... financial period is 12 months or less, the exporter shall furnish a certification to the Treasurer, CCC... Assistant Treasurer, CCC, certifying that the commodities have been exported. The certification must include...

  19. 15 CFR 30.3 - Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic Export Information filer... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.3 Electronic Export... follows: § 30.3 Electronic Export Information filer requirements, parties to export transactions,...

  20. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... making comparisons of export price or constructed export price with normal value. (See section 777A(d)...

  1. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... making comparisons of export price or constructed export price with normal value. (See section 777A(d)...

  2. 19 CFR 351.414 - Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed export price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.414 Comparison of normal value with export price (constructed... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Comparison of normal value with export price... value and, in an investigation, prices used as the basis for export price or constructed export price...

  3. 75 FR 70905 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the National Export Initiative, and to provide advice regarding how to promote U.S. exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: December 9, 2010... Export Council was first established by Executive Order on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on...

  4. 76 FR 9550 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the National Export Initiative, and to provide advice regarding how to promote U.S. exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: March 11, 2011... Export Council was first established by Executive Order on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on...

  5. 76 FR 66693 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss topics related to the National Export Initiative, and to provide advice regarding how to promote U.S. exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: November 16... Export Council was first established by Executive Order on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on...

  6. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number 0Y521 Series, Items..., which amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by establishing a new Export Control... the EAR. The ECCN 0Y521 series will be used for items that warrant control on the CCL but are not...

  7. The N-Glycosylation Modification of LHBs (Large Surface Proteins of HBV) Effects on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Cell Proliferation and its Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenxiang; Cao, Yongmei; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Guoan; Lu, Jiangyang; Zhang, Jinqian; Hou, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Background The mutations of LHBs in pre-S, especially in pre-S2, are definitive in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with HBV. However, the mechanisms of the N-glycosylation modification in LHBs are unclear. The N-glycosylation modification of LHBs affects Endoplasmic Reticulum stress, cell proliferation and its secretion which was further studied. Objectives The objectives of our studies was to indentified that modification of LHBs by N glycosylation modulate their secretion, affect ER stress or expression of cycling, cell cycle and proliferation. Materials and Methods The LHBs was mutated; then expression of proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and EAED path of L02 cells affected by LHBs and its mutations was evaluated. LHBs proteins bound to multiubiquitin chains and its glycosylation motif were studied. The subcellular localization and secretion of LHBs and its mutations were identified. The effect on cell cycle and proliferation by LHBs and its mutations were detected. Results These data demonstrated that the N-glycosylation motifs of LHBs were associated with ER stress. The N15S, N123S, and N177S mutated LHBs proteins could induce overexpression of EDEM in L02 cells. LHBs and its mutated proteins contained p62-derived UBA domain, which could affect expression of cyclins. The subcellular localization of LHBs in endoplasmic reticulum was similar to its mutations. The secretion of LHBs was blocked by N320K mutation, which could induce an increase in G1 phase and inhibition of S phase, and inhibited mitotic entry. Conclusions In conclusion, our studies powerfully demonstrated that modification of LHBs by N glycosylation could modulate their secretion, affect ER stress or expression of cycling, cell cycle and proliferation. The N320K may be the key sites N-linked glycosylation modification of LHBs. It may be a mechanism of HBV-induced HCC. PMID:24282423

  8. 7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.6 Export certificate. Each shipment of bees and honeybee germ plasm arriving in the United States from an approved... national government of the exporting region. (a) Adult honeybees. (1) For adult honeybees, the export...

  9. 7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.6 Export certificate. Each shipment of bees and honeybee germ plasm arriving in the United States from an approved... national government of the exporting region. (a) Adult honeybees. (1) For adult honeybees, the export...

  10. 7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.6 Export certificate. Each shipment of bees and honeybee germ plasm arriving in the United States from an approved... national government of the exporting region. (a) Adult honeybees. (1) For adult honeybees, the export...

  11. 7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.6 Export certificate. Each shipment of bees and honeybee germ plasm arriving in the United States from an approved... national government of the exporting region. (a) Adult honeybees. (1) For adult honeybees, the export...

  12. 7 CFR 322.6 - Export certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.6 Export certificate. Each shipment of bees and honeybee germ plasm arriving in the United States from an approved... national government of the exporting region. (a) Adult honeybees. (1) For adult honeybees, the export...

  13. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program...

  14. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program...

  15. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program...

  16. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  17. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  18. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  19. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... business August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN...

  20. 78 FR 54238 - President's Export Council; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... International Trade Administration President's Export Council; Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export... least one week in advance of the meeting on the President's Export Council Web site at http://trade.gov...

  1. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  2. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  3. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  4. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... facilitate the creation of jobs in the United States through the promotion of exports, and to ensure the... of goods, services, and agricultural products. Improved export performance will, in turn, create good... helping firms-- especially small businesses--overcome the hurdles to entering new export markets, by...

  5. 27 CFR 4.80 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 4.80 Section 4.80... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE General Provisions § 4.80 Exports. The regulations in this part shall not apply to wine exported in bond....

  6. 78 FR 37518 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Lee Roy Perez, Inmate... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). ] Specifically, Perez was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting and causing to...

  7. 77 FR 60379 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Phillip Andro Jamison...'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Jamison was convicted of knowingly and willfully exporting from the United States to England...

  8. 77 FR 60378 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Anna Fermanova, 4708... York, Anna Fermanova (``Fermanova'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control... willfully attempting to export from the United States to Russia night sighting equipment...

  9. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  10. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr... convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2006 & Supp. IV 2010)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Molina was convicted of knowingly and willfully attempting to export and...

  11. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  12. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  13. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  14. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except...

  15. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  16. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export means...

  17. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as cushions...

  19. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...

  20. 10 CFR 430.65 - Exported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exported products. 430.65 Section 430.65 Energy DEPARTMENT... Enforcement § 430.65 Exported products. Pursuant to section 330 of the Act, this part shall not apply to any covered product if (a) such covered product is manufactured, sold, or held for sale for export from the...

  1. 40 CFR 90.909 - Export exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export exemptions. 90.909 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.909 Export exemptions. (a) A new nonroad engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the engine itself, is...

  2. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  3. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental United...

  4. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility for...

  5. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  6. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...

  7. 27 CFR 7.60 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports. 7.60 Section 7.60... TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES General Provisions § 7.60 Exports. This part shall not apply to malt beverages exported in bond. ...

  8. 40 CFR 211.208 - Export provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export provisions. 211.208 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.208 Export provisions. (a) The outside of each package or container containing a hearing protective device intended solely for export must be so labeled...

  9. 15 CFR 2015.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2015.3 Section... Export certificates. (a) To claim the in-quota rate of duty on sugar-containing products of a..., in the form and manner determined by the United States Customs Service, that a valid export...

  10. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...

  11. 78 FR 61953 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Timothy Gormley, Inmate... engaging in transactions relating to exporting amplifiers to China and India without obtaining the required... assessment and a $1,000 criminal fine. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or...

  12. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  13. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  14. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  15. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  16. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 28.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the...

  17. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Export insurance. 351.520 Section 351.520 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.218 - Exporter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Assessments § 1280.218 Exporter. Each person exporting live lambs shall remit to the Board an assessment on such lambs at the time of export at the...

  19. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  20. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination...

  1. Subcellular analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis in primary cultures of skeletal muscle myotubes.

    PubMed

    Brini, M; De Giorgi, F; Murgia, M; Marsault, R; Massimino, M L; Cantini, M; Rizzuto, R; Pozzan, T

    1997-01-01

    Specifically targeted aequorin chimeras were used for studying the dynamic changes of Ca2+ concentration in different subcellular compartments of differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes. For the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus, the previously described chimeric aequorins were utilized; for the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), a new chimera (srAEQ) was developed by fusing an aequorin mutant with low Ca2+ affinity to the resident protein calsequestrin. By using an appropriate transfection procedure, the expression of the recombinant proteins was restricted, within the culture, to the differentiated myotubes, and the correct sorting of the various chimeras was verified with immunocytochemical techniques. Single-cell analysis of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) with fura-2 showed that the myotubes responded, as predicted, to stimuli known to be characteristic of skeletal muscle fibers, i.e., KCl-induced depolarization, caffeine, and carbamylcholine. Using these stimuli in cultures transfected with the various aequorin chimeras, we show that: 1) the nucleoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]n) closely mimics the [Ca2+]c, at rest and after stimulation, indicating a rapid equilibration of the two compartments also in this cell type; 2) on the contrary, mitochondria amplify 4-6-fold the [Ca2+]c increases; and 3) the lumenal concentration of Ca2+ within the SR ([Ca2+]sr) is much higher than in the other compartments (> 100 microM), too high to be accurately measured also with the aequorin mutant with low Ca2+ affinity. An indirect estimate of the resting value (approximately 1-2 mM) was obtained using Sr2+, a surrogate of Ca2+ which, because of the lower affinity of the photoprotein for this cation, elicits a lower rate of aequorin consumption. With Sr2+, the kinetics and amplitudes of the changes in [cation2+]sr evoked by the various stimuli could also be directly analyzed.

  2. Functional Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Poplar (Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides) Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase1

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Dae Kyun; Mah, Nancy; Ellis, Brian E.; Douglas, Carl J.

    2001-01-01

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), a member of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase superfamily, plays a central role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin biosynthesis and possibly anchors a phenylpropanoid enzyme complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A full-length cDNA encoding C4H was isolated from a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) young leaf cDNA library. RNA-blot analysis detected C4H transcripts in all organs tested, but the gene was most highly expressed in developing xylem. C4H expression was also strongly induced by elicitor-treatment in poplar cell cultures. To verify the catalytic activity of the putative C4H cDNA, two constructs, C4H and C4H fused to the FLAG epitope (C4H::FLAG), were expressed in yeast. Immunoblot analysis showed that C4H was present in the microsomal fraction and microsomal preparations from strains expressing both enzymes efficiently converted cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid with high specific activities. To investigate the subcellular localization of C4H in vivo, a chimeric C4H-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was engineered and stably expressed in Arabidopsis. Confocal laser microscopy analysis clearly showed that in Arabidopsis the C4H::GFP chimeric enzyme was localized to the ER. When expressed in yeast, the C4H::GFP fusion enzyme was also active but displayed significantly lower specific activity than either C4H or C4H::FLAG in in vitro and in vivo enzyme assays. These data definitively show that C4H is localized to the ER in planta. PMID:11351095

  3. Oleosin of Subcellular Lipid Droplets Evolved in Green Algae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L.; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

  4. Subcellular localization and displacement by diuretics of the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site (PBS) from rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Lukeman, S.; Fanestil, D.

    1986-03-05

    Although the PBS has been identified in many organs, its function and cellular location are speculative. Using rapid filtration, binding of (/sup 3/H)RO 5-4864 (*RO) (.75 nM) was assessed in four subcellular fractions (.3 mg/ml) derived from depapillated rat kidney by differential centrifugation: N (450g x 2 min), O (13,000 x 10), P (105,000 x 30), and S. The binding distribution was: N-18%, O-74%, P-6%, and S-2%. Marker enzyme analysis revealed that O was enriched in mitochondria (M), lysosomes (L), peroxisomes (P), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but not plasma membrane, and that N contained small amounts (10-15%) of markers for the above. Repeated washing of O removed ER enzymes but preserved *RO binding. O was further fractionated with centrifugation (57,000g x 4 hr) on a linear sucrose gradient (18-65%); *RO binding then comigrated with M but not P and L markers. Centrifugation of isolated M (5500 x 10 min) on another linear sucrose gradient (37-65%) gave low and high density bands, which contained 65% and 35% of *RO binding activity, resp. *RO binding in O was specific, saturable, reversible, and inhibited by diuretics. Inhibitors with the highest potency were indacrinone (K/sub d/ = 35 ..mu..M), hydrochlorothiazide (100 ..mu..M), and ethacrynic acid (325 ..mu..M). Low potency inhibitors (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 1 mM) included amiloride, triamterene, furosemide, bumetanide, and ozolinone.

  5. Photo-convertible fluorescent proteins as tools for fresh insights on subcellular interactions in plants.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, N; Jaipargas, E-A; Wozny, M R; Barton, K A; Mathur, N; Delfosse, K; Mathur, J

    2016-08-01

    Optical highlighters comprise photo-activatable, photo-switchable and photo-convertible fluorescent proteins and are relatively recent additions to the toolbox utilized for live cell imaging research. Here, we provide an overview of four photo-convertible fluorescent proteins (pcFP) that are being used in plant cell research: Eos, Kaede, Maple and Dendra2. Each of these proteins has a significant advantage over other optical highlighters since their green fluorescent nonconverted forms and red fluorescent converted forms are generally clearly visible at expression levels that do not appear to interfere with subcellular dynamics and plant development. These proteins have become increasingly useful for understanding the role of transient and sustained interactions between similar organelles. Tracking of single organelles after green-to-red conversion has provided novel insights on plastids and their stroma-filled extensions and on the formation of mega-mitochondria. Similarly colour recovery after photo-conversion has permitted the estimation of nuclear endo-reduplication events and is being developed further to image protein trafficking within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. We have also applied photo-convertible proteins to create colour-differentiation between similar cell types to follow their development. Both the green and red fluorescent forms of these proteins are compatible with other commonly used single coloured FPs. This has allowed us to develop simultaneous visualization schemes for up to five types of organelles and investigate organelle interactivity. The advantages and caveats associated with the use of photo-convertible fluorescent proteins are discussed.

  6. Distinctive Subcellular Inhibition of Cytokine-Induced Src by Salubrinal and Fluid Flow

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Wenxiao; Yan, Jing-long; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo

    2014-01-01

    A non-receptor protein kinase Src plays a crucial role in fundamental cell functions such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. While inhibition of Src is reported to contribute to chondrocyte homeostasis, its regulation at a subcellular level by chemical inhibitors and mechanical stimulation has not been fully understood. In response to inflammatory cytokines and stress to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that increase proteolytic activities in chondrocytes, we addressed two questions: Do cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) induce location-dependent Src activation? Can cytokine-induced Src activation be suppressed by chemically alleviating ER stress or by applying fluid flow? Using live cell imaging with two Src biosensors (i.e., cytosolic, and plasma membrane-bound biosensors) for a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique, we determined cytosolic Src activity as well as membrane-bound Src activity in C28/I2 human chondrocytes. In response to TNFα and IL1β, both cytosolic and plasma membrane-bound Src proteins were activated, but activation in the cytosol occurred earlier than that in the plasma membrane. Treatment with salubrinal or guanabenz, two chemical agents that attenuate ER stress, significantly decreased cytokine-induced Src activities in the cytosol, but not in the plasma membrane. In contrast, fluid flow reduced Src activities in the plasma membrane, but not in the cytosol. Collectively, the results demonstrate that Src activity is differentially regulated by salubrinal/guanabenz and fluid flow in the cytosol and plasma membrane. PMID:25157407

  7. Subcellular localization of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases involved in the processing of N-linked oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, A.; Johnson, K.D.; Szumilo, T.; Elbein, A.D.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Using isopycnic sucrose gradients, we have ascertained the subcellular location of several enzymes involved in the processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins in developing cotyledons of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. All are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi complex as determined by co-sedimentation with the ER marker, NADH-cytochrome c reductase, or the Golgi marker, glucan synthase I. Glucosidase activity, which removes glucose residues from Glc/sub 3/Man/sub 9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/, was found exclusively in the ER. All other processing enzymes, which act subsequent to the glucose trimming steps, are associates with Golgi. These include mannosidase I (removes 1-2 mannose residues from Man/sub 6-9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), mannosidase II (removes mannose residues from GlcNAcMan/sub 5/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), and fucosyltransferase (transfers a fucose residue to the Asn-linked GlcNAc of appropriate glycans). The authors have previously reported the localization of two other glycan modifying enzymes (GlcNAc-transferase and xylosyltranferase activities) in the Golgi complex. Attempts at subfractionation of the Golgi fraction on shallow sucrose gradients yielded similar patterns of distribution for all the Golgi processing enzymes. Subfractionation on Percoll gradients resulted in two peaks of the Golgi marker enzyme inosine diphosphatase, whereas the glycan processing enzymes were all enriched in the peak of lower density. These results do not lend support to the hypothesis that N-linked oligosaccharide processing enzymes are associated with Golgi cisternae of different densities.

  8. Subcellular localization and regulation of StarD4 protein in macrophages and fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Agudo, Daniel; Calderon-Dominguez, Maria; Ren, Shunlin; Marques, Dalila; Redford, Kaye; Medina-Torres, Miguel Angel; Hylemon, Phillip; Gil, Gregorio; Pandak, William M.

    2011-01-01

    StarD4 is a member of the StarD4 subfamily of START domain proteins with a characteristic lipid binding pocket specific for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to define StarD4 subcellular localization, regulation, and function. Immunobloting showed that StarD4 is highly expressed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1, in human THP-1 macrophages, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages), and hepatocytes. In 3T3-L1 cells and THP-1 macrophages, StarD4 protein appeared localized to the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). More specifically, in THP-1 macrophages StarD4 co-localized to areas of the ER enriched in Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), and was closely associated with budding lipid droplets. The addition of purified StarD4 recombinant protein to an in vitro assay increased ACAT activity 2-fold, indicating that StarD4 serves as a rate-limiting step in cholesteryl ester formation by delivering cholesterol to ACAT-1-enriched ER. In addition, StarD4 protein was found to be highly regulated and to redistribute in response to sterol levels. In summary, these observations, together with our previous findings demonstrating the ability of increased StarD4 expression to increase bile acid synthesis and cholesteryl ester formation, provide strong evidence for StarD4 as a highly regulated, non-vesicular, directional, intracellular transporter of cholesterol which plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:21767660

  9. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual function of the nuclear export signal of the Borna disease virus nucleoprotein in nuclear export activity and binding to viral phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Mako; Sakai, Madoka; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-07-11

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of leucine at positions 128 and 131 and isoleucine at positions 133 and 136 overlaps with one of two predicted binding sites for the viral phosphoprotein (P). A previous study demonstrated that higher expression of BoDV-P inhibits nuclear export of N; however, the function of N NES in the interaction with P remains unclear. We examined the subcellular localization, viral polymerase activity, and P-binding ability of BoDV-N NES mutants. We also characterized a recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) harboring an NES mutation of N. BoDV-N with four alanine-substitutions in the leucine and isoleucine residues of the NES impaired its cytoplasmic localization and abolished polymerase activity and P-binding ability. Although an alanine-substitution at position 131 markedly enhanced viral polymerase activity as determined by a minigenome assay, rBoDV harboring this mutation showed expression of viral RNAs and proteins relative to that of wild-type rBoDV. Our results demonstrate that BoDV-N NES has a dual function in BoDV replication, i.e., nuclear export of N and an interaction with P, affecting viral polymerase activity in the nucleus.

  11. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Airway Smooth Muscle. Implications for Airway Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel P.; Rector, Michael V.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Li, Xiaopeng; Stroik, Mallory R.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Thompson, Michael A.; Prakash, Y. S.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Meyerholz, David K.; Seow, Chun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: An asthma-like airway phenotype has been described in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Whether these findings are directly caused by loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function or secondary to chronic airway infection and/or inflammation has been difficult to determine. Objectives: Airway contractility is primarily determined by airway smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CFTR is expressed in airway smooth muscle and directly affects airway smooth muscle contractility. Methods: Newborn pigs, both wild type and with CF (before the onset of airway infection and inflammation), were used in this study. High-resolution immunofluorescence was used to identify the subcellular localization of CFTR in airway smooth muscle. Airway smooth muscle function was determined with tissue myography, intracellular calcium measurements, and regulatory myosin light chain phosphorylation status. Precision-cut lung slices were used to investigate the therapeutic potential of CFTR modulation on airway reactivity. Measurements and Main Results: We found that CFTR localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum compartment of airway smooth muscle and regulates airway smooth muscle tone. Loss of CFTR function led to delayed calcium reuptake following cholinergic stimulation and increased myosin light chain phosphorylation. CFTR potentiation with ivacaftor decreased airway reactivity in precision-cut lung slices following cholinergic stimulation. Conclusions: Loss of CFTR alters porcine airway smooth muscle function and may contribute to the airflow obstruction phenotype observed in human CF. Airway smooth muscle CFTR may represent a therapeutic target in CF and other diseases of airway narrowing. PMID:26488271

  12. A novel animal model of hearing loss caused by acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Yoshiaki; Mutai, Hideki; Mizutari, Kunio; Nakagawa, Susumu; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Many stimuli such as ischemia, hypoxia, heat shock, amino acid starvation, and gene mutation, exhibit a cellular response called endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress induces expression of a series of genes, leading to cell survival or apoptosis. Previously, we found that in an animal model of hearing loss caused by acute mitochondrial dysfunction, several ER stress markers including C/EBP homologous protein were induced in the cochlear lateral wall. To elucidate the mechanism of hearing loss caused by ER stress, we established a novel animal model of hearing loss by perilymphatic perfusion of tunicamycin, an ER stress activator that inhibits N-acetylglucosamine transferases. Subacute and progressive hearing loss was observed at all sound frequencies studied, and stimulation of ER stress marker genes was noted in the cochlea. The outer hair cells were the most sensitive to ER stress in the cochlea. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated degeneration of the subcellular organelles of the inner hair cells and nerve endings of the spiral ganglion cells. This newly established animal model of hearing loss from ER stress will provide additional insight into the mechanism of sensorineural hearing loss.

  13. Green fluorescent protein-based monitoring of endoplasmic reticulum redox poise

    PubMed Central

    Birk, Julia; Ramming, Thomas; Odermatt, Alex; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Pathological endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is tightly linked to the accumulation of reactive oxidants, which can be both upstream and downstream of ER stress. Accordingly, detrimental intracellular stress signals are amplified through establishment of a vicious cycle. An increasing number of human diseases are characterized by tissue atrophy in response to ER stress and oxidative injury. Experimental monitoring of stress-induced, time-resolved changes in ER reduction-oxidation (redox) states is therefore important. Organelle-specific examination of redox changes has been facilitated by the advent of genetically encoded, fluorescent probes, which can be targeted to different subcellular locations by means of specific amino acid extensions. These probes include redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs) and the yellow fluorescent protein-based redox biosensor HyPer. In the case of roGFPs, variants with known specificity toward defined redox couples are now available. Here, we review the experimental framework to measure ER redox changes using ER-targeted fluorescent biosensors. Advantages and drawbacks of plate-reader and microscopy-based measurements are discussed, and the power of these techniques demonstrated in the context of selected cell culture models for ER stress. PMID:23781233

  14. Alteration of endoplasmic reticulum lipid rafts contributes to lipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Boslem, Ebru; Weir, Jacquelyn M; MacIntosh, Gemma; Sue, Nancy; Cantley, James; Meikle, Peter J; Biden, Trevor J

    2013-09-13

    Chronic saturated fatty acid exposure causes β-cell apoptosis and, thus, contributes to type 2 diabetes. Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reduced ER-to-Golgi protein trafficking have been implicated, the exact mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids trigger β-cell death remain elusive. Using mass spectroscopic lipidomics and subcellular fractionation, we demonstrate that palmitate pretreatment of MIN6 β-cells promoted ER remodeling of both phospholipids and sphingolipids, but only the latter was causally linked to lipotoxic ER stress. Thus, overexpression of glucosylceramide synthase, previously shown to protect against defective protein trafficking and ER stress, partially reversed lipotoxic reductions in ER sphingomyelin (SM) content and aggregation of ER lipid rafts, as visualized using Erlin1-GFP. Using both lipidomics and a sterol response element reporter assay, we confirmed that free cholesterol in the ER was also reciprocally modulated by chronic palmitate and glucosylceramide synthase overexpression. This is consistent with the known coregulation and association of SM and free cholesterol in lipid rafts. Inhibition of SM hydrolysis partially protected against ATF4/C/EBP homology protein induction because of palmitate. Our results suggest that loss of SM in the ER is a key event for initiating β-cell lipotoxicity, which leads to disruption of ER lipid rafts, perturbation of protein trafficking, and initiation of ER stress.

  15. Secreted protein-based reporter systems for monitoring inflammatory events: critical interference by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Kasai, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Nagai, Kaoru; Kubota, Takeo; Yao, Jian; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-08-31

    A number of recent reports have used secreted protein-based reporter assays for monitoring intercellular and intracellular events involved in inflammation. However, we found that these assay systems are critically affected by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. When reporter mesangial cells that express secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the control of NF-kappaB were exposed to IL-1beta or TNF-alpha, induction of SEAP activity was markedly reduced under ER stress conditions. Downregulation of SEAP activity was observed regardless of cell types and type of regulatory elements; e.g., when reporter hepatocytes that express SEAP under the control of the dioxin responsive elements were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or benzo[a]pyrene, ER stress similarly suppressed the increase in SEAP activity despite its transcriptional upregulation. Activity of constitutively expressed SEAP in various cells was also reduced by ER stress in a magnitude-dependent manner, and it was associated with disturbed subcellular transport of SEAP to the Golgi. Furthermore, interference by ER stress was similarly observed in other reporter assay using secreted luciferase. These results evidenced critical interference by ER stress in secreted protein-based reporter systems. The suppression of reporter responses by ER stress should be considered carefully for experimental design and interpretation of data when secreted protein-based reporter systems are used for investigation.

  16. New insights in the role of Bcl-2 Bcl-2 and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rudner, J; Jendrossek, V; Belka, C

    2002-10-01

    The oncogenic protein Bcl-2 which is expressed in membranes of different subcellular organelles protects cells from apoptosis induced by endogenic stimuli. Most of the results published so far emphasise the importance of Bcl-2 at the mitochondria. Several recent observations suggest a role of Bcl-2 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bcl-2 located at the ER was shown to interfere with apoptosis induction by Bax, ceramides, ionising radiation, serum withdrawal and c-myc expression. Although the detailed functions of Bcl-2 at the ER remain elusive, several speculative mechanisms may be supposed. For instance, Bcl-2 at the ER may regulate calcium fluxes between the ER and the mitochondria. In addition, Bcl-2 is able to interact with the endoplasmic protein Bap31 thus avoiding caspase activation at the ER. Bcl-2 may also abrogate the function of ER located pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 like proteins by heterodimerization. Current data on the function of Bcl-2 at the ER, its role for the modulation of calcium fluxes and its influence on caspase activation at the ER are reviewed.

  17. Nox4-Derived H2O2 Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Signaling through Local Ras Activation▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ru-Feng; Ma, Zhenyi; Liu, Zhe; Terada, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    The unfolded-protein response (UPR) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been linked to oxidant production, although the molecular details and functional significance of this linkage are poorly understood. Using a ratiometric H2O2 sensor targeted to different subcellular compartments, we demonstrate specific production of H2O2 by the ER in response to the stressors tunicamycin and HIV-1 Tat, but not to thapsigargin or dithiothreitol. Knockdown of the oxidase Nox4, expressed on ER endomembranes, or expression of ER-targeted catalase blocked ER H2O2 production by tunicamycin and Tat and prevented the UPR following exposure to these two agonists, but not to thapsigargin or dithiothreitol. Tat also triggered Nox4-dependent, sustained activation of Ras leading to ERK, but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR, pathway activation. Cell fractionation studies and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions of GTPase effector binding domains confirmed selective activation of endogenous RhoA and Ras on the ER surface, with ER-associated K-Ras acting upstream of the UPR and downstream of Nox4. Notably, the Nox4/Ras/ERK pathway induced autophagy, and suppression of autophagy unmasked cell death and prevented differentiation of endothelial cells in 3-dimensional matrix. We conclude that the ER surface provides a platform to spatially organize agonist-specific Nox4-dependent oxidative signaling events, leading to homeostatic protective mechanisms rather than oxidative stress. PMID:20457808

  18. Development of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress during Experimental Oxalate Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Bgatova, N P; Zharikov, A Yu; Motina, N V; Lapii, G A; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural study of the kidney was performed in rats with oxalate nephrolithiasis. Specific features of endoplasmic reticulum stress were evaluated during nephrolithiasis and treatment with α-tocopherol. We observed the signs of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of proapoptotic pathways and injury to the cell lining in nephron tubules and collecting ducts. Ultrastructural changes were found in the organelles, nuclei, and cell membranes of epitheliocytes. A relationship was revealed between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative damage, which developed at the early state of lithogenesis.

  19. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee... provide CCC an evidence of export report for each shipment made under the payment guarantee. This report... participation in any of the following CCC or USDA export program: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export...

  20. 7 CFR 1493.470 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee... provide CCC an evidence of export report for each shipment made under the payment guarantee. This report... participation in any of the following CCC or USDA export program: Export Enhancement Program, Dairy Export...

  1. 19 CFR 19.38 - Supervision of exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the sales ticket procedure for exportation shall be exported only under Customs supervision as... exportation transactions, examination of articles being exported, and audits of the proprietor's records. (b) Supervision of ATF bonded exports. Customs officers may conduct general supervision of exportations...

  2. 19 CFR 122.118 - Exportation from port of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... copy. (2) Exportation copy. The exportation copy shall be filed by the exporting airline when clearance... aircraft's clearance documents. The exportation and clearance copies shall show the exporting airline's... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exportation from port of arrival. 122.118...

  3. 77 FR 21969 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Export Trade Certificate of Review from Panama Poultry Export Quota, Inc. SUMMARY: The Export Trading... Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (``PAN-PEQ''), 1700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20006... Poultry Export Quota, Inc. members include the following entities: USA Poultry & Egg Export Council...

  4. Expression of chromosomal regional maintenance protein-1 may be associated with subcellular survivin expression in human gastric and colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shintani, Michiko; Tashiro, Akito; Sangawa, Akiko; Yamao, Naoki; Kamoshida, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is a potential prognostic marker and molecular target for anticancer therapies. Chromosomal regional maintenance protein-1 (CRM-1) mediates the nuclear export of proteins such as survivin. The aims of the present study were to compare the expression and subcellular localization of CRM-1 in human gastric and colorectal carcinomas and to assess the association between CRM-1 and survivin expression in these tumor types. The nuclear and cytoplasmic CRM-1 expression rates in gastric carcinoma were 61% (42/69) and 29% (20/69), respectively, while the nuclear and cytoplasmic CRM-1 expression rates in colorectal carcinoma were 55% (43/78) and 37% (29/78), respectively. Nuclear and cytoplasmic CRM-1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression in colorectal carcinoma, but not gastric carcinoma. These results indicate that CRM-1 expression patterns differ between gastric and colorectal carcinomas and thus, we hypothesize that CRM-1-mediated nuclear export of survivin may be deregulated in gastric carcinoma. Therefore, CRM-1 may exhibit different functions in gastric and colorectal carcinoma. PMID:28105170

  5. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1.

    PubMed

    Corum, Daniel G; Tsichlis, Philip N; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (~5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ~1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.

  6. Export Controls and Nonproliferation Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Export Control Classification Numbers ( ECCNs ). The ECCNs do not correspond one-for-one to single commodity technology, or software items: in some...cases an ECCN covers only a single, narrowly defined item, but in many cases multiple related items fall under the same ECCN . The reason for control of...each ECCN category may be single or multiple (e.g., for both National Security and Nuclear Proliferation) but the reason(s) listed may in fact apply

  7. Diabetes: Targeting endoplasmic reticulum to combat juvenile diabetes.

    PubMed

    Urano, Fumihiko

    2014-03-01

    Limited options for clinical management of patients with juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus call for a novel therapeutic paradigm. Two innovative studies support endoplasmic reticulum as an emerging target for combating both autoimmune and heritable forms of this disease.

  8. Exporting vices: smoking in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1988-08-01

    Marketing statistics of U.S. cigarette exports indicate that despite notable declines in sales at home, sales to foreign countries, especially in Asia, Africa and Latin America, are growing dramatically. World cigarette consumption has doubled since 1960, mainly in less developed countries. In 1987, American tobacco firms increased cigarette exports 76%, or 1 billion in new sales. U.S. smoking dropped in 1985-86 from 30.4 to 26.5% of adults. In Taiwan, tariffs were removed from U.S. cigarettes, lowering prices from $2.86 to 1.30, and raising U.S. imports from $4.4 to 119 million. South Korean trade barriers were removed in May 1988, creating a large market. Japan imports 32% of exported U.S. cigarettes, has 120 million smokers, and is the beneficiary of a massive advertising campaign centered on young people and women. The Asian response to the smoking phenomenon is emerging in the form of restrictions on timing of TV advertising (Japan and Taiwan), health warnings (Japan and Taiwan), and restriction of smoking in public places (Hong Kong).

  9. NAS Panel faults export controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p < 0.0001) and the surrounding cytoplasm (p < 0.0001). Moreover, we demonstrate the mechanical response of cells to Latrunculin-A, a drug that reduces cell stiffness by preventing cytoskeletal assembly. Our technique can therefore generate valuable insights into cellular biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  11. Predicting protein subcellular locations with feature selection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yudong; He, Jianfeng; Li, Xinlei; Feng, Kaiyan; Lu, Lin; Feng, Kairui; Kong, Xiangyin; Lu, Wencong

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a strategy to predict the subcellular locations of proteins by combining various feature selection methods. Firstly, proteins are coded by amino-acid composition and physicochemical properties, then these features are arranged by Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance method and further filtered by feature selection procedure. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm is used as a prediction model to predict the protein subcellular locations, and gains a correct prediction rate of 70.63%, evaluated by Jackknife cross-validation. Results of feature selection also enable us to identify the most important protein properties. The prediction software is available for public access on the website http://chemdata.shu.edu.cn/sub22/, which may play a important complementary role to a series of web-server predictors summarized recently in a review by Chou and Shen (Chou, K.C., Shen, H.B. Natural Science, 2009, 2, 63-92, http://www.scirp.org/journal/NS/).

  12. Genetically Targeted Fluorogenic Macromolecules for Subcellular Imaging and Cellular Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Magenau, Andrew J. D.; Saurabh, Saumya; Andreko, Susan K.; Telmer, Cheryl A.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of cellular functions by anchoring macromolecules to specified organelles may reveal a new area of therapeutic potential and clinical treatment. In this work, a unique phenotype was evoked by influencing cellular behavior through the modification of subcellular structures with genetically targetable macromolecules. These fluorogen-functionalized polymers, prepared via controlled radical polymerization, were capable of exclusively decorating actin, cytoplasmic, or nuclear compartments of living cells expressing localized fluorgen-activating proteins. The macromolecular fluorogens were optimized by establishing critical polymer architecture-biophysical property relationships which impacted binding rates, binding affinities, and the level of internalization. Specific labeling of subcellular structures was realized at nanomolar concentrations of polymer, in the absence of membrane permeabilization or transduction domains, and fluorogen-modified polymers were found to bind to protein intact after delivery to the cytosol. Cellular motility was found to be dependent on binding of macromolecular fluorogens to actin structures causing rapid cellular ruffling without migration. PMID:26183934

  13. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro-and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. In conclusion, it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  14. Mechanosensitive subcellular rheostasis drives emergent single-cell mechanical homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shinuo; Shao, Yue; Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical homeostasis--a fundamental process by which cells maintain stable states under environmental perturbations--is regulated by two subcellular mechanotransducers: cytoskeleton tension and integrin-mediated focal adhesions (FAs). Here, we show that single-cell mechanical homeostasis is collectively driven by the distinct, graduated dynamics (rheostasis) of subcellular cytoskeleton tension and FAs. Such rheostasis involves a mechanosensitive pattern wherein ground states of cytoskeleton tension and FA determine their distinct reactive paths through either relaxation or reinforcement. Pharmacological perturbations of the cytoskeleton and molecularly modulated integrin catch-slip bonds biased the rheostasis and induced non-homeostasis of FAs, but not of cytoskeleton tension, suggesting a unique sensitivity of FAs in regulating homeostasis. Theoretical modelling revealed myosin-mediated cytoskeleton contractility and catch-slip-bond-like behaviours in FAs and the cytoskeleton as sufficient and necessary mechanisms for quantitatively recapitulating mechanosensitive rheostasis. Our findings highlight the previously underappreciated physical nature of the mechanical homeostasis of cells.

  15. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  16. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    PubMed Central

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies. PMID:26911251

  17. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p < 0.0001) and the surrounding cytoplasm (p < 0.0001). Moreover, we demonstrate the mechanical response of cells to Latrunculin-A, a drug that reduces cell stiffness by preventing cytoskeletal assembly. Our technique can therefore generate valuable insights into cellular biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology. PMID:27845411

  18. Mechanosensitive subcellular rheostasis drives emergent single-cell mechanical homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical homeostasis - a fundamental process by which cells maintain stable states under environmental perturbations - is regulated by two subcellular mechanotransducers: cytoskeleton tension and integrin-mediated focal adhesions (FAs)1-5. Here, we show that single-cell mechanical homeostasis is collectively driven by the distinct, graduated dynamics (rheostasis) of subcellular cytoskeleton tension and FAs. Such rheostasis involves a mechanosensitive pattern wherein ground states of cytoskeleton tension and FA determine their distinct reactive paths via either relaxation or reinforcement. Pharmacological perturbations of the cytoskeleton and molecularly modulated integrin catch-slip bonds biased the rheostasis and induced non-homeostasis of FAs, but not of cytoskeleton tension, suggesting a unique sensitivity of FAs in regulating homeostasis. Theoretical modeling revealed myosin-mediated cytoskeleton contractility and catch-slip-bond-like behaviors in FAs and the cytoskeleton as sufficient and necessary mechanisms for quantitatively recapitulating mechanosensitive rheostasis. Our findings highlight previously underappreciated physical nature of the mechanical homeostasis of cells. PMID:27240108

  19. Global subcellular characterization of protein degradation using quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Larance, Mark; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Kirkwood, Kathryn J; Ly, Tony; Lamond, Angus I

    2013-03-01

    Protein degradation provides an important regulatory mechanism used to control cell cycle progression and many other cellular pathways. To comprehensively analyze the spatial control of protein degradation in U2OS osteosarcoma cells, we have combined drug treatment and SILAC-based quantitative mass spectrometry with subcellular and protein fractionation. The resulting data set analyzed more than 74,000 peptides, corresponding to ~5000 proteins, from nuclear, cytosolic, membrane, and cytoskeletal compartments. These data identified rapidly degraded proteasome targets, such as PRR11 and highlighted a feedback mechanism resulting in translation inhibition, induced by blocking the proteasome. We show this is mediated by activation of the unfolded protein response. We observed compartment-specific differences in protein degradation, including proteins that would not have been characterized as rapidly degraded through analysis of whole cell lysates. Bioinformatic analysis of the entire data set is presented in the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics, a web-based resource, with proteins annotated for stability and subcellular distribution.

  20. Hepatic Subcellular Distribution of (3H)T-2 Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-10

    glucuronide conjugates. Glucuronide conjugates accounted for radiolabel eliminated via the bile. The time course for distri ution of radiolabel in liver...subcellular distribution of T-2 mycotoxin and its metabolites was studied in isolated rat livers perfused with ( 3 HJT-2 toxin. After a 120-min perfusion, the...associated with HT-2, 4-deacetylneosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, and glucuronide conjugates. Glucuronide conjugates accounted for radiolabel eliminated via the

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in periimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Marek; Gye, Myung Chan

    2015-03-01

    Stress coping mechanisms are critical to minimize or overcome damage caused by ever changing environmental conditions. They are designed to promote cell survival. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway is mobilized in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, ultimately in order to regain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Various elements of coping responses to ER stress including Perk, Ask1, Bip, Chop, Gadd34, Ire1, Atf4, Atf6, and Xbp1 have been identified and were found to be inducible in oocytes and preimplantation embryos, suggesting that, as a normal part of the cellular adaptive mechanism, these coping responses, including the UPR, play a pivotal role in the development of preimplantation embryos. As such, the UPR-associated molecules and pathways may become useful markers for the potential diagnosis of stress conditions for preimplantation embryos. After implantation, ER stress-induced coping responses become physiologically important for a normal decidual response, placentation, and early organogenesis. Attenuation of ER stress coping responses by tauroursodeoxycholate and salubrinal was effective for prevention of cell death of cultured embryos. Further elucidation of new and relevant ER stress coping responses in periimplantation embryos might contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of normal development of embryonic development and potentiation of embryonic development in vitro.

  2. Interdigitating reticulum cells in human renal grafts.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, T; Onoda, H

    1991-01-01

    Seventeen human renal graft biopsies taken 1 h to 50 days after transplantation and 3 human renal non-graft biopsies (2 minimal change and 1 non-tumour portion of angiomyolipoma) were investigated with immunoelectron microscopy in order to identify interdigitating reticulum cells (IDC) or dendritic cells (DC) in renal tissues. The antibodies used consisted of a rabbit polyclonal antibody of antihuman S100 beta protein, mouse monoclonal antibodies of antihuman HLA-DR, anti-CD3, and anti-CD1a. IDC or DC were identified in 11 renal grafts. They were found both in the glomerular and interstitial (peritubular) capillary lumens but not in the interstitium of 1 case: both were present in the interstitial capillary lumens and interstitium of another case, and in the interstitium only of 9 cases. In the remaining 6 grafts and 3 non-grafts they were not detected. These 6 grafts and 3 non-grafts did not show any pathological change except for foot process fusion of the glomerular epithelia in 2 cases of minimal change. These findings suggest that IDC or DC are not normally present in human renal tissues. The presence of the cell in the glomerular and peritubular capillary lumens of a biopsy taken after 1 h and their presence in the interstitial capillary lumens of another graft biopsy, suggest that the IDC or DC in human renal grafts are derived from recipients, not donors, and that they migrate from the circulating blood toward the interstitium.

  3. Cancer: Untethering Mitochondria from the Endoplasmic Reticulum?

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Cruz, Maria Sol; Simmen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Following the discovery of the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) as a hub for lipid metabolism in 1990 and its description as one of the first examples for membrane contact sites at the turn of the century, the past decade has seen the emergence of this structure as a potential regulator of cancer growth and metabolism. The mechanistic basis for this hypothesis is that the MAM accommodates flux of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. This flux then determines mitochondrial ATP production, known to be low in many tumors as part of the Warburg effect. However, low mitochondrial Ca2+ flux also reduces the propensity of tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, another cancer hallmark. Numerous regulators of this flux have been recently identified as MAM proteins. Not surprisingly, many fall into the groups of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Given the important role that the MAM could play in cancer, it is expected that proteins mediating its formation are particularly implicated in tumorigenesis. Examples for such proteins are mitofusin-2 and phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 that likely act as tumor suppressors. This review discusses how these proteins that mediate or regulate ER–mitochondria tethering are (or are not) promoting or inhibiting tumorigenesis. The emerging picture of MAMs in cancer seems to indicate that in addition to the downregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ import, MAM defects are but one way how cancer cells control mitochondria metabolism and apoptosis. PMID:28603693

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gwen Marie; Raghuwanshi, Sandeep K.; Rowe, David T.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a homeostatic cellular response in mammalian cells to ensure efficient folding, sorting, and processing of client proteins. In lytic-permissive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), pulse exposure to the chemical ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) followed by recovery resulted in the activation of the EBV immediate-early (BRLF1, BZLF1), early (BMRF1), and late (gp350) genes, gp350 surface expression, and virus release. The protein phosphatase 1 a (PP1a)–specific phosphatase inhibitor Salubrinal (SAL) synergized with TG to induce EBV lytic genes; however, TG treatment alone was sufficient to activate EBV lytic replication. SAL showed ER-stress–dependent and –independent antiviral effects, preventing virus release in human LCLs and abrogating gp350 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)–treated B95-8 cells. TG resulted in sustained BCL6 but not BLIMP1 or CD138 expression, which is consistent with maintenance of a germinal center B-cell, rather than plasma-cell, phenotype. Microarray analysis identified candidate genes governing lytic replication in LCLs undergoing ER stress. PMID:21849482

  5. Might eddies dominate carbon export ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Rixen, M.; Fielding, S.; Mustard, A.; Brown, L.; Sanders, R.

    2003-04-01

    Yes - from a review of recent data sets we present a scale analysis of the potential for globally integrated carbon export, from the surface ocean, due to the vertical transports of mesoscale eddies. Mesoscale eddies are the oceanic equivalent of atmospheric storms, most are a fundamental result of horizontally unstable density gradients on the surface of a rotating sphere (baroclinic instability) and ~ 90% of the oceans energy exchanges take place at this scale. Recent studies from satellite remote sensing and high resolution models show that mesoscale eddies are a ubiquitous feature of the open ocean in both time and space; they are even present in sub-tropical oligotrophic gyres. Individual atmospheric weather systems generally have little ecological impact on terrestrial or marine biological systems. Grass grows and herbivores munch through many cyclone and anticyclone periods. In the open ocean we have a very different picture. The primary producers and herbivores have shorter time scales; time scales that coincide with those of mesoscale eddies. Plankton can have either good or bad weather lifetimes associated with just a single cyclone or anticyclone period. Furthermore, although the spring bloom may be the single largest source of material for the export of carbon from the upper ocean, it is short lived and may not be dominant everywhere in the annual export budget. The magnitude of vertical motion associated with mesoscale eddies is significant on biological timescales both for phytoplankton growth and the development of zooplankton grazing pressure. Critically this motion does not form a closed vertical circulation; baroclinic instability releases potential energy and thus water masses are exchanged both vertically and horizontally across water mass boundaries. Thus mesoscale eddies have been shown to provide a mechanism for export both in the direct transport of biomass downwards out of the surface mixed layer and the fertilisation of an exhausted

  6. Geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, the structure, function, stability, and dynamics of subcellular structures, organelles, and multi-protein complexes have emerged as a leading interest in structural biology. Geometric modeling not only provides visualizations of shapes for large biomolecular complexes but also fills the gap between structural information and theoretical modeling, and enables the understanding of function, stability, and dynamics. This paper introduces a suite of computational tools for volumetric data processing, information extraction, surface mesh rendering, geometric measurement, and curvature estimation of biomolecular complexes. Particular emphasis is given to the modeling of cryo-electron microscopy data. Lagrangian-triangle meshes are employed for the surface presentation. On the basis of this representation, algorithms are developed for surface area and surface-enclosed volume calculation, and curvature estimation. Methods for volumetric meshing have also been presented. Because the technological development in computer science and mathematics has led to multiple choices at each stage of the geometric modeling, we discuss the rationales in the design and selection of various algorithms. Analytical models are designed to test the computational accuracy and convergence of proposed algorithms. Finally, we select a set of six cryo-electron microscopy data representing typical subcellular complexes to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms in handling biomolecular surfaces and explore their capability of geometric characterization of binding targets. This paper offers a comprehensive protocol for the geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes. PMID:23212797

  7. TESTLoc: protein subcellular localization prediction from EST data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic cell has an intricate architecture with compartments and substructures dedicated to particular biological processes. Knowing the subcellular location of proteins not only indicates how bio-processes are organized in different cellular compartments, but also contributes to unravelling the function of individual proteins. Computational localization prediction is possible based on sequence information alone, and has been successfully applied to proteins from virtually all subcellular compartments and all domains of life. However, we realized that current prediction tools do not perform well on partial protein sequences such as those inferred from Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data, limiting the exploitation of the large and taxonomically most comprehensive body of sequence information from eukaryotes. Results We developed a new predictor, TESTLoc, suited for subcellular localization prediction of proteins based on their partial sequence conceptually translated from ESTs (EST-peptides). Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as computational method and EST-peptides are represented by different features such as amino acid composition and physicochemical properties. When TESTLoc was applied to the most challenging test case (plant data), it yielded high accuracy (~85%). Conclusions TESTLoc is a localization prediction tool tailored for EST data. It provides a variety of models for the users to choose from, and is available for download at http://megasun.bch.umontreal.ca/~shenyq/TESTLoc/TESTLoc.html PMID:21078192

  8. Intracellular And Subcellular Partitioning Of Nickel In Aureococcus Anophagefferens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Axe, L.; Wei, L.; Bagheri, S.; Michalopoulou, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Brown tides are caused by Aureococcus anophagefferens, a species of Pelagophyceae, and have been observed in NY/NJ waterways effecting ecosystems by attenuating light, changing water color, reducing eelgrass beds, decreasing shellfisheries, and further impacting the food web by reducing phytoplankton. Although the impact of macronutrients and iron on A. anophagefferens has been well studied, contaminants, and specifically trace metals have not. In long-term experiments designed to investigate the growth and toxicity, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn exposure was evaluated over 10-13 to 10-7 M for the free metal ion. While growth was inhibited or terminated from exposure to Cd and Cu, nickel addition ([Ni2+]: 10-11.23 to 10-10.23 M) promoted A. anophagefferens growth. Short-term experiments are being conducted to better understand mechanistically nickel speciation and distribution. Both total intracellular and subcellular metal concentrations are being assessed with radio-labeled 63Ni. Subcellular fractions are defined as metal-sensitive fractions (MSF) constituting organelles, cell debris, and heat-denatured protein [HDP] and biologically detoxified metal comprising heat-stabilized protein [HSP] and metal-rich granules [MRG]. Based on subcellular distribution, aqueous [Ni2+] concentrations, and A. anophagefferens growth rates, potential reaction pathways promoting A. anophagefferens growth can be addressed.

  9. Motion compensation for in vivo subcellular optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, B; Balaban, R S

    2014-04-01

    In this review, we focus on the impact of tissue motion on attempting to conduct subcellular resolution optical microscopy, in vivo. Our position is that tissue motion is one of the major barriers in conducting these studies along with light induced damage, optical probe loading as well as absorbing and scattering effects on the excitation point spread function and collection of emitted light. Recent developments in the speed of image acquisition have reached the limit, in most cases, where the signal from a subcellular voxel limits the speed and not the scanning rate of the microscope. Different schemes for compensating for tissue displacements due to rigid body and deformation are presented from tissue restriction, gating, adaptive gating and active tissue tracking. We argue that methods that minimally impact the natural physiological motion of the tissue are desirable because the major reason to perform in vivo studies is to evaluate normal physiological functions. Towards this goal, active tracking using the optical imaging data itself to monitor tissue displacement and either prospectively or retrospectively correct for the motion without affecting physiological processes is desirable. Critical for this development was the implementation of near real time image processing in conjunction with the control of the microscope imaging parameters. Clearly, the continuing development of methods of motion compensation as well as significant technological solutions to the other barriers to tissue subcellular optical imaging in vivo, including optical aberrations and overall signal-to-noise ratio, will make major contributions to the understanding of cell biology within the body.

  10. Analysis of Ras/ERK Compartmentalization by Subcellular Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Ibañez, Lorena; Crespo, Piero; Casar, Berta

    2017-01-01

    A vast number of stimuli use the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade to transmit signals from their cognate receptors, in order to regulate multiple cellular functions, including key processes such as proliferation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, and survival. The duration, intensity and specificity of the responses are, in part, controlled by the compartmentalization/subcellular localization of the signaling intermediaries. Ras proteins are found in different plasma membrane microdomains and endomembranes. At these localizations, Ras is subject to site-specific regulatory mechanisms, distinctively engaging effector pathways and switching-on diverse genetic programs to generate a multitude of biological responses. The Ras effector pathway leading to ERKs activation is also subject to space-related regulatory processes. About half of ERK1/2 substrates are found in the nucleus and function mainly as transcription factors. The other half resides in the cytosol and other cellular organelles. Such subcellular distribution enhances the complexity of the Ras/ERK cascade and constitutes an essential mechanism to endow variability to its signals, which enables their participation in the regulation of a broad variety of functions. Thus, analyzing the subcellular compartmentalization of the members of the Ras/ERK cascade constitutes an important factor to be taken into account when studying specific biological responses evoked by Ras/ERK signals. Herein, we describe methods for such purpose.

  11. Geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Xia, Kelin; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the structure, function, stability, and dynamics of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes have emerged as a leading interest in structural biology. Geometric modeling not only provides visualizations of shapes for large biomolecular complexes but also fills the gap between structural information and theoretical modeling, and enables the understanding of function, stability, and dynamics. This paper introduces a suite of computational tools for volumetric data processing, information extraction, surface mesh rendering, geometric measurement, and curvature estimation of biomolecular complexes. Particular emphasis is given to the modeling of cryo-electron microscopy data. Lagrangian-triangle meshes are employed for the surface presentation. On the basis of this representation, algorithms are developed for surface area and surface-enclosed volume calculation, and curvature estimation. Methods for volumetric meshing have also been presented. Because the technological development in computer science and mathematics has led to multiple choices at each stage of the geometric modeling, we discuss the rationales in the design and selection of various algorithms. Analytical models are designed to test the computational accuracy and convergence of proposed algorithms. Finally, we select a set of six cryo-electron microscopy data representing typical subcellular complexes to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithms in handling biomolecular surfaces and explore their capability of geometric characterization of binding targets. This paper offers a comprehensive protocol for the geometric modeling of subcellular structures, organelles, and multiprotein complexes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Calreticulin Is a Receptor for Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Holaska, James M.; Black, Ben E.; Love, Dona C.; Hanover, John A.; Leszyk, John; Paschal, Bryce M.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work, we used a permeabilized cell assay that reconstitutes nuclear export of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) to show that cytosol contains an export activity that is distinct from Crm1 (Holaska, J.M., and B.M. Paschal. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 95: 14739–14744). Here, we describe the purification and characterization of the activity as calreticulin (CRT), a protein previously ascribed to functions in the lumen of the ER. We show that cells contain both ER and cytosolic pools of CRT. The mechanism of CRT-dependent export of PKI requires a functional nuclear export signal (NES) in PKI and involves formation of an export complex that contains RanGTP. Previous studies linking CRT to downregulation of steroid hormone receptor function led us to examine its potential role in nuclear export of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We found that CRT mediates nuclear export of GR in permeabilized cell, microinjection, and transfection assays. GR export is insensitive to the Crm1 inhibitor leptomycin B in vivo, and it does not rely on a leucine-rich NES. Rather, GR export is facilitated by its DNA-binding domain, which is shown to function as an NES when transplanted to a green fluorescent protein reporter. CRT defines a new export pathway that may regulate the transcriptional activity of steroid hormone receptors. PMID:11149926

  13. Subcellular Localization, Stability, and trans-Cleavage Competence of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3-NS4A Complex Expressed in Tetracycline-Regulated Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wölk, Benno; Sansonno, Domenico; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Dammacco, Franco; Rice, Charles M.; Blum, Hubert E.; Moradpour, Darius

    2000-01-01

    A tetracycline-regulated gene expression system and a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies were used to examine the subcellular localization, stability, and trans-cleavage competence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A complex in inducible cell lines. The NS3 serine protease domain and the full-length NS3 protein expressed in the absence of the NS4A cofactor were diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Coexpression of NS4A, however, directed NS3 to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or an ER-like modified compartment, as demonstrated by colocalization with 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide, protein disulfide isomerase, and calnexin, as well as subcellular fractionation analyses. In addition, coexpression with NS4A dramatically increased the intracellular stability of NS3 (mean protein half-life of 26 versus 3 h) and allowed for NS4A-dependent trans-cleavage at the NS4B-NS5A junction. Deletion analyses revealed that the hydrophobic amino-terminal domain of NS4A was required for ER targeting of NS3. These results demonstrate the importance of studying HCV proteins in their biological context and define a well-characterized cell culture system for further analyses of the NS3-NS4A complex and the evaluation of novel antiviral strategies against hepatitis C. PMID:10666260

  14. The Induction of Recombinant Protein Bodies in Different Subcellular Compartments Reveals a Cryptic Plastid-Targeting Signal in the 27-kDa γ-Zein Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Anna; Peters, Jenny; Arcalis, Elsa; Rademacher, Thomas; Lampel, Johannes; Eudes, François; Vitale, Alessandro; Stoger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring storage proteins such as zeins are used as fusion partners for recombinant proteins because they induce the formation of ectopic storage organelles known as protein bodies (PBs) where the proteins are stabilized by intermolecular interactions and the formation of disulfide bonds. Endogenous PBs are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we have used different targeting sequences to determine whether ectopic PBs composed of the N-terminal portion of mature 27 kDa γ-zein added to a fluorescent protein could be induced to form elsewhere in the cell. The addition of a transit peptide for targeting to plastids causes PB formation in the stroma, whereas in the absence of any added targeting sequence PBs were typically associated with the plastid envelope, revealing the presence of a cryptic plastid-targeting signal within the γ-zein cysteine-rich domain. The subcellular localization of the PBs influences their morphology and the solubility of the stored recombinant fusion protein. Our results indicate that the biogenesis and budding of PBs does not require ER-specific factors and therefore, confirm that γ-zein is a versatile fusion partner for recombinant proteins offering unique opportunities for the accumulation and bioencapsulation of recombinant proteins in different subcellular compartments. PMID:25566533

  15. FAX1, a Novel Membrane Protein Mediating Plastid Fatty Acid Export

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nannan; Gügel, Irene Luise; Giavalisco, Patrick; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Soll, Jürgen; Philippar, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis in plants occurs in plastids, and thus, export for subsequent acyl editing and lipid assembly in the cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum is required. Yet, the transport mechanism for plastid fatty acids still remains enigmatic. We isolated FAX1 (fatty acid export 1), a novel protein, which inserts into the chloroplast inner envelope by α-helical membrane-spanning domains. Detailed phenotypic and ultrastructural analyses of FAX1 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that FAX1 function is crucial for biomass production, male fertility and synthesis of fatty acid-derived compounds such as lipids, ketone waxes, or pollen cell wall material. Determination of lipid, fatty acid, and wax contents by mass spectrometry revealed that endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-derived lipids decreased when FAX1 was missing, but levels of several plastid-produced species increased. FAX1 over-expressing lines showed the opposite behavior, including a pronounced increase of triacyglycerol oils in flowers and leaves. Furthermore, the cuticular layer of stems from fax1 knockout lines was specifically reduced in C29 ketone wax compounds. Differential gene expression in FAX1 mutants as determined by DNA microarray analysis confirmed phenotypes and metabolic imbalances. Since in yeast FAX1 could complement for fatty acid transport, we concluded that FAX1 mediates fatty acid export from plastids. In vertebrates, FAX1 relatives are structurally related, mitochondrial membrane proteins of so-far unknown function. Therefore, this protein family might represent a powerful tool not only to increase lipid/biofuel production in plants but also to explore novel transport systems involved in vertebrate fatty acid and lipid metabolism. PMID:25646734

  16. Degradation of secretory immunoglobulin M in B lymphocytes occurs in a postendoplasmic reticulum compartment and is mediated by a cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Amitay, R; Shachar, I; Rabinovich, E; Haimovich, J; Bar-Nun, S

    1992-10-15

    In 38C B lymphocytes, membrane IgM is expressed on the surface, whereas secretory IgM (sIgM) is rapidly degraded. Here, we localize this degradation and characterize the proteases involved in this process. Upon treatment with brefeldin A, degradation of sIgM in 38C cells was strongly inhibited, as was secretion from the sIgM-secreting D2 hybridoma. Moreover, the brefeldin A-induced Golgi resorption resulted in galactosylation of sIgM and partial resistance to endoglycosidase H. However, sIgM avoided degradation neither due to modified terminal glycosylation nor as a consequence of the brefeldin A-induced altered milieu of the endoplasmic reticulum. When these modifications were prevented by inhibiting retrograde transport with nocodazole or by abrogating terminal glycosylation with swainsonine, sIgM was still rescued from degradation. The unaffected breakdown in the presence of nocodazole also argued against recycling of sIgM to be degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, upon removal of brefeldin A, degradation of galactosylated sIgM resumed in 38C cells, as did secretion from D2 cells. These results indicate that functional export of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum is a prerequisite for sIgM degradation. Biochemical characterization of this novel postendoplasmic reticulum/pre-trans-Golgi proteolytic pathway included application of inhibitors to a broad spectrum of proteases. Among the compounds tested, only calpain inhibitor I exerted strong inhibition. The involvement of cysteine protease(s) in the degradation of sIgM was corroborated by the inhibitory effect of diamide. We conclude that B lymphocytes avoid secretion by active and selective targeting of sIgM to a developmentally regulated postendoplasmic reticulum degradation pathway in which degradation is mediated by a cysteine protease.

  17. Kinetics and subcellular localization of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in DHL cells via two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Yongzeng; Chen, Xianlian; Chen, Jianxin; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-04-01

    Two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy was used to measure the 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced PpIX fluorescence in follicular lymphoma DHL cells. Kinetics of 5-ALA-induced PpIX accumulation in DHL cells under various 5-ALA concentrations was studied. We found that during the course of continuous incubation with 5-ALA, the relationship between the DHL cell fluorescence signal and the incubation time showed a biphasic variation. Initially the PpIX signal increased with the incubation time and reached the maximal value at about 3 h, and then it decreased with time during the subsequent incubation period. By labeling the 5-ALA incubated DHL cells with different organelle-specific fluorescence probes: Rhodamine 123 (for mitochondria), DioC6(3) (for endoplasmic reticulum) and LysoTracker Green (for lysosomes) respectively, we found that 5-ALA-induced PpIX was primarily localized in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria; its concentration in the lysosome was much lower. The results suggested that 5-ALA could potentially be an effective photosensitizer in photodynamic purging of DHL cells. Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope is a useful tool for studying 5-ALA-induced PpIX subcellular localization.

  18. Itm2a Expression in the Developing Mouse First Lower Molar, and the Subcellular Localization of Itm2a in Mouse Dental Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Makiko; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Nagata, Kengo; Wada, Hiroko; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Kana; Someya, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sakai, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Itm2a is a type II transmembrane protein with a BRICHOS domain. We investigated the temporospatial mRNA and protein expression patterns of Itm2a in the developing lower first molar, and examined the subcellular localization of Itm2a in murine dental epithelial (mDE6) cells. From the initiation to the bud stage, the in situ and protein signals of Itm2a were not detected in either the dental epithelial or mesenchymal cells surrounding the tooth bud. However, at the bell stage, these signals of Itm2a were primarily observed in the inner enamel epithelium of the enamel organ. After the initiation of the matrix formation, strong signals were detected in ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Itm2a showed a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of the mDE6 cells. The perinuclear-localized Itm2a displayed a frequent overlap with the Golgi apparatus marker, GM130. A tiny amount of Itm2a was colocalized with lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum. Minimal or no overlap between the Itm2a-EGFP signals with the other organelle markers for endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome and mitochondria used in this study noted in the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Itm2a may play a role in cell differentiation during odontogenesis, rather than during the initiation of tooth germ formation, and may be related to the targeting of proteins associated with enamel and dentin matrices in the secretory pathway. PMID:25079563

  19. Microdomains of endoplasmic reticulum within the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal myofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaakinen, Mika; Papponen, Hinni; Metsikkoe, Kalervo

    2008-01-15

    The relationship between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells has remained obscure. In this study, we found that ER- and SR-specific membrane proteins exhibited diverse solubility properties when extracted with mild detergents. Accordingly, the major SR-specific protein Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) remained insoluble in Brij 58 and floated in sucrose gradients while typical ER proteins were partially or fully soluble. Sphingomyelinase treatment rendered SERCA soluble in Brij 58. Immunofluorescence staining for resident ER proteins revealed dispersed dots over I bands contrasting the continuous staining pattern of SERCA. Infection of isolated myofibers with enveloped viruses indicated that interfibrillar protein synthesis occurred. Furthermore, we found that GFP-tagged Dad1, able to incorporate into the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, showed the dot-like structures but the fusion protein was also present in membranes over the Z lines. This behaviour mimics that of cargo proteins that accumulated over the Z lines when blocked in the ER. Taken together, the results suggest that resident ER proteins comprised Brij 58-soluble microdomains within the insoluble SR membrane. After synthesis and folding in the ER-microdomains, cargo proteins and non-incorporated GFP-Dad1 diffused into the Z line-flanking compartment which likely represents the ER exit sites.

  20. Targeting Tryptophan Decarboxylase to Selected Subcellular Compartments of Tobacco Plants Affects Enzyme Stability and in Vivo Function and Leads to a Lesion-Mimic Phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, Stefano; Li, Qiurong; Leech, Mark James; Schuster, Flora; Emans, Neil; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes an early step of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway by decarboxylation of l-tryptophan to produce the protoalkaloid tryptamine. In the present study, recombinant TDC was targeted to the chloroplast, cytosol, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants to evaluate the effects of subcellular compartmentation on the accumulation of functional enzyme and its corresponding enzymatic product. TDC accumulation and in vivo function was significantly affected by the subcellular localization. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that chloroplast-targeted TDC had improved accumulation and/or stability when compared with the cytosolic enzyme. Because ER-targeted TDC was not detectable by immunoblot analysis and tryptamine levels found in transient expression studies and in transgenic plants were low, it was concluded that the recombinant TDC was most likely unstable if ER retained. Targeting TDC to the chloroplast stroma resulted in the highest accumulation level of tryptamine so far reported in the literature for studies on heterologous TDC expression in tobacco. However, plants accumulating high levels of functional TDC in the chloroplast developed a lesion-mimic phenotype that was probably triggered by the relatively high accumulation of tryptamine in this compartment. We demonstrate that subcellular targeting may provide a useful strategy for enhancing accumulation and/or stability of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism and to divert metabolic flux toward desired end products. However, metabolic engineering of plants is a very demanding task because unexpected, and possibly unwanted, effects may be observed on plant metabolism and/or phenotype. PMID:12114570

  1. Integrated femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon fluorescence imaging of subcellular lipid and vesicular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuesong; Lam, Wen Jiun; Cao, Zhe; Hao, Yan; Sun, Qiqi; He, Sicong; Mak, Ho Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-11-01

    The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) as a new imaging modality can be integrated into a femtosecond (fs) nonlinear optical (NLO) microscope system. The fs sources of high pulse peak power are routinely used in multimodal nonlinear microscopy to enable efficient excitation of multiple NLO signals. However, with fs excitations, the SRS imaging of subcellular lipid and vesicular structures encounters significant interference from proteins due to poor spectral resolution and a lack of chemical specificity, respectively. We developed a unique NLO microscope of fs excitation that enables rapid acquisition of SRS and multiple two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals. In the in vivo imaging of transgenic C. elegans animals, we discovered that by cross-filtering false positive lipid signals based on the TPEF signals from tryptophan-bearing endogenous proteins and lysosome-related organelles, the imaging system produced highly accurate assignment of SRS signals to lipid. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the multimodal NLO microscope system could sequentially image lipid structure/content and organelles, such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which are intricately linked to lipid metabolism.

  2. Subcellular propagation of calcium waves in Müller glia does not require autocrine/paracrine purinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Tam T T; Yarishkin, Oleg; Križaj, David

    2016-09-02

    The polarized morphology of radial glia allows them to functionally interconnect different layers of CNS tissues including the retina, cerebellum, and cortex. A likely mechanism involves propagation of transcellular Ca(2+) waves which were proposed to involve purinergic signaling. Because it is not known whether ATP release is required for astroglial Ca(2+) wave propagation we investigated this in mouse Müller cells, radial astroglia-like retinal cells in which in which waves can be induced and supported by Orai/TRPC1 (transient receptor potential isoform 1) channels. We found that depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores triggers regenerative propagation of transcellular Ca(2+) waves that is independent of ATP release and activation of P2X and P2Y receptors. Both the amplitude and kinetics of transcellular, depletion-induced waves were resistant to non-selective purinergic P2 antagonists such as pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS). Thus, store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is itself sufficient for the initiation and subcellular propagation of calcium waves in radial glia.

  3. Neuronal regeneration in C. elegans requires subcellular calcium release by ryanodine receptor channels and can be enhanced by optogenetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Shay, James; McLoed, Melissa; Roodhouse, Kevin; Chung, Samuel H; Clark, Christopher M; Pirri, Jennifer K; Alkema, Mark J; Gabel, Christopher V

    2014-11-26

    Regulated calcium signals play conserved instructive roles in neuronal repair, but how localized calcium stores are differentially mobilized, or might be directly manipulated, to stimulate regeneration within native contexts is poorly understood. We find here that localized calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels is critical in stimulating initial regeneration following traumatic cellular damage in vivo. Using laser axotomy of single neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, we find that mutation of unc-68/RyR greatly impedes both outgrowth and guidance of the regenerating neuron. Performing extended in vivo calcium imaging, we measure subcellular calcium signals within the immediate vicinity of the regenerating axon end that are sustained for hours following axotomy and completely eliminated within unc-68/RyR mutants. Finally, using a novel optogenetic approach to periodically photo-stimulate the axotomized neuron, we can enhance its regeneration. The enhanced outgrowth depends on both amplitude and temporal pattern of excitation and can be blocked by disruption of UNC-68/RyR. This demonstrates the exciting potential of emerging optogenetic technology to beneficially manipulate cell physiology in the context of neuronal regeneration and indicates a link to the underlying cellular calcium signal. Taken as a whole, our findings define a specific localized calcium signal mediated by RyR channel activity that stimulates regenerative outgrowth, which may be dynamically manipulated for beneficial neurotherapeutic effects.

  4. Integrated femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon fluorescence imaging of subcellular lipid and vesicular structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesong; Lam, Wen Jiun; Cao, Zhe; Hao, Yan; Sun, Qiqi; He, Sicong; Mak, Ho Yi; Qu, Jianan Y

    2015-11-01

    The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) as a new imaging modality can be integrated into a femtosecond (fs) nonlinear optical (NLO) microscope system. The fs sources of high pulse peak power are routinely used in multimodal nonlinear microscopy to enable efficient excitation of multiple NLO signals. However, with fs excitations, the SRS imaging of subcellular lipid and vesicular structures encounters significant interference from proteins due to poor spectral resolution and a lack of chemical specificity, respectively. We developed a unique NLO microscope of fs excitation that enables rapid acquisition of SRS and multiple two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals. In the in vivo imaging of transgenic C. elegans animals, we discovered that by cross-filtering false positive lipid signals based on the TPEF signals from tryptophan-bearing endogenous proteins and lysosome-related organelles, the imaging system produced highly accurate assignment of SRS signals to lipid. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the multimodal NLO microscope system could sequentially image lipid structure/content and organelles, such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which are intricately linked to lipid metabolism.

  5. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  6. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J; Jena, Bhanu P; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong; Chen, Xuequn

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival.

  7. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J.; Jena, Bhanu P.; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival. PMID:26083833

  8. Nitric oxide synthase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Xu, K Y; Huso, D L; Dawson, T M; Bredt, D S; Becker, L C

    1999-01-19

    NO. is a free radical that modulates heart function and metabolism. We report that a neuronal-type NO synthase (NOS) is located on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane vesicles and that endogenous NO. produced by SR-associated NOS inhibits SR Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+-dependent biochemical conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline was observed from isolated rabbit cardiac SR vesicles in the presence of NOS substrates and cofactors. Endogenous NO. was generated from the vesicles and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping measurements. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated labeling of cardiac SR vesicles by using anti-neuronal NOS (nNOS), but not anti-endothelial NOS (eNOS) or anti-inducible NOS (iNOS) antibodies, whereas skeletal muscle SR vesicles had no nNOS immunoreactivity. The nNOS immunoreactivity also displayed a pattern consistent with SR localization in confocal micrographs of sections of human myocardium. Western blotting demonstrated that cardiac SR NOS is larger than brain NOS (160 vs. 155 kDa). No immunodetection was observed in cardiac SR vesicles from nNOS knockout mice or with an anti-nNOS mu antibody, suggesting the possibility of a new nNOS-type isoform. 45Ca uptake by cardiac SR vesicles, catalyzed by Ca2+-ATPase, was inhibited by NO. produced endogenously from cardiac SR NOS, and 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, completely prevented this inhibition. These results suggest that a cardiac muscle nNOS isoform is located on SR of cardiac myocytes, where it may respond to intracellular Ca2+ concentration and modulate SR Ca2+ ion active transport in the heart.

  9. Nitric oxide synthase in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai Y.; Huso, David L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Bredt, David S.; Becker, Lewis C.

    1999-01-01

    NO⋅ is a free radical that modulates heart function and metabolism. We report that a neuronal-type NO synthase (NOS) is located on cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane vesicles and that endogenous NO⋅ produced by SR-associated NOS inhibits SR Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+-dependent biochemical conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline was observed from isolated rabbit cardiac SR vesicles in the presence of NOS substrates and cofactors. Endogenous NO⋅ was generated from the vesicles and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping measurements. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated labeling of cardiac SR vesicles by using anti-neuronal NOS (nNOS), but not anti-endothelial NOS (eNOS) or anti-inducible NOS (iNOS) antibodies, whereas skeletal muscle SR vesicles had no nNOS immunoreactivity. The nNOS immunoreactivity also displayed a pattern consistent with SR localization in confocal micrographs of sections of human myocardium. Western blotting demonstrated that cardiac SR NOS is larger than brain NOS (160 vs. 155 kDa). No immunodetection was observed in cardiac SR vesicles from nNOS knockout mice or with an anti-nNOSμ antibody, suggesting the possibility of a new nNOS-type isoform. 45Ca uptake by cardiac SR vesicles, catalyzed by Ca2+-ATPase, was inhibited by NO⋅ produced endogenously from cardiac SR NOS, and 7-nitroindazole, a selective nNOS inhibitor, completely prevented this inhibition. These results suggest that a cardiac muscle nNOS isoform is located on SR of cardiac myocytes, where it may respond to intracellular Ca2+ concentration and modulate SR Ca2+ ion active transport in the heart. PMID:9892689

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Adipocyte Resistin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lefterova, Martina I.; Mullican, Shannon E.; Tomaru, Takuya; Qatanani, Mohammed; Schupp, Michael; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Resistin is a secreted polypeptide that impairs glucose metabolism and, in rodents, is derived exclusively from adipocytes. In murine obesity, resistin circulates at elevated levels but its gene expression in adipose tissue is paradoxically reduced. The mechanism behind the downregulation of resistin mRNA is poorly understood. We investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is characteristic of obese adipose tissue, regulates resistin expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effects of endoplasmic stress inducers on resistin mRNA and secreted protein levels were examined in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, focusing on the expression and genomic binding of transcriptional regulators of resistin. The association between downregulated resistin mRNA and induction of ER stress was also investigated in the adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. RESULTS ER stress reduced resistin mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). Resistin protein was also substantially downregulated, showing a close correspondence with mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as in the fat pads of obese mice. CONCLUSIONS ER stress is a potent regulator of resistin, suggesting that ER stress may underlie the local downregulation of resistin mRNA and protein in fat in murine obesity. The paradoxical increase in plasma may be because of various systemic abnormalities associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:19491212

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Nguyen, Linda; Bailes, Julian E; Lee, John M; Robson, Matthew J; Omalu, Bennet I; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2016-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurofibrillary tau tangles following repetitive neurotrauma. The underlying mechanism linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. The authors investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a link between acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegeneration. The authors used pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral tools to assess the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in linking acute repetitive traumatic brain injury to the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Data from the authors' clinically relevant and validated rodent blast model were compared with those obtained from postmortem human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens from a National Football League player and World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler. The results demonstrated strong correlation of endoplasmic reticulum stress activation with subsequent tau hyperphosphorylation. Various endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were increased in human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was associated with an increase in the tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Docosahexaenoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, improved cognitive performance in the rat model 3 weeks after repetitive blast exposure. The data showed that docosahexaenoic acid administration substantially reduced tau hyperphosphorylation (t = 4.111, p < 0.05), improved cognition (t = 6.532, p < 0.001), and inhibited C/EBP homology protein activation (t = 5.631, p < 0.01). Additionally the data showed, for the first time, that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Docosahexaenoic acid therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  12. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  13. Physicist falls foul of US export law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A retired US plasma physicist is seeking to overturn his conviction last month of offences under the American Arms Export Control Act, which prohibits the export, without a government licence, of technology and data to foreign nationals or nations. A jury in Knoxville, Tennessee, found JReece Roth, 70, guilty of illegally exporting technical information about a military project to develop plasma technology for guiding spyplanes that operate as weapons or surveillance devices.

  14. China's export of labor and its management.

    PubMed

    Wang, S

    1995-01-01

    "This research note presents trends and data on China's labor export from 1979-1991. By 1990, China had deployed over 400,000 workers in 139 countries and regions, with labor export becoming an important source of foreign exchange. Data include China's contract value and number of workers annually; international distribution of Chinese workers; comparative figures for construction; contractors and labor cooperatives; and China's labor exports by corporation." excerpt

  15. Adducin family proteins possess different nuclear export potentials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Mei; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Yi; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2017-05-10

    subcellular localization of the ADD isoforms arises due to their different nuclear export capabilities. In addition, the interaction of ADD1 with RNA polymerase II and zinc-finger protein 331 implicates a potential role for ADD1 in the regulation of transcription.

  16. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-12-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation.

  17. The tight junction protein Z O-2 has several functional nuclear export signals

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza . E-mail: lorenza@fisio.cinvestav.mx; Ponce, Arturo; Alarcon, Lourdes; Jaramillo, Blanca Estela

    2006-10-15

    The tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-2 changes its subcellular distribution according to the state of confluency of the culture. Thus in confluent monolayers, it localizes at the TJ region whereas in sparse cultures it concentrates at the nucleus. The canine sequence of ZO-2 displays four putative nuclear export signals (NES), two at the second PDZ domain (NES-0 and NES-1) and the rest at the GK region (NES-2 and NES-3). The functionality of NES-0 and NES-3 was unknown, hence here we have explored it with a nuclear export assay, injecting into the nucleus of MDCK cells peptides corresponding to the ZO-2 NES sequences chemically coupled to ovalbumin. We show that both NES-0 and NES-3 are functional and sensitive to leptomycin B. We also demonstrate that NES-1, previously characterized as a non functional NES, is rendered capable of nuclear export upon the acquisition of a negative charge at its Ser369 residue. Experiments performed injecting at the nucleus WT and mutated ZO-2-GST fusion proteins revealed the need of both NES-0 and NES-1, and NES-2 and NES-3 for attaining an efficient nuclear exit of the respective amino and middle segments of ZO-2. Moreover, the transfection of MDCK cells with full-length ZO-2 revealed that the mutation of any of the NES present in the molecule was sufficient to induce nuclear accumulation of the protein.

  18. Autophagy requires poly(adp-ribosyl)ation-dependent AMPK nuclear export

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vargas, José M; Rodríguez, María I; Majuelos-Melguizo, Jara; García-Diaz, Ángel; González-Flores, Ariannys; López-Rivas, Abelardo; Virág, László; Illuzzi, Giuditta; Schreiber, Valerie; Dantzer, Françoise; Oliver, F Javier

    2016-01-01

    AMPK is a central energy sensor linking extracellular milieu fluctuations with the autophagic machinery. In the current study we uncover that Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, accounts for the spatial and temporal regulation of autophagy by modulating AMPK subcellular localisation and activation. More particularly, we show that the minority AMPK pool needs to be exported to the cytosol in a PARylation-dependent manner for optimal induction of autophagy, including ULK1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 inactivation. PARP-1 forms a molecular complex with AMPK in the nucleus in non-starved cells. In response to nutrient deprivation, PARP-1 catalysed PARylation, induced the dissociation of the PARP-1/AMPK complex and the export of free PARylated nuclear AMPK to the cytoplasm to activate autophagy. PARP inhibition, its silencing or the expression of PARylation-deficient AMPK mutants prevented not only the AMPK nuclear-cytosolic export but also affected the activation of the cytosolic AMPK pool and autophagosome formation. These results demonstrate that PARylation of AMPK is a key early signal to efficiently convey extracellular nutrient perturbations with downstream events needed for the cell to optimize autophagic commitment before autophagosome formation. PMID:27689873

  19. Export of newly formed LSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Katharina; Klein, Birgit; Karstensen, Johannes; Fischer, Jürgen; Baumann, Till; Kanzow, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation represents the strongest mechanism for oceanic northward heat transport. This is accomplished by moving warm water northward in the upper ocean compensated by a deep return flow of cold and dense North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Labrador Sea Water (LSW) constitutes the shallowest component of NADW. Since LSW is also supposed to be the most sensitive NADW component to climate change it is of particular interest. LSW is formed by deep convection not only in the centre of the Labrador Sea but also near its western boundary. Recent studies have suggested that LSW formed in the boundary region enters its export route from the Labrador Sea, the Deep Western Boundary Current, faster than LSW originating from the central Labrador Sea. In this study the spatial and temporal evolution of the export of newly formed LSW is investigated. For this purpose hydrographic mooring data from an array located at the western bounndary at 53°N starting in the late 1990s until 2014 and data from the Argo float network is used. The averaged seasonal salinity cycle at the array, particularly at the moorings further onshore, shows a pronounced freshwater signal in May indicating the arrival of newly formed LSW in the boundary current. In order to learn more about its preceding pathway and the corresponding export timescale the mooring data is complemented by data from Argo floats. Besides the annual cycles of LSW formation and export, their interannual variations are important aspects affecting the large-scale circulation. For instance, in years of relatively strong convection, as in 2008 and 2012, LSW is observed to pass the boundary current array at 53°N earlier, i.e. in February and March, respectively, than in years with weak convection, as in 2007 or 2010. Besides seasonal variations in the boundary current, a possible explanation for the earlier freshwater signal in years of enhanced convection might be a shift in convection sites

  20. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor export trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chunmin; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Duvernay, Matthew T.; Wu, Guangyu

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a superfamily of cell-surface receptors which share a common topology of seven transmembrane domains and modulate a variety of cell functions through coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins by responding to a vast array of stimuli. The magnitude of cellular response elicited by a given signal is dictated by the level of GPCR expression at the plasma membrane, which is the balance of elaborately regulated endocytic and exocytic trafficking. This review will cover recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying anterograde transport of the newly synthesized GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. We will focus on recently identified motifs involved in GPCR exit from the ER and the Golgi, GPCR folding in the ER and the rescue of misfolded receptors from within, GPCR-interacting proteins that modulate receptor cell-surface targeting, pathways that mediate GPCR traffic, and the functional role of export in controlling GPCR signaling. PMID:17074298

  1. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary... plasm, organisms, and vectors; for certain veterinary diagnostic services; and for export certification... information on Veterinary Diagnostic program operations, contact Dr. Elizabeth Lautner, Director,...

  2. Guide to exporting for US solar companies

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.

    1981-06-01

    Reasons for US solar manufacturers to export are discussed; and, after a descision has been made to export solar equipment and technology, how to export and where to export are primary goals. The manual presents some basic information to answer the how and where. It provides information concerning the services which are currently available to facilitate entry into foreign markets and the basic social, economic, and solar insolation data on over 70 foreign markets are presented. Statistical profile information for the 70 countries include population; per capita income; primary languages, literacy rate; ratio of urban and rural areas; monetary unit; population density; GNP; energy production; energy consumption; energy reserves; trade with US. (MCW)

  3. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  4. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  5. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  6. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  7. 31 CFR 592.304 - Exporting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant from whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being exported as having...

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Adipokine Export Signals.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Parisa; Kocaefe, Y Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells are widely used for recombinant protein production in research and biotechnology. Utilization of export signals significantly facilitates production and purification processes. 35 years after the discovery of the mammalian export machinery, there still are obscurities regarding the efficiency of the export signals. The aim of this study was the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of selected export signals using adipocytes as a cell model. Adipocytes have a large capacity for protein secretion including several enzymes, adipokines, and other signaling molecules, providing a valid system for a quantitative evaluation. Constructs that expressed N-terminal fusion export signals were generated to express Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) as a reporter for quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used to trace the intracellular traffic of the reporter. The export efficiency of six selected proteins secreted from adipocytes was evaluated. Quantitative comparison of intracellular and exported fractions of the recombinant constructs demonstrated a similar efficiency among the studied sequences with minor variations. The export signal of Retinol Binding Protein (RBP4) exhibited the highest efficiency. This study presents the first quantitative data showing variations among export signals, in adipocytes which will help optimization of recombinant protein distribution.

  9. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons were...

  10. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons were...

  11. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons were...

  12. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons were...

  13. 27 CFR 478.171 - Exportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Licensed manufacturers and licensed importers exporting armor piercing ammunition and semiautomatic assault... foreign consignee and the date the armor piercing ammunition or semiautomatic assault weapons were...

  14. Export Promotion: Government Agencies Should Combine Small Business Export Training Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Department of Commerce as the primary provider of export promotion services, such as market information and counseling, to export-ready firms. The other USEAC...Page 6 GAO-01-1023 Export Promotion staff have done so. Commerce, which has several staff at most USEACs, has dedicated staff to facilitate the Market ...Report to Congressional Committees United States General Accounting Office GAO September 2001 EXPORT PROMOTION Government Agencies Should Combine

  15. Subcellular Localization and Topology of the p7 Polypeptide of Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Montpellier-Pala, Claire; Cocquerel, Laurence; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Penin, François; Dubuisson, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Although biological and biochemical data have been accumulated on most hepatitis C virus proteins, the structure and function of the 63-amino-acid p7 polypeptide of this virus have never been investigated. In this work, sequence analyses predicted that p7 contains two transmembrane passages connected by a short hydrophilic segment. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of p7 was predicted to function as a signal sequence, which was confirmed experimentally by analyzing the translocation of a reporter glycoprotein fused at its C terminus. The p7 polypeptide was tagged either with the ectodomain of CD4 or with a Myc epitope to study its membrane integration, its subcellular localization, and its topology. Alkaline extraction studies confirmed that p7 is an integral membrane polypeptide. The CD4-p7 chimera was detected by immunofluorescence on the surface of nonpermeabilized cells, indicating that it is exported to the plasma membrane. However, pulse-chase analyses showed that only approximately 20% of endoglycosidase H-resistant CD4-p7 was detected after long chase times, suggesting that a large proportion of p7 stays in an early compartment of the secretory pathway. Finally, by inserting a Myc epitope in several positions of p7 and analyzing the accessibility of this epitope on the plasma membrane of HepG2 cells, we showed that p7 has a double membrane-spanning topology, with both its N and C termini oriented toward the extracellular environment. Altogether, these data indicate that p7 is a polytopic membrane protein that could have a functional role in several compartments of the secretory pathway. PMID:11907211

  16. 77 FR 58809 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Operation described below in the following Export Trade and Export Markets. Export Trade COL-RICE plans to... Export Trade Activities and Methods of Operation: 1. Purpose: COL-RICE will manage on an open tender..., incluso pulido o glaseado); 1006.4000--broken rice (arroz partido). Export Market The Republic of...

  17. 22 CFR 125.1 - Exports subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports subject to this part. 125.1 Section 125... EXPORT OF TECHNICAL DATA AND CLASSIFIED DEFENSE ARTICLES § 125.1 Exports subject to this part. (a) The controls of this part apply to the export of technical data and the export of classified defense...

  18. The export premium: why some logs are worth more abroad.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGinnis; Christine L. Lane

    1993-01-01

    For as long as logs have been exported from the Pacific Northwest, they seem to have been worth more offshore than in the domestic market. Five reasons for the export premium are the inconvenience of trade, quality, extra "haul and hassle," continuity in export arrangements, and export embargoes. A large and increasing differential remains between export and...

  19. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form...

  20. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to...

  1. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... number) or e- mail at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  2. 19 CFR 191.73 - Export summary procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export summary procedure. 191.73 Section 191.73... TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Exportation and Destruction § 191.73 Export summary procedure. (a) General. The export summary procedure consists of a Chronological Summary of Exports used to support a drawback...

  3. 7 CFR 1488.9 - Evidence of export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export. 1488.9 Section 1488.9 Agriculture... Export Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Documents Required for Financing § 1488.9 Evidence of export. (a) If the commodity is exported by rail or...

  4. 50 CFR 14.63 - Export declaration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export declaration requirements. 14.63... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Wildlife Declarations § 14.63 Export... exporter's agent, shall be filed with the Service prior to the export of any wildlife at the port of...

  5. 21 CFR 1313.22 - Contents of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of export declaration. 1313.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.22 Contents of export... quantitative threshold criteria established in § 1310.04(f) of this chapter may be exported if that chemical is...

  6. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  7. 21 CFR 1313.23 - Distribution of export declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of export declaration. 1313.23... EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Exportation of Listed Chemicals § 1313.23 Distribution of export declaration. The required three copies of the listed chemical export declaration (DEA Form 486) will be...

  8. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export....S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod... number) or email at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company...

  9. 77 FR 37385 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Export Trade Certificate of Review Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (COLOM-PEQ). SUMMARY: The Office... application follows. Summary of the Application Applicant: Colombia Poultry Export Quota, Inc., c/o DTB... Poultry Export Quota, Inc. (hereinafter, ``COLOM-PEQ'') was formed by USA Poultry and Egg Export Council...

  10. Di-acidic Motifs in the Membrane-distal C Termini Modulate the Transport of Angiotensin II Receptors from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cell Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Dong, Chunmin; Wu, Qiong J.; Balch, William E.; Wu, Guangyu

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export and cell surface transport of nascent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have just begun to be revealed and previous studies have shown that hydrophobic motifs in the putative amphipathic 8th α-helical region within the membrane-proximal C termini play an important role. In this study, we demonstrate that di-acidic motifs in the membrane-distal, nonstructural C-terminal portions are required for the exit from the ER and transport to the plasma membrane of angiotensin II receptors, but not adrenergic receptors. More interestingly, distinct di-acidic motifs dictate optimal export trafficking of different angiotensin II receptors and export ability of each acidic residue in the di-acidic motifs cannot be fully substituted by other acidic residue. Moreover, the function of the di-acidic motifs is likely mediated through facilitating the recruitment of the receptors onto the ER-derived COPII transport vesicles. Therefore, the di-acidic motifs located in the membrane-distal C termini may represent the first linear motifs which recruit selective GPCRs onto the COPII vesicles to control their export from the ER. PMID:21507945

  11. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  12. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  13. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  14. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  15. 15 CFR 732.5 - Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record, Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... THE EAR § 732.5 Steps regarding Shipper's Export Declaration or Automated Export System record... review § 758.1 of the EAR to determine when an SED is required and what export control information should... symbol, or No License Required designator “NLR”) as appropriate. See § 758.1(g) of the EAR and 15 CFR...

  16. Altered Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump Expression during Breast Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Béla; Brouland, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is involved in several essential cell functions including cell proliferation, protein synthesis, stress responses or secretion. Calcium uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum is performed by Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPases (SERCA enzymes). In order to study endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in situ in mammary tissue, in this work SERCA3 expression was investigated in normal breast and in its benign and malignant lesions in function of the cell type, degree of malignancy, and histological and molecular parameters of the tumors. Our data indicate, that although normal breast acinar epithelial cells express SERCA3 abundantly, its expression is strongly decreased already in very early non-malignant epithelial lesions such as adenosis, and remains low in lobular carcinomas. Whereas normal duct epithelium expresses significant amounts of SERCA3, its expression is decreased in several benign ductal lesions, as well as in ductal adenocarcinoma. The loss of SERCA3 expression is correlated with Elston-Ellis grade, negative hormone receptor expression or triple negative status in ductal carcinomas. The concordance between decreased SERCA3 expression and several histological, as well as molecular markers of ductal carcinogenesis indicates that endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is remodeled during tumorigenesis in the breast epithelium. PMID:21863130

  17. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Daniel G.; Tsichlis, Philip N.; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (∼5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ∼1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.—Corum, D. G., Tsichlis, P. N., Muise-Helmericks, R. C. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1. PMID:24081905

  18. Subcellular characterization of glucose uptake in coronary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, N; Scriven, D R L; Laher, I; Moore, E D W

    2008-01-01

    Despite all the evidence linking glucose toxicity to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, very little is known about the regulation of glucose uptake in endothelial cells. We have previously reported an asymmetric distribution of the GLUTs (1-5) and SGLT-1 in en face preparations of rat coronary artery endothelia [Gaudreault N., Scriven D.R., Moore E.D., 2004. Characterisation of glucose transporters in the intact coronary artery endothelium in rats: GLUT-2 upregulated by long-term hyperglycaemia. Diabetologia 47(12),2081-2092]. We assessed this time, through immunocytochemistry and wide field fluorescence microscopy coupled to deconvolution, the presence and subcellular distribution of glucose transporters in cultures of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HCAECs express GLUT-1 to 5 and SGLT-1, but their subcellular distribution lacks the luminal/abluminal asymmetry and the proximity to cell-to-cell junctions observed in intact endothelium. To determine the impact of the transporters' distribution on intracellular glucose accumulation, a fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBDG) was used in conjunction with confocal microscopy to monitor uptake in individual cells; the arteries were mounted in an arteriograph chamber with physiological flow rates. The uptake in both preparations was inhibited by cytochalasin-B and d-glucose and stimulated by insulin, but the distribution of the incorporated 2-NBDG mirrored that of the transporters. In HCAEC it was distributed throughout the cell and in the intact arterial endothelium it was restricted to the narrow cytosolic volume adjacent to the cell-to-cell junctions. We suggest that the latter subcellular organization and compartmentalization may facilitate transendothelial transport of glucose in intact coronary artery.

  19. Immunocytochemical determination of the subcellular distribution of ascorbate in plants

    PubMed Central

    Stumpe, M.; Mauch, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ascorbate is an important antioxidant in plants and fulfills many functions related to plant defense, redox signaling and modulation of gene expression. We have analyzed the subcellular distribution of reduced and oxidized ascorbate in leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum by high-resolution immuno electron microscopy. The accuracy and specificity of the applied method is supported by several observations. First, preadsorption of the ascorbate antisera with ascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid resulted in the reduction of the labeling to background levels. Second, the overall labeling density was reduced between 50 and 61% in the ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis mutants vtc1-2 and vtc2-1, which correlated well with biochemical measurements. The highest ascorbate-specific labeling was detected in nuclei and the cytosol whereas the lowest levels were found in vacuoles. Intermediate labeling was observed in chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes. This method was used to determine the subcellular ascorbate distribution in leaf cells of plants exposed to high light intensity, a stress factor that is well known to cause an increase in cellular ascorbate concentration. High light intensities resulted in a strong increase in overall labeling density. Interestingly, the strongest compartment-specific increase was found in vacuoles (fourfold) and in plastids (twofold). Ascorbate-specific labeling was restricted to the matrix of mitochondria and to the stroma of chloroplasts in control plants but was also detected in the lumen of thylakoids after high light exposure. In summary, this study reveals an improved insight into the subcellular distribution of ascorbate in plants and the method can now be applied to determine compartment-specific changes in ascorbate in response to various stress situations. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-010-1275-x) contains supplementary material, which is available

  20. Subcellular localization of ubiquitin and ubiquitinated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Beers, E P; Moreno, T N; Callis, J

    1992-08-05

    Ubiquitin is a highly conserved, 76-amino acid, eukaryotic protein. Its widely accepted role as a proteolytic cofactor depends on its unique ability to covalently ligate to other cellular proteins. While there is good evidence for the existence of such ubiquitinated proteins in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments, relatively little is known about the presence of free ubiquitin and ubiquitinated proteins in other subcellular compartments. This is especially true of higher plants, which have not previously been the subject of extensive biochemical subcellular localizations of ubiquitinated proteins. We extracted cell wall proteins and purified nuclei, vacuoles, chloroplasts, and microsomes from chlorophyllous tissues of Arabidopsis. Immunoblot analyses were used to compare the profiles of ubiquitinated proteins from purified subcellular fractions to those from unfractionated extracts. Purified nuclei contained, in addition to a complex mixture of high molecular mass ubiquitinated proteins, a strongly immunoreactive 28-kDa protein. In the apoplastic extract, we did not detect any ubiquitinated proteins enriched above the background level of those due to cytosolic contamination. Vacuoles appeared to contribute significantly to the ubiquitinated proteins present in the whole protoplast extract. At least three high molecular mass ubiquitinated proteins were unique to the vacuolar extract. Chloroplast stromal proteins did not react specifically with anti-ubiquitin antibodies. When microsomal ubiquitinated proteins were compared to those found in a whole protoplast extract, a distinct pattern was evident. Microsomal ubiquitinated proteins were not visible in the 10,000 x g supernatant used to prepare the 100,000 x g pellet, indicating that they were probably low abundance proteins in the protoplast extract.

  1. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  2. Nucleocapsid protein from fig mosaic virus forms cytoplasmic agglomerates that are hauled by endoplasmic reticulum streaming.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly throughout the cell, and we

  3. The role of cholesterol in the association of endoplasmic reticulum membranes with mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Michiko; Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The endoplasmic reticulum subdomain termed MAM associates with mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biophysical role of lipids in the MAM-mitochondria association is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in vitro membrane association assay was used to examine the role of lipids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol was found to negatively regulate the association. -- Abstract: The unique endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain termed the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) engages the physical connection between the ER and the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays a role in regulating IP{sub 3} receptor-mediated Ca{sup 2+} influx and the phospholipid transport between the two organelles. The MAM contains certain signaling and membrane-tethering proteins but also lipids including cholesterol. The biophysical role of lipids at the MAM, specifically in the physical interaction between the MAM of the ER and mitochondria, remains not totally clarified. Here we employed the in vitro membrane association assay to investigate the role of cholesterol in the association between MAMs and mitochondria. The purified MAMs and mitochondria were mixed in vitro in a test tube and then the physical association of the two subcellular organelles was quantified indirectly by measuring the presence of the MAM-specific protein sigma-1 receptors in the mitochondria fraction. Purified MAMs contained free cholesterol approximately 7 times higher than that in microsomes. We found that depletion of cholesterol in MAMs with methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (M{beta}C) significantly increases the association between MAMs and mitochondria, whereas M{beta}C saturated with cholesterol does not change the association. {sup 14}C-Serine pulse-labeling demonstrated that the treatment of living cells with M{beta}C decreases the level of de novo synthesized {sup 14}C-phosphatidylserine (PtSer) and concomitantly increases greatly the synthesis of

  4. Subcellular Biological Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen F.; Stacey, Michael

    Membranes of biological cells can be charged by exposure to pulsed electric fields. After the potential difference across the barrier reaches critical values on the order of 1 V, pores will form. For moderate pulse parameters of duration and amplitude, the effect is limited to the outer cell membrane. With the exposure to nanosecond pulses of several tens of kilovolts per centimeter, a similar effect is also expected for subcellular membranes and structures. Cells will respond to the disruption by different biochemical processes. This offers possibilities for the development of novel medical therapies, the manipulation of cells and microbiological decontamination.

  5. Dynamic neuroanatomy at subcellular resolution in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Faucherre, Adèle; López-Schier, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Genetic means to visualize and manipulate neuronal circuits in the intact animal have revolutionized neurobiology. "Dynamic neuroanatomy" defines a range of approaches aimed at quantifying the architecture or subcellular organization of neurons over time during their development, regeneration, or degeneration. A general feature of these approaches is their reliance on the optical isolation of defined neurons in toto by genetically expressing markers in one or few cells. Here we use the afferent neurons of the lateral line as an example to describe a simple method for the dynamic neuroanatomical study of axon terminals in the zebrafish by laser-scanning confocal microscopy.

  6. Self-calibrating viscosity probes: design and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Dakanali, Marianna; Do, Thai H; Horn, Austin; Chongchivivat, Akaraphon; Jarusreni, Tuptim; Lichlyter, Darcy; Guizzunti, Gianni; Haidekker, Mark A; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2012-07-15

    We describe the design, synthesis and fluorescence profiles of new self-calibrating viscosity dyes in which a coumarin (reference fluorophore) has been covalently linked with a molecular rotor (viscosity sensor). Characterization of their fluorescence properties was made with separate excitation of the units and through resonance energy transfer from the reference to the sensor dye. We have modified the linker and the substitution of the rotor in order to change the hydrophilicity of these probes thereby altering their subcellular localization. For instance, hydrophilic dye 12 shows a homogeneous distribution inside the cell and represents a suitable probe for viscosity measurements in the cytoplasm.

  7. Lipolytic enzymes in bovine thyroid tissue. I. Subcellular localization, purification and characterization of acid phospholipase A1.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, M; Lagrou, A; Hilderson, H J; Dierick, W

    1978-12-01

    In mammalian cells the catabolism of membrane phosphoglycerides proceeds probably entirely through a deacylation pathway catalysed by phospholipase A and lysophospholipase (Wise & Elwyn, 1965). In the initial attack of diacylphosphoglycerides by phospholipase A two enzymatic activities with different positional specificities have been distinguished: phospholipase A1 (phosphatidate 1-acyl hydrolase EN 3.1.1.32) and phospholipase A2 (phosphatidate 2-acyl hydrolase EN 3.1.1.4) (Van Deenen & De Haas, 1966). Studies on these intracellular phospholipases were mainly concerned with their subcellular localization. Only occasionally more detailed enzymatic investigations have been conducted on them, in contrast to export phospholipases e.g. from snake venom, bee venom and porcine pancreas, which have been extensively investigated (Brockerhoff & Jensen 1974a). In a previous paper (De Wolf et al., 1976a), the presence of phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activities in bovine thyroid was demonstrated, using 1-[9, 10-3H] stearoyl-2-[1-14C] linoleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as a substrate. Optimal activity was observed in both instances at pH 4. Addition of the anionic detergent sodium taurocholate increased the A2 type activity and decreased the A1 type activity suggesting the presence of different enzymes. The lack of influence of Ca2+-ions and EDTA and the acid pH optima could suggest lysosomal localization. In this paper the subcellular distribution of both acid phospholipase activities is described as well as a purification scheme for phospholipase A1. Some characteristics of the purified enzyme preparation are discussed.

  8. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  9. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  10. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  11. 19 CFR 351.402 - Calculation of export price and constructed export price; reimbursement of antidumping and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.402 Calculation of export... (date of final determination of sales at less than fair value). (3) Presumption. The Secretary may...) Introduction. In order to establish export price, constructed export price, and normal value, the...

  12. 77 FR 27418 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... conspiring to export goods and technology to Iran, in violation of IEEPA. Baniameri also was convicted of... and consultations with BIS's Office of Export Enforcement, including its Director, and the facts... transaction involving any commodity, software or technology (hereinafter collectively referred to as ``item...

  13. 7 CFR 1493.220 - Exporter eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exporter eligibility. 1493.220 Section 1493.220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC...

  14. 15 CFR 2014.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export certificates. 2014.3 Section 2014.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA FOR IMPORTS OF LAMB MEAT § 2014.3 Export...

  15. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this...

  16. 15 CFR 2014.3 - Export certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA FOR IMPORTS OF LAMB MEAT § 2014.3 Export certificates. (a) In-quota lamb meat may only be entered as a product of a participating country if the United... that lamb meat product. (b) To be valid, an export certificate shall: (1) Be issued by or under the...

  17. 77 FR 34340 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Chitron Electronics... 750.8 of the Regulations states that the Bureau of Industry and Security's Office of Exporter Services may revoke any Bureau of Industry and Security (``BIS'') licenses previously issued in which the...

  18. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Zhen Zhou Wu, a/k/a... that the Bureau of Industry and Security's Office of Exporter Services may revoke any Bureau of Industry and Security (``BIS'') licenses previously issued in which the person had an interest in at the...

  19. 40 CFR 273.40 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exports. 273.40 Section 273.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.40 Exports....

  20. 40 CFR 273.20 - Exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exports. 273.20 Section 273.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Small Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.20 Exports....