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Sample records for reticulum stress regulators

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Adipocyte Resistin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lefterova, Martina I.; Mullican, Shannon E.; Tomaru, Takuya; Qatanani, Mohammed; Schupp, Michael; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Resistin is a secreted polypeptide that impairs glucose metabolism and, in rodents, is derived exclusively from adipocytes. In murine obesity, resistin circulates at elevated levels but its gene expression in adipose tissue is paradoxically reduced. The mechanism behind the downregulation of resistin mRNA is poorly understood. We investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is characteristic of obese adipose tissue, regulates resistin expression in cultured mouse adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effects of endoplasmic stress inducers on resistin mRNA and secreted protein levels were examined in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, focusing on the expression and genomic binding of transcriptional regulators of resistin. The association between downregulated resistin mRNA and induction of ER stress was also investigated in the adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. RESULTS ER stress reduced resistin mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). Resistin protein was also substantially downregulated, showing a close correspondence with mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as in the fat pads of obese mice. CONCLUSIONS ER stress is a potent regulator of resistin, suggesting that ER stress may underlie the local downregulation of resistin mRNA and protein in fat in murine obesity. The paradoxical increase in plasma may be because of various systemic abnormalities associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:19491212

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates rat mandibular cartilage thinning under compressive mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Huang; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Wu, Tuo-Jiang; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Xin; Jiang, Ting-Ting; Wen, Juan; Li, Jie; Ma, Qiao-Ling; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2013-06-21

    Compressive mechanical stress-induced cartilage thinning has been characterized as a key step in the progression of temporomandibular joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying this loss have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we used an established animal model for loading compressive mechanical stress to induce cartilage thinning in vivo. The mechanically stressed mandibular chondrocytes were then isolated to screen potential candidates using a proteomics approach. A total of 28 proteins were identified that were directly or indirectly associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, including protein disulfide-isomerase, calreticulin, translationally controlled tumor protein, and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase protein. The altered expression of these candidates was validated at both the mRNA and protein levels. The induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress by mechanical stress loading was confirmed by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, the elevation of the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) level, and the expansion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes. More importantly, the use of a selective inhibitor to block endoplasmic reticulum stress in vivo reduced the apoptosis observed at the early stages of mechanical stress loading and inhibited the proliferation observed at the later stages of mechanical stress loading. Accordingly, the use of the inhibitor significantly restored cartilage thinning. Taken together, these results demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum stress is significantly activated in mechanical stress-induced mandibular cartilage thinning and, more importantly, that endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition alleviates this loss, suggesting a novel pharmaceutical strategy for the treatment of mechanical stress-induced temporomandibular joint diseases.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in arterial smooth muscle cells: A novel regulator of vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2016-10-13

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarize what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells: A Novel Regulator of Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Furmanik, Malgorzata; Shanahan, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types. Here we summarise what is known about how ER stress signalling regulates phenotypic switching, trans/dedifferentiation and apoptosis of ASMCs and contributes to atherosclerosis, hypertension, aneurysms and vascular calcification.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 4 regulates glycolysis during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Oney, McKenna; Frizzell, Kimberly; Phadnis, Nitin; Hollien, Julie

    2015-02-13

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from an imbalance between the load of proteins entering the secretory pathway and the ability of the ER to fold and process them. The response to ER stress is mediated by a collection of signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response, which plays important roles in development and disease. Here we show that in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, ER stress induces a coordinated change in the expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism. Genes encoding enzymes that carry out glycolysis were up-regulated, whereas genes encoding proteins in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain complexes were down-regulated. The unfolded protein response transcription factor Atf4 was necessary for the up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes and Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh). Furthermore, Atf4 binding motifs in promoters for these genes could partially account for their regulation during ER stress. Finally, flies up-regulated Ldh and produced more lactate when subjected to ER stress. Together, these results suggest that Atf4 mediates a shift from a metabolism based on oxidative phosphorylation to one more heavily reliant on glycolysis, reminiscent of aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect observed in cancer and other proliferative cells.

  7. Lyn kinase represses mucus hypersecretion by regulating IL-13-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Xiaoqiong; Li, Yin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yun; Dai, Xi; Niu, Bin; Wu, Juan; Yuan, Xiefang; Xiong, Anjie; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Nanshan; Wu, Min; Li, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    In asthma, mucus hypersecretion is thought to be a prominent pathological feature associated with widespread mucus plugging. However, the current treatments for mucus hypersecretion are often ineffective or temporary. The potential therapeutic targets of mucus hypersecretion in asthma remain unknown. Here, we show that Lyn is a central effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and mucous hypersecretion in asthma. In Lyn-transgenic mice (Lyn-TG) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA), Lyn overexpression attenuates mucus hypersecretion and ER stress. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) induced MUC5AC expression by enhancing ER stress in vitro. Lyn serves as a negative regulator of IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression. We further find that an inhibitor of ER stress, which is likely involved in the PI3K p85α/Akt pathway and NFκB activity, blocked MUC5AC expression in Lyn-knockdown cells. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt signaling is required for IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells. The ER stress regulation of MUC5AC expression depends on NFκB in Lyn-knockdown airway epithelial cells. Our studies indicate not only a concept of mucus hypersecretion in asthma that involves Lyn kinase but also an important therapeutic candidate for asthma.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate Phosphatase 2 Regulates Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yoshimitsu; Allende, Maria L; Mizukami, Hiroki; Cook, Emily K; Gavrilova, Oksana; Tuymetova, Galina; Clarke, Benjamin A; Chen, Weiping; Olivera, Ana; Proia, Richard L

    2016-06-03

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid metabolite that regulates basic cell functions through metabolic and signaling pathways. Intracellular metabolism of S1P is controlled, in part, by two homologous S1P phosphatases (SPPases), 1 and 2, which are encoded by the Sgpp1 and Sgpp2 genes, respectively. SPPase activity is needed for efficient recycling of sphingosine into the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. SPPase 1 is important for skin homeostasis, but little is known about the functional role of SPPase 2. To identify the functions of SPPase 2 in vivo, we studied mice with the Sgpp2 gene deleted. In contrast to Sgpp1(-/-) mice, Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal skin and were viable into adulthood. Unexpectedly, WT mice expressed Sgpp2 mRNA at high levels in pancreatic islets when compared with other tissues. Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal pancreatic islet size; however, they exhibited defective adaptive β-cell proliferation that was demonstrated after treatment with either a high-fat diet or the β-cell-specific toxin, streptozotocin. Importantly, β-cells from untreated Sgpp2(-/-) mice showed significantly increased expression of proteins characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response compared with β-cells from WT mice, indicating a basal islet defect. Our results show that Sgpp2 deletion causes β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is a known cause of β-cell dysfunction, and reveal a juncture in the sphingolipid recycling pathway that could impact the development of diabetes.

  9. Identification of a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Element Regulated by XBP1*

    PubMed Central

    Misiewicz, Michael; Déry, Marc-André; Foveau, Bénédicte; Jodoin, Julie; Ruths, Derek; LeBlanc, Andréa C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms mediating PRNP gene expression is highly relevant to elucidating normal cellular prion protein (PrP) function(s) and the transmissibility of prion protein neurodegenerative diseases. Here, luciferase reporter assays showed that an endoplasmic reticulum stress element (ERSE)-like element, CCAAT-N26-CCACG in the human PRNP promoter, is regulated by ER stress and X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) but not by activating transcription factor 6 α (ATF6α). Bioinformatics identified the ERSE-26 motif in 37 other human genes in the absence of canonical ERSE sites except for three genes. Several of these genes are associated with a synaptic function or are involved in oxidative stress. Brefeldin A, tunicamycin, and thapsigargin ER stressors induced gene expression of PRNP and four randomly chosen ERSE-26-containing genes, ERLEC1, GADD45B, SESN2, and SLC38A5, in primary human neuron cultures or in the breast carcinoma MCF-7 cell line, although the level of the response depends on the gene analyzed, the genetic background of the cells, the cell type, and the ER stressor. Overexpression of XBP1 increased, whereas siRNA knockdown of XBP1 considerably reduced, PRNP and ERLEC1 mRNA levels in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, these results identify a novel ER stress regulator, which implicates the ER stress response in previously unrecognized cellular functions. PMID:23737521

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial function and endoplasmic reticulum stress by nitric oxide in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Terron-Bautista, José; Beltrán-Povea, Amparo; Cahuana, Gladys M; Soria, Bernat; Nabil, Hajji; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2017-02-26

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are global processes that are interrelated and regulated by several stress factors. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional biomolecule with many varieties of physiological and pathological functions, such as the regulation of cytochrome c inhibition and activation of the immune response, ERS and DNA damage; these actions are dose-dependent. It has been reported that in embryonic stem cells, NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation, survival and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not yet known. Low levels of NO maintain pluripotency and induce mitochondrial biogenesis. It is well established that NO disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and causes changes in mitochondrial Ca(2+) flux that induce ERS. Thus, at high concentrations, NO becomes a potential differentiation agent due to the relationship between ERS and the unfolded protein response in many differentiated cell lines. Nevertheless, many studies have demonstrated the need for physiological levels of NO for a proper ERS response. In this review, we stress the importance of the relationships between NO levels, ERS and mitochondrial dysfunction that control stem cell fate as a new approach to possible cell therapy strategies.

  11. Regulation of mitochondrial function and endoplasmic reticulum stress by nitric oxide in pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Terron-Bautista, José; Beltrán-Povea, Amparo; Cahuana, Gladys M; Soria, Bernat; Nabil, Hajji; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are global processes that are interrelated and regulated by several stress factors. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional biomolecule with many varieties of physiological and pathological functions, such as the regulation of cytochrome c inhibition and activation of the immune response, ERS and DNA damage; these actions are dose-dependent. It has been reported that in embryonic stem cells, NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation, survival and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not yet known. Low levels of NO maintain pluripotency and induce mitochondrial biogenesis. It is well established that NO disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and causes changes in mitochondrial Ca2+ flux that induce ERS. Thus, at high concentrations, NO becomes a potential differentiation agent due to the relationship between ERS and the unfolded protein response in many differentiated cell lines. Nevertheless, many studies have demonstrated the need for physiological levels of NO for a proper ERS response. In this review, we stress the importance of the relationships between NO levels, ERS and mitochondrial dysfunction that control stem cell fate as a new approach to possible cell therapy strategies. PMID:28289506

  12. Regulation of podocyte survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress by fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Jonas; Lindenmeyer, Maja Tamara; Kampe, Kapil; Campbell, Kirk Nicholas; Cohen, Clemens David; Hopfer, Helmut; Mundel, Peter; Jehle, Andreas Werner

    2010-10-01

    Apoptosis of podocytes is considered critical in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Free fatty acids (FFAs) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2, in particular the regulation of pancreatic β cell survival. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the role of palmitic acid, palmitoleic, and oleic acid in the regulation of podocyte cell death and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show that palmitic acid increases podocyte cell death, both apoptosis and necrosis of podocytes, in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Palmitic acid induces podocyte ER stress, leading to an unfolded protein response as reflected by the induction of the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and proapoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) transcription factor. Of note, the monounsaturated palmitoleic and oleic acid can attenuate the palmitic acid-induced upregulation of CHOP, thereby preventing cell death. Similarly, gene silencing of CHOP protects against palmitic acid-induced podocyte apoptosis. Our results offer a rationale for interventional studies aimed at testing whether dietary shifting of the FFA balance toward unsaturated FFAs can delay the progression of DN.

  13. Regulation of podocyte survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress by fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, Jonas; Lindenmeyer, Maja Tamara; Kampe, Kapil; Campbell, Kirk Nicholas; Cohen, Clemens David; Hopfer, Helmut; Mundel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis of podocytes is considered critical in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Free fatty acids (FFAs) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2, in particular the regulation of pancreatic β cell survival. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the role of palmitic acid, palmitoleic, and oleic acid in the regulation of podocyte cell death and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show that palmitic acid increases podocyte cell death, both apoptosis and necrosis of podocytes, in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Palmitic acid induces podocyte ER stress, leading to an unfolded protein response as reflected by the induction of the ER chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and proapoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) transcription factor. Of note, the monounsaturated palmitoleic and oleic acid can attenuate the palmitic acid-induced upregulation of CHOP, thereby preventing cell death. Similarly, gene silencing of CHOP protects against palmitic acid-induced podocyte apoptosis. Our results offer a rationale for interventional studies aimed at testing whether dietary shifting of the FFA balance toward unsaturated FFAs can delay the progression of DN. PMID:20668104

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-15

    Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, however is paucity of studies investigating the effects of ER stress in skeletal muscle on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM. ER stress proteins IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were upregulated in skeletal muscle of obese pregnant women, whereas IRE1α was increased in GDM women. Suppression of ER stress, using ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or siRNA knockdown of IRE1α and GRP78, significantly downregulated LPS-, poly(I:C)- or IL-1β-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and MCP-1. Furthermore, LPS-, poly(I:C)- or TNF-α-induced insulin resistance was improved following suppression of ER stress, by increasing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR-β, IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. In summary, our inducible obesity and GDM-like models suggests that the development of GDM may be involved in activating ER stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the world has seen an alarming increase in obesity and closely associated with insulin resistance which is a state of low-grade inflammation, the latter characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood and tissues. A shift in energy balance alters systemic metabolic regulation and the important role that chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play in this process.Why obesity is so closely associated with insulin resistance and inflammation is not understood well. This suggests that there are probably other causes for obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation. One of these appears to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.The ER is a vast membranous network responsible for the trafficking of a wide range of proteins and plays a central role in integrating multiple metabolic signals critical in cellular homeostasis. Conditions that may trigger unfolded protein response activation include increased protein synthesis, the presence of mutant or misfolded proteins, inhibition of protein glycosylation, imbalance of ER calcium levels, glucose and energy deprivation, hypoxia, pathogens or pathogen-associated components and toxins. Thus, characterizing the mechanisms contributing to obesity and identifying potential targets for its prevention and treatment will have a great impact on the control of associated conditions, particularly T2D.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated CXCR3 pathway mediates inflammation and neuronal injury in acute glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, Y; Liu, H; Xu, Z; Yokota, H; Narayanan, S P; Lemtalsi, T; Smith, S B; Caldwell, R W; Caldwell, R B; Zhang, W

    2015-10-08

    Acute glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in East Asia. The mechanisms underlying retinal neuronal injury induced by a sudden rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that the activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, which mediates the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, has a critical role in a mouse model of acute glaucoma. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCL10 and CXCR3 were significantly increased after IOP-induced retinal ischemia. Blockade of the CXCR3 pathway by deleting CXCR3 gene significantly attenuated ischemic injury-induced upregulation of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and E-selectin), inhibited the recruitment of microglia/monocyte to the superficial retina, reduced peroxynitrite formation, and prevented the loss of neurons within the ganglion cell layer. In contrast, intravitreal delivery of CXCL10 increased leukocyte recruitment and retinal cell apoptosis. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with chemical chaperones partially blocked ischemic injury-induced CXCL10 upregulation, whereas induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced CXCL10 expression in retina and primary retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, deleting CXCR3 attenuated ER stress-induced retinal cell death. In conclusion, these results indicate that ER stress-medicated activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway has an important role in retinal inflammation and neuronal injury after high IOP-induced ischemia.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces up-regulation of hepatic β-Klotho expression through ATF4 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Li, Huating; Zhang, Mingliang; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Shuqin; Zhou, Jian; Dai, Zhi; Fang, Qichen; Jia, Weiping

    2015-04-03

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays critical roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. β-Klotho is the co-receptor for mediating FGF21 signaling, and the mRNA levels of this receptor are increased in the liver of human subjects with obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of β-klotho expression remain poorly defined. Here, we report that elevation of β-klotho protein expression in diet-induced obese mice and human patients is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In vivo study indicates that administration of the ER stressor tunicamycin in mice led to increased expression of β-klotho in the liver. In addition, we show that ER stress is sufficient to potentiate FGF21 signaling in HepG2 cell and ATF4 signaling pathway is essential for mediating the effect of ER stress on β-klotho expression. These findings demonstrate a link of ER stress with up-regulation of hepatic β-klotho expression and the molecular mechanism underlying ER stress-regulated FGF21 signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum proteins quality control and the unfolded protein response: the regulative mechanism of organisms against stress injuries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi Ling; Gao, Dong Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is the cellular compartment in which secretory proteins are synthesized and folded. Perturbations of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis lead to the accumulation of unfolded proteins. The activation of the unfolded protein response during endoplasmic reticulum stress transmits information about the status of protein folding to the cytosol and nucleus. The unfolded protein response leads to the upregulation of genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum chaperones, attenuation of translation, and initiation of the endoplasmic reticulum quality control system to restore endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. When the unfolded protein response is insufficient to rebuild the steady state in endoplasmic reticulum, the programmed cell death or apoptosis would be initiated, by triggering cell injuries, even to cell death through apoptosis signals. In this review, we briefly outline research on the chaperones and foldases conserved in eukaryotes and plants, and describe the general principles and mechanisms of the endoplasmic reticulum quality control and the unfolded protein response. We describe the current models for the molecular mechanism of the unfolded protein response in plants, and emphasize the role of inositol requiring enzyme-1-dependent network in the unfolded protein response. Finally, we give a general overview of the directions for future research on the unfolded protein response in plants and its role in the response to environmental stresses. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins.

  20. Calcium regulation in aortic smooth muscle cells during the initial phase of tunicamycin-induced endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ziomek, Gabriela; Cheraghi Zanjani, Parisa; Arman, Darian; van Breemen, Cornelis; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2014-07-15

    Endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response have been implicated as underlying mechanisms of cell death in many pathological conditions. We have confirmed that long-term exposure to 10µM tunicamycin induced the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Since tunicamycin is reported to induce the stress response by inhibiting protein glycosylation, we attempted to investigate a causal link between accumulation of unfolded proteins and dysregulation of cellular calcium transport. However, we found that tunicamycin caused an immediate release of calcium from the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum, which was sensitive to thapsigargin, and an influx of calcium through the plasma membrane, resulting in a significant increase in cytoplasmic calcium and depletion of endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium. Furthermore, we observed that tunicamycin also induced contraction in intact vascular smooth muscle. By applying established procedures and antagonists, we established that tunicamycin did not directly activate physiological calcium channels, such as store-operated channels, voltage gated calcium channels, ryanodine receptors or inositol trisphosphate receptors. Instead, we found that its effects on cellular calcium fluxes closely resembled those of the known calcium ionophore, ionomycin. We have concluded that tunicamycin directly permeabilizes the plasma membrane and endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum to calcium, and is, therefore, inappropriate for studying the relationship between accumulation of unfolded proteins and endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium dysregulation during the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress response. In contrast, we also report that two other well-known endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, brefeldin A and dithiothreitol, did not exhibit similar increases in calcium permeability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways in the ethanol-fed cystathionine beta synthase-deficient mouse.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Farah; Medici, Valentina; Wong, Donna H; Jose, Soumia; Dolatshahi, Maryam; Quinlivan, Eoin; Dayal, Sanjana; Lentz, Steven R; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Zhang, Yue Hua; French, Samuel W; Halsted, Charles H

    2010-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is mediated by epigenetic changes in regulatory genes that result from the induction of aberrant methionine metabolism by ethanol feeding. Five-month-old cystathionine beta synthase heterozygous and wild-type C57BL/6J littermate mice were fed liquid control or ethanol diets by intragastric infusion for 4 weeks. Both ethanol-fed groups showed typical histopathology of alcoholic steatohepatitis, with reduction in liver S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), elevation in liver S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and reduction in the SAM/SAH ratio with interactions of ethanol and genotype effects. Hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress signals including glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), caspase 12, and transcription factor sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) were up-regulated in ethanol-fed mice with genotype interactions and negative correlations with the SAM/SAH ratio. Immunohistochemical staining showed reduction in trimethylated histone H3 lysine-9 (3meH3K9) protein levels in centrilobular regions in both ethanol groups, with no changes in trimethylated histone H3 lysine-4 levels. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed a decrease in levels of suppressor chromatin marker 3meH3K9 in the promoter regions of GRP78, SREBP-1c, and GADD153 in ethanol-treated heterozygous cystathionine beta synthase mice. The messenger RNA expression of the histone H3K9 methyltransferase EHMT2 (G9a) was selectively decreased in ethanol-fed mice. The pathogenesis of alcoholic steatohepatitis is mediated in part through the effects of altered methionine metabolism on epigenetic regulation of pathways of endoplasmic reticulum stress relating to apoptosis and lipogenesis.

  2. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Blüher, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-01-01

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in visceral fat via the ER stress pathway. We find that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates both chemical and physiological ER stress-induced inflammatory and acute phase response in adipocytes, leading to lower circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using promoter assays, as well as molecular and pharmacological experiments, we show that the transcription factor GATA3 is responsible for the ER stress-induced TRIP-Br2 expression in visceral fat. Taken together, our study identifies molecular regulators of inflammatory response in visceral fat that—given that these pathways are conserved in humans—might serve as potential therapeutic targets in obesity. PMID:27109496

  3. Folate Protects Hepatocytes of Hyperhomocysteinemia Mice from Apoptosis via Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)-activated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anning; Sun, Yue; Mao, Caiyan; Yang, Songhao; Huang, Min; Deng, Mei; Ding, Ning; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Minghao; Jin, Shaoju; Jiang, Yideng; Huang, Ying

    2017-02-23

    Folate deficiency is a known risk factor for liver injury; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we employed a high homocysteine-induced liver injury model of Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice fed high-methionine diet and found that high homocysteine induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and liver cell apoptosis by downregulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression; observations that were attenuated with supplementation of dietary folate. The regulation on CFTR expression was mediated by CFTR promoter methylation and trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). Mechanistically, folate inhibited homocysteine-induced CFTR promoter methylation and H3K27me3, which resulted in upregulation of CFTR expression, and reduced ER stress and liver cell apoptosis. Further study showed that folate inhibited the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2, downregulated the cellular concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and upregulated the SAM/SAH ratio, leading to the inhibition of Hcy-induced DNA hypermethylation and H3K27me3 in CFTR promoter. In conclusion, our results provide insight into the protective role of folate in homocysteine-induced ER stress and liver cell apoptosis through the regulation of CFTR expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein synthesis in plasma cells is regulated by crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Goldfinger, Meidan; Shmuel, Miri; Benhamron, Sandrine; Tirosh, Boaz

    2011-02-01

    Plasma cells (PCs) secrete copious levels of immunoglobulins. To achieve this, their endoplasmic reticulum (ER) undergoes expansion in a process that requires continuous ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response. It is important that protein synthesis, the driver of ER stress, is regulated in a manner that does not induce apoptosis. We followed protein synthesis in murine splenic B cells activated in vitro with LPS. Total protein synthesis levels increased and then steeply decreased when the cells acquired a secretory phenotype. We explored the involvement of two mechanisms in controlling protein synthesis levels, namely ER stress-mediated phosphorylation of eukaryote initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which attenuate or activate mRNA translation, respectively. We show that induction of ER stress in activated B cells counter-intuitively led to dephosphorylation of eIF2α. Despite the reduction in phosphorylated eIF2α, expression of activating transcription factor 4, an effector of hyper eIF2α phosphorylation, was induced. In addition, ER stress attenuated the mTOR pathway, which ultimately reduced protein synthesis. Finally, B cells engineered to overactivate the mTOR pathway exhibited higher apoptosis in the course of LPS stimulation. We conclude that protein synthesis in PCs is controlled by an ER stress-mediated mTOR regulation, which is needed for optimal cell viability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Matrine Suppresses the ER-positive MCF Cells by Regulating Energy Metabolism and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi; Ma, Dachang; Wang, Honglei; Wu, Duoming; Chen, Ying; Ji, Kun; Qin, Tao; Wu, Li

    2017-04-01

    Matrine (C15 H24 N2 O), an alkaloid that is one of the main active components from Sophora flavescens. Matrine has been demonstrated to have therapeutic effects on various solid tumors, including breast cancer, but the mechanism still needs further study. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-positive Michigan Cancer Foundation cells were cultured, and matrine was added in various amounts to measure the dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to observed nuclear morphological changes. Apoptosis was measured by AnnexinV/PI double staining assay kit. Intracellular adenosine triphosphate and glycometabolism were detected by assay kit. The protein levels GRP78, p-eIF2α, CHOP, cytochrome c, and HexokinaseII were analyzed. Mechanistic investigations revealed that matrine treatment causes ER dilation and up-regulated the expression of ER stress markers GRP78, eIF2α, and CHOP, increases the levels of apoptotic in Michigan Cancer Foundation cells, subsequently, blocking the ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway, significantly decreased matrine-induced apoptotic but still has significant difference between control group. In addition, matrine not only promoted the occurrence of ER stress but also inhibited the expression of hexokinase II, down-regulated energy metabolism. In summary, the present study suggests that the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis by matrine and down-regulated energy metabolism may account for its cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kaser, A; Blumberg, R S

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) is increasingly recognized to play a prominent role as an important intermediary between the commensal microbiota and the intestinal immune system. Moreover, it is now recognized that intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may arise primarily from IEC dysfunction due to unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a consequence of genetic disruption of X box binding protein-1 function. In addition to primary (genetic) abnormalities of the unfolded protein response, a variety of secondary (inflammation and environmental) factors are also likely to be important regulators of ER stress. ER stress pathways are also well known to regulate (and be regulated by) autophagy pathways. Therefore, the host's ability to manage ER stress is likely to be a major pathway in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation that arises primarily from the IEC. Herein we discuss ER stress in the IEC as both an originator and perpetuator of intestinal inflammation in IBD.

  7. CYP2J3 gene delivery up-regulated adiponectin expression via reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xizhen; Tu, Ling; Feng, Wenjing; Ma, Ben; Li, Rui; Zheng, Changlong; Li, Geng; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-05-01

    Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which play crucial and diverse roles in cardiovascular homeostasis. We and others have identified that EETs exert a beneficial role on insulin resistance and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of CYP2J3 epoxygenase gene delivery on adiponectin expression in rats treated with high-fat (HF) diet. CYP2J3 gene delivery in vivo increased EET generation, enhanced adiponectin expression and secretion and accompanied by activation of adiponectin downstream signaling, and decreased insulin resistance as determined by plasma insulin levels, insulin resistance index and glucose tolerance test, as well as phosphorylation of protein kinase B in both liver and muscle. Furthermore, CYP2J3 overexpression prevented HF diet-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in adipose tissue of rats. Also, CYP2J3 gene transfection and exogenous administration of EETs inhibited thapsigargin-induced ER stress with increased adiponectin expression and secretion in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, CYP2J3 gene delivery up-regulated adiponectin expression and excretion in adipose tissue of rats treated with HF diet through inhibition of ER stress, which can decrease adiponectin expression. These results further highlight the beneficial roles of the CYP epoxygenase 2J3 and its metabolites EETs on adiponectin expression and secretion.

  8. Terpene glycoside component from Moutan Cortex ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress-related inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Hou, Xue-Feng; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Hui-Hui; Yang, Nan; Gu, Jun-Fei; Wang, Chun-Fei; Zhang, Li; Song, Jie; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Feng, Liang

    2016-12-04

    Multiple lines of evidences have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related inflammatory responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Moutan Cortex (MC), the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used clinically for treating inflammatory diseases in China. The findings from our previous research suggested that terpene glycoside (TG) component of MC possessed favorable anti-inflammatory properties in curing DN. However, the underlying mechanisms of MC-TG for treating DN are still unknown. To explore the role of ER stress-related inflammatory responses in the progression of DN, and to investigate the underlying protective mechanisms of MC-TG in kidney damage. DN rats and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) induced HBZY-1 cell dysfunction were established to evaluate the protective effect of MC-TG on ameliorating renal injury. Evaluation of pathological lesions was performed by Masson staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78/Bip), as well as spliced X box binding protein 1(XBP-1(s)) levels in rat serum were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, western blotting (WB) was applied to detect the protein expressions including IL-6, MCP-1, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), GRP78/Bip, XBP-1 (s), phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (p-IRE1α), cleaved activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), phosphorylated PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in vivo and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out to determine the phosphorylation of IRE1α and NF-κB p65 in kidney tissues. Pretreatment with MC-TG could markedly improve renal insufficiency and pathologic changes. It could down-regulate ER stress-related factors

  9. Uterine endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolded protein response regulation of gestational length is caspase-3 and -7–dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Organ, Kenna; Moreci, Rebecca S.; Anamthathmakula, Prashanth; Hassan, Sonia S.; Caritis, Steve N.; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified myometrial caspase-3 (CASP3) as a potential regulator of uterine quiescence. We also determined that during pregnancy, the functional activation of uterine CASP3 is likely governed by an integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR) and is consequently limited by an increased unfolded protein response (UPR). The present study examined the functional relevance of uterine UPR-ERSR in maintaining myometrial quiescence and regulating the timing of parturition. In vitro analysis of the human uterine myocyte hTERT-HM cell line revealed that tunicamycin (TM)-induced ERSR modified uterine myocyte contractile responsiveness. Accordingly, alteration of in vivo uterine UPR-ERSR using a pregnant mouse model significantly modified gestational length. We determined that “normal” gestational activation of the ERSR-induced CASP3 and caspase 7 (CASP7) maintains uterine quiescence through previously unidentified proteolytic targeting of the gap junction protein, alpha 1(GJA1); however, surprisingly, TM-induced uterine ERSR triggered an exaggerated UPR that eliminated uterine CASP3 and 7 tocolytic action precociously. These events allowed for a premature increase in myometrial GJA1 levels, elevated contractile responsiveness, and the onset of preterm labor. Importantly, a successful reversal of the magnified ERSR-induced preterm birth phenotype could be achieved by pretreatment with 4-phenylbutrate, a chaperone protein mimic. PMID:26504199

  10. Inhibition of Calcium Influx Reduces Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Lipotoxic Pancreatic β-Cells via Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang; Wang, Heyao

    2015-01-01

    Lipotoxicity plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell failure during the development of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged exposure of β-cells to elevated free fatty acids level could cause deterioration of β-cell function and induce cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of fatty acids-induced β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis might provide benefit for the therapy of type 2 diabetes. The present study examined whether regulation of fatty acids-triggered calcium influx could protect pancreatic β-cells from lipotoxicity. Two small molecule compounds, L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine and potassium channel activator diazoxide were used to inhibit palmitic acid-induced calcium influx. And whether the compounds could reduce palmitic acid-induced β-cell failure and the underlying mechanism were also investigated. It was found that both nifedipine and diazoxide protected MIN6 pancreatic β-cells and primary cultured murine islets from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, the impaired insulin secretion was also recovered to varying degrees by these two compounds. Our results verified that nifedipine and diazoxide could reduce palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress to generate protective effects on pancreatic β-cells. More importantly, it suggested that regulation of calcium influx by small molecule compounds might provide benefits for the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26147439

  11. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Genes in the Osmotically Challenged Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael Paul; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In response to the hyperosmotic stressors of dehydration (complete fluid deprivation, DH) or salt loading (drinking 2% salt solution, SL), AVP synthesis increases in MCNs, which over-burdens the protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are signaling pathways that improve ER function in response to the accumulation of misfold/unfold protein. We asked whether an ER stress response was activated in the SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. We observed increased mRNA expression for the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), and cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1) in both SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. Although we found no changes in the splicing pattern of X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1), an increase in the level of the unspliced form of Xbp1 (Xbp1U) was observed in DH and SL rats. CREB3L1, a novel ER stress inducer, has been shown to be activated by ER stress to regulate the expression of target genes. We have previously shown that CREB3L1 is a transcriptional regulator of the AVP gene; however, a role for CREB3L1 in the response to ER stress has yet to be investigated in MCNs. Here, we used lentiviral vectors to introduce a dominant negative form of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1DN) in the rat SON. Expression of CREB3L1DN in the SON decreased Chop and Xbp1U mRNA levels, but not BiP and Atf4 transcript expression. CREB3L1 is thus implicated as a transcriptional mediator of the ER stress response in the osmotically stimulated SON. PMID:25915053

  12. New endoplasmic reticulum stress regulator, Gipie, regulates the survival of vascular smooth muscle cells and the neointima formation after vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Noda, Tomonori; Maeda, Kengo; Hayano, Shinji; Asai, Naoya; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-05-01

    The accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) initiates an adaptive stress response, termed the unfolded protein response. Previous studies suggested that ER stress might be involved in the formation of neointima after vascular injury. We recently discovered a novel regulator of ER stress, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein-interacting protein induced by ER stress (Gipie). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of Gipie using models of vascular disease. We investigated the functions of Gipie in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in a vascular injury model of a rat carotid artery. The expression of Gipie was predominantly detected in synthetic VSMCs and to a much lesser extent in contractile VSMCs, which was augmented by treatment with thapsigargin. Gipie knockdown increased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the number of apoptotic cells under ER stress. Moreover, Gipie knockdown decreased the mature form of collagen I in synthetic VSMCs. The expression of Gipie was rarely detected in the medial VSMCs of the intact carotid artery, whereas it was detected in most of the neointimal cells and some of the medial VSMCs after balloon injury. Depletion of Gipie in the rat carotid artery attenuated the neointimal thickening, which was accompanied by increased cell death in the neointima. Conversely, overexpression of Gipie augmented the neointimal thickening. Gipie participates in the ER stress response in VSMCs and plays an important role in neointima formation after vascular injury. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress effector CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) regulates chronic kidney disease-induced vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki-Anzai, Shinobu; Masuda, Masashi; Demos-Davies, Kimberly M; Keenan, Audrey L; Saunders, Sommer J; Masuda, Rumiko; Jablonski, Kristen; Cavasin, Maria A; Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel; McKinsey, Timothy A; Levi, Moshe; Miyazaki, Makoto

    2014-06-24

    Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and vascular calcification are a major cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, the long-awaited results of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection trial were reported. This large randomized clinical trial found that an extensive cholesterol-lowering therapy through the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe significantly reduced cardiovascular diseases in a wide range of patients with CKD. However, the mechanism by which this cholesterol-lowering therapy reduces CKD-dependent vascular diseases remains elusive. The objective of the present study was to determine the contribution of the oxysterol-induced pro-apoptotic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) on the pathogenesis of CKD-dependent cardiovascular diseases through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. CKD increased levels of serum oxysterols such as 7-ketocholesterol in human patients and ApoE(-/-) mice. Treatment with simvastatin plus ezetimibe strongly reduced levels of serum oxysterols and attenuated CKD-dependent atherosclerosis, vascular cell death, vascular calcification, and cardiac dysfunction. This therapy also reduced aortic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by CKD. The short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP and activating transcription factor-4 in vascular smooth muscle cells attenuated oxysterol-induced mineralization, osteogenic differentiation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, CHOP deficiency protected ApoE(-/-) mice from CKD-dependent vascular calcification, cardiac dysfunction, and vascular cell death. These data reveal that the cholesterol-lowering therapy of simvastatin plus ezetimibe attenuates CKD-dependent vascular diseases through a reduction of oxysterol-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. CHOP plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CKD-dependent vascular calcification. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-10-14

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity.

  15. PLIN2 is a Key Regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Resolution in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Elaine; Tsai, Tsung Huang; Li, Lan; Saha, Pradip; Chan, Lawrence; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn

    2017-01-01

    Progressive pancreatic β cell failure underlies the transition of impaired glucose tolerance to overt diabetes; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress expedites β cell failure in this situation. ER stress can be elicited by lipotoxicity and an increased demand for insulin in diabetes. We previously reported that the lipid droplet protein perilipin 2 (PLIN2) modulates lipid homeostasis in the liver. Here, we show that PLIN2 modulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress in pancreatic β cells. PLIN2 expression goes up when β cells are exposed to a lipid load or to chemical ER stress inducers. Downregulation of PLIN2 ameliorates the effects of fatty acid- and chemical-induced ER stress, whereas PLIN2 overexpression exacerbates them. Diabetic Akita mice, which carry a heterozygous C96Y Ins2 mutation, exhibit elevated PLIN2 expression and ER stress in their β cells. Genetic ablation of Plin2 in Akita mice leads to mitigation of ER stress, forestalling β cell apoptosis, partially restoring β cell mass, and ameliorating diabetes. Mechanistic experiments showed that PLIN2 downregulation is associated with enhanced autophagic flux and accelerated ER stress resolution. In sum, we have identified a crucial role for PLIN2 in modulating autophagy, ER stress resolution, and β cell apoptosis and survival. PMID:28102311

  16. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against d-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium’s beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells. PMID:26875981

  17. Selenoprotein R Protects Human Lens Epithelial Cells against D-Galactose-Induced Apoptosis by Regulating Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Hongmei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-02-10

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. Much of selenium's beneficial influence on health is attributed to its presence within 25 selenoproteins. Selenoprotein R (SelR), known as methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1), is a selenium-dependent enzyme that, like other Msrs, is required for lens cell viability. In order to investigate the roles of SelR in protecting human lens epithelial (hLE) cells against damage, the influences of SelR gene knockdown on d-galactose-induced apoptosis in hLE cells were studied. The results showed that both d-galactose and SelR gene knockdown by siRNA independently induced oxidative stress. When SelR-gene-silenced hLE cells were exposed to d-galactose, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) protein level was further increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased and accompanied by a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. At the same time, the apoptosis cells percentage and the caspase-3 activity were visibly elevated in hLE cells. These results suggested that SelR might protect hLE cell mitochondria and mitigating apoptosis in hLE cells against oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by d-galactose, implying that selenium as a micronutrient may play important roles in hLE cells.

  18. Albumin overload down-regulates integrin-β1 through reactive oxygen species-endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Chen, Chien-An; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Proteinuria is a major hallmark of glomerular nephropathy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in glomerular nephropathy. The protein levels of integrin-β1 in podocytes are found to be negative correlation with amount of proteinuria. This study investigated whether urinary protein, particularly albumin, induced ER stress that consequently reduced integrin-β1 expression. All experiments were performed using primary cultured rat podocyte. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blotting and semiquantified reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Albumin uptake was found at 1 h after albumin addition. Albumin reduced precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1, but did not change mRNA levels of integrin-β1. Albumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ER stress. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) suppressed albumin-induced ER stress and decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. Then, ER stress inhibitors (4-phenylbutyrate and salubrinal) also inhibited albumin-induced decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. The potent ER stress inducers (thapsigargin and tunicamycin) directly decreased precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 and led appearance of unglycosylated core protein of integrin-β1. Our results show that in proteinuric disease, albumin decreases precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 through ROS-ER stress pathway in podocytes.

  19. PACE4 regulates apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhiyong; Sun, Bin; Hong, Quan; Yan, Jingmin; Mu, Dawei; Li, Jianye; Sheng, Haibo; Guo, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background PACE4 is a proprotein convertase capable of processing numerous substrates involved in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. However, the precise role of PACE4 during prostate cancer cell apoptosis has not been reported. Methods In the present study, human prostate cancer cell lines DU145, LNCaP, and PC3 were transfected with PACE4 small interfering (si)RNA to investigate the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis. Results We revealed that PACE4 siRNA exhibited antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis, as determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltet-razolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell cycle analysis, Hoechst staining, caspase-3/7 activity, and western blot analysis. In addition, PACE4 siRNA significantly increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, which led to the release of cytochrome c. Moreover, PACE4 siRNA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by increasing the expression of GRP78, GRP94, p-PERK, and p-eIF2α. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and GRP78 were also increased in PACE4 gene knockdown prostate cancer cells compared with the control cells. Conclusion These data demonstrate that PACE4 siRNA may exert its antitumor activity through mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways, indicating it may be a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer. PMID:26604689

  20. Membrane hyperpolarization induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress facilitates ca(2+) influx to regulate cell cycle progression in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kito, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Hisao; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Ohya, Susumu; Asai, Kiyofumi; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of the Kir2.1 channel during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in t-BBEC117, an immortalized bovine brain endothelial cell line, caused a sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and a facilitation of cell death. Expressions of Ca(2+) influx channels (TRPC, Orai1, STIM1) were unchanged by ER stress. The ER stress-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was mainly attributed to the deeper resting membrane potential due to Kir2.1 upregulation. ER stress arrested at the G2/M phase and it was attenuated by an inhibitor of Kir2.1. These results indicate that Kir2.1 upregulation by ER stress facilitates cell death via regulation of cell cycle progression in t-BBEC117.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in periimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Marek; Gye, Myung Chan

    2015-03-01

    Stress coping mechanisms are critical to minimize or overcome damage caused by ever changing environmental conditions. They are designed to promote cell survival. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway is mobilized in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, ultimately in order to regain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Various elements of coping responses to ER stress including Perk, Ask1, Bip, Chop, Gadd34, Ire1, Atf4, Atf6, and Xbp1 have been identified and were found to be inducible in oocytes and preimplantation embryos, suggesting that, as a normal part of the cellular adaptive mechanism, these coping responses, including the UPR, play a pivotal role in the development of preimplantation embryos. As such, the UPR-associated molecules and pathways may become useful markers for the potential diagnosis of stress conditions for preimplantation embryos. After implantation, ER stress-induced coping responses become physiologically important for a normal decidual response, placentation, and early organogenesis. Attenuation of ER stress coping responses by tauroursodeoxycholate and salubrinal was effective for prevention of cell death of cultured embryos. Further elucidation of new and relevant ER stress coping responses in periimplantation embryos might contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of normal development of embryonic development and potentiation of embryonic development in vitro.

  2. Heightened endoplasmic reticulum stress in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the role of Nrf2-regulated proteasomal activity.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Deepti; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Vij, Neeraj; Navas-Acien, Ana; Sussan, Thomas; Merali, Salim; Zhang, Li; Kelsen, Steven G; Myers, Allen; Wise, Robert; Tuder, Rubin; Biswal, Shyam

    2009-12-15

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important regulator of lung antioxidant defenses, declines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, Nrf2 also regulates the proteasome system that degrades damaged and misfolded proteins. Because accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis, Nrf2 may potentially prevent ER stress-mediated apoptosis in COPD. To determine whether Nrf2-regulated proteasome function affects ER stress-mediated apoptosis in COPD. We assessed the expression of Nrf2, Nrf2-dependent proteasomal subunits, proteasomal activity, markers of ER stress, and apoptosis in emphysematous lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) as well as peripheral lung tissues from normal control subjects and patients with COPD. Compared with wild-type mice, emphysematous lungs of CS-exposed Nrf2-deficient mice exhibited markedly lower proteasomal activity and elevated markers of ER stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, compared with normal control subjects, lungs of patients with mild and advanced COPD showed a marked decrease in the expression of Nrf2-regulated proteasomal subunits and total proteasomal activity. However, they were associated with greater levels of ER stress and apoptosis markers. In vitro studies have demonstrated that enhancing proteasomal activity in Beas2B cells either by sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, or overexpression of Nrf2-regulated proteasomal subunit PSMB6, significantly inhibited cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-induced ER stress and cell death. Impaired Nrf2 signaling causes significant decline in proteasomal activity and heightens ER stress response in lungs of patients with COPD and CS-exposed mice. Accordingly, pharmacological approaches that augment Nrf2 activity may protect against COPD progression by both up-regulating antioxidant defenses and relieving ER stress.

  3. SIRT1 attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via induction of oxygen-regulated protein 150

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, K.T.; Lee, M.W.; Ka, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although SIRT1 has a therapeutic effect on T2DM, the mechanisms by which SIRT1 ameliorates insulin resistance (IR) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of SIRT1 on palmitate-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells and its underlying signal pathway. Treatment with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator significantly inhibited palmitate-induced ER stress, leading to the protection against palmitate-induced ER stress and insulin resistance. Resveratrol and SIRT1 overexpression induced the expression of oxygen-regulated protein (ORP) 150 in HepG2 cells. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was involved in the regulation of ORP150 expression because suppression of FOXO1 inhibited the induction of ORP150 by SIRT1. Our results indicate a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates ER stress by overexpression of ORP150, and suggest that SIRT1 ameliorates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via regulation of ER stress.

  4. Regulation of calnexin sub-cellular localization modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Delom, Frédéric; Fessart, Delphine; Chevet, Eric

    2007-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular compartment where proteins enter the secretory pathway, undergo post-translational modifications and acquire a correct conformation. If these functions are chronically altered, specific ER stress signals are triggered to promote cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Here, we show that tunicamycin causes significant alteration of calnexin sub-cellular distribution in MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, this correlates with the absence of both tunicamycin-induced calnexin phosphorylation as well as tunicamycin-induced cell death. Under these conditions, calnexin-associated Bap31, an ER integral membrane protein, is subjected to a caspase-8 cleavage pattern within a specific sub-compartment of the ER. These results suggest that MCF-7 resistance to ER stress-induced apoptosis is partially mediated by the expression level of calnexin which in turn controls its sub-cellular localization, and its association with Bap31. These data may delineate a resistance mechanism to the ER stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  5. Regulation of CD2-associated protein influences podocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis induced by albumin overload.

    PubMed

    He, Fangfang; Chen, Shan; Wang, Hui; Shao, Ning; Tian, Xiujuan; Jiang, Huajun; Liu, Jianshe; Zhu, Zhonghua; Meng, Xianfang; Zhang, Chun

    2011-09-15

    Proteinuria is an exacerbating factor of chronic kidney diseases, leading to glomerulosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating protein overload-induced podocyte injury are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress participated in the progression of a variety of kidney diseases. In the present study, we investigated the role of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) in protein overload-induced ER stress and subsequent podocyte apoptosis. Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in vitro and treated with different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In addition, CD2AP eukaryotic expression vector or siRNA was transfected into podocytes before exposed to BSA. Albumin endocytosis and podocyte apoptosis were visualized by confocal microscopy. The subcellular organelles were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of GRP78, caspase-12 and CD2AP were detected by RT-PCR or Western blot analysis. It was found that albumin was endocytosed by podocytes in a time-dependent manner. Accumulation of albumin in podocytes induced ER stress and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner as indicated by upregulation of GRP78 and caspase-12. Meanwhile, the subcellular organelles were disrupted and the expression of CD2AP was downregulated by high concentration of albumin. Transfection of CD2AP eukaryotic expression vector into podocytes increased CD2AP expression, depressed GRP78 and caspase-12 expressions, and inhibited podocyte apoptosis. In contrast, transfection of CD2AP siRNA deteriorated the above changes induced by BSA. It is concluded protein overload induces podocyte apoptosis via ER stress and CD2AP may play a crucial role in albumin overload-induced ER stress and apoptosis in podocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Hepatic Stellate Cells Promotes Liver Fibrosis via PERK-Mediated Degradation of HNRNPA1 and Up-regulation of SMAD2.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja Hyun; Lee, Hyo Ju; Kim, Won; Kim, Sang Geon

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in a variety of diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contribute to the development of liver fibrosis. Information on the link between ER stress and HSC activation is scarce. We investigated the effects of ER stress in HSCs on the progression of liver fibrosis and the regulation of this process in cells and mice. Proteins and messenger RNAs were measured in 2 sets of liver samples (n = 25 and n = 44) collected from patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and/or fibrosis. ER stress was induced in cells and mice using chemical agents. Lentiviral vectors were constructed to express glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78; also known as HSPA5) or heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1) from the α-smooth muscle actin promoter and injected into C57BL/6 mice for HSC-specific gene expression. Liver tissues and HSCs were collected from mice or rats and analyzed using immunoblottings and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. LX-2 cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs, microRNA mimics, or overexpression vectors. Hepatic ER stress was much higher in liver tissues from patients with severe vs mild fibrosis. ER stress induced fibrogenic genes in HSCs. Targeted lentiviral delivery of glucose-regulated protein 78 to HSCs in mice reduced fiber accumulation in liver. Levels of SMAD2, but not SMAD3, were increased in fibrotic liver tissues from patients or mice exposed to ER stress; small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SMAD2 reduced ER stress-mediated activation of HSCs. In rat HSCs, ER stress increased levels of SMAD2 messenger RNA by decreasing levels of microRNA 18a (MIR18A), an inhibitor of SMAD2 expression, rather than transactivating the SMAD2 gene. ER stress-activated PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, also known as EIF2AK3 (PERK) phosphorylated HNRNPA1, a protein required for the maturational processing of primary MIR18A, at Thr51, accelerating its

  7. Icariin displays anticancer activity against human esophageal cancer cells via regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chongxi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Shuai; Di, Shouyin; Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Li, Tian; Zhu, Yifang; Xin, Zhenlong; Wu, Guiling; Han, Jing; Li, Xiaofei; Yan, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of icariin (ICA) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in vitro and in vivo and explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) signaling in this activity. ICA treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the viability of human EC109 and TE1 ESCCs. Additionally, ICA exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced by reductions in cell migration, adhesion, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and by increases in the EC109 and TE1 cell apoptotic index, Caspase 9 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. Furthermore, ICA treatments upregulated the levels of ERS-related molecules (p-PERK, GRP78, ATF4, p-eIF2α, and CHOP) and a pro-apoptotic protein (PUMA) and simultaneously downregulated an anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl2) in the two ESCC cell lines. The downregulation of ERS signaling using eIF2α siRNA desensitized EC109 and TE1 cells to ICA treatment, and the upregulation of ERS signaling using thapsigargin sensitized EC109 and TE1 cells to ICA treatment. In summary, ERS activation may represent a mechanism of action for the anticancer activity of ICA in ESCCs, and the activation of ERS signaling may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for human esophageal cancer. PMID:26892033

  8. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  9. Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yueh; Kanehara, Kazue

    2017-01-01

    Roots are the frontier of plant body to perceive underground environmental change. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response represents circumvention of cellular stress caused by various environmental changes; however, a limited number of studies are available on the ER stress responses in roots. Here, we report the tunicamycin (TM) -induced ER stress response in Arabidopsis roots by monitoring expression patterns of immunoglobulin-binding protein 3 (BiP3), a representative marker for the response. Roots promptly responded to the TM-induced ER stress through the induction of similar sets of ER stress-responsive genes. However, not all cells responded uniformly to the TM-induced ER stress in roots, as BiP3 was highly expressed in root tips, an outer layer in elongation zone, and an inner layer in mature zone of roots. We suggest that ER stress response in roots has tissue specificity. PMID:28298914

  11. 2-DEOXY-GLUCOSE DOWN REGULATES ENDOTHELIAL AKT AND ERK VIA INTERFERENCE WITH N-LINKED GLYCOSYLATION, INDUCTION OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AND GSK-3β ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Krisztina; Decatur, Christina; Toro, Marcela; Pham, Dien G.; Liu, Huaping; Jing, Yuqi; Murray, Timothy G.; Lampidis, Theodore J.; Merchan, Jaime R.

    2015-01-01

    Interference with endothelial cell metabolism is a promising, yet unexploited strategy for angiogenesis inhibition. We reported that the glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) inhibits angiogenesis at significantly lower concentrations than those required for tumor cytotoxicity. Here, we found that hypersensitivity to 2-DG in endothelial cells is not associated with enhanced drug uptake compared to tumor cells, but with time dependent, endothelial selective inhibition of Akt and Erk phosphorylation. Down regulation of these critical survival pathways is shown to be due to 2-DG’s interference with N-linked glycosylation, leading to alterations in VEGFR2 (and downstream signaling) as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, GSK-3β activation and apoptosis. In vivo, periocular administration of 2-DG in LHBETATAG mice was associated with significant reduction of newly formed (CD 105 +) tumor capillaries, ER stress (GRP 78 expression), and endothelial apoptosis (TUNEL). These findings uniquely link N-linked glycosylation inhibition, ER stress and Erk/Akt down regulation in endothelial cells, and provide a novel drug development strategy to overcome resistance mechanisms to currently available antiangiogenic agents. PMID:26637370

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased after spontaneous labor in human fetal membranes and myometrium where it regulates the expression of prolabor mediators.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2014-09-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in various diseases. In nongestational tissues, several markers of the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been shown to regulate the inflammatory response. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labor on markers of ER stress in fetal membranes and myometrium. In addition, the effect of ER stress inhibition on the expression and secretion of proinflammatory and prolabor mediators was also assessed. The markers of ER stress, GRP78, IRE1, and spliced XBP1 (XBP1s), were significantly increased in fetal membranes and myometrium after term and preterm labor compared to nonlaboring samples. Given that inflammation is considered to be one of the leading causes of spontaneous preterm birth, here we used bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model for infection-induced preterm birth. In term nonlabored fetal membranes and myometrium, LPS induced UPR activation as evidenced by a significant increase in the expression of GRP78, IRE1, and XBP1s in fetal membranes and myometrium. The use of the chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) alleviated ER stress induced by LPS. 4-PBA and TUDCA also ameliorated the increase in LPS-induced prolabor mediators. Our data suggest that the UPR may regulate the inflammatory responses associated with labor or infection in fetal membranes and myometrium of pregnant term and preterm women. Thus, the use of ER stress inhibitors, in particular 4-PBA or TUDCA, may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of infection-mediated spontaneous preterm birth. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  16. A LAPF/phafin1-like protein regulates TORC1 and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in response to endoplasmic reticulum membrane stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Adam; Cunningham, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is a poorly understood regulator of programmed cell death that involves leakage of luminal lysosomal or vacuolar hydrolases into the cytoplasm. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LMP can be induced by antifungals and endoplasmic reticulum stressors when calcineurin also has been inactivated. A genome-wide screen revealed Pib2, a relative of LAPF/phafin1 that regulates LMP in mammals, as a pro-LMP protein in yeast. Pib2 associated with vacuolar and endosomal limiting membranes in unstressed cells in a manner that depended on its FYVE domain and on phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) biosynthesis. Genetic experiments suggest that Pib2 stimulates the activity of TORC1, a vacuole-associated protein kinase that is sensitive to rapamycin, in a pathway parallel to the Ragulator/EGO complex containing the GTPases Gtr1 and Gtr2. A hyperactivating mutation in the catalytic subunit of TORC1 restored LMP to the gtr1∆ and pib2∆ mutants and also prevented the synthetic lethality of the double mutants. These findings show novel roles of PI(3)P and Pib2 in the regulation of TORC1, which in turn promoted LMP and nonapoptotic death of stressed cells. Rapamycin prevented the death of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans during exposure to fluconazole plus a calcineurin inhibitor, suggesting that TORC1 broadly promotes sensitivity to fungistats in yeasts. PMID:26510498

  17. Placental endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates transcription of placental growth factor via ATF4 and ATF6β: implications for the pathophysiology of human pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Mizuuchi, Masahito; Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Olovsson, Matts; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Burton, Graham J; Yung, Hong Wa

    2016-03-01

    Low maternal circulating concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) are one of the hallmarks of human pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction (FGR) and early-onset pre-eclampsia (PE). Currently, PlGF is used clinically with other biomarkers to screen for high-risk cases, although the mechanisms underlying its regulation are largely unknown. Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been found to be elevated in cases of FGR, and to an even greater extent in early-onset PE complicated with FGR. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR); attenuation of protein translation and a reduction in cell growth and proliferation play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of these complications of pregnancy. In this study, we further identified that ER stress regulates release of PlGF. We first observed that down-regulation of PlGF protein was associated with nuclear localization of ATF4, ATF6α and ATF6β in the syncytiotrophoblast of placentae from PE patients. Transcript analysis showed a decrease of PlGF mRNA, and an increase from genes encoding those UPR transcription factors in placentae from cases of early-onset PE, but not of late-onset (>34 weeks) PE, compared to term controls. Further investigations indicated a strong correlation between ATF4 and PlGF mRNA levels only (r = - 0.73, p < 0.05). These results could be recapitulated in trophoblast-like cells exposed to chemical inducers of ER stress or hypoxia-reoxygenation. The stability of PlGF transcripts was unchanged. The use of small interfering RNA specific for transcription factors in the UPR pathways revealed that ATF4 and ATF6β, but not ATF6α, modulate PlGF transcription. To conclude, ATF4 and ATF6β act synergistically in the negative regulation of PlGF mRNA expression, resulting in reduced PlGF secretion by the trophoblast in response to stress. Therefore, these results further support the targeting of placental ER stress as a potential new therapeutic

  18. Cardioprotective effects of Notoginsenoside R1 against ischemia/reperfusion injuries by regulating oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress- related signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingli; Sun, Guibo; Luo, Yun; Wang, Min; Chen, Rongchang; Zhang, Jingyi; Ai, Qidi; Xing, Na; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent reports suggested the involvement of oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated pathways in the progression of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel saponin isolated from P. notoginseng, which has a history of prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of NGR1 on I/R-induced heart dysfunction ex vivo and in vitro. Methods: H9c2 cadiomyocytes were incubated with NGR1 for 24 h and exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Isolated rat hearts were perfused by NGR1 for 15 min and then subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored as left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), heart rate, and maximal rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dP/dt max/min). Results: NGR1 pretreatment prevents cell apoptosis and delays the onset of ERS by decreasing the protein expression levels of ERS-responsive proteins GRP78, P-PERK, ATF6, IRE, and inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins CHOP, Caspase-12, and P-JNK. Besides, NGR1 scavenges free radical, and increases the activity of antioxidase. NGR1 inhibits Tunicamycin-induced cell death and cardic dysfunction. Conclusion: We elucidated the significant cardioprotective effects of NGR1 against I/R injuries, and demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress and ERS in the protective effects of NGR1. PMID:26888485

  19. Interaction between endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress (ER/SR stress), mitochondrial signaling and Ca(2+) regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM).

    PubMed

    Delmotte, Philippe; Sieck, Gary C

    2015-02-01

    Airway inflammation is a key aspect of diseases such as asthma. Several inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-13) increase cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyt) responses to agonist stimulation and Ca(2+) sensitivity of force generation, thereby enhancing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility (hyper-reactive state). Inflammation also induces ASM proliferation and remodeling (synthetic state). In normal ASM, the transient elevation of [Ca(2+)]cyt induced by agonists leads to a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]mito) that may be important in matching ATP production with ATP consumption. In human ASM (hASM) exposed to TNFα and IL-13, the transient increase in [Ca(2+)]mito is blunted despite enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt responses. We also found that TNFα and IL-13 induce reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress (unfolded protein response) in hASM. ER/SR stress in hASM is associated with disruption of mitochondrial coupling with the ER/SR membrane, which relates to reduced mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression. Thus, in hASM it appears that TNFα and IL-13 result in ROS formation leading to ER/SR stress, reduced Mfn2 expression, disruption of mitochondrion-ER/SR coupling, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased cell proliferation.

  20. Interaction between endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress (ER/SR stress), mitochondrial signaling and Ca2+ regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM)1

    PubMed Central

    Delmotte, Philippe; Sieck, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Airway inflammation is a key aspect of diseases such as asthma. Several inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-13) increase cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) responses to agonist stimulation and Ca2+ sensitivity of force generation, thereby enhancing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility (hyper-reactive state). Inflammation also induces ASM proliferation and remodeling (synthetic state). In normal ASM, the transient elevation of [Ca2+]cyt induced by agonists leads to a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]mito) that may be important in matching ATP production with ATP consumption. In human ASM (hASM) exposed to TNFα and IL-13, the transient increase in [Ca2+]mito is blunted despite enhanced [Ca2+]cyt responses. We also found that TNFα and IL-13 induce reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress (unfolded protein response) in hASM. ER/SR stress in hASM is associated with disruption of mitochondrial coupling with the ER/SR membrane, which relates to reduced mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression. Thus, in hASM it appears that TNFα and IL-13 result in ROS formation leading to ER/SR stress, reduced Mfn2 expression, disruption of mitochondrion–ER/SR coupling, decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased cell proliferation. PMID:25506723

  1. The asthma-associated ORMDL3 gene product regulates endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium signaling and cellular stress.

    PubMed

    Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Fandos, César; Rubio-Moscardo, Fanny; Valverde, Miguel A; Vicente, Rubén

    2010-01-01

    Alterations of protein folding or Ca(2+) levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) result in the unfolded-protein response (UPR), a process considered as an endogenous inducer of inflammation. Thereby, understanding how genetic factors modify UPR is particularly relevant in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Here we identified that ORMDL3, the only genetic risk factor recently associated to asthma in a genome wide study, alters ER-mediated Ca(2+) homeostasis and facilitates the UPR. Heterologous expression of human ER-resident transmembrane ORMDL3 protein increased resting cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and reduced ER-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, an effect reverted by co-expression with the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump (SERCA). Increased ORMDL3 expression also promoted stronger activation of UPR transducing molecules and target genes while siRNA-mediated knock-down of endogenous ORMDL3 potentiated ER Ca(2+) release and attenuated the UPR. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with a model in which ORMDL3 binds and inhibits SERCA resulting in a reduced ER Ca(2+) concentration and increased UPR. Thus, we provide a first insight into the molecular mechanism explaining the association of ORMDL3 with proinflammatory diseases.

  2. An endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated lncRNA hosting a microRNA megacluster induces early features of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mitsuo; Wang, Mei; Chen, Zhuo; Bhatt, Kirti; Oh, Hyung Jung; Lanting, Linda; Deshpande, Supriya; Jia, Ye; Lai, Jennifer Y C; O'Connor, Christopher L; Wu, YiFan; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Nelson, Robert G; Bitzer, Markus; Natarajan, Rama

    2016-09-30

    It is important to find better treatments for diabetic nephropathy (DN), a debilitating renal complication. Targeting early features of DN, including renal extracellular matrix accumulation (ECM) and glomerular hypertrophy, can prevent disease progression. Here we show that a megacluster of nearly 40 microRNAs and their host long non-coding RNA transcript (lnc-MGC) are coordinately increased in the glomeruli of mouse models of DN, and mesangial cells treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1) or high glucose. Lnc-MGC is regulated by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related transcription factor, CHOP. Cluster microRNAs and lnc-MGC are decreased in diabetic Chop(-/-) mice that showed protection from DN. Target genes of megacluster microRNAs have functions related to protein synthesis and ER stress. A chemically modified oligonucleotide targeting lnc-MGC inhibits cluster microRNAs, glomerular ECM and hypertrophy in diabetic mice. Relevance to human DN is also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the translational implications of targeting lnc-MGC for controlling DN progression.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress eIF2α–ATF4 pathway-mediated cyclooxygenase-2 induction regulates cadmium-induced autophagy in kidney

    PubMed Central

    Luo, B; Lin, Y; Jiang, S; Huang, L; Yao, H; Zhuang, Q; Zhao, R; Liu, H; He, C; Lin, Z

    2016-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is nephrotoxic. Recent studies show that autophagy plays an essential role in Cd-induced kidney injury. However, the mechanisms of Cd-induced kidney injury accompanied by autophagy are still obscure. In the present study, we first confirmed that Cd induced kidney damage and dysfunction, along with autophagy, both in vivo and in vitro. Then, we observed that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the eIF2α–ATF4 pathway of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were induced by Cd in both kidney tissues and cultured cells. Further studies showed that inhibition of COX-2 with celecoxib or RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited the Cd-induced autophagy in kidney cells. In addition, blocking ER stress with 4-phenylbutyrate or RNAi partially counteracted COX-2 overexpression and autophagy induced by Cd, which suggested that ER stress was required for Cd-induced kidney autophagy. Significantly, our results showed that Cd activated ATF4 and induced its translocation to the nucleus. Knockdown of ATF4 inhibited Cd-induced COX-2 overexpression. While COX-2 overexpression is involved in renal dysfunction, there is no prior report on the role of COX-2 in autophagy regulation. The results of the current study suggest a novel molecular mechanism that the ER stress eIF2α–ATF4 pathway-mediated COX-2 overexpression contributes to Cd-induced kidney autophagy and injury. The present study implies that COX-2 may be a potential target for therapy against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27253415

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: implications for inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, Arthur; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of the emerging role of cellular stress responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent findings The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a primitive cellular pathway that is engaged when responding to endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulates autophagy. Highly secretory cells such as Paneth cells and goblet cells in the intestines are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress and are exceedingly dependent upon a properly functioning UPR to maintain cellular viability and homeostasis. Primary genetic abnormalities within the components of the UPR (e.g. XBP1, ARG2, ORMDL3), genes that encode proteins reliant upon a robust secretory pathway (e.g. MUC2, HLAB27) and environmental factors that create disturbances in the UPR (e.g. microbial products and inflammatory cytokines) are important factors in the primary development and/or perpetuation of intestinal inflammation. Summary Endoplasmic reticulum stress is an important new pathway involved in the development of intestinal inflammation associated with IBD and likely other intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:20495455

  5. FPipTB, a benzimidazole derivative, induces chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Fong, Yi-Chin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2012-04-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor and it responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new benzimidazole derivative, 2-(furanyl)-5-(piperidinyl)- (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl) benzimidazole (FPipTB) in human chondrosarcoma cells. FPipTB-induced apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353) but not in primary chondrocytes. Furthermore, it triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels. Treatment of chondrosarcoma cells with FPipTB was associated with increased intracellular levels of ASK1, p38, p53, and Bax, followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspases. It is also known that ER stress activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), which mediates activation of JNK and p38 pathways. We also found that FPipTB-induced p38 and p53 phosphorylation and upregulated Bax expression. To study the mechanism of Bax upregulation, we determined that Bax promoter activity was increased in FPipTB-treated cells, leading to an increase in intracellular levels of Bax. In addition, cell treated with Ca(2+) chelator or p38 inhibitor showed reduced transcriptional activity. The results further suggest that FPipTB triggered ER stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic calcium levels and activated the ASK1-MKK3/6-p38-p53-Bax pathway, causing chondrosarcoma cell death. Importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic 40% reduction in tumor volume after 21 d of treatment. Thus, FPipTB may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of chondrosarcoma.

  6. Cantharidin Induced Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis via the JNK-Regulated Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Kuan-I; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Kuo, Chun-Ying; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a subtype of head and neck cancer which represents 2.65% of all human malignancies. Most of oral cancer is histopathologically diagnosed as oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC is characterized by a high degree of local invasion and a high rate of metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. How to prevention and treatment of OSCC is important and imperative. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of cantharidin, an active compound isolated from blister beetles, on OSCC in vitro. Results showed that cantharidin significantly decreased cell viability in human tongue squamous carcinoma-derived SAS, CAL-27, and SCC-4 cell lines. The further mechanistic studies were carried out in SAS cells. Cantharidin also significantly increased apoptosis-related signals, including caspase-9, caspase-7 and caspase-3 proteins. Besides, cantharidin decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) and induced cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) release. Cantharidin also increased Bax, Bid, and Bak protein expressions and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Cantharidin could also increase the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, including the expressions of phosphorylated eIF-2α and CHOP, but not Grp78 and Grp94. Furthermore, cantharidin reduced pro-caspase-12 protein expression. In signals of mitogen-activated protein kinases, cantharidin increased the phosphorylation of JNK, but not ERK and p38. Transfection of shRNA-JNK to OSCC cells effectively reversed the cantharidin-induced cell apoptotic signals, including the mitochondrial and ER stress-related signaling molecules. Taken together, these findings suggest that cantharidin induces apoptosis in OSCC cells via the JNK-regulated mitochondria and ER stress-related signaling pathways. PMID:27930712

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes EBV lytic replication

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gwen Marie; Raghuwanshi, Sandeep K.; Rowe, David T.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a homeostatic cellular response in mammalian cells to ensure efficient folding, sorting, and processing of client proteins. In lytic-permissive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), pulse exposure to the chemical ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) followed by recovery resulted in the activation of the EBV immediate-early (BRLF1, BZLF1), early (BMRF1), and late (gp350) genes, gp350 surface expression, and virus release. The protein phosphatase 1 a (PP1a)–specific phosphatase inhibitor Salubrinal (SAL) synergized with TG to induce EBV lytic genes; however, TG treatment alone was sufficient to activate EBV lytic replication. SAL showed ER-stress–dependent and –independent antiviral effects, preventing virus release in human LCLs and abrogating gp350 expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)–treated B95-8 cells. TG resulted in sustained BCL6 but not BLIMP1 or CD138 expression, which is consistent with maintenance of a germinal center B-cell, rather than plasma-cell, phenotype. Microarray analysis identified candidate genes governing lytic replication in LCLs undergoing ER stress. PMID:21849482

  8. Vildagliptin preserves the mass and function of pancreatic β cells via the developmental regulation and suppression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in a mouse model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, S; Kanda, Y; Shimoda, M; Tatsumi, F; Kohara, K; Tawaramoto, K; Hashiramoto, M; Kaku, K

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which vildagliptin preserved pancreatic β cell mass and function. Morphological, biochemical and gene expression profiles of the pancreatic islets were investigated in male KK-A(y) -TaJcl(KK-A(y) ) and C57BL/6JJcl (B6) mice aged 8 weeks which received either vildagliptin or a vehicle for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and active glucagon-like peptide-1 were unchanged with vildagliptin treatment in both mice. In KK-A(y) mice treated with vildagliptin, increased plasma triglyceride (TG) level and islet TG content were decreased, insulin sensitivity significantly improved, and the glucose tolerance ameliorated with increases in plasma insulin levels. Furthermore, vildagliptin increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, islet insulin content and pancreatic β cell mass in both strains. By vildagliptin, the expression of genes involved in cell differentiation/proliferation was upregulated in both strains, those related to apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipid synthesis was decreased and those related to anti-apoptosis and anti-oxidative stress was upregulated, in KK-A(y) mice. The morphological results were consistent with the gene expression profiles. Vildagliptin increases β cell mass by not only directly affecting cell kinetics but also by indirectly reducing cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic mice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. β-elemene regulates endoplasmic reticulum stress to induce the apoptosis of NSCLC cells through PERK/IRE1α/ATF6 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Jiang, Zi-Yu; Zhou, Yuan-Li; Qiu, Hui-Hui; Wang, Gang; Luo, Yi; Liu, Jing-Bing; Liu, Xiong-Wei; Bu, Wei-Quan; Song, Jie; Cui, Li; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Feng, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) has been regarded as an important cause for the pathogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). β-elemene is an active component in the essential oil extracted from a medicinal herb, Curcuma wenyujin, and has been reported to be effective against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the potential effect and underlying mechanisms of β-elemene on regulating ERs to inhibit NSCLC are still unclear. In the present study, A549 cells and Lewis tumor-bearing C57BL/6J mice were established to evaluate this effect. Visualsonics Vevo 2100 Small Animal Dedicated High-frequency Color Ultrasound was performed to observe tumor volume in vivo. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to evaluate cell vitality of A549 cells. Furthermore, western blotting (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) were applied to detect the ERs-related proteins. Flow cytometry was also applied to detect cell apoptosis and assay kit for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results showed that β-elemene inhibited lung cancer tumor growth and cell vitality in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Not only that, β-elemene could up-regulate ERs-related proteins like PERK, IRE1α, ATF6, ATF4, CHOP and down-regulate the Bcl-2 expression. More importantly, ERs inhibitor 4-PBA, IRE1α inhibitor STF-083010, ATF6 inhibitor Anti-ATF6 and PERK inhibitor GSK2656157 can all reduce the amplitude of protein expression changes and apoptosis rates, then weaken the anti-tumor effect of β-elemene. Therefore, the present in vivo and in vitro study revealed that the anti-NSCLC effect of β-elemene is closely related to the activation of ERs through PERK/IRE1α/ATF6 pathway, and this might be beneficial for clinical therapy of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Arsenic induces pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via the oxidative stress-regulated mitochondria-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum stress-triggered signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tien-Hui; Su, Chin-Chuan; Chen, Ya-Wen; Yang, Ching-Yao; Wu, Chin-Ching; Hung, Dong-Zong; Chen, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Po-Wen; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Huang, Chun-Fa

    2011-02-25

    Arsenic (As), a ubiquitous toxic metal, is an important environmental and industrial pollutant throughout the world. Inorganic As (iAs) is usually more harmful than organic ones and with a high risk of diabetes incidence by exposure. However, the toxicological effects of iAs on growth and function of pancreatic β-cells still remain unclear. Here, we found that iAs significantly decreased insulin secretion and cell viability, and increased ROS and MDA formation in pancreatic β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells. iAs also induced the increases in sub-G1 hypodiploids, annexin V-Cy3 binding, and caspase-3 activity in RIN-m5F cells, indicating that iAs could induce β-cell apoptosis. Moreover, iAs induced MAPKs activation, mitochondria dysfunction, p53 up-regulation, Bcl-2 and Mdm-2 down-regulation, PARP, and caspase cascades, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals. In addition, exposure of RIN-m5F cells to iAs, could trigger ER stress as indicated by the enhancement in ER stress-related molecules induction (such as GRP78, GRP94, CHOP, and XBP1), procaspase-12 cleavage, and calpain activation. The iAs-induced apoptosis and its-related signalings could be effectively reversed by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. We next observed that exposure of mice to iAs in drinking water for 6 consecutive weeks significantly decreased decreased the plasma insulin, elevated glucose intolerance and plasma lipid peroxidation, and induced islet cells apoptosis, which accompanied with arsenic accumulation in the whole blood and pancreas. N-acetylcysteine effectively antagonized the iAs-induced responses in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that iAs-induced oxidative stress causes pancreatic β-cells apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent and ER stress-triggered signaling pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensing in the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brooke M.; Pincus, David; Gotthardt, Katja; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Secretory and transmembrane proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded proteins and exit as either folded proteins in transit to their target organelles or as misfolded proteins targeted for degradation. The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains the protein-folding homeostasis within the ER, ensuring that the protein-folding capacity of the ER meets the load of client proteins. Activation of the UPR depends on three ER stress sensor proteins, Ire1, PERK, and ATF6. Although the consequences of activation are well understood, how these sensors detect ER stress remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that yeast Ire1 directly binds to unfolded proteins, which induces its oligomerization and activation. BiP dissociation from Ire1 regulates this oligomeric equilibrium, ultimately modulating Ire1’s sensitivity and duration of activation. The mechanistic principles of ER stress sensing are the focus of this review. PMID:23388626

  12. Stress Responses from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hironori; Nishitoh, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is essential for multiple cellular functions. During cellular stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation and dysregulation of protein synthesis, unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also contributes to the regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways such as calcium signaling and lipid signaling. More recently, the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), which is a site of close contact between the ER and mitochondria, has been shown to function as a platform for various intracellular stress responses including apoptotic signaling, inflammatory signaling, the autophagic response, and the UPR. Interestingly, in cancer, these signaling pathways from the ER are often dysregulated, contributing to cancer cell metabolism. Thus, the signaling pathway from the ER may be a novel therapeutic target for various cancers. In this review, we discuss recent research on the roles of stress responses from the ER, including the MAM. PMID:25941664

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Shevalye, Hanna; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from abnormal folding of newly synthesized proteins impairs metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and gene expression, and it is a key mechanism of cell injury. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. We evaluated the role for this phenomenon in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress manifest in upregulation of multiple components of unfolded protein response was identified in neural tissues (sciatic nerve, spinal cord) of streptozotocin diabetic rats and mice. A chemical chaperone, trimethylamine oxide, administered for 12 weeks after induction of diabetes (110 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1, a prevention paradigm) attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress, peripheral nerve dysfunction, intraepidermal nerve fiber loss, and sciatic nerve and spinal cord oxidative-nitrative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Similar effects on diabetes-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and peripheral nerve dysfunction were observed with a structurally unrelated chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (100 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1, intraperitoneal). CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)−/− mice made diabetic with streptozotocin displayed less severe sciatic nerve oxidative-nitrative stress and peripheral neuropathy than the wild-type (C57Bl6/J) mice. Neither chemical chaperones nor CHOP gene deficiency reduced diabetic hyperglycemia. Our findings reveal an important role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and identify a potential new therapeutic target. PMID:23364451

  14. Development of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress during Experimental Oxalate Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Motin, Yu G; Lepilov, A V; Bgatova, N P; Zharikov, A Yu; Motina, N V; Lapii, G A; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomnyashchikh, L M

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural study of the kidney was performed in rats with oxalate nephrolithiasis. Specific features of endoplasmic reticulum stress were evaluated during nephrolithiasis and treatment with α-tocopherol. We observed the signs of endoplasmic reticulum stress with activation of proapoptotic pathways and injury to the cell lining in nephron tubules and collecting ducts. Ultrastructural changes were found in the organelles, nuclei, and cell membranes of epitheliocytes. A relationship was revealed between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative damage, which developed at the early state of lithogenesis.

  15. The Piezo1 protein ion channel functions in human nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial dysfunction and the endoplasmic reticulum stress signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Leng, Ping; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Hai-Ning

    2017-09-15

    The Piezo1 protein ion channel is a novel mechanical stretch-activated ion channel (SAC) closely related to mechanical signals. Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in organ development and homeostasis. Previous studies identified Piezo1 and demonstrated that it is distinct from other ion channels with well-established roles in lower organisms. Mechanical stretch-activated ion channels from other organisms are not conserved in mammals or do not act as mechanically activated channels in mammals. In the current study, we explored the role of the Piezo1 ion channel in human nucleus pulposus cell (NP cell) apoptosis through mechanical force-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Reverse Transcription Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Annexin V binding and propidium iodide analyses revealed that the Piezo1 protein ion channel was highly expressed in human NP cells, which are the primary cells that comprise the intervertebral disc. In patients with intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD), the Piezo1 protein may play a crucial role in human NP cell apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress under abnormal loading conditions. This study also verified that human NP cells have an intimate connection with the cytoskeleton upon treatment of the cells with the Piezo1 blocking peptide GsMTx4 from tarantula venom. In summary, Piezo1 functions in human NP cell apoptosis, which may be one underlying mechanism of apoptosis induced by abnormal loading in IVDD patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, B; Fan, Z; Shi, X; Ke, Z-J; Luo, J

    2007-02-09

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes region selective neuronal loss in the brain; it has been used to model neurodegeneration that accompanies mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration remain incompletely elucidated. Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cause ER stress. Recently, ER stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative models. We demonstrated here that TD up-regulated several markers of ER stress, such as glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible protein or C/EBP-homologus protein (GADD153/Chop), phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and cleavage of caspase-12 in the cerebellum and the thalamus of mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopic study revealed an abnormality in ER structure. To establish an in vitro model of TD in neurons, we treated cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with amprolium, a potent inhibitor of thiamine transport. Exposure to amprolium caused apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in CGNs. Similar to the observation in vivo, TD up-regulated markers for ER stress. Treatment of a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated amprolium-induced death of CGNs. Thus, ER stress may play a role in TD-induced brain damage.

  17. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes.

  18. Up-Regulation of mRNA Ventricular PRNP Prion Protein Gene Expression in Air Pollution Highly Exposed Young Urbanites: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Glucose Regulated Protein 78, and Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role. PMID:24287918

  19. Up-regulation of mRNA ventricular PRNP prion protein gene expression in air pollution highly exposed young urbanites: endoplasmic reticulum stress, glucose regulated protein 78, and nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-11-28

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role.

  20. Fucoidan induces Toll-like receptor 4-regulated reactive oxygen species and promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Leng, Pei-Ju; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Wu, Yu-Chung

    2017-03-23

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, exhibits anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan prevents tumorigenesis and reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Fucoidan induces an ER stress response by activating the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, resulting in apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ATF4 knockdown abolishes fucoidan-induced CHOP expression and rescues cell viability. Specifically, fucoidan increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase ATF4 and CHOP in lung cancer cells. Using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), we found that ROS generation is involved in fucoidan-induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockdown, we demonstrated that fucoidan-induced ROS and CHOP expression were attenuated. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan. We showed that fucoidan inhibits tumor viability by activating the TLR4/ROS/ER stress axis and the downstream PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, leading to apoptosis and suppression of lung cancer cell progression. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan is a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for lung cancer that acts via activation of ROS-dependent ER stress pathways.

  1. Fucoidan induces Toll-like receptor 4-regulated reactive oxygen species and promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Tung-Yi; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Leng, Pei-Ju; Tsao, Shu-Ming; Wu, Yu-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, exhibits anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan prevents tumorigenesis and reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Fucoidan induces an ER stress response by activating the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, resulting in apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ATF4 knockdown abolishes fucoidan-induced CHOP expression and rescues cell viability. Specifically, fucoidan increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase ATF4 and CHOP in lung cancer cells. Using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), we found that ROS generation is involved in fucoidan-induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockdown, we demonstrated that fucoidan-induced ROS and CHOP expression were attenuated. Our study is the first to identify a novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of fucoidan. We showed that fucoidan inhibits tumor viability by activating the TLR4/ROS/ER stress axis and the downstream PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, leading to apoptosis and suppression of lung cancer cell progression. Together, these results indicate that fucoidan is a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for lung cancer that acts via activation of ROS-dependent ER stress pathways. PMID:28332554

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Unfolded Protein Response, and Cancer Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Corazzari, Marco; Gagliardi, Mara; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in a stress condition termed “ER stress” determining the activation of a finely regulated program defined as unfolded protein response (UPR) and whose primary aim is to restore this organelle’s physiological activity. Several physiological and pathological stimuli deregulate normal ER activity causing UPR activation, such as hypoxia, glucose shortage, genome instability, and cytotoxic compounds administration. Some of these stimuli are frequently observed during uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells, resulting in tumor core formation and stage progression. Therefore, it is not surprising that ER stress is usually induced during solid tumor development and stage progression, becoming an hallmark of such malignancies. Several UPR components are in fact deregulated in different tumor types, and accumulating data indicate their active involvement in tumor development/progression. However, although the UPR program is primarily a pro-survival process, sustained and/or prolonged stress may result in cell death induction. Therefore, understanding the mechanism(s) regulating the cell survival/death decision under ER stress condition may be crucial in order to specifically target tumor cells and possibly circumvent or overcome tumor resistance to therapies. In this review, we discuss the role played by the UPR program in tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapy, highlighting the recent advances that have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the survival/death switch. PMID:28491820

  3. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shibin; Jiang, Jinjin; Zhang, Guofu; Bu, Yongjun; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhao, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40) were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw); and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw) and caloric restriction (30%) partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight. We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30%) and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator) supplementation

  4. Thiamine Deficiency Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Bingwei; Fan, Zhiqin; Shi, Xianglin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2007-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes region selective neuronal loss in the brain; it has been used to model neurodegeneration that accompanies mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration remain incompletely elucidated. Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cause ER stress. Recently, ER stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative models. We demonstrated here that TD up-regulated several markers of ER stress, such as GRP78, GADD153/Chop, phosphorylation of eIF2α and cleavage of caspase-12 in the cerebellum and the thalamus of mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopic study revealed an abnormality in ER structure. To establish an in vitro model of TD in neurons, we treated cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with amprolium, a potent inhibitor of thiamine transport. Exposure to amprolium caused apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in CGNs. Similar to the observation in vivo, TD up-regulated markers for ER stress. Treatment of a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated amprolium-induced death of CGNs. Thus, ER stress may play a role in TD-induced brain damage. PMID:17137721

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Nguyen, Linda; Bailes, Julian E; Lee, John M; Robson, Matthew J; Omalu, Bennet I; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2016-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurofibrillary tau tangles following repetitive neurotrauma. The underlying mechanism linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. The authors investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a link between acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegeneration. The authors used pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral tools to assess the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in linking acute repetitive traumatic brain injury to the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Data from the authors' clinically relevant and validated rodent blast model were compared with those obtained from postmortem human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens from a National Football League player and World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler. The results demonstrated strong correlation of endoplasmic reticulum stress activation with subsequent tau hyperphosphorylation. Various endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were increased in human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was associated with an increase in the tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Docosahexaenoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, improved cognitive performance in the rat model 3 weeks after repetitive blast exposure. The data showed that docosahexaenoic acid administration substantially reduced tau hyperphosphorylation (t = 4.111, p < 0.05), improved cognition (t = 6.532, p < 0.001), and inhibited C/EBP homology protein activation (t = 5.631, p < 0.01). Additionally the data showed, for the first time, that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Docosahexaenoic acid therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  6. Lipolysis Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adipose Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingna; Liu, Shangxin; Zou, Liangqiang; Xu, Chong; Geng, Bin; Xu, Guoheng

    2012-01-01

    In obesity and diabetes, adipocytes show significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which triggers a series of responses. This study aimed to investigate the lipolysis response to ER stress in rat adipocytes. Thapsigargin, tunicamycin, and brefeldin A, which induce ER stress through different pathways, efficiently activated a time-dependent lipolytic reaction. The lipolytic effect of ER stress occurred with elevated cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA reduced PKA phosphosubstrates and attenuated the lipolysis. Although both ERK1/2 and JNK are activated during ER stress, lipolysis is partially suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 but not JNK and p38 MAPK and PKC. Thus, ER stress induces lipolysis by activating cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2. In the downstream lipolytic cascade, phosphorylation of lipid droplet-associated protein perilipin was significantly promoted during ER stress but attenuated on PKA inhibition. Furthermore, ER stress stimuli did not alter the levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase but caused Ser-563 and Ser-660 phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and moderately elevated its translocation from the cytosol to lipid droplets. Accompanying these changes, total activity of cellular lipases was promoted to confer the lipolysis. These findings suggest a novel pathway of the lipolysis response to ER stress in adipocytes. This lipolytic activation may be an adaptive response that regulates energy homeostasis but with sustained ER stress challenge could contribute to lipotoxicity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance because of persistently accelerated free fatty acid efflux from adipocytes to the bloodstream and other tissues. PMID:22223650

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Interacts With Inflammation in Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Stewart Siyan; Luo, Katherine L; Shi, Lynn

    2016-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for normal cell function and homeostasis. Disturbance in the protein folding process in the ER, termed ER stress, leads to the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) that encompasses a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways. The UPR can either restore ER homeostasis or activate pro-apoptotic pathways depending on the type of insults, intensity and duration of the stress, and cell types. ER stress and the UPR have recently been linked to inflammation in a variety of human pathologies including autoimmune, infectious, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders. In the cell, ER stress and inflammatory signaling share extensive regulators and effectors in a broad spectrum of biological processes. In spite of different etiologies, the two signaling pathways have been shown to form a vicious cycle in exacerbating cellular dysfunction and causing apoptosis in many cells and tissues. However, the interaction between ER stress and inflammation in many of these diseases remains poorly understood. Further understanding of the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology may enable the development of novel therapies that spontaneously target these pathogenic pathways.

  8. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is a complex process involving several metabolic and signalling pathways. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated apoptosis can be induced in the pathological conditions of atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the disease progression. Notably, they may play a role in the development of vulnerable plaques that induce thrombosis and are therefore especially dangerous. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response is regulated by several signaling mechanisms that involve protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these molecules can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets to improve treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we will discuss the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in atherosclerosis development in different cell types and summarize the current knowledge on potential therapeutic agents targeting molecules regulating these pathways and their possible use for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:26840309

  9. BhbZIP60 from Resurrection Plant Boea hygrometrica Is an mRNA Splicing-Activated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulator Involved in Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Du, Hong; Zhang, Zhennan; Xu, Wenzhong; Deng, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. To mitigate ER stress damage, ER associated transcription factors and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-mediated bZIP60 mRNA splicing are activated in plants. A drought-induced gene, encoding the ortholog of AtbZIP60, was identified in the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica, termed BhbZIP60. In response to ER stress and dehydration, BhbZIP60 mRNA can be spliced to create a frame shift in the C terminus by the excision of 23b segment in a manner of its ortholog in other plants, thus translocating to the nucleus instead of the cytoplasm. The splicing-activated BhbZIP60 (BhbZIP60S) could function in the same way as its Arabidopsis ortholog by restoring the molecular phenotype of the mutant atbzip60. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, BhbZIP60S provided transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to drought, tunicamycin and mannitol stresses with upregulation of the expressions of ER quality control (QC) genes (BiP2, BiP3, CNX1, and sPDI) and abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes (RD29A, RAB18, and RD17). Furthermore, in the yeast one-hybrid system, BhbZIP60S was capable of interacting with ER stress responsive elements (ERSE and ERSE-II) that exist in the promoters of known ER-QC genes, but not binding to ABA responsive cis-elements (ABREs). Our results demonstrated that drought-induced BhbZIP60 may have a function in drought tolerance via the splicing-activated BhbZIP60S to mediate ER-QC by direct binding to the promoters of ER-QC genes. This study evidently demonstrates the involvement of ER-QC in the drought tolerance of Arabidopsis and the desiccation tolerance of the resurrection plant B. hygrometrica. PMID:28286511

  10. BhbZIP60 from Resurrection Plant Boea hygrometrica Is an mRNA Splicing-Activated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulator Involved in Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Du, Hong; Zhang, Zhennan; Xu, Wenzhong; Deng, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. To mitigate ER stress damage, ER associated transcription factors and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-mediated bZIP60 mRNA splicing are activated in plants. A drought-induced gene, encoding the ortholog of AtbZIP60, was identified in the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica, termed BhbZIP60. In response to ER stress and dehydration, BhbZIP60 mRNA can be spliced to create a frame shift in the C terminus by the excision of 23b segment in a manner of its ortholog in other plants, thus translocating to the nucleus instead of the cytoplasm. The splicing-activated BhbZIP60 (BhbZIP60S) could function in the same way as its Arabidopsis ortholog by restoring the molecular phenotype of the mutant atbzip60. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, BhbZIP60S provided transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to drought, tunicamycin and mannitol stresses with upregulation of the expressions of ER quality control (QC) genes (BiP2, BiP3, CNX1, and sPDI) and abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes (RD29A, RAB18, and RD17). Furthermore, in the yeast one-hybrid system, BhbZIP60S was capable of interacting with ER stress responsive elements (ERSE and ERSE-II) that exist in the promoters of known ER-QC genes, but not binding to ABA responsive cis-elements (ABREs). Our results demonstrated that drought-induced BhbZIP60 may have a function in drought tolerance via the splicing-activated BhbZIP60S to mediate ER-QC by direct binding to the promoters of ER-QC genes. This study evidently demonstrates the involvement of ER-QC in the drought tolerance of Arabidopsis and the desiccation tolerance of the resurrection plant B. hygrometrica.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Chronically Activated in Chronic Pancreatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Raghuwansh P.; Garg, Sushil K.; Dixit, Ajay K.; Dudeja, Vikas; Dawra, Rajinder K.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has now been recognized as a pathogenic event in many chronic diseases. However, ER stress has not been studied in CP, although pancreatic acinar cells seem to be especially vulnerable to ER dysfunction because of their dependence on high ER volume and functionality. Here, we aim to investigate ER stress in CP, study its pathogenesis in relation to trypsinogen activation (widely regarded as the key event of pancreatitis), and explore its mechanism, time course, and downstream consequences during pancreatic injury. CP was induced in mice by repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on caerulein hyperstimulation. ER stress leads to activation of unfolded protein response components that were measured in CP and AP. We show sustained up-regulation of unfolded protein response components ATF4, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1 in CP. Overexpression of GRP78 and ATF4 in human CP confirmed the experimental findings. We used novel trypsinogen-7 knock-out mice (T−/−), which lack intra-acinar trypsinogen activation, to clarify the relationship of ER stress to intra-acinar trypsinogen activation in pancreatic injury. Comparable activation of ER stress was seen in wild type and T−/− mice. Induction of ER stress occurred through pathologic calcium signaling very early in the course of pancreatic injury. Our results establish that ER stress is chronically activated in CP and is induced early in pancreatic injury through pathologic calcium signaling independent of trypsinogen activation. ER stress may be an important pathogenic mechanism in pancreatitis that needs to be explored in future studies. PMID:25077966

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is chronically activated in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sah, Raghuwansh P; Garg, Sushil K; Dixit, Ajay K; Dudeja, Vikas; Dawra, Rajinder K; Saluja, Ashok K

    2014-10-03

    The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has now been recognized as a pathogenic event in many chronic diseases. However, ER stress has not been studied in CP, although pancreatic acinar cells seem to be especially vulnerable to ER dysfunction because of their dependence on high ER volume and functionality. Here, we aim to investigate ER stress in CP, study its pathogenesis in relation to trypsinogen activation (widely regarded as the key event of pancreatitis), and explore its mechanism, time course, and downstream consequences during pancreatic injury. CP was induced in mice by repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on caerulein hyperstimulation. ER stress leads to activation of unfolded protein response components that were measured in CP and AP. We show sustained up-regulation of unfolded protein response components ATF4, CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1 in CP. Overexpression of GRP78 and ATF4 in human CP confirmed the experimental findings. We used novel trypsinogen-7 knock-out mice (T(-/-)), which lack intra-acinar trypsinogen activation, to clarify the relationship of ER stress to intra-acinar trypsinogen activation in pancreatic injury. Comparable activation of ER stress was seen in wild type and T(-/-) mice. Induction of ER stress occurred through pathologic calcium signaling very early in the course of pancreatic injury. Our results establish that ER stress is chronically activated in CP and is induced early in pancreatic injury through pathologic calcium signaling independent of trypsinogen activation. ER stress may be an important pathogenic mechanism in pancreatitis that needs to be explored in future studies.

  13. [Collagen abnormalities and endoplasmic reticulum stress in bone and cartilage].

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Gen; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2013-11-01

    There are many steps in the post-translational modification of collagen molecules. When abnormality occurs in some step, the unfolded collagen molecules are accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) , leading to ER stress. ER stress also occurs downstream of the defective modification of collagen in bone and cartilage. ER stress-induced apoptosis or ER stress response without inducing apoptosis may be associated with the pathogenesis of genetic collagen disorders in bone and cartilage.

  14. Alginate Oligosaccharide Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Jie; Ma, Lei-Lei; Shi, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Jian-Bing; Wu, Jian; Ding, Zhi-Wen; An, Yi; Zou, Yun-Zeng; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2016-12-20

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative stress and activated endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a non-immunogenic, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress properties. The present study examined whether AOS pretreatment could protect against acute DOX cardiotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms focused on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. We found that AOS pretreatment markedly increased the survival rate of mice insulted with DOX, improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and attenuated DOX-induced myocardial apoptosis. AOS pretreatment mitigated DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress, as shown by the decreased expressions of gp91 (phox) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Moreover, AOS pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of Caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) (markers for endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis) and Bax (a downstream molecule of CHOP), while up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, these findings identify AOS as a potent compound that prevents acute DOX cardiotoxicity, at least in part, by suppression of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis.

  15. Alginate Oligosaccharide Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun-Jie; Ma, Lei-Lei; Shi, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Jian-Bing; Wu, Jian; Ding, Zhi-Wen; An, Yi; Zou, Yun-Zeng; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative stress and activated endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a non-immunogenic, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress properties. The present study examined whether AOS pretreatment could protect against acute DOX cardiotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms focused on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. We found that AOS pretreatment markedly increased the survival rate of mice insulted with DOX, improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and attenuated DOX-induced myocardial apoptosis. AOS pretreatment mitigated DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress, as shown by the decreased expressions of gp91 (phox) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Moreover, AOS pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of Caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) (markers for endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis) and Bax (a downstream molecule of CHOP), while up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, these findings identify AOS as a potent compound that prevents acute DOX cardiotoxicity, at least in part, by suppression of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27999379

  16. Klotho ameliorates chemically induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srijita; Zhao, Yanhua; Sarkar, Partha S; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Tilton, Ronald G; Choudhary, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a fundamental cell response associated with stress-initiated unfolded protein response (UPR), and loss of Klotho, an anti-aging hormone linked to NF-κB-induced inflammation, occur in chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated if the loss of Klotho is causally linked to increased ER stress. We treated human renal epithelial HK-2, alveolar epithelial A549, HEK293, and SH-SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with ER stress-inducing agents, thapsigargin and/or tunicamycin. Effects of overexpression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Klotho on UPR signaling was investigated by immunoblotting and Real-time PCR. Elevated Klotho levels in HK-2 cells decreased expression of ER stress markers phospho--IRE1, XBP-1s, BiP, CHOP, pJNK, and phospho-p38, all of which were elevated in response to tunicamycin and/or thapsigargin. Similar results were observed using A549 cells for XBP-1s, BiP, and CHOP in response to thapsigargin. Conversely, knockdown of Klotho in HEK 293 cells using siRNA caused further thapsigargin-induced increases in pIRE-1, XBP-1s, and BiP. Klotho overexpression in A549 cells blocked thapsigargin-induced caspase and PARP cleavage and improved cell viability. Our data indicate that Klotho has an important role in regulating ER stress and that loss of Klotho is causally linked to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress in kidney diseases: a question of life and death?].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany

    2009-06-01

    Increasing our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic kidney diseases will lead to the development of new biomarkers of early kidney injury and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of renal failure or to promote the renal regeneration after injury. The implication of the endoplasmic reticulum stress in kidney diseases is not well recognized, but increasing experimental evidences suggest its implication in a wide array of kidney insults. Beside its role in the regulation of cell death, the UPR response induced by the endoplasmic reticulum stress alters many cellular functions and constitutes an important mediator of inflammation and/or epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing data concerning the role of the endoplasmic reticulum stress during kidney injury and to clarify its precise role in chronic kidney disease.

  18. C/EBP β Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulated Inflammatory Response and Extracellular Matrix Degradation in LPS-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yudi; Wei, Yi; Wu, Lian; Wei, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaojing; Bai, Yuxiang

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease that not only affects the integrity of local tooth-supporting tissues but also impacts systemic health. A compositional shift in oral microbiota has been considered as the main cause of periodontitis; however, the potential mechanism has not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β), a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of C/EBP β was significantly increased in hPDLCs stimulated with LPS stimuli. Overexpression of C/EBP β by the recombinant adenoviral vector pAd/C/EBP β markedly increased the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9 in hPDLCs in response to LPS. Furthermore, the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was confirmed in LPS-stimulated hPDLCs by measuring the expression of the ER stress marker molecules protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), eIF2α, GRP78/Bip, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). The ER stress inhibitor salubrinal repressed, but inducer tunicamycin enhanced, the production of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-9 in hPDLCs. Additionally, ER stress inducer tunicamycin significantly increased the expression level of C/EBP β in hPDLCs. Blocking of C/EBP β by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 and expression of MMP-8 and MMP-9 induced by tunicamycin treatment in hPDLCs. Taken together, ER stress appears to play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in hPDLCs in response to LPS stimuli by activating C/EBP β expression. This enhances our understanding of human periodontitis pathology.

  19. Expression of an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone, glucose-regulated stress protein 78, in the spinal cord of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wate, Reika; Ito, Hidefumi; Zhang, Jian Hua; Ohnishi, Shizuo; Nakano, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2005-12-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of glucose-regulated protein 78/BiP (GRP78), a chaperone protein that primarily resides within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, was investigated in the lumbar spinal cord of mutant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) transgenic mice. Re-staining techniques were used to determine the immunoreactivity with anti-GRP78 antibody of abnormal structures observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Besides its physiological localization in the neuronal and glial cytoplasm, GRP78 was expressed in Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions, in irregularly-shaped eosinophilic structures without an apparent halo, and in cord-like swollen neurites. These different sites were invariably also immunopositive for ubiquitin, suggesting them to be pathological structures. The topographic distribution of GRP78 expression closely resembled that of SOD1. Moreover, our chronological quantitative analysis demonstrated that virtually all the Lewy body-like hyaline inclusions were immunolabeled by the anti-GRP78 antibody, irrespective to the age of mice examined, even at the presymptomatic stages. These findings imply that GRP78 may bind to, or at least be closely associated with, SOD1, and may participate in the pathological processes leading to inclusion formation. Thus, the results suggest that dysfunction of GRP78 and subsequent derangement of the system responding to unfolded proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by a mutation of the human SOD1 gene.

  20. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  1. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb.

  2. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb. PMID:26859847

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Qu, Yan-Jun; Cheng, Yan; Liang, Tian; Zhang, Mei-Na; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Li-Na; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Guang-Mei

    2017-07-04

    The study is to explore the role of tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in human ovarian cancer (OC) SKOV3 cells proliferation, migration and invasion by modulating the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The collected human OC SKOV3 cells were randomly separated into three groups: The control group, the Tun group (treated with tunicamycin to induce ERS) and the CHOP-si group (transfected with CHOP-siRNA before tunicamycin treatment). CCK-8 method was applied for testing cell proliferation, while flow cytometry was conducted to detect cell apoptosis. Scratch test and Transwell test were used to determine the level of cell migration and invasion, respectively. Western blotting was performed to determine the related proteins expressions in ERS and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. The cell survival rate in the Tun group was enhanced than that in the CHOP-si group, both of which were declined with the passage of time. The cell apoptosis rate in the Tun group was increased compared to the CHOP-si group, both of which were significantly elevated. The horizontal migration distance and the number of invasive cells in the Tun and CHOP-si groups were inhibited; however, the horizontal migration distance and the number of invasive cells in the CHOP-si group were enhanced than that in the Tun group. In comparison with the control group, the expressions of CHOP and TRB3 were increased in the Tun group but decreased in the CHOP-si group. The PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR expressions were remarkably declined in the Tun group than those in the control group (P< 0.05). The study provides strong evidence that tunicamycin-induced ERS induces the apoptosis of human OC SKOV3 cells through inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

  4. Apoptosis, autophagy & endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas, Levent; Guclu, Aydin; Erdur, Fatih Mehmet; Akbas, Emin Murat; Ozcicek, Adalet; Onk, Didem; Turkmen, Kultigin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing secondary to increased consumption of food and decreased physical activity worldwide. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hypertrophy of pancreatic beta cells occur in the early phase of diabetes. However, with the progression of diabetes, dysfunction and loss of beta cells occur in both types 1 and 2 DM. Programmed cell death also named apoptosis is found to be associated with diabetes, and apoptosis of beta cells might be the main mechanism of relative insulin deficiency in DM. Autophagic cell death and apoptosis are not entirely distinct programmed cell death mechanisms and share many of the regulator proteins. These processes can occur in both physiologic and pathologic conditions including DM. Besides these two important pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also acts as a cell sensor to monitor and maintain cellular homeostasis. ER stress has been found to be associated with autophagy and apoptosis. This review was aimed to describe the interactions between apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress pathways in DM. PMID:28256459

  5. Apoptosis, autophagy & endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Levent; Guclu, Aydin; Erdur, Fatih Mehmet; Akbas, Emin Murat; Ozcicek, Adalet; Onk, Didem; Turkmen, Kultigin

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing secondary to increased consumption of food and decreased physical activity worldwide. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hypertrophy of pancreatic beta cells occur in the early phase of diabetes. However, with the progression of diabetes, dysfunction and loss of beta cells occur in both types 1 and 2 DM. Programmed cell death also named apoptosis is found to be associated with diabetes, and apoptosis of beta cells might be the main mechanism of relative insulin deficiency in DM. Autophagic cell death and apoptosis are not entirely distinct programmed cell death mechanisms and share many of the regulator proteins. These processes can occur in both physiologic and pathologic conditions including DM. Besides these two important pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also acts as a cell sensor to monitor and maintain cellular homeostasis. ER stress has been found to be associated with autophagy and apoptosis. This review was aimed to describe the interactions between apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress pathways in DM.

  6. Hepatic Nuclear Factor 1α (HNF1α) Dysfunction Down-regulates X-box-binding Protein 1 (XBP1) and Sensitizes β-Cells to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L.; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Baquié, Mathurin; Akhmedov, Dmitry; Wang, Haiyan; Gauthier, Benoit R.; Akerman, Ildem; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Ferrer, Jorge; Wollheim, Claes B.

    2011-01-01

    Correct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function is critical for the health of secretory cells, such as the pancreatic β-cell, and ER stress is often a contributory factor to β-cell death in type 2 diabetes. We have used an insulin-secreting cell line with inducible expression of dominant negative (DN) HNF1α, a transcription factor vital for correct β-cell development and function, to show that HNF1α is required for Xbp1 transcription and maintenance of the normal ER stress response. DN HNF1α expression sensitizes the β-cell to ER stress by directly down-regulating Xbp1 transcription, whereas Atf6 is unaffected. Furthermore, DN HNF1α alters calcium homeostasis, resulting in elevated cytoplasmic calcium and increased store-operated calcium entry, whereas mitochondrial calcium uptake is normal. Loss of function of XBP1 is toxic to the β-cell and decreases production of the ER chaperone BiP, even in the absence of ER stress. DN HNF1α-induced sensitivity to cyclopiazonic acid can be partially rescued with the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholate. Rat insulin 2 promoter-DN HNF1α mouse islets express lower levels of BiP mRNA, synthesize less insulin, and are sensitized to ER stress relative to matched control mouse islets, suggesting that this mechanism is also operating in vivo. PMID:21784843

  7. Luteolin shows an antidepressant-like effect via suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Mika; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Tsuruta, Akifumi; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a significant public health problem and some reports indicate an association between depression and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Luteolin is a flavonoid contained in many plants and with a variety of known pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and memory-improving effects, suggesting that luteolin penetrates into the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of luteolin on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death. Luteolin significantly suppressed tunicamycin-induced cell death at 1 to 10 µM in human neuroblastoma cells. Luteolin increased in the expression of the 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein and 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein and decreased in the cleavage activation of caspase-3. Additionally, to investigate whether chronic luteolin treatment has an antidepression effect, we performed some behavioral tests. Chronic luteolin treatment showed antidepressant-like effects in behavioral tests and, luteolin attenuated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins in the hippocampus of corticosterone-treated depression model mice. These findings indicate that luteolin has antidepressant-like effects, partly due to the suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Wai Chin; Shastri, Madhur D.; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex protein folding and trafficking organelle. Alteration and discrepancy in the endoplasmic reticulum environment can affect the protein folding process and hence, can result in the production of misfolded proteins. The accumulation of misfolded proteins causes cellular damage and elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress. Under such stress conditions, cells exhibit reduced functional synthesis, and will undergo apoptosis if the stress is prolonged. To resolve the ER stress, cells trigger an intrinsic mechanism called an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR is an adaptive signaling process that triggers multiple pathways through the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane transducers, to reduce and remove misfolded proteins and improve the protein folding mechanism, in order to improve and maintain endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. An increasing number of studies support the view that oxidative stress has a strong connection with ER stress. During the protein folding process, reactive oxygen species are produced as by-products, leading to impaired reduction-oxidation (redox) balance conferring oxidative stress. As the protein folding process is dependent on redox homeostasis, the oxidative stress can disrupt the protein folding mechanism and enhance the production of misfolded proteins, causing further ER stress. It is proposed that endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress together play significant roles in the pathophysiology of bowel diseases. PMID:28379196

  9. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:28798799

  10. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  11. Chlorhexidine-induced apoptosis or necrosis in L929 fibroblasts: A role for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Gisele; Cardoso, Cristina R.B.; Larson, Roy E.; Silva, Joao S.; Rossi, Marcos A.

    2009-01-15

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), widely used as antiseptic and therapeutic agent in medicine and dentistry, has a toxic effect both in vivo and in vitro. The intrinsic mechanism underlying CHX-induced cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells is, however, still unknown. A recent study from our laboratory has suggested that CHX may induce death in cultured L929 fibroblasts via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This hypothesis was further tested by means of light and electron microscopy, quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry, fluorescence visualization of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluation of the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), a marker of activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured L929 fibroblasts. Our finding showing increased Grp 78 expression in CHX-treated cells and the results of flow cytometry, cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum fluorescence visualization, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to suggest that CHX elicits accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which causes ER overload, resulting in ER stress and cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. It must be pointed out, however, that this does not necessarily mean that ER stress is the only way that CHX kills L929 fibroblasts, but rather that ER stress is an important target or indicator of cell death induced by this drug.

  12. Fluoride induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload in ameloblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, KaiQiang; Ma, Lin; Gu, HeFeng; Li, Jian; Lei, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and intracellular calcium overload on the development of dental fluorosis. We cultured and exposed rat ameloblast HAT-7 cells to various concentrations of fluoride and measured apoptosis with flow cytometry and intracellular Ca2+ changes using confocal microscopy, investigated the protein levels of GRP78, calreticulin, XBP1 and CHOP by western blotting, and their transcriptional levels with RT-PCR. We also created an in vivo model of dental fluorosis by exposing animals to various concentrations of fluoride. Subsequently, thin dental tissue slices were analyzed with H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay was also performed on dental tissue slices for assessment of apoptosis. High fluoride concentration was associated with decreased ameloblast proliferation, elevated ameloblast apoptosis, and increased intracellular Ca2+ in vitro. The translation and transcription of the proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress were significantly elevated with high concentrations of fluoride. Based on immunohistochemical staining, these proteins were also highly expressed in animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Histologically, we found significant fluorosis-like changes in tissues from animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy cytology indicated significant apoptotic changes in tissues exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of fluoride led to endoplasmic reticulum stress which induced apoptosis in cultured ameloblasts and in vivo rat model, suggesting an important role of calcium overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered by high concentrations of fluoride in the development of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CDIP1-BAP31 complex transduces apoptotic signals from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria under endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Namba, Takushi; Tian, Fang; Chu, Kiki; Hwang, So-Young; Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Byun, Sanguine; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W

    2013-10-31

    Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cleavage upon ER stress and for BAP31-Bcl-2 association. The recruitment of Bcl-2 to the BAP31-CDIP1 complex, as well as CDIP1-dependent truncated Bid (tBid) and caspase-8 activation, contributes to BAX oligomerization. Genetic knockout of CDIP1 in mice leads to impaired response to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the CDIP1/BAP31-mediated regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway represents a mechanism for establishing an ER-mitochondrial crosstalk for ER-stress-mediated apoptosis signaling.

  14. [Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophocytes on the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhou, C L; Yu, T T; Han, X J; Shi, H Y; Wang, H Z; Shen, J J; He, J

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophocytes, in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods: Sixty-one pregnant women who were hospitalized in Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January to December 2015 were recruited. Thirty-one women who were diagnosed as ICP were defined as the ICP group and 30 healthy pregnant women were defined as the control group. The localization and expression intensity of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP-78) in placental tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique. Electronic microscope was used to observe ultra-microstructure change of the endoplasmic reticulum in trophocytes and cell line Swan71. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blot were used to investigate the expression of GRP-78 mRNA and protein in Swan 71 cell. Results: (1) GRP-78 protein was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. The protein expression of GRP-78 in placentas of the ICP group (13.2±2.4) was significantly higher than that in the control group (7.8±1.3, P<0.01). (2) The volume of endoplasmie reticulum did not increase and the microvilli developed well, with no swelling and no expansion of endoplasmic reticulum in the control group.In the ICP group, microvilli injury, endoplasmic reticulum edema were found; the volume of endoplasmic reticulum increased, with dilation, vacuolation and significant degranulation. After treated with 100 μmol/L cholyglycine for 24 hours, universal dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum were seen in the Swan71 cells. (3) In Swan71 cells, cholylglycine displayed a concentration-dependent up-regulation on the expression of GRP-78. The expressions of GRP-78 mRNA in 0, 25, 50, 100 μmol/L cholylglycine experimental group were 1.01±0.17, 2.17±0.16, 5.47±0.36, 5.65±0.82, respectively. The expression of GRP-78 protein in 0, 25, 50, 100 μmol/L cholylglycine experimental group were 1.01±0

  15. CSB ablation induced apoptosis is mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Manuela; Balzerano, Alessio; Arisi, Ivan; D’Onofrio, Mara; Brandi, Rossella; Bongiorni, Silvia; Brancorsini, Stefano; Frontini, Mattia; Proietti-De-Santis, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The DNA repair protein Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) has been recently identified as a promising anticancer target. Suppression, by antisense technology, of this protein causes devastating effects on tumor cells viability, through a massive induction of apoptosis, while being non-toxic to non-transformed cells. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the pro-apoptotic effects observed after CSB ablation, global gene expression patterns were determined, to identify genes that were significantly differentially regulated as a function of CSB expression. Our findings revealed that response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and response to unfolded proteins were ranked top amongst the cellular processes affected by CSB suppression. The major components of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis pathway, including pro-apoptotic factors downstream of the ATF3-CHOP cascade, were dramatically up-regulated. Altogether our findings add new pieces to the understanding of CSB mechanisms of action and to the molecular basis of CS syndrome. PMID:28253359

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: an unrecognized actor in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Fougeray, Sophie; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany

    2009-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an adaptive response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER, which can trigger cell dedifferentiation and cell suicide. Increasing evidences suggest its implication in mediating allograft injury. Herein, we summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and discuss its implication in allograft injury. Increasing our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes: New insights of clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy; Lenin, Raji; Monickaraj, Finny

    2010-04-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment responsible for multiple important cellular functions including the biosynthesis and folding of newly synthesized proteins destined for secretion, such as insulin. A myriad of pathological and physiological factors perturb ER function and cause dysregulation of ER homeostasis, leading to ER stress. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, contributing to pancreatic β-cell loss and insulin resistance. ER stress may also link obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we address the transition from physiology to pathology, namely how and why the physiological UPR evolves to a proapoptotic ER stress response in diabetes and its complications. Special attention was given to elucidate how ER stress could explain some of the 'clinical paradoxes' such as secondary sulfonylurea failure, initial worsening of retinopathy during tight glycemic control, insulin resistance induced by protease inhibitors and other clinically relevant observations.

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response: A link with tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongyong; Zhao, Deming; Barrow, Paul Andrew; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the worldwide. The endoplasmic-reticulum stress (ERS) response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by mycobacterial infection that disturbs the folding of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced to suspend the synthesis of early proteins and reduce the accumulation of unfolded- or misfolded proteins in the ER restoring normal physiological cell function. Prolonged or uncontrolled ERS leads to the activation of three signaling pathways (IRE1, PERK and ATF6) which directs the cell towards apoptosis. The absence of this process facilitates spread of the mycobacteria within the body. We summarize here recent advances in understanding the signaling pathway diversity governing ERS in relation to TB.

  19. Brain death is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Cao, S; Wang, T; Yan, B; Lu, Y; Zhao, Y; Zhang, S

    2014-12-01

    Cell death pathways initiated by stress on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis and liver injury after brain death is not known. In the present study, we found that brain death induces a variety of signature ER stress markers, including ER stress-specific X box-binding protein 1 and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78. Furthermore, brain death causes up-regulation of C/EBP homologous protein and caspase-12. Consistent with this, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling assay and transmission electron microscopy confirmed apoptosis in the liver after brain death. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting the presence and importance of ER stress and response in mediating brain death-induced apoptosis and liver injury.

  20. [Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany; Thervet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a situation caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, triggering an evolutionary conserved adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response. When adaptation fails, excessive and prolonged ER stress triggers cell suicide. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including diabetes, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative and heart diseases. The implication of the ER stress is not well recognized in solid organ transplantation, but increasing evidence suggests its implication in mediating allograft injury. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and to discuss its implication during tissue injury in solid organ transplantation. The possible implications of the ER stress in the modifications of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes are also discussed beyond the scope of adaptation and cell death. Increasing the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: a potential target for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Karli; Malik, Bilal; Gray, Anna L.; La Spada, Albert R.; Hanna, Michael G.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked degenerative motor neuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene. There is evidence implicating endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease, including polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington’s disease and in motor neuron disease, where cellular stress disrupts functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to induction of the unfolded protein response. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is also involved in the pathogenesis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice that carry 100 pathogenic polyglutamine repeats in the androgen receptor, and develop a late-onset neuromuscular phenotype with motor neuron degeneration, were studied. We observed a disturbance in endoplasmic reticulum-associated calcium homeostasis in cultured embryonic motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice, which was accompanied by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress reduced the endoplasmic reticulum-associated cell death pathway. Examination of spinal cord motor neurons of pathogenic mice at different disease stages revealed elevated expression of markers for endoplasmic reticulum stress, confirming an increase in this stress response in vivo. Importantly, the most significant increase was detected presymptomatically, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress may play an early and possibly causal role in disease pathogenesis. Our results therefore indicate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway could potentially be a therapeutic target for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and related polyglutamine diseases. PMID:24898351

  2. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules reverse leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Zhang, Qinggao; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kim, Seul-Ki; Uddin, Md Jamal; Rhew, Hyunyul; Kim, Taeksang; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-04-01

    Leptin, a circulating hormone, regulates food intake and body weight. While leptin resistance represents a major cause of obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can contribute to leptin resistance. Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, exerts antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of tissue injury. We hypothesized that CO could inhibit leptin resistance during ER stress. Thapsigargin or tunicamycin was used to induce ER stress in human cells expressing the leptin receptor. These agents markedly inhibited leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, confirming that ER stress induces leptin resistance. The CO-releasing molecule CORM-2 blocked the ER stress-dependent inhibition of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. CORM-2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α and enhanced PERK phosphorylation during ER stress. Furthermore, CORM-2 inhibited X-box binding protein-1 expression, activating transcription factor-6 cleavage, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE)1α phosphorylation induced by ER stress. IRE1α knockdown rescued leptin resistance, whereas PERK knockdown blocked CO-dependent regulation of IRE1α. In vivo, CO inhalation normalized body weight in animals fed high-fat diets. Furthermore, CO modulated ER stress pathways and rescued leptin resistance in vivo. In conclusion, the pathological mechanism of leptin resistance may be ameliorated by the pharmacological application of CO.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Cartilage Pathophysiology; Contributing Factors to Apoptosis and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexandria; Oxford, Alexandra E.; Tawara, Ken; Jorcyk, Cheryl L.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2017-01-01

    Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis. In recent years, several chondrodysplasias and collagenopathies have been recognized as protein-folding diseases that lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress, endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation, and the unfolded protein response. Under conditions of prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress in which the protein folding load outweighs the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum, cellular dysfunction and death often occur. However, unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling is also required for the normal maturation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Understanding how UPR signaling may contribute to cartilage pathophysiology is an essential step toward therapeutic modulation of skeletal disorders that lead to osteoarthritis. PMID:28335520

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Cartilage Pathophysiology; Contributing Factors to Apoptosis and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alexandria; Oxford, Alexandra E; Tawara, Ken; Jorcyk, Cheryl L; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2017-03-20

    Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis. In recent years, several chondrodysplasias and collagenopathies have been recognized as protein-folding diseases that lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress, endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation, and the unfolded protein response. Under conditions of prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress in which the protein folding load outweighs the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum, cellular dysfunction and death often occur. However, unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling is also required for the normal maturation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Understanding how UPR signaling may contribute to cartilage pathophysiology is an essential step toward therapeutic modulation of skeletal disorders that lead to osteoarthritis.

  5. Interplay of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yu; Arikkath, Jyothi; Yang, Lu; Guo, Ming-Lei; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Buch, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The common underlying feature of most neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD), prion diseases, Parkinson disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves accumulation of misfolded proteins leading to initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and stimulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Additionally, ER stress more recently has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Autophagy plays an essential role in the clearance of aggregated toxic proteins and degradation of the damaged organelles. There is evidence that autophagy ameliorates ER stress by eliminating accumulated misfolded proteins. Both abnormal UPR and impaired autophagy have been implicated as a causative mechanism in the development of various neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights recent advances in the field on the role of ER stress and autophagy in AD, prion diseases, PD, ALS and HAND with the involvement of key signaling pathways in these processes and implications for future development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26902584

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, pancreatic β-cell degeneration, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Papa, Feroz R

    2012-09-01

    Overwhelming of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)--referred to as "ER stress"--activates a set of intracellular signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Beneficial outputs of the UPR promote adaptation in cells experiencing manageably low levels of ER stress. However, if ER stress reaches critically high levels, the UPR uses destructive outputs to trigger programmed cell death. Genetic mutations in various UPR components cause inherited syndromes of diabetes mellitus in both rodents and humans, implicating the UPR in the proper functioning and survival of pancreatic islet β cells. Markers of chronically elevated ER stress, terminal UPR signaling, and apoptosis are evident in β cells in these rare disorders; these markers are similarly present in islets of human patients with common forms of diabetes. These findings promise to enhance our molecular understanding of human diabetes significantly and may lead to new and effective therapies.

  7. Pharmacological Modulators of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Woo; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for correct protein folding, a step in protein synthesis that is critical for the functional conformation of proteins. ER stress is a primary feature of secretory cells and is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, such as certain neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic disorders. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a defense mechanism to attenuate ER stress and maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Two major degradation systems, including the proteasome and autophagy, are involved in this defense system. If ER stress overwhelms the capacity of the cell’s defense mechanisms, apoptotic death may result. This review is focused on the various pharmacological modulators that can protect cells from damage induced by ER stress. The possible mechanisms for cytoprotection are also discussed. PMID:26840310

  8. A Homeostatic Shift Facilitates Endoplasmic Reticulum Proteostasis through Transcriptional Integration of Proteostatic Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tsujita, Tadayuki; Kobayashi, Eri H.; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells maintain protein homeostasis through the activity of multiple basal and inducible systems, which function in concert to allow cells to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. Although the transcriptional programs regulating individual pathways have been studied in detail, it is not known how the different pathways are transcriptionally integrated such that a deficiency in one pathway can be compensated by a change in an auxiliary response. One such pathway that plays an essential role in many proteostasis responses is the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which functions to degrade damaged, unfolded, or short half-life proteins. Transcriptional regulation of the proteasome is mediated by the transcription factor Nrf1. Using a conditional knockout mouse model, we found that Nrf1 regulates protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through transcriptional regulation of the ER stress sensor ATF6. In Nrf1 conditional-knockout mice, a reduction in proteasome activity is accompanied by an ATF6-dependent downregulation of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation machinery, which reduces the substrate burden on the proteasome. This indicates that Nrf1 regulates a homeostatic shift through which proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm are coregulated based on a cell's ability to degrade proteins. PMID:27920251

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: The cause and solution to Huntington's disease?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuwei; Chadwick, Sarah R; Lajoie, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of misfolded proteins is a hallmark of many human diseases, including several incurable neurological disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD). In HD, expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the first exon of the Huntingtin protein (Htt) leads to Htt misfolding, aberrant protein aggregation, and progressive appearance of disease symptoms. Several studies in various organisms (from yeast to humans) have identified the accumulation of misfolded secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) as a crucial determinant of cellular toxicity in HD. In this review, we highlight the recent research linking HD to ER stress. We also discuss how the modulation of signaling pathways responsible for coping with misfolded protein accumulation in the ER may constitute attractive methods to reduce toxicity and identify new therapeutic targets for treatment of HD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:ER stress.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium, Stress and Cell-to-Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Theodora

    2014-01-01

    Darier's Disease (DD) is caused by mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ ATPase ATP2A2 (protein SERCA2). Current treatment modalities are ineffective for many patients. This report shows that impaired SERCA2 function, both in DD keratinocytes and in normal keratinocytes treated with the SERCA2-inhibitor thapsigargin, depletes ER Ca2+ stores, leading to constitutive ER stress and increased sensitivity to ER stressors. ER stress, in turn, leads to abnormal cell-to-cell adhesion via impaired redistribution of desmoplakin, desmoglein 3, desmocollin 3 and E-cadherin to the plasma membrane. This report illustrates how ER Ca2+ depletion and the resulting ER stress are central to the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, the authors introduce a possible new therapeutic agent, Miglustat. PMID:24924761

  11. Hydrogen sulfide, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alcohol mediated neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    George, Akash K; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Kelly, Kimberly E; Zhai, Yuankun; Tyagi, Neetu

    2017-02-14

    Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Growing evidence suggests that H2S is the most recently recognized gasotransmitter with tremendous physiological protective functions against oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. In this review we address the alcohol induced oxidative stress mediated ER stress and the role of H2S in its mitigation in the context of alcohol neurotoxicity. Interruption of ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcohol mediated diseases and disorders.

  12. Sertraline induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Xuan, Jiekun; Couch, Letha; Iyer, Advait; Wu, Yuanfeng; Li, Quan-Zhen; Guo, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Sertraline is used for the treatment of depression, and is also used for the treatment of panic, obsessive-compulsive, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Previously, we have demonstrated that sertraline caused hepatic cytotoxicity, with mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis being underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used microarray and other biochemical and molecular analyses to identify endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a novel molecular mechanism. HepG2 cells were exposed to sertraline and subjected to whole genome gene expression microarray analysis. Pathway analysis revealed that ER stress is among the significantly affected biological changes. We confirmed the increased expression of ER stress makers by real-time PCR and Western blots. The expression of typical ER stress markers such as PERK, IRE1α, and CHOP was significantly increased. To study better ER stress-mediated drug-induced liver toxicity; we established in vitro systems for monitoring ER stress quantitatively and efficiently, using Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as ER stress reporters. These in vitro systems were validated using well-known ER stress inducers. In these two reporter assays, sertraline inhibited the secretion of Gluc and SEAP. Moreover, we demonstrated that sertraline-induced apoptosis was coupled to ER stress and that the apoptotic effect was attenuated by 4-phenylbutyrate, a potent ER stress inhibitor. In addition, we showed that the MAP4K4-JNK signaling pathway contributed to the process of sertraline-induced ER stress. In summary, we demonstrated that ER stress is a mechanism of sertraline-induced liver toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Chlorpyrifos induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in JEG-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Luciana; Flores-Martín, Jésica; Ridano, Magali E; Panzetta-Dutari, Graciela M; Genti-Raimondi, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorous pesticide widely used in agricultural, industrial, and household applications. We have previously shown that JEG-3 cells are able to attenuate the oxidative stress induced by CPF through the adaptive activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Considering that there is a relationship between oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER), herein we investigated whether CPF also induces ER stress in JEG-3 cells. Cells were exposed to 50μM or 100μM CPF during 24h in conditions where cell viability was not altered. Western blot and PCR assays were used to explore the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress biomarkers, respectively. CPF induced an increase of the typical ER stress-related proteins, such as GRP78/BiP and IRE1α, a sensor for the unfolded protein response, as well as in phospho-eIF2α and XBP1 mRNA splicing. Additionally, CPF led to a decrease in p53 protein expression. The downregulation of p53 levels induced by CPF was partially blocked when cells were exposed to CPF in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Altogether, these findings point out that CPF induces ER stress in JEG-3 cells; however these cells are able to attenuate it downregulating the levels of the pro-apoptotic protein p53.

  14. The effect of calcitriol on endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Haddur, Ela; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ak, Handan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2015-06-01

    Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is known for its anticancer properties including induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, and metastasis. Calcitriol also increases intracellular calcium triggering apoptosis in a calpain-dependent manner. Since the main storage unit for cellular calcium is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a decrease in ER calcium levels might induce ER stress associated cell death, we hypothesized that the cellular actions of calcitriol occur via ER stress. We have evaluated induction of ER stress by assessing BIP expression and XBP-1 splicing in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A. Our results suggest that cytotoxic concentrations of calcitriol induce an ER stress related response indicated as increased BIP levels and XBP-1 splicing not only in breast cancer cells but also in mammary epithelial cell line. However, vehicle treatment also induced a similar response de-emphasizing the importance of such effect. Calcitriol also failed to activate calpains, further weakening the idea of ER stress as the main mechanism for apoptotic effects of calcitriol. Taken together our results suggest an association between ER stress and vitamin D signaling. However present data indicates that ER stress by itself is not sufficient to explain anticancer properties of calcitriol.

  15. ATM deficiency induces oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Stoica, George; Yan, Mingshan; Scofield, Virginia L; Qiang, Wenan; Lynn, William S; Wong, Paul K Y

    2005-12-01

    ATM kinase, the product of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) gene, is activated by genomic damage. ATM plays a crucial role in cell growth and development. Here we report that primary astrocytes isolated from ATM-deficient mice grow slowly, become senescent, and die in culture. However, before reaching senescence, these primary Atm(-/-) astrocytes, like Atm(-/-) lymphocytes, show increased spontaneous DNA synthesis. These astrocytes also show markers of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including increased levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70 and GRP78), malondialdehyde adducts, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, procaspase 12 cleavage, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). In addition, HSP70 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are upregulated in the cerebella of ATM-deficient mice. This increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is seen primarily in cerebellar astrocytes, or Bergmann glia, near degenerating Purkinje cells. ERK1/2 activation and astrogliosis are also found in other parts of the brain, for example, the cortex. We conclude that ATM deficiency induces intrinsic growth defects, oxidative stress, ER stress, and ERKs activation in astrocytes.

  16. GADD34 Keeps the mTOR Pathway Inactivated in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Related Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Holczer, Marianna; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Kapuy, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    The balance of protein synthesis and proteolysis (i.e. proteostasis) is maintained by a complex regulatory network in which mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin serine/threonine kinase) pathway and unfolded protein response are prominent positive and negative actors. The interplay between the two systems has been revealed; however the mechanistic details of this crosstalk are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the elements of crosstalk during endoplasmic reticulum stress and to verify the key role of GADD34 in the connection with the mTOR pathway. Here, we demonstrate that a transient activation of autophagy is present in endoplasmic reticulum stress provoked by thapsigargin or tunicamycin, which is turned into apoptotic cell death. The transient phase can be characterized by the elevation of the autophagic marker LC3II/I, by mTOR inactivation, AMP-activated protein kinase activation and increased GADD34 level. The switch from autophagy to apoptosis is accompanied with the appearance of apoptotic markers, mTOR reactivation, AMP-activated protein kinase inactivation and a decrease in GADD34. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine shortens the transient phase, while inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin or resveratrol prolongs it. Inhibition of GADD34 by guanabenz or transfection of the cells with siGADD34 results in down-regulation of autophagy-dependent survival and a quick activation of mTOR, followed by apoptotic cell death. The negative effect of GADD34 inhibition is diminished when guanabenz or siGADD34 treatment is combined with rapamycin or resveratrol addition. These data confirm that GADD34 constitutes a mechanistic link between endoplasmic reticulum stress and mTOR inactivation, therefore promotes cell survival during endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:27992581

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-associated Cone Photoreceptor Degeneration in Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Arjun; Morris, Lynsie; Xu, Jianhua; Ma, Hongwei; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in phototransduction. Mutations in the cone CNG channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 account for >70% of all known cases of achromatopsia. Cones degenerate in achromatopsia patients and in CNGA3−/− and CNGB3−/− mice. This work investigates the molecular basis of cone degeneration in CNG channel deficiency. As cones comprise only 2–3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, we generated mouse lines with CNG channel deficiency on a cone-dominant background, i.e. CNGA3−/−/Nrl−/− and CNGB3−/−/Nrl−/− mice. The retinal phenotype and potential cell death pathways were examined by functional, biochemical, and immunohistochemical approaches. CNGA3−/−/Nrl−/− and CNGB3−/−/Nrl−/− mice showed impaired cone function, opsin mislocalization, and cone degeneration similar to that in the single knock-out mice. The endoplasmic reticulum stress marker proteins, including Grp78/Bip, phospho-eIF2α, phospho-IP3R, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, were elevated significantly in CNGA3−/−/Nrl−/− and CNGB3−/−/Nrl−/− retinas, compared with the age-matched (postnatal 30 days) Nrl−/− controls. Along with these, up-regulation of the cysteine protease calpains and cleavage of caspase-12 and caspase-7 were found in the channel-deficient retinas, suggesting an endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis. In addition, we observed a nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G in CNGA3−/−/Nrl−/− and CNGB3−/−/Nrl−/− retinas, implying a mitochondrial insult in the endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated cell death process. Taken together, our findings suggest a crucial role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in cone degeneration associated with CNG channel deficiency. PMID:22493484

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated cone photoreceptor degeneration in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arjun; Morris, Lynsie; Xu, Jianhua; Ma, Hongwei; Michalakis, Stylianos; Biel, Martin; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2012-05-25

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a pivotal role in phototransduction. Mutations in the cone CNG channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 account for >70% of all known cases of achromatopsia. Cones degenerate in achromatopsia patients and in CNGA3(-/-) and CNGB3(-/-) mice. This work investigates the molecular basis of cone degeneration in CNG channel deficiency. As cones comprise only 2-3% of the total photoreceptor population in the wild-type mouse retina, we generated mouse lines with CNG channel deficiency on a cone-dominant background, i.e. CNGA3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) and CNGB3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice. The retinal phenotype and potential cell death pathways were examined by functional, biochemical, and immunohistochemical approaches. CNGA3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) and CNGB3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) mice showed impaired cone function, opsin mislocalization, and cone degeneration similar to that in the single knock-out mice. The endoplasmic reticulum stress marker proteins, including Grp78/Bip, phospho-eIF2α, phospho-IP(3)R, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, were elevated significantly in CNGA3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) and CNGB3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) retinas, compared with the age-matched (postnatal 30 days) Nrl(-/-) controls. Along with these, up-regulation of the cysteine protease calpains and cleavage of caspase-12 and caspase-7 were found in the channel-deficient retinas, suggesting an endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis. In addition, we observed a nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G in CNGA3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) and CNGB3(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) retinas, implying a mitochondrial insult in the endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated cell death process. Taken together, our findings suggest a crucial role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in cone degeneration associated with CNG channel deficiency.

  19. Lipid homeostasis is involved in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum stress in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Qilin; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2016-09-16

    Maintaining cellular lipid composition is essential for many cell processes. Our previous study has demonstrated that Spt23 is an important transcription factor within the cell and responsible for the regulation of fatty acid desaturase genes. Disruption of SPT23 results in increased lipid saturation. In the present study, we found that lipid saturation caused by SPT23 deletion exhibited a growth defect under ethanol stress and increased chitin contents. Ergosterol synthesis-related genes were up-regulated to protect cells from plasma membrane damage in the presence of ethanol. The cell wall stress caused by increased chitin contents could not be attenuated by up-regulation of phospholipids synthesis-related genes in spt23Δ. Besides, lipid saturation induced expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation followed by activation of the cellular antioxidant system, which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions. Taken together, our data suggested that lipid homeostasis has a close connection with cell responses to both plasma membrane stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in yeast and humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haoxi; Ng, Benjamin S. H.; Thibault, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Stress pathways monitor intracellular systems and deploy a range of regulatory mechanisms in response to stress. One of the best-characterized pathways, the UPR (unfolded protein response), is an intracellular signal transduction pathway that monitors ER (endoplasmic reticulum) homoeostasis. Its activation is required to alleviate the effects of ER stress and is highly conserved from yeast to human. Although metazoans have three UPR outputs, yeast cells rely exclusively on the Ire1 (inositol-requiring enzyme-1) pathway, which is conserved in all Eukaryotes. In general, the UPR program activates hundreds of genes to alleviate ER stress but it can lead to apoptosis if the system fails to restore homoeostasis. In this review, we summarize the major advances in understanding the response to ER stress in Sc (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Sp (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and humans. The contribution of solved protein structures to a better understanding of the UPR pathway is discussed. Finally, we cover the interplay of ER stress in the development of diseases. PMID:24909749

  1. HDAC Inhibitors and RECK Modulate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Tseng, Sheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment hypoxia and nutrient deprived states can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. If ER stress is not relieved, the tumor cells may become apoptotic. Therefore, targeting ER homeostasis is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. Various chemotherapeutic agents including histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can induce ER stress to cause cell death in cancers. Some HDAC inhibitors can prevent HDAC from binding to the specificity protein 1-binding site of the promoter of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) and up-regulate RECK expression. Up-regulation of RECK expression by HDAC inhibitors has been observed in various cancer types. RECK is a tumor and metastasis suppressor gene and is critical for regulating tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. RECK also modulates ER stress via binding to and sequestering glucose-regulated protein 78 protein, so that the transmembrane sensors, such as protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase are released to activate eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2α phosphorylation and enhance ER stress. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors may directly induce ER stress or indirectly induce this stress by up-regulating RECK in cancer cells. PMID:28134767

  2. HDAC Inhibitors and RECK Modulate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Tseng, Sheng-Hong

    2017-01-26

    In the tumor microenvironment hypoxia and nutrient deprived states can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. If ER stress is not relieved, the tumor cells may become apoptotic. Therefore, targeting ER homeostasis is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. Various chemotherapeutic agents including histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can induce ER stress to cause cell death in cancers. Some HDAC inhibitors can prevent HDAC from binding to the specificity protein 1-binding site of the promoter of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) and up-regulate RECK expression. Up-regulation of RECK expression by HDAC inhibitors has been observed in various cancer types. RECK is a tumor and metastasis suppressor gene and is critical for regulating tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. RECK also modulates ER stress via binding to and sequestering glucose-regulated protein 78 protein, so that the transmembrane sensors, such as protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase are released to activate eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2α phosphorylation and enhance ER stress. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors may directly induce ER stress or indirectly induce this stress by up-regulating RECK in cancer cells.

  3. Altered localization of amyloid precursor protein under endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takashi; Okumura, Masayo; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Araki, Wataru; Morihara, Takashi; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Kamagata, Eiichiro; Tabuchi, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Ryo; Kanayama, Daisuke; Fukumori, Akio; Tagami, Shinji; Okochi, Masayasu; Kubo, Mikiko; Tanii, Hisashi; Tohyama, Masaya; Tabira, Takeshi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2006-06-02

    Recent reports have shown that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Following the amyloid cascade hypothesis, we therefore attempted to investigate the effects of ER stress on amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) generation. In this study, we found that ER stress altered the localization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) from late compartments to early compartments of the secretory pathway, and decreased the level of Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 release by beta- and gamma-cutting. Transient transfection with BiP/GRP78 also caused a shift of APP and a reduction in Abeta secretion. It was revealed that the ER stress response facilitated binding of BiP/GRP78 to APP, thereby causing it to be retained in the early compartments apart from a location suitable for the cleavages of Abeta. These findings suggest that induction of BiP/GRP78 during ER stress may be one of the regulatory mechanisms of Abeta generation.

  4. Coping with endoplasmic reticulum stress in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Groenendyk, Jody; Agellon, Luis B; Michalak, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional intracellular organelle, a component of the cellular reticular network that allows cells to adjust to a wide variety of conditions. The cardiomyocyte reticular network is the ideal location of sensors for both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that disrupt energy and/or nutrient homeostasis and lead to ER stress, a disturbance in ER function. ER stress has been linked to both physiological and pathological states in the cardiovascular system; such states include myocardial infarction, oxygen starvation (hypoxia) and fuel starvation, ischemia, pressure overload, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, and heart failure. The ER stress coping response (e.g., the unfolded protein response) is composed of discrete pathways that are controlled by a collection of common regulatory components that may function as a single entity involved in reacting to ER stress. These corrective strategies allow the cardiomyocyte reticular network to restore energy and/or nutrient homeostasis and to avoid cell death. Therefore, the identities of the ER stress corrective strategies are important targets for the development of therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular and other acquired disorders.

  5. The signaling mechanisms of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress affecting neuronal plasticity-related protein levels in high fat diet-induced obese rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ming; Wang, Hong; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Li; Xin, Lei; Li, Feng; Lou, Shu-Jie

    2016-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been shown to reduce the levels of neuronal plasticity-related proteins, specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN), in the hippocampus. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been reported to play a key role in regulating gene expression and protein production by affecting stress signaling pathways and ER functions of protein folding and post-translational modification in peripheral tissues of obese rodent models. Additionally, HFD that is associated with hyperglycemia could induce hippocampal ERS, thus impairing insulin signaling and cognitive health in HFD mice. One goal of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia could cause hippocampal ERS in HFD-induced obese SD rats, and explore the potential mechanisms of ERS regulating hippocampal BDNF and SYN proteins production. Additionally, although regular aerobic exercise could reduce central inflammation and elevate hippocampal BDNF and SYN levels in obese rats, the regulated mechanisms are poorly understood. Nrf2-HO-1 pathways play roles in anti-ERS, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis in peripheral tissues. Therefore, the other goal of this study was to determine whether aerobic exercise could activate Nrf2-HO-1 in hippocampus to alleviate obesity-induced hippocampal ERS, which would lead to increased BDNF and SYN levels. Male SD rats were fed on HFD for 8weeks to establish the obese model. Then, 8weeks of aerobic exercise treadmill intervention was arranged for the obese rats. Results showed that HFD-induced obesity caused hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and significantly promoted hippocampal glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) protein expression. These results were associated with the activation of hippocampal ERS and ERS-mediated apoptosis. At the same time, we found that excessive hippocampal ERS not only

  6. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Keczan, E; Keri, G; Banhegyi, G; Stiller, I

    2016-10-01

    The maintenance of protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial in cell life. Disruption of proteostasis results in ER stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR); a signalling network assigned to manage the accumulated misfolded or unfolded proteins. Prolonged or unresolved ER stress leads to apoptotic cell death that can be the basis of many serious diseases. Our aim was to study the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), an alternative, non-invasive therapeutic method on ER stressed cell lines. First, the effect of PEMF treatment on the expression of ER stress markers was tested in three different cell lines. PEMF had no remarkable effect on ER stress protein levels in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. However, the expression of BiP, Grp94 and CHOP were increased in HeLa cells upon PEMF exposure. Therefore, HepG2 cell line was selected for further experiments. Cells were stressed by tunicamycin and exposed to PEMF. Grp94, PDI, CHOP and PARP expression as markers of stress were monitored by Western blot and cell viability was also investigated. Tunicamycin treatment, as expected, increased the expression of Grp94, PDI, CHOP and inactivated PARP. Analysis of protein expression showed that PEMF was able to decrease the elevated level of ER chaperons Grp94, PDI and the apoptosis marker CHOP. The truncated, inactive form of PARP was also decreased. Accordingly, cell viability was also improved by PEMF exposure. These results indicate that PEMF is able to moderate ER stress induced by tunicamycin in HepG2 cells. However, our results clearly draw attention to that different cell lines may vary in the response to PEMF treatment.

  7. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2-3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: a novel mechanism and therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-qing; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Lin-xi

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum is a principal organelle responsible for folding, post-translational modifications and transport of secretory, luminal and membrane proteins, thus palys an important rale in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a condition that is accelerated by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins after endoplasmic reticulum environment disturbance, triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological factors, such as nutrient deprivation, altered glycosylation, calcium depletion, oxidative stress, DNA damage and energy disturbance, etc. ERS may initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore cellular homeostasis or lead to apoptosis. Numerous studies have clarified the link between ERS and cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on ERS-associated molecular mechanisms that participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes of heart and blood vessels. In addition, a number of drugs that regulate ERS was introduced, which may be used to treat cardiovascular diseases. This review may open new avenues for studying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and discovering novel drugs targeting ERS. PMID:26838072

  9. Naltrexone attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, A; Nabavizadeh, F; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Dehpour, A R; Dehpou, A R; Tavanga, S M; Hassanzadeh, G; Zekri, A; Nahrevanian, H; Sohanaki, H

    2014-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress provides abnormalities in insulin action, inflammatory responses, lipoprotein B100 degradation and hepatic lipogenesis. Excess accumulation of triglyceride in hepatocytes may also lead to disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Opioid peptides are involved in triglyceride and cholesterol dysregulation, inflammation and cell death. In this study, we evaluated Naltrexone effects on ER stress induced liver injury. To do so, C57/BL6 mice received saline, DMSO and Naltrexone, as control groups. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) injection. Naltrexone was given before TM administration. Liver blood flow and biochemical serum analysis were measured. Histopathological evaluations, TNF-α measurement and Real-time RT-PCR were also performed. TM challenge provokes steatosis, cellular ballooning and lobular inflammation which significantly reduced in Naltrexone treated animals. ALT, AST and TNF-α increased in the TM group and improved in the Naltrexone plus TM group. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased in TM treated mice with no increase in Naltrexone treated animals. In the Naltrexone plus TM group, gene expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase3 significantly lowered compared with the TM group. In this study, we found that Naltrexone had a notable alleviating role in ER stress induced steatosis and liver injury.

  10. Protein misfolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress in chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Wei, James; Rahman, Sadaf; Ayaub, Ehab A; Dickhout, Jeffrey G; Ask, Kjetil

    2013-04-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic lung disorders is poorly understood but is often thought to arise because of repeated injuries derived from exposure to exogenous or endogenous stress factors. Protein-misfolding events have been observed in a variety of genetic and nongenetic chronic lung disorders and may contribute to both the initiation and the progression of lung disease through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Evidence indicates that exposure to common lung irritants such as cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants, and infectious viral or bacterial agents can induce ER stress and protein misfolding. Although the UPR is thought to be a molecular mechanism involved in the repair and restoration of protein homeostasis or "proteostasis," prolonged activation of the UPR may lead to compromised cellular functions, cellular transformation, or cell death. Here, we review literature that associates protein-misfolding events with ER stress and UPR activation and discuss how this basic molecular repair mechanism may contribute to the initiation and progression of various genetic and nongenetic chronic lung diseases.

  11. Mollugin induces apoptosis in human Jurkat T cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated activation of JNK and caspase-12 and subsequent activation of mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade regulated by Bcl-xL

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Hae Sun; Jun, Do Youn; Woo, Hyun Ju; Woo, Mi Hee; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Young Ho

    2009-12-01

    Exposure of Jurkat T cells to mollugin (15-30 muM), purified from the roots of Rubia cordifolia L., caused cytotoxicity and apoptotic DNA fragmentation along with mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspase-12, -9, -7, -3, and -8, cleavage of FLIP and Bid, and PARP degradation, without accompanying necrosis. While these mollugin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptotic events including activation of caspase-8 and mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase cascade were completely prevented by overexpression of Bcl-xL, the activation of JNK and caspase-12 was prevented to much lesser extent. Pretreatment of the cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), the caspase-9 inhibitor (z-LEHD-fmk), the caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk) or the caspase-12 inhibitor (z-ATAD-fmk) at the minimal concentration to prevent mollugin-induced apoptosis appeared to completely block the activation of caspase-7 and -8, and PARP degradation, but failed to block the activation of caspase-9 and -3 with allowing a slight enhancement in the level of JNK phosphorylation. Both FADD-positive wild-type Jurkat clone A3 and FADD-deficient Jurkat clone I2.1 exhibited a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of mollugin, excluding involvement of Fas/FasL system in triggering mollugin-induced apoptosis. Normal peripheral T cells were more refractory to the cytotoxicity of mollugin than were Jurkat T cells. These results demonstrated that mollugin-induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat T cells was mainly attributable to apoptosis provoked via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated activation of JNK and caspase-12, and subsequent mitochondria-dependent activation of caspase-9 and -3, leading to activation of caspase-7 and -8, which could be regulated by Bcl-xL.

  12. Obesity induces hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress and impairs proopiomelanocortin (POMC) post-translational processing.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Isin; Cyr, Nicole E; Perello, Mario; Litvinov, Bogdan Patedakis; Romero, Amparo; Stuart, Ronald C; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2013-06-14

    It was shown previously that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state, the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is reduced, yet the mRNA of its precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) remained unaltered. It was also shown that the DIO condition promotes the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin resistance. In the current study, using an in vivo model combined with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that obesity-induced ER stress obstructs the post-translational processing of POMC by decreasing proconverting enzyme 2, which catalyzes the conversion of adrenocorticotropin to α-MSH, thereby decreasing α-MSH peptide production. This novel mechanism of ER stress affecting POMC processing in DIO highlights the importance of ER stress in regulating central energy balance in obesity.

  13. Selenoprotein K modulate intracellular free Ca(2+) by regulating expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Li, Ruimin; Huang, Yalan; Wang, Miao; Yang, Fan; Huang, Dana; Wu, Chunli; Li, Yue; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Renli; Cheng, Jinquan

    2017-03-18

    Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa selenoprotein, which may be involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immune response. To explore the function of SelK in the process of immune response, several short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were designed for the construction of recombinant plasmids to down-regulate the expression of SelK gene in vitro. These shRNAs specifically and efficiently interfered with the expression of SelK at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of calcium homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) and the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration were significantly down-regulated in anti-CD3 stimulated SelK-knockdown cells. The expression of Interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα) and the secretion of Interleukin 4 (IL-4), which play a significant role in the process of T cell activation and proliferation, were also reduced in SelK-knockdown cells. Selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an optimum concentration of 5 μM could up-regulate SelK expression and reverse the change of the expression of CHERP and the intracellular free calcium caused by SelK-knockdown. These results hereby imply SelK may regulate the release of Ca(2+) by CHERP and play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of T cell by TCR stimulation.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: a potential target for therapy.

    PubMed

    Montague, Karli; Malik, Bilal; Gray, Anna L; La Spada, Albert R; Hanna, Michael G; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Greensmith, Linda

    2014-07-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked degenerative motor neuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene. There is evidence implicating endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease, including polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease and in motor neuron disease, where cellular stress disrupts functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to induction of the unfolded protein response. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is also involved in the pathogenesis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice that carry 100 pathogenic polyglutamine repeats in the androgen receptor, and develop a late-onset neuromuscular phenotype with motor neuron degeneration, were studied. We observed a disturbance in endoplasmic reticulum-associated calcium homeostasis in cultured embryonic motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice, which was accompanied by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress reduced the endoplasmic reticulum-associated cell death pathway. Examination of spinal cord motor neurons of pathogenic mice at different disease stages revealed elevated expression of markers for endoplasmic reticulum stress, confirming an increase in this stress response in vivo. Importantly, the most significant increase was detected presymptomatically, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress may play an early and possibly causal role in disease pathogenesis. Our results therefore indicate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway could potentially be a therapeutic target for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and related polyglutamine diseases. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: key promoter of rosacea pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2014-12-01

    Recent scientific interest in the pathogenesis of rosacea focuses on abnormally high facial skin levels of cathelicidin and the trypsin-like serine protease kallikrein 5 (KLK5) that cleaves the cathelicidin precursor protein into the bioactive fragment LL-37, which exerts crucial proinflammatory, angiogenic and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, increased expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been identified in rosacea skin supporting the participation of the innate immune system. Notably, TLRs are expressed on sensory neurons and increase neuronal excitability linking TLR signalling to the transmission of neuroinflammatory responses. It is the intention of this viewpoint to present a unifying concept that links all known clinical trigger factors of rosacea such as UV irradiation, heat, skin irritants and special foods to one converging point: enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress via upregulation of transcription factor ATF4 increases TLR2 expression, resulting in enhanced production of cathelicidin and KLK5 mediating downstream proinflammatory, angiogenic and antimicrobial signalling. The presented concept identifies rosacea trigger factors as environmental stressors that enhance the skin's ER stress response. Exaggerated cutaneous ER stress that stimulates the TLR2-driven inflammatory response may involve sebocytes, keratinocytes, monocyte-macrophages and sensory cutaneous neurons. Finally, all antirosacea drugs are proposed to attenuate the ER stress signalling cascade at some point. Overstimulated ER stress signalling may have evolutionarily evolved as a compensatory mechanism to balance impaired vitamin D-driven LL-37-mediated antimicrobial defenses due to lower exposure of UV-B irradiation of the northern Celtic population.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the penumbra aggravates secondary damage in rats with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guo-zhu; Gao, Fen-fei; Zhao, Zong-mao; Sun, Hai; Xu, Wei; Wu, Li-wei; He, Yong-chang

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis is mediated by intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways such as the membrane-mediated, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. Few studies have examined the endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis pathway in the penumbra after traumatic brain injury, and it remains unclear whether endoplasmic reticulum stress can activate the caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway in the traumatic penumbra. Here, we established rat models of fluid percussion-induced traumatic brain injury and found that protein expression of caspase-12, caspase-3 and the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein increased in the traumatic penumbra 6 hours after injury and peaked at 24 hours. Furthermore, numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the traumatic penumbra also reached peak levels 24 hours after injury. These findings suggest that caspase-12-mediated endoplasmic reticulum-related apoptosis is activated in the traumatic penumbra, and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury. PMID:27651773

  17. Trichoplein/mitostatin regulates endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria juxtaposition.

    PubMed

    Cerqua, Cristina; Anesti, Vassiliki; Pyakurel, Aswin; Liu, Dan; Naon, Deborah; Wiche, Gerhard; Baffa, Raffaele; Dimmer, Kai S; Scorrano, Luca

    2010-11-01

    Trichoplein/mitostatin (TpMs) is a keratin-binding protein that partly colocalizes with mitochondria and is often downregulated in epithelial cancers, but its function remains unclear. In this study, we report that TpMs regulates the tethering between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2)-dependent manner. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that TpMs is present at the interface between mitochondria and ER. The expression of TpMs leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and loosens tethering with ER, whereas its silencing has opposite effects. Functionally, the reduced tethering by TpMs inhibits apoptosis by Ca(2+)-dependent stimuli that require ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Biochemical and genetic evidence support a model in which TpMs requires Mfn2 to modulate mitochondrial shape and tethering. Thus, TpMs is a new regulator of mitochondria-ER juxtaposition.

  18. Causes and consequences of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Navid, Fatemeh; Colbert, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory conditions, many of which involve chronic activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses by multiple genetic and environmental factors. These immune responses involve the secretion of excessive amounts of cytokines and other signalling mediators by activated immune cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular organelle that directs the folding, processing and trafficking of membrane-bound and secreted proteins, including many key components of the immune response. Maintaining homeostasis in the ER is critical to cell function and survival. Consequently, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to sense and respond to ER stress through three main signalling pathways that together comprise the unfolded protein response (UPR). Activation of the UPR can rapidly resolve the accumulation of misfolded proteins, direct permanent changes in the size and function of cells during differentiation, and critically influence the immune response and inflammation. Recognition of the importance of ER stress and UPR signalling pathways in normal and dysregulated immune responses has greatly increased in the past few years. This Review discusses several settings in which ER stress contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases and considers some of the therapeutic opportunities that these discoveries provide.

  19. An Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Bidur; Marahatta, Anu; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of calcium storage and protein folding. It has a unique oxidizing-folding environment due to the predominant disulfide bond formation during the process of protein folding. Alterations in the oxidative environment of the ER and also intra-ER Ca2+ cause the production of ER stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Protein disulfide isomerases, endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin-1, reduced glutathione and mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins also play crucial roles in ER stress-induced production of ROS. In this article, we discuss ER stress-associated ROS and related diseases, and the current understanding of the signaling transduction involved in ER stress. PMID:23263672

  20. Insulin Dissociates the Effects of Liver X Receptor on Lipogenesis, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Inflammation*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaowei; Haas, Mary E.; Miao, Ji; Mehta, Abhiruchi; Graham, Mark J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; de Barros, Jean-Paul Pais; Wang, Jian-Guo; Aikawa, Masanori; Masson, David; Biddinger, Sudha B.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by increased lipogenesis as well as increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. The nuclear hormone receptor liver X receptor (LXR) is induced by insulin and is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. It promotes lipogenesis and cholesterol efflux, but suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. The goal of these studies was to dissect the effects of insulin on LXR action. We used antisense oligonucleotides to knock down Lxrα in mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of the insulin receptor and their controls. We found, surprisingly, that knock-out of the insulin receptor and knockdown of Lxrα produced equivalent, non-additive effects on the lipogenic genes. Thus, insulin was unable to induce the lipogenic genes in the absence of Lxrα, and LXRα was unable to induce the lipogenic genes in the absence of insulin. However, insulin was not required for LXRα to modulate the phospholipid profile, or to suppress genes in the ER stress or inflammation pathways. These data show that insulin is required specifically for the lipogenic effects of LXRα and that manipulation of the insulin signaling pathway could dissociate the beneficial effects of LXR on cholesterol efflux, inflammation, and ER stress from the negative effects on lipogenesis. PMID:26511317

  1. Insulin Dissociates the Effects of Liver X Receptor on Lipogenesis, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaowei; Haas, Mary E; Miao, Ji; Mehta, Abhiruchi; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Wang, Jian-Guo; Aikawa, Masanori; Masson, David; Biddinger, Sudha B

    2016-01-15

    Diabetes is characterized by increased lipogenesis as well as increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. The nuclear hormone receptor liver X receptor (LXR) is induced by insulin and is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. It promotes lipogenesis and cholesterol efflux, but suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. The goal of these studies was to dissect the effects of insulin on LXR action. We used antisense oligonucleotides to knock down Lxrα in mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of the insulin receptor and their controls. We found, surprisingly, that knock-out of the insulin receptor and knockdown of Lxrα produced equivalent, non-additive effects on the lipogenic genes. Thus, insulin was unable to induce the lipogenic genes in the absence of Lxrα, and LXRα was unable to induce the lipogenic genes in the absence of insulin. However, insulin was not required for LXRα to modulate the phospholipid profile, or to suppress genes in the ER stress or inflammation pathways. These data show that insulin is required specifically for the lipogenic effects of LXRα and that manipulation of the insulin signaling pathway could dissociate the beneficial effects of LXR on cholesterol efflux, inflammation, and ER stress from the negative effects on lipogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral nervous system is a significant driver of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, Bora; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Haj, Fawaz G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-07-21

    Despite intensive effort and resulting gains in understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, limited success in therapeutic approaches have been attained. A recently identified, nonchannel, nonneurotransmitter therapeutic target for pain is the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The sEH degrades natural analgesic lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), therefore its inhibition stabilizes these bioactive mediators. Here we demonstrate the effects of EpFAs on diabetes induced neuropathic pain and define a previously unknown mechanism of pain, regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The activation of ER stress is first quantified in the peripheral nervous system of type I diabetic rats. We demonstrate that both pain and markers of ER stress are reversed by a chemical chaperone. Next, we identify the EpFAs as upstream modulators of ER stress pathways. Chemical inducers of ER stress invariably lead to pain behavior that is reversed by a chemical chaperone and an inhibitor of sEH. The rapid occurrence of pain behavior with inducers, equally rapid reversal by blockers and natural incidence of ER stress in diabetic peripheral nervous system (PNS) argue for a major role of the ER stress pathways in regulating the excitability of the nociceptive system. Understanding the role of ER stress in generation and maintenance of pain opens routes to exploit this system for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Repeated restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility by activation of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Xia, Zhengrong; Zhang, Aifeng; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2017-09-05

    A growing body of evidence suggests that stress triggers a variety of pathophysiological responses. Recent studies show that stress produces enduring effects on structure and function of hippocampus, which is one of the most important structures involved in epilepsy. In the present study, we determined the effect of repeated restraint stress exposure on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the possible mechanisms involved using a rodent model. Our results show that mice subjected to repeated restraint stress exhibited shorter latency to PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizures and higher seizure severity, suggesting chronic restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility. Following repeated restraint stress, we observed an increased level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as well as oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Moreover, our results show that chronic restraint stress exposure causes neuron loss in the hippocampus. Inhibition of ER stress with chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), however, protects against chronic restraint stress-induced neuron loss, suggesting repeated restraint stress-induced neuronal degeneration is dependent on ER stress activation. On the other hand, inhibition of ER stress with TUDCA suppresses restraint stress-induced seizure susceptibility. Taken together, these results indicate that repeated restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility by activation of hippocampal ER stress and ER stress mediated oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Thus, attenuating ER stress may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy targeted to block stress-induced seizure activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mu-Yun; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Yang, Shu-Yi; Ho, Tsing-Fen; Peng, Yu-Ta; Chang, Chia-Che

    2012-12-15

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is initiated by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and may induce cell death when irremediable. In this study, the role of ER stress in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity was elucidated for the first time. Comparable to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin, prodigiosin up-regulated signature ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP in addition to activating the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in multiple human breast carcinoma cell lines, confirming prodigiosin as an ER stress inducer. Prodigiosin transcriptionally up-regulated CHOP, as evidenced by its promoting effect on the CHOP promoter activity. Of note, knockdown of CHOP effectively lowered prodigiosin's capacity to evoke PARP cleavage, reduce cell viability and suppress colony formation, highlighting an essential role of CHOP in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxic ER stress response. In addition, prodigiosin down-regulated BCL2 in a CHOP-dependent manner. Importantly, restoration of BCL2 expression blocked prodigiosin-induced PARP cleavage and greatly enhanced the survival of prodigiosin-treated cells, suggesting that CHOP-dependent BCL2 suppression mediates prodigiosin-elicited cell death. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or dominant-negative blockade of PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation impaired prodigiosin-induced CHOP up-regulation and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results identified ER stress-mediated cell death as a mode-of-action of prodigiosin's tumoricidal effect. Mechanistically, prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α branches of the UPR signaling to up-regulate CHOP, which in turn mediates BCL2 suppression to induce cell death. Highlights: ► Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent anticancer effect. ► Prodigiosin is herein identified as an

  5. PERK-opathies: An Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mechanism Underlying Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle C; Meier, Shelby E; Ingram, Alexandria L; Abisambra, Jose F

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a vital role in maintaining cell homeostasis as a consequence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, prolonged UPR activity leads to cell death. This time-dependent dual functionality of the UPR represents the adaptive and cytotoxic pathways that result from ER stress. Chronic UPR activation in systemic and neurodegenerative diseases has been identified as an early sign of cellular dyshomeostasis. The Protein Kinase R-like ER Kinase (PERK) pathway is one of three major branches in the UPR, and it is the only one to modulate protein synthesis as an adaptive response. The specific identification of prolonged PERK activity has been correlated with the progression of disorders such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer, suggesting that PERK plays a role in the pathology of these disorders. For the first time, the term "PERK-opathies" is used to group these diseases in which PERK mediates detriment to the cell culminating in chronic disorders. This article reviews the literature documenting links between systemic disorders with the UPR, but with a specific emphasis on the PERK pathway. Then, articles reporting links between the UPR, and more specifically PERK, and neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Finally, a therapeutic perspective is discussed, where PERK interventions could be potential remedies for cellular dysfunction in chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0203 TITLE: The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease PRINCIPAL...COVERED 07/01/2014-06/30/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease 5a...NUMBER(S) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We hypothesize that ER stress induced by glucose in diabetes promotes diabetic CKD through CRT stimulation

  7. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0203 TITLE: The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease PRINCIPAL...1 July 2015- 30 June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein Calreticulin in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease 5a...We hypothesize that ER stress induced by glucose in diabetes promotes diabetic CKD through CRT stimulation of TGF-beta-dependent calcium/NFAT

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress activation during total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hocker, Austin D; Boileau, Ryan M; Lantz, Brick A; Jewett, Brian A; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Dreyer, Hans C

    2013-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most common remediation for knee pain from osteoarthritis (OA) and is performed 650,000 annually in the U.S. A tourniquet is commonly used during TKA which causes ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) to the lower limb but the effects of I/R on muscle are not fully understood. Previous reports suggest upregulation of cell stress and catabolism and downregulation of markers of cap-dependent translation during and after TKA. I/R has also been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR). We hypothesized that the UPR would be activated in response to ER stress during TKA. We obtained muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis at baseline, before TKA; at maximal ischemia, prior to tourniquet deflation; and during reperfusion in the operating room. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and AKT decreased during ischemia (−28%, P < 0.05; −20%, P < 0.05, respectively) along with an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation (64%, P < 0.05) suggesting decreased translation initiation. Cleaved ATF6 protein increased in ischemia (39%, P = 0.056) but returned to baseline during reperfusion. CASP3 activation increased during reperfusion compared to baseline (23%, P < 0.05). XBP1 splicing assays revealed an increase in spliced transcript during ischemia (31%, P < 0.05) which diminished during reperfusion. These results suggest that in response to I/R during TKA all three branches of the ER stress response are activated. PMID:24159375

  9. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Avila, Diana; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ► Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ► Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ► Novel finding of

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Trigger for Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Hyttinen, Juha MT; Toropainen, Elisa; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can be classified into two main categories: the atrophic, dry form and the exudative, wet form. The crucial difference between dry and wet AMD is the development of choroidal neovascularization in wet AMD. One fundamental cause of the neovascularization is the increased expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Progression of AMD is linked to augmentation of cellular stress, for example, oxidative stress, proteotoxic stress, inflammation and hypoxia. All these conditions can trigger stress in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which maintains protein quality control in cells. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) via IRE1 (inositol-requiring protein-1), PERK (protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor-6) transducers. UPR signaling is a double-edged sword, that is, it can restore cellular homeostasis as far as possible, but ultimately may lead to chronic, overwhelming stress that can cause apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, ER stress is a well-known inducer of angiogenesis in cancer. Moreover, stress conditions associated with the progress of AMD can induce the expression of VEGF. We discuss the role of ER stress in the regulation of neovascularization and the conversion of dry AMD to its wet, detrimental counterpart. PMID:20683548

  11. Rtn1a-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Podocyte Injury and Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Wenzhen; Lee, Kyung; Li, Zhengzhe; Wen, Jiejun; He, Li; Gui, Dingkun; Xue, Rui; Jian, Guihua; Sheng, Xiaohua; He, John Cijiang; Wang, Niansong

    2017-03-23

    We previously reported a critical role of reticulon (RTN) 1A in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in kidney tubular cells and the expression of RTN1A correlates with the renal function and the severity of kidney injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here, we determined the roles of RTN1A and ER stress in podocyte injury and DN. We used db/db mice with early unilateral nephrectomy (Unx) as a murine model of progressive DN and treated mice with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a specific inhibitor of ER stress. We found increased expression of RTN1A and ER stress markers in the kidney of db/db-Unx mice. Treatment of TUDCA not only attenuated proteinuria and kidney histological changes, but also ameliorated podocyte and glomeruli injury in diabetic mice, which were associated with reduction of RTN1A and ER stress marker expression in the podocytes of TUDCA-treated mice. In vitro, we showed RTN1A mediates albumin-induced ER stress and apoptosis in human podocytes. A positive feedback loop between RTN1A and CHOP was found leading to an enhanced ER stress in podocytes. Our data suggest that ER stress plays a major role in podocyte injury in DN and RTN1A might be a key regulator of ER stress in podocytes.

  12. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Jia, Pengyu; Jia, Dalin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of hypercholesterolemia on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is in controversy and the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. In the present study, we firstly detected the effects of hypercholesterolemia on MIRI and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathway in this process. The infarct size was determined by TTC staining, and apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL method. The marker proteins of ER stress response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia significantly increased the myocardial infarct size, the release of myocardium enzyme and the ratio of apoptosis, but did not affect the recovery of cardiac function. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia also remarkably up-regulated the expressions of ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78 and calreticulin) and critical molecules in ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway (CHOP, caspase 12, phospho-JNK). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia enhanced myocardial vulnerability/sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion injury involved in aggravation the ER stress and activation of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway and it gave us a new insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with hypercholesterolemia-induced exaggerated MIRI and also provided a novel target for preventing MIRI in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Valsartan protects HK-2 cells from contrast media-induced apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping-An; Wang, Le; Ma, Qian; Xin, Yi; Zhang, Ou; Han, Hong-Ya; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ji, Qing-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ying-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with increasing in-hospital and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Contrast media (CM)-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis is reported to participate in this process by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist can alleviate ER stress-induced renal apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and can reduce CM-induced renal apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and reversing the enhancement of bax mRNA and the reduction of bcl-2 mRNA, but the effect of the AT1R blocker on ER stress in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI is still unknown. In this study, we explored the effect of valsartan on meglumine diatrizoate-induced human renal tubular cell apoptosis by measuring changes in ER stress-related biomarkers. The results showed that meglumine diatrizoate caused significant cell apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of ER stress markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which could be alleviated by preincubation with valsartan. In conclusion, valsartan had a potential nephroprotective effect on meglumine diatrizoate-induced renal cell apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress.

  14. Elimination of endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiovascular, type 2 diabetic, and other metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Pauli V

    2013-03-01

    Multiple factors including unhealthy living habits influence the life-maintaining functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induce ER stress and metabolic abnormalities. The ER responds to the disturbances by activating mechanisms that increase the capacity to eliminate ER stress. This article elucidates the effects of ER activation that eliminates both ER stress and associated cardiovascular, type 2 diabetic (DM2), and other metabolic diseases. ER-activating compounds eliminate ER stress by lowering elevated cholesterol, regress atherosclerosis, decrease cardiovascular mortality, reduce blood glucose and insulin, and, together with the normalization of glucose-insulin homeostasis, remove insulin resistance, pancreatic β-cell failure, and DM2. A deficient cytochrome P450 activity in hepatic ER leads to cholesterol accumulation that induces stress and xanthoma formation, whereas P450-activating therapy up-regulates apolipoprotein AI and LDLR genes, down-regulates apolipoprotein B gene, and produces an antiatherogenic plasma lipoprotein profile. The ER activation reduces the stress also by eliminating hepatic fat and converting saturated fatty acids (FAs) to unsaturated FAs. Cognitive processes require gene expression modification, and preclinical studies indicate that ER-activating therapy improves cognition. Promotion of healthy lifestyle choices and indicated therapies are key factors in the prevention and elimination of ER stress and associated global health problems.

  15. Elimination of endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiovascular, type 2 diabetic, and other metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple factors including unhealthy living habits influence the life-maintaining functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induce ER stress and metabolic abnormalities. The ER responds to the disturbances by activating mechanisms that increase the capacity to eliminate ER stress. This article elucidates the effects of ER activation that eliminates both ER stress and associated cardiovascular, type 2 diabetic (DM2), and other metabolic diseases. ER-activating compounds eliminate ER stress by lowering elevated cholesterol, regress atherosclerosis, decrease cardiovascular mortality, reduce blood glucose and insulin, and, together with the normalization of glucose–insulin homeostasis, remove insulin resistance, pancreatic β-cell failure, and DM2. A deficient cytochrome P450 activity in hepatic ER leads to cholesterol accumulation that induces stress and xanthoma formation, whereas P450-activating therapy up-regulates apolipoprotein AI and LDLR genes, down-regulates apolipoprotein B gene, and produces an antiatherogenic plasma lipoprotein profile. The ER activation reduces the stress also by eliminating hepatic fat and converting saturated fatty acids (FAs) to unsaturated FAs. Cognitive processes require gene expression modification, and preclinical studies indicate that ER-activating therapy improves cognition. Promotion of healthy lifestyle choices and indicated therapies are key factors in the prevention and elimination of ER stress and associated global health problems. PMID:22928964

  16. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage. PMID:27305947

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 protects rat cardiomyocytes from endoplasmic reticulum stress by promoting the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pingping; Zhong, Lin; Gong, Lei; Wang, Jiahui; Zhu, Yujie; Liu, Weifeng; Yang, Jun

    2017-09-19

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), as an endocrine factor, is secreted into circulation by injured cardiomyocytes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis has been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism for cardiomyocyte injury. However, whether the enhanced expression of FGF21 in cardiomyocytes is linked to ER stress, and the effect and underlying mechanism of FGF21 on ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that mild ER stress resulted in upregulated expression levels of FGF21 and its main receptors, as a response to cell compensation, at the induction of ≤5 µM tunicamycin (TM). However, excessive ER stress (TM ≥10 µM) activated the ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathways, including PKR-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol-requiring kinase 1α (IRE1α)-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), as well as inhibited the expression of FGF21 and its primary receptors. In addition, FGF21 overexpression provided protection against ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury, as evidenced by increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. These changes were associated with the inhibition of ER stress-mediated apoptosis signaling pathways, as well as increased phosphorylation of FGFR1 and ERK1/2. However, the protective effects of overexpressed FGF21 were abolished following treatment with FGFR1 and ERK1/2 inhibitors. Thus, mild ER stress may induce the expression of FGF21 and its primary receptors in cardiomyocytes. FGF21 inhibits ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury as least in part via the FGFR1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  18. Inhibin beta E is upregulated by drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress as a transcriptional target gene of ATF4

    SciTech Connect

    Brüning, Ansgar Matsingou, Christina; Brem, German Johannes; Rahmeh, Martina; Mylonas, Ioannis

    2012-10-15

    Inhibins and activins are gonadal peptide hormones of the transforming growth factor-β super family with important functions in the reproductive system. By contrast, the recently identified inhibin βE subunit, primarily expressed in liver cells, appears to exert functions unrelated to the reproductive system. Previously shown downregulation of inhibin βE in hepatoma cells and anti-proliferative effects of ectopic inhibin βE overexpression indicated growth-regulatory effects of inhibin βE. We observed a selective re-expression of the inhibin βE subunit in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HeLa cervical cancer cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions induced by tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and nelfinavir. Analysis of XPB1 splicing and ATF4 activation revealed that inhibin βE re-expression was associated with induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress reaction by these drugs. Transfection of an ATF4 expression plasmid specifically induced inhibin βE expression in HeLa cells and indicates inhibin βE as a hitherto unidentified target gene of ATF4, a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Therefore, the inhibin βE subunit defines not only a new player but also a possible new marker for drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. -- Highlights: ► Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces inhibin beta E expression. ► Inhibin beta E is regulated by the transcription factor ATF4. ► Inhibin beta E expression can be used as a marker for drug-induced ER stress.

  19. MITOL regulates endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts via Mitofusin2.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumu; Nagashima, Shun; Tokuyama, Takeshi; Amo, Taku; Matsuki, Yohei; Ishido, Satoshi; Kudo, Yoshihisa; McBride, Heidi M; Fukuda, Toshifumi; Matsushita, Nobuko; Inatome, Ryoko; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2013-07-11

    The mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase MITOL regulates mitochondrial dynamics. We report here that MITOL regulates mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM) domain formation through mitofusin2 (Mfn2). MITOL interacts with and ubiquitinates mitochondrial Mfn2, but not ER-associated Mfn2. Mutation analysis identified a specific interaction between MITOL C-terminal domain and Mfn2 HR1 domain. MITOL mediated lysine-63-linked polyubiquitin chain addition to Mfn2, but not its proteasomal degradation. MITOL knockdown inhibited Mfn2 complex formation and caused Mfn2 mislocalization and MAM dysfunction. Sucrose-density gradient centrifugation and blue native PAGE retardation assay demonstrated that MITOL is required for GTP-dependent Mfn2 oligomerization. MITOL knockdown reduced Mfn2 GTP binding, resulting in reduced GTP hydrolysis. We identified K192 in the GTPase domain of Mfn2 as a major ubiquitination site for MITOL. A K192R mutation blocked oligomerization even in the presence of GTP. Taken together, these results suggested that MITOL regulates ER tethering to mitochondria by activating Mfn2 via K192 ubiquitination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in p53 null H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Chien-Chun; Lu, Te-Jung; Tseng, Chih-Hsiang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lee, Hong-Zin; Bao, Bo-Ying; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lu, Te-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in synthesizing secretory proteins and sensing signal function in eukaryotic cells. Responding to calcium disturbance, oxidation state change, or pharmacological agents, ER transmembrane protein, inositol-regulating enzyme 1 (IRE1), senses the stress and triggers downstream signals. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) dissociates from IRE1 to assist protein folding and guard against cell death. In prolonged ER stress, IRE1 recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as well as downstream JNK for cell death. Naphthoquinones are widespread natural phenolic compounds. Vitamin K3, a derivative of naphthoquinone, inhibits variant tumor cell growth via oxygen uptake and oxygen stress. We synthesized a novel naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 and evaluated capacity to induce ER stress in p53 null H1299 and p53 wild-type A549 cells. In H1299 cells, PPE8 induced ER enlargement, GRP78 expression, and transient IER1 activation. Activated IRE1 recruited ASK1 for downstream JNK phosphorylation. IRE1 knockdown by siRNA attenuated PPE8-induced JNK phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. Prolonged JNK phosphorylation may be involved in PPE8-induced cytotoxicity. Such results did not arise in A549 cells, but p53 knockdown by siRNA restored PPE8-induced GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. We offer a novel compound to induce ER stress and cytotoxicity in p53-deficient cancer cells, presenting an opportunity for treatment.

  1. Aberrant Neuronal Differentiation and Inhibition of Dendrite Outgrowth Resulting from Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Koichi; Iekumo, Takaaki; Saito, Ryo; Kaneko, Masayuki; Mimori, Seisuke; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Okuma, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) play an essential role in development of the central nervous system. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces neuronal death. After neuronal death, neurogenesis is generally enhanced to repair the damaged regions. However, it is unclear whether ER stress directly affects neurogenesis-related processes such as neuronal differentiation and dendrite outgrowth. We evaluated whether neuronal differentiation and dendrite outgrowth were regulated by HRD1, a ubiquitin ligase that was induced under mild conditions of tunicamycin-induced ER stress. Neurons were differentiated from mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells by using retinoic acid. The differentiated cells were cultured for 8 days with or without tunicamycin and HRD1 knockdown. The ER stressor led to markedly increased levels of ER stress. ER stress increased the expression levels of neuronal marker βIII-tubulin in 8-day-differentiated cells. However, the neurites of dendrite marker microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2)-positive cells appeared to retract in response to ER stress. Moreover, ER stress markedly reduced the dendrite length and MAP-2 expression levels, whereas it did not affect the number of surviving mature neurons. In contrast, HRD1 knockdown abolished the changes in expression of proteins such as βIII-tubulin and MAP-2. These results suggested that ER stress caused aberrant neuronal differentiation from NSCs followed by the inhibition of neurite outgrowth. These events may be mediated by increased HRD1 expression. PMID:24723324

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3′-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. PMID:26681690

  3. Novel targets for endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in B-CLL.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Emanuela; Sabatini, Rita; Rampino, Giuliana; De Falco, Filomena; Di Ianni, Mauro; Falzetti, Franca; Fettucciari, Katia; Bartoli, Andrea; Screpanti, Isabella; Marconi, Pierfrancesco

    2010-10-14

    A better understanding of apoptotic signaling in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may help to define new therapeutic strategies. This study investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling in spontaneous apoptosis of B-CLL cells and whether manipulating ER stress increases their apoptosis. Results show that a novel ER stress-triggered caspase cascade, initiated by caspase-4 and involving caspase-8 and -3, plays an important role in spontaneous B-CLL cell apoptosis. ER stress-induced apoptosis in B-CLL cells also involves CHOP/GADD153 up-regulation, increased JNK1/2 phosphorylation, and caspase-8-mediated cleavage of Bap31 to Bap20, known to propagate apoptotic signals from ER to mitochondria. In ex vivo B-CLL cells, some apoptotic events associated with mitochondrial pathway also occur, including mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9 processing. However, pharmacologic inhibition studies show that caspase-9 plays a minor role in B-CLL cell apoptosis. ER stress also triggers survival signals in B-CLL cells by increasing BiP/GRP78 expression. Manipulating ER signaling by siRNA down-regulation of BiP/GRP78 or treating B-CLL cells with 2 well-known ER stress-inducers, tunicamycin and thapsigargin, increases their apoptosis. Overall, our findings show that ER triggers an essential pathway for B-CLL cell apoptosis and suggest that genetic and pharmacologic manipulation of ER signaling could represent an important therapeutic strategy.

  4. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as one of the mechanisms for pathophysiology of various cardiometabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. ...

  5. Biodistribution of Viscumin after Subcutaneous Injection to Mice and In Vitro Modeling of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Maltseva, D V; Krainova, N A; Khaustova, N A; Nikulin, S V; Tonevitskaya, S A; Poloznikov, A A

    2017-08-01

    Viscumin (mistletoe lectin I, MLI) in concentrations of 10(-11)-10(-7) M causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and triggers unfolded protein response, a modulator of antitumor immunity, in target cells.

  6. Moderate endoplasmic reticulum stress activates a PERK and p38-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Emily C; Osborn, Acadia R; Scott, Jessica E; Scholl, Amanda G; Mercado, Vicki; McMahan, Young T; Coffman, Zachary G; Brewster, Jay L

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has the ability to signal organelle dysfunction via a complex signaling network known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this work, hamster fibroblast cells exhibiting moderate levels of ER stress were compared to those exhibiting severe ER stress. Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation was accomplished via a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Dad1 subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex or by direct inhibition with tunicamycin (Tm). Temperature shift (TS) treatment generated weak activation of ER stress signaling when compared to doses of Tm that are typically used in ER stress studies (500-1000 nM). A dose-response analysis of key ER stress signaling mediators, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), revealed 20-40 nM of Tm to generate activation intensity similar to TS treatment. In parental BHK21 cells, moderate (20-40 nM) and high doses (200-1000 nM) of Tm were compared to identify physiological and signaling-based differences in stress response. Inhibition of ER Ca(2+) release via ITPR activity with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or Xestospongin C (XeC) was sufficient to protect against apoptosis induced by moderate but not higher doses of Tm. Analysis of kinase activation over a range of Tm exposures revealed the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) to display increasing activation with Tm dosage. Interestingly, Tm induced the extracellular regulated kinases (Erk1/2) only at moderate doses of Tm. Inhibition of ER transmembrane stress sensors (IRE1, PERK) or cytosolic signaling mediators (p38, Jnk1, Erk1/2) was used to evaluate pathways involved in apoptosis activation during ER stress. Inhibition of either PERK or p38 was sufficient to reduce cell death and apoptosis induced by moderate, but not high, doses of Tm. During ER stress, cells exhibited a rapid decline in anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and survivin proteins. Inhibition of

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress PERK-ATF4-CHOP Pathway Is Associated with Hypothalamic Neuronal Injury in Different Durations of Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shanyong; Shi, Weibo; Wang, He; Ma, Chunling; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Songjun; Cong, Bin; Li, Yingmin

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus, which is the initial part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, plays a critical role in regulating stress in the central nervous system. The present study aimed to determine whether endoplasmic reticulum stress in hypothalamic neurons is differentially stimulated by varying durations of stress exposure, which ultimately leads to pathological changes in neurons by affecting HPA axis function. There is a need for better morphological evidence of the mechanisms involved in stress-induced neuron injury. A stress model was established in rats by restraining for 8 h and forced ice-water swimming for 5 min each day. The stress-inducing process lasted for 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay serum glucocorticoid levels. Thionine staining was used to observe morphological changes in hypothalamic neurons. Immunohistochemistry and microscopy-based multicolor tissue cytometry (MMTC) was used to detect changes in expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress protein GRP78, ATF4, and CHOP. Serum glucocorticoid levels significantly increased after 3 days of stress exposure and the levels peaked by 7 days. By 21 days, however, the levels were significantly decreased. Thionine staining revealed that prolonged stress exposure resulted in hypothalamic neurons with edema, a lack of Nissl bodies, and pyknotic neurons. Immunohistochemistry and MMTC showed that increasing stress periods significantly decreased GRP78 expression, although ATF4 and CHOP protein expression significantly increased. Stress resulted in pathological changes and significant dynamic changes because of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hypothalamic neurons. These results suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum stress PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway may be associated with hypothalamic neuronal injury. PMID:28392758

  8. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in M1-polarized macrophages during mycobacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Ji; Yi, Min-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Junghwan; Han, Ji-Ye; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Dong Woon; Kang, Min-Woong; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of macrophage function has an important regulatory impact on the survival of intracellular mycobacteria. We found that macrophages infected with attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Ra had elevated expression of M1-related molecules, whereas the M2 phenotype was dominant in macrophages infected with virulent Mtb H37Rv. Further, the TLR signalling pathway played an important role in modulating macrophage polarization against Mtb infection. Interestingly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was significantly increased in M1 polarized macrophages and these macrophages effectively removed intracellular Mtb, indicating that ER stress may be an important component of the host immune response to Mtb in M1 macrophages. This improved understanding of the mechanisms that regulate macrophage polarization could provide new therapeutic strategies for tuberculosis. PMID:27845414

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-04-08

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  10. Ultraviolet a induces endoplasmic reticulum stress response in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Komori, Ryota; Taniguchi, Mai; Ichikawa, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Aya; Oku, Masaya; Wakabayashi, Sadao; Higuchi, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hiderou

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cytoprotective mechanism against the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER (ER stress) that consists of three response pathways (the ATF6, IRE1 and PERK pathways) in mammals. These pathways regulate the transcription of ER-related genes through specific cis-acting elements, ERSE, UPRE and AARE, respectively. Because the mammalian ER stress response is markedly activated in professional secretory cells, its main function was thought to be to upregulate the capacity of protein folding in the ER in accordance with the increased synthesis of secretory proteins. Here, we found that ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induced the conversion of an ER-localized sensor pATF6α(P) to an active transcription factor pATF6α(N) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). UVA also induced IRE1-mediated splicing of XBP1 mRNA as well as PERK-mediated phosphorylation of an α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Consistent with these observations, we found that UVA increased transcription from ERSE, UPRE and AARE elements. From these results, we concluded that UVA irradiation activates all branches of the mammalian ER stress response in NHDFs. This suggests that the mammalian ER stress response is activated by not only intrinsic stress but also environmental stress.

  11. Visualization of endoplasmic reticulum stressed cells for forward genetic studies in plants.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shimpei; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-05-15

    In eukaryotes, various cellular events are attended by a risk of triggering stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Such risks are assumed to be minimized by sophisticated regulation systems, but the nature of these systems remains largely unknown in plants. Here, transgenic Arabidopsis plants, intended for use in forward genetic studies of plant ER stress, are described. AtBiP3 promoter activity clearly reflected the effects of inducers of ER stress, such as tunicamycin, dithiothreitol, and salicylic acid. Thus transgenic plants, containing the AtBiP3 promoter coupled to a fluorescent protein-encoding gene, were generated to enable visual detection of cells experiencing ER stress in living plants. Mutagenization of these transgenic plants produced seedlings which exhibited altered fluorescence patterns. Constitutive fluorescence was observed in a number of independent lines, suggesting the plant genome includes many genes whose mutation results in ER stress. Some mutants showed strong fluorescence with different tissue specificity, implying potential ER stresses in individual cellular events. These results indicate that forward genetic approaches will provide useful information in the understanding of ER stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  13. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Folch-Puy, Emma; Panisello, Arnau; Oliva, Joan; Lopez, Alexandre; Castro Benítez, Carlos; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes. PMID:27231901

  14. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in light-induced photoreceptor degeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Tomohiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Sugitani, Sou; Kudo, Takashi; Imai, Shunsuke; Inokuchi, Yuta; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to excessive levels of light induces photoreceptor apoptosis and can be a causative factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, the cellular events that mediate this apoptotic response are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in light-induced cell death in the murine retina and murine photoreceptor cells (661W). Excessive light exposure induced retinal dysfunction, photoreceptor degeneration, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and the transcriptional expression of ER stress-related factors, including 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78)/immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), were increased in light-exposed retinas. Light exposure also induced both cell death and up-regulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, S-opsin aggregation, bip and chop mRNAs in 661W cells in vitro. Knock-down of chop mRNA inhibited photoreceptor cell death induced by light exposure. Furthermore, treatment with BiP inducer X (BIX), an ER stress inhibitor, induced bip mRNA and reduced both chop expression and light-induced photoreceptor cell death. These data indicate that excessive ER stress may induce photoreceptor cell death in light-exposed retinas via activation of the CHOP-dependent apoptotic pathway, suggesting that the ER stress may play a pivotal role in light exposure-induced retinal damage. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Controls M2 Macrophage Differentiation and Foam Cell Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisu; Riek, Amy E.; Weng, Sherry; Petty, Marvin; Kim, David; Colonna, Marco; Cella, Marina; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are essential in atherosclerosis progression, but regulation of the M1 versus M2 phenotype and their role in cholesterol deposition are unclear. We demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key regulator of macrophage differentiation and cholesterol deposition. Macrophages from diabetic patients were classically or alternatively stimulated and then exposed to oxidized LDL. Alternative stimulation into M2 macrophages lead to increased foam cell formation by inducing scavenger receptor CD36 and SR-A1 expression. ER stress induced by alternative stimulation was necessary to generate the M2 phenotype through JNK activation and increased PPARγ expression. The absence of CD36 or SR-A1 signaling independently of modified cholesterol uptake decreased ER stress and prevented the M2 differentiation typically induced by alternative stimulation. Moreover, suppression of ER stress shifted differentiated M2 macrophages toward an M1 phenotype and subsequently suppressed foam cell formation by increasing HDL- and apoA-1-induced cholesterol efflux indicating suppression of macrophage ER stress as a potential therapy for atherosclerosis. PMID:22356914

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces PRNP prion protein gene expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction High prion protein (PrP) levels are associated with breast, colon and gastric cancer resistance to treatment and with a poor prognosis for the patients. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism(s) regulating human PrP gene (PRNP) expression in cancers. Because endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with solid tumors, we investigated a possible regulation of PRNP gene expression by ER stress. Methods Published microarray databases of breast cancer tissues and breast carcinoma cell lines were analyzed for PrP mRNA and ER stress marker immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) levels. Breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA) were immunostained for BiP and PrP. Breast carcinoma MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HS578T and HCC1500 cells were treated with three different ER stressors - Brefeldin A, Tunicamycin, Thapsigargin - and levels of PrP mRNA or protein assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. A human PRNP promoter-luciferase reporter was used to assess transcriptional activation by ER stressors. Site-directed mutagenesis identified the ER stress response elements (ERSE). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses were done to identify the ER stress-mediated transcriptional regulators. The role of cleaved activating transcription factor 6α (ΔATF6α) and spliced X-box protein-1 (sXBP1) in PRNP gene expression was assessed with over-expression or silencing techniques. The role of PrP protection against ER stress was assessed with PrP siRNA and by using Prnp null cell lines. Results We find that mRNA levels of BiP correlated with PrP transcript levels in breast cancer tissues and breast carcinoma cell lines. PrP mRNA levels were enriched in the basal subtype and were associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Higher PrP and BiP levels correlated with increasing tumor grade in TMA. ER stress was a positive regulator of PRNP gene transcription in MCF-7 cells and luciferase reporter assays identified one ER

  17. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum turnover by selective autophagy.

    PubMed

    Khaminets, Aliaksandr; Heinrich, Theresa; Mari, Muriel; Grumati, Paolo; Huebner, Antje K; Akutsu, Masato; Liebmann, Lutz; Stolz, Alexandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koch, Nicole; Mauthe, Mario; Katona, Istvan; Qualmann, Britta; Weis, Joachim; Reggiori, Fulvio; Kurth, Ingo; Hübner, Christian A; Dikic, Ivan

    2015-06-18

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular endomembrane system, enabling protein and lipid synthesis, ion homeostasis, quality control of newly synthesized proteins and organelle communication. Constant ER turnover and modulation is needed to meet different cellular requirements and autophagy has an important role in this process. However, its underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unexplained. Here we show that members of the FAM134 reticulon protein family are ER-resident receptors that bind to autophagy modifiers LC3 and GABARAP, and facilitate ER degradation by autophagy ('ER-phagy'). Downregulation of FAM134B protein in human cells causes an expansion of the ER, while FAM134B overexpression results in ER fragmentation and lysosomal degradation. Mutant FAM134B proteins that cause sensory neuropathy in humans are unable to act as ER-phagy receptors. Consistently, disruption of Fam134b in mice causes expansion of the ER, inhibits ER turnover, sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptotic cell death and leads to degeneration of sensory neurons. Therefore, selective ER-phagy via FAM134 proteins is indispensable for mammalian cell homeostasis and controls ER morphology and turnover in mice and humans.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress signal impairs erythropoietin production: a role for ATF4.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Kang; Nangaku, Masaomi; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Iwawaki, Takao; Inagi, Reiko

    2013-02-15

    Hypoxia upregulates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signal, unfolded protein response (UPR). The cross talk of both signals affects the pathogenic alteration by hypoxia. Here we showed that ER stress induced by tunicamycin or thapsigargin suppressed inducible (CoCl(2) or hypoxia) transcription of erythropoietin (EPO), a representative HIF target gene, in HepG2. This suppression was inversely correlated with UPR activation, as estimated by expression of the UPR regulator glucose-regulated protein 78, and restored by an ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal, in association with normalization of the UPR state. Importantly, the decreased EPO expression was also observed in HepG2 overexpressing UPR activating transcription factor (ATF)4. Overexpression of mutated ATF4 that lacks the transcriptional activity did not alter EPO transcriptional regulation. Transcriptional activity of the EPO 3'-enhancer, which is mainly regulated by HIF, was abolished by both ER stressors and ATF4 overexpression, while nuclear HIF accumulation or expression of other HIF target genes was not suppressed by ER stress. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis identified a novel ATF4 binding site (TGACCTCT) within the EPO 3'-enhancer region, suggesting a distinct role for ATF4 in UPR-dependent suppression of the enhancer. Induction of ER stress in rat liver and kidney by tunicamycin decreased the hepatic and renal mRNA and plasma level of EPO. Collectively, ER stress selectively impairs the transcriptional activity of EPO but not of other HIF target genes. This effect is mediated by suppression of EPO 3'-enhancer activity via ATF4 without any direct effect on HIF, indicating that UPR contributes to oxygen-sensing regulation of EPO.

  19. Asymmetric dimethylarginine downregulates sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium‑ATPase 3 and induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weikang; Diao, Zongli; Liu, Wenhu

    2017-09-19

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Endothelial cell injury and apoptosis may promote atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the potential mechanisms of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)‑induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). It was demonstrated that ADMA decreased B‑cell lymphoma‑2 expression and increased cleaved‑caspase‑3 expression. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)‑mediated‑digoxigenin‑11‑dUTP nick end labeling results indicated that ADMA induced apoptosis in HUVECs. These results suggest a potential mechanism of ADMA‑induced endothelial cell injury. It was also verified that ADMA induced the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase RNA‑like ER kinase, inositol requiring enzyme‑1, C/EBP homologous protein and glucose‑regulated protein, indicating activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Impaired function of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium‑ATPase (SERCA) is considered a major contributor to ER stress. It was demonstrated that ADMA induced a significant downregulation of SERCA3, however not SERCA2b. Overall, the results indicated that ADMA induced apoptosis in HUVECs, and that this effect was closely associated with induction of ER stress and decreased SERCA3 expression.

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Unfolded Protein Responses in Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sarah X.; Sanders, Emily; Fliesler, Steven J.; Wang, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary intracellular organelle responsible for protein and lipid biosynthesis, protein folding and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, and several other vital processes in cell physiology. Disturbance in ER function results in ER stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR up-regulates ER chaperones, reduces protein translation, and promotes clearance of cytotoxic misfolded proteins to restore ER homeostasis. If this vital process fails, the cell will be signaled to enter apoptosis, resulting in cell death. Sustained ER stress also can trigger an inflammatory response and exacerbate oxidative stress, both of which contribute synergistically to tissue damage. Studies performed over the past decade have implicated ER stress in a broad range of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, and vascular disorders. Several of these diseases also entail retinal dysfunction and degeneration caused by injury to retinal neurons and/or to the blood vessels that supply retinal cells with nutrients, trophic and homeostatic factors, oxygen, and other essential molecules, as well as serving as a conduit for removal of waste products and potentially toxic substances from the retina. Collectively, such injuries represent the leading cause of blindness world-wide in all age groups. Herein, we summarize recent progress on the study of ER stress and UPR signaling in retinal biology and discuss the molecular mechanisms and the potential clinical applications of targeting ER stress as a new therapeutic approach to prevent and treat neuronal degeneration in the retina. PMID:24792589

  1. Selenium acts as an insulin-like molecule for the down-regulation of diabetic symptoms via endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin signalling proteins in diabetes-induced non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daeyoun; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Yongkyu; Kim, Chuelkyu; Shim, Sunbo; Jee, Seungwan; Lee, Suhae; Jang, Mikyong; Kim, Minsun; Yim, Suyoun; Lee, Sang-Koo; Kang, Byeongcheol; Jang, Insurk; Cho, Jungsik

    2007-06-01

    To investigate whether selenium (Sel) treatment would impact on the onset of diabetes,we examined serum biochemical components including glucose and insulin,endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin signalling proteins, hepatic C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and DNA fragmentation in diabetic and non- diabetic conditions of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We conclude that (i) Sel treatment induced insulin-like effects in lowering serum glucose level in Sel-treated NOD mice, (ii) Sel-treated mice had significantly decreased serum biochemical components associated with liver damage and lipid metabolism, (iii) Sel treatment led to the activation of the ER stress signal through the phosphorylation of JNK and eIF2 protein and insulin signal mechanisms through the phosphorylation of Akt and PI3 kinase, and (iv) Sel-treated mice were significantly relieved apoptosis of liver tissues indicated by DNA fragmentation assay in the diabetic NOD group. These results suggest that Sel compounds not only serve as insulin-like molecules for the downregulation of glucose level and the incidence of liver damage, but may also have the potential for the development of new drugs for the relief of diabetes by activating the ER stress and insulin signalling pathways.

  2. Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses nuclear factor-Y expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Yin; Feng, Peiqun; Su, Zhiguang

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. NF-Y plays crucial roles in pre-adipocyte maintenance and/or commitment to adipogenesis. NF-YA dysfunction in adipocyte resulted in an age-dependent progressive loss of adipose tissue associated with metabolic complications. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not known if NF-YA is involved in the ER stress-mediated pathogenesis of obesity. We first examined the effects of ER stress on the NF-YA expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes; then in ob/ob genetic obesity mice, we tested the effect of chemical chaperones alleviating ER stress on the expression levels of NF-YA. Subsequently, we inhibited the new mRNA synthesis using actinomycin D in 3T3-L1 cells to explore the mechanism modulating NF-YA expression. Finally, we evaluated the involvement of PPARg in the regulation of NF-YA expression by ER stress. We demonstrated that both obesity- and chemical chaperone -induced ER stress suppressed NF-YA expression and alleviation of ER stress by chemical chaperone could recover NF-YA expression in ob/ob mice. Moreover, we showed that ER stress suppressed NF-YA mRNA transcription through the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg). Activation of PPARg ameliorates the ER stress-induced NF-YA suppression. Our findings may point to a possible role of NF-YA in stress conditions that occur in chronic obesity, ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through NF-YA depletion.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition reduces hypertension through the preservation of resistance blood vessel structure and function.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Rachel E; Werner, Kaitlyn E; Yum, Victoria; Lu, Chao; Tat, Victor; Memon, Muzammil; No, Yejin; Ask, Kjetil; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension by correcting vascular dysfunction. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was used as a model of human essential hypertension with its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto rat. Animals were subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; 1 g/kg per day, orally) for 5 weeks from 12 weeks of age. BP was measured weekly noninvasively and at endpoint with carotid arterial cannulation. Small mesenteric arteries were removed for vascular studies. Function was assessed with a Mulvany-Halpern style myograph, and structure was assessed by measurement of medial-to-lumen ratio in perfusion fixed vessels as well as three-dimensional confocal reconstruction of vessel wall components. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was assessed by quantitative real time-PCR and western blotting; oxidative stress was assessed by 3-nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining. 4-PBA significantly lowered BP in SHR (vehicle 206.1 ± 4.3 vs. 4-PBA 178.9 ± 3.1, systolic) but not Wistar Kyoto. 4-PBA diminished contractility and augmented endothelial-dependent vasodilation in SHR small mesenteric arteries, as well as reducing media-to-lumen ratio. 4-PBA significantly reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress in SHR resistance vessels. Normotensive resistance vessels, treated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agent, tunicamycin, show decreased endothelial-dependent vasodilation; this was improved with 4-PBA treatment. 3-Nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium staining indicated that endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to reactive oxygen species generation resolvable by 4-PBA treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused endothelial-mediated vascular dysfunction contributing to elevated BP in the SHR model of human essential hypertension.

  4. Physiological functions of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer OASIS in central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells can adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction by producing diverse signals from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus. These signaling pathways are collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The canonical branches of the UPR are mediated by three ER membrane-bound proteins: double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). These ER stress transducers basically play important roles in cell survival after ER stress. Recently, novel types of ER stress transducers that share a region of high sequence similarity with ATF6 have been identified. They have a transmembrane domain, which allows them to associate with the ER, and possess a transcription-activation domain and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. These membrane-bound bZIP transcription factors include OASIS, BBF2H7 CREBH, CREB4 and Luman, and are collectively referred to as OASIS family members. Despite their structural similarities with ATF6, differences in activating stimuli and tissue distribution indicate specialized functions of each member on regulating UPR signaling in specific organs and tissues. One of them, OASIS, is expressed preferentially in astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). OASIS temporally regulates the differentiation from neural precursor cells into astrocytes to promote the expression of Glial Cell Missing 1 through dynamic interactions among OASIS family members followed by accelerating demethylation of the Gfap promoter. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the physiological functions of OASIS in the CNS.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Key Role in Rotenone-Induced Apoptotic Death of Neurons.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Gupta, Sonam; Biswas, Joyshree; Joshi, Neeraj; Swarnkar, Supriya; Nath, Chandishwar; Singh, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    Rotenone, a pesticide, causes neurotoxicity via the mitochondrial complex-I inhibition. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rotenone-induced neuronal death. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitrite level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA damage were assessed in rotenone-treated neuro-2A cells. Protein levels of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), and phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit α (eIF2-α) were estimated to assess the ER stress. To confirm the apoptotic death of neurons, mRNA levels of caspase-9, caspase-12 and caspase-3 were estimated. Further, to confirm the involvement of ER stress, neuro-2A cells were pretreated with ER stress inhibitor salubrinal. Co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin was also given to assess the role of oxidative stress in rotenone-induced apoptosis. Rotenone (0.1, 0.5, and 1 μM) treatment to neurons caused significantly decreased cell viability, increased cytotoxicity, increased ROS generation, increased expression of GRP78 and GADD, DNA damage and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3 which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment of salubrinal (25 μM). Rotenone-induced dephosphorylation of eIF2α was also inhibited with salubrinal treatment. However, pretreatment of salubrinal did not affect the rotenone-induced increased nitrite levels, decreased MMP and caspase-9 activation. Co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin (1 mM) did not offer attenuation against rotenone-induced increased expression of caspase-9, caspase-12 and caspase-3. In conclusion, results indicated that ER stress plays a key role in rotenone-induced neuronal death, rather than oxidative stress. Graphical Abstract Pictorial presentation showed the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidin protects liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-Chao; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Yue; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2015-06-28

    To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were divided into three groups, namely, sham, IR, and GSP groups (n = 8 each). A liver IR (70%) model was established and reperfused for 6 h. Prior to reperfusion, the GSP group was administered with GSP (100 mg/kg) for 15 d, and liver histology was then investigated. Serum aminotransferase and inflammatory mediators coupled with superoxide dismutase and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde were detected. Western blot was conducted to analyze the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining. The serum aminotransferase, apoptotic cells, and Suzuki scores decreased in the GSP group compared with the IR group (Ps < 0.05). The methane dicarboxylic aldehyde level was decreased in the GSP group, but the superoxide dismutase level was reversed (Ps < 0.05). Similarly, GSP downregulated the proinflammatory factors and upregulated the levels of anti-inflammatory factors (Ps < 0.05). Western blot data showed that GSP increased glucose-regulated protein 78 expression and suppressed expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb compared with the IR group. GSP possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects by relieving endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of related signaling pathways to protect the liver against IR injury.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidin protects liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen-Chao; Yin, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Yue; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were divided into three groups, namely, sham, IR, and GSP groups (n = 8 each). A liver IR (70%) model was established and reperfused for 6 h. Prior to reperfusion, the GSP group was administered with GSP (100 mg/kg) for 15 d, and liver histology was then investigated. Serum aminotransferase and inflammatory mediators coupled with superoxide dismutase and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde were detected. Western blot was conducted to analyze the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining. RESULTS: The serum aminotransferase, apoptotic cells, and Suzuki scores decreased in the GSP group compared with the IR group (Ps < 0.05). The methane dicarboxylic aldehyde level was decreased in the GSP group, but the superoxide dismutase level was reversed (Ps < 0.05). Similarly, GSP downregulated the proinflammatory factors and upregulated the levels of anti-inflammatory factors (Ps < 0.05). Western blot data showed that GSP increased glucose-regulated protein 78 expression and suppressed expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, activating transcription factor-4, inositol-requiring enzyme-1, procaspase-12, and nuclear factor-κb compared with the IR group. CONCLUSION: GSP possesses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects by relieving endoplasmic reticulum stress through regulation of related signaling pathways to protect the liver against IR injury. PMID:26139992

  8. Diet-induced obesity induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the amygdala of rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gisele; C. Areias, Maria Fernanda; Weissmann, Lais; Quaresma, Paula G.F.; Katashima, Carlos K.; Saad, Mario J.A.; Prada, Patricia O.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin acts in the hypothalamus, decreasing food intake (FI) by the IR/PI3K/Akt pathway. This pathway is impaired in obese animals and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and low-grade inflammation are possible mechanisms involved in this impairment. Here, we highlighted the amygdala as an important brain region for FI regulation in response to insulin. This regulation was dependent on PI3K/AKT pathway similar to the hypothalamus. Insulin was able to decrease neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increase oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala via PI3K, which may contribute to hypophagia. Additionally, obese rats did not reduce FI in response to insulin and AKT phosphorylation was decreased in the amygdala, suggesting insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was associated with ER stress and low-grade inflammation in this brain region. The inhibition of ER stress with PBA reverses insulin action/signaling, decreases NPY and increases oxytocin mRNA levels in the amygdala from obese rats, suggesting that ER stress is probably one of the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance in the amygdala. PMID:24251109

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Heat- and Shake-Induced Injury in the Rat Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Peng; Xu, Jianqin; He, Shasha; Liu, Fenghua; Yin, Jie; Wan, Changrong; mei, Chen; Yin, Yulong; Xu, Xiaolong; Xia, Zhaofei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying damage to rat small intestine in heat- and shake-induced stress. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a 3-day stressed group treated 2 h daily for 3 days on a rotary platform at 35°C and 60 r/min. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained paraffin sections of the jejunum following stress revealed shedding of the villus tip epithelial cells and lamina propria exposure. Apoptosis increased at the villus tip and extended to the basement membrane. Photomicrographs revealed that the microvilli were shorter and sparser; the nuclear envelope invaginated and gaps in the karyolemma increased; and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelled significantly. Gene microarray analysis assessed 93 differentially expressed genes associated with apoptosis, ER stress, and autophagy. Relevant genes were compiled from the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Forty-one genes were involved in the regulation of apoptosis, fifteen were related to autophagy, and eleven responded to ER stress. According to KEGG, the apoptosis pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and regulation of autophagy were involved. Caspase3 (Casp3), caspase12 (Casp12), and microtubule-associate proteins 1 light chain 3(LC3) increased significantly at the villus tip while mTOR decreased; phosphorylated-AKT (P-AKT) decreased. ER stress was involved and induced autophagy and apoptosis in rat intestinal damage following heat and shake stress. Bioinformatic analysis will help determine the underlying mechanisms in stress-induced damage in the small intestine. PMID:26636675

  10. Dietary Zinc Regulates Apoptosis through the Phosphorylated Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α/Activating Transcription Factor-4/C/EBP-Homologous Protein Pathway during Pharmacologically Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Livers of Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Aydemir, Tolunay B; Cousins, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Several in vitro studies have shown that zinc deficiency could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response. We aimed to determine whether consumption of a zinc-deficient diet (ZnD) triggers ER stress and to understand the impact of dietary zinc intake on ER stress-induced apoptosis using a mouse model. Young adult (8-16 wk of age) male mice of strain C57BL/6 were fed either a ZnD (<1 mg/kg diet), or a zinc-adequate diet (ZnA; 30 mg/kg diet). After 2 wk, liver, pancreas, and serum samples were collected and analyzed for indexes of ER stress. In another experiment, mice were fed either a ZnD, a ZnA, or a zinc-supplementation diet (ZnS; 180 mg/kg diet). After 2 wk, vehicle or tunicamycin (TM; 2 mg/kg body weight) was administered to mice to model ER stress. Liver and serum were analyzed for indexes of ER stress to evaluate the effects of zinc status. Mice fed a ZnD did not activate the apoptotic and ER stress markers in the liver or pancreas. During the TM challenge, mice fed a ZnD showed greater C/EBP-homologous protein expression in the liver (3.8-fold, P < 0.01) than did ZnA-fed mice. TM-treated mice fed a ZnD also had greater terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells in the liver (2.2-fold, P < 0.05), greater hepatic triglyceride accumulation (1.5-fold, P < 0.05), greater serum alanine aminotransferase activity (1.6-fold, P < 0.05), and greater protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity (1.5-fold, P < 0.05), respectively, than did those fed a ZnA. No significant differences were observed in these parameters between mice fed ZnAs and ZnSs. Consumption of a ZnD per se is not a critical factor for induction of ER stress in mice; however, once ER stress is triggered, adequate dietary zinc intake is required for suppressing apoptotic cell death and further insults in the liver of mice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward each induce endoplasmic reticulum stress genes in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, A A; Boehning, D; Li, D; Zhang, Y; Fan, X; Green, T A

    2013-08-29

    Our prior research has shown that the transcription of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transcription factors activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and ATF4 are induced by amphetamine and restraint stress in rat striatum. However, presently the full extent of ER stress responses to psychological stress or cocaine, and which of the three ER stress pathways is activated is unknown. The current study examines transcriptional responses of key ER stress target genes subsequent to psychological stress or cocaine. Rats were subjected to acute or repeated restraint stress or cocaine treatment and mRNA was isolated from dorsal striatum, medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens brain tissue. ER stress gene mRNA expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RNA sequencing. Restraint stress and cocaine-induced transcription of the classic ER stress-induced genes (BIP, CHOP, ATF3 and GADD34) and of two other ER stress components x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and ATF6. In addition, rats living in an enriched environment (large group cage with novel toys changed daily) exhibited rapid induction of GADD34 and ATF3 after 30 min of exploring novel toys, suggesting these genes are also involved in normal non-pathological signaling. However, environmental enrichment, a paradigm that produces protective addiction and depression phenotypes in rats, attenuated the rapid induction of ATF3 and GADD34 after restraint stress. These experiments provide a sensitive measure of ER stress and, more importantly, these results offer good evidence of the activation of ER stress mechanisms from psychological stress, cocaine and natural reward. Thus, ER stress genes may be targets for novel therapeutic targets for depression and addiction. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The protective effect of the earthworm active ingredients on hepatocellular injury induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Duan, Leng-Xin; Xu, Zheng-Shun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Xi, Shou-Min

    2016-08-01

    The earthworm is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. There are more than 40 prescriptions including earthworms in the "Compendium of Materia Medica". TCM theory holds that earthworms exert antispasmodic and antipyretic effects through the liver meridian to calm the liver. However, the clinical effect of earthworms on liver injury has not been clearly demonstrated. We have previously established a method to extract the active ingredients from earthworms (hereinafter referred to as EWAs) [1]. In the present study, we observed protective effect of the EWAs on tunicamycin-induced ERS (endoplasmic reticulum stress) model in human hepatic L02 cells. The results showed that the EWAs promote proliferation and reduced apoptosis of ERS model in L02 cells (P<0.01). The up-regulation of ERS-related proteins, including PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase), eIF2a (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a), ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein), in L02 cell under ERS was inhibited by treatment of the EWAs (P<0.01). In summary, our data suggest the EWAs can significant attenuate ERS-induced hepatocyte injury via PERK-eIF2a-ATF4 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein Folding and Misfolding, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases: in Trace of Novel Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Penke, Botond; Bogár, Ferenc; Fülöp, Lívia

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by severe cognitive impairment and memory loss. AD is classified both into the "protein conformational" and the "endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria stress" disorders. AD is a very complex, multifactorial disease of heterogeneous genetic and environmental background. The amyloid hypothesis of AD cannot fully explain the various clinical forms of the disease. Protein folding and misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and accumulation of several misfolded proteins (β-amyloid, Tau, alpha-synuclein, etc.) in ER and mitochondria (MT) may play a key role in the development of AD. Functional degradation of the synapse and the synapse holding neurites represents the first step in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. MT and ER are tightly coupled both physically and functionally with a special lipid raft called mitochondria-associated ER-membrane (MAM). MAM is crucial for Ca(2+) signalling and metabolic regulation of the cell. In turn, the impairment of ER-MT interplay is a common mechanism of different neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss recent findings focusing on the protein conformational and metabolic dysfunction, and the role of MAM and ER-MT crosstalk in neurodegeneration.

  14. Honokiol abrogates chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour by blocking endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Dwivedi, Shubham; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Kwatra, Mohit; Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Baruah, Chandana C; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-01-05

    The primary objective of our study is to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of honokiol and imipramine against restraint stress (RS)-induced cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour in mice. We examined whether the neuroprotective activity of honokiol and imipramine mediates through the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Adult Swiss albino mice were restrained for 6h/day for 28 days. Honokiol (3 and 10mg/kg) and Imipramine (10 and 30mg/kg) were administered for last 7 days to the different groups. Cognitive function was assessed by Morris water maze and novel object recognition test. Forced swimming test and tail suspension test were performed to evaluate the restraint stress-induced depressive-like behaviour. Proinflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and ER stress markers i.e. 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were quantified in the hippocampus. We observed cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour in RS-exposed animals. Honokiol (10mg/kg) treated group depicted marked reduction in cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour. However, imipramine (10 and 30mg/kg) prevented the depressive-like behaviour but failed to prevent RS-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines, GRP78 and CHOP were elevated in the hippocampus of stressed mice as compared to unstressed mice. Honokiol (10mg/kg) significantly prevented the RS-induced elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. Our results clearly suggest the beneficial potential of honokiol in restraint stress through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Honokiol could be an intriguing therapeutic approach in endoplasmic reticulum stress related neuro-pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Schisandra chinensis extract ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Nam, Jeong Soo; Kim, Ji Ha; Yun, Ye-Rang; Han, Chang Woo; Kim, Byung Joo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Ha, Ki-Tae; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2016-06-05

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SC) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with diverse pharmacological activities for treatment of various human diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of Schisandra chinensis (SC extract) against ER stress-induced NAFLD in vitro and in vivo. The protective effects of SC extract were examined in tunicamycin- or palmitate-treated HepG2 cells in vitro, and in tunicamycin-injected mice or high fed diet (HFD) obese mice in vivo. Expression of ER stress markers including glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homolog protein (CHOP), and X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), and triglyceride accumulation were measured in HepG2 cells and in the liver of mice. SC extract significantly inhibited expression of tunicamycin-induced ER stress markers in tunicamycin-treated HepG2 cells and in the liver of tunicamycin-injected mice, and it also inhibited tunicamycin-induced triglyceride accumulation. Similar observations were made under physiological ER stress conditions such as in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells and in the liver of HFD obese mice. In addition, SC extract repressed the expression of inflammatory genes and lipogenic genes in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. Schisandrin, an abundant bioactive lignan in SC extract, inhibited the expression of ER stress markers in tunicamycin-or palmitate-treated HepG2 cells, whereas Gomisin J did not affect ER stress markers. SC attenuates ER stress and prevents development of NAFLD. SC may be useful as a pharmacological agent for protection against ER stress-induced human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress response to lipotoxicity in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lake, April D; Novak, Petr; Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Flores-Keown, Brieanna; Zhao, Fei; Klimecki, Walter T; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may progress from simple steatosis to severe, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 7%-14% of the U.S. population through a second "hit" in the form of increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are triggered when high levels of lipids and misfolded proteins alter ER homeostasis creating a lipotoxic environment within NAFLD livers. The objective of this study was to determine the coordinate regulation of ER stress-associated genes in the progressive stages of human NAFLD. Human liver samples categorized as normal, steatosis, NASH (Fatty), and NASH (Not Fatty) were analyzed by individual Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0 ST microarrays, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. A gene set enrichment analysis was performed on autophagy, apoptosis, lipogenesis, and ER stress/UPR gene categories. An enrichment of downregulated genes in the ER stress-associated lipogenesis and ER stress/UPR gene categories was observed in NASH. Conversely, an enrichment of upregulated ER stress-associated genes for autophagy and apoptosis gene categories was observed in NASH. Protein expression of the adaptive liver response protein STC2 and the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 spliced (XBP-1s) were significantly elevated among NASH samples, whereas other downstream ER stress proteins including CHOP, ATF4, and phosphorylated JNK and eIF2α were not significantly changed in disease progression. Increased nuclear accumulation of total XBP-1 protein was observed in steatosis and NASH livers. The findings reveal the presence of a coordinated, adaptive transcriptional response to hepatic ER stress in human NAFLD.

  17. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in aging and age-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum(ER) is a multifunctional organelle within which protein folding, lipid biosynthesis, and calcium storage occurs. Perturbations such as energy or nutrient depletion, disturbances in calcium or redox status that disrupt ER homeostasis lead to the misfolding of proteins, ER stress and up-regulation of several signaling pathways coordinately called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is characterized by the induction of chaperones, degradation of misfolded proteins and attenuation of protein translation. The UPR plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and thus is central to normal physiology. However, sustained unresolved ER stress leads to apoptosis. Aging linked declines in expression and activity of key ER molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the UPR. One mechanism to explain age associated declines in cellular functions and age-related diseases is a progressive failure of chaperoning systems. In many of these diseases, proteins or fragments of proteins convert from their normally soluble forms to insoluble fibrils or plaques that accumulate in a variety of organs including the liver, brain or spleen. This group of diseases, which typically occur late in life includes Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, type II diabetes and a host of less well known but often equally serious conditions such as fatal familial insomnia. The UPR is implicated in many of these neurodegenerative and familial protein folding diseases as well as several cancers and a host of inflammatory diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis. This review will discuss age-related changes in the ER stress response and the role of the UPR in age-related diseases. PMID:22934019

  18. Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Is Involved in Clopidogrel-Induced Apoptosis of Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zong-Dan; Cao, Wei-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Bing; Hu, Ke-Wei; Gao, Xin; Wang, Shu-Kui; He, Bang-Shun; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Xie, Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background The widespread use of clopidogrel alone or in combination with aspirin may result in gastrointestinal mucosal injury, clinically represented as recurrent ulceration and bleeding complications. Our recent work suggested that clopidogrel significantly induced human gastric epithelial cell (GES-1) apoptosis and disrupted gastric mucosal barrier, and that a p38 MAPK inhibitor could attenuate such injury. However, their exact mechanisms are largely unknown. Methods The GES-1 cells were used as a model system, the effects of clopidogrel on the whole gene expression profile were evaluated by human gene expression microarray and gene ontology analysis, changes of the mRNA and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, and cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Results Gene microarray analysis identified 79 genes that were differentially expressed (P<0.05 and fold-change >3) when cells were treated with or without clopidogrel. Gene ontology analysis revealed that response to stress and cell apoptosis dysfunction were ranked in the top 10 cellular events being affected, and that the major components of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis pathway – CHOP and TRIB3– were up-regulated in a concentration- and time-dependent manner when cells were treated with clopidogrel. Pathway analysis demonstrated that multiple MAPK kinases were phosphorylated in clopidogrel-treated GES-1 cells, but that only SB-203580 (a p38-specific MAPK inhibitor) attenuated cell apoptosis and CHOP over-expression, both of which were induced by clopidogrel. Conclusions Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response is involved in clopidogrel-induced gastric mucosal injury, acting through p38 MAPK activation. PMID:24058556

  19. Cationic polystyrene nanospheres induce autophagic cell death through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Xia, Tian; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chun-Wan; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Furthermore, NH2-PS could induce autophagic cell death. NH2-PS increased autophagic flux due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded protein aggregation. The inhibition of ER stress decreased cytotoxicity and autophagy in the NH2-PS-treated cells. In addition, the Akt/mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of NH2-PS-triggered autophagic cell death. These results suggest an important role of autophagy in cationic NP-induced cell death and provide mechanistic insights into the inhibition of the toxicity and safe material design.Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung

  20. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shu, Yongqian; Gu, Yanhong; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  1. Target of rapamycin signaling mediates vacuolar fission caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Bobbiejane; Powers, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The yeast vacuole is equivalent to the mammalian lysosome and, in response to diverse physiological and environmental stimuli, undergoes alterations both in size and number. Here we demonstrate that vacuoles fragment in response to stress within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) caused by chemical or genetic perturbations. We establish that this response does not involve known signaling pathways linked previously to ER stress but instead requires the rapamycin-sensitive TOR Complex 1 (TORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, together with its downstream effectors, Tap42/Sit4 and Sch9. To identify additional factors required for ER stress–induced vacuolar fragmentation, we conducted a high-throughput, genome-wide visual screen for yeast mutants that are refractory to ER stress–induced changes in vacuolar morphology. We identified several genes shown previously to be required for vacuolar fusion and/or fission, validating the utility of this approach. We also identified a number of new components important for fragmentation, including a set of proteins involved in assembly of the V-ATPase. Remarkably, we find that one of these, Vph2, undergoes a change in intracellular localization in response to ER stress and, moreover, in a manner that requires TORC1 activity. Together these results reveal a new role for TORC1 in the regulation of vacuolar behavior. PMID:26466677

  2. A novel transmembrane protein defines the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death pathway.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoya; Kamatsuka, Kenta; Sato, Taku; Morooka, Shuntaro; Otsuka, Kosuke; Hattori, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2017-03-08

    Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) maintenance is physiologically critical in cells; its loss causes apoptotic signalling and cell death. Accumulating DNA mutations and unfolded proteins in stressed cells activate signalling pathways for cell death induction. Cancer cells often fail to die even in the presence of some death signalling proteins. Here, we report a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) with an artificial sequence, denoted Psi1 shRNA, which leads to ΔΨm loss in HCT116 cells. The Psi1 shRNA target gene was shown to encode transmembrane protein 117 (TMEM117). TMEM117 knockdown led to ΔΨm loss, increased reactive oxygen species levels, up-regulation of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor C/EBP homologous protein and active caspase-3 expression, and cell growth impairment, altering homeostasis towards cell death. TMEM117 levels were down-regulated in response to the ER stressor thapsigargin and decreased when cells showed ΔΨm loss. These results suggested that TMEM117 RNAi allowed apoptotic cell death. Therefore, TMEM117 probably mediates the signalling of ΔΨm loss in ER stress-mediated mitochondria-mediated cell death.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces the expression of fetuin-A to develop insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Hung-Tsung; Hung, Hao-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Fetuin-A is a biomarker reported to be important in many metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis. Although it is well known that fetuin-A is increased in diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the levels of fetuin-A in diabetic patients with NAFLD are unknown. Furthermore, the regulation of fetuin-A expression is still obscure. In this study, a total of 180 age- and sex-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance, NAFLD, newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD), and NDD with NAFLD were recruited. We found that the levels of fetuin-A were significantly increased in NDD with NAFLD as compared with NDD or NAFLD subjects. We further used HepG2 cells to investigate the regulation of fetuin-A. Treatment with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activator, thapsigargin, increased the expression of fetuin-A mRNA and protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate, reversed high glucose or palmitate-induced fetuin-A expression. Moreover, treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate in both streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice not only decreased hepatic fetuin-A levels but also improved hyperglycemia. Taken together, we found that fetuin-A levels were increased in diabetes patients with NAFLD. Moreover, ER stress induced by high glucose and palmitate increased the expression of fetuin-A and further contributed to the development of insulin resistance.

  4. Luteolin-induced apoptosis through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors in pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kisang; Kwon, Young-Sook; Kim, Seung-Whan; Yu, Kweon; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kwon, O-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Luteolin [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromenone] is an active flavonoid compound from Lonicera japonica (Caprifoliaceae). Luteolin inhibits tumor cell proliferation, inflammatory and oxidative stress better, when compared with other flavonoids. In the present study, it was demonstrated that luteolin induces typical apoptosis in PC12 cells (derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla) accompanied by DNA fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, luteolin regulates expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein, activating ER stress sensors (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation and X‑box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing) and induced autophagy. The results indicated that luteolin induces the upregulation of the unfolded protein response pathway through the ER stress sensors, which helps as an influential regulator for the apoptosis pathway in PC12 cells. The results suggested that the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying luteolin‑induced apoptosis may be useful in cancer therapeutics, chemoprevention and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress.

  6. Autophagy decreases alveolar macrophage apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tao; Chen, Lei; Huang, Zhixin; Mao, Zhangfan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Boyou; Xu, Yao; Pan, Shize; Hu, Hao; Geng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of autophagy on alveolar macrophage apoptosis and its mechanism in the early stages of hypoxia, we established a cell hypoxia-reoxygenation model and orthotopic left lung ischemia-reperfusion model. Rat alveolar macrophages stably expressing RFP-LC3 were treated with autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA) or autophagy promoter (rapamycin), followed by hypoxia-reoxygenation treatment 2 h, 4 h or 6 h later. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four different groups: no blocking of left lung hilum (model group), left lung hilum blocked for 1h with DMSO lavage (control group), left lung hilum blocked for 1 h with 100 ml/kg 3-MA (5 μmol/L) lavage (3-MA group), and left lung hilum blocked for 1 h with 100 ml/kg rapamycin (250 nmol/L) lavage (rapamycin group). Rapamycin decreased the unfolded protein response, which reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in the presence of oxygen deficiency. Rapamycin increased superoxide dismutase activities and decreased malondialdehyde levels, whereas 3-MA decreased superoxide dismutase activities and increased malondialdehyde levels. Thus, autophagy decreases alveolar macrophage apoptosis by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in the early stage of hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. This could represent a new approach to protecting against lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:27888631

  7. Sodium fluoride (NaF) induces the splenic apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Lian; Luo, Qin; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    At present, there are no reports on the relationship between fluoride-induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ER stress) in the spleen of human and animals in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced apoptosis mediated by ER stress in the spleen of mice in vivo and in vitro. Apoptosis and expression levels of the ER stress-related proteins were detected by flow cytometry and western blot, respectively. The results showed that NaF treatment increased lymphocytes apoptosis, which was consistent with NaF-caused ER Stress. NaF-caused ER stress was characterized by up-regulating protein expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (BiP) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), and by activating unfolded protein response (UPR). The signaling pathway of ER stress-associated apoptosis was activated by up-regulating protein expression levels of cleaved cysteine aspartate specific protease-12 (cleaved caspase-12), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (Gadd153/CHOP) and phosphorylation of JUN N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Additionally, our in vitro study found that apoptotic rate was decreased with remarkable down-regulation of the cleaved caspase-12, CHOP, p-JNK after ER stress was inhibited by 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) treatment. In conclusion, NaF-induced apoptosis may mediated by ER stress in the spleen. PMID:28039491

  8. Hepatic Amiodarone Lipotoxicity Is Ameliorated by Genetic and Pharmacological Inhibition of Endoplasmatic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Erez, Noam; Hubel, Einav; Avraham, Roy; Cohen, Raya; Fishman, Sigal; Bantel, Heike; Manns, Michael; Tirosh, Boaz; Zvibel, Isabel; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-10-01

    Amiodarone is a commonly used antiarrhythmic drug and can cause liver steatosis. We investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response in the pathogenesis of amiodarone-induced steatosis. Amiodarone-induced liver injury was obtained by 1 intraperitoneal injection to wild-type (WT) or C/EBP homologous protein knock-out mice (Ddit3-/-). Amiodarone directly reduced intracellular ATP and Ca2+ in hepatocytes invitro, inducing ER stress and lipid accumulation. In vivo, amiodarone-driven liver damage and lipid accumulation was accompanied by activation of ER stress/unfolded protein response, as demonstrated by up-regulation of genes encoding key ER stress mediators and by phosphorylation of eIF2α. In contrast to WT mice, Ddit3-/- mice were protected from amiodarone-induced ER stress and lipid accumulation. Importantly, amiodarone-induced lipid accumulation was not mediated by de novo hepatic lipogenesis, increased adipose tissue lipolysis or increased hepatic uptake of triglycerides or free fatty acids. Rather, amiodarone strongly increased hepatic mRNA expression of lipid droplet proteins, particularly Cidea and Cidec, in WT, but less so in Ddit3-/- mice, suggesting a link between ER stress and increased triglyceride storage. Moreover, while insulin attenuated amiodarone-induced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) in WT, it did not affect pHSL in Ddit3-/-, indicating increased lipolysis and therefore reduced lipid accumulation in these mice. Finally, ER stress attenuation using 2 different pharmacological chaperones reduced lipid accumulation, accompanied by reduced mRNA expression of Cidec. In conclusion, amiodarone-induced ER stress drives liver steatosis and may be considered for therapeutic targeting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cooperates in Zearalenone-Induced Cell Death of RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenglei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Zhe; Lin, Pengfei; Lei, Lanjie; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2015-08-20

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a fungal mycotoxin that causes cell apoptosis and necrosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of ZEA toxicity. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ZEA on the proliferation and apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages and to uncover the signaling pathway underlying the cytotoxicity of ZEA in RAW 264.7 macrophages. This study demonstrates that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway cooperated in ZEA-induced cell death of the RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results show that ZEA treatment reduced the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) and flow cytometry assay. Western blots analysis revealed that ZEA increased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), two ER stress-related marker genes. Furthermore, treating the cells with the ER stress inhibitors 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or knocking down CHOP, using lentivirus encoded short hairpin interfering RNAs (shRNAs), significantly diminished the ZEA-induced increases in GRP78 and CHOP, and cell death. In summary, our results suggest that ZEA induces the apoptosis and necrosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner via the ER stress pathway in which the activation of CHOP plays a critical role.

  10. PPARδ Is Required for Exercise to Attenuate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheang, Wai San; Wong, Wing Tak; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jian; Wang, Li; Lau, Chi Wai; Chen, Zhen Yu; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Xu, Aimin; Wang, Nanping; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity has profound benefits on health, especially on cardiometabolic wellness. Experiments in rodents with trained exercise have shown that exercise improves vascular function and reduces vascular inflammation by modulating the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. However, the upstream regulator of exercise-induced vascular benefits is unclear. We aimed to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in exercise-induced vascular functional improvement. We show that PPARδ is a crucial mediator for exercise to exert a beneficial effect on the vascular endothelium in diabetic mice. In db/db mice and high-fat diet-induced obese mice, 4 weeks of treadmill exercise restored endothelium-dependent vasodilation of aortas and flow-mediated vasodilation in mesenteric resistance arteries, whereas genetic ablation of Ppard abolished such improvements. Exercise induces AMPK activation and subsequent PPARδ activation, which help to reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress, thus increasing NO bioavailability in endothelial cells and vascular tissues. Chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutyric acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid decrease ER stress and protect against endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. The results demonstrate that PPARδ-mediated inhibition of ER stress contributes to the vascular benefits of exercise and provides potentially effective targets for treating diabetic vasculopathy.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress protects human thyroid carcinoma cell lines against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Yu; Fan, Rui-Tai; Yan, Xin-Hui; Cui, Jing; Xu, Jun-Ling; Gu, Hao; Gao, Yong-Ju

    2015-03-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment, used in the treatment of a number of malignant tumors. However, the resistance of tumor cells to ionizing radiation remains a major therapeutic problem and the critical mechanisms determining radiation resistance are poorly defined. In the present study, a cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress microenvironment was established through the pretreatment of cultured thyroid cancer cells with tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG), in order to mimic the ER stress response in a tumor microenvironment. This microenviroment was confirmed through the X‑box binding protein 1 splice process, glucose‑regulated protein 78 kD and ER degradation‑enhancing α‑mannosidase‑like mRNA expression. A clonogenic assay was used to measure cancer cell resistance to 60Co‑γ following TM pretreatment; in addition, human C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA expression was determined and apoptosis assays were performed. The results showed that TM or TG pretreatment inhibited CHOP expression and reduced the apoptotic rate of cells. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the induced ER stress response rendered cancer cells more resistant to ionizing radiation‑induced apoptosis. Therefore, the ER stress pathway may be a potential therapeutic target in order to improve the clinical efficiency of radiotherapy.

  12. Black tea protects against hypertension-associated endothelial dysfunction through alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    San Cheang, Wai; Yuen Ngai, Ching; Yen Tam, Ye; Yu Tian, Xiao; Tak Wong, Wing; Zhang, Yang; Wai Lau, Chi; Chen, Zhen Yu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Huang, Yu; Ping Leung, Fung

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive patients have been found to be associated with elevated levels of homocysteine, known as hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells. This study aims to investigate whether black tea (BT) protects against hypertension-associated endothelial dysfunction through alleviation of ER stress. Rat aortae and cultured rat aortic endothelial cells were treated with Hcy, BT extract, and theaflavin-3,3’-digallate (TF3). Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce hypertension and orally administrated with BT extract at 15 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Hcy impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations of rat aortae and led to ER stress in endothelial cells, which were ameliorated by co-incubation of BT extract and TF3. The blood pressure of Ang II-infused rats and plasma Hcy level were normalized by BT consumption. Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations in renal arteries, carotid arteries and aortae, and flow-mediated dilatations in third-order mesenteric resistance arteries were improved. Elevations of ER stress markers and ROS level, plus down-regulation of Hcy metabolic enzymes in aortae from Ang II-infused rats were prevented by BT treatment. Our data reveal the novel cardiovascular benefits of BT in ameliorating vascular dysfunctions, providing insight into developing BT into beneficial dietary supplements in hypertensive patients. PMID:25976123

  13. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the modulation of thioredoxin-1 in formaldehyde-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fu-Cheng; Zhou, Jia; Lv, Tao; Qi, Lei; Wang, Sheng-Dong; Nakamura, Hajime; Yodoi, Junji; Bai, Jie

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a common environmental pollutant, has toxic effects on central nervous system. The detailed mechanisms on FA-induced neurotoxicity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, biomarkers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, were increased and pro-caspase-12 was decreased after PC12 cells exposure to FA. These results suggest that FA actually induces ER stress. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) has various biological activities, including the control of redox balance, the modulation of ER stress and inhibition of apoptosis. In the present study, Trx-1 expression was increased at early stage, but decreased at late stage after FA treatment. Knockdown of Trx-1 expression increased the susceptibility of PC12 cells to FA-induced neurotoxicity. We also found that ginsenoside Rg1 had the potential to induce Trx-1 expression and attenuated neurotoxicity induced by FA. ER stress caused by FA was suppressed by ginsenoside Rg1. These data indicate that Trx-1 is a therapeutic candidate for protecting against FA-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel cellular stress response characterised by a rapid reorganisation of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, S; Bampton, E T W; Smalley, J L; Tanaka, K; Caves, R E; Butterworth, M; Wei, J; Pellecchia, M; Mitcheson, J; Gant, T W; Dinsdale, D; Cohen, G M

    2012-01-01

    Canonical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which occurs in many physiological and disease processes, results in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We now describe a new, evolutionarily conserved cellular stress response characterised by a striking, but reversible, reorganisation of ER membranes that occurs independently of the UPR, resulting in impaired ER transport and function. This reorganisation is characterised by a dramatic redistribution and clustering of ER membrane proteins. ER membrane aggregation is regulated, in part, by anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, particularly MCL-1. Using connectivity mapping, we report the widespread occurrence of this stress response by identifying several structurally diverse chemicals from different pharmacological classes, including antihistamines, antimalarials and antipsychotics, which induce ER membrane reorganisation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of ER membrane aggregation to result in pathological consequences, such as the long-QT syndrome, a cardiac arrhythmic abnormality, arising because of a novel trafficking defect of the human ether-a-go-go-related channel protein from the ER to the plasma membrane. Thus, ER membrane reorganisation is a feature of a new cellular stress pathway, clearly distinct from the UPR, with important consequences affecting the normal functioning of the ER. PMID:22955944

  15. Imexon Induces an Oxidative Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheveleva, Elena V.; Landowski, Terry H.; Samulitis, Betty K.; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Powis, Garth; Dorr, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires strict regulation of redox homeostasis. Disruption of the lumenal redox balance induces an integrated ER stress response that is associated with reduced protein translation, increased chaperone activity, and ultimately cell death. Imexon is a small molecule chemotherapeutic agent that has been shown to bind glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress in tumor cells, however the mechanism of cytotoxicity is not well understood. This In this report, we investigate the effects of imexon on the integrated ER stress response in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Acute exposure to imexon induces an ER stress response characterized by accumulation of the oxidized form of the oxidoreductase Ero1α, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and inhibition of protein synthesis. An RNA interference chemo-sensitization screen identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2B5 as a target that enhanced imexon-induced growth inhibition of MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells, but did not significantly augment the effects of imexon on protein synthesis. Concurrent reduction of intracellular thiols with N-acetyl cysteine reversed imexon activity, however co-treatment with superoxide scavengers had no effect, suggesting thiol binding may be a primary component of the oxidative effects of imexon. Moreover, the data suggest that disruption of the redox balance in the ER is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22275514

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Sensing Mechanism Is Activated in Entamoeba histolytica upon Treatment with Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Santi-Rocca, Julien; Smith, Sherri; Weber, Christian; Pineda, Erika; Hon, Chung-Chau; Saavedra, Emma; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Rousseau, Sandrine; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Guillén, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum stores calcium and is a site of protein synthesis and modification. Changes in ER homeostasis lead to stress responses with an activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The Entamoeba histolytica endomembrane system is simple compared to those of higher eukaryotes, as a canonical ER is not observed. During amoebiasis, an infection of the human intestine and liver by E. histolytica, nitric oxide (NO) triggers an apoptotic-like event preceded by an impairment of energy production and a loss of important parasite pathogenic features. We address the question of how this ancient eukaryote responds to stress induced by immune components (i.e. NO) and whether stress leads to ER changes and subsequently to an UPR. Gene expression analysis suggested that NO triggers stress responses marked by (i) dramatic up-regulation of hsp genes although a bona fide UPR is absent; (ii) induction of DNA repair and redox gene expression and iii) up-regulation of glycolysis-related gene expression. Enzymology approaches demonstrate that NO directly inhibits glycolysis and enhance cysteine synthase activity. Using live imaging and confocal microscopy we found that NO dramatically provokes extensive ER fragmentation. ER fission in E. histolytica appears as a protective response against stress, as it has been recently proposed for neuron self-defense during neurologic disorders. Chronic ER stress is also involved in metabolic diseases including diabetes, where NO production reduces ER calcium levels and activates cell death. Our data highlighted unique cellular responses of interest to understand the mechanisms of parasite death during amoebiasis. PMID:22384074

  17. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan; Tu, Bo; Zhu, Weiguo; Luo, Jianyuan

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway, we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration.

  18. Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2003-05-01

    Alcohol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported in rats and humans. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to the activation of ER-dependent apoptosis or up-regulation of lipid synthesis. This novel ER stress mechanism of alcoholic liver injury was studied in the model of intragastric alcohol-fed mice. Effects of alcohol on gene expression were analyzed using cDNA microarrays, RT-PCR, and Western blots over a period of 6 weeks. Liver injury was examined by histologic staining and TUNEL. We observed fatty liver, increased hepatic necroinflammation and apoptosis, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Of 1176 toxicology-related genes, glucose-regulated proteins (GRP-78 and -94), growth arrest/DNA damage-inducible protein 153 (CHOP/GADD153), and caspase-12 indicative of an ER stress response were among the alcohol-responsive genes. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) and HMG-CoA reductase also were enhanced with alcohol administration. RT-PCR and selective Western blots confirmed the alcohol-induced expression of ER stress-related apoptosis and lipid synthesis genes. Addition of 0.5% and maximal 1.5% betaine to the alcohol diet reduced the elevated level of plasma homocysteine by 54% and more than 80% accompanied by a decrease in hepatic lipids and ER stress response. Betaine did not attenuate the ethanol-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha or CD14 mRNA. The results strongly suggest that alcohol may modulate both apoptotic and fat synthetic gene expression through homocysteine-induced ER stress in chronic alcoholic mouse liver and that correction of hyperhomocysteinemia by betaine or other approaches may be useful to prevent alcoholic liver disease.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases AT1R mRNA expression via TIA-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Michael; Paukku, Kirsi; Kontula, Kimmo K; Lehtonen, Jukka Y A

    2016-04-20

    As the formation of ribonucleoprotein complexes is a major mechanism of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) regulation, we sought to identify novel AT1R mRNA binding proteins. By affinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified TIA-1. This interaction was confirmed by colocalization of AT1R mRNA and TIA-1 by FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy. In immunoprecipitates of endogenous TIA- 1, reverse transcription-PCR amplified AT1R mRNA. TIA-1 has two binding sites within AT1R 3'-UTR. The binding site proximal to the coding region is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-dependent whereas the distal binding site is not. TIA-1 functions as a part of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response leading to stress granule (SG) formation and translational silencing. We and others have shown that AT1R expression is increased by ER stress-inducing factors. In unstressed cells, TIA-1 binds to AT1R mRNA and decreases AT1R protein expression. Fluorescence microscopy shows that ER stress induced by thapsigargin leads to the transfer of TIA-1 to SGs. In FISH analysis AT1R mRNA remains in the cytoplasm and no longer colocalizes with TIA-1. Thus, release of TIA-1-mediated suppression by ER stress increases AT1R protein expression. In conclusion, AT1R mRNA is regulated by TIA-1 in a ER stress-dependent manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Panax quinquefolium saponin attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by thapsigargin through inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi; Xue, Mei; Wang, Xiao-Reng; Tao, Tian-Qi; Xu, Fei-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Hua; Shi, Da-Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related apoptosis is involved in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases, and Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) is able to inhibit excessive ER stress-related apoptosis of cardiomyocytes following hypoxia/reoxygenation and myocardial infarction. However, the pathway by which PQS inhibits the ER stress-related apoptosis is not well understood. To further investigate the protective effect of PQS against ER stress-related apoptosis, primary cultured cardiomyocytes were stimulated with thapsigargin (TG), which is widely used to model cellular ER stress, and it could induce apoptotic cell death in sufficient concentration. Methods Primary cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were exposed to TG (1 µmol/L) treatment for 24 h, following PQS pre-treatment (160 µg/mL) for 24 h or pre-treatment with small interfering RNA directed against protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Si-PERK) for 6 h. The viability and apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes were detected by cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry respectively. ER stress-related protein expression, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calreticulin, PERK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were assayed by western blotting. Results Both PQS pre-treatment and PERK knockdown remarkably inhibited the cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by TG, increased cell viability, decreased phosphorylation of both PERK and eIF2α, and decreased protein levels of both ATF4 and CHOP. There was no statistically significant difference between PQS pre-treatment and PERK knockdown in the cardioprotective effect. Conclusions Our data indicate that the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP pathway of ER stress is involved in the apoptosis induced by TG, and PQS might prevent TG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through a mechanism involving the suppression of this pathway. These findings

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by aggregate-prone proteins containing homopolymeric amino acids.

    PubMed

    Uchio, Naohiro; Oma, Yoko; Toriumi, Kazuya; Sasagawa, Noboru; Tanida, Isei; Fujita, Eriko; Kouroku, Yoriko; Kuroda, Reiko; Momoi, Takashi; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2007-11-01

    Many human proteins have homopolymeric amino acid (HPAA) tracts, but their physiological functions or cellular effects are not well understood. Previously, we expressed 20 HPAAs in mammalian cells and showed characteristic intracellular localization, in that hydrophobic HPAAs aggregated strongly and caused high cytotoxicity in proportion to their hydrophobicity. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of these aggregate-prone hydrophobic HPAAs, assuming that the ubiquitin proteasome system is impaired in the same manner as other well-known aggregate-prone polyglutamine-containing proteins. Some highly hydrophobic HPAAs caused a deficiency in the ubiquitin proteasome system and excess endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to apoptosis. These results indicate that the property of causing excess endoplasmic reticulum stress by proteasome impairment may contribute to the strong cytotoxicity of highly hydrophobic HPAAs, and proteasome impairment and the resulting excess endoplasmic reticulum stress is not a common cytotoxic effect of aggregate-prone proteins such as polyglutamine.

  2. Effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition on hyperoxaluria-induced oxidative stress: influence on cellular ROS sources.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Rishi; Tandon, Chanderdeep; Dhawan, Devinder K; Kaur, Tanzeer

    2017-08-24

    Hyperoxaluria-induced calcium oxalate crystallisation is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via mitochondria and NADPH oxidase. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has emerged as an organelle which could influence mitochondrial functioning and ROS generation. Plugging an upstream pathway of mitochondrial and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS generation may have better prophylaxis. Therefore, we propose to investigate the linkage of hyperoxaluria-induced ROS generation with ER stress by inhibiting the later with 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). Male wistar rats were divided into three groups: a normal control group, an ethylene glycol with ammonium chloride-induced hyperoxaluric group (EA) and a third group which has hyperoxaluric animals given 4-PBA at a dose of 300 mg/kg. After 9 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed and renal tissues were analysed for histopathological examination, ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress markers, inflammatory markers and NADPH oxidase subunits expression. Hyperoxaluric rats exhibited a significant increase in the levels of ROS, subsequently up-regulated levels of ER stress markers, inflammatory indicators, NADPH oxidase subunits and compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, ER stress amelioration appreciably curtailed the alterations caused by hyperoxaluric abuse. Therefore, suggesting the major role of ER in hyperoxaluric manifestations thereby providing an opportunity to target ER stress for future therapeutic interventions.

  3. Brain ACE2 overexpression reduces DOCA-salt hypertension independently of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Thyago Moreira; Sriramula, Srinivas; Feng, Yumei; Johnson, Tanya; Mungrue, Imran N.; Lazartigues, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was previously reported to contribute to neurogenic hypertension while neuronal angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) overexpression blunts the disease. To assess which brain regions are important for ACE2 beneficial effects and the contribution of ER stress to neurogenic hypertension, we first used transgenic mice harboring a floxed neuronal hACE2 transgene (SL) and tested the impact of hACE2 knockdown in the subfornical organ (SFO) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. SL and nontransgenic (NT) mice underwent DOCA-salt or sham treatment while infected with an adenoassociated virus (AAV) encoding Cre recombinase (AAV-Cre) or a control virus (AAV-green fluorescent protein) to the SFO or PVN. DOCA-salt-induced hypertension was reduced in SL mice, with hACE2 overexpression in the brain. This reduction was only partially blunted by knockdown of hACE2 in the SFO or PVN, suggesting that both regions are involved but not essential for ACE2 regulation of blood pressure (BP). DOCA-salt treatment did not increase the protein levels of ER stress and autophagy markers in NT mice, despite a significant increase in BP. In addition, these markers were not affected by hACE2 overexpression in the brain, despite a significant reduction of hypertension in SL mice. To further assess the role of ER stress in neurogenic hypertension, NT mice were infused intracerebroventricularlly with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an ER stress inhibitor, during DOCA-salt treatment. However, TUDCA infusion failed to blunt the development of hypertension in NT mice. Our data suggest that brain ER stress does not contribute to DOCA-salt hypertension and that ACE2 blunts neurogenic hypertension independently of ER stress. PMID:25519733

  4. Asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Kamp, David W; Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Mueller, Amanda; Lam, Anna P; Trejo, Humberto; Williams, David; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Baker, Margaret; Ridge, Karen; Chandel, Navdeep S; Beri, Rohinee

    2013-12-01

    Asbestos exposure results in pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) and malignancies (bronchogenic lung cancer and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis is important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis after exposure to an array of toxins, including asbestos. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptosis occur in AECs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with similarities to asbestosis. Asbestos induces AEC intrinsic apoptosis, but the role of the ER is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether asbestos causes an AEC ER stress response that promotes apoptosis. Using human A549 and rat primary isolated alveolar type II cells, amosite asbestos fibers increased AEC mRNA and protein expression of ER stress proteins involved in the unfolded protein response, such as inositol-requiring kinase (IRE) 1 and X-box-binding protein-1, as well as ER Ca²(2+) release ,as assessed by a FURA-2 assay. Eukarion-134, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic, as well as overexpression of Bcl-XL in A549 cells each attenuate asbestos-induced AEC ER stress (IRE-1 and X-box-binding protein-1 protein expression; ER Ca²(2+) release) and apoptosis. Thapsigargin, a known ER stress inducer, augments AEC apoptosis, and eukarion-134 or Bcl-XL overexpression are protective. Finally, 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone that attenuates ER stress, blocks asbestos- and thapsigargin-induced AEC IRE-1 protein expression, but does not reduce ER Ca²(2+) release or apoptosis. These results show that asbestos triggers an AEC ER stress response and subsequent intrinsic apoptosis that is mediated in part by ER Ca²(2+) release.

  5. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  6. Astragalus polysaccharides attenuate PCV2 infection by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hongxia; Gan, Fang; Qian, Gang; Hu, Junfa; Hao, Shu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections and its mechanism in vivo and vitro. First, fifty 2-week-old mice were randomly divided into five groups: a group without PCV2 infection and groups with PCV2 infections at 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg APS treatments. The trial lasted for 28 days. The results showed that APS treatments at 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the pathological injury of tissues, inhibited PCV2 infection and decreased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and GADD153/CHOP gene mRNA and protein expression significantly (P < 0.05). Second, a study on endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanism was carried out in PK15 cells. APS treatments at 15 and 45 μg/mL significantly reduced PCV2 infection and GRP78 mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05). Tunicamycin supplementation increased GRP78 mRNA and protein expression and significantly attenuated the APS-induced inhibition of PCV2 infection (P < 0.05). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid supplementation decreased GRP78 mRNA and protein expression and significantly inhibited PCV2 infection (P < 0.05). In addition, fifty 2-week-old mice were randomly divided into five groups: Con, PCV2, APS + PCV2, TM + PCV2 and TM + APS + PCV2. The results were similar to those in PK15 cells. Taken together, it could be concluded that APS suppresses PCV2 infection by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:28071725

  7. Intermittent selective clamping improves rat liver regeneration by attenuating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Ben Mosbah, I; Duval, H; Mbatchi, S-F; Ribault, C; Grandadam, S; Pajaud, J; Morel, F; Boudjema, K; Compagnon, P; Corlu, A

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent clamping of the portal trial is an effective method to avoid excessive blood loss during hepatic resection, but this procedure may cause ischemic damage to liver. Intermittent selective clamping of the lobes to be resected may represent a good alternative as it exposes the remnant liver only to the reperfusion stress. We compared the effect of intermittent total or selective clamping on hepatocellular injury and liver regeneration. Entire hepatic lobes or only lobes to be resected were subjected twice to 10 min of ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion before hepatectomy. We provided evidence that the effect of intermittent clamping can be damaging or beneficial depending to its mode of application. Although transaminase levels were similar in all groups, intermittent total clamping impaired liver regeneration and increased apoptosis. In contrast, intermittent selective clamping improved liver protein secretion and hepatocyte proliferation when compared with standard hepatectomy. This beneficial effect was linked to better adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) recovery, nitric oxide production, antioxidant activities and endoplasmic reticulum adaptation leading to limit mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Interestingly, transient and early chaperone inductions resulted in a controlled activation of the unfolded protein response concomitantly to endothelial nitric oxide synthase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK activation that favors liver regeneration. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a central target through which intermittent selective clamping exerts its cytoprotective effect and improves liver regeneration. This procedure could be applied as a powerful protective modality in the field of living donor liver transplantation and liver surgery. PMID:24603335

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the proapoptotic action of edelfosine in solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Miguel, Teresa; Fonteriz, Rosalba I; Vay, Laura; Gajate, Consuelo; López-Hernández, Silvia; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2007-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been posited as a potential anticancer target. The synthetic antitumor alkyl-lysophospholipid analogue edelfosine accumulates in the ER of solid tumor cells. This ER accumulation of the drug leads to the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine and protein synthesis, G(2)-M arrest, depletion of ER-stored Ca(2+), Bax up-regulation and activation, transcriptional factor growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 up-regulation, caspase-4 and caspase-8 activation, and eventually to apoptosis. Edelfosine prompted ER stress apoptotic signaling, but not the survival unfolded protein response. Edelfosine also induced persistent c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Gene transfer-mediated overexpression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, which plays a crucial role in ER stress, enhanced edelfosine-induced JNK activation and apoptosis. Inhibition of JNK, caspase-4, or caspase-8 activation diminished edelfosine-induced apoptosis. Edelfosine treatment led to the generation of the p20 caspase-8 cleavage fragment of BAP31, directing proapoptotic signals between the ER and the mitochondria. bax(-/-)bak(-/-) double-knockout cells fail to undergo edelfosine-induced ER-stored Ca(2+) release and apoptosis. Wild-type and bax(-/-)bak(-/-) cells showed similar patterns of phosphatidylcholine and protein synthesis inhibition, despite their differences in drug sensitivity. Thus, edelfosine-induced apoptosis is dependent on Bax/Bak-mediated ER-stored Ca(2+) release, but phosphatidylcholine and protein synthesis inhibition is not critical. Transfection-enforced expression of Bcl-X(L), which localizes specifically in mitochondria, prevented apoptosis without inhibiting ER-stored Ca(2+) release. These data reveal that edelfosine induces an ER stress response in solid tumor cells, providing novel insights into the edelfosine-mediated antitumor activity. Our data also indicate that mitochondria are indispensable for this edelfosine-induced cell

  9. Target of rapamycin signaling mediates vacuolar fission caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Bobbiejane; Powers, Ted

    2015-12-15

    The yeast vacuole is equivalent to the mammalian lysosome and, in response to diverse physiological and environmental stimuli, undergoes alterations both in size and number. Here we demonstrate that vacuoles fragment in response to stress within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) caused by chemical or genetic perturbations. We establish that this response does not involve known signaling pathways linked previously to ER stress but instead requires the rapamycin-sensitive TOR Complex 1 (TORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, together with its downstream effectors, Tap42/Sit4 and Sch9. To identify additional factors required for ER stress-induced vacuolar fragmentation, we conducted a high-throughput, genome-wide visual screen for yeast mutants that are refractory to ER stress-induced changes in vacuolar morphology. We identified several genes shown previously to be required for vacuolar fusion and/or fission, validating the utility of this approach. We also identified a number of new components important for fragmentation, including a set of proteins involved in assembly of the V-ATPase. Remarkably, we find that one of these, Vph2, undergoes a change in intracellular localization in response to ER stress and, moreover, in a manner that requires TORC1 activity. Together these results reveal a new role for TORC1 in the regulation of vacuolar behavior. © 2015 Stauffer and Powers. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. The Dichotomy of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haoming; Zhu, Jianjun; Yue, Shi; Lu, Ling; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). As ER stress triggers an adaptive cellular response, the question of what determines its functional outcome in liver IRI remains to be defined. In a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, we studied how transient (30m) or prolonged (90m) liver ischemia regulated local ER stress response and autophagy activities and their relationship with liver IRI. Effects of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was evaluated. Our results showed that while the ATF6 branch of ER stress response was induced in livers by both types of ischemia, liver autophagy was activated by transient, but inhibited by prolonged, ischemia. Although 3-MA had no effects on liver IRI after prolonged ischemia, it significantly increased liver IRI after transient ischemia. The 4-PBA treatment protected livers from IRI after prolonged ischemia by restoring autophagy flux, and the adjunctive 3-MA treatment abrogated its liver protective effect. The same 4-PBA treatment, however, increased liver IRI and disrupted autophagy flux after transient ischemia. Although both types of ischemia activated 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inactivated protein kinase B (Akt), prolonged ischemia also resulted in downregulations of autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3 and Atg5 in ischemic livers. These results indicate a functional dichotomy of ER stress response in liver IRI via its regulation of autophagy. Transient ischemia activates autophagy to protect livers from IRI, while prolonged ischemia inhibits autophagy to promote the development of liver IRI. PMID:26683513

  11. The Dichotomy of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haomming; Zhu, Jianjun; Yue, Shi; Lu, Ling; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). As ER stress triggers an adaptive cellular response, the question of what determines its functional outcome in liver IRI remains to be defined. In a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, we studied how transient (30 minutes) or prolonged (90 minutes) liver ischemia regulated local ER stress response and autophagy activities and their relationship with liver IRI. Effects of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were evaluated. Our results showed that although the activating transcription factor 6 branch of ER stress response was induced in livers by both types of ischemia, liver autophagy was activated by transient, but inhibited by prolonged, ischemia. Although 3-MA had no effects on liver IRI after prolonged ischemia, it significantly increased liver IRI after transient ischemia. The 4-PBA treatment protected livers from IRI after prolonged ischemia by restoring autophagy flux, and the adjunctive 3-MA treatment abrogated its liver protective effect. The same 4-PBA treatment, however, increased liver IRI and disrupted autophagy flux after transient ischemia. Although both types of ischemia activated 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and inactivated protein kinase B (Akt), prolonged ischemia also resulted in downregulations of autophagy-related gene 3 and autophagy-related gene 5 in ischemic livers. These results indicate a functional dichotomy of ER stress response in liver IRI via its regulation of autophagy. Transient ischemia activates autophagy to protect livers from IRI, whereas prolonged ischemia inhibits autophagy to promote the development of liver IRI.

  12. L-carnitine attenuates H2O2-induced neuron apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junli; Han, Yantao; Chen, Xuehong; Xie, Jing; Liu, Xiaojin; Qiao, Shunhong; Wang, Chunbo

    2014-12-01

    Both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) have been linked to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous study has shown that L-carnitine may function as an antioxidant to inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. To further explore the neuroprotection of L-carnitine, here we study the effects of L-carnitine on the ER stress response in H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury. Our results showed that L-carnitine pretreatment could increase cell viability; inhibit apoptosis and ROS accumulation caused by H2O2 or tunicamycin (TM). L-carnitine suppress the endoplasmic reticulum dilation and activation of ER stress-associated proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), JNK, Bax and Bim induced by H2O2 or TM. In addition, H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and activation of ER stress can also be attenuated by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), CHOP siRNA and the inhibitor of ER stress 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). Taken together, our results demonstrated that H2O2 could trigger both oxidative stress and ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells, and ER stress participated in SH-SY5Y apoptosis mediated by H2O2-induced oxidative stress. CHOP/Bim or JNK/Bim-dependent ER stress signaling pathways maybe related to the neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced apoptosis and oxidative injury.

  13. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti

  14. Reduction of Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Activates Browning of White Fat and Ameliorates Obesity.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Cristina; González-García, Ismael; Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Liñares-Pose, Laura; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Casals, Núria; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The chaperone GRP78/BiP (glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein) modulates protein folding in reply to cellular insults that lead to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This study investigated the role of hypothalamic GRP78 on energy balance, with particular interest in thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). For this purpose, we used diet-induced obese rats and rats administered thapsigargin, and by combining metabolic, histologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, thermographic, and molecular techniques, we studied the effect of genetic manipulation of hypothalamic GRP78. Our data showed that rats fed a high-fat diet or that were centrally administered thapsigargin displayed hypothalamic ER stress, whereas genetic overexpression of GRP78 specifically in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was sufficient to alleviate ER stress and to revert the obese and metabolic phenotype. Those effects were independent of feeding and leptin but were related to increased thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and induction of browning in WAT and could be reversed by antagonism of β3 adrenergic receptors. This evidence indicates that modulation of hypothalamic GRP78 activity may be a potential strategy against obesity and associated comorbidities. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Advanced glycation end products upregulate the endoplasmic reticulum stress in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Xiong, Ming; Huang, Bin; Chen, Huangqin

    2015-03-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) appears to be the main factor responsible for modulating periodontal inflammation in diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AGEs on inflammation in human periodontal ligament cells and to investigate the mechanism with a specific emphasis on the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Cytotoxicity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The protein expressions of ER markers and NF-κB were examined by Western blot analysis. The translocation of NF-κB was observed by immunofluorescence assay. Proinflammatory chemokine production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with AGEs reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. AGEs induced ER stress, as evidenced by survival molecules, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6), and apoptotic molecules, such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12. AGEs upregulated the nucleoprotein expression of NF-κB, enhanced translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and increased the production of proinflammatory chemokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8. AGEs mediate inflammation of human periodontal ligament cells via the ER stress-induced NF-κB pathway.

  16. Morphine Protects Spinal Cord Astrocytes from Glutamate-Induced Apoptosis via Reducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chendan; Ren, Jianbo; Guo, Xiangjie; Yun, Keming

    2016-10-24

    Glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter but also an important neurotoxin in central nervous system (CNS). Chronic elevation of glutamate induces both neuronal and glial cell apoptosis. However, its effect on astrocytes is complex and still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether morphine, a common opioid ligand, could affect glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes were incubated with glutamate in the presence/absence of morphine. It was found that morphine could reduce glutamate-induced apoptosis of astrocytes. Furthermore, glutamate activated Ca(2+) release, thereby inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes, while morphine attenuated this deleterious effect. Using siRNA to reduce the expression of κ-opioid receptor, morphine could not effectively inhibit glutamate-stimulated Ca(2+) release in astrocytes, the protective effect of morphine on glutamate-injured astrocytes was also suppressed. These results suggested that morphine could protect astrocytes from glutamate-induced apoptosis via reducing Ca(2+) overload and ER stress pathways. In conclusion, this study indicated that excitotoxicity participated in the glutamate mediated apoptosis in astrocytes, while morphine attenuated this deleterious effect via regulating Ca(2+) release and ER stress.

  17. Patulin induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Boussabbeh, Manel; Ben Salem, Intidhar; Prola, Alexandre; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Lemaire, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Patulin (PAT) is a toxic metabolite produced by several filamentous fungi of the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. PAT is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-based products including juice, compotes, cider, and baby food. Exposure to this mycotoxin has been reported to induce intestinal and kidney injuries. This study investigated the mechanism of PAT-induced toxicity in human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). We demonstrated that PAT activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response as evidenced by up-regulation of GRP78 and GADD34, splicing of XBP1 mRNA, and expression of the proapoptotic factor CHOP. This ER stress response was accompanied by the induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis occurred with ROS production, drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activation. Further, we showed that deficiency of the proapoptotic protein Bax or Bak protected cells against PAT-induced apoptosis. The treatment of cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine inhibits the ER stress response and prevents mitochondrial apoptosis. Collectively, our data provide new mechanistic insights in the signaling pathways of the cell death induced by PAT and demonstrate that PAT induces cytotoxicity through a ROS-dependent mechanism involving ER stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human intestinal and kidney cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Efavirenz Causes Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Autophagy in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Marlene; Kost, Bernd; Renner-Müller, Ingrid; Wolf, Eckhard; Mylonas, Ioannis; Brüning, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is a widely prescribed antiretroviral drug used in combined antiretroviral therapy. Despite being an essential and life-saving medication, the required lifelong use of HIV drugs has been associated with a variety of adverse effects, including disturbances in lipid metabolism and increased cardiovascular risk. Efavirenz belongs to those HIV drugs for which cardiovascular and endothelial dysfunctions have been reported. It is here shown that elevated concentrations of efavirenz can inhibit endothelial meshwork formation on extracellular matrix gels by normal and immortalized human umbilical vein cells. This inhibition was associated with an increase in oxidative stress markers, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, and autophagy. Induction of ER stress occurred at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of efavirenz and resulted in reduced proliferation and cell viability of endothelial cells, which worsened in the presence of elevated efavirenz concentrations. In combination with the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir, both oxidative stress and ER stress became elevated in endothelial cells. These data indicate that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of efavirenz can impair cell viability of endothelial cells and that these effects may be aggravated by either elevated concentrations of efavirenz or by a combined use of efavirenz with other oxidative stress-inducing medications.

  19. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways cooperate in zearalenone-induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Zearalenone (ZEA) is a phytoestrogen from Fusarium species. The aims of the study was to identify mode of human leukemic cell death induced by ZEA and the mechanisms involved. Methods Cell cytotoxicity of ZEA on human leukemic HL-60, U937 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Reactive oxygen species production, cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction was determined by employing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, propidium iodide and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were detected by using fluorogenic Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (DEVD-AMC) and Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (IETD-AMC) substrates, respectively. Protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was performed by Western blot. The expression of proteins was assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with LC-MS2 analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach. Results ZEA was cytotoxic to U937 > HL-60 > PBMCs and caused subdiploid peaks and G1 arrest in both cell lines. Apoptosis of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cell apoptosis induced by ZEA was via an activation of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c through mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, activation of caspase-3 and -8, production of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bax was up regulated in a time-dependent manner and there was down regulation of Bcl-xL expression. Two-dimensional PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis showed that ZEA treatment of HL-60 cells produced differences in the levels of 22 membrane proteins such as apoptosis inducing factor and the ER stress proteins including endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock protein 90 and

  20. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Disease and Other Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Lale; Tabas, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the normal functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) trigger a signaling network that coordinates adaptive and apoptotic responses. There is accumulating evidence implicating prolonged ER stress in the development and progression of many diseases, including neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, and cancer. With the improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, therapeutic interventions that target the ER stress response would be potential strategies to treat various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress. PMID:22248326

  1. Acidosis Activates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathways through GPR4 in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lixue; Krewson, Elizabeth A.; Yang, Li V.

    2017-01-01

    Acidosis commonly exists in the tissue microenvironment of various pathophysiological conditions such as tumors, inflammation, ischemia, metabolic disease, and respiratory disease. For instance, the tumor microenvironment is characterized by acidosis and hypoxia due to tumor heterogeneity, aerobic glycolysis (the “Warburg effect”), and the defective vasculature that cannot efficiently deliver oxygen and nutrients or remove metabolic acid byproduct. How the acidic microenvironment affects the function of blood vessels, however, is not well defined. GPR4 (G protein-coupled receptor 4) is a member of the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors and it has high expression in endothelial cells (ECs). We have previously reported that acidosis induces a broad inflammatory response in ECs. Acidosis also increases the expression of several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes such as CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein) and ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3). In the current study, we have examined acidosis/GPR4-induced ER stress pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and other types of ECs. All three arms of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways were activated by acidosis in ECs as an increased expression of phosphorylated eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α), phosphorylated IRE1α (inositol-requiring enzyme 1α), and cleaved ATF6 upon acidic pH treatment was observed. The expression of other downstream mediators of the UPR, such as ATF4, ATF3, and spliced XBP-1 (X box-binding protein 1), was also induced by acidosis. Through genetic and pharmacological approaches to modulate the expression level or activity of GPR4 in HUVEC, we found that GPR4 plays an important role in mediating the ER stress response induced by acidosis. As ER stress/UPR can cause inflammation and cell apoptosis, acidosis/GPR4-induced ER stress pathways in ECs may regulate vascular growth and inflammatory response in the acidic microenvironment

  2. Acidosis Activates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathways through GPR4 in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lixue; Krewson, Elizabeth A; Yang, Li V

    2017-01-27

    Acidosis commonly exists in the tissue microenvironment of various pathophysiological conditions such as tumors, inflammation, ischemia, metabolic disease, and respiratory disease. For instance, the tumor microenvironment is characterized by acidosis and hypoxia due to tumor heterogeneity, aerobic glycolysis (the "Warburg effect"), and the defective vasculature that cannot efficiently deliver oxygen and nutrients or remove metabolic acid byproduct. How the acidic microenvironment affects the function of blood vessels, however, is not well defined. GPR4 (G protein-coupled receptor 4) is a member of the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors and it has high expression in endothelial cells (ECs). We have previously reported that acidosis induces a broad inflammatory response in ECs. Acidosis also increases the expression of several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes such as CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein) and ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3). In the current study, we have examined acidosis/GPR4- induced ER stress pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and other types of ECs. All three arms of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways were activated by acidosis in ECs as an increased expression of phosphorylated eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α), phosphorylated IRE1α (inositol-requiring enzyme 1α), and cleaved ATF6 upon acidic pH treatment was observed. The expression of other downstream mediators of the UPR, such as ATF4, ATF3, and spliced XBP-1 (X box-binding protein 1), was also induced by acidosis. Through genetic and pharmacological approaches to modulate the expression level or activity of GPR4 in HUVEC, we found that GPR4 plays an important role in mediating the ER stress response induced by acidosis. As ER stress/UPR can cause inflammation and cell apoptosis, acidosis/GPR4-induced ER stress pathways in ECs may regulate vascular growth and inflammatory response in the acidic microenvironment.

  3. (-)-Epicatechin mitigates high fructose-associated insulin resistance by modulating redox signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A.; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Miatello, Roberto M.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Fraga, César G.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) to mitigate insulin resistance through the modulation of redox-regulated mechanisms in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adolescent rats were fed a regular chow diet without or with high fructose (HFr) (10% (w/v)) in drinking water for 8 weeks, and a group of HFr-fed rats was supplemented with EC in the diet. HFr-fed rats developed insulin resistance which was mitigated by EC supplementation. Accordingly, the activation of components of the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1, Akt and ERK1/2) was impaired, while negative regulators (PKC, IKK, JNK and PTP1B) were upregulated in the liver and adipose tissue of HFr rats. These alterations were partially or totally prevented by EC supplementation. In addition, EC inhibited events which contribute to insulin resistance: HFr-associated increased expression and activity of NADPH oxidase, activation of redox-sensitive signals, expression of NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and some sub-arms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that EC supplementation can mitigate HFr-induced insulin resistance and are relevant to define interventions that can prevent/mitigate MetS-associated insulin resistance. PMID:24746618

  4. (-)-Epicatechin mitigates high-fructose-associated insulin resistance by modulating redox signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Miatello, Roberto M; Haj, Fawaz G; Fraga, César G; Oteiza, Patricia I

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the capacity of dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) to mitigate insulin resistance through the modulation of redox-regulated mechanisms in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Adolescent rats were fed a regular chow diet without or with high fructose (HFr; 10% w/v) in drinking water for 8 weeks, and a group of HFr-fed rats was supplemented with EC in the diet. HFr-fed rats developed insulin resistance, which was mitigated by EC supplementation. Accordingly, the activation of components of the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor, IRS1, Akt, and ERK1/2) was impaired, whereas negative regulators (PKC, IKK, JNK, and PTP1B) were upregulated in the liver and adipose tissue of HFr rats. These alterations were partially or totally prevented by EC supplementation. In addition, EC inhibited events that contribute to insulin resistance: HFr-associated increased expression and activity of NADPH oxidase, activation of redox-sensitive signals, expression of NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and some sub-arms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that EC supplementation can mitigate HFr-induced insulin resistance and are relevant for defining interventions that can prevent/mitigate MetS-associated insulin resistance.

  5. Indium and indium tin oxide induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Christen, Verena; Furrer, Gerhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-10-07

    Indium and indium tin oxide (ITO) are extensively used in electronic technologies. They may be introduced into the environment during production, use, and leaching from electronic devices at the end of their life. At present, surprisingly little is known about potential ecotoxicological implications of indium contamination. Here, molecular effects of indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and ITO nanoparticles were investigated in vitro in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) cells and in zebrafish embryos and novel insights into their molecular effects are provided. In(NO3)3 led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of transcripts of pro-apoptotic genes and TNF-α in vitro at a concentration of 247 μg/L. In(NO3)3 induced the ER stress key gene BiP at mRNA and protein level, as well as atf6, which ultimately led to induction of the important pro-apoptotic marker gene chop. The activity of In(NO3)3 on ER stress induction was much stronger than that of ITO, which is explained by differences in soluble free indium ion concentrations. The effect was also stronger in ZFL cells than in zebrafish embryos. Our study provides first evidence of ER stress and oxidative stress induction by In(NO3)3 and ITO indicating a critical toxicological profile that needs further investigation.

  6. Activation of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Attenuates Adaptive Thermogenesis via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Okla, Meshail; Wang, Wei; Kang, Inhae; Pashaj, Anjeza; Carr, Timothy; Chung, Soonkyu

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis is the cellular process transforming chemical energy into heat in response to cold. A decrease in adaptive thermogenesis is a contributing factor to obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the compromised adaptive thermogenesis in obese subjects have not yet been elucidated. In this study we hypothesized that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation and subsequent inflammatory responses are key regulators to suppress adaptive thermogenesis. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were either fed a palmitate-enriched high fat diet or administered with chronic low-dose LPS before cold acclimation. TLR4 stimulation by a high fat diet or LPS were both associated with reduced core body temperature and heat release. Impairment of thermogenic activation was correlated with diminished expression of brown-specific markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). Defective sWAT browning was concomitant with elevated levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy. Consistently, TLR4 activation by LPS abolished cAMP-induced up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in primary human adipocytes, which was reversed by silencing of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Moreover, the inactivation of ER stress by genetic deletion of CHOP or chemical chaperone conferred a resistance to the LPS-induced suppression of adaptive thermogenesis. Collectively, our data indicate the existence of a novel signaling network that links TLR4 activation, ER stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby antagonizing thermogenic activation of sWAT. Our results also suggest that TLR4/ER stress axis activation may be a responsible mechanism for obesity-mediated defective brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:26370079

  7. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress.

  8. Ischemia-like Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation Mediates Down-regulation of Cell Surface γ-Aminobutyric AcidB Receptors via the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress-induced Transcription Factor CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein (C/EBP)-homologous Protein (CHOP)*

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Patrick J.; Zemoura, Khaled; Acuña, Mario A.; Yévenes, Gonzalo E.; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Benke, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia frequently leads to long-term disability and death. Excitotoxicity is believed to be the main cause for ischemia-induced neuronal death. Although a role of glutamate receptors in this process has been firmly established, the contribution of metabotropic GABAB receptors, which control excitatory neurotransmission, is less clear. A prominent characteristic of ischemic insults is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated with the up-regulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP). After inducing ER stress in cultured cortical neurons by sustained Ca2+ release from intracellular stores or by a brief episode of oxygen and glucose deprivation (in vitro model of cerebral ischemia), we observed an increased expression of CHOP accompanied by a strong reduction of cell surface GABAB receptors. Our results indicate that down-regulation of cell surface GABAB receptors is caused by the interaction of the receptors with CHOP in the ER. Binding of CHOP prevented heterodimerization of the receptor subunits GABAB1 and GABAB2 and subsequent forward trafficking of the receptors to the cell surface. The reduced level of cell surface receptors diminished GABAB receptor signaling and, thus, neuronal inhibition. These findings indicate that ischemia-mediated up-regulation of CHOP down-regulates cell surface GABAB receptors by preventing their trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane. This mechanism leads to diminished neuronal inhibition and may contribute to excitotoxicity in cerebral ischemia. PMID:24668805

  9. Sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via downregulation of c-Met expression.

    PubMed

    He, Yihuai; Long, Jun; Zhong, Weiwei; Fu, Yu; Li, Ying; Lin, Shide

    2014-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms of impaired liver regeneration in several liver diseases remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been observed in a variety of liver diseases. The aims of this study were to explore the impacts of ER stress on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced proliferation and c-Met expression in human hepatocyte L02 cells. Human hepatocyte L02 cells were incubated with thapsigargin (TG) to induce ER stress. 4-Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) was used to rescue ER stress. Activation of glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α, and the expression of c-Met were determined by western blotting. The expression of c-Met mRNA was observed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. L02 cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. L02 cell proliferation was significantly impaired in TG-treated L02 cells from 24 to 48 h, while PBA partly restored the proliferation of L02 cells. In addition, TG treatment significantly decreased the sensitivity of L02 cells to HGF-induced proliferation. PBA partly resumed the sensitivity of L02 cells to HGF-induced proliferation. The expression of c-Met protein in L02 cells was downregulated from 6 h after TG treatment, and PBA partly restored c-Met expression inhibited by TG. The expression of c-Met mRNA was also significantly downregulated from 24 to 48 h after TG treatment. Our results strongly suggest that sustained ER stress inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via downregulation of both c-Met mRNA and protein expression in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

  10. Exhaustive exercise decreases L-type calcium current by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanzhuo; Kong, Lingfeng; Qi, Shuying; Wang, Dongmei

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated effects of exhaustive exercise on L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and the putative intracellular cascade responsible for the effects. Rats were randomly divided into three treatment groups: sedentary (without exercise), exercised to exhaustion and salubrinal injection before each exhaustive exercise period. Exercise group rats were forced to swim until exhaustion each time for 9 days with 5% body weight attached to the head. Salubrinal (1 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of placebo solution (dimethyl sulfoxide) was injected via the intraperitoneal route daily for the first 3 days, followed by subcutaneous injections of salubrinal (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo solution daily for 9 days (starting 30 min before exercise). After a 1-day recovery period, whole-cell patch clamping was used to investigate the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L), with sedentary control rats. Additionally, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein levels were analyzed. Exhaustive exercise triggered ER stress, demonstrated by elevated expression of ER stress markers: phospho-eIF2α, CCAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12. Compared to controls, ICa,L was inhibited by exhaustive exercise, which was blocked by salubrinal, a selective eIF2α dephosphorylation inhibitor used to inhibit ER stress. These results suggest that ER stress participates in regulation of ICa,L. However, exhaustive exercise did not change the voltage dependence of steady-state activation and inactivation of ICaL, and salubrinal infusion caused no difference in voltage dependence of steady-state activation and inactivation of ICa,L. Exhaustive exercise activates ER stress, thus inhibiting ICaL, which may change the action potential duration and contribute to proarrhythmia.

  11. BCL-2 family member BOK promotes apoptosis in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Marcos A.; Michaud, Michael; Zhou, Wenping; Fisher, Jill K.; Walensky, Loren D.; Katz, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) ovarian killer (BOK) is a BCL-2 family protein with high homology to the multidomain proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK, yet Bok−/− and even Bax−/−Bok−/− and Bak−/−Bok−/− mice were reported to have no overt phenotype or apoptotic defects in response to a host of classical stress stimuli. These surprising findings were interpreted to reflect functional compensation among the BAX, BAK, and BOK proteins. However, BOK cannot compensate for the severe apoptotic defects of Bax−/−Bak−/− mice despite its widespread expression. Here, we independently developed Bok−/− mice and found that Bok−/− cells are selectively defective in their response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress stimuli, consistent with the predominant subcellular localization of BOK at the ER. Whereas Bok−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts exposed to thapsigargin, A23187, brefeldin A, DTT, geldanamycin, or bortezomib manifested reduced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, the death response to other stimuli such as etoposide, staurosporine, or UV remained fully intact. Multiple organs in Bok−/− mice exhibited resistance to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis in vivo. Although the ER stress agents activated the unfolded protein response, both ATF4 and CHOP activation were diminished in Bok−/− cells and mice. Importantly, BAX and BAK were unable to compensate for the defective apoptotic response to ER stress observed in SV40-transformed and primary Bok−/− cells, and in vivo. These findings support a selective and distinguishing role for BOK in regulating the apoptotic response to ER stress, revealing—to our knowledge—the first bona fide apoptotic defect linked to Bok deletion. PMID:26015568

  12. Cyclosporine triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells: a role for endothelial phenotypic changes and death.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Nicolas; Flinois, Jean Pierre; Gilleron, Jerome; Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany; Pallet, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus are effective immunosuppressants, but both substances have the same intrinsic nephrotoxic potential that adversely affects allograft survival in renal transplant patients and causes end-stage renal disease in other solid organ or bone marrow transplant recipients. Endothelial cells are the first biological interface between drugs and the kidney, and calcineurin inhibitors may influence endothelial function and viability in a number of ways. Notably, endothelial cells have recently been shown to contribute to the accumulation of interstitial fibroblasts in nonrenal models, through endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Here we demonstrate that cyclosporine, but not tacrolimus or its metabolites, induces morphological and phenotypic endothelial changes suggestive of a partial endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human umbilical arterial endothelial cells. We identify for the first time a contingent of interstitial myofibroblasts that coexpress endothelial markers in rat kidneys treated with cyclosporine, suggesting that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition could occur in vivo. Finally, our findings suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered by cyclosporine induces endothelial cells to undergo endothelial phenotypic changes suggestive of a partial endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, whereas salubrinal partially preserves the endothelial phenotype. Inversely, tacrolimus does not induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition or endoplasmic reticulum stress. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that cyclosporine, and not tacrolimus, induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells. Our findings also suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial cell death and phenotypic changes similar to a partial endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  13. Ethanol stress impairs protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and activates Ire1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Ken-Ichi; Ishiwata-Kimata, Yuki; Kohno, Kenji; Kimata, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Impaired protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) evokes the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is triggered in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by the ER-located transmembrane protein Ire1. Here, we report that ethanol stress damages protein folding in the ER, causing activation of Ire1 in yeast cells. The UPR likely contributes to the ethanol tolerance of yeast cells.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in apoptosis of detrusor muscle in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongwen; Yuan, Xiaobin; Hu, Caoyang; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Hongfei; Wang, Dong; Chi, Junjie; Jing, Qiang; Wu, Shulin; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been proven to be associated with apoptosis and plays a critical role in the development of many diabetic complications. In the pathogenesis of diabetic cystopathy (DCP), the role of ERS is still unclear. Our study is aimed at the investigation of the involvement of ERS-associated detrusor muscle apoptosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. At different timepoints (4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction of type 1 diabetic rat models), hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining was performed to assess the histological changes of the diabetic detrusor; the sub-cellular ultrastructure, especially the zone of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to identify the enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of three hallmarks of ERS-associated apoptosis, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase12, was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Light microscopic impairments of histology, including progressive loosely packed muscle bundles and increased fibrous tissue, can be seen; the ultrastructural changes featuring the swollen and fused cisternaes in ER zone and deformed nucleus were also observed in the detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). Increased apoptosis and elevated expression of GRP78, CHOP, and caspase12 at both protein and mRNA levels in a time-dependent fashion were detected. The occurrence of ERS-associated apoptosis may be involved in the development of DCP and may contribute to the diabetic detrusor impairment. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:65-72, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Molecular analysis of oxalate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated apoptosis in the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, Albert; Benita, Shaly; Kumari, Monika; Ganesan, Divya; Paul, Eldho; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Mahesh, Ayyavu; Yuvaraj, Subramani; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2017-09-05

    Oxalate, a non-essential end product of metabolism, causes hyperoxaluria and eventually calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease. Kidney cells exposed to oxalate stress results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and progression of stone formation. Perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) result in accumulation of misfolded proteins and Ca(2+) ions homeostasis imbalance and serve as a common pathway for various diseases, including kidney disorders. ER stress induces up-regulation of pro-survival protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and pro-apoptotic signaling protein C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Since the association of oxalate toxicity and ER stress on renal cell damage is uncertain, the present study is an attempt to elucidate the interaction of GRP78 with oxalate by computational analysis and study the role of ER stress in oxalate-mediated apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Molecular docking results showed that GRP78-oxalate/CaOx interaction takes place. Oxalate stress significantly up-regulated expression of ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP both in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of oxalate increased ROS generation and altered antioxidant enzyme activities. N-Acetyl cysteine treatment significantly ameliorated oxalate-mediated oxidative stress and moderately attenuated ER stress marker expression. The result indicates oxalate toxicity initiated oxidative stress-induced ER stress and also activating ER stress mediated apoptosis directly. In addition, the up-regulation of transforming growth factor β-1 revealed oxalate may induce kidney fibrosis through ER stress-mediated mechanisms. The present study provide insights into the pathogenic role of oxidative and ER stress by oxalate exposure in the formation of calcium oxalate stone.

  16. XBP1 mitigates aminoglycoside-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, N; Duscha, S; Boukari, H; Meyer, M; Xie, J; Wei, G; Schrepfer, T; Roschitzki, B; Boettger, E C; Schacht, J

    2015-01-01

    Here we study links between aminoglycoside-induced mistranslation, protein misfolding and neuropathy. We demonstrate that aminoglycosides induce misreading in mammalian cells and assess endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Genome-wide transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed upregulation of genes related to protein folding and degradation. Quantitative PCR confirmed induction of UPR markers including C/EBP homologous protein, glucose-regulated protein 94, binding immunoglobulin protein and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing, which is crucial for UPR activation. We studied the effect of a compromised UPR on aminoglycoside ototoxicity in haploinsufficient XBP1 (XBP1+/−) mice. Intra-tympanic aminoglycoside treatment caused high-frequency hearing loss in XBP1+/− mice but not in wild-type littermates. Densities of spiral ganglion cells and synaptic ribbons were decreased in gentamicin-treated XBP1+/− mice, while sensory cells were preserved. Co-injection of the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated hearing loss. These results suggest that aminoglycoside-induced ER stress and cell death in spiral ganglion neurons is mitigated by XBP1, masking aminoglycoside neurotoxicity at the organismal level. PMID:25973683

  17. Intracellular Accumulation of Gold Nanoparticles Leads to Inhibition of Macropinocytosis to Reduce the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Nuray; Ceylan, Hakan; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials remains largely limited to acute cellular response, i.e., short-term in vitro cell-death based assays, and analyses of tissue- and organ-level accumulation and clearance patterns in animal models, which have produced very little information about how these materials (from the toxicity point of view) interact with the complex intracellular machinery. In particular, understanding the mechanism of toxicity caused by the gradual accumulation of nanomaterials due to prolonged exposure times is essential yet still continue to be a largely unexplored territory. Herein, we show intracellular accumulation and the associated toxicity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for over two-months in the cultured vascular endothelial cells. We observed that steady exposure of AuNPs at low (non-lethal) dose leads to rapid intracellular accumulation without causing any detectable cell death while resulting in elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Above a certain intracellular AuNP threshold, inhibition of macropinocytosis mechanism ceases further nanoparticle uptake. Interestingly, the intracellular depletion of nanoparticles is irreversible. Once reaching the maximum achievable intracellular dose, a steady depletion is observed, while no cell death is observed at any stage of this overall process. This depletion is important for reducing the ER stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting active regulation of nanoparticle uptake by cells and the impact of long-term exposure to nanoparticles in vitro. PMID:28145529

  18. Intracellular Accumulation of Gold Nanoparticles Leads to Inhibition of Macropinocytosis to Reduce the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, Nuray; Ceylan, Hakan; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials remains largely limited to acute cellular response, i.e., short-term in vitro cell-death based assays, and analyses of tissue- and organ-level accumulation and clearance patterns in animal models, which have produced very little information about how these materials (from the toxicity point of view) interact with the complex intracellular machinery. In particular, understanding the mechanism of toxicity caused by the gradual accumulation of nanomaterials due to prolonged exposure times is essential yet still continue to be a largely unexplored territory. Herein, we show intracellular accumulation and the associated toxicity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for over two-months in the cultured vascular endothelial cells. We observed that steady exposure of AuNPs at low (non-lethal) dose leads to rapid intracellular accumulation without causing any detectable cell death while resulting in elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Above a certain intracellular AuNP threshold, inhibition of macropinocytosis mechanism ceases further nanoparticle uptake. Interestingly, the intracellular depletion of nanoparticles is irreversible. Once reaching the maximum achievable intracellular dose, a steady depletion is observed, while no cell death is observed at any stage of this overall process. This depletion is important for reducing the ER stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting active regulation of nanoparticle uptake by cells and the impact of long-term exposure to nanoparticles in vitro.

  19. Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

  20. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  1. Arsenic induces cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts through endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, C.-H.; Chiu, Y.-C.; Huang, C.-F.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chen, P.-C.

    2009-12-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass resulting from an imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Therefore, decreased bone formation by osteoblasts may lead to the development of osteoporosis, and rate of apoptosis is responsible for the regulation of bone formation. Arsenic (As) exists ubiquitously in our environment and increases the risk of neurotoxicity, liver injury, peripheral vascular disease and cancer. However, the effect of As on apoptosis of osteoblasts is mostly unknown. Here, we found that As induced cell apoptosis in osteoblastic cell lines (including hFOB, MC3T3-E1 and MG-63) and mouse bone marrow stromal cells (M2-10B4). As also induced upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2 and dysfunction of mitochondria in osteoblasts. As also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosolic-calcium levels. We found that As increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced As-mediated cell apoptosis in osteoblasts. Therefore, our results suggest that As increased cell apoptosis in cultured osteoblasts and increased the risk of osteoporosis.

  2. Patenting the gene-hubs of endoplasmic reticulum stress: the systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Aldao, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented and accelerated process of privatizing biological information is emerging from the new techniques of systems biology as they are used to develop novel treatments to key multigenic ailments that account for a large share of mortality world-wide, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, and diabetes. The systems approach potentially allows the capture of proprietary knowledge at the cross-roads of the flow of biological information preceding these diseases, namely, from the endoplasmic reticulum stress response downstream to inflammation and disease. Although it still holds true that such pathways cannot be patented, methods and chemical substances discussed here are the subject of patents and applications by major research universities and biopharmaceutical companies to a considerable degree of overlapping information. Because biological information pathways are organized into hierarchical networks, the race seems to be on the regulation of the upstream functional modules, and because these complex networks are dominated by gene-hubs and their translation products, the winner will be the one that can appropriate specific and well described methods and substances to control the upper levels of regulation of the entire system. The road to success, however, lays formidable obstacles ahead due to the long and difficult processes separating applications being filed, from patents already issued and these from those that have survived validity litigation. It will be expected that for the sake of mankind, patents pools will be offered to develop novel therapeutics based on the biological information controlled by gene-hubs.

  3. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  4. Brain Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mechanistically Distinguishes the Saline-Intake and Hypertensive Response to DOCA-Salt

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Fusakazu; Jo, Hiromi; Hilzendeger, Aline M.; Thompson, Anthony P.; Cassell, Martin D.; Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Davisson, Robin L.; Grobe, Justin L.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress has become an important mechanism in hypertension. We examined the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in mediating the increased saline intake and hypertensive effects in response to DOCA-salt. Intracerebroventricular delivery of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-reducing chemical chaperone Tauroursodeoxycholic acid did not affect the magnitude of hypertension, but markedly decreased saline intake in response to DOCA-salt. Increased saline intake returned after Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was terminated. Decreased saline intake was also observed after intracerebroventricular infusion of 4-phenylbutyrate, another chemical chaperone. Immunoreactivity to CHOP, a marker of irremediable endoplasmic reticulum stress, was increased in the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus of DOCA-salt mice, but the signal was absent in control and CHOP-deficient mice. Electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum structure (decrease in membrane length, swollen membranes, and decreased ribosome numbers) in the subfornical organ consistent with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Subfornical organ-targeted adenoviral delivery of GRP78, a resident endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, decreased DOCA-salt-induced saline intake. The increase in saline intake in response to DOCA-salt was blunted in CHOP-deficient mice, but these mice exhibited a normal hypertensive response. We conclude: 1) brain endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the saline intake, but not blood pressure response to DOCA-salt, 2) DOCA-salt causes endoplasmic reticulum stress in the SFO which when attenuated by GRP78 blunts saline intake, and 3) CHOP may play a functional role in DOCA-salt-induced saline intake. The results suggest a mechanistic distinction between the importance of endoplasmic reticulum stress in mediating effects of DOCA-salt on saline intake and blood pressure. PMID:25895586

  5. Fenofibrate does not affect burn-induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Yaeko; Marshall, Alexandra H; Kraft, Robert; Arno, Anna; Jeschke, Marc G

    2013-12-01

    Burn injury causes major metabolic derangements such as hypermetabolism, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance and is associated with liver damage, hepatomegaly, and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although the physiological consequences of such derangements have been delineated, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Previously, it was shown that fenofibrate improves patient outcome by attenuating postburn stress responses. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist, regulates liver lipid metabolism and has been used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia for many years. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of fenofibrate on burn-induced hepatic morphologic and metabolic changes. We randomized rats to sham, burn injury, and burn injury plus fenofibrate. Animals were sacrificed and livers were assessed at 24 or 48 h post burn. Burn injury decreased albumin and increased alanine transaminase (P = 0.1 versus sham), indicating liver injury. Fenofibrate administration did not restore albumin or decrease alanine transaminase. In addition, ER stress was significantly increased after burn injury both with and without fenofibrate (P < 0.05 versus sham). Burn injury increased fatty acid metabolism gene expression (P < 0.05 versus sham), downstream of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Fenofibrate treatment increased fatty acid metabolism further, which reduced postburn hepatic steatosis (burn versus sham P < 0.05, burn + fenofibrate versus sham not significant). Fenofibrate did not alleviate thermal injury-induced hepatic ER stress and dysfunction, but it reduced hepatic steatosis by modulating hepatic genes related to fat metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Potential Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Progesterone Deficiency in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nozomi; Harada, Miyuki; Hirota, Yasushi; Zhao, Lin; Azhary, Jerilee M K; Yoshino, Osamu; Izumi, Gentaro; Hirata, Tetsuya; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in reproductive-aged women is associated with a shorter luteal phase and lower progesterone levels. Lipid accumulation in follicles of obese women compromises endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, activating ER stress in granulosa cells. We hypothesized that ER stress activation in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) would modulate progesterone production and contribute to obesity-associated progesterone deficiency. Pretreatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone production in cultured human GLCs. Pretreatment of human GLCs with tunicamycin inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) without affecting expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with tunicamycin also inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of StAR protein and 3β-HSD enzyme activity in cultured human GLCs, as determined by Western blot analysis and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively, but did not affect hCG-induced intracellular 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Furthermore, tunicamycin attenuated hCG-induced protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. In vivo administration of tunicamycin to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-treated immature mice prior to hCG treatment inhibited the hCG-stimulated increase in serum progesterone levels and hCG-induced expression of StAR and 3β-HSD mRNA in the ovary without affecting serum estradiol levels or the number of corpora lutea. Our findings indicate that ER stress in the follicles of obese women contributes to progesterone deficiency by inhibiting hCG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  7. Short communication: Endoplasmic reticulum stress gene network expression in bovine mammary tissue during the lactation cycle.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, G; Naeem, A; Loor, J J

    2012-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a crucial role in cellular metabolism. Recent studies in nonruminants discovered that components of the ER stress pathway, induced during the unfolded protein response, play critical roles in regulating lipogenesis. The bovine mammary gland faces extreme metabolic stress at the onset of lactation due primarily to the increase in flux through pathways associated with milk fat and protein synthesis. Our objective was to study, via quantitative real-time PCR, the expression of the ER stress pathway components P58IPK, PERK, XBP1, ATF4, ATF3, ATF6, CHOP, MBTPS1, GRP94, and BiP in mammary tissue (n=7 cows × 5 time points) collected at -15, 1, 15, 60, and 240 d relative to parturition. Expression of P58IPK and ATF4 increased to a peak at d 60, followed by a decrease by d 240 postpartum. Despite the decrease in expression by 240 d, P58IPK remained higher than prepartal levels (d -15). Expression patterns of ATF3 and CHOP were similar and peaked at d 15, followed by a decrease through d 240, at which point CHOP expression was still greater than prepartal levels. The sharp increase in milk production postpartum (d 15) as well as apoptosis during late lactation (240 d) may have induced a pseudo unfolded protein response state. This is supported by the similar expression patterns of P58IPK and PERK. In the context of lactation, however, transcriptional changes in the ER stress pathway at different stages of the lactation cycle are a normal aspect of the tissue's adaptation to the changing physiological state. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Cell Fate Decision and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Stewart Siyan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle for the folding and trafficking of proteins, which is highly sensitive to changes in intracellular homeostasis and extracellular stimuli. Alterations in the protein-folding environment cause accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER that profoundly affect a variety of cellular signaling processes, including reduction–oxidation (redox) homeostasis, energy production, inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a collection of adaptive signaling pathways that evolved to resolve protein misfolding and restore an efficient protein-folding environment. Recent Advances: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to ER stress and the UPR. ROS play a critical role in many cellular processes and can be produced in the cytosol and several organelles, including the ER and mitochondria. Studies suggest that altered redox homeostasis in the ER is sufficient to cause ER stress, which could, in turn, induce the production of ROS in the ER and mitochondria. Critical Issues: Although ER stress and oxidative stress coexist in many pathologic states, whether and how these stresses interact is unknown. It is also unclear how changes in the protein-folding environment in the ER cause oxidative stress. In addition, how ROS production and protein misfolding commit the cell to an apoptotic death and contribute to various degenerative diseases is unknown. Future Directions: A greater fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that preserve protein folding homeostasis and redox status will provide new information toward the development of novel therapeutics for many human diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 396–413. PMID:24702237

  9. Lipocalin-2 Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation by Augmenting Intracellular Iron in Human Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Shenghua; Wang, Li; Meng, Liukun; Cui, Chuanjue; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Ma, Ning; Wei, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a feature of many conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), is increasingly recognized as a common response to promote proliferation in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Increased expression of Lipocalin-2 in PH led us to test the hypothesis that Lipocalin-2, a protein known to sequester iron and regulate it intracellularly, might facilitate the ER stress and proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). In this study, we observed greatly increased Lcn2 expression accompanied with increased ATF6 cleavage in a standard rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline. In cultured human PASMCs, Lcn2 significantly promoted ER stress (determined by augmented cleavage and nuclear localization of ATF6, up-regulated transcription of GRP78 and NOGO, increased expression of SOD2, and mild augmented mitochondrial membrane potential) and proliferation (assessed by Ki67 staining and BrdU incorporation). Lcn2 promoted ER stress accompanied with augmented intracellular iron levels in human PASMCs. Treatment human PASMCs with FeSO4 induced the similar ER stress and proliferation response and iron chelator (deferoxamine) abrogated the ER stress and proliferation induced by Lcn2 in cultured human PASMCs. In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly promoted human PASMC ER stress and proliferation by augmenting intracellular iron. The up-regulation of Lcn2 probably involved in the pathogenesis and progression of PH. PMID:28255266

  10. Lipocalin-2 Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation by Augmenting Intracellular Iron in Human Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Shenghua; Wang, Li; Meng, Liukun; Cui, Chuanjue; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Ma, Ning; Wei, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a feature of many conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), is increasingly recognized as a common response to promote proliferation in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Increased expression of Lipocalin-2 in PH led us to test the hypothesis that Lipocalin-2, a protein known to sequester iron and regulate it intracellularly, might facilitate the ER stress and proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). In this study, we observed greatly increased Lcn2 expression accompanied with increased ATF6 cleavage in a standard rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline. In cultured human PASMCs, Lcn2 significantly promoted ER stress (determined by augmented cleavage and nuclear localization of ATF6, up-regulated transcription of GRP78 and NOGO, increased expression of SOD2, and mild augmented mitochondrial membrane potential) and proliferation (assessed by Ki67 staining and BrdU incorporation). Lcn2 promoted ER stress accompanied with augmented intracellular iron levels in human PASMCs. Treatment human PASMCs with FeSO4 induced the similar ER stress and proliferation response and iron chelator (deferoxamine) abrogated the ER stress and proliferation induced by Lcn2 in cultured human PASMCs. In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly promoted human PASMC ER stress and proliferation by augmenting intracellular iron. The up-regulation of Lcn2 probably involved in the pathogenesis and progression of PH.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates Methamphetamine-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage.

    PubMed

    Qie, Xiaojuan; Wen, Di; Guo, Hongyan; Xu, Guanjie; Liu, Shuai; Shen, Qianchao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wenfang; Cong, Bin; Ma, Chunling

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes serious health problems worldwide, and long-term use of METH disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we explored the potential mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in METH-induced BBB endothelial cell damage in vitro and the therapeutic potential of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitors for METH-induced BBB disruption in C57BL/6J mice. Exposure of immortalized BMVEC (bEnd.3) cells to METH significantly decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, and diminished the tightness of cell monolayers. METH activated ER stress sensor proteins, including PERK, ATF6, and IRE1, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic protein CHOP. The ER stress inhibitors significantly blocked the upregulation of CHOP. Knockdown of CHOP protected bEnd.3 cells from METH-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, METH elevated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced the dysfunction of mitochondrial characterized by a Bcl2/Bax ratio decrease, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and cytochrome c. ER stress release was partially reversed by ROS inhibition, and cytochrome c release was partially blocked by knockdown of CHOP. Finally, PBA significantly attenuated METH-induced sodium fluorescein (NaFluo) and Evans Blue leakage, as well as tight junction protein loss, in C57BL/6J mice. These data suggest that BBB endothelial cell damage was caused by METH-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which further induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and that PBA was an effective treatment for METH-induced BBB disruption.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment protein 3 knockdown suppresses lung cancer through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seung-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kim, Sanghwa; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ah Young; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Somin; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Seo, Hwi Won; Chae, Chanhee; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jongsun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-10-04

    Trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus is elevated in cancer cells. Therefore, proteins of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) attract significant attention as targets for cancer treatment. Enhanced cancer cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by ERGICs correlates with poor-prognosis of lung cancer. This prompted us to assess whether knockdown of ERGIC3 may decrease lung cancer growth. To test the hypothesis, the effects of ERGIC3 short hairpin RNA (shERGIC3) on ER stress-induced cell death and lung tumorigenesis were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of ERGIC3 led to ER stress-induced autophagic cell death and suppression of proliferation in the A549 human lung cancer cell-line. Moreover, non-invasive aerosol-delivery of shERGIC3 using the biocompatible carrier glycerol propoxylate triacrylate and spermine (GPT-SPE) inhibited lung tumorigenesis in the K-rasLA1 murine model of lung cancer. Our data suggest that suppression of ERGIC3 could provide a framework for the development of effective lung cancer therapies.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment protein 3 knockdown suppresses lung cancer through endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seung-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Kim, Sanghwa; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ah Young; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Somin; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Seo, Hwi Won; Chae, Chanhee; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jongsun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus is elevated in cancer cells. Therefore, proteins of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) attract significant attention as targets for cancer treatment. Enhanced cancer cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by ERGICs correlates with poor-prognosis of lung cancer. This prompted us to assess whether knockdown of ERGIC3 may decrease lung cancer growth. To test the hypothesis, the effects of ERGIC3 short hairpin RNA (shERGIC3) on ER stress-induced cell death and lung tumorigenesis were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of ERGIC3 led to ER stress-induced autophagic cell death and suppression of proliferation in the A549 human lung cancer cell-line. Moreover, non-invasive aerosol-delivery of shERGIC3 using the biocompatible carrier glycerol propoxylate triacrylate and spermine (GPT-SPE) inhibited lung tumorigenesis in the K-rasLA1 murine model of lung cancer. Our data suggest that suppression of ERGIC3 could provide a framework for the development of effective lung cancer therapies. PMID:27588471

  14. Modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis by mulberry leaf diet in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Ma, Meilei; Giridharan, Vijayasree V.; Arozal, Wawaimuli; Sari, Flori R.; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Lakshmanan, Arunprasath; Soetikno, Vivian; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Mulberry is commonly used as silkworm diet and an alternative medicine in Japan and China, has recently reported to contain many antioxidative flavanoid compounds and having the free radical scavenging effects. Antioxidants reduce cardiac oxidative stress and attenuate cardiac dysfunction in animals with pacing-induced congestive heart failure. Hence we investigated the cardioprotective effect of mulberry leaf powder in rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Eight-week-old Lewis rats immunized with cardiac myosin were fed with either normal chow or a diet containing 5% mulberry leaf powder and were examined on day 21. ML significantly decreased oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis, cellular infiltration, cardiac fibrosis, mast cell density, myocardial levels of sarco/endo-plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase2, p22phox, receptor for advanced glycation end products, phospho-p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase, glucose regulated protein78, caspase12 and osteopontin levels in EAM rats. These results may suggest that mulberry diet can preserve the cardiac function in experimental autoimmune myocarditis by modulating oxidative stress induced MAPK activation and further afford protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated apoptosis. PMID:22448095

  15. The endoplasmic reticulum stress and the HIF-1 signalling pathways are involved in the neuronal damage caused by chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    López-Hernández, Beatriz; Ceña, Valentin; Posadas, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) promotes transitory neuronal survival suggesting that additional mechanisms such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress might be involved in determining neuronal survival or death. Here, we examined the involvement of ER stress in hypoxia-induced neuronal death and analysed the relationship between ER stress and the HIF-1 pathways. Experimental Approach Cultures of rat cortical neurons were exposed to chemical hypoxia induced by 200 μM CoCl2, and its effect on neuronal viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and counting apoptotic nuclei. Protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. RT-PCR was performed to analyse the content and the t1/2 of HIF-1α mRNA. Key Results Chemical hypoxia induced neuronal apoptosis in a time-dependent manner and activated the ER stress PRK-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-dependent pathway. At later stages, chemical hypoxia increased the expression of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12 activity. CoCl2 reduced HIF-1α mRNA t1/2 leading to a decrease in HIF-1α mRNA and protein content, simultaneously activating the ER stress PERK-dependent pathway. Salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of phospho-eIF2α phosphatase, protected neurons from chemical hypoxia by reducing CHOP levels and caspase 12 activity, and increasing the t1/2 of HIF-1α mRNA and the levels of HIF-1α protein. Knocking down HIF-1α blocked the neuroprotective effects of salubrinal. Conclusions and Implications Neuronal apoptosis induced by chemical hypoxia is a process regulated by HIF-1α stabilization early on and by ER stress activation at later stages. Our data also suggested that HIF-1α levels were regulated by ER stress. PMID:25625917

  16. A Phytophthora sojae effector suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated immunity by stabilizing plant Binding immunoglobulin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Maofeng; Guo, Baodian; Li, Haiyang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Haonan; Kong, Guanghui; Zhao, Yao; Xu, Huawei; Wang, Yan; Ye, Wenwu; Dong, Suomeng; Qiao, Yongli; Tyler, Brett M.; Ma, Wenbo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora pathogens secrete an array of specific effector proteins to manipulate host innate immunity to promote pathogen colonization. However, little is known about the host targets of effectors and the specific mechanisms by which effectors increase susceptibility. Here we report that the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae uses an essential effector PsAvh262 to stabilize endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-luminal binding immunoglobulin proteins (BiPs), which act as negative regulators of plant resistance to Phytophthora. By stabilizing BiPs, PsAvh262 suppresses ER stress-triggered cell death and facilitates Phytophthora infection. The direct targeting of ER stress regulators may represent a common mechanism of host manipulation by microbes. PMID:27256489

  17. Peroxisome Deficiency Causes a Complex Phenotype because of Hepatic SREBP/Insig Dysregulation Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Werner J.; Tape, Khanichi N.; Shackelford, Janis E.; Wikander, Thomas M.; Richards, Michael J.; Fliesler, Steven J.; Krisans, Skaidrite K.; Faust, Phyllis L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, lipogenesis, and insulin signaling intersect at the transcriptional level by control of SREBP and Insig genes. We previously demonstrated that peroxisome-deficient PEX2-/- mice activate SREBP-2 pathways but are unable to maintain normal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that oral bile acid treatment normalized hepatic and plasma cholesterol levels and hepatic cholesterol synthesis in early postnatal PEX2 mutants, but SREBP-2 and its target gene expressions remained increased. SREBP-2 pathway induction was also observed in neonatal and longer surviving PEX2 mutants, where hepatic cholesterol levels were normal. Abnormal expression patterns for SREBP-1c and Insig-2a, and novel regulation of Insig-2b, further demonstrate that peroxisome deficiency widely affects the regulation of related metabolic pathways. We have provided the first demonstration that peroxisome deficiency activates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, especially the integrated stress response mediated by PERK and ATF4 signaling. Our studies suggest a mechanism whereby ER stress leads to dysregulation of the endogenous sterol response mechanism and concordantly activates oxidative stress pathways. Several metabolic derangements in peroxisome-deficient PEX2-/- liver are likely to trigger ER stress, including perturbed flux of mevalonate metabolites, altered bile acid homeostasis, changes in fatty acid levels and composition, and oxidative stress. PMID:19110480

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum stress/autophagy pathway is involved in cholesterol-induced pancreatic β-cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fei-Juan; Wu, Jia-Hua; Sun, Shui-Ya; Zhou, Jia-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Lipotoxicity has been implicated in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. The current study explored the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in cholesterol-induced lipotoxicity. Two different insulinoma cell lines were treated with cholesterol with or without inhibitors. ER stress-associated proteins glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), as was phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (EIF) 2α, were all up-regulated by cholesterol. Cholesterol also up-regulated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and stimulated the formation of autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II aggregates. Cholesterol-induced autophagy and cell injuries were suppressed by pretreatment with the ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA). Pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors E-64d/pepstatin A increased ER stress-induced cell injuries as indicated by increased cell apoptosis and decreased insulin secretion. These results suggest that cholesterol treatment induces apoptosis and dysfunction of β-cells, and enhances autophagy through activation of the ER stress pathway. More importantly, autophagy induced by cholesterol may protect β-cells against ER stress-associated cell damages. PMID:28294183

  19. PFKFB3 modulates glycolytic metabolism and alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress in human osteoarthritis cartilage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jining; Lu, Daigang; Guo, Hua; Miao, Wusheng; Wu, Ge; Zhou, Meifen

    2016-03-01

    Glycolytic disorder has been demonstrated to be a major cause of osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocyte dysfunction. The present work aimed to investigate the expression and role of the glycolytic regulator 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in OA cartilage. It was found that PFKFB3 expression was down-regulated in human OA cartilage tissues and in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α- or interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes. The glycolytic metabolism appeared as glucose utilization and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, and lactate production was stunted in OA cartilage. However, the impaired glycolytic process in OA cartilage was improved by PFKFB3 overexpression, which was confirmed in TNF-α- or IL-1β-treated chondrocytes. Furthermore, the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated genes including PERK, ATF3, IRE1, phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α) and MMP13 were enhanced in OA cartilage explants, while they were decreased by AdPFKFB3 transfection. PFKFB3 also modulated the expressions of PERK, ATF3, IRE1, p-eIF2α and MMP13 in tunicamycin-exposed chondrocytes. Additionally, PFKFB3 improved the cell viability of OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes through the PI3K/Akt/C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) signalling pathway. The transfection of AdPFKFB3 also significantly reduced caspase 3 activation and promoted aggrecan and type II collagen expressions in OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes. In all, this study characterizes a novel role of PFKFB3 in glycolytic metabolism and ER stress of OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes. The study might provide a potential target for OA prevention or therapy.

  20. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Methods Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5–5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Results Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress modulates nicotine-induced extracellular matrix degradation in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-I; Kang, K-L; Shin, S-I; Herr, Y; Lee, Y-M; Kim, E-C

    2012-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors for periodontitis. For example, about half the risk of periodontitis can be attributable to smoking in the USA. It is evident that smokers have greater bone loss, greater attachment loss and deeper periodontal pockets than nonsmoking patients. It has recently been reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers are upregulated in periodontitis patients; however, the direct effects of nicotine on ER stress in regard to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation are unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of nicotine on cytotoxicity and expression of ER stress markers, selected ECM molecules and MMPs, and to identify the underlying mechanisms in human periodontal ligament cells. We also examined whether ER stress was responsible for the nicotine-induced cytotoxicity and ECM degradation. Cytotoxicity and cell death were measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometric annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The mRNA and protein expressions of MMPs and ER markers were examined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Treatment with nicotine reduced cell viability and increased the proportion of annexin V-negative, propidium iodide-positive cells, an indication of cell death. Nicotine induced ER stress, as evidenced by survival molecules, such as phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER-resident kinase, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α and glucose-regulated protein-78, and apoptotic molecules, such as CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Nicotine treatment led to the downregulation of ECM molecules, including collagen type I, elastin and fibronectin, and upregulation of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9). Inhibition of ER stress by salubrinal and transfection of CHOP small interfering RNA attenuated the nicotine-induced cell death, ECM degradation and production of MMPs. Salubrinal and CHOP small

  2. Bufalin induces the interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in glioma cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuying; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Rui; Gong, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are common primary tumors of the central nervous system. The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma is poor in spite of current intensive therapy and thus novel therapeutic modalities are necessary. Bufalin is the major component of Chan-Su (a traditional Chinese medicine) extracts from the venom of Bufo gargarizan. In this study, we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of bufalin on glioma cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that bufalin inhibited the growth of glioma cells significantly. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that bufalin induced apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, bufalin was also found to induce ER stress-mediated apoptosis, which was supported by the up- regulation of ER stress markers, CHOP and GRP78, and augmented phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α as well as cleavage of caspase-4. Downregulation of CHOP using siCHOP RNA attenuated bufalin-induced apoptosis, further confirming the role of ER stress response in mediating bufalin-induced apoptosis. Evidence of bufalin-induced autophagy included formation of the acidic vesicular organelles, increase of autophagolysosomes and LC3-II accumulation. Further experiments showed that the mechanism of bufalin-induced autophagy associated with ATP deleption involved an increase in the active form of AMPK, decreased phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream targets 4EBP1 and p70S6K1. Furthermore, TUDC and silencing of eIF2α or CHOP partially blocked bufalin-induced accumulation of LC3-II, which indicated that ER stress preceded bufalin-induced autophagy and PERK/eIF2α/CHOP signaling pathway played a major part in the process. Blockage of autophagy increased expression of ER stress associated proteins and the ratio of apoptosis, indicating that autophagy played a cytoprotective role in bufalin induced ER stress and cell death. In conclusion, bufalin inhibits glioma cell growth and induces interplay between

  3. Uric acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers phenotypic change in rat glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Shaoli; Wang, Xinyang; Hao, Yaning

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the contribution and the mechanism of uric acid (UA) to phenotypic change in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were exposed to UA (0.05 mmol/L to 0.4 mmol/L) for 24 h to 48 h. Subsequently, 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) (5 mg/dL) was added and 48 h incubation was performed. HBZY-1 cells exposed to UA (0.4 mmol/L) were incubated for 48 h. After incubation, the cells were examined under an inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope to observe their morphologies and the expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), fibronectin (FN), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) proteins and mRNA in the HBZY-1 cells were measured by Western blot and reversed transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HBZY-1 cultured in UA showed evident morphological changes under transmission electron microscopy. The soluble UA stimulated the upregulation of the α-SMA, TGF-β1 and FN mRNA and proteins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. UA-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expressions of GRP78 and PDI. However, the upregulation was reverted by 4-PBA, an inhibitor of ER stress. Uric acid induces phenotypic change in HBZY-1 cells. ER stress plays a central role in UA-induced phenotypic transformation in vitro. 4-PBA may be beneficial in attenuating UA-induced glomerular injury. © 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  4. Effects of bevacizumab on endoplasmic reticulum stress in hypoxic retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hee; Kim, Moosang; Oh, Jong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of bevacizumab on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. RPE cells (ARPE-19) were cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) with or without bevacizumab (0.3125 mg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was measured by a PrestoBlue assay. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), binding protein/glucose-regulated protein 78 (BiP/GRP78), and C/EBP homologous protein-10 (CHOP) mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). BiP/GRP78 and CHOP protein levels in the cells were assessed by western blot. VEGF protein in the media was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under hypoxic conditions, cell viability decreased and mRNA and protein levels of VEGF, BiP/GRP78, and CHOP increased compared to those under normoxic conditions. Bevacizumab improved cell viability and reduced the expression of VEGF mRNA under hypoxic conditions. Bevacizumab also reduced the expression of both mRNA and protein of two ER stress indicators, BiP/GRP78 and CHOP, under hypoxic conditions. Bevacizumab mitigated ER stress in human RPE cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. This effect may be involved in the improved cell viability and reduction of VEGF expression after bevacizumab treatment of hypoxic RPE cells in vitro. However, the effects of bevacizumab on RPE cells under experimental conditions are unlikely to be clinically equivalent to those in the human eye.

  5. Excessive eccentric exercise-induced overtraining model leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno C; da Rocha, Alisson L; Pinto, Ana P; Pauli, José R; de Souza, Claudio T; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; de Freitas, Ellen C; Zagatto, Alessandro M; da Silva, Adelino S R

    2016-01-15

    The present study verified the responses of selected endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (i.e., BiP, ATF-6, pIRE1, pPERK, and peIF2alpha) in mice skeletal muscles after three different running overtraining (OT) protocols with same external load (i.e., intensity vs. volume), but performed in downhill, uphill and without inclination. The rodents were randomly divided into control (CT; sedentary mice), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up) and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR) groups. The incremental load test and exhaustive test were used as performance parameters. Forty hours after the exhaustive test performed at the end of the OT protocols (i.e., at the end of week 8) and after a 2-week total recovery period (i.e., at the end of week 10), the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles were removed and used for immunoblotting. For both skeletal muscle types, the OTR/down protocol increased the pIRE-1, pPERK and peIF2alpha, which were not normalized after the total recovery period. At the end of week 8, the other two OT protocols up-regulated the BiP, pPERK and peIF2alpha levels only for the soleus muscle. These ER stress proteins were not normalized after the total recovery period for the OTR/up group. The above findings suggest that the OTR/down protocol-induced skeletal muscle ER stress may be linked to a pathological condition in EDL and soleus muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of 1-((1,4-trans)-4-Aryloxycyclohexyl)-3-arylurea Activators of Heme-Regulated Inhibitor as Selective Activators of the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Alpha (eIF2α) Phosphorylation Arm of the Integrated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Yefidoff-Freedman, Revital; Fan, Jing; Yan, Lu; Zhang, Qingwen; Dos Santos, Guillermo Rodrigo Reis; Rana, Sandeep; Contreras, Jacob I; Sahoo, Rupam; Wan, Debin; Young, Jun; Dias Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Morisseau, Christophe; Halperin, Jose; Hammock, Bruce; Natarajan, Amarnath; Wang, Peimin; Chorev, Michael; Aktas, Bertal H

    2017-07-13

    Heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), an eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) kinase, plays critical roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, adaptation to stress, and hemoglobin disorders. HRI phosphorylates eIF2α, which couples cellular signals, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, to translation. We previously identified 1,3-diarylureas and 1-((1,4-trans)-4-aryloxycyclohexyl)-3-arylureas (cHAUs) as specific activators of HRI that trigger the eIF2α phosphorylation arm of ER stress response as molecular probes for studying HRI biology and its potential as a druggable target. To develop drug-like cHAUs needed for in vivo studies, we undertook bioassay-guided structure-activity relationship studies and tested them in the surrogate eIF2α phosphorylation and cell proliferation assays. We further evaluated some of these cHAUs in endogenous eIF2α phosphorylation and in the expression of the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and its mRNA, demonstrating significantly improved solubility and/or potencies. These cHAUs are excellent candidates for lead optimization for development of investigational new drugs that potently and specifically activate HRI.

  7. Mechanical stretch-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and inflammation contribute to thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li-Xin; Zhang, Wen-Mei; Zhang, Hong-Jia; Li, Tao-Tao; Wang, Yue-Li; Qin, Yan-Wen; Gu, Hong; Du, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection (TAAD) is characterized by excessive smooth muscle cell (SMC) loss, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and inflammation. In response to certain stimuli, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated and regulates apoptosis and inflammation. Excessive apoptosis promotes aortic inflammation and degeneration, leading to TAAD. Therefore, we studied the role of ER stress in TAAD formation. A lysyl oxidase inhibitor, 3-aminopropionitrile fumarate (BAPN), was administrated to induce TAAD formation in mice, which showed significant SMC loss (α-SMA level). Excessive apoptosis (TUNEL staining) and ER stress (ATF4 and CHOP), along with inflammation, were present in TAAD samples from both mouse and human. Transcriptional profiling of SMCs after mechanical stress demonstrated the expression of genes for ER stress and inflammation. To explore the causal role of ER stress in initiating degenerative signalling events and TAAD, we treated wild-type (CHOP(+/+)) or CHOP(-/-) mice with BAPN and found that CHOP deficiency protected against TAAD formation and rupture, as well as reduction in α-SMA level. Both SMC apoptosis and inflammation were significantly reduced in CHOP(-/-) mice. Moreover, SMCs isolated from CHOP(-/-) mice were resistant to mechanical stress-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that mechanical stress-induced ER stress promotes SMCs apoptosis, inflammation and degeneration, providing insight into TAAD formation and progression. © 2015 Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in obesity and obesity-related disorders: An expanded view.

    PubMed

    Pagliassotti, Michael J; Kim, Paul Y; Estrada, Andrea L; Stewart, Claire M; Gentile, Christopher L

    2016-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is most notable for its central roles in calcium ion storage, lipid biosynthesis, and protein sorting and processing. By virtue of its extensive membrane contact sites that connect the ER to most other organelles and to the plasma membrane, the ER can also regulate diverse cellular processes including inflammatory and insulin signaling, nutrient metabolism, and cell proliferation and death via a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic UPR activation has been observed in liver and/or adipose tissue of dietary and genetic murine models of obesity, and in human obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Activation of the UPR in obesity and obesity-related disorders likely has two origins. One linked to classic ER stress involving the ER lumen and one linked to alterations to the ER membrane environment. This review discusses both of these origins and also considers the role of post-translational protein modifications, such as acetylation and palmitoylation, and ER-mitochondrial interactions to obesity-mediated impairments in the ER and activation of the UPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Honokiol induces cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Wu, Chien-Lin; Liu, Ju-Fang; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Li, Te-Mao; Su, Yi-Chang; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2010-05-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of a honokiol, an active component isolated and purified from the Magnolia officinalis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Honokiol-induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (including: JJ012 and SW1353) but not primary chondrocytes. Honokiol also induces upregulation of Bax and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-XL and dysfunction of mitochondria in chondrosarcoma cells. Honokiol triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosol-calcium levels. We also found that honokiol increased the expression and activities of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calpain. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or calpain siRNA reduced honokiol-mediated cell apoptosis in JJ012 cells. Importantly, animal studies have revealed a dramatic 53% reduction in tumor volume after 21days of treatment. This study demonstrates that honokiol may be a novel anti-cancer agent targeting chondrosarcoma cells. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Obesity and Obesity-Related Disorders: An Expanded View

    PubMed Central

    Pagliassotti, M.J.; Kim, P. Y.; Estrada, A.L.; Stewart, C.M.; Gentile, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is most notable for its central roles in calcium ion storage, lipid biosynthesis, and protein sorting and processing. By virtue of its extensive membrane contact sites that connect the ER to most other organelles and to the plasma membrane, the ER can also regulate diverse cellular processes including inflammatory and insulin signaling, nutrient metabolism, and cell proliferation and death via a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic UPR activation has been observed in liver and/or adipose tissue of dietary and genetic murine models of obesity, and in human obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Activation of the UPR in obesity and obesity-related disorders likely has two origins. One linked to classic ER stress involving the ER lumen and one linked to alterations to the ER membrane environment. This review discusses both of these origins and also considers the role of post-translational protein modifications, such as acetylation and palmitoylation, and ER-mitochondrial interactions to obesity-mediated impairments in the ER and activation of the UPR. PMID:27506731

  11. Trinitrotoluene Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in HePG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jun; Yang, Fan; Li, Xiaojun; Wu, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe trinitrotoluene (TNT)-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis in HePG2 cells. Material/Methods HePG2 cells were cultured in vitro with 0, 6, 12, or 24 μg/ml TNT solution for 12, 24, and 48 h. Western blotting was performed to detect intracellular ERS-related proteins, including glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, GRP94, Caspase 4, p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression from the respective genes. Results The expressions of ERS-related proteins GRP78 and GRP94 as well as mRNA and protein expression of ERS signaling apoptotic CHOP in the TNT treatment group were significantly increased. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ERS-induced apoptotic protein Caspase-4 were significantly increased. Flow cytometry revealed that after TNT treatment, the apoptosis rate also significantly increased. Conclusions TNT could increase the expression levels of GRP78, GRP94, Caspase-4, and CHOP in HePG2 cells; this increase in protein expression might be involved in HePG2 apoptosis through the induction of the ERS pathway. PMID:26551326

  12. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and atherosclerosis by 2-aminopurine in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Dezhi; Wu, Dong Fang; Guo, Zhong Mao; Okoro, Emmanuel; Yang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the apolipoprotein (apo) B48-carrying lipoproteins obtained from apoE knockout (apoE (-/-) ) mice, so called E(-)/B48 lipoproteins, transformed mouse macrophages into foam cells and enhanced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α (eIF-2 α ). Furthermore, the eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitor, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), attenuated E(-)/B48 lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The present report studied the effect of 2-AP on atherosclerosis in apoE (-/-) mice. Our results showed that the level of food intake, bodyweight, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides was comparable in apoE (-/-) mice treated with or without 2-AP. However, the mean size of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta sinus as well as the surface area of the entire aorta of 2-AP-treated apoE (-/-) mice were reduced by about 55% and 39%, respectively, compared to samples from untreated control apoE (-/-) mice. In addition, the 2-AP-treated apoE (-/-) mice showed a significant decrease in glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and phosphorylated eIF-2 α in their aortic samples as compared to levels in untreated control apoE (-/-) mice. These observations suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a causal mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis in apoE (-/-) mice and that therapeutic strategies can be developed for using eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitors, such as 2-AP, to prevent or treat atherosclerosis.

  13. Reduced Insulin Production Relieves Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces β Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Szabat, Marta; Page, Melissa M; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Skovsø, Søs; Mojibian, Majid; Fernandez-Tajes, Juan; Bruin, Jennifer E; Bround, Michael J; Lee, Jason T C; Xu, Eric E; Taghizadeh, Farnaz; O'Dwyer, Shannon; van de Bunt, Martijn; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Sinha, Sunita; Han, Jun; Fan, Yong; Lynn, Francis C; Trucco, Massimo; Borchers, Christoph H; Foster, Leonard J; Nislow, Corey; Kieffer, Timothy J; Johnson, James D

    2016-01-12

    Pancreatic β cells are mostly post-mitotic, but it is unclear what locks them in this state. Perturbations including uncontrolled hyperglycemia can drive β cells into more pliable states with reduced cellular insulin levels, increased β cell proliferation, and hormone mis-expression, but it is unknown whether reduced insulin production itself plays a role. Here, we define the effects of ∼50% reduced insulin production in Ins1(-/-):Ins2(f/f):Pdx1Cre(ERT):mTmG mice prior to robust hyperglycemia. Transcriptome, proteome, and network analysis revealed alleviation of chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, indicated by reduced Ddit3, Trib3, and Atf4 expression; reduced Xbp1 splicing; and reduced phospho-eIF2α. This state was associated with hyper-phosphorylation of Akt, which is negatively regulated by Trib3, and with cyclinD1 upregulation. Remarkably, β cell proliferation was increased 2-fold after reduced insulin production independently of hyperglycemia. Eventually, recombined cells mis-expressed glucagon in the hyperglycemic state. We conclude that the normally high rate of insulin production suppresses β cell proliferation in a cell-autonomous manner.

  14. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge.

  15. Calnexin deficiency and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zuppini, Anna; Groenendyk, Jody; Cormack, Lori A; Shore, Gordon; Opas, Michal; Bleackley, R Chris; Michalak, Marek

    2002-02-26

    In this study, we used calnexin-deficient cells to investigate the role of this protein in ER stress-induced apoptosis. We found that calnexin-deficient cells are relatively resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, caspase 3 and 8 cleavage and cytochrome c release were unchanged in these cells, indicating that ER to mitochondria "communication" during apoptotic stimulation is not affected in the absence of calnexin. The Bcl-2:Bax ratio was also not significantly changed in calnexin-deficient cells regardless of whether the ER stress was induced with thapsigargin or not. Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER morphology were unaffected by the lack of calnexin, but ER stress-induced Bap31 cleavage was significantly inhibited. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Bap31 forms complexes with calnexin, which may play a role in apoptosis. The results suggest that calnexin may not play a role in the initiation of the ER stress but that the protein has an effect on later apoptotic events via its influence on Bap31 function.

  16. Calcium dysregulation, functional calpainopathy, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Amici, David R; Pinal-Fernandez, Iago; Mázala, Davi A G; Lloyd, Thomas E; Corse, Andrea M; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Mammen, Andrew L; Chin, Eva R

    2017-03-22

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common primary myopathy in the elderly, but its pathoetiology is still unclear. Perturbed myocellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis can exacerbate many of the factors proposed to mediate muscle degeneration in IBM, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Ca(2+) dysregulation may plausibly be initiated in IBM by immune-mediated membrane damage and/or abnormally accumulating proteins, but no studies to date have investigated Ca(2+) regulation in IBM patients. We first investigated protein expression via immunoblot in muscle biopsies from IBM, dermatomyositis, and non-myositis control patients, identifying several differentially expressed Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins in IBM. Next, we investigated the Ca(2+)-signaling transcriptome by RNA-seq, finding 54 of 183 (29.5%) genes from an unbiased list differentially expressed in IBM vs. controls. Using an established statistical approach to relate genes with causal transcription networks, Ca(2+) abundance was considered a significant upstream regulator of observed whole-transcriptome changes. Post-hoc analyses of Ca(2+)-regulatory mRNA and protein data indicated a lower protein to transcript ratio in IBM vs. controls, which we hypothesized may relate to increased Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis and decreased protein translation. Supporting this hypothesis, we observed robust (4-fold) elevation in the autolytic activation of a Ca(2+)-activated protease, calpain-1, as well as increased signaling for translational attenuation (eIF2a phosphorylation) downstream of the unfolded protein response. Finally, in IBM samples we observed mRNA and protein under-expression of calpain-3, the skeletal muscle-specific calpain, which broadly supports proper Ca(2+) homeostasis. Together, these data provide novel insight into mechanisms by which intracellular Ca(2+) regulation is perturbed in IBM and offer evidence of pathological downstream effects.

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus induces congenital heart defects in murine embryos by increasing oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanqing; Reece, E. Albert; Zhong, Jianxiang; Dong, Daoyin; Shen, Wei-Bin; Harman, Christopher R.; Yang, Peixin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus are strongly associated with high rates of severe structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Studies in type 1 diabetic embryopathy animal models have demonstrated that cellular stress-induced apoptosis mediates the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes leading to congenital heart defect formation. However, the mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus–induced congenital heart defects remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We aim to determine whether oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and excessive apoptosis are the intracellular molecular mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus–induced congenital heart defects. STUDY DESIGN A mouse model of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by feeding female mice a high-fat diet (60% fat). After 15 weeks on the high-fat diet, the mice showed characteristics of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus. Control dams were either fed a normal diet (10% fat) or the high-fat diet during pregnancy only. Female mice from the high-fat diet group and the 2 control groups were mated with male mice that were fed a normal diet. At E12.5, embryonic hearts were harvested to determine the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, cleaved caspase 3 and 8, and apoptosis. E17.5 embryonic hearts were harvested for the detection of congenital heart defect formation using India ink vessel patterning and histological examination. RESULTS Maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly induced ventricular septal defects and persistent truncus arteriosus in the developing heart, along with increasing oxidative stress markers, including superoxide and lipid peroxidation; endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, including protein levels of phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated-IRE1α, phosphorylated-eIF2α, C/EBP homologous protein, and binding immunoglobulin

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus induces congenital heart defects in murine embryos by increasing oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqing; Reece, E Albert; Zhong, Jianxiang; Dong, Daoyin; Shen, Wei-Bin; Harman, Christopher R; Yang, Peixin

    2016-09-01

    Maternal type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus are strongly associated with high rates of severe structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects. Studies in type 1 diabetic embryopathy animal models have demonstrated that cellular stress-induced apoptosis mediates the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes leading to congenital heart defect formation. However, the mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects remain largely unknown. We aim to determine whether oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and excessive apoptosis are the intracellular molecular mechanisms underlying maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus-induced congenital heart defects. A mouse model of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by feeding female mice a high-fat diet (60% fat). After 15 weeks on the high-fat diet, the mice showed characteristics of maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus. Control dams were either fed a normal diet (10% fat) or the high-fat diet during pregnancy only. Female mice from the high-fat diet group and the 2 control groups were mated with male mice that were fed a normal diet. At E12.5, embryonic hearts were harvested to determine the levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, cleaved caspase 3 and 8, and apoptosis. E17.5 embryonic hearts were harvested for the detection of congenital heart defect formation using India ink vessel patterning and histological examination. Maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly induced ventricular septal defects and persistent truncus arteriosus in the developing heart, along with increasing oxidative stress markers, including superoxide and lipid peroxidation; endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, including protein levels of phosphorylated-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, phosphorylated-IRE1α, phosphorylated-eIF2α, C/EBP homologous protein, and binding immunoglobulin protein; endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gene

  19. Nuclear Receptors Resolve Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress to Improve Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminating in proteotoxicity contributes to the development of insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacologic interventions targeting several different nuclear receptors have emerged as potential treatments for insulin resistance. The mechanistic basis for these antidiabetic effects has primarily been attributed to multiple metabolic and inflammatory functions. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the association of ER stress with insulin resistance and the role of nuclear receptors in promoting ER stress resolution and improving insulin resistance in the liver. PMID:28236381

  20. Impaired autophagic flux is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress during the development of NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Á; Mayoral, R; Agra, N; Valdecantos, M P; Pardo, V; Miquilena-Colina, M E; Vargas-Castrillón, J; Lo Iacono, O; Corazzari, M; Fimia, G M; Piacentini, M; Muntané, J; Boscá, L; García-Monzón, C; Martín-Sanz, P; Valverde, Á M

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in human and mouse hepatocytes during NAFLD. ER stress and autophagy markers were analyzed in livers from patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatosis (NAS) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared with livers from subjects with histologically normal liver, in livers from mice fed with chow diet (CHD) compared with mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet and in primary and Huh7 human hepatocytes loaded with palmitic acid (PA). In NASH patients, significant increases in hepatic messenger RNA levels of markers of ER stress (activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)) and autophagy (BCN1) were found compared with NAS patients. Likewise, protein levels of GRP78, CHOP and p62/SQSTM1 (p62) autophagic substrate were significantly elevated in NASH compared with NAS patients. In livers from mice fed with HFD or MCD, ER stress-mediated signaling was parallel to the blockade of the autophagic flux assessed by increases in p62, microtubule-associated protein 2 light chain 3 (LC3-II)/LC3-I ratio and accumulation of autophagosomes compared with CHD fed mice. In Huh7 hepatic cells, treatment with PA for 8 h triggered activation of both unfolding protein response and the autophagic flux. Conversely, prolonged treatment with PA (24 h) induced ER stress and cell death together with a blockade of the autophagic flux. Under these conditions, cotreatment with rapamycin or CHOP silencing ameliorated these effects and decreased apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that the autophagic flux is impaired in the liver from both NAFLD patients and murine models of NAFLD, as well as in lipid-overloaded human hepatocytes, and it could be due to

  1. Impaired autophagic flux is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress during the development of NAFLD.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A; Mayoral, R; Agra, N; Valdecantos, M P; Pardo, V; Miquilena-Colina, M E; Vargas-Castrillón, J; Lo Iacono, O; Corazzari, M; Fimia, G M; Piacentini, M; Muntané, J; Boscá, L; García-Monzón, C; Martín-Sanz, P; Valverde, Á M

    2014-04-17

    The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in human and mouse hepatocytes during NAFLD. ER stress and autophagy markers were analyzed in livers from patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatosis (NAS) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared with livers from subjects with histologically normal liver, in livers from mice fed with chow diet (CHD) compared with mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet and in primary and Huh7 human hepatocytes loaded with palmitic acid (PA). In NASH patients, significant increases in hepatic messenger RNA levels of markers of ER stress (activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)) and autophagy (BCN1) were found compared with NAS patients. Likewise, protein levels of GRP78, CHOP and p62/SQSTM1 (p62) autophagic substrate were significantly elevated in NASH compared with NAS patients. In livers from mice fed with HFD or MCD, ER stress-mediated signaling was parallel to the blockade of the autophagic flux assessed by increases in p62, microtubule-associated protein 2 light chain 3 (LC3-II)/LC3-I ratio and accumulation of autophagosomes compared with CHD fed mice. In Huh7 hepatic cells, treatment with PA for 8 h triggered activation of both unfolding protein response and the autophagic flux. Conversely, prolonged treatment with PA (24 h) induced ER stress and cell death together with a blockade of the autophagic flux. Under these conditions, cotreatment with rapamycin or CHOP silencing ameliorated these effects and decreased apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that the autophagic flux is impaired in the liver from both NAFLD patients and murine models of NAFLD, as well as in lipid-overloaded human hepatocytes, and it could be due to

  2. Binge ethanol exposure causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and tissue injury in the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhenhua; Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Yang, Fanmuyi; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Ke, Zun-ji; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis or pancreatic injury may result in chronic pancreatitis. We investigated ethanol-induced pancreatic injury using a mouse model of binge ethanol exposure. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to ethanol intragastrically (5 g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 10 days. Binge ethanol exposure caused pathological changes in pancreas demonstrated by tissue edema, acinar atrophy and moderate fibrosis. Ethanol caused both apoptotic and necrotic cell death which was demonstrated by the increase in active caspase-3, caspase-8, cleaved PARP, cleaved CK-18 and the secretion of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). Ethanol altered the function of the pancreas which was indicated by altered levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Ethanol exposure stimulated cell proliferation in the acini, suggesting an acinar regeneration. Ethanol caused pancreatic inflammation which was indicated by the induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, MCP-1 and CCR2, and the increase of CD68 positive macrophages in the pancreas. Ethanol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress was demonstrated by a significant increase in ATF6, CHOP, and the phosphorylation of PERK and eiF-2alpha. In addition, ethanol increased protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and the expression of iNOS, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, this paradigm of binge ethanol exposure caused a spectrum of tissue injury and cellular stress to the pancreas, offering a good model to study alcoholic pancreatitis. PMID:27527870

  3. p53 at the endoplasmic reticulum regulates apoptosis in a Ca2+-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Carlotta; Bonora, Massimo; Sorrentino, Giovanni; Missiroli, Sonia; Poletti, Federica; Suski, Jan M.; Galindo Ramirez, Fabian; Rizzuto, Rosario; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Zito, Ester; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Mammano, Fabio; Del Sal, Giannino; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a key protein in preventing cell transformation and tumor progression. Activated by a variety of stimuli, p53 regulates cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Along with its well-documented transcriptional control over cell-death programs within the nucleus, p53 exerts crucial although still poorly understood functions in the cytoplasm, directly modulating the apoptotic response at the mitochondrial level. Calcium (Ca2+) transfer between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria represents a critical signal in the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanism controlling this flux in response to stress stimuli remains largely unknown. Here we show that, in the cytoplasm, WT p53 localizes at the ER and at specialized contact domains between the ER and mitochondria (mitochondria-associated membranes). We demonstrate that, upon stress stimuli, WT p53 accumulates at these sites and modulates Ca2+ homeostasis. Mechanistically, upon activation, WT p53 directly binds to the sarco/ER Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pump at the ER, changing its oxidative state and thus leading to an increased Ca2+ load, followed by an enhanced transfer to mitochondria. The consequent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload causes in turn alterations in the morphology of this organelle and induction of apoptosis. Pharmacological inactivation of WT p53 or naturally occurring p53 missense mutants inhibits SERCA pump activity at the ER, leading to a reduction of the Ca2+ signaling from the ER to mitochondria. These findings define a critical nonnuclear function of p53 in regulating Ca2+ signal-dependent apoptosis. PMID:25624484

  4. C/EBP-β Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Triggered Cell Death in Mouse and Human Models

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Ofir; Dvash, Efrat; Werman, Ariel; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), initially aimed at coping with the stress, but triggering cell death upon further stress. ER stress induces the C/EBP-® variant Liver-enriched Activating Protein (LAP), followed by the dominant-negative variant, Liver Inhibitory Protein (LIP). However, the distinct role of LAP and LIP in ER stress is unknown. We found that the kinetics of the ER stress-induced expression of LIP overlapped with that of the cell death in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, inducible over-expression of LIP augmented ER stress-triggered cell death whereas over-expression of LAP attenuated cell death. Similar results were obtained in human 293T cells. Limited vasculature in tumors triggers hypoxia, nutrient shortage and accumulation of toxic metabolites, all of which eliciting continuous ER stress. We found that LAP promoted and LIP inhibited B16 melanoma tumor progression without affecting angiogenesis or accelerating the cell cycle. Rather, LAP attenuated, whereas LIP augmented tumor ER stress. We therefore suggest that C/EBP-® regulates the transition from the protective to the death–promoting phase of the UPR. We further suggest that the over-expression of LAP observed in many solid tumors promotes tumor progression by attenuating ER stress–triggered tumor cell death. PMID:20209087

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Nox-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in the Peripheral Vasculature: Potential Role in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nabeebaccus, Adam A.; Shah, Ajay M.; Camargo, Livia L.; Filho, Sidney V.; Lopes, Lucia R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) metabolism. There is accumulating evidence showing that under stress conditions such as ER stress, ROS production is increased via enzymes of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family, especially via the Nox2 and Nox4 isoforms, which are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular and renal disease, and it has a complex pathophysiology involving the heart, kidney, brain, vessels, and immune system. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway that has prosurvival and proapoptotic components. Recent Advances: Here, we summarize the evidence regarding the association of Nox enzymes and ER stress, and its potential contribution in the setting of hypertension, including the role of other conditions that can lead to hypertension (e.g., insulin resistance and diabetes). Critical Issues: A better understanding of this association is currently of great interest, as it will provide further insights into the cellular mechanisms that can drive the ER stress-induced adaptive versus maladaptive pathways linked to hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions. More needs to be learnt about the precise signaling regulation of Nox(es) and ER stress in the cardiovascular system. Future Directions: The development of specific approaches that target individual Nox isoforms and the UPR signaling pathway may be important for the achievement of therapeutic efficacy in hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 121–134. PMID:23472786

  6. Caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jianing; Chen, Shulan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Wenxin; Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Shuangyu; Yuan, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that mandibular growth, which is caused by a variety of functional appliances, is considered to be the result of both neuromuscular and skeletal adaptations. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that apoptosis plays an important role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle function. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis that is induced by stretch continues to be incompletely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a newly defined signaling pathway, initiates apoptosis. This study seeks to determine if caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in myoblast and its underlying mechanism. Apoptosis was assessed by Hochest staining, DAPI staining and annexin V binding and PI staining. ER chaperones, such as GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12, were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Furthermore, caspase-12 inhibitor was used to value the mechanism of the caspase-12 pathway. Apoptosis of myoblast, which is subjected to cyclic stretch, was observed in a time-dependent manner. We found that GRP78 mRNA and protein were significantly increased and CHOP and caspase-12 were activated in myoblast that was exposed to cyclic stretch. Caspase-12 inhibition reduced stretch-induced apoptosis, and caspase-12 activated caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. We concluded that caspase-12 played an important role in stretch-induced apoptosis that is associated by endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating caspase-3.

  7. Full length RTN3 regulates turnover of tubular endoplasmic reticulum via selective autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Grumati, Paolo; Morozzi, Giulio; Hölper, Soraya; Mari, Muriel; Harwardt, Marie-Lena IE; Yan, Riqiang; Müller, Stefan; Reggiori, Fulvio; Heilemann, Mike; Dikic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ensures the correct biological activity of its distinct domains. In mammalian cells, the ER is degraded via a selective autophagy pathway (ER-phagy), mediated by two specific receptors: FAM134B, responsible for the turnover of ER sheets and SEC62 that regulates ER recovery following stress. Here, we identified reticulon 3 (RTN3) as a specific receptor for the degradation of ER tubules. Oligomerization of the long isoform of RTN3 is sufficient to trigger fragmentation of ER tubules. The long N-terminal region of RTN3 contains several newly identified LC3-interacting regions (LIR). Binding to LC3s/GABARAPs is essential for the fragmentation of ER tubules and their delivery to lysosomes. RTN3-mediated ER-phagy requires conventional autophagy components, but is independent of FAM134B. None of the other reticulon family members have the ability to induce fragmentation of ER tubules during starvation. Therefore, we assign a unique function to RTN3 during autophagy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25555.001 PMID:28617241

  8. The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 protects hepatocytes from lipotoxic and hypoxia-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Rius, Bibiana; Duran-Güell, Marta; Flores-Costa, Roger; López-Vicario, Cristina; Lopategi, Aritz; Alcaraz-Quiles, José; Casulleras, Mireia; Lozano, Juan José; Titos, Esther; Clària, Joan

    2017-08-02

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) are hallmarks of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 (MaR1) preserves tissue homeostasis by exerting cytoprotective actions, dampening inflammation, and expediting its timely resolution. Here, we explored whether MaR1 protects liver cells from lipotoxic and hypoxia-induced ER stress. Mice were rendered obese by high-fat diet feeding, and experiments were performed in primary hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Palmitate-induced lipotoxicity increased ER stress and altered autophagy in hepatocytes, effects that were prevented by MaR1. MaR1 protected hepatocytes against lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis by activating the UPR prosurvival mechanisms and preventing the excessive up-regulation of proapoptotic pathways. Protective MaR1 effects were also seen in hepatocytes challenged with hypoxia and TNF-α-induced cell death. High-throughput microRNA (miRNA) sequencing revealed that MaR1 actions were associated with specific miRNA signatures targeting both protein folding and apoptosis. MaR1 also prevented lipotoxic-triggered ER stress and hypoxia-induced inflammation in PCLSs and enhanced Kupffer cell phagocytic capacity. Together, these findings describe the ability of MaR1 to oppose ER stress in liver cells under conditions frequently encountered in NAFLD.-Rius, B., Duran-Güell, M., Flores-Costa, R., López-Vicario, C., Lopategi, A., Alcaraz-Quiles, J., Casulleras, M., Lozano, J. J., Titos, E., Clària, J. The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 protects hepatocytes from lipotoxic and hypoxia-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. © FASEB.

  9. Methyl-deficient diet promotes colitis and SIRT1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Hassan; Hansmannel, Franck; Bressenot, Aude; Battaglia-Hsu, Syue-Fang; Billioud, Vincent; Alberto, Jean Marc; Gueant, Jean Louis; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Methyl donor deficiency (MDD) aggravates experimental colitis in rats and increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through decreased sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in neuronal cells and myocardium. ER stress plays a key role in IBD pathogenesis. We investigated whether the influence of MDD on colitis resulted from an ER stress response triggered by decreased SIRT1 expression. The unfolded protein response (UPR), chaperones proteins, heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) and SIRT1 were examined in rats with MDD and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in a Caco-2 cell model with stable expression of transcobalamin-oleosin (TO) chimera, which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, and in IBD. The effects of SIRT1 activation were studied both in vitro and in vivo. MDD aggravated DSS-induced colitis clinically, endoscopically and histologically. MDD activated ER stress pathways, with increased phosphorylate-PKR-like ER kinase, P-eiF-2α, P-IRE-1α, activating transcription factor (ATF)6, XBP1-S protein and ATF4 mRNA expression levels in rats. This was accompanied by reduced SIRT1 expression level and greater acetylation of HSF1, in relation with a dramatic decrease of chaperones (binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP), heat shock protein (HSP)27 and HSP90). Adding either vitamin B12, S-adenosylmethionine or an SIRT1 activator (SRT1720) reduced the UPR in vitro. In rats, SIRT1 activation by SRT1720 prevented colitis by reducing HSF1 acetylation and increasing expression of BIP, HSP27 and HSP90. Immunohistochemistry showed impaired expression of SIRT1 in the colonic epithelium of patients with IBD. SIRT1 is a master regulator of ER stress and severity of experimental colitis in case of MDD. It could deserve further interest as a therapeutic target of IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  11. Mechanisms of alcohol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and organ injuries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is readily distributed throughout the body in the blood stream and crosses biological membranes, which affect virtually all biological processes inside the cell. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathological stress responses, part of which is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress, a condition under which unfolded/misfolded protein accumulates in the ER, contributes to alcoholic disorders of major organs such as liver, pancreas, heart, and brain. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Interruption of the ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcoholic disorders.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a primary pathogenic mechanism leading to age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Libby, Richard T; Gould, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multi-factorial disease and a leading cause of blindness. Proteomic and genetic data suggest that activation or de-repression of the alternate complement cascade of innate immunity is involved in end-stage disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that production of reactive oxygen species and chronic oxidative stress lead to protein and lipid modifications that initiate the complement cascade. Understanding the triggers of these pathogenic pathways and the site of the primary insult will be important for development of targeted therapeutics. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress from misfolded mutant proteins and other sources are an important potential tributary mechanism. We propose that misfolded-protein-induced ER stress in the retinal-pigmented epithelium and/or choroid could lead to chronic oxidative stress, complement deregulation and AMD. Small molecules targeted to ER stress and oxidative stress could allow for a shift from disease treatment to disease prevention.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour

    PubMed Central

    Veerbeek, J.H.W.; Tissot Van Patot, M.C.; Burton, G.J.; Yung, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2α and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in Caesarean-delivered controls localised mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast. The similarities to changes observed in PE/IUGR placentas suggest exposure to labour can be used to investigate induction of ER stress in pathological placentas. PMID:25434970

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, J H W; Tissot Van Patot, M C; Burton, G J; Yung, H W

    2015-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2α and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in Caesarean-delivered controls localised mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast. The similarities to changes observed in PE/IUGR placentas suggest exposure to labour can be used to investigate induction of ER stress in pathological placentas. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. RAGE deficiency alleviates aortic valve calcification in ApoE(-/-) mice via the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Cai, Zhejun; Liu, Baoqing; Liu, Zongtao; Zhou, Xianming; Dong, Nianguo; Li, Fei

    2017-03-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been shown to be involved in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). However, the association between RAGE and ER stress remains unknown in the pathogenesis of CAVD. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that RAGE deficiency alleviates aortic valve calcification via the inhibition of ER stress. Up-regulation of RAGE and ER stress markers in calcified human aortic valves were confirmed by immunoblotting. Aortic valve calcification was evaluated in atherosclerotic prone ApoE(-/-) mice or in mice with dual deficiencies of ApoE and RAGE (ApoE(-/-)RAGE(-/-)) fed with high cholesterol diet for 24weeks. Echocardiography and histological examination show that genetic deficiency of RAGE attenuates aortic valve calcification in ApoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, RAGE deficiency inhibited the osteogenic signaling and ER stress activation as well as suppressed macrophage infiltration in vivo. Cultured human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) were treated with high molecular group box 1 protein (HMGB1) as in vitro model. We found that HMGB1 induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification through RAGE/ER stress. Furthermore, Sox9 up-regulation and intranuclear translocation mediated the pro-osteogenic effect of HMGB1 on AVICs. RAGE or ER stress knockdown reduced the up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in human AVICs exposed to HMGB1.These novel findings demonstrate that RAGE deficiency protects against aortic valve calcification in high cholesterol diet-fed ApoE(-/-) mice via inhibition of ER stress. HMGB1 induces AVIC osteoblastic differentiation and calcification through RAGE/ER stress/Sox9 pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Metformin prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through AMPK-PI3K-c-Jun NH2 pathway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, Y.-J.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to be partially associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress toxicity on pancreatic beta cells and the result of decreased insulin synthesis and secretion. In this study, we showed that a well-known insulin sensitizer, metformin, directly protects against dysfunction and death of ER stress-induced NIT-1 cells (a mouse pancreatic beta cell line) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation. We also showed that exposure of NIT-1 cells to metformin (5mM) increases cellular resistance against ER stress-induced NIT-1 cell dysfunction and death. AMPK and PI3 kinase inhibitors abolished the effect of metformin on cell function and death. Metformin-mediated protective effects on ER stress-induced apoptosis were not a result of an unfolded protein response or the induced inhibitors of apoptotic proteins. In addition, we showed that exposure of ER stressed-induced NIT-1 cells to metformin decreases the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK). These data suggest that metformin is an important determinant of ER stress-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells and may have implications for ER stress-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction via regulation of the AMPK-PI3 kinase-JNK pathway.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in toxicity of cell wall stress to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Honggang; Li, Mingchun

    2016-10-01

    The cell wall is an important cell structure in both fungi and bacteria, and hence becomes a common antimicrobial target. The cell wall-perturbing agents disrupt synthesis and function of cell wall components, leading to cell wall stress and consequent cell death. However, little is known about the detailed mechanisms by which cell wall stress renders fungal cell death. In this study, we found that ROS scavengers drastically attenuated the antifungal effect of cell wall-perturbing agents to the model fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these agents caused remarkable ROS accumulation and activation of oxidative stress response (OSR) in this fungus. Interestingly, cell wall stress did not cause mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of mitochondrial superoxide levels. Furthermore, the iron chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl (BIP) and the hydroxyl radical scavengers could not attenuate cell wall stress-caused growth inhibition and ROS accumulation. However, cell wall stress up-regulated expression of unfold protein response (UPR) genes, enhanced protein secretion and promoted protein folding-related oxidation of Ero1, an important source of ROS production. These results indicated that oxidation of Ero1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), rather than mitochondrial electron transport and Fenton reaction, contributed to cell wall stress-related ROS accumulation and consequent growth inhibition. Our findings uncover a novel link between cell wall integrity (CWI), ER function and ROS production in fungal cells, and shed novel light on development of strategies promoting the antifungal efficacy of cell wall-perturbing agents against fungal infections.

  18. Obesity-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-03-09

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese (DIO) mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in DIO mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins including PERK, IREα and ATF6, in whole lung and in lung endothelial cells isolated from DIO mice. Further, we found that lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of DIO mice. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation; indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-PBA, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in DIO mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the endoplasmic reticulum of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against ARDS in obese individuals.

  19. Calcium homoeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) reduces the calcium content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers ER stress.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Sandín, Sonia; Alonso, María Teresa; García-Sancho, Javier

    2011-08-01

    CALHM1 (calcium homoeostasis modulator 1), a membrane protein with similarity to NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channels that localizes in the plasma membrane and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) of neurons, has been shown to generate a plasma-membrane Ca(2+) conductance and has been proposed to influence Alzheimer's disease risk. In the present study we have investigated the effects of CALHM1 on intracellular Ca(2+) handling in HEK-293T [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 (simian virus 40)] cells by using targeted aequorins for selective monitorization of Ca(2+) transport by organelles. We find that CALHM1 increases Ca(2+) leak from the ER and, more importantly, reduces ER Ca(2+) uptake by decreasing both the transport capacity and the Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase). As a result, the Ca(2+) content of the ER is drastically decreased. This reduction in the Ca(2+) content of the ER triggered the UPR (unfolded protein response) with induction of several ER stress markers, such as CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein], ERdj4, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa) and XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Thus CALHM1 might provide a relevant link between Ca(2+) homoeostasis disruption, ER stress and cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) protects against pressure overload-induced heart failure and lung remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Kwak, Dongmin; Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Fassett, John; Wang, Huan; Wei, Yidong; Cavener, Douglas R; Hu, Xinli; Hall, Jennifer; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2014-10-01

    Studies have reported that development of congestive heart failure is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Double stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a major transducer of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and directly phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, resulting in translational attenuation. However, the physiological effect of PERK on congestive heart failure development is unknown. To study the effect of PERK on ventricular structure and function, we generated inducible cardiac-specific PERK knockout mice. Under unstressed conditions, cardiac PERK knockout had no effect on left ventricular mass, or its ratio to body weight, cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, or left ventricular function. However, in response to chronic transverse aortic constriction, PERK knockout mice exhibited decreased ejection fraction, increased left ventricular fibrosis, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and exacerbated lung remodeling in comparison with wild-type mice. PERK knockout also dramatically attenuated cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in response to aortic constriction. Our findings suggest that PERK is required to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced congestive heart failure.

  1. 4‑Phenylbutyrate protects rat skin flaps against ischemia‑reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen-Shuang; Zeng, Lin-Ru; Quan, Ren-Fu; Tang, Yang-Hua; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Qu, Gang; Xu, Can-Da; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Huang, Zhong-Ming

    2016-02-01

    4‑phenylbutyrate (4‑PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid, which has been demonstrated to regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress‑induced cell apoptosis has an important role in skin flap ischemia; however, a pharmacological approach for treating ischemia‑induced ER dysfunction has yet to be reported. In the present study, the effects of 4‑PBA‑induced ER stress inhibition on ischemia‑reperfusion injury were investigated in the skin flap of rats, and transcriptional regulation was examined. 4‑PBA attenuated ischemia‑reperfusion injury and inhibited cell apoptosis in the skin flap. Furthermore, 4‑PBA reversed the increased expression levels of two ER stress markers: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein‑homologous protein and glucose‑regulated protein 78. These results suggested that 4‑PBA was able to protect rat skin flaps against ischemia‑reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress marker expression and ER stress‑mediated apoptosis. The beneficial effects of 4‑PBA may prove useful in the treatment of skin flap ischemia‑reperfusion injury.

  2. Translational control during endoplasmic reticulum stress beyond phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α.

    PubMed

    Guan, Bo-Jhih; Krokowski, Dawid; Majumder, Mithu; Schmotzer, Christine L; Kimball, Scot R; Merrick, William C; Koromilas, Antonis E; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2014-05-02

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress to which an unfolded protein response is activated to render cell survival or apoptosis (chronic stress). Transcriptional and translational reprogramming is tightly regulated during the unfolded protein response to ensure specific gene expression. The master regulator of this response is the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling where eIF2α is phosphorylated (eIF2α-P) by the kinase PERK. This signal leads to global translational shutdown, but it also enables translation of the transcription factor ATF4 mRNA. We showed recently that ATF4 induces an anabolic program through the up-regulation of selected amino acid transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Paradoxically, this anabolic program led cells to apoptosis during chronic ER stress in a manner that involved recovery from stress-induced protein synthesis inhibition. By using eIF2α-P-deficient cells as an experimental system, we identified a communicating network of signaling pathways that contribute to the inhibition of protein synthesis during chronic ER stress. This eIF2α-P-independent network includes (i) inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase protein complex 1 (mTORC1)-targeted protein phosphorylation, (ii) inhibited translation of a selective group of 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine mRNAs (encoding proteins involved in the translation machinery and translationally controlled by mTORC1 signaling), and (iii) inhibited translation of non-5'-terminal oligopyrimidine ribosomal protein mRNAs and ribosomal RNA biogenesis. We propose that the PERK/eIF2α-P/ATF4 signaling acts as a brake in the decline of protein synthesis during chronic ER stress by positively regulating signaling downstream of the mTORC1 activity. These studies advance our knowledge on the complexity of the communicating signaling pathways in controlling protein synthesis rates during chronic stress.

  3. Role of C/EBP homologous protein and endoplasmic reticulum stress in asthma exacerbation by regulating the IL-4/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6/transcription factor EC/IL-4 receptor α positive feedback loop in M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Zhu, Jianghui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhijun; He, Long; Mou, Yong; Deng, Yanhan; Cao, Yong; Yang, Ping; Su, Yunchao; Zhao, Jianping; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Qilin; Hu, Jifa; Chen, Zhishui; Ning, Qin; Xiang, Xudong; Xu, Yongjian; Wang, Cong-Yi; Xiong, Weining

    2017-02-24

    C/EBP homologous protein (Chop), a marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, exhibits aberrant expression patterns during asthma development. However, its exact role in asthma pathogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to determine the function and mechanism of Chop in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma in patients and animals. Studies were conducted in asthmatic patients and Chop(-/-) mice to dissect the role of Chop and ER stress in asthma pathogenesis. An ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation model was used to address the effect of Chop deficiency on asthma development. Next, the effect of Chop deficiency on macrophage polarization and related signaling pathways was investigated to demonstrate the underlying mechanisms. Asthmatic patients and mice after OVA induction exhibited aberrant Chop expression along with ER stress. Specifically, Chop was noted to be specifically overexpressed in macrophages, and mice deficient in Chop were protected from OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, as manifested by attenuated airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperresponsiveness. Chop was found to exacerbate allergic airway inflammation by enhancing M2 programming in macrophages. Mechanistic studies characterized an IL-4/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6/transcription factor EC (Tfec)/IL-4 receptor α positive feedback regulatory loop, in which IL-4 induces Chop expression, which then promotes signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 signaling to transcribe Tfec expression. Finally, Tfec transcribes IL-4 receptor α expression to promote M2 programming in macrophages. Chop and ER stress are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, which involves regulation of M2 programming in macrophages. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transgenic Overexpression of 14-3-3 Zeta Protects Hippocampus against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Status Epilepticus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Gary P.; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.; McKiernan, Ross C.; Engel, Tobias; Tzivion, Guri; Henshall, David C.

    2013-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ) isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress. PMID:23359526

  5. Anandamide-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis are mediated by oxidative stress in non-melanoma skin cancer: Receptor-independent endocannabinoid signaling.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Eman; Van Dross, Rukiyah

    2016-11-01

    Endocannabinoids are neuromodulatory lipids that regulate central and peripheral physiological functions. Endocannabinoids have emerged as effective antitumor drugs due to their ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer studies. The G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the TRPV1 ion channel were reported to mediate the antiproliferative activity of endocannabinoids. However, receptor-independent effects also account for their activity. Our previous studies showed that the antiproliferative activity of anandamide (AEA) was regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also determined that AEA induced oxidative stress. However, the role of oxidative stress, the cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 in AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis was unclear. Therefore, the current study examines the role of oxidative stress in ER stress-apoptosis and investigates whether this effect is modulated by CB1, CB2, or TRPV1. In non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells, AEA reduced the total intracellular level of glutathione and induced oxidative stress. To evaluate the importance of oxidative stress in AEA-induced cell death, the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox, were utilized. Each antioxidant ameliorated the antiproliferative effect of AEA. Furthermore, Trolox inhibited AEA-induced CHOP10 expression and caspase 3 activity, indicating that oxidative stress was required for AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis. On the other hand, selective blockade of CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 did not inhibit AEA-induced oxidative stress or ER stress-apoptosis. These findings suggest that AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis in NMSC cells is mediated by oxidative stress through a receptor-independent mechanism. Hence, receptor-independent AEA signaling pathways may be targeted to eliminate NMSC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Mammalian Oocytes and Embryos: Life in the Balance

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes and embryos are exquisitely sensitive to a wide range of insults related to physical stress, chemical exposure, and exposures to adverse maternal nutrition or health status. Although cells manifest specific responses to various stressors, many of these stressors intersect at the endoplasmic reticulum, where disruptions in protein folding and production of reactive oxygen species initiate downstream signaling events. These signals modulate mRNA translation and gene transcription, leading to recovery, activation of autophagy, or with severe and prolonged stress, apoptosis. ER stress signaling has recently come to the fore as a major contributor to embryo demise. Accordingly, agents that modulate or inhibit ER stress signaling have yielded beneficial effects on embryo survival and long-term developmental potential. We review here the mechanisms of ER stress signaling, their connections to mammalian oocytes and embryos, and the promising indications that interventions in this pathway may provide new opportunities for improving mammalian reproduction and health. PMID:25805126

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy.

  8. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Atherosclerosis and Diabetic Macrovascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dmitry A.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are associated with stress of this cell organelle. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a normal physiological reaction of a cell in order to prevent accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER and improve the normal ER function. However, in pathologic conditions such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes, ER function becomes impaired, leading to the development of ER stress. In chronic ER stress, defective posttranslational protein folding results in deposits of aberrantly folded proteins in the ER and the induction of cell apoptosis mediated by UPR sensors C/EBPα-homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol requiring protein-1 (IRE1). Since ER stress and ER-induced cell death play a nonredundant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetic macrovascular complications, pharmaceutical targeting of ER stress components and pathways may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25061609

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy. PMID:27536070

  10. The marine product cephalostatin 1 activates an endoplasmic reticulum stress-specific and apoptosome-independent apoptotic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    López-Antón, Nancy; Rudy, Anita; Barth, Nicole; Schmitz, M Lienhard; Schmitz, Lienhard M; Pettit, George R; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Dirsch, Verena M; Vollmar, Angelika M

    2006-11-03

    Cephalostatin 1, a bis-steroidal marine natural product, has been reported to induce apoptosis without the requirement of an active caspase-8 or mitochondrial cytochrome c release and apoptosome formation. Here we show that despite the absence of these events, caspase-9 activation is essential for cephalostatin 1-induced apoptosis. Cephalostatin 1 initiates a rapid endoplasmic reticulum stress response characterized by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha-subunit and increased expression of the chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein GRP78 as well as the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153. Cephalostatin 1 activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, this pathway does not play a major role in cephalostatin 1-induced apoptosis, as assessed by stable expression of a dominant negative apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Importantly, the endoplasmic reticulum-associated caspase-4 is required and as shown by biochemical and genetic inhibition experiments, acts upstream of caspase-9 in cephalostatin-induced apoptosis.

  11. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH. PMID:28702017

  12. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  13. Tributyltin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and its Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, Midori; Kotake, Yaichiro Masuda, Kyoichi; Miyara, Masatsugu; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Samizo, Shigeyoshi; Sanoh, Seigo; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    Organotin compounds, especially tributyltin chloride (TBT), have been widely used in antifouling paints for marine vessels, but exhibit various toxicities in mammals. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle that controls post-translational modification and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling. When the capacity of the quality control system of ER is exceeded under stress including ER Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis disruption, ER functions are impaired and unfolded proteins are accumulated in ER lumen, which is called ER stress. Here, we examined whether TBT causes ER stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that 700 nM TBT induced ER stress markers such as CHOP, GRP78, spliced XBP1 mRNA and phosphorylated eIF2α. TBT also decreased the cell viability both concentration- and time-dependently. Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not induce ER stress markers. We hypothesized that TBT induces ER stress via Ca{sup 2+} depletion, and to test this idea, we examined the effect of TBT on intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration using fura-2 AM, a Ca{sup 2+} fluorescent probe. TBT increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration in a TBT-concentration-dependent manner, and Ca{sup 2+} increase in 700 nM TBT was mainly blocked by 50 μM dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist (about 70% inhibition). Dantrolene also partially but significantly inhibited TBT-induced GRP78 expression and cell death. These results suggest that TBT increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by releasing Ca{sup 2+} from ER, thereby causing ER stress. - Highlights: • We established that tributyltin induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. • Tributyltin induces ER stress markers in a concentration-dependent manner. • Tributyltin increases Ca{sup 2+} release from ER, thereby causing ER stress. • Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not increase GRP78 or intracellular Ca{sup 2+}.

  14. Potential Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Hernández-Ramírez, Ernesto; Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Hernández-Espinosa, Claudia; Salceda, Rocío

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that leads to several complications which include retinopathy. Multiple biochemical abnormalities have been proposed to explain the development of retinopathy, including oxidative stress. Although the existence of oxidative stress has been established in the retina from long standing diabetic animals, pathogenesis and progression of retinopathy remain unclear. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, we analyzed the levels of different oxidative stress biomarkers in the retina at early stages during the progress of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. No significant changes in glutathione content, expression of NADPH-oxidase, levels of lipid peroxidation, nor production of free radicals were observed in the retina up to 45 days of diabetes induction. Likewise, a transient decrease in aconitase activity, parallel to an increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed at 20 days of hyperglycemia, suggesting a high capacity of retina to maintain its redox homeostasis, at least at early stages of diabetes. Nonetheless, we found an early and time-dependent increase in the levels of oxidized proteins, which was not affected by the administration of the antioxidant quercetin. Also, positive immunoreactivity to the reticulum stress protein CHOP was found in glial Müller cells of diabetic rat retinas. These findings suggest the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a primary event in retina pathogenesis in diabetes.

  15. Cis-element of the rice PDIL2-3 promoter is responsible for inducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Wang, Shuyi; Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    A protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family oxidoreductase, PDIL2-3, is involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in rice. We identified a critical cis-element required for induction of the ER stress response. The activation of PDIL2-3 in response to ER stress strongly depends on the IRE1-OsbZIP50 signaling pathway.

  16. Protrudin regulates endoplasmic reticulum morphology and function associated with the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shirane, Michiko; Matsuzaki, Fumiko; Saita, Shotaro; Ohnishi, Takafumi; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2014-05-09

    Protrudin is a membrane protein that regulates polarized vesicular trafficking in neurons. The protrudin gene (ZFYVE27) is mutated in a subset of individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and protrudin is therefore also referred to as spastic paraplegia (SPG) 33. We have now generated mice that express a transgene for dual epitope-tagged protrudin under control of a neuron-specific promoter, and we have subjected highly purified protrudin-containing complexes isolated from the brain of these mice to proteomics analysis to identify proteins that associate with protrudin. Protrudin was found to interact with other HSP-related proteins including myelin proteolipid protein 1 (SPG2), atlastin-1 (SPG3A), REEP1 (SPG31), REEP5 (similar to REEP1), Kif5A (SPG10), Kif5B, Kif5C, and reticulon 1, 3, and 4 (similar to reticulon 2, SPG12). Membrane topology analysis indicated that one of three hydrophobic segments of protrudin forms a hydrophobic hairpin domain similar to those of other SPG proteins. Protrudin was found to localize predominantly to the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and forced expression of protrudin promoted the formation and stabilization of the tubular ER network. The protrudin(G191V) mutant, which has been identified in a subset of HSP patients, manifested an increased intracellular stability, and cells expressing this mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ER stress. Our results thus suggest that protrudin contributes to the regulation of ER morphology and function, and that its deregulation by mutation is a causative defect in HSP.

  17. Protrudin Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Morphology and Function Associated with the Pathogenesis of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia*

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shirane, Michiko; Matsuzaki, Fumiko; Saita, Shotaro; Ohnishi, Takafumi; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2014-01-01

    Protrudin is a membrane protein that regulates polarized vesicular trafficking in neurons. The protrudin gene (ZFYVE27) is mutated in a subset of individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and protrudin is therefore also referred to as spastic paraplegia (SPG) 33. We have now generated mice that express a transgene for dual epitope-tagged protrudin under control of a neuron-specific promoter, and we have subjected highly purified protrudin-containing complexes isolated from the brain of these mice to proteomics analysis to identify proteins that associate with protrudin. Protrudin was found to interact with other HSP-related proteins including myelin proteolipid protein 1 (SPG2), atlastin-1 (SPG3A), REEP1 (SPG31), REEP5 (similar to REEP1), Kif5A (SPG10), Kif5B, Kif5C, and reticulon 1, 3, and 4 (similar to reticulon 2, SPG12). Membrane topology analysis indicated that one of three hydrophobic segments of protrudin forms a hydrophobic hairpin domain similar to those of other SPG proteins. Protrudin was found to localize predominantly to the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and forced expression of protrudin promoted the formation and stabilization of the tubular ER network. The protrudin(G191V) mutant, which has been identified in a subset of HSP patients, manifested an increased intracellular stability, and cells expressing this mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ER stress. Our results thus suggest that protrudin contributes to the regulation of ER morphology and function, and that its deregulation by mutation is a causative defect in HSP. PMID:24668814

  18. Piceatannol attenuates homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and endothelial cell damage via heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kil, Jin-Sang; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Chung, Hun-Taeg; Pae, Hyun-Ock

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced cellular dysfunction and apoptosis as important factors to a variety of diseases. In endothelial cells (ECs), the sulfur-containing amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) causes EC apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through induction of ER stress. Here, we have investigated whether piceatannol (Pic), a resveratrol analog, could protect ECs against Hcy-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress, with specific emphasis on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human ECs, we determined the effects of Hcy and Pic on annexin V positivity, glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) mRNA slicing, and ROS-sensitive dihydroethidium (DHE) oxidation. Hcy increased annexin V-positive cells, DHE oxidation, GRP78 and CHOP expression and Xbp-1 mRNA splicing, indicating that Hcy induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress. Pretreatment of ECs with Pic significantly inhibited Hcy-induced apoptosis, ROS generation and ER stress. Pic also increased HO-1 expression via activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of Pic on Hcy-induced apoptosis, ROS generation and ER stress were abolished by down-regulation of HO-1 expression, while mimicked by treatment of ECs with the HO-1 inducer hemin. Overall, these results suggest that Pic may protect ECs against Hcy-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and ER stress via Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses suppression of adiponectin expression via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinyue; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jiali; Li, Huixia; Sun, Hongzhi; Wu, Shufang; Zhou, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a novel endocrine hormone involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms whereby FGF21 mediates insulin sensitivity remain not fully understood. In the present study, FGF21was administrated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and tunicamycin-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and metabolic parameters, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress indicators, and insulin signaling molecular were assessed by Western blotting. The administration of FGF21 in obese mice reduced body weight, blood glucose and serum insulin, and increased insulin sensitivity, resulting in alleviation of insulin resistance. Meanwhile, FGF21 treatment reversed suppression of adiponectin expression and restored insulin signaling via inhibiting ER stress in adipose tissue of obese mice. Additionally, suppression of ER stress via the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid increased adiponectin expression and improved insulin resistance in obese mice and in tunicamycin-induced adipocytes. In conclusion, our results showed that the administration of FGF21 reversed suppression of adiponectin expression and restored insulin signaling via inhibiting ER stress under the condition of insulin resistance, demonstrating the causative role of ER stress in downregulating adiponectin levels.

  20. S1 kills MCF-7/ADR cells more than MCF-7 cells: A protective mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting; Liang, Furong; Zhang, Zhichao; Liu, Yubo; Sheng, Hongkun; Xie, Mingzhou

    2013-10-01

    Drug resistance in chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a pan-BH3 mimetic S1 on drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells, and the roles of S1-induced ER stress in cell death. S1 exhibited greater and faster mitochondrial apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated by Bax/Bak activation and cyrochrome c release that the p-glycprotein had little influence on S1 entering cells and hitting its targets in MCF-7/ADR cells. An IRE1-mediated ER stress response followed by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation was specifically induced by S1 in MCF-7 cells, but not in MCF-7/ADR cells. Coimmunoprecipitation and western blotting analysis determined that ER stress played a protective role in S1-induced apoptosis by triggering Bcl-2 phosphorylation, which grabbed more pro-apoptotic proteins. The synergism effect of ERK inhibitor PD98059 with S1 confirmed the protective role of ER stress. Defective ER stress in MCF-7/ADR cells confers the more sensitivity toward S1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Intrinsic Capacities of Molecular Sensors of the Unfolded Protein Response to Sense Alternate Forms of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    DuRose, Jenny B.; Tam, Arvin B.

    2006-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) regulates the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) according to cellular demand. In mammalian cells, three ER transmembrane components, IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, initiate distinct UPR signaling branches. We show that these UPR components display distinct sensitivities toward different forms of ER stress. ER stress induced by ER Ca2+ release in particular revealed fundamental differences in the properties of UPR signaling branches. Compared with the rapid response of both IRE1 and PERK to ER stress induced by thapsigargin, an ER Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, the response of ATF6 was markedly delayed. These studies are the first side-by-side comparisons of UPR signaling branch activation and reveal intrinsic features of UPR stress sensor activation in response to alternate forms of ER stress. As such, they provide initial groundwork toward understanding how ER stress sensors can confer different responses and how optimal UPR responses are achieved in physiological settings. PMID:16672378

  2. AKAP complex regulates Ca2+ re-uptake into heart sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lygren, Birgitte; Carlson, Cathrine Rein; Santamaria, Katja; Lissandron, Valentina; McSorley, Theresa; Litzenberg, Jessica; Lorenz, Dorothea; Wiesner, Burkhard; Rosenthal, Walter; Zaccolo, Manuela; Taskén, Kjetil; Klussmann, Enno

    2007-11-01

    The beta-adrenergic receptor/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway regulates heart rate and contractility. Here, we identified a supramolecular complex consisting of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2), its negative regulator phospholamban (PLN), the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP18delta and PKA. We show that AKAP18delta acts as a scaffold that coordinates PKA phosphorylation of PLN and the adrenergic effect on Ca(2+) re-uptake. Inhibition of the compartmentalization of this cAMP signalling complex by specific molecular disruptors interferes with the phosphorylation of PLN. This prevents the subsequent release of PLN from SERCA2, thereby affecting the Ca(2+) re-uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by adrenergic stimuli.

  3. 4-Phenylbutyrate Benefits Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats by Attenuating Oxidative Stress, Not by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangming; Peng, Xiaoyong; Hu, Yi; Lan, Dan; Wu, Yue; Li, Tao; Liu, Liangming

    2016-07-01

    Vascular dysfunction such as vascular hyporeactivity following severe trauma and shock is a major cause of death in injured patients. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress play an important role in vascular dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not 4-phenylbutyrate can improve vascular dysfunction and elicit antishock effects by inhibiting oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment. State key laboratory of trauma, burns, and combined injury. Five hundred and fifty-two Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were anesthetized, and a model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock was established by left femur fracture and hemorrhage. The effects of 4-phenylbutyrate (5, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) on vascular reactivity, animal survival, hemodynamics, and vital organ function in traumatic hemorrhagic shock rats and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, and the relationship to oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress was observed. Lower doses of 4-phenylbutyrate significantly improved the vascular function, stabilized the hemodynamics, and increased the tissue blood flow and vital organ function in traumatic hemorrhagic shock rats, and markedly improved the survival outcomes. Among all dosages observed in the present study, 20 mg/kg of 4-phenylbutyrate had the best effect. Further results indicated that 4-phenylbutyrate significantly inhibited the oxidative stress, decreased shock-induced oxidative stress index such as the production of reactive oxygen species, increased the antioxidant enzyme levels such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione, and improved the mitochondrial function by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in rat artery and vascular smooth muscle cells. In contrast, 4-phenylbutyrate did not affect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers following traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Furthermore, 4

  4. Rescue of Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration by Differentially Modulating Neuronal Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Li, Shaohua; Miao, Linqing; Huang, Haoliang; Liang, Feisi; Teng, Xiuyin; Xu, Lin; Wang, Qizhao; Xiao, Weidong; Ridder, William H.; Ferguson, Toby A.; Chen, Dong Feng; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2016-01-01

    Axon injury is an early event in neurodegenerative diseases that often leads to retrograde neuronal cell death and progressive permanent loss of vital neuronal functions. The connection of these two obviously sequential degenerative events, however, is elusive. Deciphering the upstream signals that trigger the neurodegeneration cascades in both neuronal soma and axon would be a key step toward developing the effective neuroprotectants that are greatly needed in the clinic. We showed previously that optic nerve injury-induced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Using two in vivo mouse models of optic neuropathies (traumatic optic nerve injury and glaucoma) and adeno-associated virus–mediated RGC-specific gene targeting, we now show that differential manipulation of unfolded protein response pathways in opposite directions—inhibition of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α-C/EBP homologous protein and activation of X-box binding protein 1—promotes both RGC axons and somata survival and preserves visual function. Our results indicate that axon injury-induced neuronal ER stress plays an important role in both axon degeneration and neuron soma death. Neuronal ER stress is therefore a promising therapeutic target for glaucoma and potentially other types of neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuron soma and axon degeneration have distinct molecular mechanisms although they are clearly connected after axon injury. We previously demonstrated that axon injury induces neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and that manipulation of ER stress molecules synergistically promotes neuron cell body survival. Here we investigated the possibility that ER stress also plays a role in axon degeneration and whether ER stress modulation preserves neuronal function in neurodegenerative diseases. Our results suggest that neuronal ER stress is a general mechanism of degeneration for both neuronal

  5. Cortistatin inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells by depressing osteoblastic differentiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Lin, Fang; Fu, Yu; Chen, Wenjia; Liu, Wenxiu; Chi, Jinyu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yin, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that vascular smooth muscular cells (VSMCs) play an important role in the development of vascular calcification (VC). Cortistatin (CST), a novel bio-active peptide, has been shown to exert multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the role and possible mechanism of CST in VC remain unclear. Therefore, we used β-glycerophosphoric acid (β-GP) to induce calcification in rat and human VSMCs to determine the effects of CST on osteoblastic differentiation and VSMC mineralization in vitro. Compared with the control, β-GP significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium content in cultured rat and human VSMCs, as well as multicellular node formation and calcium deposition, as confirmed by von Kossa and Alizarin Red S staining assays. After incubating rat and human VSMCs with β-GP in the presence of different doses of CST (10(-8) or 10(-7) mol/L), CST clearly reversed the β-GP-induced increases in ALP activity and calcium content and formation of pathological calcified nodes of VSMCs in a dose-independent manner. Moreover, 10(-8) and 10(-7) mol/L CST inhibited the phenotypic transformation of VSMCs into osteoblastic cells by decreasing the osteocalcin protein levels, increasing the SM-α-actin protein levels, and reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress by decreasing the protein expression of glucose-regulated protein 94 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein. In conclusion, CST directly inhibited β-GP-induced calcification of VSMCs in vitro, probably by suppressing ERS and phenotypic transformation of VSMCs into osteoblastic cells. These results indicate that CST represents a potential target for the prevention and treatment of VC.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Dajun; Yang, Honggang; Geng, Ting; Xing, Jianzhou; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Songtao; Yi, Dinghua

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate that has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. However, the protective effects and mechanisms underlying the actions of EP against endothelial cell (EC) inflammatory injury are not fully understood. Previous studies have confirmed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in regulating the pathological process of EC inflammation. In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of EP on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore the role of ERS in this process. TNF-α treatment not only significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and inflammatory cytokine (sICAM1, sE-selectin, MCP-1 and IL-8) production in cell culture supernatants but it also increased ICAM and MMP9 protein expression in HUVECs. TNF-α also effectively increased the ERS-related molecules in HUVECs (GRP78, ATF4, caspase12 and p-PERK). EP treatment effectively reversed the effects of the TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes on HUVECs, inflammatory cytokines and ERS-related molecules. Furthermore, thapsigargin (THA, an ERS inducer) attenuated the protective effects of EP against TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury and ERS. The PERK siRNA treatment not only inhibited ERS-related molecules but also mimicked the protective effects of EP to decrease TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that EP can effectively reduce vascular endothelial inflammation and that this effect at least in part depends on the attenuation of ERS. PMID:25470819

  7. Marchantin M Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer Cells Through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tian-Wei; Xing, Li; Tang, Jun-Long; Lu, Jing-Xiao; Liu, Chun-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, mitochondrial pathway, and death receptor. Data herein suggested an inhibitory effect of marchantin M on tumor formation in nude mice as well as the impact on CHOP and GRP78 expression. Material/Methods The role of marchantin M on proliferation and apoptosis of DU145 cells were measured by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of GRP78 and CHOP. The mice received abdominal injection at 1 time/2 d and 2 ml/time. Tumor volume was measured every 6 days. The mice were euthanatized 30 days after marchantin injection and tumor weight was measured. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL. The expressions of CHOP and GRP78 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Tumor size and weight in marchantin groups were significantly lower than in the control group (A, B) (P<0.05), and the inhibitory rate presented a dose-dependent increase. Compared with controls, the levels of CHOP and GRP78 expression elevated obviously following the treatment with marchantin (P<0.05). It showed statistically significant difference among groups C, D, E, with different levels of apoptosis indexes incremented in groups of marchantin H, M, L, compared with groups A and B (P<0.05). Conclusions Overall, this study shows that marchantin M circumvents the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 tumor and up-regulates expressions of CHOP and GRP78. Our data also indicate that marchantin M limits the proliferation and favors apoptosis of DU145 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PMID:26581488

  8. Melatonin inhibits tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Juyan; Liang, Chunlian; Zheng, Huadong; Zhang, Lin

    2015-08-07

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Melatonin possesses various beneficial metabolic actions, decreased levels of which may accelerate T2D. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been linked to insulin resistance in multiple tissues, but the role of melatonin on ERS and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle has not yet been investigated. In this study, the results showed that tunicamycin decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, but promoted the phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like ER protein kinase (PERK) time-dependently in C2C12 cells. Consistently, ERS gene markers, including binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP)/glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression and the splicing of X box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), were activated by tunicamycin time-dependently. Interestingly, melatonin pretreatment reversed the elevated PERK phosphorylation, as well as the activation of Bip expression and XBP-1 splicing, and prevented the inhibitory effect of tunicamycin on Akt phosphorylation. In addition, the insulin-provoked glucose transport was reduced by tunicamycin, and then promoted by melatonin pretreatment. A strong phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1), c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) serine, and simultaneously, a dramatic decrease of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in the presence of tunicamycin, leading to a blockade of insulin signaling, which was reversed by melatonin pretreatment. Furthermore, luzindole pretreatment acted inversely with melatonin action on glucose uptake and insulin signaling. Therefore, these results demonstrated that melatonin pretreatment inhibited the activated role of tunicamycin on ERS and insulin resistance through melatonin receptor-mediated IRE-1/JNK/IRS-1 insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells.

  9. Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Atherosclerosis by 2-Aminopurine in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Dezhi; Wu, Dong Fang; Guo, Zhong Mao; Yang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the apolipoprotein (apo) B48-carrying lipoproteins obtained from apoE knockout (apoE−/−) mice, so called E−/B48 lipoproteins, transformed mouse macrophages into foam cells and enhanced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF-2α). Furthermore, the eIF-2α phosphorylation inhibitor, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), attenuated E−/B48 lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The present report studied the effect of 2-AP on atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice. Our results showed that the level of food intake, bodyweight, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides was comparable in apoE−/− mice treated with or without 2-AP. However, the mean size of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta sinus as well as the surface area of the entire aorta of 2-AP-treated apoE−/− mice were reduced by about 55% and 39%, respectively, compared to samples from untreated control apoE−/− mice. In addition, the 2-AP-treated apoE−/− mice showed a significant decrease in glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and phosphorylated eIF-2α in their aortic samples as compared to levels in untreated control apoE−/− mice. These observations suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a causal mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice and that therapeutic strategies can be developed for using eIF-2α phosphorylation inhibitors, such as 2-AP, to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. PMID:23984090

  10. Stress of endoplasmic reticulum modulates differentiation and lipogenesis of human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koc, Michal; Mayerová, Veronika; Kračmerová, Jana; Mairal, Aline; Mališová, Lucia; Štich, Vladimír; Langin, Dominique; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2015-05-08

    Background: Adipocytes are cells specialized for storage of neutral lipids. This storage capacity is dependent on lipogenesis and is diminished in obesity. The reason for the decline in lipogenic activity of adipocytes in obesity remains unknown. Recent data show that lipogenesis in liver is regulated by pathways initiated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Thus, we aimed at investigating the effect of ERS on lipogenesis in adipose cells. Methods: Preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from obese volunteers and in vitro differentiated into adipocytes. ERS was induced pharmacologically by thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TM). Activation of Unfolded Protein Response pathway (UPR) was monitored on the level of eIF2α phosphorylation and mRNA expression of downstream targets of UPR sensors. Adipogenic and lipogenic capacity was evaluated by Oil Red O staining, measurement of incorporation of radio-labelled glucose or acetic acid into lipids and mRNA analysis of adipogenic/lipogenic markers. Results: Exposition of adipocytes to high doses of TG (100 nM) and TM (1 μg/ml) for 1–24 h enhanced expression of several UPR markers (HSPA5, EDEM1, ATF4, XBP1s) and phosphorylation of eIF2α. This acute ERS substantially inhibited expression of lipogenic genes (DGAT2, FASN, SCD1) and glucose incorporation into lipids. Moreover, chronic exposure of preadipocytes to low dose of TG (2.5 nM) during the early phases of adipogenic conversion of preadipocytes impaired both, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. On the other hand, chronic low ERS had no apparent effect on lipogenesis in mature adipocytes. Conclusions: Acute ERS weakened a capacity of mature adipocytes to store lipids and chronic ERS diminished adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. - Highlights: • High intensity ERS inhibits lipogenic capacity of adipocytes. • ERS impairs adipogenesis when present in early stages of adipogenesis. • Lipogenesis in mature adipocytes is not

  11. Regulation of lipid metabolism via a connection between the endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Michitaka

    2017-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store and supply lipids to regulate cellular lipid homeostasis. Fatty acids are packaged as triglyceride and cholesterol ester into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to synthesize LDs. Cytosolic LDs move dynamically and interact with organelles, including other LDs. In this process, functional proteins for metabolism are also transferred to LDs. In this review, I focus on interactions between the ER and LDs related to lipid metabolism.

  12. RNF-121 is an endoplasmic reticulum-membrane E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the regulation of beta-integrin.

    PubMed

    Darom, Amir; Bening-Abu-Shach, Ulrike; Broday, Limor

    2010-06-01

    We report on the characterization of RNF-121, an evolutionarily conserved E3 ligase RING finger protein that is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of various cells and tissues in Caenorhabditis elegans. Inactivation of RNF-121 induced an elevation in BiP expression and increased the sensitivity of worms to ER stress. Genetic analysis placed RNF-121 downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). We identify PAT-3::GFP, the beta subunit of the heterodimeric integrin receptors, as an RNF-121 substrate; whereas induction of RNF-121 expression reduced the level of PAT-3::GFP in the gonad distal tip cells, inhibition of RNF-121 led to the accumulation of stably bound PAT-3::GFP inclusions. Correspondingly, overexpression of RNF-121 during early stages of gonad development led to aberrations in germline development and gonad migration that overlap with those observed after PAT-3 inactivation. The formation of these gonad abnormalities required functional ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery. Our findings identify RNF-121 as an ER-anchored ubiquitin ligase that plays a specific role in the ERAD pathway by linking it to the regulation of the cell adhesion integrin receptors.

  13. Amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by chlorogenic acid through endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chun; Dong, Jing; Nie, Jing; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiong; Chen, Jun-Yi; Xia, Jia-Mei; Shuai, Wei

    2017-07-04

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid on pulmonary fibrosis and the internal mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. 30 male BALB/C mice were randomized into 5 groups: control group, pulmonary fibrosis model group, low, middle and high dose of chlorogenic acid groups. Mice in pulmonary fibrosis model group were administered 5.0 mg/kg bleomycin with intracheal instillation and mice in 3 chlorogenic acid groups were treated with chlorogenic acid every day for 28 days after bleomycin administration. Lung tissue histology was observed using HE staining. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were isolated and cultured. The expressions of fibrosis related factors (α-SMA and collagen I), as well as ER stress markers (CHOP and GRP78) were determined by both real-time PCR assay and Western blotting, while the expressions of other ER stress signaling pathway factors PERK, IRE-1, ATF-6 and protein levels of caspase-12, caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP were determined by Western blotting. RLE-6TN cell line induced by TGF-β1 was also used to verify the amelioration effects in vitro study. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, TUNEL staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Expressions of collagen I, α-SMA, GRP78, and CHOP were significantly inhibited by chlorogenic acid in dose-dependent manner. Similarly, decreasing levels of cleaved caspase-12, caspase-9, caspase-3 and increasing level of uncleaved PARP were observed in chlorogenic acid groups compared with those in the fibrosis group both in vivo and in vitro. Chlorogenic acid could also significantly down-regulate the level of phosphorylation of PERK and cleaved ATF-6 in vivo study. Moreover, MTT assay demonstrated chlorogenic acid could enhance proliferation of RLE-6TN cells induced by TGFβ1 in vitro. And the apoptosis assays indicated that chlorogenic acid could significantly inhibit cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro studies. Chlorogenic acid could inhibit the pulmonary fibrosis through endoplasmic

  14. Calreticulin and other components of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat and human inflammatory demyelination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein, which aids correct folding of glycosylated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under conditions of ER stress, CRT is upregulated and may be displayed on the surface of cells or be secreted. This ‘ecto-CRT’ may activate the innate immune response or it may aid clearance of apoptotic cells. Our and other studies have demonstrated upregulation of ER stress markers CHOP, BiP, ATF4, XBP1 and phosphorylated e-IF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in biopsy and post-mortem human multiple sclerosis (MS) samples. We extend this work by analysing changes in expression of CRT, BiP, CHOP, XBP1 and p-eIF2 alpha in a rat model of inflammatory demyelination. Demyelination was induced in the spinal cord by intradermal injection of recombinant mouse MOG mixed with incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Tissue samples were analysed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained frozen tissue sections. Data generated following sampling of tissue from animals with spinal cord lesions, was compared to that obtained using tissue derived from IFA- or saline-injected controls. CRT present in rat serum and in a cohort of human serum derived from 14 multiple sclerosis patients and 11 healthy controls was measured by ELISA. Results Stained tissue scores revealed significantly (p<0.05) increased amounts of CRT, CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha in the lesion, lesion edge and normal-appearing white matter when compared to controls. CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha were also significantly raised in regions of grey matter and the central canal (p<0.05). Immunofluorescent dual-label staining confirmed expression of these markers in astrocytes, microglia or neurons. Dual staining of rat and human spinal cord lesions with Oil Red O and CRT antibody showed co-localisation of CRT with the rim of myelin fragments. ELISA testing of sera from control and EAE rats demonstrated significant down-regulation (p<0.05) of CRT in the serum of

  15. Soluble forms of polyQ-expanded huntingtin rather than large aggregates cause endoplasmic reticulum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitman, Julia; Ulrich Hartl, F.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2013-11-01

    In Huntington’s disease, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, it was initially thought that insoluble protein aggregates are the toxic species. However, growing evidence implicates soluble oligomeric polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in cytotoxicity. Here we show that pathogenic huntingtin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and induces ER stress before its aggregation into visible inclusions. All three branches of the unfolded protein response are activated. ER stress can be compensated by overexpression of p97/VCP, suggesting its sequestration by pathogenic huntingtin as a main cause. Stress correlates with the presence of huntingtin oligomers and is independent of continual huntingtin synthesis. Stress levels, measured in striatal neurons, are stabilized but only slowly subside on huntingtin aggregation into inclusions. Our results can be explained by the constant conversion of huntingtin monomers to toxic oligomers; large aggregates sequester the former, precluding further conversion, whereas pre-existing toxic oligomers are only gradually depleted.

  16. Targeting the hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    PubMed

    Garg, Abhishek D; Maes, Hannelore; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the center of a number of vital cellular processes such as cell growth, death, and differentiation, crosstalk with immune or stromal cells, and maintenance of proteostasis or homeostasis, and ER functions have implications for various pathologies including cancer. Recently, a number of major hallmarks of cancer have been delineated that are expected to facilitate the development of anticancer therapies. However, therapeutic induction of ER stress as a strategy to broadly target multiple hallmarks of cancer has been seldom discussed despite the fact that several primary or secondary ER stress-inducing therapies have been found to exhibit positive clinical activity in cancer patients. In the present review we provide a brief historical overview of the major discoveries and milestones in the field of ER stress biology with important implications for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss possible strategies enabling the targeting of multiple hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced ER stress.

  17. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: possible involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress?

    PubMed

    Basha, Basma; Samuel, Samson Mathews; Triggle, Chris R; Ding, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus impose a huge burden on the management of this disease. The higher incidence of cardiovascular complications and the unfavorable prognosis among diabetic individuals who develop such complications have been correlated to the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction. Although antioxidants may be considered as effective therapeutic agents to relieve oxidative stress and protect the endothelium, recent clinical trials involving these agents have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in this regard. In the recent past experimental evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the endothelial cells might be an important contributor to diabetes-related vascular complications. The current paper contemplates the possibility of the involvement of ER stress in endothelial dysfunction and diabetes-associated vascular complications.

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effects on renal tubular cells apoptosis in ischemic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Guo, Min; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Hui; Han, Yafei; An, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Jisheng

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia is the most frequent cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by apoptosis of renal tubular cell. A common result of ischemia in AKI is dysfunction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which causes the protein-folding capacity to lag behind the protein-folding load. The abundance of misfolded proteins stressed the ER and results in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). While the UPR is an adaptive response, over time it can result in apoptosis when cells are unable to recover quickly. Recent research suggests that ER stress is a major factor in renal tubular cell apoptosis resulting from ischemic AKI. Thus, ER stress may be an important new progression factor in the pathology of ischemic AKI. In this article, we review UPR signaling, describe pathology and pathophysiology mechanisms of ischemic AKI, and highlight the dual function of ER stress on renal tubular cell apoptosis.

  19. Targeting the hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhishek D; Maes, Hannelore; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the center of a number of vital cellular processes such as cell growth, death, and differentiation, crosstalk with immune or stromal cells, and maintenance of proteostasis or homeostasis, and ER functions have implications for various pathologies including cancer. Recently, a number of major hallmarks of cancer have been delineated that are expected to facilitate the development of anticancer therapies. However, therapeutic induction of ER stress as a strategy to broadly target multiple hallmarks of cancer has been seldom discussed despite the fact that several primary or secondary ER stress-inducing therapies have been found to exhibit positive clinical activity in cancer patients. In the present review we provide a brief historical overview of the major discoveries and milestones in the field of ER stress biology with important implications for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss possible strategies enabling the targeting of multiple hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced ER stress. PMID:27308392

  20. Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Basma; Samuel, Samson Mathews; Triggle, Chris R.; Ding, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus impose a huge burden on the management of this disease. The higher incidence of cardiovascular complications and the unfavorable prognosis among diabetic individuals who develop such complications have been correlated to the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction. Although antioxidants may be considered as effective therapeutic agents to relieve oxidative stress and protect the endothelium, recent clinical trials involving these agents have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in this regard. In the recent past experimental evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the endothelial cells might be an important contributor to diabetes-related vascular complications. The current paper contemplates the possibility of the involvement of ER stress in endothelial dysfunction and diabetes-associated vascular complications. PMID:22474423

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles trigger cell proliferation arrest of neuro-2a cells and ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pingping; Chen, Chuanfang; Zeng, Kun; Pan, Weidong; Song, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been increasingly applied in various areas, such as the biomedical and electronic industries. The unique properties of MNPs are beneficial to their applications, but concerns about their safety to human health along with the growing applications and production also arise. In this study, the cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic MNPs, with an average diameter of 10 nm and typical diameter range between 5 and 30 nm, was investigated using neuro-2a cells. The MNPs internalized into the cytoplasm of neuro-2a cells and inhibited the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The cell growth inhibition would be partly attributed to the MNP-induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. MNPs triggered the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, as indicated by the up-regulated expression of the classical ER stress genes, binding immunoglobulin protein, activating transcription factor 6, and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The induced production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased expression of heme oxygenase 1 and nuclear factor erythroid two-related factor two genes demonstrated that oxidative stress was also induced. Furthermore, the clearance of ROS by free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced the up-regulation of MNP-induced CHOP mRNA expressions, thereby suggesting that ROS was involved in the process of ER stress response induced by MNPs.

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Formaldehyde-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC12 Cells by Upregulation of SIRT-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Li-Xun; Wang, Li; Xie, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA), a well-known environmental pollutant, has been classified as a neurotoxic molecule. Our recent data demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, has a protective effect on the neurotoxicity of FA. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of FA. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT-1), a histone deacetylases, has various biological activities, including the extension of lifespan, the modulation of ER stress, and the neuroprotective action. Objective We hypothesize that the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity involves in inhibiting ER stress by upregulation of SIRT-1. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of H2S on FA-induced ER stress in PC12 cells and the contribution of SIRT-1 to the protection of H2S against FA-induced injuries, including ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Principal Findings We found that exogenous application of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; an H2S donor) significantly attenuated FA-induced ER stress responses, including the upregulated levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 expression. We showed that NaHS upregulates the expression of SIRT-1 in PC12 cells. Moreover, the protective effects of H2S on FA-elicited ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were reversed by Sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT-1. Conclusion/Significance These data indicate that H2S exerts its protection against the neurotoxicity of FA through overcoming ER stress via upregulation of SIRT-1. Our findings provide novel insights into the protective mechanisms of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24587076

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle. Role in cell survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-ming; Peyton, Kelly J; Ensenat, Diana; Wang, Hong; Schafer, Andrew I; Alam, Jawed; Durante, William

    2005-01-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective protein that catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). In the present study, we found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by a variety of experimental agents stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent increase in HO-1 mRNA and protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). The induction of HO-1 by ER stress was blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide and was independent of any changes in HO-1 mRNA stability. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that ER stress stimulated HO-1 promoter activity via the antioxidant response element. Moreover, ER stress induced the nuclear import of Nrf2 and the binding of Nrf2 to the HO-1 antioxidant response element. Interestingly, ER stress stimulated SMC apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V binding, caspase-3 activation, and DNA laddering. The induction of apoptosis by ER stress was potentiated by HO inhibition, whereas it was prevented by addition of HO substrate. In addition, exposure of SMC to exogenously administered CO inhibited ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and this was associated with a decrease in the expression of the proapoptotic protein, GADD153. In contrast, the other HO-1 products failed to block apoptosis or GADD153 expression during ER stress. These results demonstrated that ER stress is an inducer of HO-1 gene expression in vascular SMC and that HO-1-derived CO acts in an autocrine fashion to inhibit SMC apoptosis. The capacity of ER stress to stimulate the HO-1/CO system provides a novel mechanism by which this organelle regulates cell survival.

  4. Changes in cellular infrastructure after induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    PubMed

    Basso, Tatiana Setenta; Vita-Santos, Evelyn; Marisco, Gabriele; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a basidiomycete fungus that causes witches' broom disease in Theobroma cacao We analyzed the morphology and survival of fungal hyphae and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remodeling in either glucose- or glycerol-grown M. perniciosa after treatment with ER stress-inducing chemicals dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin (TM). Changes in intracellular redox potential can cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to diminished efficiency in protein folding that could in turn reduce cell survival. Such stress diminishes protein-folding efficiency that could in turn reduce cell survival. Light microscopy revealed morphological changes in hyphae after TM but not after DTT treatment, regardless of the media carbon source. Decrease in fungal survival, after both TM and DTT treatments, was dose-dependent and glycerol-grown cells showed a higher resistance to both chemicals compared to glucose-grown cells. Electron microscopy showed TM and DDT-induced ER stress in M. perniciosa as evidenced by structural alterations of the organelle. The volume of ER structures increased as a typical consequence of unfolded protein stress, and the number of autophagosomes was higher. In glycerol-grown fungus DTT treatment slightly induced expression of molecular chaperone BiP. The TM exposure-induced expression of gene MpIRE1, involved in signaling of the unfolded protein response, was higher in glycerol than glucose-grown cells. Such difference was not observable with expression of gene MpATG8, encoding a key protein in autosome formation, that was induced 1.4-fold and 1.2-fold in glucose or glycerol-grown cells, respectively. DHE-based fluorescence assay showed M. perniciosa oxidative stress induced by H2O2, and treated cells had a higher level of oxidative stress compared to control. A comprehensive study of remodeling of ER is important in understanding M. perniciosa fungus resistance to oxidative stress and its ability to implement a successful infection in T

  5. Chronic inhibition of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Duan, Quanlu; Cai, Zhejun; Chen, Chen; Ni, Li; Yan, Mengwen; Wang, Xingxu; Cianflone, Katherine; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inhibition of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) exerts profound beneficial effects on failing hearts. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PDE5 inhibition on heart failure are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PDE5 inhibition decreases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a key event in heart failure. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Heart failure was induced by isoprenaline s.c. injection in Sprague–Dawley rats and transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. PDE5 was inhibited with sildenafil. Heart function was detected by invasive pressure–volume analysis and echocardiography. ER stress markers were analysed by Western blotting. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometric analysis. KEY RESULTS PDE5 inhibition markedly attenuated isoprenaline-induced and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, and reduced ER stress and apoptosis. Further, PDE5 inhibition with sildenafil largely prevented ER stress and reduced apoptosis in isoprenaline- or thapsigargin-treated cardiomyocytes. PKG inhibition markedly prevented the protective effects of sildenafil in vivo and in vitro. To further understand the mechanism of the effect of PDE5 inhibition on ER stress, we demonstrated that PDE5 inhibitor increased sarco-(endo)-plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity via phosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16. This may contribute to the attenuation of ER stress induced by PDE5 inhibition. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that PDE5 inhibition can attenuate ER stress and improve cardiac function in vivo and in vitro. Suppression of ER stress by inhibiting PDE5 may contribute to the therapeutic effects on heart failure. PMID:24032459

  6. Adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress alters cellular responses to the extracellular milieu.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiting; Neely, Elizabeth; Simmons, Zachary; Connor, James R

    2015-05-01

    The ability to respond to perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function is a critical property for all cells. In the presence of chronic ER stress, the cell must adapt so that cell survival is favored or the stress may promote apoptosis. In some pathological processes, such as neurodengeneration, persistent ER stress can be tolerated for an extended period, but eventually cell death occurs. It is not known how an adaptive response converts from survival into apoptosis. To gain a better understanding of the role of adaptive ER stress in neurodegeneration, in this study, with a neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y and primary motor neuron-glia cell mixed cultures, we induced adaptive ER stress and modified the extracellular environment with physiologically relevant changes that alone did not activate ER stress. Our data demonstrate that an adaptive ER stress favored neuronal cell survival, but when cells were exposed to additional physiological insults the level of ER stress was increased, followed by activation of the caspase pathway. Our results indicate that an adaptive ER stress response could be converted to apoptosis when the external cellular milieu changed, suggesting that the conversion from prosurvival to proapoptotic pathways can be driven by the external milieu. This conversion was due at least partially to an increased level of ER stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Angiogenin Mediates Cell-Autonomous Translational Control under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Attenuates Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Mami, Iadh; Bouvier, Nicolas; El Karoui, Khalil; Gallazzini, Morgan; Rabant, Marion; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Li, Shuping; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Chevet, Eric; Hu, Guo-Fu; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and aging, but the molecular bases underlying the biologic outcomes on the evolution of renal disease remain mostly unknown. Angiogenin (ANG) is a ribonuclease that promotes cellular adaptation under stress but its contribution to ER stress signaling remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the ANG-mediated contribution to the signaling and biologic outcomes of ER stress in kidney injury. ANG expression was significantly higher in samples from injured human kidneys than in samples from normal human kidneys, and in mouse and rat kidneys, ANG expression was specifically induced under ER stress. In human renal epithelial cells, ER stress induced ANG expression in a manner dependent on the activity of transcription factor XBP1, and ANG promoted cellular adaptation to ER stress through induction of stress granules and inhibition of translation. Moreover, the severity of renal lesions induced by ER stress was dramatically greater in ANG knockout mice (Ang(-/-)) mice than in wild-type mice. These results indicate that ANG is a critical mediator of tissue adaptation to kidney injury and reveal a physiologically relevant ER stress-mediated adaptive translational control mechanism. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Angiogenin Mediates Cell-Autonomous Translational Control under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Attenuates Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mami, Iadh; Bouvier, Nicolas; El Karoui, Khalil; Gallazzini, Morgan; Rabant, Marion; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Li, Shuping; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Chevet, Eric; Hu, Guo-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and aging, but the molecular bases underlying the biologic outcomes on the evolution of renal disease remain mostly unknown. Angiogenin (ANG) is a ribonuclease that promotes cellular adaptation under stress but its contribution to ER stress signaling remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the ANG-mediated contribution to the signaling and biologic outcomes of ER stress in kidney injury. ANG expression was significantly higher in samples from injured human kidneys than in samples from normal human kidneys, and in mouse and rat kidneys, ANG expression was specifically induced under ER stress. In human renal epithelial cells, ER stress induced ANG expression in a manner dependent on the activity of transcription factor XBP1, and ANG promoted cellular adaptation to ER stress through induction of stress granules and inhibition of translation. Moreover, the severity of renal lesions induced by ER stress was dramatically greater in ANG knockout mice (Ang−/−) mice than in wild-type mice. These results indicate that ANG is a critical mediator of tissue adaptation to kidney injury and reveal a physiologically relevant ER stress-mediated adaptive translational control mechanism. PMID:26195817

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and eIF2α phosphorylation: The Achilles heel of pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Cnop, Miriam; Toivonen, Sanna; Igoillo-Esteve, Mariana; Salpea, Paraskevi

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatic β cell dysfunction and death are central in the pathogenesis of most if not all forms of diabetes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying β cell failure is important to develop β cell protective approaches. Here we review the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in β cell failure in monogenic and polygenic forms of diabetes. There is substantial evidence for the presence of endoplasmic reticulum stress in β cells in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Direct evidence for the importance of this stress response is provided by an increasing number of monogenic forms of diabetes. In particular, mutations in the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response provide insight into its importance for human β cell function and survival. The knowledge gained from different rodent models is reviewed. More disease- and patient-relevant models, using human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated into β cells, will further advance our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms. Finally, we review the therapeutic modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and signaling in β cells. Pancreatic β cells are sensitive to excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysregulated eIF2α phosphorylation, as indicated by transcriptome data, monogenic forms of diabetes and pharmacological studies. This should be taken into consideration when devising new therapeutic approaches for diabetes.

  10. Saturated lipids decrease mitofusin 2 leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress activation and insulin resistance in hypothalamic cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Brenda; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Tovar, Armando; Montiel, Teresa; Massieu, Lourdes; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Camacho, Alberto

    2015-11-19

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria dysfunction contribute to insulin resistance generation during obesity and diabetes. ER and mitochondria interact through Mitofusin 2 (MTF2), which anchors in the outer mitochondrial and ER membranes regulating energy metabolism. Ablation of MTF2 leads to ER stress activation and insulin resistance. Here we determine whether lipotoxic insult induced by saturated lipids decreases MTF2 expression leading to ER stress response in hypothalamus and its effects on insulin sensitivity using in vitro and in vivo models. We found that lipotoxic stimulation induced by palmitic acid, but not the monounsaturated palmitoleic acid, decreases MTF2 protein levels in hypothalamic mHypoA-CLU192 cells. Also, palmitic acid incubation activates ER stress response evidenced by increase in the protein levels of GRP78/BIP marker at later stage than MTF2 downregulation. Additionally, we found that MTF2 alterations induced by palmitic, but not palmitoleic, stimulation exacerbate insulin resistance in hypothalamic cells. Insulin resistance induced by palmitic acid is prevented by pre-incubation of the anti-inflammatory and the ER stress release reagents, sodium salicylate and 4 phenylbutirate, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that lipotoxic insult induced by high fat feeding to mice decreases MTF2 proteins levels in arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus. Our data indicate that saturated lipids modulate MTF2 expression in hypothalamus coordinating the ER stress response and the susceptibility to insulin resistance.

  11. Oxalicumone A, a new dihydrothiophene-condensed sulfur chromone induces apoptosis in leukemia cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Qiao-Li; Nong, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Fei

    2016-07-15

    Oxalicumone A (POA1), a novel dihydrothiophene-condensed sulfur chromone isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023, showed cytotoxicity against several cancer cells previously. In this study, its anti-cancer activity and underlying mechanism of this action were investigated in leukemia cells like KG-1a, HL60, U937, and K562. The results showed that POA1 inhibited dose-/time-dependently cell growth and induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. Also, POA1 caused cleavages of caspase-3, 8, 9 and PARP1, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, up-regulations of phosphorylated p38 and JNK, and activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Furthermore, 4-PBA (an ER stress inhibitor) but not SP600125 and SB203580 (JNK and p38 inhibitor, respectively) could largely inhibit POA1-induced growth suppression. Additionally, 4-PBA obstructed mitochondrial depolarization and cleavage of PARP1. These data suggested that ER stress pathway might be an important mediator in POA1-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, POA1 may have antitumor effects in leukemia cells through the induction of ER stress pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of lithium chloride on endoplasmic reticulum stress-related PERK/ROCK signaling in a rat model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Bo; Lu, Hong-E; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Tong, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered as the major risk factor for the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in glaucoma. Lithium chloride (LiCl) inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and attends PERK-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) transition. PERK is a type I transmembrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. PERK pathway activation takes place in ERs early inhibiting protein synthnesis to protect cell and promote cell survival. Here, we firstly evaluate that LiCl reduced IOP when administered intraperitoneally. After 6 weeks, IOP dropped by around 21.9% in LiCl treated rats. Then we investigated the effects of LiCI on PERK-mediated signaling pathways. LiCl treatment activated PERK and inhibited the expression of ROCK-1 and ROCK-2 in a rat model of glaucoma. Collectively, these results suggest that LiCl reduced the IOP through the phosphorylation of PERK by the regulation of PERK/ROCK signaling in glaucoma rat model.

  13. Macrophage Paraoxonase 2 regulates calcium homeostasis and cell survival under Endoplasmic Reticulum stress conditions and is sufficient to prevent the development of aggravated atherosclerosis in Paraoxonase 2 deficiency/apoE−/− mice on a Western diet

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Asokan; Grijalva, Victor R; Bourquard, Noam; Meriwether, David; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonase 2 deficiency (PON2-def) alters mitochondrial function and exacerbates the development of atherosclerosis in mice. PON2 overexpression protects against ER stress in cell culture. In this paper, we examined the role of PON2 in the unexplored link between ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and tested whether restoration of PON2 in macrophages is sufficient to reduce aggravated atherosclerosis in PON2-def/apoE−/− mice on a Western diet. ER stress response genes, intracellular calcium levels, and apoptotic nuclei were significantly elevated in PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages compared to apoE−/− macrophages in response to ER stressors, but not at the basal level. In contrast, PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages exhibited greater mitochondrial stress at the basal level, which was further worsened in response to ER stressors. There was no difference in ER stress response genes and apoptotic nuclei between apoE−/− and PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages when pretreated with xestospongin (which blocks the release of calcium from ER) suggesting that PON2 modulates cell survival and ER stress by maintaining calcium homeostasis. Treatment with a mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitor, RU360, attenuated ER stressor mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages. CHOP expression (ER stress marker) and apoptotic nuclei were significantly higher in aortic lesions of PON2-def/apoE−/− mice compared to apoE−/− mice fed a Western diet. Restoration of PON2 in macrophage reduced ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in response to ER stressors. Furthermore, restoration of PON2 in macrophages reduced lesional apoptosis and atherosclerosis in PON2-def/apoE−/− mice on a Western diet. Our data suggest that macrophage PON2 modulates mechanisms that link ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:22864055

  14. The essential biology of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response for structural and computational biologists

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Sadao; Yoshida, Hiderou

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cytoprotective mechanism that maintains homeostasis of the ER by upregulating the capacity of the ER in accordance with cellular demands. If the ER stress response cannot function correctly, because of reasons such as aging, genetic mutation or environmental stress, unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER and cause ER stress-induced apoptosis, resulting in the onset of folding diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus. Although the mechanism of the ER stress response has been analyzed extensively by biochemists, cell biologists and molecular biologists, many aspects remain to be elucidated. For example, it is unclear how sensor molecules detect ER stress, or how cells choose the two opposite cell fates (survival or apoptosis) during the ER stress response. To resolve these critical issues, structural and computational approaches will be indispensable, although the mechanism of the ER stress response is complicated and difficult to understand holistically at a glance. Here, we provide a concise introduction to the mammalian ER stress response for structural and computational biologists. PMID:24688718

  15. Inhibition of telomerase causes vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Nakatsu, Kanako; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-08-26

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced cell death. ER stress-induced cell death was ameliorated in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) over-expressing MCF7 cells (MCF7-TERT cell). Telomerase specific inhibitor, BIBR1532, reversed the inhibitory effect of TERT on ER stress-induced cell death in MCF7-TERT cells. These findings suggest that BIBR1532 may specifically inhibit telomerase activity, thereby inducing cell death in ER stress-exposed cells. TERT was expressed in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. To analyze the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death, we treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with BIBR1532 and analyzed ER stress-induced cell death. We found that BIBR1532 significantly enhanced the ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity may enhance vulnerability to neuronal cell death caused by ER stress.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in inflammation-accelerated, lipid-mediated injury of human glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Cui, Jingjing; Shi, Jing; Yang, Baohui; Wang, Mo; Wu, Daoqi; Zhang, Gaofu; Liu, Wei; Li, Qiu

    2017-03-01

    The mechanism of lipid-mediated injury of human glomerular mesangial cells (HMCs) remains unclear. We investigated the association between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid-mediated injury in HMCs in vitro and the potential efficacy of a therapeutic approach targeting ER stress. Human glomerular mesangial cells were exposed to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β). For evaluation of whether ER stress participates in lipid-mediated injury to HMCs, HMCs were pretreated with tunicamycin or treated with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA). Incubation of HMCs with LDL + IL-1β significantly increased lipid accumulation and induced phenotypic changes. ER stress was induced in lipid-loaded HMCs, as indicated by upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) proteins. Moreover, persistent ER stress increased expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 protein, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA partly through the PERK - eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α) pathway. Preconditioning with ER stress by tunicamycin and inhibition of ER stress by 4-PBA both reversed the phenotypic changes and decreased lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokine secretion by the PERK - eIF2α pathway. These data provide evidence that ER stress participates in inflammation associated with lipid-induced injury of HMCs. Modulation of ER stress may be a novel therapeutic approach for combating lipid-induced injury of HMCs. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in decidual tissue from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction with and without pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lian, I.A.; Løset, M.; Mundal, S.B.; Fenstad, M.H.; Johnson, M.P.; Eide, I.P.; Bjørge, L.; Freed, K.A.; Moses, E.K.; Austgulen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in both pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR), and is characterised by activation of three signalling branches: 1) PERK-pEIF2α, 2) ATF6 and 3) splicing of XBP1(U) into XBP1(S). To evaluate the contribution of ER stress in the pathogenesis of PE relative to FGR, we compared levels of ER stress markers in decidual tissue from pregnancies complicated by PE and/or FGR. Study design Whole-genome transcriptional profiling was performed on decidual tissue from women with PE (n = 13), FGR (n = 9), PE+FGR (n = 24) and controls (n = 58), and used for pathway- and targeted transcriptional analyses of ER stress markers. The expression and cellular localisation of ER stress markers was assesses by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Results Increased ER stress was observed in FGR and PE+FGR, including both the PERK-pEIF2α and ATF6 signalling branches, whereas ER stress was less evident in isolated PE. However, these cases demonstrated elevated levels of XBP1(U) protein. ATF6 and XBP1 immunoreactivity was detected in most (> 80%) extravillous trophoblasts, decidual cells and macrophages. No difference in the proportion of immunopositive cells or staining pattern was observed between study groups. Conclusions Increased PERK-pEIF2α and ATF6 signalling have been associated with decreased cellular proliferation and may contribute to the impaired placental growth characterising pregnancies with FGR and PE+FGR. XBP1(U) has been proposed as a negative regulator of ER stress, and increased levels in PE may reflect a protective mechanism against the detrimental effects of ER stress. PMID:21907405

  18. A critical role of DDRGK1 in endoplasmic reticulum homoeostasis via regulation of IRE1α stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Ying; Song, Lizhi; Zeng, Linghua; Yi, Weiwei; Liu, Ting; Chen, Huanzhen; Wang, Miao; Ju, Zhenyu; Cong, Yu-Sheng

    2017-01-27

    Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homoeostasis induces ER stress and leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is an adaptive reaction that promotes cell survival or triggers apoptosis, when homoeostasis is not restored. DDRGK1 is an ER membrane protein and a critical component of the ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (Ufm1) system. However, the functions and mechanisms of DDRGK1 in ER homoeostasis are largely unknown. Here, we show that depletion of DDRGK1 induces ER stress and enhances ER stress-induced apoptosis in both cancer cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Depletion of DDRGK1 represses IRE1α-XBP1 signalling and activates the PERK-eIF2α-CHOP apoptotic pathway by targeting the ER-stress sensor IRE1α. We further demonstrate that DDRGK1 regulates IRE1α protein stability via its interaction with the kinase domain of IRE1α, which is dependent on its ufmylation modification. Altogether, our results provide evidence that DDRGK1 is essential for ER homoeostasis regulation.

  19. A critical role of DDRGK1 in endoplasmic reticulum homoeostasis via regulation of IRE1α stability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Ying; Song, Lizhi; Zeng, Linghua; Yi, Weiwei; Liu, Ting; Chen, Huanzhen; Wang, Miao; Ju, Zhenyu; Cong, Yu-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homoeostasis induces ER stress and leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is an adaptive reaction that promotes cell survival or triggers apoptosis, when homoeostasis is not restored. DDRGK1 is an ER membrane protein and a critical component of the ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (Ufm1) system. However, the functions and mechanisms of DDRGK1 in ER homoeostasis are largely unknown. Here, we show that depletion of DDRGK1 induces ER stress and enhances ER stress-induced apoptosis in both cancer cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Depletion of DDRGK1 represses IRE1α-XBP1 signalling and activates the PERK-eIF2α-CHOP apoptotic pathway by targeting the ER-stress sensor IRE1α. We further demonstrate that DDRGK1 regulates IRE1α protein stability via its interaction with the kinase domain of IRE1α, which is dependent on its ufmylation modification. Altogether, our results provide evidence that DDRGK1 is essential for ER homoeostasis regulation. PMID:28128204

  20. Thermal Shock Induces Host Proteostasis Disruption and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Model Symbiotic Cnidarian Aiptasia.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Clinton A; Durand, Elysanne; Wilkinson, Shaun P; Peng, Lifeng; Weis, Virginia M; Grossman, Arthur R; Davy, Simon K

    2017-06-02

    Coral bleaching has devastating effects on coral survival and reef ecosystem function, but many of the fundamental cellular effects of thermal stress on cnidarian physiology are unclear. We used label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to compare the effects of rapidly (33.5 °C, 24 h) and gradually (30 and 33.5 °C, 12 days) elevated temperatures on the proteome of the model symbiotic anemone Aiptasia. We identified 2133 proteins in Aiptasia, 136 of which were differentially abundant between treatments. Thermal shock, but not acclimation, resulted in significant abundance changes in 104 proteins, including those involved in protein folding and synthesis, redox homeostasis, and central metabolism. Nineteen abundant structural proteins showed particularly reduced abundance, demonstrating proteostasis disruption and potential protein synthesis inhibition. Heat shock induced antioxidant mechanisms and proteins involved in stabilizing nascent proteins, preventing protein aggregation and degrading damaged proteins, which is indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Host proteostasis disruption occurred before either bleaching or symbiont photoinhibition was detected, suggesting host-derived reactive oxygen species production as the proximate cause of thermal damage. The pronounced abundance changes in endoplasmic reticulum proteins associated with proteostasis and protein turnover indicate that these processes are essential in the cellular response of symbiotic cnidarians to severe thermal stress.

  1. Coordination of stress, Ca2+, and immunogenic signaling pathways by PERK at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Garg, Abhishek D; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main coordinator of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, protein synthesis, and folding. The ER is also implicated in the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including mitochondria, plasma membrane (PM), and endosomes, thereby orchestrating through interorganelle signaling pathways, a variety of cellular responses including Ca2+ homeostasis, metabolism, and cell death signaling. Upon loss of its folding capacity, incited by a number of stress signals including those elicited by various anticancer therapies, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is launched to restore ER homeostasis. The ER stress sensor protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) is a key mediator of the UPR and its role during ER stress has been largely recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that PERK may govern signaling pathways through UPR-independent functions. Here, we discuss emerging noncanonical roles of PERK with particular relevance for the induction of danger or immunogenic signaling and interorganelle communication.

  2. Melatonin inhibits autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    San-Miguel, Beatriz; Crespo, Irene; Sánchez, Diana I; González-Fernández, Bárbara; Ortiz de Urbina, Juan J; Tuñón, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) associates with the antifibrogenic effect of melatonin in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Mice received CCl4 5 μL/g body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 wk or 6 wk. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day i.p, beginning 2 wk after the start of CCl4 administration. Treatment with CCl4 resulted in fibrosis evidenced by the staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells. CCl4 induced an autophagic response measured as the presence of autophagic vesicles, protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) staining, conversion of LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, changes in expression of beclin-1, UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), ubiquitin-like autophagy-related (Atg5), Atg12, Atg16L1, sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-2, and increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). There was an increase in the expression of the ER stress chaperones CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94), and in the mRNA levels of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), ATF4, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1). Phospho-IRE1, ATF6, and phospho-PERK protein concentration also increased significantly. Immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA indicated an abrogation of hepatic stellate cells activation by melatonin. Furthermore, treatment with the indole resulted in significant inhibition of the autophagic flux and the unfolded protein response. Findings from this study give new insight into molecular pathways accounting for the protective effect of melatonin in fibrogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 in mice attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Xu, Shanqin; Giles, Amber; Nakamura, Kazuto; Lee, Jong Woo; Hou, Xiuyun; Donmez, Gizem; Li, Ji; Luo, Zhijun; Walsh, Kenneth; Guarente, Leonard; Zang, Mengwei

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of human type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although SIRT1 has a therapeutic effect on metabolic deterioration in T2DM, the precise mechanisms by which SIRT1 improves insulin resistance remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SIRT1 in the liver of diet-induced insulin-resistant low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice and of genetically obese ob/ob mice attenuates hepatic steatosis and ameliorates systemic insulin resistance. These beneficial effects were associated with decreased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, inhibited the unfolded protein response (UPR), and enhanced insulin receptor signaling in the liver, leading to decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and improved glucose tolerance. The tunicamycin-induced splicing of X-box binding protein-1 and expression of GRP78 and CHOP were reduced by resveratrol in cultured cells in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Conversely, SIRT1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts challenged with tunicamycin exhibited markedly increased mTORC1 activity and impaired ER homeostasi and insulin signaling. These effects were abolished by mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin in human HepG2 cells. These studies indicate that SIRT1 serves as a negative regulator of UPR signaling in T2DM and that SIRT1 attenuates hepatic steatosis, ameliorates insulin resistance, and restores glucose homeostasis, largely through the inhibition of mTORC1 and ER stress.—Li, Y., Xu, S., Giles, A., Nakamura, K., Lee, J. W., Hou, X., Donmez, G., Li, J., Luo, Z., Walsh, K., Guarente, L., Zang, M. Hepatic overexpression of SIRT1 in mice attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in the liver. PMID:21321189

  4. Melatonin Induces Anti-Inflammatory Effects to Play a Protective Role via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yina; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Qinfen; Sun, Yangjie; Jin, Yin; Wu, Jiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, which is mainly secreted by the pineal gland and released into blood, has anti-inflammatory properties in acute pancreatitis. Many studies show that melatonin can relieve inflammation in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are still undefined, especially the relationship between melatonin and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We explored the anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin in AR42J and rat models. The CCK-8 assay was used to assess effects of melatonin on AR42J cell viability. Inflammatory degree and the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress related molecules were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. The degree of inflammation in the tissue was also accessed by pathological grading. Finally, we used the western blotting method to verify apoptosis and autophagy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was obviously activated in early stage inflammation in AR42J and rat models. Melatonin could induce anti-inflammatory effects via endoplasmic reticulum stress. Melatonin significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokines and the expression of ERS-related molecules. Finally, it played a protective role by promoting apoptosis and autophagy of the cells, which were damaged in the process of inflammatory reaction. Melatonin induces anti-inflammatory effects via endoplasmic reticulum stress in acute pancreatitis to play a protective role. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Regulation of Protein Secretion Through Controlled Aggregation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Victor M.; Wang, Xiurong; Wardwell, Scott; Courage, Nancy L.; Volchuk, Allen; Keenan, Terence; Holt, Dennis A.; Gilman, Michael; Orci, Lelio; Cerasoli, Frank; Rothman, James E.; Clackson, Tim

    2000-02-01

    A system for direct pharmacologic control of protein secretion was developed to allow rapid and pulsatile delivery of therapeutic proteins. A protein was engineered so that it accumulated as aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secretion was then stimulated by a synthetic small-molecule drug that induces protein disaggregation. Rapid and transient secretion of growth hormone and insulin was achieved in vitro and in vivo. A regulated pulse of insulin secretion resulted in a transient correction of serum glucose concentrations in a mouse model of hyperglycemia. This approach may make gene therapy a viable method for delivery of polypeptides that require rapid and regulated delivery.

  6. Endothelin receptor-specific control of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    De Miguel, Carmen; Hamrick, William C.; Hobbs, Janet L.; Pollock, David M.; Carmines, Pamela K.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) promotes renal damage during cardiovascular disease; yet, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, triggered by unfolded protein accumulation in the ER, contributes to apoptosis and organ injury. These studies aimed to determine whether the ET-1 system promotes renal ER stress development in response to tunicamycin. ETB deficient (ETB def) or transgenic control (TG-con) rats were used in the presence or absence of ETA receptor antagonism. Tunicamycin treatment similarly increased cortical ER stress markers in both rat genotypes; however, only ETB def rats showed a 14–24 fold increase from baseline for medullary GRP78, sXBP-1, and CHOP. Pre-treatment of TG-con rats with the ETA blocker ABT-627 for 1 week prior to tunicamycin injection significantly reduced the ER stress response in cortex and medulla, and also inhibited renal apoptosis. Pre-treatment with ABT-627 failed to decrease renal ER stress and apoptosis in ETB def rats. In conclusion, the ET-1 system is important for the development of tunicamycin-induced renal ER stress and apoptosis. ETA receptor activation induces renal ER stress genes and apoptosis, while functional activation of the ETB receptor has protective effects. These results highlight targeting the ETA receptor as a therapeutic approach against ER stress-induced kidney injury. PMID:28230089

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control and its relationship to environmental stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Xiang; Howell, Stephen H

    2010-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated quality control (QC) system to eliminate improperly folded proteins from the secretory pathway. Given that protein folding is such a fastidious process and subject to adverse environmental conditions, the ER QC system appears to have been usurped to serve as an environmental sensor and responder in plants. Under stressful conditions, the ER protein folding machinery reaches a limit as the demands for protein folding exceed the capacity of the system. Under these conditions, misfolded or unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, triggering an unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR mitigates ER stress by upregulating the expression of genes encoding components of the protein folding machinery or the ER-associated degradation system. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ER stress is sensed and stress signals are transduced by membrane-bound transcription factors, which are activated and mobilized under environmental stress conditions. Under acute or chronic stress conditions, UPR can also lead to apoptosis or programmed cell death. Despite recent progress in our understanding of plant protein QC, discovering how different environmental conditions are perceived is one of the major challenges in understanding this system. Since the ER QC system is one among many stress response systems in plants, another major challenge is determining the extent to which the ER QC system contributes to various stress responses in plants.

  8. A novel animal model of hearing loss caused by acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Yoshiaki; Mutai, Hideki; Mizutari, Kunio; Nakagawa, Susumu; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Many stimuli such as ischemia, hypoxia, heat shock, amino acid starvation, and gene mutation, exhibit a cellular response called endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress induces expression of a series of genes, leading to cell survival or apoptosis. Previously, we found that in an animal model of hearing loss caused by acute mitochondrial dysfunction, several ER stress markers including C/EBP homologous protein were induced in the cochlear lateral wall. To elucidate the mechanism of hearing loss caused by ER stress, we established a novel animal model of hearing loss by perilymphatic perfusion of tunicamycin, an ER stress activator that inhibits N-acetylglucosamine transferases. Subacute and progressive hearing loss was observed at all sound frequencies studied, and stimulation of ER stress marker genes was noted in the cochlea. The outer hair cells were the most sensitive to ER stress in the cochlea. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated degeneration of the subcellular organelles of the inner hair cells and nerve endings of the spiral ganglion cells. This newly established animal model of hearing loss from ER stress will provide additional insight into the mechanism of sensorineural hearing loss.

  9. Reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits neointima formation after vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, Shutaro; Furuhashi, Masato; Mita, Tomohiro; Fuseya, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yuki; Hoshina, Kyoko; Kokubu, Nobuaki; Inoue, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-11-06

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inappropriate adaptation through the unfolded protein response (UPR) are predominant features of pathological processes. However, little is known about the link between ER stress and endovascular injury. We investigated the involvement of ER stress in neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. The femoral arteries of 7-8-week-old male mice were subjected to wire-induced vascular injury. After 4 weeks, immunohistological analysis showed that ER stress markers were upregulated in the hyperplastic neointima. Neointima formation was increased by 54.8% in X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) heterozygous mice, a model of compromised UPR. Knockdown of Xbp1 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) in vitro promoted cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, treatment with ER stress reducers, 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), decreased the intima-to-media ratio after wire injury by 50.0% and 72.8%, respectively. Chronic stimulation of CASMC with PDGF-BB activated the UPR, and treatment with 4-PBA and TUDCA significantly suppressed the PDGF-BB-induced ER stress markers in CASMC and the proliferation and migration of CASMC. In conclusion, increased ER stress contributes to neointima formation after vascular injury, while UPR signaling downstream of XBP1 plays a suppressive role. Suppression of ER stress would be a novel strategy against post-angioplasty vascular restenosis.

  10. Hepatic Xbp1 Gene Deletion Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Liver Injury and Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Shantel; Henkel, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a highly conserved signaling cascade that functions to alleviate stress and promote cell survival. If, however, the cell is unable to adapt and restore homeostasis, then the UPR activates pathways that promote apoptotic cell death. The molecular mechanisms governing the critical transition from adaptation and survival to initiation of apoptosis remain poorly understood. We aim to determine the role of hepatic Xbp1, a key mediator of the UPR, in controlling the adaptive response to ER stress in the liver. Liver-specific Xbp1 knockout mice (Xbp1LKO) and Xbp1fl/fl control mice were subjected to varying levels and durations of pharmacologic ER stress. Xbp1LKO and Xbp1fl/fl mice showed robust and equal activation of the UPR acutely after induction of ER stress. By 24 h, Xbp1fl/fl controls showed complete resolution of UPR activation and no liver injury, indicating successful adaptation to the stress. Conversely, Xbp1LKO mice showed ongoing UPR activation associated with progressive liver injury, apoptosis, and, ultimately, fibrosis by day 7 after induction of ER stress. These data indicate that hepatic XBP1 controls the adaptive response of the UPR and is critical to restoring homeostasis in the liver in response to ER stress. PMID:26504083

  11. XBP-1 couples endoplasmic reticulum stress to augmented IFN-β induction via a cis-acting enhancer in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ling; Liu, Yi-Ping; Sha, Haibo; Chen, Hui; Qi, Ling; Smith, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in a conserved stress response called the “Unfolded Protein Response” (UPR). Macrophages undergoing a UPR respond to LPS with log-fold increased production of IFN-β, a cytokine with diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. In this report, we found that thapsigargin-induced ER stress augmented recruitment of IRF-3, CBP/p300, and transcriptional machinery to the murine ifnb1 promoter during LPS stimulation. Although full synergistic IFN-β production requires XBP-1, this UPR-regulated transcription factor did not appreciably bind the ifnb1 promoter. However, XBP-1 bound a conserved site 6.1kb downstream of ifnb1, along with IRF-3 and CBP only during concomitant UPR and LPS stimulation. XBP-1 physically associates with p300, suggesting a mechanism of multi-molecular assembly at the +6.1kb site. Luciferase reporter assays provide evidence this +6kb region functions as an XBP-1-dependent enhancer of ifnb1 promoter activity. Thus, this study identifies a novel role for an UPR-dependent transcription factor in the regulation of an inflammatory cytokine. Our findings have broader mechanistic implications for the pathogenesis of diseases involving ER stress and type I interferon, including viral infection, ischemia-reperfusion injury, protein-misfolding and inflammatory diseases. PMID:20660350

  12. HSPB1 facilitates ERK-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of BIM to attenuate endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Donna; Mnich, Katarzyna; Oommen, Deepu; Chakravarthy, Reka; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; Krols, Michiel; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Doyle, Karen; Gupta, Sanjeev; Timmerman, Vincent; Janssens, Sophie; Gorman, Adrienne M; Samali, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    BIM, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, is a key regulator of the intrinsic (or mitochondrial) apoptosis pathway. Here, we show that BIM induction by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is suppressed in rat PC12 cells overexpressing heat shock protein B1 (HSPB1 or HSP27) and that this is due to enhanced proteasomal degradation of BIM. HSPB1 and BIM form a complex that immunoprecipitates with p-ERK1/2. We found that HSPB1-mediated proteasomal degradation of BIM is dependent on MEK-ERK signaling. Other studies have shown that several missense mutations in HSPB1 cause the peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, which is associated with nerve degeneration. Here we show that cells overexpressing CMT-related HSPB1 mutants exhibited increased susceptibility to ER stress-induced cell death and high levels of BIM. These findings identify a novel function for HSPB1 as a negative regulator of BIM protein stability leading to protection against ER stress-induced apoptosis, a function that is absent in CMT-associated HSPB1 mutants.

  13. Nuclear receptor LRH-1/NR5A2 is required and targetable for liver endoplasmic reticulum stress resolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in toxicity that contributes to multiple human disorders. We report a stress resolution pathway initiated by the nuclear receptor LRH-1 that is independent of known unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Like mice lacking primary UPR components, h...

  14. Involvement of caspase-2 and caspase-9 in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis: A role for the IAPs

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Herman H.; Lynn Kelly, N.; Liston, Peter; Korneluk, Robert G. . E-mail: bob@mgcheo.med.uottawa.ca

    2006-07-15

    Dysregulation of apoptosis is involved in a wide spectrum of disease ranging from proliferative to degenerative disorders. An emerging area of study in apoptosis is the critical contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in both mitochondrial and ER specific apoptosis pathways. Here we show that brefeldin A and tunicamycin-mediated ER stress lead to caspase-dependent apoptosis involving caspase-2. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation indicate that caspase-2 is localized to the ER, and following ER stress, the processing of caspase-2 and -9 is an early event preceding the activation of caspase-3 and -7 and the cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibition and silencing of either caspase-2 or caspase-9 suppress ER stress-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V binding. Similarly, transduction with an adenovirus encoding either Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) protein HIAP1/c-IAP2 or HIAP2/c-IAP1 also suppresses ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, among HIAP1, HIAP2 and XIAP, only HIAP2 binds and inhibits caspase-2. Our results thus indicate a novel mechanism by which HIAP2 can regulate ER-initiated apoptosis by modulating the activity of caspase-2.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Induces Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) Expression via the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β Signaling Pathway and Promotes Hepatocellular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomoaki; Suico, Mary Ann; Shimasaki, Shogo; Watanabe, Eriko; Kai, Yukari; Koyama, Kosuke; Omachi, Kohei; Morino-Koga, Saori; Sato, Takashi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Kazutoshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, plays crucial roles in various biological processes including longevity, stress response, and cell survival. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by dysfunction of ER homeostasis and exacerbates various diseases including diabetes, fatty liver, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although several reports have shown that SIRT1 negatively regulates ER stress and ER stress-induced responses in vitro and in vivo, the effect of ER stress on SIRT1 is less explored. In this study, we showed that ER stress induced SIRT1 expression in vitro and in vivo. We further determined the molecular mechanisms of how ER stress induces SIRT1 expression. Surprisingly, the conventional ER stress-activated transcription factors XBP1, ATF4, and ATF6 seem to be dispensable for SIRT1 induction. Based on inhibitor screening experiments with SIRT1 promoter, we found that the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway is required for SIRT1 induction by ER stress. Moreover, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of SIRT1 by EX527 inhibited the ER stress-induced cellular death in vitro and severe hepatocellular injury in vivo, indicating a detrimental role of SIRT1 in ER stress-induced damage responses. Collectively, these data suggest that SIRT1 expression is up-regulated by ER stress and contributes to ER stress-induced cellular damage. PMID:26499802

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Induces Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) Expression via the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β Signaling Pathway and Promotes Hepatocellular Injury.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomoaki; Suico, Mary Ann; Shimasaki, Shogo; Watanabe, Eriko; Kai, Yukari; Koyama, Kosuke; Omachi, Kohei; Morino-Koga, Saori; Sato, Takashi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Kazutoshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2015-12-18

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, plays crucial roles in various biological processes including longevity, stress response, and cell survival. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by dysfunction of ER homeostasis and exacerbates various diseases including diabetes, fatty liver, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although several reports have shown that SIRT1 negatively regulates ER stress and ER stress-induced responses in vitro and in vivo, the effect of ER stress on SIRT1 is less explored. In this study, we showed that ER stress induced SIRT1 expression in vitro and in vivo. We further determined the molecular mechanisms of how ER stress induces SIRT1 expression. Surprisingly, the conventional ER stress-activated transcription factors XBP1, ATF4, and ATF6 seem to be dispensable for SIRT1 induction. Based on inhibitor screening experiments with SIRT1 promoter, we found that the PI3K-Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway is required for SIRT1 induction by ER stress. Mo