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Sample records for retort pouches

  1. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry - a heritage meat product.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Dushyanthan, K; Das, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force values. Retort processed products had significantly lower L*, a*, b* and chroma values. Product was superior in all sensory attributes. It is concluded that Chettinad style goat meat product retorted to a F O value of 12.1 min, had acceptable sensory quality characteristics.

  2. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  3. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  4. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  5. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms.

  6. Assessment of the long-term stability of retort pouch foods to support extended duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Catauro, Patricia M; Perchonok, Michele H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the suitability of retort processed foods to support long-duration spaceflight, a series of 36-mo accelerated shelf life studies were performed on 13 representative retort pouch products. Combined sensory evaluations, physical properties assessments, and nutritional analyses were employed to determine shelf life endpoints for these foods, which were either observed during the analysis or extrapolated via mathematical projection. Data obtained through analysis of these 13 products were later used to estimate the shelf life values of all retort-processed spaceflight foods. In general, the major determinants of shelf life appear to be the development of off-flavor and off-color in products over time. These changes were assumed to be the result of Maillard and oxidation reactions, which can be initiated or accelerated as a result of the retort process and product formulation. Meat products and other vegetable entrées are projected to maintain their quality the longest, between 2 and 8 y, without refrigeration. Fruit and dessert products (1.5 to 5 y), dairy products (2.5 to 3.25 y), and starches, vegetable, and soup products (1 to 4 y) follow. Aside from considerable losses in B and C vitamin content, nutritional value of most products was maintained throughout shelf life. Fortification of storage-labile vitamins was proposed as a countermeasure to ensure long-term nutritive value of these products. The use of nonthermal sterilization technologies was also recommended, as a means to improve initial quality of these products and extend their shelf life for use in long-duration missions. Data obtained also emphasize the importance of low temperature storage in maintaining product quality. Retort sterilized pouch products are garnering increased commercial acceptance, largely due to their improved convenience and quality over metal-canned products. Assessment of the long-term stability of these products with ambient storage can identify potential areas for

  7. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches.

  8. Processing and storage of restructured surimi stew product in retortable pouches.

    PubMed

    Hema, K; Shakila, R Jeya; Shanmugam, S A; Jeevithan, E

    2015-03-01

    Restructured surimi gel product was prepared using short nosed white tripod (Triacanthus brevirosterus) with egg white as additive at 1 %. Heat setting was done initially at 45 °C for 30 min followed by heat processing 90 °C for 45 min. Restructured surimi gel in stew was standardized using four most popular recipes available in local cuisine based on the sensory acceptance and the Kerala fish stew was considered best. Restructured surimi gel in Kerala fish stew was then heat processed in 4 ply laminated retort pouch of dimension 150× 200 mm, at 15 psi gauge pressure for varying time duration and the Fo values ranged from 13.10 to 22.58 min. Products examined of their organoleptic and microbial qualities showed those processed with Fo value of 13.10 min was acceptable with excellent eating quality with no fishy flavour and was microbial sterile until the storage period of 6 months.

  9. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  10. Effect of different binders on the physico-chemical, textural, histological, and sensory qualities of retort pouched buffalo meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Babji, Y

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F(0) 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 +/- 0.0 Kg/cm(3)) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), tapioca starch (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), and wheat semolina (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 +/- 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 +/- 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 +/- 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 +/- 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 +/- 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 +/- 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 +/- 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

  11. Retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1984-06-19

    Fines in the overhead vapors from an oil shale retort process in which fresh shale together with hot recycle combusted shale from a combustor are fed to a retort and at least partly fluidized by a countercurrent stripping gas stream are handled by removing a portion of the fines in a vapor-solid separation optionally subjecting the portion of fines to additional retorting in a fines retort condensing the partially dedusted gas separating the condensate into a substantially finesfree liquid oil and a wet solids and recycling at least a portion of the wet solids to the retort, fines retort, and/or combustor whereby the liquid on the wet solids is recovered and/or burned and the wet solids are dried.

  12. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  13. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  14. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  15. Determining Permissible Oxygen and Water Vapor Transmission Rate for Non-Retort Military Ration Packaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    oxygen transmission rate ( OTR ) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), for the non-retort pouch found in the Meal, Ready to EatTM (MRETM) individual...water vapor ingress is 0.004 g/pouch/d. Cracker samples used to determine permissible OTR did not fall below the overall quality requirement for...sensory attributes during the 32-week study. Thus, an allowable OTR for the non-retort pouch cannot be calculated from the results obtained. 15

  16. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  17. Retorting hydrocarbonaceous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Styring, R.E.

    1980-08-19

    Mined, crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids are pyrolyzed in a retort with a gas containing hydrocarbons. The gas is heated to a suitable temperature of at least 600/sup 0/F. Thereafter, a relatively small amount of oxygen is added to the heated gas outside the retort. The resulting mixture is then flowed into the retort. The amount of oxygen is theoretically sufficient to raise the temperature of the heated gas at least 100/sup 0/F., but is less than the amount theoretically sufficient to react with all of the hydrocarbons in the heated gas. The process is applicable to any type of retort wherein a retort recycle gas containing hydrocarbons is heated outside the retort and is then injected into the retort to provide a source of heat for pyrolyzing hydrocarbonaceous solids in the retort. The advantages of this modified indirect heated retorting method depends on the type of retort. This method provides added control over carbonate decomposition, coking or carbonization of the gas during heating, total gas flow, process variations, and the heat requirements and thermal efficiency of the process.

  18. Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

    1985-01-22

    An oil shale process is provided to retort oil shale and purify oil shale retort water. In the process, raw oil shale is retorted in an in situ underground retort or in an above ground retort to liberate shale oil, light hydrocarbon gases and oil shale retort water. The retort water is separated from the shale oil and gases in a sump or in a fractionator or quench tower followed by an API oil/water separator. After the retort water is separated from the shale oil, the retort water is steam stripped, carbon adsorbed and biologically treated, preferably by granular carbon adsorbers followed by activated sludge treatment or by activated sludge containing powdered activated carbon. The retort water can be granularly filtered before being steam stripped. The purified retort water can be used in various other oil shale processes, such as dedusting, scrubbing, spent shale moisturing, backfilling, in situ feed gas injection and pulsed combustion.

  19. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  20. The study of heat penetration of kimchi soup on stationary and rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F 0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F 0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R(2)=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F 0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%.

  1. Recovery of retorted shale from an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Deering, R.F.; Duir, J.H.

    1984-05-01

    Retorted shale particles are recovered from a retort and delivered to a gas lift for transport to a fluidized combustor by passage, serially, through a sealing vessel, a crusher preferably operating at retort pressure, and a surge vessel. In the sealing vessel, a sealing gas is introduced, and after commingling with the shale, the gas passes counter-currently to the shale and enters the retort, thus sealing the retort gases in the retort while separating the retorted shale from the retort gases. Retorted shale from the sealing vessel is transported to a crusher, wherein the shale is reduced in size to that suitable for combustion under fluidized conditions. To prevent the crushed shale from packing, the shale is passed to a surge vessel, wherein the crushed shale is held as a fluidized bed, from which the crushed shale is continuously withdrawn at a regulated rate and introduced into the gas lift leading to the fluidized combustor.

  2. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  3. Thermal cracking of retort oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dearth, J.D.; Smith, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    The thermal cracking of retort oil vapors in an elongated reactor is improved by passing the effluent oil vapors and gases from a retort to a thermal cracking unit before the temperature of the retort effluent falls below 680* F. This encourages the more desirable cracking reactions, increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and avoids preheater coking.

  4. Method for fully retorting an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Zahradnik, R.L.; Jacobson, C.L.; Shen, J.-C.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for operating an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, the retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within top, bottom and side boundaries of unfragmented formation and having a drift in communication with a lower region of the fragmented mass for withdrawal of liquid products of retorting and an off-gas comprising gaseous products of retorting. The method consists of: introducing a retort inlet mixture into an upper region of the fragmented mass in the retort for advancing a retorting zone downwardly through the retort for producing liquid and gaseous products of retorting; withdrawing retort off-gas comprising gaseous products of retorting through the product withdrawal drift; monitoring the temperature of the off-gas in the product withdrawal drift; and when the temperature of the off-gas exceeds a first selected temperature, spraying a sufficient amount of water into the off-gas stream in the withdrawal drift for contacting formation surrounding the drift with cooling water and for maintaining the temperature of the off-gas at no more than a second selected temperature.

  5. Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process

    SciTech Connect

    Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

    1986-04-29

    An in situ oil shale process is described comprising the steps of: retorting raw oil shale in situ to liberate light hydrocarbon gases, shale oil and shale-laden retort water containing suspended and dissolved impurities including raw and spent oil shale particulates, shale oil, organic carbon, carbonates, ammonia and chemical oxygen demand; separating the light hydrocarbon gases and a substantial portion of the shale oil from the shale-laden retort water by sedimentation in an underground sump; removing a substantial portion of the remaining shale oil and a substantial portion of the suspended raw and spent oil shale particulates from the shale-laden retort water by filtering the shale-laden retort water through a granular filter; steam stripping a substantial amount of the ammonia and carbonates from the shale-laden retort water; and carbon adsorbing and biologically treating the shale-laden retort water to remove a substantial amount of the total and dissolved organic carbon from the shale-laden retort water and simultaneously substantially lower the chemical oxygen demand of the shale-laden retort water so as to substantially purify the shale-laden retort water.

  6. Lip-hung retort furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1986-08-05

    A fluidized bed furnace is described which consists of: a furnace housing including an outer shell; a furnace base and an outer top plate secured to the respective lower and upper ends of the furnace housing; a vertical retort having an opened upper end and an opened lower end, the retort being disposed in an opening formed in the outer top plate and extending downwardly into the center of the furnace housing; heat insulating material disposed between the outer shell and the vertical retort; a retort base assembly being adapted for closing the lower end of the vertical retort; upper support means for supporting the upper end of the vertical retort on top of the outer top plate so as to permit downward growth only during thermal expansion; the upper support means including an annular flange formed integrally with the sidewalls of the retort at the upper end thereof and being adapted to be fixedly mounted to the outer surface of the outer top plate; lower support means interposed between the lower surface of the retort base assembly and the upper surface of the furnace base for supporting substantially all the weight of the retort, the weight of the load of a fluidizable media, and the weight of a load of material to be heat treated.

  7. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  8. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  9. In situ oil shale retort system

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.; Kvapil, R.; Ricketts, T.E.; Studebaker, I.G.

    1984-04-10

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in spaced apart rows, with adjacent rows of such retorts being separated by load-bearing barrier pillars of unfragmented formation sufficiently strong for preventing substantial subsidence at the ground surface. Each retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Separate air level drifts are excavated on an upper level of the retorts within alternating barrier pillars, and separate production level drifts are excavated at a lower production level of the retorts within intervening barrier pillars between the barrier pillars having the air level drifts. Each air level drift extends between a pair of adjacent rows of retorts adjacent upper edges of the retorts in the adjacent rows, and each production level drift extends between a pair of adjacent rows of retorts adjacent lower edges of the retorts on sides of the retorts opposite the air level drifts. During retorting operations, air is introduced along the upper edge of each retort through lateral air inlet passages extending from the adjacent air level drift. Off gas and liquid products are withdrawn from each retort through one or more lateral production level passages extending from the lower edge of the retort to the adjacent production level drift. Withdrawal of off gas along the lower edge of each retort opposite the upper edge where air is introduced causes a generally diagonal flow pattern of combustion gas through the fragmented mass from one upper edge toward the opposite lower edge of the retort.

  10. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  11. Urostomy pouches and supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 2-piece pouch system. A 1-piece system is made up of a pouch that has an adhesive or sticky layer on it. This adhesive layer has a hole that fits over the stoma. It can stay on for 1 to 3 ... A 2-piece pouch system has a skin barrier called a flange. The ...

  12. In-situ retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.G.; West, R.C.

    1984-11-20

    Fluid, such as liquid water, is injected into the rock surrounding an in situ oil shale retort at sufficient pressure and flow rate so that the injected fluid flows toward the retort to block the path of hot liquid and gaseous kerogen decomposition products escaping from the retort and to return heat to the retort. The successful conduct of an oil shale retorting operation usually requires that the retort temperature be maintained at a temperature sufficient to decompose efficiently the kerogen contained in the oil shale. By reducing the heat loss from an active retort, the amount of energy required to maintain a desired temperature therein is reduced. The fluid injection method also maintains pressure in an in-situ oil shale retort, allowing in-situ oil shale retorting to be efficiently conducted at a desired pressure. The method also reduces the danger to mineworkers who may be engaged in adjacent mining operations due to the escape of hazardous gases from an active retort. The method allows a series of sequential in-situ oil shale retorts in an oil shale formation to be placed more closely together than previously practical by reducing hot fluid leakage from each active retort to one or more abandoned retorts adjacent thereto, thus improving the recovery factor from the formation. The method also minimizes contamination of the formation surrounding an active in-situ retort due to hazardous chemicals which may be contained in the kerogen decomposition products leaking from the retort.

  13. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  14. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature.

  15. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    trays backup plate & support pillars to allow 35" shut height as required by most 3500 ton molding machines dedicated mounting rails for installation...hr. At this time, Stegner had modified all their pallet bottom plates to support the rack in all load bearing points and in addition, Wornick send two...COMBAT RATION NETWORK FOR TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts Final Technical Report STP 2010

  16. Consolidation of in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, O.A.; Matthews, C.W.

    1980-11-04

    Shale oil is recovered from an underground oil shale deposit by in-situ retorting of rubblized shale in a retort formed in the deposit. Oil shale in a volume in the range of ten to fifty percent of the volume of the retort is mined from the deposit and delivered to the surface to provide void space for the expansion of the shale that occurs on rubblization to form the in-situ retort. The oil shale delivered to the surface is retorted at the surface. After completion of the in-situ retorting, boreholes are drilled downwardly through the retorted shale and a pipe lowered through the borehole to a level near the bottom of the retort. Spent shale from the surface retorting operation is slurried and pumped into the lower end of the in-situ retort. Pumping is continued to squeeze the slurry into the fissures between blocks of spent shale. The slurry is delivered into successively higher levels of the retort and the pumping and squeezing operation repeated at each level. In a preferred operation, slurry discharged into the retort is allowed to set before discharging slurry into the retort at a higher level to avoid excessive hydrostatic pressures on the retort.

  17. Process for retorting oil shale with fluidized retorting of shale fines

    SciTech Connect

    Deering, R. F.

    1985-05-07

    Hot particles removed from a retort, preferably retort-sized particles of oil shale removed from a retort operating at superatmospheric pressure, are crushed and fed to a fluidized surge zone maintained under non-oxidizing conditions at substantially the pressure of the retort to forestall escape of retort gases. Raw fines are introduced into the surge zone and retorted without agglomeration by heat transferred from the hot retorted particles and/or a heated fluidizing gas stream to educe hydrocarbonaceous vapors. Educed vapors are scrubbed, condensed and separated into liquid and gaseous product streams, a portion of the latter being recycled to provide fluidizing process gas streams.

  18. Proposed operating strategy for a field mis oil shale retorting experiment (RBOSC Retort O)

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Campbell, J.H.; McKenzie, D.R.; Raley, J.H.; Gregg, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A possible operating strategy for a field scale retort (similar to Retort 0) proposed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC)) is discussed. This retorting strategy was developed based on model calculations, pilot retort experiments, and laboratory work carried out at LLL. From these calculations a set of operating conditions are derived that appear to give the best overall retort performance. A performance monitoring strategy is being developed based solely on the exit gas and oil composition.

  19. Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch

    MedlinePlus

    Restorative proctocolectomy; Ileal-anal resection; Ileal-anal pouch; J-pouch; S-pouch; Pelvic pouch; Ileal-anal pouch; Ileal ... RD, Mahmoud N, Maron DJ, Ross HM, Rombeau J. Colon and rectum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, ...

  20. Changing your urostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... can stand over a toilet or use rolled up gauze or paper towels below your stoma to absorb the urine. When you remove the old pouch, push down on your skin to loosen it. DO NOT pull the pouch off your skin. Before you put ...

  1. Method for bulking full a retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, Tw.E.; Sass, A.

    1984-05-22

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is provided. The in situ oil shale retort has top, bottom, and generally vertically extending side boundaries of unfragmented formation and contains a body of expanded oil shale formation that completely fills the retort to its top boundary. The retort is bulked full by explosively expanding a layer above a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles forming part of the body of expanded formation in the retort. The layer is expanded with an available void fraction of no more than about ten percent.

  2. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  3. Ileostomy - changing your pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes. Allow your stoma to dry completely before connecting the new pouch. Trace the shape of your ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  4. The "pouch" of the Douglas's pouch.

    PubMed

    Sall, I; Diémé, E; Diallo, M; Bénadji, E; Diouf, M; Ndiaye, B; Fall, O; Sow, A; Diakhaté, I C; Ogougbémy, M

    2017-06-01

    Hernia is described as the protrusion of an organ into the wall of its normal containing cavity. Internal hernia (IH) involves protrusion of viscera through: a peritoneal or mesentery defect, a normal or abnormal compartment of the peritoneal cavity. Hernias occurring in the pelvis cavity are usually classified according to the fascial margins breached and include sciatic, obturator and those through the rectouterin pouch: elytrocele and enterocele. Those hernias are defined by the protrusion of a viscus through the wall of the pelvis due to weakness of the pelvic fascia and/or muscles. Pelvic hernia through the pouch of Douglas (PD) involves the genital tract in female (elytrocele and enterocele). Sometimes described in the literature as Douglas hernia, this type of hernia must be distinguished from the conventional IH. As defined before, the borders to be considered for IH is the peritoneal membrane, which is not a real solid wall but delimitates the peritoneal cavity; and there is no peritoneal defect in elytrocele or enterocele. A PubMed search for IH through a defect in the peritoneal PD revealed only five female cases, making this an extremely rare condition. To our knowledge, we have presented here the only published case in a male. This probably congenital and morphologic anomaly (defect) of pouch of Sir Douglas must be distinguished as the real "Douglas IH". Authors discuss the concept of a new and more detailed classification of IH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Huff and puff process for retorting oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Russum, L. W.

    1984-06-05

    Greater product yield and quality as well as simplified gas recovery can be attained by a huff and puff process for retorting oil shale. The process can be advantageously carried out in in situ retorts under ground as well as in surface retorts above ground. In the process, an active retort of raw oil shale is retorted without prior combustion of oil shale therein with retort off gases, which have been heated in a spent shale retort. In the preferred mode, retort off gases from the active retort and air are alternately injected into the spent retort to cyclically heat the off gases and combust the coked shale. The retort off gases can be deoiled and optionally scrubbed of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide before being heated in the spent retort.

  6. 4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. VIEW SOUTH FROM RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  7. [Simulation of migration from a multi-layer laminated film intended for retort foods].

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Ogimoto, Mami; Kabashima, Junichiro; Suzuki, Kumi; Kaneko, Reiko; Funayama, Keiichi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Yasuno, Tetsuko; Ogino, Shuzo

    2005-08-01

    Migration from multi-layer laminated film pouches intended for retort foods was investigated through HPLC analysis with a fluorescence detector, and measurements of residue on evaporation, consumption of potassium permanganate and total organic carbon. HPLC analysis revealed that the levels of migrants in oil and the water which were heated in the pouches (121 degrees C, 30 min) were ten times of those in the corresponding official simulants under the official conditions; n-heptane (25 degrees C, 60 min), and water (95 degrees C, 30 min). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds were found in the oil and the water heated in the pouches, as well as in the simulants. These compounds were thought to have been present in the adhesive between the laminated films, and migrated through the food-contact film of the package. Consumption of potassium permanganate and residue on evaporation of the heated water were ten times of those of the water simulant, while the total organic carbon level of the heated water was several-hold greater than that of the water simulant. In addition, migrant levels per surface area of the pouch were one-fourth of the concentrations per content volume of the pouch. Since compliance with the legal limits is evaluated based on the concentration per surface area, real migration into foods would be underestimated by a factor of another four.

  8. Modeling of oil shale compaction during retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    A model of oil shale compacting during retorting has been developed and incorporated into a one-dimensional retorting model. The model calculates the vertical stress distribution in a column of oil shale rubble and the degree of compaction that these stresses cause. A correlation was developed that relates shale grade, initial void volume, and vertical stress to the final compaction of the shale bed. The model then determines the gas pressure drip through the retort and the effects of the varying pressure on the retorting process. The model has been tested by simulating the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a Retort 1. The model calculates 8.1% compaction, whereas 12 to 16 compaction was measured in the retort; causes of the discrepancy between calculated and measured values are discussed. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

  10. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  11. In situ retorting of oil shale with pulsed water purge

    SciTech Connect

    Forgac, J.M.; Hoekstra, G.R.

    1987-01-20

    A process is described for retorting oil shale, comprising the steps of: heating a portion of a rubblized mass of oil shale in a retorting zone of an underground retort to a retorting temperature to liberate shale oil and retort water from the oil shale leaving retorted shale containing residual carbon; combusting the residual carbon in the oil shale in a combustion zone behind the retorting zone in the underground retort with a flame front fed by an oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas to provide a substantial portion of the heating, the flame front advancing generally in the direction of flow of the feed gas; injecting a purge liquid comprising retort water in the absence of the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas into the underground retort to quench the flame front while substantially stopping and blocking the flow of the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas into the retort while simultaneously continuing to liberate shale oil and retort water in the underground retort; the retort water liberated from the retort and injected into the underground retort as the purge liquid, comprising raw, retorted and spent oil shale particulates ranging in size from less than 1 micron to 1000 microns, water, shale oil, phenols, organic carbon, ammonia, sodium, iron, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, nitrogen, nickel, copper, phosphorus, zinc, and arsenic; reigniting the flame front with the oxygen-containing, combustion-sustaining, feed gas by feeding the oxygen-containing feed gas into the retort in the absence of the retort water purge liquid while simultaneously substantially stopping and preventing the flow of the retort water purge liquid into the retort; and withdrawing the liberated shale oil and retort water from the underground retort.

  12. Apparatus for the selective retorting of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1985-02-26

    A staged retort is provided for the retorting of certain types of carbonaceous materials such as oil shale, coal or lignite, wherein the staged retort includes a number of separate retort chambers arranged in a modular configuration, with one retort chamber above the other, and mounted transversely within the staged retort. Each retort chamber is heated to a different temperature, and carbonaceous material is moved from a given retort chamber to a retort chamber having a higher temperature, whereby heavier fractions of liquid and/or gaseous hydrocarbons are formed as the carbonaceous materials undergo pyrolysis. Arrangements such as pressure regulating valves are provided to reduce mixing of the various fractions between the individual retort chambers to nearly zero, and conduits are provided to separately withdraw the hydrocarbon gases and/or liquids from each retort chamber. The carbonaceous material leaving the last retort where the final pyrolysis reactions occur, is routed to a combustion compartment wherein it is burned to produce heat used to heat the retort chambers. The staged retort also includes arrangements for heating a predetermined portion of the gases formed in the retort chambers, to mix the heated portion with a predetermined unheated portion to arrive at a controlled temperature, and then to inject this controlled temperature gas and/or any other substances into the retort chamber interiors to control the temperatures and/or the reaction therein so that each retort chamber can be maintained at the proper temperature and conditions chosen for pyrolysis therein.

  13. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  14. Postprocess contamination of flexible pouches challenged by in situ immersion biotest.

    PubMed

    Song, Y S; Hargraves, W A

    1998-12-01

    Packages were evaluated for leaks by determining microbial penetration through microchannels as a function of test organism concentration, location in a retort, and microchannel diameter and length. A flexible pouch was used in an in situ immersion biotest coupled with a state-of-the-art retort. Microchannel diameters of 10 to 661 microm with 3- and 6-mm lengths were created by placing tungsten wires in vacuum heat-sealed flexible pouches. After removing the wires, these pouches were subsequently heat processed under pressure. They were then biotested in cooling water containing 10(3) and 10(6) CFU of motile Enterobacter aerogenes per ml for 30 min and were dried immediately after manual unloading. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 3 days, they were visually examined for contamination. The high-temperature retorting process was shown to decrease microchannel diameters by an average of 20%. Generally, the smaller the microchannel diameter, the greater the percent shrinkage. Statistical analysis of the biotesting data showed that microchannel diameter and length had strong effects on microbial penetration (P < 0.01). Microbial concentration had a borderline significant effect (P < 0.05), but the effect of package location in the retort was not significant. At conservative conditions, such as a 3-mm microchannel length and a cooling water contamination level of 10(6) CFU/ml, the selected microorganism can penetrate microchannels with diameters as small as 7 microm. However, the minimum microchannel diameter for penetration could be as large as 46 microm at practical conditions of 6-mm microchannel length and contamination levels of 10(3) CFU/ml.

  15. Changing your ostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... do. Your Ostomy Pouch Your stool may be liquid or solid, depending on the kind of surgery you had. ... bowel resection Ulcerative colitis Patient Instructions ... with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed ...

  16. STBRSIM. Oil Shale Retorting Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Diaz, J.C.

    1992-03-02

    STBRSIM simulates an aboveground oil-shale retorting process that utilizes two reactors; a staged, fluidized-bed retort and a lift-pipe combustor. The model calculates the steady-state operating conditions for the retorting system,taking into account the chemical and physical processes occurring in the two reactors and auxiliary equipment. Chemical and physical processes considered in modeling the retort include: kerogen pyrolysis, bound water release, fluidization of solids mixture, and bed pressure drop. Processes accounted for by the combustor model include: combustion of residual organic carbon and hydrogen, combustion of pyrite and pyrrhotite, combustion of nonpyrolized kerogen, decomposition of dolomite and calcite, pneumatic transport, heat transfer between solids and gas streams, pressure drop and change in void fraction, and particle attrition. The release of mineral water and the pyrolysis of kerogen take place in the retort when raw shale is mixed with hot partially-burned shale, and the partial combustion of residual char and sulfur takes place in the combustor as the shale particles are transported pneumatically by preheated air. Auxiliary equipment is modeled to determine its effect on the system. This equipment includes blowers and heat-exchangers for the recycle gas to the retort and air to the combustor, as well as a condensor for the product stream from the retort. Simulation results include stream flow rates, temperatures and pressures, bed dimensions, and heater, cooling, and compressor power requirements.

  17. STBRSIM. Oil Shale Retorting Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-03-02

    STBRSIM simulates an aboveground oil-shale retorting process that utilizes two reactors - a staged, fluidized-bed retort and a lift-pipe combustor. The model calculates the steady-state operating conditions for the retorting system, taking into account the chemical and physical processes occurring in the two reactors and auxiliary equipment. Chemical and physical processes considered in modeling the retort include: kerogen pyrolysis, bound water release, fluidization of solids mixture, and bed pressure drop. Processes accounted for by the combustor model include: combustion of residual organic carbon and hydrogen, combustion of pyrite and pyrrhotite, combustion of nonpyrolized kerogen, decomposition of dolomite and calcite, pneumatic transport, heat transfer between solids and gas streams, pressure drop and change in void fraction, and particle attrition. The release of mineral water and the pyrolysis of kerogen take place in the retort when raw shale is mixed with hot partially-burned shale, and the partial combustion of residual char and sulfur takes place in the combustor as the shale particles are transported pneumatically by preheated air. Auxiliary equipment is modeled to determine its effect on the system. This equipment includes blowers and heat-exchangers for the recycle gas to the retort and air to the combustor, as well as a condensor for the product stream from the retort. Simulation results include stream flow rates, temperatures and pressures, bed dimensions, and heater, cooling, and compressor power requirements.

  18. Apparatus for retorting comminuted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Strumskis, L.

    1982-04-20

    A continuously operable retort-type processing system for the recovery of petroleum-like products from comminuted oil-bearing shale and other oil-yielding particulate solid materials. The retort portion of the system includes an insulated retort outer shell for a wall jacket-type heat exchanger. Disposed within the retort, all driven from a common axially disposed motor-driven shaft, are a plurality of stirring fingers, wall scrapers and discharge shovels, the latter for use in discharge of spent solid material from the retort. The system envisions burning gases from the process to provide a fluid heat exchange medium as a source of the heat required for the process. The system further includes means for the admixture of steam and acetic acid with the starting particulate materials prior to its introduction into the retort. An additional instrumentality is included at an intermediate position along the reaction path of the materials as they pass through the retort for the addition of additional quantities of steam and acetic acid.

  19. Homemade male incontinence pouch.

    PubMed

    Lafrades, A R

    1999-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 13 million Americans experience incontinence or loss of bladder control. As a registered nurse specializing in urology, the author created a male drip collector, made from a female sanitary napkin (ALWAYS with Wings). This homemade male incontinence pouch is cost effective, comfortable to use, easy to make, can absorb 20 cc to 70 cc of urine, and is available in any store.

  20. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  1. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. Obstacles encountered in VMIS retort blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

    1986-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ (VMIS) retort method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation techniques to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate VMIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before a experimental mini-retort can be formed.

  3. Crohn's Disease of the Ileoanal Pouch.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Pemberton, John H; Loftus, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is an increasingly recognized diagnosis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis diagnosis in conjunction with pouchitis remains the leading reason for pouch excision. Unfortunately, CD of the pouch remains a difficult diagnosis with lack of a uniform definition largely because of its similarity to common postoperative pouch complications, including pouchitis, abscess formation, or stricture at the anastomosis. Once diagnosed, treatment algorithms largely include multimodal therapy including biologics. This review focuses on the definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for CD of the pouch, a postoperative de novo diagnosis of CD.

  4. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  5. Quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts: Bench-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1991-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operations procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale. The organic material that remained after retorting was most effectively removed from the retort by the use of reverse combustion. The removal of the organic material in this manner cracked the oil on the unretorted shale and removed heat from the bottom of the retort. Both were then transported toward the top of the retort. Unretorted kerogen was coked as it emerged from the shale near the reverse-combustion front. The reverse-combustion technique had an additional benefit in that the carbon deposited on the spent shale in the combusted zone appeared to provide a barrier to rehydration of the shale on introduction of water into the retorts. A hot quench immediately following retorting was also relatively effective in removing organic material from the retort. However, the quench did leave some organic material on the unretorted shale. This material was not readily removed by water leaching during laboratory testing. A deluge of water on a cool retort did not efficiently remove the organic material from the unretorted shale nor did the addition of a biodegradable detergent.

  6. Fluid bed retorting process with multiple feed lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, G.B.

    1983-11-15

    Solid hydrocarbon-containing material, such as oil shale, coal or tar sand, is fed into a retort through a multiplicity of feed lines to enhance retorting efficiency, throughout and product yield. In the preferred form, larger particles of hydrocarbon-containing material gravitate downwardly through the retort in countercurrent relationship to an upward fluidized stream of smaller particles of hydrocarbon-containing material. This arrangement is especially useful to retort larger particles of hydrocarbon-containing material. One or more streams of intermediate size particles of hydrocarbon-containing material can also be fed into the retort.

  7. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1983-01-11

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, a horizontally extending void is excavated within the boundaries of the retort site leaving a zone of unfragmented formation above and/or below such a void. A crack is propagated in at least one of the zones of unfragmented formation along the side boundaries of the retort site and thereafter the zone of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded towards such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort. Such a fragmented permeable mass is retorted in situ to produce shale oil.

  8. Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Notestein, John E.; Mei, Joseph S.; Zeng, Li-Wen

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

  9. Combat Ration Network for Technology Implementation. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    trays backup plate & support pillars to allow 35" shut height as required by most 3500 ton molding machines dedicated mounting rails for installation...hr. At this time, Stegner had modified all their pallet bottom plates to support the rack in all load bearing points and in addition, Wornick send two...COMBAT RATION NETWORK FOR TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts Final Technical Report STP 2010

  10. Surge bin retorting solid feed material

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1984-11-06

    An improved surge bin for a Lurgi-Ruhrgas process has baffles which promote uniform flow of feed material through the surge bin. Improved retorting of kerogen from oil shale is obtained. Stripping gas such as steam, is supplied to the surge bin. A separator has a large disengaging volume to remove entrained solid particles and improve the quality of the hydrocarbon product.

  11. Underground oil-shale retort monitoring using geotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.

    1984-10-01

    Geophysical tomographs (geotomographs) were made of two underground oil-shale retorts: (1) the Occidental Oil Shale Inc. miniretort constructed for ignition tests at the demonstration mine at Logan Wash, Colorado; and (2) the Geokinetics Oil Shale Inc. Retort 25 near Vernal, Utah. These experiments demonstrate that geotomography may be a valuable diagnostic tool for underground oil-shale retorting processes. At the Geokinetics in-situ retort, the technique delineated the zones of high permeability in a cross-section of the retort. At the Occidental modified in-situ miniretort, the technique imaged the high temperature zone of the retort with a spatial resolution of about 2 m, and showed its temporal development over a period of eleven days.

  12. Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tassoney, J.P.

    1983-04-12

    Formation is excavated from an in situ oil shale retort site for forming at least one void within the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a void. The remaining zone is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Oil shale in the in situ retort is retorted to produce liquid and gaseous products, leaving a mass of spent oil shale particles in the in situ retort. Oil shale particles excavated from the in situ retort site are separately retorted, such as in a surface retorting operation, producing liquid and gaseous products and spent surface retorted oil shale particles. The spent surface retorted particles are disposed of by forming an aqueous slurry of the particles, and pumping the slurry into a spent in situ retort. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry is introduced into a hot lower portion of the spent retort where contact with hot spent oil shale particles generates steam which, in turn, is withdrawn from the spent retort in usable form. In another embodiment, water from the aqueous slurry introduced into a spent in situ retort collects at a level within the retort. The water can be recovered by drilling a drainage hole upwardly from a lower level drift into the level within the spent retort where the water collects and draining the water through the drainage hole to the lower level drift for recovery.

  13. Process for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Knepper, J.C.

    1984-05-08

    A process is provided for forming an in situ oil shale retort which minimizes channeling, explosion gas turbulence and flame front tilting. In the process, explosives are detonated in an underground formation of oil shale to blast the oil shale into a permeable rubblized mass defining a retort, and gases emitted from the explosion are symmetrically vented. In the preferred form, the gases are vented through vertical vent holes and blast holes which extend through the top of the retort, as well as through a lateral access tunnel which extends into the bottom of the retort.

  14. Metallorganic, organic, and mutagenic properties of oil shale retort waters

    SciTech Connect

    Toste, A.P.; Myers, R.B.

    1981-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, organic, and metallorganic properties of oil shale retort waters. Four retort water samples were analyzed in the mutagenesis/organics study: a storage water and a condensate water from the Paraho aboveground retort; a retort water from the Occidental vertical, modified in situ retort; and a retort water from a horizontal, true in situ retort near Vernal, Utah. A second goal of this study was to develop and evaluate improved methods of chemically fractionating the complex organic content of retort waters to facilitate their chemical and mutagenic characterization. To begin the mutagenesis study, we tested several methods for extracting hydrophobic organics from the retort waters: (1) solvent extraction with pH adjustment; (2) XAD-4 partition chromatography; and (3) C/sub 18/-partition chromatography. We then tested the usefulness of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for fractionating the hydrophobic organic fraction. Each method was evaluated both chemically and biologically. For the metallorganics/organics study we decided to test steric-exclusion chromatography as a means of fractionating metal-organic chelates.

  15. Method of forming a rubblized in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    1980-03-25

    An in-situ retort is formed in an oil shale deposit by a sublevel caving method in which the starting slot for the sublevel caving is at opposite ends of the retort on adjacent sublevels. Any zones of high permeability that are formed adjacent to the starting slots are limited in vertical extent to the vertical spacing of the sublevels and are spaced from the zones of high permeability in adjacent sublevels by the length of the retort. A source of channeling through the retort that is caused by the usual sublevel caving mining method is thereby eliminated.

  16. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort through a well in the formation adjacent the retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, R.D.

    1982-08-17

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring in a well extending through unfragmented formation adjacent the retort, for condition in the retort affected by the advancement of such a processing zone through the retort. Monitoring can be effected by placing means for monitoring such a condition in such a well extending through unfragmented formation adjacent the retort.

  17. Retort abandonment: issues and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Wagner, P.; Peterson, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This paper has identified key issues in retort abandonment and has addressed research needs. Retort abandonment for vertical modified in-situ (VMIS) shale oil recovery is an environmentally sensitive research area that has received recognition only within the past five years. Thus, experimental data and information are, in general, limited. In addition, there is presently a wide spectrum of unresolved issues that range from basic problem definition to technical details of potential control technologies. This situation is compounded by the scale of the problem and the absence of a commercial industry. The problems involve large numbers and will require engineering on a gigantic scale. Abandoned retorts are large - up to 700 feet deep and several hundred feet in cross section. They will exist in huge blocks, several square miles in area, which are inaccessible at several thousand feet below the surface. The processes that will ultimately be used to extract the oil are undefined. The technology is in transition, and representative samples of materials have not been available for research. Research efforts in this area have concentrated on basic studies on the nature and magnitude of environmental problems resulting from VMIS oil extraction. These investigations have used laboratory reactors to generate spent shales and modeling studies to predict water quality and hydrologic impacts. The technology for retort abandonment is just now being developed, using engineering analyses to identify promising environmental control options and laboratory and modeling studies to determine feasibility. We expect that, as the environmental problems are better defined and understood, conventional control technologies will prove to be adaptable to a majority of the problems associated with this new process and that laboratory and modeling research on the problem definition will be refocused on technology development and field experiments.

  18. Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed Central

    Fonkalsrud, E W; Bustorff-Silva, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of

  19. Pressure drops during low void volume combustion retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Stacks of cut oil shale bricks were combustion retorted in a batch, pilot scale sized retort at low void volumes (overall voids ranged from 8.4% to 18.4%). Retort pressure drops increased during retorting at least one order of magnitude. The Ergun equation and Darcy's law have been used by several researchers and organizations as diagnostic tools on oil shale retorts. These equations were tested on the uniformly packed retort reported in this paper to evaluate how well the equations represented the experimental conditions. Use of the Ergun equation to estimate the average particle size from retort pressure drops gave answers that were only approximately correct. Calculation of retort pressure drops from Darcy's law during retorting at low void volumes will probably give answers that are several times too small. Thermal expansion of the shale during retorting decreases retort permeability greatly and calculation of the decreased permeability is not possible at the present level of technology.

  20. Formation of in situ oil shale retort in plural steps

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, R.J.

    1984-07-10

    A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ retort site. The retort is formed by excavating a lower level drift adjacent to a lower portion of the retort site and excavating an undercut within the retort site below a zone of unfragmented formation remaining within the retort site above the undercut. The bottom of the undercut slopes downwardly toward the lower level drift which opens into one side of the undercut, the slope being generally at the natural angle of slide of oil shale particles. The remaining zone of unfragmented formation is blasted downwardly toward the undercut in a series of lifts in sequence progressing upwardly in the retort site. The mass of formation particles formed during such blasting in lifts tends to slope downwardly toward the side of the retort adjacent the lower level drift. Formation particles are withdrawn from the fragmented mass between lifts through the lower level drift to provide void space toward which each lift is blasted. Such withdrawal of formation particles can create relatively higher permeability in the fragmented mass along the side above the lower level drift and relatively lower permeability in the fragmented mass along the opposite side of the retort. During retorting operations, to compensate for such permeability gradient, oxygen supplying gas is introduced into the upper low permeability region of the fragmented mass, and off gas is withdrawn through the lower level drift at the lower high permeability region for producing a generally diagonal gas flow pattern through the retort.

  1. Do clinical characteristics of de novo pouch Crohn's disease after restorative proctocolectomy affect ileal pouch retention?

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinyu; Stocchi, Luca; Kiran, Ravi P; Shen, Bo; Remzi, Feza H

    2014-01-01

    Data on the association between ileal pouch retention and clinical characteristics of pouch Crohn's disease developing after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis are still limited. The aim of this study was to identify whether clinical features of pouch Crohn's disease are associated with pouch retention. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. All patients diagnosed with clinically active pouch Crohn's disease during follow-up after IPAA for ulcerative colitis or indeterminate colitis were identified from an ileal pouch registry. The definition of early vs late diagnosis was based on the median time interval to diagnosis of Crohn's disease after pouch creation. The associations between pouch retention and the clinical features and treatments of pouch Crohn's disease were analyzed. The long-term pouch retention rate was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze independent factors for pouch failure. From 1993 to 2009, a total of 65 (28 males) patients developed de novo pouch Crohn's disease during a mean 7.9 years of follow-up after pouch creation. The overall pouch retention rate was 57%. The median time from pouch creation to pouch Crohn's disease diagnosis was 3.6 years. Univariate analysis demonstrated that early diagnosis of pouch Crohn's disease, disease location, and clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis were associated with pouch outcomes, whereas medical therapy or perianal surgery was not. Multivariate analysis showed that fistula at the time of diagnosis (OR = 17.5, p = 0.002) and early diagnosis (OR = 5.70, p = 0.011) were independent risk factors for pouch failure, whereas afferent limb disease was associated with pouch retention (OR = 0.07, p = 0.018). The retrospective nature of this study and referral bias were limitations. Disease characteristics of de novo pouch Crohn's disease heavily influence pouch retention. The interval from pouch construction

  2. Diet of patients after pouch surgery may affect pouch inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ianco, Orit; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Lusthaus, Michal; Ofer, Amos; Santo, Erwin; Vaisman, Nachum; Dotan, Iris

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diet of pouch patients compared to healthy controls, and to correlate pouch patients’ diet with disease behavior. METHODS: Pouch patients were recruited and prospectively followed-up at the Comprehensive Pouch Clinic at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Pouch behavior was determined based on clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. Healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were selected from the “MABAT” Israeli Nutrition and Public Health Governmental Study and served as the control group. All the participants completed a 106-item food frequency questionnaire categorized into food groups and nutritional values based on those used in the United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid and the Israeli food pyramid. Data on Dietary behavior, food avoidance, the use of nutritional supplements, physical activity, smoking habits, and body-mass index (BMI) were also obtained. Pouch patients who had familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 3), irritable pouch syndrome (n = 4), or patients whose pouch surgery took place less than one year previously (n = 5) were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: The pouch patients (n = 80) consumed significantly more from the bakery products food group (1.2 ± 1.4 servings/d vs 0.6 ± 1.1 servings/d, P < 0.05) and as twice as many servings from the oils and fats (4.8 ± 3.4 servings/d vs 2.4 ± 2 servings/d, P < 0.05), and the nuts and seeds food group (0.3 ± 0.6 servings/d vs 0.1 ± 0.4 servings/d, P < 0.05) compared to the controls (n = 80). The pouch patients consumed significantly more total fat (97.6 ± 40.5 g/d vs 84.4 ± 39 g/d, P < 0.05) and fat components [monounsaturated fatty acids (38.4 ± 16.4 g/d vs 30 ± 14 g/d, P < 0.001), and saturated fatty acids (30 ± 15.5 g/d vs 28 ± 14.1 g/d, P < 0.00)] than the controls. In contrast, the pouch patients consumed significantly fewer carbohydrates (305.5 ± 141.4 g/d vs 369 ± 215.2 g/d, P = 0.03), sugars (124 ± 76.2 g/d vs 157.5 ± 90.4 g/d, P

  3. Diet of patients after pouch surgery may affect pouch inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ianco, Orit; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Lusthaus, Michal; Ofer, Amos; Santo, Erwin; Vaisman, Nachum; Dotan, Iris

    2013-10-14

    To investigate the diet of pouch patients compared to healthy controls, and to correlate pouch patients' diet with disease behavior. Pouch patients were recruited and prospectively followed-up at the Comprehensive Pouch Clinic at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Pouch behavior was determined based on clinical, endoscopic and histological criteria. Healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers were selected from the "MABAT" Israeli Nutrition and Public Health Governmental Study and served as the control group. All the participants completed a 106-item food frequency questionnaire categorized into food groups and nutritional values based on those used in the United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid and the Israeli food pyramid. Data on Dietary behavior, food avoidance, the use of nutritional supplements, physical activity, smoking habits, and body-mass index (BMI) were also obtained. Pouch patients who had familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 3), irritable pouch syndrome (n = 4), or patients whose pouch surgery took place less than one year previously (n = 5) were excluded from analysis. The pouch patients (n = 80) consumed significantly more from the bakery products food group (1.2 ± 1.4 servings/d vs 0.6 ± 1.1 servings/d, P < 0.05) and as twice as many servings from the oils and fats (4.8 ± 3.4 servings/d vs 2.4 ± 2 servings/d, P < 0.05), and the nuts and seeds food group (0.3 ± 0.6 servings/d vs 0.1 ± 0.4 servings/d, P < 0.05) compared to the controls (n = 80). The pouch patients consumed significantly more total fat (97.6 ± 40.5 g/d vs 84.4 ± 39 g/d, P < 0.05) and fat components [monounsaturated fatty acids (38.4 ± 16.4 g/d vs 30 ± 14 g/d, P < 0.001), and saturated fatty acids (30 ± 15.5 g/d vs 28 ± 14.1 g/d, P < 0.00)] than the controls. In contrast, the pouch patients consumed significantly fewer carbohydrates (305.5 ± 141.4 g/d vs 369 ± 215.2 g/d, P = 0.03), sugars (124 ± 76.2 g/d vs 157.5 ± 90.4 g/d, P = 0.01), theobromine (77.8

  4. Improved retort for cleaning metal powders with hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1969-01-01

    Improved cleaning retort produces uniform temperature distribution in the heated zone and minimizes hydrogen channeling through the powder bed. Retort can be used for nonmetallic powders, sintering in a reducing atmosphere, and for cleaning powders in reduction atmospheres other than hydrogen.

  5. Stabilizing in situ oil shale retorts with injected grout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A retort grouting process has been developed which would solve certain problems associated with in situ recovery of crude oil by retorting oil shale, such as surface subsidence, disturbance of groundwater flow, and accumulation of spent shale at the surface. Essentially, the process consists of using the spent shale to make a grout that can be injected into the retort after processing is completed. Bench-scale experiments using a high-temperature process show that grout can be prepared with sufficient strength, mobility, and permeability to stabilize processed in situ oil shale retorts. By reducing the need for surface disposal of spent shale and by increasing the quantity of shale that can be retorted in a given area, the grouting method should significantly improve the economics of the oil recovery process while also offering environmental advantages over surface processing of the shale.

  6. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  7. Stress distribution and pillar design in oil shale retorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S. S.; Thill, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of retort interchamber pillars is important in determining surface stability over in situ retort mines and to the health and safety of miners, particularly with respect to possible escape of heat and toxic gases from retort chambers. Stress distribution in retort interchamber pillars, roof, and floor was examined with the aid of linear, finite-element analysis using data from experimentally determined mechanical properties. Properties determined included elastic moduli, strength, and creep constants in laboratory tests on core covering a 100-foot depth interval in the oil shale from the Piceance Basin in Colorado. The most critical stress concentration was found in the rib side of the interchamber pillar at a height above the floor line of 1.25 times the width. Guidelines for pillar design that consider pillar strength, creep, and retorting temperature effects are proposed.

  8. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401... comply with all provisions of the retort plan. The retort plan shall include— (1) Acceptable levels of combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401... comply with all provisions of the retort plan. The retort plan shall include— (1) Acceptable levels of combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401... comply with all provisions of the retort plan. The retort plan shall include— (1) Acceptable levels of combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which...

  11. Method for controlling void fraction distribution in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-04-17

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a retort site in a subterranean formation is provided. The in situ oil shale retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of oil shale particles formed within top, bottom, and side boundaries of the retort site. At least one void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site, while a zone of unfragmented formation is left within the boundaries of the retort site adjacent such a void. An inlet is formed in a zone of the retort adjacent the intersection of a first side boundary of the retort site and the top boundary of the retort site and an outlet is formed in a zone of the retort adjacent the intersection of a second side boundary of the retort site and the bottom boundary of the retort site. The second side boundary is on the opposite side of the retort site from the first side boundary. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and the charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of formation toward the void for forming the fragmented mass within the boundaries of the retort site. The explosive charge pattern and detonation sequence are provided so that the fragmented mass formed has a lower void fraction in a center region of the retort and a higher void fraction in regions of the retort adjacent the side boundaries.

  12. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401 Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). (a) Retorts shall be provided with— (1) Two independent power...

  13. Two-level, horizontal free face mining system for in situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.; Ricketts, T.E.

    1986-09-16

    A method is described for forming an in-situ oil shale retort within a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, such an in-situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed within upper, lower and side boundaries of an in-situ oil shale retort site.

  14. Method and apparatus for retorting a substance containing organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, B.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of an apparatus for converting a substance containing organic matter into hydrocarbon vapors and solids residue comprising: (A) a fluidized bed housing having an upstream end and a downstream end; (B) a substantially cylindrical retort, extending through and stationary relative to said fluidized bed housing and having an upstream end and a downstream end, each end being outside of said housing, the longitudinal axis of said retort being substantially parallel to a horizontal plane; (C) feeding means for feeding the substance containing organic matter into said retort, said feeding means communicating with the upstream portion of said retort; (D) means located within said retort for moving the substance containing organic matter from the upstream portion of said retort to the downstream portion thereof; (E) solids residue removing means for removing solids residue from said retort, said solids residue removing means communicating with the downstream portion of said retort; (F) solids residue introducing means for introducing said solids residue removed from said retort into said fluidized bed housing to employ said solids residue as particles of a fluidized bed, one end of said introducing means communicating with said solids residue removing means and the other end therof communicating with the upper upstream portion of said fluidized bed housing; (G) solids residue extracting means for extracting solids residue from said fluidized bed housing and communicating with the lower downstream portion fluidized bed housing; (H) fluidizing menas for maintaining within said fluidized bed housing a fluidized bed of heated particles of solids residue with which to heat said retort; (I) heating means for heating the particles; (J) hydrocarbon vapors removing means.

  15. Bench-scale simulation of quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A.; Boysen, J.E.

    1992-06-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operating procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale.

  16. Bench-scale simulation of quenching and stabilization of MIS retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, F.A. ); Boysen, J.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate in situ retort stabilization methods. The objective of the bench-scale simulations was to evaluate possible post-retorting operating procedures for the optimum cleaning of spent retorts. After simulating conditions of modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the time retorting had ended, procedures to accelerate retort cleanup without using large volumes of water were investigated. Samples from various levels of the retort were used to determine the amount of water-soluble constituents in the spent shale and the rehydration characteristics of the spent shale.

  17. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  18. Male issues of the ileal pouch.

    PubMed

    Kani, Haluk T; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis who require colectomy. There are special issues related to male gender. We performed systemic literature review on the topic, incorporating the experience in our specialized Center for Ileal Pouch Disorders, and provide recommendations for the identification and management for the gender-specific issues in male patients with ileal pouches. Chronic pouchitis, particularly ischemic pouchitis, anastomotic leak, and presacral sinus are more common in male patients than their female counterparts. Sexual dysfunction can occur after pouch surgery, particularly in those with pouch failure. Diagnosis and management of benign and malignant prostate diseases can be challenging due to the altered pelvic anatomy from the surgery. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening is not reliable. Transpouch biopsy of prostate may lead to pouch fistula or abscess. Pelvic radiation therapy may have an adverse impact on the pouch function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and enlarged prostate can occur in patients with the ileal pouch. The measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen is a preferred method for the screening of prostate cancer. If biopsy of the prostate is needed, the perineal route is recommended. The risk for pouch dysfunction and the benefit for oncologic survival of pelvic radiation for prostate cancer should be carefully balanced.

  19. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  20. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in-situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.

    1984-04-03

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  1. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Thomas F.; Moore, Dennis F.

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  2. Characterization and treatment of oil shale retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Torpy, M.F.; Raphaelian, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's research in the treatment and environmental control of oil shale retort waste water is described. It consists of 3 tasks: characterization, treatment, and engineering design and cost analysis. The comprehensive study is pragmatic to the extent it addresses critical issues that the oil shale industry must ultimately address for its production planning and permit acquisition. Results indicate that total organic carbon can be reduced by at least 90% in the Oxy-6 retort water. Retort water quality varies, and proven methods in the case of treating Oxy-6 retort water should be tested with other retort waters before generalized biological treatment techniques are adopted. The problem of maintaining sample quality over short and long periods of time may be an additional variable in treatment studies and should be minimized, when possible. Reuse of the biologically treated retort water for some purposes may require additional treatment to reduce the high concentrations of inorganic residual and organic constituents. The extent of reuse after organic carbon and inorganic residual reduction can be identified only by evaluating the necessary quality required for particular reuse purposes. A continued research program in water treatment, and especially in retort water reuse, is essential to the acceptability of the oil shale industry in the arid and relatively undeveloped region of the western states.

  3. Plant for retorting oil products contained in shales and sands

    SciTech Connect

    Roma, C.

    1982-07-20

    A plant is described for continuously retorting oil products contained in shales and sands comprising a substantially horizontal retort furnace into which said shales and sands are introduced by means of hoppers and metering devices and placed on metal conveyors moving in counter-current to gases. Means are provided for placing shales and sands onto conveyors with a suitable thickness and for stirring the shales and sands. One or more combustion chambers are arranged outside the retort furnace for producing hot gases, and one or more input zones are located along the retort furnace for admitting hot gases into the retort furnace, causing the hot gases to mix with circulating gases which have been preheated by removing sensible heat from the exhausted shale and sand material. A direct contact condenser at the furnace head utilizes cold fluid to condense distilled oil products, and a decantation tank is arranged beneath the condenser for freeing the process gases from the dust. Uncondensed gases containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen, high hydrocarbon fractions, nitrogen and steam are recycled into the retort. Condensed oils from said distillation step, as well as oil drawn from the tunnel retort in liquid phase, are decanted and submitted to successive treatments.

  4. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  5. Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

    1989-03-01

    This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

  6. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  7. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  8. Mathematical modeling of oil mist formation, deposition, and drainage during oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    A mathematical model of oil mist formation and deposition, and liquid oil drainage during retorting has been formulated. The model was incorporated into the one-dimensional model of oil shale retorting developed by Braun. In this report a description of the development of the model is given. Results of a simulation of a batch retort are presented and compared with results from Braun's original model. The model predicts the expected physical behavior of liquid oil in a retort: accumulation in the cooler sections of the retort by deposition of mist, downward flow by gravity after a residual saturation is reached, and evaporation of residual oil as the retort front moves through the retort. The model is applicable both to modified in situ retorts and to surface batch retorts. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Method for controlling void in an in-situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.

    1984-04-03

    Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from an in-situ oil shale retort formed in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. A void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site and a zone of unfragmented formation is left in the retort site adjacent the void. A retort inlet is at one upper edge of the retort site and a retort outlet is at the lower edge of the retort site opposite the retort inlet. Explosive charges are placed in the zone of unfragmented formation and detonated in an asymmetrical time delay sequence for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles which substantially fills the retort to the top boundary in the region of the retort inlet. A combustion zone is formed in the fragmented permeable mass adjacent the inlet and a retort inlet mixture comprising an oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the fragmented mass for sustaining the combustion zone and advancing the combustion zone diagonally through the fragmented mass from the inlet toward the outlet. A retorting zone is on the advancing side of the combustion zone for producing liquid and gaseous products and the liquid and gaseous products are withdrawn through the retort outlet.

  10. In vivo cytogenetic effects of oil shale retort process waters.

    PubMed

    Meyne, J; Deaven, L L

    1982-01-01

    The induction of cytogenetic effects by oil shale retort process waters from 3 types of pilot plant retorts were examined in murine bone marrow. Each of the process waters induced increased frequencies of structural aberrations in mice treated with 3 daily intraperitoneal injections of the waters. The same treatment had no effect on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Mice given a 1% solution of an above-ground retort water ad libitum for 8 weeks consumed about 1 ml/kg per day of the process water and had a frequency of aberrations comparable to mice given the same dose intraperitoneally for 3 days. Transplacental exposure of C3H mouse embryos indicated that clastogenic compounds in the above-ground retort process water can cross the placenta and induce chromosomal aberrations in embryonic tissues.

  11. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  12. Organic solute profile of water from Rio Blanco Retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Clark, J.A.; Borg, H.M.

    1985-12-01

    Two water samples were taken from the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Retort 1 more than three years after shutdown of the retort burn. The retort had received considerable flushing. These water samples were screened and profiled chromatographically to ascertain the character of the 20 to 30 ppM total organic carbon remaining in each. The waters were found to contain only organophilic solutes above the one-part-per-billion level. Special detection methods with part-per-billion detection limits for selected hydrophilic indicators proved negative for those indicators. Selected indicators ranged from the most hydrophilic (alkanoic acids, alkylamines, and amides) to the least (phenol). The principal species readily identified by either gas chromatography or reversed-phase liquid chromatography were the light polyalkylpyridines and the polyalkylphenols. The two principal individual compounds detected in each water were 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol. The approximate concentrations of each were 200 ppb for a sample taken from the retort center and 400 ppb for a sample taken from the bottom level. It appears that there is a residual oil reservoir in the retort serving as a source of organophilic solutes. Any organic material now passing out of the retort would be highly organophilic and predisposed to deposit on even slightly hydrophobic surfaces such as oil shale or retorted oil shale. Based on the observations in this report, hydrophilic organic solutes may be presumed to be the key indicators for the interaction between oil shale in situ retort effluent and the surrounding environment. Timely monitoring of such sites and development of highly sensitive detection techniques for this class of materials would permit accurate description of migration pathways. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED DIRECTLY BEHIND THE GABLED PORTION OF OF THE 1859 FACADE ADDITION. THE COAL STORAGE FACILITY/BOILER HOUSE IS TO THE RIGHT OF THE RETORT HOUSE. THE OFFICES ARE IN THE THE THREE STORY BUILDING ON THE CORNER, TO THE RIGHT OF THE 1859 FACADE. - Buffalo Gas Light Company, 249 West Genesee Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  14. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Kvapil, R.

    1983-05-31

    A retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by excavating a void space in the retort site and then explosively expanding at least a portion of the remainder of the formation within the retort site toward the void space. The resultant fragmented mass explosively expanded toward the void space will be permeabilized by the void volume of the void space. The void space is initially formed by excavating at least three substantially parallel drifts through the retort site. At least two of the drifts are along opposed outside edges of the retort site and at least one drift is intermediate the two outside drifts. Excavation of the void space is conducted from the two outside drifts. A vertically extending slot is first excavated from each such drift upwardly into the proposed void space at one end of the retort site. The slot may be fanned above the drift so that the slots from the two outside drifts meet near the top of the void space. Upwardly extending shot holes are then drilled from each of the outside drifts parallel to the vertical slot. If the vertical slot is fanned, it is desirable to also drill the upwardly extending shot holes in a fanned pattern. The shot holes are then loaded with explosive and blasted and the resultant rubble excavated through the outside drifts. By gradually working along the length of the outside drifts, excavation of the void space can proceed with men and equipment safely within the outside drifts. The substantially triangular prism remaining in the void space intermediate the edges of the retort site can then be fragmented by means of shot holes drilled from the third intermediate drift extending through such prism.

  15. Modifications to a cyclone oil shale retorting concept

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.C.; Harak, A.E.

    1989-10-01

    A system for utilizing oil shale fines, in which the fines, instead of being rejected as wastes, are crushed even finer and then are used in a cyclone retort is described. This patented process uses high combustion temperature that removes all of the organic material from the spent shale and converts it into an inert, granulated slag. The primary advantages of this retorting system over more conventional aboveground retorting processes are the ability to use finely divided oil shales as charge stock and the production of an essentially inert slag from the retorted shale. A series of calculations were made to evaluate variations of the original concept. The original process design was based on a cyclone furnace temperature of 2800{degree}F and the use of hot combustion gases as the retorting medium. A recent study of retorted and burned oil shale properties showed that molten slag could be produced at temperatures lower than 2800{degree}F; therefore, additional calculations were made using a furnace temperature of 2300{degree}F. 11 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Method of forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Studebaker, I.G.

    1984-01-03

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having a substantially vertically extending first cleavage plane set and a substantially vertically extending second cleavage plane set intersecting the first set. The dispersion of the individual cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets is determined. The in situ retort is formed by excavating a vertical slot-shaped void within the boundaries of the retort site, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation within the retort site which is to be explosively expanded toward the slot. The unfragmented formation adjacent the slot has a pair of longer vertical free faces substantially aligned with the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. A pair of shorter vertical side walls of the slot can extend substantially perpendicular to the cleavage plane set having the lower dispersion. Explosive placed in such remaining formation adjacent the slot is detonated to fracture formation along cleavage planes in the first and second cleavage plane sets and to expand such remaining formation within the retort site toward the slot, forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the retort site.

  17. Triangular blasting into limited voids for vertical free face retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1981-04-21

    Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, the retort is formed by excavating a narrow vertical slot diagonally across a retort site of rectangular horizontal crosssection, leaving separate triangular zones of unfragmented formation within the retort site on opposite sides of the diagonal slot. Explosive is placed in a plurality of vertical blasting holes drilled in each triangular zone of formation, and such explosive is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the triangular zones toward vertical free faces adjacent the slot for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Detonation of explosive in the blasting holes expands separate wedge-shaped segments of formation toward the diagonal slot, owing to the natural cratering effect of each blast, causing the wedge-shaped segments being expanded to conform generally to the side boundaries of each triangular zone, and producing reasonably good fragmentation and movement of expanded formation toward the slot from formation throughout the retort site. Several such slots can be employed in forming a retort.

  18. True in-situ oil retort: the role of intrashale transport and char gasification and an analysis of retort performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louvar, J.F.; Crowl, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study expands the theoretical understanding of the true in situ crack retort process for Eastern oil shale by (a) establishing the role of intrashale 2-dimensional transport on the performance of the retort, (b) determining the significance of the intrashale char gasification reactions with water and carbon dioxide, and (c) analyzing the performance characteristics of a theoretical true in-situ retort process for Eastern oil shale and establishing conditions for improving the retort performance. Two computer simulation models were developed and evaluated, one with 1-D mass transport and another with 2-D mass transport. The 1-D transport model featured instantaneous 1-D transfer of the pyrolysis products to the crack. The 2-D transport model featured 2-D species transport within the oil shale, and pyrolysis, gasification, and oxidation reactions within the oil shale.

  19. Method for forming a module of in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.

    1984-04-03

    A module of in-situ oil shale retorts are formed in a row of retort sites in a subterranean formation. Each retort has top, bottom, and side boundaries of unfragmented formation and contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles. Two cross drifts are excavated through the retort sites along the row. One of the drifts is at a lower elevation near the floor of voids to be formed in the retort sites and along one side boundary of the retort sites. The other drift ramps upwardly at an end of the row for extending through the retort sites at a higher elevation near the roof of the voids excavated in the retort sites and along the opposite side boundaries of the retort sites. A horizontally extending slice is excavated at the elevation of the higher drift extending substantially to the side boundaries of a retort site for commencing a void within the retort site. The balance of the void is formed by benching from the slice to the elevation of the lower drift. This leaves at least one zone of unfragmented formation remaining in the retort site with a horizontally extending free face adjacent to the void. Such a zone of formation is explosively expanded toward the void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort.

  20. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.E.

    1984-04-10

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  1. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  2. Ileal J-Pouch Perforation: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dogan, U; Dogan, B; Habibi, M; Erol, M K; Mayir, B; Aslaner, A; Bulbuller, N

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient who had undergone total colectomy and J-pouch ileanal anastomosis subsequent to diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis five years previously was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of severe abdominal pain of a four-day duration. Physical examination revealed widespread tenderness throughout the abdomen, especially in the lower quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed fluid between intestinal loops and computed tomography revealed free air and fluid in the abdomen. During laparotomy to expand the ileal J-pouch to approximately 12 cm in diameter, a 2-mm perforation was detected in the blind end of the ileal J-pouch. The perforation was repaired primarily and protective ileostomy was performed. During postoperative endoscopy, neither obstruction nor stasis was observed, but pouchitis was observed in the ileal J-pouch. The patient was postoperatively discharged on the 20th day and followed endoscopically. The endoscopic findings were normal in the sixth month postsurgery.

  3. Technical aspects of ileoanal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Carne, Peter W G; Pemberton, John H

    2004-02-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical procedure of choice for chronic ulcerative colitis. Since the initial description of the technique, various modifications have facilitated its evolution into a safe operation with excellent long-term outcomes. However, some aspects of the operation remain contentious. Our aim is to describe the technical aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and review the current literature in the areas of controversy.

  4. Models of inflammation: carrageenan air pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2012-03-01

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, and the oxidative stress response. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. Thermal In-Pouch Microwave Sterilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-09

    chicken piece placed at the cold spot in chicken- dumpling pouches at the end of complete thermal process. PA 3679 # 308 Clos- tridium sporogenes spore ...crop was used to calculate average D-values for the dif- ferent temperatures and determine the z-value of PA 3679 spores in chicken breast. Process...the developed MW sterilization processing delivered expected lethality to C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores . Forty chicken-dumpling pouches processed in

  6. Antimicrobial Protection of Marsupial Pouch Young

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobials are believed to play a significant role in the immune protection of marsupial newborns during their pouch life. The skin of the post-reproductive pouch secretes antimicrobial lysozyme and dermcidin, which may contribute to the decreased density of certain bacteria in the pouch. A range of antimicrobial agents, such as immunoglobulins, lysozyme, transferrin, and cathelicidins, have been identified in marsupial milk. Antimicrobial assays have revealed that marsupial cathelicidins have broad-spectrum activity against a variety of bacteria and fungi, including several multi-drug resistant strains. In this article, we will review the action mechanisms of these antimicrobial compounds and discuss how they protect marsupial newborns from potentially pathogenic bacteria inside the pouch. We will also discuss the potential of marsupial antimicrobial compounds as a source of novel antibiotics. PMID:28326070

  7. Apparatus for controlling condensate level in steam retort

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.D.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the level of steam condensate in a steam retort comprising: drain valve means operable to regulate drainage of the condensate from the retort; and control means for operating the drain valve means in response to the condensate level in the retort, the control means comprising: sensing means for providing a first signal when condensate rises to a predetermined level to effect opening of the drain valve means and for providing a second signal when condensate falls below the predetermined level to effect closing of the drain valve means; the sensing means comprising magnetic float switch means comprising: a non-magnetic steam having a chamber therein and extendable into the steam retort in a fixed position; a magnetic reed switch disposed within the chamber in the stem; means for mounting the reed switch in a fixed position within the stem; a float movably mounted exteriorly of the steam and movable in response to the level of the condensate in the steam retort; and a magnet connected to the float and movable in response thereto for effecting operation of the reed switch.

  8. Method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1983-01-25

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale which is ignited by introducing fuel and air through a passage leading to the fragmented mass. The amount of air provided is in the range of from about 1/3 more than the amount of air required to stoichiometrically combine with the fuel to about twice the amount of air required to stoichiometrically combine with the fuel. The fuel/air mixture is ignited and hot combustion gases pass downwardly into the fragmented mass. The hot combustion gases heat oil shale particles above the self-ignition temperature of such particles, thereby forming a primary combustion zone in the fragmented mass. Introduction of fuel is discontinued when the concentration of oxygen in off gas from the retort decreases to below a first selected value. The surface of the fragmented mass is cooled and then fuel is re-introduced into the retort, forming a secondary combustion zone below the surface of the fragmented mass for spreading the primary combustion zone. When the concentration of oxygen in off gas from the retort decreases below a second selected value, the secondary combustion zone is extinguished.

  9. Application of HTGR process heat to oil shale retorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadekamper, D. C.; Taylor, I. N.; Gleason, T. E.

    The currently developed oil shale retorting processes depend on some portion of their product to provide heat energy for process operation. In an attempt to increase the fossil fuel reserves of the United States, as well as decrease environmental pollution, it has been suggested that an High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) be used to supply the heat necessary for the retorting oil shale thus freeing additional petroleum products for sale. The TOSCO II process was selected as a typical oil shale retorting process and a detailed evaluation of the energy requirements was made. Various scenarios to replace selected portions of the process energy requirements with HTGR generated heat are described. The improvements in product yields and reductions in environmental pollution levels associated with a HTGR process heat scheme are summarized.

  10. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  11. Control technology for in-situ oil-shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate control technologies for groundwater pollution resulting from leaching of modified in-situ spent shale. Preliminary engineering analysis was used to identify control technologies which were technically feasible and cost-effective. Process modification, intentional leaching, and retort grouting were further evaluated using numerical modeling and experimental techniques. Numerical simulation of the geohydrology at tracts C-a and C-b was used to determine the flow regime during and after processing, the amount of water available from dewatering, and the time scale of groundwater reinvasion. It was found that reinvasion would take over 200 years and that dewatering flows would probably be insufficient to satisfy water requirements for retort grouting. The formulation of low-cost grouts based on surface-retorted spent shale was studied experimentally. A high-strength hydraulic cement was produced by calcining Lurgi spent shale with an equal amount of CaCO/sub 3/ at 1000 C for 1 h. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the leachate from a grouted retort would be more concentrated than that from an ungrouted retort, but the increase in concentration would be more than offset by the reduction in flow. A standard flow-cone test used for grouting of preplaced aggregate concrete was used as the criterion for grout fluidity. This criterion was achieved by inclusion of either 33 percent sand or 0.25 percent lignosulfonate fluidizer in the grout. These grouts were found to be Casson fluids with yield stress values about 60 dyne/cm/sup 2/. Intentional leaching of MIS retorts was evaluated by developing a mass-transfer model of the leaching process. The model was experimentally verified for total organic carbon and used to calculate that 2.1 to 3.4 pore volumes would be needed to reduce leachate concentrations to 10 percent of their initial value.

  12. Testing and performance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Nelson, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the design, construction, calibration and operations of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) 6-kg retort. Use of this retort will help determine the distribution and speciation of Hg, As, Se, and Cd compounds as a function of retorting parameters in shale oil, retort water, and offgas. The first test consisted of heating the oil shale to 500/sup 0/C with a 100% nitrogen (N/sub 2/) sweep gas. Results of this test demonstrated that the system operates as designed; only two minor modifications were necessary to achieve satisfactory operation of the retort. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  13. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costimiris, E. C.

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, Utah. During 1981, one full sized retort was blasted and the following three retorts were processed: (1) retort No. 24 operations were continued until July 23; (2) retort No. 23 was ignited and processed during the calendar year; (3) retort No. 25 was ignited and burned for 77 days during 1981.

  14. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  15. Reaction kinetics and diagnostics for oil-shale retorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, A. K.

    1981-10-01

    The advances in pyrolysis chemistry and kinetics and the resulting diagnostic methods based on effluent products for determining retort performance were reviewed. Kerogen pyrolysis kinetics and stoichiometry were generalized by further measurements on a larger number of samples. Analysis by capillary colunn gas chromatography of shale oil samples produced under a variety of field and laboratory conditions resulted in a method for determining the oil yield from a combustion retort. Measurement of sulfur products under a variety of conditions led to an understanding sulfur reactions both those of processing and environmental importance. Equations for estimating the heat of combustion of spent shale were developed by understanding oil shale composition and reactions.

  16. Pollution control technical manual: modified 'in situ' oil shale retorting combined with Lurgi surface retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using Lurgi surface retorting technology (developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany) and the Modified In Situ process (developed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.) proposed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. and Tenneco Shale Oil Company for use in the development of their Federal oil shale lease Tract C-b in western Colorado. Since details regarding waste streams and control technologies for the Lurgi process are presented in a separate PCTM, this document focuses principally on the Modified In Situ process.

  17. In situ oil shale retorting: water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.A.

    1981-03-10

    Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company completed the first burn on their modified in-situ system located in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Gas stream analyses were performed using a small computerized mass spectrometer. These analyses were made continuously from a sample line originating at the off-gas knockout drum. In addition, the feasibility of determining trace sulfur gases in this mixture was tested. The mass spectrometer has a detection limit of about 5 ppM for a typical trace component in air or other simple gas matrix. However, because of the complex organic matrix composing the oil shale gas, it becomes very difficult to positively identify most trace components at this low ppM level. The sulfur gases which have the fewest interferences include H/sub 2/S, COS, CH/sub 3/SH and SO/sub 2/. These gases can be determined at approximatey the 15 to 25 ppM level. Mass spectrometric analysis of low- or sub-ppM level trace components in complex gas mixture would require pre-treatment of the gas such as concentration or separation to be effective. Positive identifications were made on H/sub 2/S, CH/sub 3/SH, COS and SO/sub 2/. Water samples were taken from five points in the Rio Blanco MIS process for organic characterization and toxicity screening. There was considerable variation in the toxicity of the retort waters relative to both time into the burn and the location of the sampling point. The scrubber water samples were more toxic than the other samples. This is most likely due to the higher pH of these samples. The east holding pond samples were not toxic. These samples represent an integrated sample set as all process waters are finally discharged into this holding pond.

  18. Static mixer retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    York, E.D.; Knepper, J.C.; Forgac, J.M.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a system for retorting oil shale, comprising: a static mixer having an upper free-fall section with a domed roof and a lower elongated deflector section. The deflector section having a greater diameter than the upper section, the static mixer having a vertical axis and having only stationary parts and components consisting of six vertically spaced tiers of triangular-shaped internals having upwardly pointing apexes in the deflector section, alternate tiers of the internals being spaced substantially parallel and at about right angles to adjacent tiers as viewed from the roof, the tiers extending substantially horizontally across the deflector section, the six tiers, as viewed from the roof, consisting of first and second tiers having only three triangular-shaped internals of substantially the same size, and third, fourth, fifth and sixth tiers positioned beneath the first and second tiers and having similarly sized triangular-shaped internals, the internals in the first and second tiers being smaller than the internals in the third through sixth tiers, the third and fourth tiers each having three triangular-shaped internals, the first through fourth tiers each having a center internal with an apex positioned substantially along the vertical axis, the first through fourth tiers each having outer internals with the apexes of the outer internals of the third and fourth tiers spaced laterally inwardly of the outer internals in the first and second tiers, the fifth and sixth tiers each having two intermediate triangular-shaped internals and two downwardly and inwardly sloping outer internals with the apexes of the intermediate internals being spaced outwardly and offset from the apexes of the center internals of the first through fourth tiers, the outer internals in the firth and sixth tiers being spaced outwardly from the outer internals in the third and fourth tiers.

  19. Stability control in underground working adjacent an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, Th. E.

    1985-07-30

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in spaced-apart rows, with adjacent rows of such retorts being separated by load-bearing inter-retort pillars of unfragmented formation sufficiently strong for preventing substantial subsidence. Each retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. An air level drift is excavated in formation directly above the inter-retort pillar so that the roof and/or floor of the air level drift is spaced above the upper boundaries of the retorts in such adjacent rows. This causes the roof of the air level drift to be in compression, rather than in tension, which stabilizes the roof and avoids dangerous rock falls. During retorting operations, air is introduced at the upper edge of each retort through lateral air inlet passages sloping downwardly from the air level drift. Off gas and liquid products are withdrawn from each retort through a production level passage at the bottom of each report at the edge opposite the air inlet. The production level passages connect to a main production level drift extending between adjacent rows of retors. The roof of the main production level drift is excavated in fgormation directly below the inter-retort pillar so that the roof of of the production level drift is spaced below the lower boundaries of the retorts in adjacent rows. This places the roof of the production level drift in compression, avoiding the likelihood of rock falls.

  20. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  1. Method for assuring uniform combustion in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1981-04-28

    A substantially flat combustion zone is established in a fragmented mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. By igniting a portion of the mass of particles, a heated zone including a combustion zone is established in the retort. For a first period of time, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the retort and heated zone at a rate sufficient to advance the heated zone through the fragmented mass. The locus of the combustion zone is monitored to determine if the combustion zone is substantially flat. If the combustion zone is not substantially flat, introduction of oxidizing gas into the retort is reduced temporarily for a second period of time to a rate such that the flow of heated gas through the retort for retorting oil shale in a retorting zone on the advancing side of the combustion zone is substantially reduced for a sufficient time to appreciably flatten the heated zone. Thereafter, introduction of gas comprising an oxidizing gas to the retort is resumed at a sufficient rate to advance the heated zone through the fragmented mass. Off gas withdrawn from the retort during the second period of time can be enriched having a heating value of at least about 75 btu/scf, and often in excess of about 150 btu/scf. To produce such enriched off gas, introduction of gas into the retort can be temporarily reduced even when it is not necessary to establish a substantially flat combustion zone in the retort. This enriched off gas can be withdrawn from the top of the retort and can be used for igniting another retort or for sustaining a secondary combustion zone in another retort.

  2. Disconnection, pouch revision and reconnection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P M; Dozois, R R; Wolff, B G; Kelly, K A

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcome of patients with a dysfunctional pelvic ileal reservoir in whom disconnection of an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), pouch revision and reanastomosis had been carried out. There were 23 patients (15 women). At the revision operation functional problems were found to be due to a long efferent spout (nine patients), sepsis and/or fistula (four), a redundant blind limb (three), a twisted pouch (three), anastomotic problems (three) or no reservoir (one). The pouch was salvaged in 16 patients and a new pouch was constructed in seven. The pouch-anal anastomosis was resutured in 22 patients and stapled in one. Postoperative complications (all minor) occurred in six patients. Two patients underwent two revision of IPAA. At a median follow-up of 5 (range 1-10) years, 11 patients reported good to excellent function, five reported fair function and one reported recurrent pouchitis. Revision surgery was unsuccessful in six of 23 patients (three had gross incontinence, two excessive bowel movements and one Crohn's disease), and they subsequently underwent pouch excision. It is concluded that revision of an ileal reservoir and IPAA can be undertaken safely with good results in carefully selected patients.

  3. 4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CASTIRON RETORTS AT TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CAST-IRON RETORTS AT TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING PORTION OF HOT BLAST STOVE AND TURNED HEAD. - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  4. 1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort rings in foreground were once located in Engine Room Building. See photo WA-131-A-2. Building on left is Machine Shop. Boiler Building is in front of stack. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Prenatal toxicology of shale oil retort water in mice.

    PubMed

    Gregg, C T; Tietjen, G; Hutson, J Y

    1981-01-01

    Shale oil retort water, a by-product of the production of oil from shale, potentially amounts to tens of millions of gallons per year and must be treated or recycled with regard for public health. Such retort water was given to 98 female ICR/DUB mice in their drinking water at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% for periods up to 203 d. Seven of 75 treated animals developed adenomalike lesions that were not seen in the control animals. These ranged from adenomas and an adenomatoid nodule in the lung to the rectal adenocarcinoma. Although the incidence of adenomalike lesions was not statistically significant, this appearance of neoplasia requires further investigation. Eighty-five animals became pregnant. The proportion of animals pregnant, weights of nonpregnant animals, weight gain during pregnancy, average fetal weight, number of live fetuses per liter, and proportion of male fetuses were unaffected by drinking retort water. Early and late fetal deaths and preimplantation losses were likewise unaffected, except for a significant increase in preimplantation losses in animals consuming 1.0% retort water. A variety of palatal defects were seen in treated animals, however, including single and multiple cleft palates and a defect, to our knowledge not previously reported, in which the posterior portion of one or both palatal shelves appeared not to have formed. The palatal defects, as a group, were dose-dependent and statistically significant.

  6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. Fourth branchial pouch sinus: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, R M; Biller, H F

    1991-07-01

    The fourth branchial pouch sinus (FBPS) is a rare translaryngeal anomaly with diverse manifestations, including neonatal stridor and recurrent deep neck infection. Review of the world literature reveals 23 reports of sinuses consistent with fourth pouch origin. We present two additional cases, including the only example of a right-sided FBPS. Retrograde excision, beginning at the piriform apex, ensures complete removal of the tract and protection of the recurrent nerve. The posterior border of the thyroid ala must be resected or retracted for adequate exposure. Failure to remove the translaryngeal portion of the tract almost guarantees recurrence.

  9. Application of laboratory results to the design of a high yield VMIS oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Ricketts, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts have typically been designed to process a rubble bed having uniform cross-sectional rubble properties. Edge effects during rock fragmentation commonly produce increased void at the perimeter of these low-void retorts. Previous laboratory and field results have demonstrated this void variation normal to the direction of flow causes non-uniform retort front velocities that result in significantly lower oil yield. It is unlikely that process control parameters (e.g., multiple injection points, steam, etc.) can provide any significant yield improvement in these non-uniform retorts. Any large improvement would come from modified rubblization concepts. This paper describes a modification to the retort blast design to achieve a uniform retorting front velocity in rubble with non-uniform properties (void fraction and particle size). This concept requires the creation of an anisotropic rubble bed with varying particle size and void fraction normal to the direction of flow. The unavoidable increased void at the retort perimeter is offset by modifying the ratio of the effective particle size of the rubble in the central to the perimeter regions of the retort. The results of laboratory-scale pressure drop and retorting experiments with an empirical blast design technique are used to describe how a high-yield, second generation in situ retort would be designed. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  10. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  11. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  12. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  13. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  14. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or reexportation... technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Sudan via...

  15. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  16. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  17. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  18. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  19. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale, or... goods or technology to a third-country government, or to its contractors or agents, for shipment to Iran...

  20. Inflammatory pouch disease: The spectrum of pouchitis

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Saibil, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the operation of choice for medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), for UC with dysplasia, and for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). IPAA can be a treatment option for selected patients with Crohn’s colitis without perianal and/or small bowel disease. The term “pouchitis” refers to nonspecific inflammation of the pouch and is a common complication in patients with IPAA; it occurs more often in UC patients than in FAP patients. This suggests that the pathogenetic background of UC may contribute significantly to the development of pouchitis. The symptoms of pouchitis are many, and can include increased bowel frequency, urgency, tenesmus, incontinence, nocturnal seepage, rectal bleeding, abdominal cramps, and pelvic discomfort. The diagnosis of pouchitis is based on the presence of symptoms together with endoscopic and histological evidence of inflammation of the pouch. However, “pouchitis” is a general term representing a wide spectrum of diseases and conditions, which can emerge in the pouch. Based on the etiology we can sub-divide pouchitis into 2 groups: idiopathic and secondary. In idiopathic pouchitis the etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, while in secondary pouchitis there is an association with a specific causative or pathogenetic factor. Secondary pouchitis can occur in up to 30% of cases and can be classified as infectious, ischemic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced, collagenous, autoimmune-associated, or Crohn’s disease. Sometimes, cuffitis or irritable pouch syndrome can be misdiagnosed as pouchitis. Furthermore, idiopathic pouchitis itself can be sub-classified into types based on the clinical pattern, presentation, and responsiveness to antibiotic treatment. Treatment differs among the various forms of pouchitis. Therefore, it is important to establish the correct diagnosis in order to select the appropriate treatment and further

  1. Characterization of Commercial Li-ion Cells in Pouch Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The li-ion pouch design cells exhibit similar behavior under off-nominal conditions as those in metal cans that do not have the internal safety devices. Safety should be well characterized before batteries are designed. Some of the li-ion pouch cell designs studied in this program reacted most violently to overcharge conditions at the medium rates but were tolerant to overcharge at very low rates. Some pouch cell designs have higher tolerance to vacuum exposures than some others. A comparison of the pouch material itself does not show a correlation between this tolerance and the number of layers or composition of the pouch indicating that this is a property of the electrode stack design inside the pouch. Reduced pressure (8 to 10 psi) test environments show that the extent of capacity degradation under reduced pressure environments is much less than that observed under vacuum conditions. Lithium-ion Pouch format cells are not necessarily true polymer cells.

  2. Postburn characterization of a modified in situ oil shale retort, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.; Trudell, L.G. . Western Research Inst.)

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide information about post processing mineralogical and lithological characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into the Rio Blanco Tract C-a retort 1 in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. Drilling and logging records indicate 35 to 40 feet of roof rock had collapsed into the retort since the burn was completed four years earlier. A water filled cavity 46 to 62 feet high existed at the topp and 374 feet of rubble was encountered in the bottom of the retort. Material from the retort was determined to be a highly altered, fused, vesicular rock with lessor amounts of carbonized, oxidized, and moderately heat altered oil shale. Thermal alteration produced high temperature silicate minerals from the original mixture of carbonate and silicate minerals.

  3. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with controlled seismic vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1983-09-06

    An array of explosive charges is formed in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The explosive charges that are located around the perimeter of the retort site are smaller than the explosive charges located more remote from the perimeter. Formation within the retort site is explosively expanded toward a void formed in the site by detonating the explosive charges. This explosive expansion of formation results in a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort. Damage to objects near the retort site, which is caused by seismic shock from the detonations, is minimized by using smaller explosive charges around the perimeter than in the center of the retort site.

  4. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  5. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Seventh annual report, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    In the Geokinetics process, a pattern of blast holes is drilled from the surface, through the overburden, and into the oil shale bed. The holes are loaded with explosives and fired using a carefully planned blast system. The blast produces a fragmented mass of oil shale with high permeability. The fragmented zone constitutes an in situ retort. The project site is in the Mahogany Zone oil shale in Utah. During 1983 significant milestones were achieved. The burn of Retort No. 26 was completed on February 22, 1983, having produced 22,889 barrels of oil. By the end of July, 1983, all preparations were complete for the ignition of Retort No. 27. However, ignition was delayed until August 11, 1983, pending completion of the retort off gas processing facility. By early October, final preparations for the ignition of Retort No. 28 were completed and the retort was ignited on October 18, 1983. A facility to remove ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contaminants from Retorts No. 27 and No. 28 off gas was constructed at the site. Numerous environmental tests and experiments were conducted, primarily to gather data for permitting purposes. A pond to hold water produced by Retorts No. 27 and No. 28 was completed during August, 1983. The pond was put into service at the same time as the ignition of Retort No. 27.

  6. Mechanistic model for the leaching of retorted rundle oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Krol, A.A.; Bell, P.R.F.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1985-12-09

    The mechanisms involved in the leaching of inorganic components from oil shale mined at the Rundle deposit, Queensland, Australia, and retorted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process were examined. The phenomena of most significance were found to be solute dissolution, cation exchange, solution speciation and hydrodynamic and unsaturated flow effects. To check on the completeness of this characterization, a model was developed which describes the generation and transport of the major components (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl and SO/sub 4/) in the leachate as it infiltrates a column of dry retorted shale. Model predictions compare well with experimental results. It is concluded that the dominant mechanisms which control the rate of leaching have been recognized. 8 references, 11 figures.

  7. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Retort No. 25 burn was terminated on June 15, 1982. Total oil production for the second quarter was 6506 barrels during a 76 day production period. Final oil production for Retort No. 25 was 20,956 barrels. Final oil recovery was calculated to be 59% of the total in-place oil. Fugitive emissions, stack and process gas data indicated that all Retort No. 25 pollutants, except NO/sub x/, were below the allowable PSD limits. The Retort No. 25 process water characterization study was completed in April to determine the changes in retort produced water as the retort burn progressed. Results of the study are pending the completion of laboratory analysis. Retort No. 26 was prepared for ignition during the second quarter. Process manifolding and instrumentation were being completed so that ignition might occur shortly after the termination of the Retort No. 25 burn. Post blast core drilling and analysis was completed on Retort No. 27 during early April. The core samples indicated improved fracturing over previous retorts, especially near the bottom. Increasing the size of Retort No. 27 from one acre to two acres showed an increase in blast efficiency based on the criteria of fragmentation, quantity of explosives used per volume of void induced and percent void when compared with Retort No. 24. In June initial site preparation began on Retort No. 28 for blast hole drilling which will start in July. 17 figures, 16 tables.

  8. The toxicity of Rio Blanco Tract C-a groundwater samples before and after the pumpdown of retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.L.

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company received permission from the US Bureau of Land Management/Oil Shale Projects Office to proceed with retort abandonment activities at its Tract C-a modified in situ retort site. One of the first abandonment activities undertaken was to flood the retort with groundwater to dissolve soluble contaminants associated with the retorting operation. Saline water was then pumped from the retort into evaporation ponds during two pumpdown operations in May of 1985 and June of 1986. The principal objective of the pumpdown operations was to remove contaminated groundwater from the retort area and to prevent the migration of contaminants beyond the retort. A toxicological evaluation of groundwaters collected from within the retort and outside the retort is currently in progress. Acute and chronic toxicity tests have been performed using the freshwater invertebrate Ceriodaphnia affinis/dubia with groundwater samples collected before and after the first pumpdown of the retort. The objectives of these tests have been to evaluate the success of the pumpdown operation, to assess the effect of the pumping operations on groundwater quality both within and outside the retort, and to evaluate the toxicity of groundwater within the retort relative to local groundwater that has not been affected by the retorting operation. This report presents the results of toxicity tests performed before and after the first pumpdown operation. Additional toxicity tests are planned for samples collected after the second pumpdown operation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

    1980-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

  10. Process concept of retorting of Julia Creek oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnai, O.

    1984-06-01

    A process is proposed for the above ground retorting of the Julia Creek oil shale in Queensland. The oil shale characteristics, process description, chemical reactions of the oil shale components, and the effects of variable and operating conditions on process performance are discussed. The process contains a fluidized bed combustor which performs both as a combustor of the spent shales and as a heat carrier generator for the pyrolysis step. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  12. Heat penetration characteristics and physico-chemical properties of in-pouch processed dairy dessert (kheer).

    PubMed

    Jha, Alok; Patel, A A; Gopal, T K Srinivasa; Ravishankar, C N

    2014-10-01

    Kheer, a traditional milk product of South East Asia, containing cooked rice grains in a creamy sweetened concentrated milk, has no large-scale production due to its poor shelf life. Shelf-life was improved by development of a process based on in-pouch thermal processing employing a rotary retort. Product development included optimization of rice-to-milk solids ratio (0.18-0.52) and total milk solids levels (16-26 %) to simulate the conventional product in taste, appearance and textural attributes. Various Fo values (12.4-14.8) were examined with regard to product quality. While the TBA value tended to increase (0.073-0.081) the reflectance value (35.3-43.4) declined with increasing Fo. The pH of the product (6.04-6.10) showed a slight tendency to increase with Fo. Sensorily, the product was found to be acceptable for a period of 150 days at 37 °C.

  13. Efficient Heat and Mass Transfer Formulations for Oil Shale Retorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. C.; Zhang, F.

    2007-12-01

    A mathematical model for oil shale retorting is described that considers kerogen pyrolysis, oil coking, residual carbon gasification, carbonate mineral decomposition, water-gas shift, and phase equilibria reaction. Reaction rate temperature-dependence is described by Arrhenius kinetics. Fractured rock is modeled as a bi-continuum consisting of fracture porosity in which advective and dispersive gas and heat transport occur, and rock matrix in which diffusive mass transport and thermal conduction occur. Heat transfer between fracture and matrix regions is modeled either by a partial differential equation for spherical conduction or by a linear first-order heat transfer formulation. Mass transfer is modeled in an analogous manner or assuming local equilibrium. First-order mass and heat transfer coefficients are computed by a theoretical model from fundamental rock matrix properties. The governing equations are solved using a 3-D finite element formulation. Simulations of laboratory retort experiments and hypothetical problems indicated thermal disequilibrium to be the dominant factor controlling retort reactions. Simulation accuracy was unaffected by choice of mass transfer formulation. However, computational effort to explicitly simulate diffusive mass transfer in the rock matrix increased computational effort by more than an order of magnitude compared with first-order mass transfer or equilibrium analyses. A first-order heat transfer approximation of thermal conduction can be used without significant loss of accuracy if the block size and/or heating rate are not too large, as quantified by a proposed dimensionless heating rate.

  14. Guttural pouch mycosis in six horses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Archer, R M; Knight, C G; Bishop, W J

    2012-05-01

    Six horses from several geographical locations in New Zealand presented with signs of guttural pouch mycosis. All horses had experienced epistaxis within 14 days of presentation. In five horses with epistaxis, a diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis was made on endoscopic observation of fungal plaques in the affected guttural pouches. One of these cases died before surgery was attempted. The remaining four cases underwent ligation and balloon catheter occlusion of the internal carotid artery of the affected pouch. Three of these horses survived and were reported to be healthy 1 year after surgery. One case died from haemorrhage 8 weeks after surgery. In a sixth horse, endoscopy was carried out but the affected guttural pouch which had recently haemorrhaged was not entered. This horse underwent ligation of the internal carotid and occipital arteries of the affected side but subsequently died. A diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis of the maxillary artery was confirmed by post-mortem examination. Histology revealed fungal hyphae within thrombi in the lumen of the maxillary artery in the affected guttural pouch. Two horses displayed signs consistent with cranial nerve damage in the guttural pouch. Guttural pouch mycosis. This is the first report of which we are aware of the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases of guttural pouch mycosis in horses in New Zealand. Practitioners in New Zealand should be aware of the presence and manifestations of this disease and be prepared to treat or refer horses for surgical treatment before fatal haemorrhage and/or profound neurologic signs occur.

  15. [J-pouch after total gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Montemurro, S; Rucci, A; Rinaldi, S; Liguori, P

    1992-04-01

    The Authors report their initial experience with the construction of a J-pouch as restorative surgery following total gastrectomy (TG) for malignant neoplasms. In the last 10 months of the 1990 upon 52 interventions for gastric cancer 31 TG were performed, and in 13 cases a J-pouch on the proximal end of the jejunal segment was constructed. No mortality or specific morbidity was registered using the totally stapled technique. Within one month 3/4 of the patients had normal meals as far as quantity and quality; also the foamy regurgitation seemed to be minimal. The ease of the reconstructive technique and the short term results obtained encourage the use of such approach.

  16. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Oil production from Retort No. 23 began on April 6, 1981. The retort burn front remained uniform with good vertical distribution as it advanced through the retort. During the burn various amounts of recycled off gas were introduced into the inlet injection stream. This was done to observe the effect on the retort burn. Preliminary indications are that the gas recycling had no obvious effect on the burn. Further evaluation from Sandia National Laboratories will be forthcoming. After burning 106 days, Retort No. 23 shut in at 9:30 A.M. on June 30, 1981. Total production for the life of Retort No. 23 was 991 barrels of shale oil. Total shale oil production from Retort No. 24 to date is 11,233 barrels. Retort No. 24 produced a total of 4701 barrels during the second quarter, an average of 52 barrels per day. Retort No. 24 has now burned for 211 days. On June 26, a new production well was drilled on Retort No. 24. This well was drilled slightly outside the retort boundary on the off gas end. The purpose of this action was to increase production life of the retort. During June the fire front advanced to the far off gas wells. Shale oil production totaled 5523 barrels during the second quarter. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 26. By the end of June 202 blastholes had been drilled. Four additional instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 25. These wells will be used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel during electromagnetic testing which will assist in monitoring the burn front. Fabrication of the Retort No. 25 process equipment proceeded. Design of the Retort No. 25 instrumentation system was finalized and physical work began.

  17. Relationship between posterior pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, T. B.; Caves, P. K.; Porter, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of posterior pharyngeal pouches is generally attributed to dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal sphincter. The reason for this dysfunction and its exact nature have not been established. Observations in the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, suggested that an association exists between pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia. Barium studies performed in patients with a pharyngeal pouch using a described technique demonstrated the presence of a hiatus hernia in 32 out of 34 patients. Illustrative case histories and a review of published work on cricopharyngeal function are provided to support our conclusions that gastro-oesophageal reflux is the primary factor leading to cricopharyngeal dysfunction, with the formation of a pharyngeal pouch in some cases. Several possible criticisms of this theory are discussed and the need for further investigation in patients with a pharyngeal pouch is emphasized. The management of patients with a pharyngeal pouch and hiatus hernia is briefly outlined. Images PMID:5494681

  18. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  19. Guttural pouch diseases causing neurologic dysfunction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Watanabe, Marcos J

    2011-12-01

    The close relationship between guttural pouches, cranial nerves, and sympathetic structures make neurologic abnormalities due to diseases of the guttural pouches (especially mycosis) possible. Recognition of epistaxis or mucopurulent nasal discharge, together with signs of dysfunction of the cranial nerves in contact with the guttural pouches, are important key points in order to consider a comprehensive evaluation of these structures and further definitive diagnosis. Diseases of the guttural pouches can also cause signs such as dysphagia, abnormal soft palate positioning, laryngeal paralysis, and Horner syndrome due to lesions in one or more of the cranial nerves or sympathetic structures involved with these functions. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is essential for treatment.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... collection of fecal material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically... colostomy appliance, ostomy collector, colostomy pouch, urinary ileostomy bag, urine collecting...

  1. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion.

  2. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  3. Production of shale oil by in-situ retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    1983-04-05

    A modified in-situ retort for the retorting of oil shale is constructed by mining an open space having a volume of twentyfive to thirty-five percent of the volume of the retort in the bottom of the retort and thereafter blasting the oil shale that is to remain in the retort as rubble in a manner to cause random free fall of the shale particles onto the rubblized bed. Blasting occurs sequentially from the bottom of the unfragmented shale immediately above the open space to the top of the retort. At each blast, there is an open space below the shale to be broken in the blast having a volume at least one-third the volume of that shale, and the timing of the blasts is such that movement of the broken shale is not interfered with by shale broken in the preceding blast. There is no withdrawal of oil shale that would cause downward movement of the rubble that is to be retorted insitu. The resultant in-situ retort is characterized by a high and uniform permeability.

  4. Report on 10-ton retort tracer testing: tests S76 through S79

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.

    1985-07-01

    An oil shale retort with contrasting permeability regions has been studied using gas tracer techniques. The Western Research Institute's 10-ton retort was loaded with oil shale of various size ranges resulting in different void fractions. Four retorting and tracer runs were performed on the retort. For each run, tracer injections were made into the main air flow inlet and into taps near the top of the retort. Detection taps were located at four levels in the retort with five taps on each level in tests S76 through S78. There were six taps on each level in run S79. The oil shale rubble bed was configured with a cylindrical nonuniform region on the center line of the retort in tests S76 through S78. In run S79 two side-by-side regions with differing bed properties were tracer tested and retorted. Response times were calculated from the tracer response curves. The tracer response times from in-bed tracer tests correlate with oil yield and with bed properties. Response times from the inlet-to-outlet tracer tests correlate with total oil yield through a first-order relationship with sweep efficiencies. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.; ,

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  6. Trace element partitioning during the retorting of Julia Creek oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Dale, L.S.; Chapman, J.f.

    1987-05-01

    A bulk sample of oil shale from the Julia Creek deposit in Queensland was retorted under Fischer assay conditions at temperatures ranging from 250 to 550 /sup 0/C. The distributions of the trace elements detected in the shale oil and retort water were determined at each temperature. Oil distillation commenced at 300 /sup 0/C and was essentially complete at 500 /sup 0/C. A number of trace elements were progressively mobilized with increasing retort temperature up to 450 /sup 0/C. The following trace elements partitioned mainly to the oil: vanadium, arsenic, selenium, iron, nickel, titanium, copper, cobalt, and aluminum. Elements that also partitioned to the retort waters included arsenic, selenium, chlorine, and bromine. Element mobilization is considered to be caused by the volatilization of organometallic compounds, sulfide minerals, and sodium halides present in the oil shale. The results have important implications for shale oil refining and for the disposal of retort waters. 22 references, 5 tables.

  7. Repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis to salvage septic complications of pelvic pouches: clinical outcome and quality of life assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, V W; Wu, J S; Lavery, I C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of repeat ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for septic complications of pelvic pouch surgery; to assess the relationship between diagnosis and outcome; to assess quality of life after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic and perineal sepsis due to ileal pouch-anal anastomotic leaks frequently results in pouch loss. Many surgeons believe that pelvic sepsis and/or dense pelvic fibrosis makes salvage surgery unsafe or that pouches salvaged under these circumstances may not function well. As a result, there are few studies of pouch salvage procedures for septic indications. METHODS: The authors reviewed records of Cleveland Clinic Foundation patients who had undergone repeat IPAA surgery after septic complications from previous pelvic pouch surgery and who had completed at least 6 months of follow-up. Final diagnoses included ulcerative colitis (n = 22), Crohn's disease (n = 10), indeterminate colitis (n = 1), and familial polyposis (n = 2). Patients with functioning pouches were interviewed about functional problems and quality of life using an in-house questionnaire and the validated SF-36 Health Survey. RESULTS: Of 35 patients, 30 (86%) had a functioning pouch 6 months after repeat IPAA. In 4 patients, complications led to pouch removal or fecal diversion. One patient declined stoma closure. Of the patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis (MUC), 95% (21/22) had a functioning pouch 6 months after surgery. For patients with Crohn's disease (CD) 60% (6/10) have maintained a functioning pouch. Of the 30 patients with functioning pouches, 17 (57%) rated their quality of life as either "good" or "excellent," the remaining 13 (43%) selected "fair" or "poor." All said they would choose repeat IPAA surgery again. An SF-36 Health Survey completed by all patients with a functioning pouch at follow-up showed a mean physical component scale of 46.4 and a mean mental component scale of 47.6, scores well within the normal limit. CONCLUSIONS

  8. Why do central arachnoid pouches expand?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bernard; Guthkelch, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Three cases of progressive hydrocephalus, two occurring in infants and one in a 12 year old girl who also exhibited precocious puberty, were found to be associated with large arachnoid pouches originating within the posterior fossa. The pathogenesis of such cysts is discussed with special reference to the possibility that their progressive distension results from CSF pulsations of venous origin. Both a direct method of treatment (opening the cyst into the adjacent subarachnoid space) and an indirect one (insertion of a ventriculo-atrial shunt) have been used with success. Images PMID:4548436

  9. Investigation of the Geokinetics Horizontal In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported on developing an in-situ process for recovering shale oil. On July 23, Retort No. 24 was shut-in. Production for the life of Retort No. 24 totaled 12,741 barrels of crude shale oil. A contract was made with the United States Defense Fuel Supply Center to furnish them with 5000 barrels of crude shale oil. Shipments were made by tanker trucks to the Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility near Rifle, Colorado to fulfill this contractual agreement. A shipment of 120 barrels of crude shale oil was made to Mobil Research Company. Retort No. 26 was loaded with explosives on August 5 and 6. This operation was carried out totally by Geokinetics' personnel. On August 7, Retort No. 26 was detonated. Again all blasting operations were carried out by Geokinetics personnel. According to initial indications the Retort No. 26 blast was highly successful. Following the blast of Retort No. 26 all efforts were turned to the ignition of Retort No. 25. Equipment and piping were set in place and the instrumentation systems were wired in. Ignition for Retort No. 25 is scheduled for mid to late October. The Retort No. 26 Post-blast Coring Program continued through the end of this quarter. With the ignition of Retort No. 25 the analytical lab began constant monitoring of the retort burn.

  10. Congenital pouch colon: is it really a rare pathology?

    PubMed

    Atabek, Cüneyt; Demirbağ, Suzi; Sürer, Ilhami; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Ongürü, Onder; Calişkan, Bahadir; Oztürk, Haluk

    2007-12-01

    Congenital pouch colon is a condition of a shortened and pouch-like dilated colon and it is usually associated with an anorectal malformation. The pathogenesis and embryology of congenital pouch colon are not well understood, but dietary, environmental factors and familial inheritance may be contributing factors in this pathology. Most of the cases in the literature have been reported from India. This increased regional incidence may be attributed to the lack of awareness of this pathology or its mislabeling rather than regional distribution. Congenital pouch colon is classified into four types based on the length of the abnormal colon. A variable dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid is always present in anorectal malformation. However, there is no clear definition of a limit for the dilatation of the rectum and sigmoid observed in anorectal malformation. Furthermore, many surgeons do not routinely take a biopsy from a dilated rectum or sigmoid during a colostomy procedure in anorectal malformation cases. For these reasons, type IV congenital pouch colon can be easily underdiagnosed. Surgical treatment options in type IV congenital pouch colon include resection of the affected sites of the colon or excisional tapering coloplasty. In the undiagnosed cases, congenital pouch colon results in severe constipation and overflow incontinence. We herein report two additional new cases of type IV congenital pouch colon.

  11. An analysis of gastric pouch anatomy in bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Capella, Rafael F; Iannace, Vincent A; Capella, Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    The goal of most bariatric surgeons has been to construct small volume pouches in the proximal stomach to restrict the intake of food. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that in addition to pouch volume, specific gastric pouch anatomy plays a significant role in weight loss. The physical properties and dynamics of the pouch in our form of gastric bypass were compared with those in the most commonly performed bariatric procedures by creating a model. Our weight loss data were reviewed and compared with data reported in the literature. According to LaPlace's and Poiseulle's Laws, a long narrow cylinder will have less wall tension and slower flow rate of material than a wider cylinder. Bariatric procedures with narrow pouches appear to produce better weight loss. Long narrow pouches should have less tendency to enlarge and should delay the transit of material to a greater degree than wider pouches according to the LaPlace's and Poiseuille's Laws. Our data and the data of others strongly suggest that long narrow pouches are the most effective operations in bariatric surgery.

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED..., but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate arsenic-containing compounds. (b) Classification....

  13. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. 876.5900 Section 876.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and...

  14. Care of patients with stomas: the pouch change procedure.

    PubMed

    Rust, Julie

    This article discusses basic stoma care in relation to management of the pouch change procedure in a ward-based setting immediately following planned stoma-forming surgery. The article highlights psychological and practical preparation of the patient. It describes the equipment that is needed to change a pouch and examines the rationale and evidence base for the procedure.

  15. Spent shale as a control technology for oil shale retort water. Annual report, October 1, 1978 - September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.; Jackson, D.E.; Sakaji, R.H.; Daughton, C.G.; Selleck, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    This program is investigating two potential uses of the spent shale for treatment of retort waters. In the first application, the abandoned in-situ retorts would be directly used as part of a treatment system. Water generated in one retort would be circulated through spent shale in an adjacent retort to reduce contaminants in the water and to cool the in-situ spent shale in preparation for retort abandonment and grouting. In the second application, spent shale produced in surface retorts would be used in packed columns similar to powdered activated carbon columns. The exhausted spent shale would be disposed of along with other solid wastes in the on-site solid waste disposal facility. The work summarized here indicated that spent shales are effective in removing color, odor, inorganic carbon, and certain classes of organic compounds, and in elevating the pH of retort water and gas condensates so that NH/sub 3/ may be readily stripped.

  16. Women's health issues after ileal pouch surgery.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Philpott, Jessica R; Barber, Matthew D; Graff, Lesley A; Shen, Bo

    2014-12-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis who require colectomy. This surgical intervention allows for resection of colon, while offering intestinal continuity with fecal continence, discontinuation of most medications related to ulcerative colitis and reduction in the risk of colitis-associated neoplasia. As a proportion of these patients are women of childbearing age, it is important to understand the impact on reproductive health and function. Although limited data exist, restorative proctocolectomy/IPAA does not seem to adversely affect menstrual function. In general, sexual function is reported to improve postsurgery with the ability to achieve orgasm unaltered. However, dyspareunia is commonly reported post restoratively. Of concern, there are data to suggest that fertility is decreased post-IPAA. The reasons stated are pelvic adhesions and obstruction of fallopian tubes. Laparoscopic approach may improve fertility outcomes by reducing postoperative adhesions as compared with the open approach. Once achieved, pregnancy in patients with IPAA is characterized by a transient increase in stool frequency that resolves postdelivery. Whether vaginal delivery or cesarean section is preferred route of delivery in these patients is still controversial. But commonly cesarean section is advocated for patients' post-IPAA to prevent anal sphincter injury and long-term effects on pouch function. All of these issues should be included in the discussion with women who are contemplating IPAA, so they are well aware of them before deciding on the best management plan.

  17. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  18. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of analytical methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C2 to C10. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominant organic constituents of the process retort water.

  19. Characterization of in-situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1984-07-17

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in-situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  20. Jetting out weak areas for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, J.

    1981-07-21

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. A void can be formed in formation within the retort site by directing fluid under pressure against a zone of relatively weakened formation, such as tuffs, gravel beds, or fractured oil shale, to erode such weakened formation into particle form, leaving a void space adjacent a remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. The void space can be formed by drilling a bore hole into the zone of weakened formation, placing a jet nozzle in the bore hole, and forcing a fluid such as water through the nozzle against the weakened formation for eroding it to form the void space. Eroded formation particles are passed to the bottom of the bore hole. Such water jetting techniques can be used to form voids in zones of weakened formation interspersed throughout the retort site. Remaining formation within the retort site is explosively expanded toward such a void space for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. The amount of eroded formation particles jetted from the retort site can be measured prior to explosive expansion for providing a selected void fraction in the resulting fragmented mass. Explosive also can be placed in voids excavated by such jetting for such explosive expansion.

  1. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-10-01

    A variety of analytic methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominate organic constituents of the process retort water. 28 references.

  2. Handling of solids-laden hydrocarbonaceous bottoms in a retort using solid heat-carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, H.B.

    1981-01-20

    Crushed mined coal, oil shale or tar sands, feedstocks are retorted in a retort using heat-carrying solids to supply at least fifty percent of the heat required to produce an average retort temperature of between 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C) and 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C) to produce hydrocarbonaceous gases and oil. The hydrocarbon oils are treated in a manner such that there is produced a bottoms fraction containing organic carbon compounds having a boiling point above 950* F. And particulate inorganic matter derived from the retorted material. The bottoms fraction is fed directly or indirectly into the retort in a manner such that the bottoms fraction does not contact the reheated heat carriers before the heat carrying solids are contacted with the crushed mined feedstock. The bottoms fraction may be fed directly into the retort downstream of the point where the feedstock and heat carriers are first mixed, or the bottoms fraction may be fed into the feedstock before the feedstock enters the retort. This method of handling the bottoms fraction prevents breakage or agglomeration of the heat carrying solids.

  3. Inorganic solute profiles of waters related to Rio Blanco oil shale project retort 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Borg, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    Water samples were taken from the Rio Blanco oil shale project retort 1 site approximately three- and one-half years after the shutdown of the oil recovery phase. Intermittent flooding and pumpdown of the retort occurred in the interval between shutdown and sampling for this study. Waters from within the retort and from downgradient and offsite locations were compared using a battery of analyses for inorganic and general water quality parameters. Inorganic solute species were selected as potential key indicator species if the particular species concentration inside the retort was greater than that outside the retort. Six inorganic parameters were found to qualify as potential key indicators for retort water migration from the site: potassium, lithium, ammonia, fluoride, thiosulfate, and boron. Except for ammonia, these indicators differ from those selected by other researchers at other modified in situ retorting sites. Ion chromatographic techniques were shown to be applicable for five of the six potential key indicators - all except boron which was detected spectroscopically. Low part-per-billion ion chromatographic analyses were demonstrated for lithium and ammonia. Fractional part-per-million ion chromatographic analyses were demonstrated for potassium and fluoride. Thiosulfate detection limits were in the low part-per-million range and only allowed detection of this indicator inside the retort. Five of the indicators (all except thiosulfate) were detected at slightly elevated levels in the Mahogany Zone ''B'' groove completion of the downgradient well. However, insufficient historical baseline data are available at the low detection levels required to allow positive identification of communication between this well and the retort. The potential for enhancement of sensitivity of the ion chromatographic methods beyond that already achieved for the selected indicators is discusses. 11 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  4. Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-06-01

    The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid O2 saturation levels were lower compared with the surrounding water and decreased throughout the brooding period, reflecting greater offspring demand for O2 during development and/or decreasing paternal ability to provide O2 to the embryos. Male condition (hepatosomatic index) was negatively affected by hypoxia. Larger males had higher pouch fluid O2 saturation levels compared with smaller males, and levels were higher in the bottom section of the pouch compared with other sections. Embryo size was positively correlated with O2 availability, irrespective of their position in the pouch. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our findings. First, our results highlight a potential limitation to brooding within the pouch and dismiss the notion of closed brood pouches as well-oxygenated structures promoting the evolution of larger eggs in syngnathids. Second, we provide direct evidence that paternal care improves with male size in this species. This finding offers an explanation for the documented strong female preference for larger partners because, in terms of oxygenation, the brood pouch can restrict embryo growth.

  5. Randomized crossover comparison of adhesively coupled colostomy pouching systems.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kirsten; Seidler, Heidi

    2005-03-01

    Ostomy pouching systems affect well being and quality of life, making selection of the appropriate system a key element of ostomy care. Several innovative adhesively coupled, two-piece systems are on the market. They feature flexible low profiles, allowing pouch removal/replacement without changing the skin barrier or wafer. This facilitates inspection or pouch changes without disrupting peristomal skin. Because few controlled trials compare pouching system effectiveness, a prospective, randomized open-label, crossover study was conducted. Under the supervision of ostomy care nurses in six outpatient clinics in Germany, clinical performance of and patient preferences for two adhesively coupled, closed-end pouching systems were compared during normal use. One is a gelatin/pectin-based skin barrier sealed to the pouch with a company-specific adhesive coupling technology (System E); the other, a grooved base plate wafer adhesive pouch coupling system (System F). Seventeen attributes and seven end-of-study measures that included comfort, flexibility, wear time, ease of removal, and overall performance were assessed. Informed, consenting participants were randomly assigned to use one system for five skin barrier/wafer changes or up to 15 days and subsequently switched to the alternative system for a similar period. The 39 participants used a total of 1,645 pouches and 342 skin barriers. All were found safe as determined by incidence and nature of the reported peristomal skin problems, subject withdrawals, and adverse events for both systems. However, System E provided longer pouch wear times (P < 0.01). End-phase ratings favored System E on 10 of the 17 attributes (P < 0.04) and System Fon none. More participants preferred System E on all seven end-of-study measures, five significantly (comfort, flexibility, wear time, ease of removal, and overall performance; (P < 0.02). These participant-reported, ostomy-related outcomes underscore the importance of product evaluation

  6. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Simon P; Mortensen, Neil J

    2007-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum. Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission. Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery, management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure. PMID:17659667

  7. A convex urostomy pouch with adhesive border: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Jacqueline; Nichols, Thom; Menier, Melissa

    Patients previously using a standard-wear convex skin barrier urostomy pouch were invited by letter from a Dispensing Appliance Contractor to evaluate a similar pouching system, but with the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border. A total of 47 patients agreed to take part. Patients were asked to try three pouches and complete one evaluation form. Study participants found the addition of an extended-wear convex barrier and adhesive border, was easy to use, provided them with security and the potential for longer wear time.

  8. Transendoscopic laser treatment of guttural pouch tympanites in eight foals.

    PubMed

    Tate, L P; Blikslager, A T; Little, E D

    1995-01-01

    Guttural pouch tympanites was diagnosed in eight foals with respiratory stridor and tympanic swelling in the parotid region. Three foals were treated by transendoscopic neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser fenestration of the median septum between the guttural pouches. One foal died of pneumonia, and the other two foals recovered completely, although the fenestration later closed in one foal. Five foals were treated by creating a salpingopharyngeal fistula using transendoscopic laser irradiation; complete resolution of the tympanites occurred. Transendoscopic laser surgery in standing foals may be a reasonable alternative to conventional surgery and general anesthesia for correction of guttural pouch tympanites.

  9. Application of thermally-activated gas canisters in MIS oil-shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronchetto, J; Campbell, J; Frohwein, E; Clarkson, J; DuVal, V; Miller, W

    1982-05-13

    Thermally-activated gas canisters, were developed and field tested for use as temperature sensors during modified in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting. These instruments allow one to determine when known retort bed positions reach a predetermined temperature. From this information, the degree of flow uniformity through the bed can be determined. The main advantage of this concept is that the thermal sensors need no physical connection to their respectivce data acquisition instruments. A metal canister is filled with compressed freon (or other easily detectable gas) and sealed with a temperature sensitive cap. This cap is designed to open at a specific temperature. The released gas is then detected by analyzing the retort offgas using conventional gas chromatographic methods. The canisters are emplaced in the retort during construction. For the field test described, we simply lowered them downhole onto the rubble pile. They are ruggedly designed to survive subsequent blasting operations. 6 figures, 1 table.

  10. In-situ oil shale retort with differing upper and lower void fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-03-06

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation by excavating voids adjacent the top and bottom boundaries of the retort, leaving an intermediate zone of unfragmented formation between the voids. The lower level void is substantially larger than the upper level void. A lower portion of the intermediate zone is explosively expanded downwardly towards the lower level void for forming a first moiety of a fragmented mass of formation particles in the retort and leaving a void space over the top of the first moiety having about the same volume as the upper level void. Thereafter an upper portion of the intermediate zone is explosively expanded upwardly towards the upper level void and downwardly towards the void space for forming a second moiety of the fragmented mass in the retort. The fragmented mass has an average void fraction up to about 25% and no substantial part has a void fraction less than about 20%.

  11. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  12. Application of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration technology using retort reactors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Liu, Biao; Chen, Yingquan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    To introduce application status and illustrate the good utilisation potential of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration using retort reactors, the properties of major products and the economic viability of commercial factories were investigated. The capacity of one factory was about 3000t of biomass per year, which was converted into 1000t of charcoal, 950,000Nm(3) of biogas, 270t of woody tar, and 950t of woody vinegar. Charcoal and fuel gas had LHV of 31MJ/kg and 12MJ/m(3), respectively, indicating their potential for use as commercial fuels. The woody tar was rich in phenols, while woody vinegar contained large quantities of water and acetic acid. The economic analysis showed that the factory using this technology could be profitable, and the initial investment could be recouped over the factory lifetime. This technology offered a promising means of converting abundant agricultural biomass into high-value products.

  13. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  14. Mercury retorts for the processing of precious metals and hazardous wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, Charles; Hill, Eldan

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, the authors describe some of the considerations for the design and operation of mercury retort facilities. These retort facilities are used for precious metals processing and for the treatment of mercury-bearing hazardous wastes. The relevant properties and characteristics of mercury and mercury vapor are presented, as well as facility engineering with respect to industrial hygiene, area ventilation, and material handling.

  15. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  16. Trace element partitioning during the retorting of Condor and Rundle oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Dale, L.S.; Chapman, J.F. )

    1988-05-01

    Composite oil shale samples from the Condor and Rundle deposits in Queensland were retorted under Fischer assay conditions at temperatures ranging from 300 to 545{degree}C. Trace elements mobilized to the shale oil and retort water were determined at each temperature. The results were comparable for both oil shales. Several elements including arsenic, selenium, chlorine, bromine, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were progressively mobilized as the retort temperature was increased. Most elements partition mainly to the oil and to a lesser extent to the retort water in a similar manner to other oil shales. For Rundle oil shales, trace element abundances in oils, and the proportions of elements mobilized, generally increased with oil shale grade. This was attributed to the reduced effect of adsorption and/or coking of heavier oil fractions during retorting of higher grade samples. Nickel porphyrins, unidentified organometallic compounds, pyrite, and halite are considered to be the sources of mobile trace elements. The results are relatively favorable for oil shale processing and show that arsenic is the most significant element in relation to both shale oil refining and disposal of retort waters.

  17. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an oil shale retort by effluent water composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1980-09-23

    A processing zone advances through a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale in an in-situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort has an effluent water passing therefrom. The effluent water carries a constituent which is formed, by advancement of the processing zone through the fragmented mass, from a precursor contained in the formation. In a first aspect of the invention, the locus of the processing zone is determined by assaying the formation at selected locations in the retort for content of the precursor before processing the selected locations, and effluent water from the retort is monitored for concentration of the selected constituent. For example, the nitrogen content of kerogen can be the precursor and effluent water from the retort can be monitored for the concentration of ammonia and/or ammonium sulfate produced by retorting of kerogen in the oil shale. In the second embodiment of the invention, recognition is made of the correlation between the fischer assay of the oil shale and the amount of water it contains. Core samples of the formation are analyzed prior to processing to determine the water content and the predicted water production rate due to the passage of a processing zone through that location in the formation. Actual water production rate can then be compared with the predicted rate and the locus of the processing zone determined.

  18. In situ oil shale retort having horizontal voids with side pillars

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.; Burton, R.S.

    1984-06-12

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale by excavating one or more horizontally extending voids across a retort site, leaving a zone of unfragmented formation having a horizontal free face adjacent such a horizontal void. In one embodiment, such a horizontal void is excavated across less than the entire width of the retort site, leaving ''side pillars'' of unfragmented formation spaced inwardly from adjacent side boundaries of the retort site at opposite sides of such a horizontal void. This reduces the maximum span of the horizontal void, when compared with supporting overburden above the void with one or more interior isolated pillars spaced inwardly from the side boundaries of the retort. The side pillars are explosively expanded. Then such a zone of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded toward such a horizontal void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in the retort. The resulting fragmented mass can have a slightly narrowed region along the sides where the side pillars were present.

  19. Control of airblast during explosive expansion in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, N.M.

    1980-05-06

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Underground workings excavated within the formation provide a means for access to a retort site in the formation. At least one void is excavated in the retort site via access provided by the underground workings, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent the void. Explosive placed in the remaining unfragmented formation adjacent such a void is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding the unfragmented formation toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Prior to such explosive expansion, a barrier of unfragmented formation is left between such a void and underground workings providing means for access to such a void. At least one gas flow passage extends through the barrier of unfragmented formation between the means for access and the retort site. Such a gas flow passage has a substantially smaller cross-section for gas flow than the transverse crosssection of the means for access to the retort site. The smaller cross-section of such a gas flow passage temporarily confines the high gas pressure generated by the explosion and limits the flow of gas to the means for access for attenuating airblast in the means for access and other underground workings in gas communication with the means for access.

  20. Method of bulking an in situ oil shale retort substantially full of fragmented shale

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1982-11-23

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is provided. The in situ oil shale retort has a top boundary, generally vertically extending side boundaries, and a bottom boundary of unfragmented formation. A first portion of formation is excavated for forming at least one void within the boundaries, leaving a remaining portion of formation within the boundaries adjacent the void or voids. A remaining portion of unfragmented formation within the retort boundaries is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in the retort. A void space remains between the upper surface of the fragmented mass and overlying unfragmented formation. A lower portion of the overlying formation is explosively expanded downwardly toward the void space for substantially filling the retort with formation particles. A sill pillar of unfragmented formation is left extending between an air level base of operation and the top boundary of the retort being formed.

  1. Characterization of in-situ oil-shale retorts prior to ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1982-06-04

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the report. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition. 9 figures.

  2. Method of forming an in-situ oil shale retort in formation with joints

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts

    1984-08-21

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having at least one set of naturally occurring cleavage planes is provided. The in situ oil shale retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed within top, bottom, and side boundaries of unfragmented formation. A void is excavated in the subterranean formation within the boundaries of the retort site, while a zone of unfragmented formation is left within the retort boundaries adjacent the void. A plurality of rows of horizontally spaced apart explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation where each such row is in a line about perpendicular to the strike of the major cleavage plane set in the formation. The rows of explosive charges are detonated in a selected sequence with the charges in each such row detonated about simultaneously for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the retort.

  3. Rock bolting techniques for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, A.

    1981-08-04

    A subterranean formation containing oil shale is prepared for in situ retorting by forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort site. Formation is initially excavated from the retort site for forming one or more voids extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a zone of unfragmented formation adjacent such a void. In one ambodiment, an array of rocks bolts are anchored in at least a portion of the roof adjacent such a void for providing reinforcement of unfragmented formation above the void. Vertical blasting holes are drilled in the zone of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. Explosive is placed in the blasting holes and detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void, including the rock bolted portion of the roof, for forming at least a portion of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Surprisingly, the rock bolting does not interfere with, and in some instances can improve, fragmentation compared with comparable blasts without such rock bolts. The reinforcement provided by the rock bolts can reduce or eliminate the need for roof support pillars in horizontal voids at intermediate levels of the retort site.

  4. Method for inhibiting sloughing of unfragmented formation in an in-situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.C.

    1984-04-24

    A method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is provided. A void space is in the retort between the top surface of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of overlying unfragmented formation. A hot ignition gas comprising oxygen is introduced into the void space to form a combustion zone across the surface of the fragmented mass. An oxygen-supplying gas is then introduced into the void space for sustaining the combustion zone and for advancing the combustion zone downwardly through the retort. The combustion zone is then extinguished and a cool inert gas is introduced into the retort to cool carbonaceous materials comprising the surface of the fragmented mass to a temperature below the self-ignition temperature of such carbonaceous materials, while leaving carbonaceous materials below the fragmented mass surface at temperatures greater than the self-ignition temperature of such materials. Introduction of the inert gas is then discontinued. Thereafter, an oxygen-supplying gas is re-introduced into the retort to ignite the carbonaceous materials below the surface of the fragmented mass for re-establishing the combustion zone in the fragmented mass and for advancing the combustion zone downwardly through the retort.

  5. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  6. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  7. Intraoperative, postoperative and reoperative problems with ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P M; Pemberton, J H

    2012-04-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has been developed and refined since its introduction in the late 1970s. Nonetheless, it is a procedure associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this review was to provide a structured approach to the challenges that surgeons and physicians encounter in the management of intraoperative, postoperative and reoperative problems associated with ileoanal pouches. The review was based on relevant studies identified from an electronic search of MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases from 1975 to April 2011. There were no language or publication year restrictions. Original references in published articles were reviewed. Although the majority of patients experience long-term success with an ileoanal pouch, significant morbidity surrounds IPAA. Surgical intervention is often critical to achieve optimal control of the situation. A structured management plan will minimize the adverse consequences of the problems associated with pouches. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Occurrence and structure of epipharyngeal pouches in bears (Ursidae)

    PubMed Central

    WEISSENGRUBER, G. E.; FORSTENPOINTNER, G.; KÜBBER-HEISS, A.; RIEDELBERGER, K.; SCHWAMMER, H.; GANZBERGER, K.

    2001-01-01

    The infrequent mention of epipharyngeal pouches occurring in some species of bears indicates the scarcity of morphological and functional knowledge about these structures. In order to provide precise morphological data on the structure of these remarkable formations and to verify their taxonomic utility, the pharyngeal regions of 1 spectacled bear and 3 brown bears were examined. All these individuals possessed epipharyngeal pouches, which are tubular, blind-ending outpouchings of the caudodorsal pharyngeal wall equipped with respiratory epithelium and a thick layer of elastic fibres. While the spectacled bear and Ursus arctos syriacus possessed a single pouch on the caudodorsal wall of the nasopharynx, in Ursus arctos and Ursus arctos beringianus 2 unequally sized pouches were present. Two additional sacs of smaller size, representing outpouchings of the lateral pharyngeal wall, occurred in the spectacled bear. These findings prove epipharyngeal pouches to be constant and unique morphological features of the family Ursidae, the anatomical features suggesting involvement in the respiratory system most probably in important aspects of ursid phonation. This is the first description of epipharyngeal pouches in the spectacled bear. PMID:11322723

  9. Female sexual dysfunction after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, J W; Goetz, L; Baxter, N N; Park, J; Minami, S; Madoff, R D

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to measure female sexual function after total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis using a validated scoring system and to determine the impact of pouch function on sexual function. A cross-sectional survey was performed using a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-m). Measures of pouch function, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index, were also evaluated. Of 166 women eligible for inclusion, 90 responded to the questionnaires and 83 of these reported sexual activity. The mean age of the 83 women was 38.4 years and the mean time since pouch formation was 6.2 years. Thirty-nine women (47.0 per cent) had an FSFI-m score of 26 or less, indicating sexual dysfunction. The association between sexual dysfunction and stool leakage interfering with the ability to enjoy sexual activity tended toward significance (P = 0.071), but other measures of pouch function were not associated with sexual dysfunction. Some 55-80 per cent of respondents perceived no change or improved performance in the six domains of sexual function. Almost half of the respondents reported having sexual dysfunction. Although poor pouch function was not identified as an important predictor of sexual dysfunction in this series, larger studies may be required to identify associated prognostic factors clearly. (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  11. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The ignition of Geokinetics first full-sized prototype retort (Retort 24) was completed on December 1, 1980. Recovery of oil from Retort No. 24 began about midway through December, and 531 barrels of oil had been recovered by the end of the quarter. A cold oil effect resulted in the accumulation of oil within the retort. Five thousand one ninety one barrels of oil were shipped to WESRECO, Salt Lake City, Utah during the quarter, and the shale oil was blended into No. 5 fuel oil, which was sold to industrial users. The Retort No. 25 post-blast core drilling program was completed in October. A total of seven core holes were drilled. Evaluation of the core samples was underway. Preliminary analysis indicated good breakage in the lower portion of Retort No. 25. A new technique for sealing retort surface fractures was designed and implemented on Retort No. 25. A layer of bentonite with gas and steam retention properties was applied to the retort surface and covered with a layer of topsoil.

  12. Sandia/Geokinetics retort 23: Comparison of real-time analyses with post-burn coring results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Cook, D.W.; Costomiris, E.G.

    1983-04-01

    Retort 23, a 6000-tonne horizontal in situ oil shale retorting experiment conducted by Sandia National Laboratories and Geokinetics, Inc., was completed in June, 1981. Detailed analyses of retort performance based upon data available in real-time (flows, temperatures, product compositions) were made at that time. Seventeen months after completion of the experiment, the retort had cooled enough to allow recovery of spent shale samples from six vertical core wells at various locations in and just outside the retort. All cores were logged and photographed; in addition, two complete cores (plus one pre-burn core) were analyzed chemically. We present comparisons of visual observations and chemical analyses of the cores with real-time results (thermal data and material balance calculations) to verify such indicators of retort performance as the extent of retorting, carbonate decomposition, and char combustion. While these data were, of course, important in completing the analyses of retort 23, they have had even more significance in validating realtime analyses techniques for use on other retorts.

  13. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an oil shale retort by effluent off gas heating value

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1981-07-21

    A processing zone advances through a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort has an effluent gas passing therefrom. The effluent gas has a heating value which is dependent on the kerogen content of the oil shale then in contact with the processing zone. To determine the locus of the processing zone, the formation is assayed at selected locations in the retort for kerogen content before processing the selected locations, and effluent gas from the retort is monitored for its heating value.

  14. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  15. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  16. Postburn lithology and mineralogy at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a retort 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. [Core samples from near the in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Mason, G.M.; Fahy, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide basic data on some of the characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort after processing. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into Rio Blanco's Tract C-a retort 1 in the western part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The retort operation had been completed nearly four years before the coring, and the cavity and mine workings had been flooded by groundwater for almost one year. Cores were characterized by lithologic description, x-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Drilling and logging records indicate as much as 35 to 40 feet of roof rock has collapsed into the retort since the burn was terminated. A water-filled attic cavity 46 to 62 feet high exists at the top of the retort. One core hole penetrated 377 feet of rubble in the retort and floor rock with numerous fractures below the retort. Most of the material recovered from the retort consisted of highly altered, fused and vesicular rock. Lesser amounts of carbonized, oxidized and moderately heated-altered oil shale were recovered from the upper and lower parts. Raw shale roof fall at the top and unretorted oil shale rubble at the bottom are also present. Thermal alteration has produced high-temperature silicate minerals from the original mixtures of carbonate and silicate minerals in the raw oil shale. Adequate material was recovered from the retort contents to provide valuable data on the lithologic, mineralogic, and physical characteristics of the MIS retort. 19 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of control technology for modified in-situ oil-shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate two technologies to control groundwater pollution due to leaching of abandoned modified in-situ (MIS) retorts, retort grouting and international leaching. Retort grouting to reduce permeability was evaluated by measuring the permeability of grouts containing only raw or refined waste materials (Lurgi spent shale, fly ash, gypsum tailings, and lignosulfonate fluidizers). Permeability of the cured grouts decreased with increasing confining pressure. Electrical conductivity measurements on the permeate produced during permeability measurements suggest that grouting abandoned MIS retorts would increase the TDS of leachate by a factor of approximately 3; benefit of the proposed grouting operation would depend upon the flow rate through retorts being reduced by a greater factor to reduce the total mass (concentration x flow) of solute released. Costs for international leaching depend primarily upon the volume of leachate to be treated. The required number of pore volumes of leaching to reduce leachate concentration to 10% of its initial value was found to be 2.1 at tract C-a and 3.4 at tract C-b; the difference is due primarily to the greater void volume used at tract C-a (40% compared to 23%). Both technologies would require a large amount of water. Retort grouting requires water to prewet the MIS spent shale and to prepare the grout. These requirements were estimated at 140 to 210 gal/bbl of oil, considering only oil recovered by in-situ retorting. International leaching requires water to saturate the MIS spent shale and to replace blowdown or rejected brine from the leachate treatment process. These requirements were estimated at approximately 120 gal/bbl of oil.

  18. True in situ oil shale retort: the role of intrashale transport and char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Louvar, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical understanding of the true in situ crack retort process for Eastern oil shale was expanded by: establishing the role of intrashale 2-dimensional transport on the performance of the retort; determining the significance of the intrashale char gasification reactions with water and carbon dioxide; and determining the conditions for improving the retort performance. Two computer simulation models were developed, one with 1-D mass transport and another with 2-D mass transport. The 1-D transport model includes: 2-D energy transport; variable physical properties; and instantaneous 1-D transfer of the pyrolysis products to the crack. The 2-D transport model includes; 2-D energy transport; variable physical properties; 2-D species transport within the oil shale; and pyrolysis, gasification, and oxidation reactions within the oil shale. The performance of the two models were studied. The results show that the 2-D transport feature has a significant impact on the performance of a true in situ Eastern oil shale retort. Intrashale pressure profiles were found to be very complex, distributing the pyrolysis and gasification products into the crack over a broad region. Results were used to develop regression equations to establish the functional relationships between the dependent and independent variables. Retort performance varied significantly with only minor changes in the operating variables: crack width, inlet gas moisture, ignition time, and gas inlet rate. The regression equations were also used to determine the optimum retort performance while constraining the gas temperature within a reasonable operating region. This theoretically predicted low optimum performance and variable sensitivity identify new problems which make the successful operation of a true in situ crack retort more difficult than previously anticipated.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory oil shale project quarterly report, July-September 1984. [Moving-bed retort

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, A.E.

    1984-11-01

    Highlights of progress achieved during the quarter ending September, 1984, are summarized. Additional parameter studies using our moving-bed retort model were completed for an external-combustion, hot gas retort. Previously reported studies focused on effects of variations in the temperature and flow rate of the recycle gas and the dimensions of the retort. More recently, we investigated the effects of variations in shale grade, water content, flow rate, particle size, and bed porosity. We also considered effects of permeability contrast within a retort. The LLNL one-dimensional model for simulating oil shale retorting in an aboveground, moving-bed retort was applied to the indirect mode of operation in which externally heated recycle gas provides the heat required for the retorting process. Variations in recycle-gas temperature and flow rate, shale flow rate, shale grade, water content, particle size distribution, bed porosity, uniformity of porosity, and retort dimensions were studied. We have been evaluating the results for determining hydrogen sulfide and trace sulfur in gases taken from the pyrolysis portion of the retort after leaving the oil condensers, as determined by the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) for the retort runs R-2 through R-7. These runs were conducted in our hot solid retort system consisting of a fluidized bed pyrolyzer, a cascading bed combustor, and recirculating gas and solid streams. Differences had been noted between determinations of the H/sub 2/S by Draeger tubes and the portable on-line mini-quadrupole mass spectrometer (Analog Technology Corp. Automated Trace Gas Monitor Model 2001), and the grab samples run on the TQMS. The error was due to a complex mix of ion gauge response, gas viscosities and pumping speeds.

  20. Potential role of mast cells in hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Heber, Elisa M; Trivillin, Verónica A; Tomasi, Víctor H; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, María E

    2008-11-01

    During the process of activation, mast cells release products stored in their granules. Tryptase, a protease released from mast cell granules after activation, induces tumor cell proliferation through the activation of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor 2) on the plasma membrane of carcinoma cells. Chemical cancerization (DMBA) of the hamster cheek pouch is the most accepted model of oral cancer. However, there are no reports on the activation of mast cells during experimental carcinogenesis or on the correlation between mast cell activation and cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of mast cells on the proliferation of epithelial cells at different times during the cancerization process. Paraffin serial sections of cancerized, tumor-bearing pouches were stained with Alcian Blue-Safranin to identify the different degrees of mast cell activation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify BrdU-positive cells to study tumor cell proliferation. Mast cells were counted and grouped into two categories: inactive mast cells AB-S+++ (red) and active mast cells AB+++S- (blue). Mast cell counts were performed in tumor stroma, base of the tumor (connective tissue immediately below the exophytic tumor), connective and muscle tissue underlying the cancerized epithelium (pouch wall) and adventitious tissue underlying the pouch wall. There was a significant increase in the number of mast cells at the base of tumors (p<0.001) compared to the number of mast cells in the wall of the pouch and in tumor stroma. In normal non-cancerized pouches, inactive mast cells were prevalent both in the wall (AB:S=1:2.15; p<0.001) and in the adventitious tissue (AB:S=1:1.6; p<0.004) of the hamster cheek pouch. At most of the experimental times examined, the ratio of active/inactive mast cells (AB/S) in the wall approximated unity and even reverted. The ratio of mast cells was AB:S 1:1.05 at the base of the tumor and 1:0.24 in tumor stroma (p<0

  1. Management of pouch dysfunction in a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Ourô, S; Thava, B; Shaikh, I; Clark, S K

    2016-12-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for ulcerative colitis (UC) and some cases of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Although it offers improvement in quality of life and high patient satisfaction, pouch surgery is also associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to describe the management of patients referred to a tertiary centre with pouch dysfunction. All patients referred with pouch dysfunction from other institutions between October 2006 and November 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Information regarding initial diagnosis before RPC, type of procedure, symptoms leading to referral, relation of the appearance of symptoms to the ileostomy closure, investigations, final diagnosis, treatment and follow-up was reviewed. One hundred and twenty-one patients were included, having had RPC mostly for UC (94%), and with diverting ileostomy (83%). The most frequent reasons for referral were high frequency of defaecation in 83 (69%) patients, abdominal pain and incontinence in 45 (37%) each and perianal pain in 44 (36%). The principal investigations performed were pouchoscopy in 97 (80%) patients, examination under anaesthesia (EUA) in 62 (51%), pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 56 (46%) and contrast radiology of the pouch (pouchogram) in 45 (35%). The commonest diagnoses were pouchitis (primary and secondary) in 24 (21%) patients and anastomotic leakage in 26 (22%). After full investigation a cause for the symptoms could not be found in 24 (20%) patients, resulting in the diagnosis of exclusion of 'irritable pouch syndrome' or functional disorder. The treatments given were long-term antibiotic therapy in 29 (25%) patients, ileostomy in 19 (16%), use of a Medena catheter to promote anal evacuation in 17 (15%) and dilatation of a stenosis under anaesthetic in 12 (10%). Six (5%) patients underwent major revision surgery of the pouch with a defunctioning ileostomy and

  2. Left Atrial Septal Pouch in Cryptogenic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jonathan M.; Lombardo, Dawn M.; Barseghian, Ailin; Dhoot, Jashdeep; Hundal, Harkawal S.; Salcedo, Jonathan; Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Wong, Nathan D.; Fisher, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: The left atrial septal pouch (LASP), an anatomic variant of the interatrial septum, has uncertain clinical significance. We examined the association between LASP and ischemic stroke subtypes in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: We determined the prevalence of LASP among consecutive patients who underwent TEE at our institution. Patients identified with ischemic strokes were further evaluated for stroke subtype using standard and modified criteria from the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). We compared the prevalence of LASP in ischemic stroke, cryptogenic stroke, and non-stroke patients using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: The mean age of all 212 patients (including stroke and non-stroke patients) was 57 years. The overall prevalence of LASP was 17% (n = 35). Of the 75 patients who were worked-up for stroke at our institution during study period, we classified 31 as cryptogenic using standard TOAST criteria. The prevalence of LASP among cryptogenic stroke patients (using standard and modified TOAST criteria) was increased compared to the prevalence among other ischemic stroke patients (26 vs. 9%, p = 0.06; PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–3.1, and 30 vs. 10%, p = 0.04; PR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2–4.1, respectively). Conclusion: In this population of relatively young patients, prevalence of LASP was increased in cryptogenic stroke compared to stroke patients of other subtypes. These findings suggest LASP is associated with cryptogenic stroke, which should be verified by future large-scale studies. PMID:25852636

  3. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  4. Evaluation of control technology for modified in situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate two technologies to control groundwater pollution due to leaching of abandoned modified in-situ (MIS) retorts, retort grouting and intentional leaching. Retort grouting to reduce permeability was evaluated by measuring the permeability of grouts containing only raw or refined waste materials (Lurgi spent shale, fly ash, gypsum tailings, and lignosulfonate fluidizers). The principal factor controlling grout formulation was the requirement for adequate fluidity without bleeding. This was achieved by inclusion of 0.25% lignosulfonate fluidizer in the grout. Permeability of the cured grouts decreased with increasing confining pressure; at 200 psi confining pressure, permeabilities as low as 5x10/sup -7/ cm/sec were measured. Electrical conductivity measurements on the permeate produced during permeability measurements suggest that grouting abandoned MIS retorts would increase the TDS of leachate by a factor of approximately 3; benefit of the proposed grouting operation would depend upon the flow rate through retorts being reduced by a greater factor to reduce the total mass (concentration x flow) of solute released. Comparison of the measured grout permeabilities to the permeability of surrounding rock suggest that this would be the case.

  5. Method for control of geometry of fragmented mass in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T. E.

    1985-12-24

    A method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is provided. The in situ retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles within top, bottom, and generally vertically extending side boundaries of unfragmented formation. A lower portion of the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a nonlevel top surface is initially formed in the retort. A void space is left within the retort boundaries extending between the nonlevel top surface of the fragmented mass lower portion and a generally horizontally extending free face of an overlying layer of unfragmented formation. Thereafter, the overlying layer of unfragmented formation is explosively expanded into the void space to thereby form the remaining portion of the fragmented mass in the retort. The overlying layer is expanded in a plurality of separate horizontally spaced regions with a time delay between explosive expansion of each successive region. The average vertical distance from the generally horizontal free face of each such region of the layer expanded earlier in the sequence to the nonlevel top surface of the lower portion of the fragmented mass is greater than the average vertical distance from the generally horizontal free face of each such region expanded later in the sequence to the nonlevel top surface of the lower portion of the fragmented mass.

  6. A plan for hydrologic investigations of in situ, oil-shale retorting near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Larson, L.R.; Wallace, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of shale oil by the in-situ retort process may cause hydrologic impacts, the most significant being ground-water contamination and possible transport of contaminants into surrounding areas. Although these impacts are site-specific, many of the techniques used to investigate each retort operation commonly will be the same. The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a study of hydrologic impacts in the area of an in-situ retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, as a means of refining and demonstrating these techniques. Geological investigations include determining the areal extent and thickness of aquifers. Emphasis will be placed on determining lithologic variations from geophysical logging. Hydrologic investigations include mapping of potentiometric surfaces, determining rates of ground-water discharge, and estimating aquifer properties by analytical techniques. Water-quality investigations include monitoring solute migration from the retort site and evaluating sampling techniques by standard statistical procedures. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model will be developed to predict future movement of the water plume away from the retort. (USGS)

  7. Mercury emissions from a modified in-situ oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Pollard, Martin J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Gaseous Hg emissions were measured during the processing of a large modified in-situ oil shale retort (4×10 4 m 3) in Colorado. A continuous, on-line, gas monitor based upon the principal of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy was the primary analytical method. The on-line monitor technique was shown to be well suited for this application and compared favorably with an independent reference method which collects gaseous Hg by Au-amalgamation. Forty-two hours of on-line data were obtained over a 35-day period during the latter half of the retort burn. Hg emission rates in g day -1 were calculated from Hg concentration and offgas flow rate data. The predicted total gaseous Hg mass emission for the retort was 4 kg. Extrapolation of the data to a hypothetical modified in-situ oil shale facility with a daily production of 8× 10 61 (5 × 10 4 bbl) of oil results in a projected emission rate of ≈ 8 kg day -1. This estimated value is higher than Hg emission rates recorded for coal fired power plants. Emission rates were found to be highly variable both within and between days. Factors which may limit Hg emissions from a modified in-situ retort are discussed. Adsorption losses to unretorted shale at the bottom of a retort are suggested as a major sink for Hg. Losses of Hg to the extensive offgas plumbing system may also be substantial.

  8. Method of attenuating airblast from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    French, G. B.

    1980-12-16

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and including underground workings by excavating a means for access to a retort site in the formation, excavating a void in the retort site at least in part from the means for access, leaving a remaining portion of the unfragmented formation in the retort site adjacent the void, placing explosive in the remaining portion of formation, and detonating the explosive in such unfragmented formation in a single round to explosively expand formation toward the void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ retort. A permeable barrier is provided between the void and the underground workings which provide means for access to such a void. The permeable barrier has a cross-section for gas flow which is substantially smaller than the transverse cross-section of such means for access, and the cross-section of such permeable barrier temporarily confines gas from such explosive expansion and limits flow of such gas to such means for access to attentuate airblast in underground workings. A fragmented permeable mass of formation particles produced during excavation of the void can provide such a permeable barrier.

  9. Method of in situ oil shale retort ignition with oxygen control

    SciTech Connect

    Gragg, F.M.; Jacobson, L.; Shen, J.C.

    1984-05-15

    A method for recovering liquid and gaseous products from an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is provided. A hot ignition gas comprising oxygen at a first selected concentration is introduced into the fragmented mass for heating the fragmented mass top surface. The percentage of the fragmented mass top surface that is at a temperature no less than the ignition temperature of oil shale is determined. Thereafter, the concentration of oxygen in the ignition gas is increased by an amount proportional to the determined percentage. Such heating of the fragmented mass top surface establishes a combustion zone in the retort. After the combustion zone has spread horizontally across the retort, introduction of the hot ignition gas is discontinued. Thereafter, an oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the retort for advancing the combustion zone downwardly through the fragmented mass. Liquid and gaseous products are produced in a retorting zone on the advancing side of the combustion zone and are recovered.

  10. Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Shane; Haque, Waqar; Pereira, Kevin; Larrier, Deidre; Valdez, Tulio A

    2010-03-01

    To identify the most common pathogens involved in infections of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Third and fourth branchial pouch cyst infections are an uncommon cause of anterior neck abscesses often confused with other entities, such as thyroglossal duct cysts and thyroid abscesses leading to misdiagnosis, recurrence, and increased morbidity related to a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Retrospective chart and literature review. Retrospective chart review case series of patients presenting to the Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology at Texas Children's Hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 with third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. A total of 11 patients were identified. All patients had left-sided lesions. Eikenella corrodens was found in 60% of cultures and was the most common organism identified in our patient group. Furthermore, 56% of the organisms isolated were anaerobic. All organisms with the exception of Staphylococcus aureus were identified as oral cavity flora. Third and fourth branchial pouch cysts provide a communication between the neck and the oral cavity through pyriform sinus tracts. The presence of oral cavity flora in a left anterior neck abscess should raise the suspicion of a branchial pouch anomaly, and subsequently alter therapeutic management.

  11. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: Points of controversy.

    PubMed

    Trigui, A; Frikha, F; Rejab, H; Ben Ameur, H; Triki, H; Ben Amar, M; Mzali, R

    2014-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the most commonly used procedure for elective treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Since its original description, the procedure has been modified in order to obtain optimal functional results with low morbidity and mortality, and yet provide a cure for the disease. In this review of the literature of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, we discuss these technical modifications, limiting our discussion to the current points of controversy. The current "hot topics" for debate are: indications for ileal pouch-anal or ileo-rectal anastomosis, indications for pouch surgery in the elderly, indeterminate colitis and Crohn's disease, the place of the laparoscopic approach, transanal mucosectomy with hand-sewn anastomosis vs. the double-stapled technique, the use of diverting ileostomy and the issue of the best route for delivery of pregnant women. Longer follow-up of patients and increased knowledge and experience with pouch surgery, coupled with ongoing prospective evaluation of the procedure are required to settle these issues. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  13. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    The ignition of Retort No. 25 took place on October 15, 1981. The operation was a success and the fire front remained uniform throughout the quarter. Production of crude shale oil from Retort No. 25 was 7153 barrels during the quarter. Stack gas analysis began on Retort No. 25 as part of normal air quality studies. The re-entry drilling program began on Retort No. 26 and all process wells were completed in December. Blasthole drilling began on the Retort No. 27 site in November. By the end of December, 16,416 feet had been drilled and an early February shot date is scheduled. Retort No. 27 will be twice the size of Retort No. 26. Lab personnel were involved in the testing of retort water for scrubbing purposes and the removal of H/sub 2/S gas. The new Kamp Kerogen water well was completed and put into service. Three mobile homes were relocated on the new mobile home park. Hook-ups were made and services provided.

  14. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported by Geokinetics on the successful blasting of Retort No. 25. Preparations are described for the ignition of Retort No. 24 nearing completion. This will be the largest retort processing facility utilized to date. Meteorological data of the area was obtained for permit applications from the Utah Air Conservation Committee and the US EPA. These must be obtained before ignition of retort No. 24. Drilling for the post-burn core sampling program (Retorts No. 16 and No. 17) was completed during the quarter. Approval to inject effluent water into the Mesa Verde Formation through a deep well was obtained. Construction of a new 1 1/2 acre evaporating pond has begun. The DOE Oil Shale Task Force will aid in the environmental research program; its role is described. A new vibro-rotary hammer was tested. Drilling penetration rates increased by 35%. A patent on horizontal fracturing methods was obtained. (DMC)

  15. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1979-12-07

    A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  16. Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Khraisha, Y.H.

    2000-05-01

    Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

  17. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  18. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  19. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  20. Final report on the use of gaseous tracers in WRI's 10-ton nonuniform oil shale retorting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1985-12-01

    For tests on nonuniform oil shale retorting, Western Research Institute's 10-ton retort was loaded with shale rubble in zones of different permeability. The permeability of any given zone was determined by the particle size range loaded into that zone. The retort was studied using gas tracer techniques and flow model simulations. Results of these tracer studies are discussed in this report. Nine retorting and tracer runs were made on the retort. For each run, tracer injections were made into the main air flow inlet and into taps near the top of the retort. Detection taps were located at four levels in the retort with five taps on each level in tests S71 through S78 and six taps on each level in run S79. The oil shale rubble bed was configured with a cylindrical core in tests S71 through S78 and with two side-by-side regions with differing bed properties in test S79. Relationships are shown between the tracer response and sweep efficiency, oil yield, and local yield. Model simulations are compared with tracer responses and indicate fair agreement between model-estimated and measured response times but poor agreement on the shapes of the response curves. Although the data are scattered, there is suggestive evidence that the sweep efficiency of a retort can be determined using simple inlet-to-outlet tracer tests. Oil yield can also be predicted for the operating conditions used for the nonuniform retorting tests. More tests on retorts with intermediate degrees of nonuniformity must be made to confirm the correlations developed in this study. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in-situ oil-shale-retorting process. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, S.F.

    1982-08-01

    At the end of March 1982, Retort No. 25 was in its 167th day of burning with a total oil production of 16,599 barrels, an average of 99 barrels per day for this five month burn period. Total oil production for the first quarter was 9187 barrels, an average of 3062 barrels per month or 102 barrels per day. Various environmental studies were carried out on Retort No. 25 during this burn period, as defined in the Environment Research Plan. Stack gas analyses show that the retort operated within the PSD established emission levels. Lab and field experiments continued on a wet scrubber to remove H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ from the process gas. Process and instrumentation wells were drilled on Retort No. 26. All process holes were completed in February and all instrumentation holes were finished in March. Installment of process manifolding, surface piping and thermocouples is continuing. The Retort No. 27 site was prepared for blasting during January and February with detonation of the retort accomplished on February 25. Retort No. 27, the first 2 acre retort, used 283,000 pounds of Ireco explosive loaded into 354 blast holes. Important data concerning the effect of retort size increase, early overburden motion and the effects of blast design modifications upon shale fracturing characteristics were obtained from this blast. Preliminary indications show that the blast was a success and post blast analysis is presently in progress to evaluate the characteristics of the blast. During the quarter, the second and third suite of samples for the Retort No. 25 fugitive emissions study were gathered. From this study, it was concluded that more sampling will be required before fugitive emission rates can be properly characterized.

  2. Fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

    PubMed

    Willens, Scott; Dunn, J Lawrence; Frasca, Salvatore

    2004-03-01

    An adult, male, captive lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) was presented with weight loss, anorexia, and brood pouch distention. Initial treatments included manual expression of the brood pouch followed by saline flushes and enrofloxacin infusions. Radiographs and physical examination identified a nodular swelling in the brood pouch wall. The mass was excised, but the seahorse died. Necropsy and histopathology revealed a malignant mesenchymal tumor with a collagenous stroma, and a brood pouch fibrosarcoma was diagnosed.

  3. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  4. Geotechnical Properties of Oil Shale Retorted by the PARAHO and TOSCO Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    outlet size set by consideration of particle interlucking, flow rate, etc. 235 .," Material Oil shale B. With vibrating equipment ] Material not suited...AD-AB.a 317 ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG--ETC F/S 8/7 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND-ETC(U...lEEllllElhllIE MEJ I .LEVEL. TECHNICAL REPORT 66-79-22 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OILas SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND C TOSCO PROCESSES by ( Frank C

  5. Modeling of the behavior of a multicomponent shale oil during retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    The one-dimensional oil shale retorting model developed originally by Braun has been modified to simulate the behavior of multicomponent shale oil during retorting. The current modifications extend an earlier model that incorporated one-component oil mist formation and deposition and liquid oil drainage into Braun's model. A sample calculation shows that the model agrees at least qualitatively with experiments; the lack of detailed experimental data precludes quantitative comparisons at this time. An attempt to include liquid water accumulation and drainage phenomena has not yet succeeded. A pressure drop calculation based on Ergun's equation has also been added, thereby incorporating pressure effects into the model. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Design and test of two-step solar oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Taylor, R. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Ruiz, R.

    1981-09-01

    A design of a two step solar retort, the logic for the design, and the results from a preliminary test of the design at the White Sands Solar Furnace, New Mexico are presented. Solar retorting of oil shale is a technically feasible process where focused solar energy can displace fossil energy in the production of liquid fuels. The predicted result is a 10 to 40% improvement in the exportable fuel (oil + gas) production per ton of raw shale. Greater improvements are achieved with the lower grade shales where with nonsolar processes a larger fraction of the fuel content has to be used in the processing.

  7. Randomized Trial of Studer Pouch versus T-Pouch Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Eila C; Fairey, Adrian S; Groshen, Susan; Daneshmand, Siamak; Cai, Jie; Miranda, Gus; Skinner, Donald G

    2015-08-01

    The need to prevent reflux in the construction of an orthotopic ileal neobladder is controversial. We designed the USC-STAR trial to determine whether the T-pouch neobladder that included an antireflux mechanism was superior to the Studer pouch in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. This single center, randomized, controlled trial recruited patients with clinically nonmetastatic bladder cancer scheduled to undergo radical cystectomy with neobladder. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to undergo T-pouch or Studer ileal orthotopic neobladder. Treatment assignment was not masked. The primary end point was change in renal function from baseline to 3 years. The CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation was used to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Between February 2002 and November 2009, 237 patients were randomly assigned to T-pouch ileal orthotopic neobladder and 247 to Studer ileal orthotopic neobladder. Baseline characteristics did not differ between the groups. Between baseline and 3 years the estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased by 6.4 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) in the Studer group and 6.6 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) in the T-pouch group (p=0.35). Multivariable analysis showed that type of ileal orthotopic neobladder was not independently associated with 3-year renal function (p=0.63). However, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, age and urinary tract obstruction were independently associated with 3-year decline in renal function. Cumulative risk of urinary tract infection and overall late complications were not different between the groups, but the T-pouch was associated with an increased risk of secondary diversion related surgeries. T-pouch ileal orthotopic neobladder with an antireflux mechanism did not prevent a moderate reduction in renal function observed at 3 years compared to the Studer pouch, but did result in an increase in diversion related secondary surgical procedures

  8. Disease course and management strategy of pouch neoplasia in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Rui; Remzi, Feza H; Liu, Xiu-Li; Lian, Lei; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the disease course and management strategy for pouch neoplasia. Patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery for underlying ulcerative colitis who developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma in the pouch were identified. All eligible 44 patients were evaluated. Of the 22 patients with initial diagnosis of pouch LGD, 6 (27.3%) had persistence or progression after a median follow-up of 9.5 (4.1-17.6) years. Family history of colorectal cancer was shown to be a risk factor associated with persistence or progression of LGD (P = 0.03). Of the 12 patients with pouch high-grade dysplasia, 5 (41.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 16.7%) or synchronous (n = 4, 33.3%) pouch LGD. Pouch high-grade dysplasia either persisted or progressed in 3 patients (25.0%) after the initial management, during a median time interval of 5.4 (2.2-9.2) years. Of the 14 patients with pouch adenocarcinoma, 12 (85.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 14.3%) or synchronous dysplasia (n = 12, 85.7%). After a median follow-up of 2.1 (0.6-5.2) years, 6 patients with pouch cancer (42.9%) died. Comparison of patients with a final diagnosis of pouch adenocarcinoma (14, 32.6%), and those with dysplasia (29, 67.4%) showed that patients with adenocarcinoma were older (P = 0.04) and had a longer duration from IBD diagnosis or pouch construction to the detection of pouch neoplasia (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0013). The risk for progression of pouch dysplasia can be stratified. The presence of family history of colorectal cancer seemed to increase the risk for persistence or progression for patients with pouch LGD. The prognosis for pouch adenocarcinoma was poor.

  9. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously…

  10. Bone regeneration using the pouch-and-tunnel technique.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Robert; Etienne, Daniel; Takei, Henry; Carranza, Fermin

    2009-10-01

    Several surgical techniques, such as the papilla preservation flap, the modified papilla preservation flap, and the sulcular incision flap, have attempted to achieve clot stabilization and graft coverage in an attempt to regenerate lost tissue due to periodontal disease. This case report focuses on soft tissue root coverage and bone regeneration in a one-wall osseous defect using the pouch-and-tunnel surgical procedure. The pouch-and-tunnel surgical technique is a minimally invasive periodontal plastic surgical procedure that uses subepithelial connective tissue as a free graft in a pouch beneath the gingival margin, created by sulcular incisions around the involved teeth. The autogenous bone graft placed in this one-wall osseous defect through a sulcular incision after root planing is protected in a stable pouch-like recipient site with an abundant blood supply. The free connective tissue graft also prevents epithelial migration into the recipient site. The use of Emdogain may help with cementogenesis around the planed root surface. This technique warrants further evaluation of cases with similar defects using this surgical procedure. (Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2009;29:515-521.).

  11. Pouch brooding marsupial frogs transfer nutrients to developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Marsupial frogs have a unique reproductive mode in which females carry eggs enclosed in a sealed dorsal brood pouch. While most anurans are considered to be oviparous with lecithotrophic eggs, the extensively vascularized membrane of the brood pouch in marsupial frogs suggests potential opportunities for nutrient transfer. We tested for matrotrophy in the live-bearing Gastrotheca excubitor (Hemiphractidae), through feeding insects labelled with a (13)C-fatty acid and a (15)N-amino acid to brooding marsupial frogs. We observed significant increases of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in both maternal pouch tissues and embryos, suggesting nutrient transfer. Embryo dry mass also increased with developmental stage, providing further direct evidence for matrotrophy. These results suggest that in addition to gas exchange, the vascularized brood pouch membrane of G. excubitor also enables maternal nutrient transfer. This finding revealed a suspected but untested trait in the evolution of parental care in marsupial frogs, in contrast to previous work on Gastrotheca species that release tadpoles, and suggests greater complexity in reproductive and provisioning modes than previously thought.

  12. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously…

  13. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  15. Common Inflammatory Disorders and Neoplasia of the Ileal Pouch: A Review of Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Collinsworth, Amy L.; Liu, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the standard restorative procedure after proctocolectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who require colectomy. The ileal pouch is susceptible to a variety of insults including mechanical injury, ischemia, fecal stasis, and infectious agents. In addition, the development of recurrent and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and neoplasia may occur in the ileal pouch. Although clinical, endoscopic, and radiographic examination can diagnose many ileal pouch diseases, histologic examination plays an essential role in diagnosis and management, particularly in cases with antibiotic refractory chronic pouchitis and pouch neoplasia. PMID:27785322

  16. Evaluation by respirometry of the degradability of retort water using a shale ash and overburden packed column.

    PubMed

    Clarke, W P; Ho, N M; Taylor, M; Coombs, S; Bell, P R; Picaro, T

    2005-08-01

    Oil shale processing produces an aqueous wastewater stream known as retort water. The fate of the organic content of retort water from the Stuart oil shale project (Gladstone, Queensland) is examined in a proposed packed bed treatment system consisting of a 1:1 mixture of residual shale from the retorting process and mining overburden. The retort water had a neutral pH and an average unfiltered TOC of 2,900 mg 1(-1). The inorganic composition of the retort water was dominated by NH4+. Only 40% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the retort water was identifiable, and this was dominated by carboxylic acids. In addition to monitoring influent and effluent TOC concentrations, CO2 evolution was monitored on line by continuous measurements of headspace concentrations and air flow rates. The column was run for 64 days before it blocked and was dismantled for analysis. Over 98% of the TOC was removed from the retort water. Respirometry measurements were confounded by CO2 production from inorganic sources. Based on predictions with the chemical equilibrium package PHREEQE, approximately 15% of the total CO2 production arose from the reaction of NH4+ with carbonates. The balance of the CO2 production accounted for at least 80% of the carbon removed from the retort water. Direct measurements of solid organic carbon showed that approximately 20% of the influent carbon was held-up in the top 20cm of the column. Less than 20% of this held-up carbon was present as either biomass or as adsorbed species. Therefore, the column was ultimately blocked by either extracellular polymeric substances or by a sludge that had precipitated out of the retort water.

  17. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  18. Technical note: Evaluation of a crucible furnace retort for laboratory torrefactions of wood chips

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermal process that improves biomass performance as a fuel by property enhancements such as decreased moisture uptake and increased carbon density. Most studies to date have used very small amounts of finely ground biomass. This study reports the testing of a crucible furnace retort that was fabricated to produce intermediate quantities of torrefied...

  19. Yield and Production Properties of Wood chips and Particles Torrefied in a Crucible Furnace Retort

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Karen G. Reed

    2016-01-01

    Biomass preprocessing by torrefaction improves feedstock consistency and thereby improves the efficiency of biofuels operations, including pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion. A crucible furnace retort was fabricated of sufficient size to handle a commercially available wood chip feedstock. Varying the torrefaction times and temperatures provided an array of...

  20. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected.

  1. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  2. Groundwater studies at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's retort 1 at Tract C-a

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Poulson, R.; Hill, S.; Suthersan, S.

    1987-11-01

    Western Research Institute has continued to assess groundwater at the site of the 1981 modified in situ oil shale retorting tests at Federal Prototype Lease Trace C-a near Rifle, Colorado. The organic constituents, the toxicology, and the microorganisms associated with the groundwater are discussed in this report. 22 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. A geochemical method for determining heat history of retorted shale oil. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Flom, E.A.; Thompson, S.J.

    1980-06-01

    Geochemical data is encoded in biochemical molecules which survive in oil shale deposits. Porphyrins in retorted shale oil hold a key to the heat history of the oil. A method for analyzing shale oils to determine ratios of porphyrin types and mass spectral data of these porphyrins is reported. (Author)

  4. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  5. Optimization of operating parameters of endothermic generators with electric heating of retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, A. M.; Fink, A. V.; Kagarmanov, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    Equations of heat and gas balance of endothermic generator at air conversion of methane are used for optimizing the parameters with respect to maximum yield of hydrogen and carbon oxide at minimum consumption of electric energy for heating the retort with catalyst.

  6. Monitoring in situ retorting processes of oil shale by reflected and transmitted electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. H.; DuBow, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    A theoretical model for an in situ oil shale retort with three distinct vertical zones, all surrounded by a wall of oil shale, overburden and underburden, is considered for the study of potential electromagnetic monitoring of the progression of retorting processes using wave propagation techniques. The overall power reflection and transmission coefficients for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves are used for finding the position of a combustion zone in the retort, based upon the assumption of straight-line propagation of monochromatic plane waves through layered lossy dielectric media characterized by the dielectric constants and loss tangents. The behavior of each power coefficient is discussed as a function of burn front positions and signal frequencies. As a result of the relatively moderate signal power for each coefficient required for detection, and the one-to-one correspondence between each power coefficient and burn front position at typical conditions, the feasibility of using low radio-frequency waves to monitor relatively large scale in situ retorting process is established.

  7. Investigation of tracer tests on the Western Research Institute 10-ton retort

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.

    1984-05-01

    An oil shale rubble bed with contrasting permeability regions is investigated using a gas tracer in conjunction with a two-dimensional flow and tracer model and with a one-dimensional dispersion model. Six runs on the retort are discussed. Tracer injections are made into the main flow inlet and into five taps near the top of the retort. Detection taps are located at four levels in the retort with five taps on each level. The one-dimensional dispersion model is fit to the tracer response curves producing estimates of dispersion and space time in the retort. The dispersion model produces reasonable estimates where the fluid flow deviates only slightly from vertical. The two-dimensional flow model developed by Travis at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is compared to tracer velocities. The correlation between the model and the data is good in the last of the six tests. The correlation is not as good in the earlier tests and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  8. Growth of bacteria in an oil shale retort water by indigenous microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; Williams, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that relatively high aerobic and anaerobic (or facultatively anaerobic) heterotrophic bacterial population densities occur as indicated by an increase in the turbidity of freshly filtered (0.4 ..mu..m) Omega-9 retort water after a few days incubation at room temperature. Growth of these microorganisms alters the nature and concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic constituents. Bacteria are the only microorganisms known to have demonstrated a capacity to grow in undiluted Omega-9 retort water. Bacterial growth experiments are performed for a variety of reasons. In some situations microorganisms are cultivated to yield a specific product, as a protein source, or because their growth in a particular medium removes certain undesired constituents. Nutritional and physical parameters will often govern the rate at which growing microbial populations proliferate. It was considered important, therefore, to establish what rates of bacterial growth were occurring in the Omega-9 retort water by indigenous, mixed bacterial populations. The study reported here was devised to assess bacterial growth characteristics in an example retort water. Information of this type may have implications in 1) the development of biological treatment systems, 2) establishing hazard assessment and abatement criteria, and 3) in assessing the stability of research samples.

  9. Rock motion simulation and prediction of porosity distribution for a two-void-level retort

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The computer program DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed in 1988 and 1989 to predict the motion of rock following a conventional blast. The ability to predict the rock motion associated with oil shale retort blasting, along with the induced porosity distribution, has been a driving force behind the development of DMC. Earlier this year DMC was used to simulate the rock motion associated with the rubblization of Occidental Oil Shale's Retort Number 8 which was a three-void-level retort processed in 1982. This paper discusses the algorithm developed to compute the porosity distribution of the muck after rock motion. It also contains a simulation of a two-void-level retort rubblization plan proposed by Ricketts, 1989. DMC is used to model the rock motion associated with the blasting and to obtain a final porosity distribution. Some improvement in the porosity distribution is seen over that observed in the three-void-level simulation. Thus, it may be that the two-void-level approach is not only more efficient to mine, but may also produce a more uniform rubble bed. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Cytotoxicity of synthetic fuel products on Tetrahymena pyriformis. II. Shale oil retort water.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T W; Dumont, J N; Kyte, L M

    1978-11-01

    Shale oil retort water is obtained by centrifuging the oil/water emulsion produced by oil shale retorting. The ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis was exposed to retort water; 2, 1, and 0.5% initially increased motility; longer exposures decreased motility. Three, 4, and 5% all decreased motility. Cell lysis was directly related to concentration; after 24 h, population densities were 0, 10, and 25% of controls for 2, 1, and 0.5% retort water, respectively. Oxygen consumption paralleled the motility pattern: at lower concentrations it increased initially but decreased with extended exposures while at higher concentrations it decreased rapidly. The most striking cytologic alteration of cells exposed to the toxicant occurred in the membranes; alterations of mucocysts and glycogen content were also observed, but mitochondrial changes were not. Population growth was affected at much lower concentrations than the other test indices. The growth of test populations reached a plateau at values inversely related to concentration: concentrations less than 0.4% had no effect on growth rate.

  11. The hamster cheek pouch: an immunologically privileged site suitable to the study of granulomatous infections.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, M S; Montenegro, M R

    1995-01-01

    The hamster cheek pouch is an invagination of oral mucosa, characterized histologically as skin-like. In this paper we describe anatomical, histological and embriological features of the pouch and comment on the pouch as an immunologically privileged site since it lacks lymphatic drainage and has few Langerhans cells. We present the review from literature and our observations after inoculation in the pouch of mycobacteriae (BCG, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae) and a fungus (Paracoccidioides brasiliensis). Lesions in the pouch were granulomatous but smaller and long lasting; even granulomatous, the reaction was inefficient to control the proliferation of agents compared with inoculation in other sites, except for BCG. Appearance of immunity was also delayed or absent and, when it was detected, a sharp decrease in number of agents in pouch lesions was observed. These observations make the pouch an interesting site for the study of the role of immune system in infectious diseases and in granuloma formation.

  12. Gastric pouch resizing for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass failure in patients with a dilated pouch.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Antonio; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Hébuterne, Xavier; Gugenheim, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient weight loss or weight regain a few years after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is becoming a serious problem given the large diffusion of this procedure. In the present study, we analyzed the feasibility and safety of pouch resizing for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass failure in a consecutive series of 20 patients at a university hospital. A prospectively maintained database was queried regarding patient demographics, the indication for revision morbidity, the percentage of excess weight loss, and the evolution of co-morbidities. A total of 20 patients, 18 women and 2 men, with a mean age of 44 years and mean body mass index of 45.8 kg/m(2), underwent pouch resizing. No patients died; 6 patients (30%) developed complications, including acute abdomen due to volvulus of the small bowel in 1, intra-abdominal abscess in 3, and pulmonary embolus in 2. At a mean follow-up of 20 months, the percentage of excess weight loss was an average of 69.1% and persistent co-morbidities had improved or resolved. Pouch resizing has been shown to be a valuable option in the short term for weight loss failure or regain in patients who have undergone laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and have a dilated gastric pouch. However, the long-term efficacy of this procedure needs to be determined. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the functional aberration of the pouch in anorectal malformation associated with congenital pouch colon.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, A N; Pandey, A; Rastogi, N; Mandal, M B; Gopal, S C; Gupta, D K; Srivastava, A

    2010-03-01

    There are no in vitro studies of congenital pouch colon (CPC) associated with anorectal malformation (ARM) to understand its mechanism of contractility. There is no consensus regarding the utilization of the CPC in repair of anorectal malformation. In view of the above, it was decided to carry out detailed in vitro physiological study of the excised CPC. The excised specimens of CPC were taken and 15- to 20-mm long both longitudinal and transverse strips of muscle were obtained both from the proximal and distal part. Contraction was recorded using software chart-5 for windows. Drugs used were acetylcholine, histamine, adrenaline, atropine and pheniramine maleate. The amplitude of contractions was converted to tension gram and then the tension so developed was expressed as tension per unit mass (per gram of wet tissue). There were total of 21 specimens of high ARM with CPC. Five specimens were of the complete pouch, which did not show a response to any drug and the remaining 16 had an incomplete pouch. The mean longitudinal and circular muscle contractions of these 16 samples were statistically higher for the proximal segment than the distal segment both for acetylcholine and histamine. The effect of atropine was not significant but that of adrenaline and pheniramine maleate were significant on the distal segment muscle. Congenital pouch colon being deficient or having poorly developed receptors in their wall can not function properly as a reservoir for faeces and, hence, it should be excised to allow adequate function.

  14. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  15. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 4. Solid waste from mining and surface retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The overall objectives of this study were to: review and evaluate published information on the disposal, composition, and leachability of solid wastes produced by aboveground shale oil extraction processes; examine the relationship of development to surface and groundwater quality in the Piceance Creek basin of northwestern Colorado; and identify key areas of research necessary to quantitative assessment of impact. Information is presented under the following section headings: proposed surface retorting developments; surface retorting processes; environmental concerns; chemical/mineralogical composition of raw and retorted oil shale; disposal procedures; water quality; and research needs.

  16. Pouch functional outcomes after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch reconstruction in patients with ulcerative colitis: Japanese multi-center nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Sugita, Akira; Futami, Kitaro; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Kouhei; Tatsumi, Kenji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Kimura, Hideaki; Hata, Keisuke; Takahashi, Kenichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Funayama, Yuji; Higashi, Daijiro; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kusunoki, Masato; Ueda, Takeshi; Koyama, Fumikazu; Itabashi, Michio; Nezu, Riichiro; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2017-09-07

    Although several complications capable of causing pouch failure may develop after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) for ulcerative colitis (UC), the incidences and causes are conflicting and vary according to country, race and institution. To avoid pouch failure, this study aimed to evaluate the rate of pouch failure and its risk factors in UC patients over the past decade via a nationwide cohort study. We conducted a retrospective, observational, multicenter study that included 13 institutions in Japan. Patients who underwent RPC between January 2005 and December 2014 were included. The characteristics and backgrounds of the patients before and during surgery and their postoperative courses and complications were reviewed. A total of 2376 patients were evaluated over 6.7 ± 3.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-seven non-functional pouches were observed, and the functional pouch rate was 98.9% after RPC. Anastomotic leakage (odds ratio, 9.1) was selected as a risk factor for a non-functional pouch. The cumulative pouch failure rate was 4.2%/10 years. A change in diagnosis to Crohn's disease/indeterminate colitis (hazard ratio, 13.2) was identified as an independent risk factor for pouch failure. The significant risk factor for a non-functional pouch was anastomotic leakage. The optimal staged surgical procedure should be selected according to a patient's condition to avoid anastomotic failure during RPC. Changes in diagnosis after RPC confer a substantial risk of pouch failure. Additional cohort studies are needed to obtain an understanding of the long-standing clinical course of and proper treatment for pouch failure.

  17. Risk of ileal pouch neoplasms in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Yamao, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended. PMID:24187452

  18. An Economic and Ecologic Comparison of the Nuclear Stimulation of Natural Gas Fields with Retorting of Oil Shale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    points out that to obtain a usable hydrocarbon from the material, either the entire forma- tion must be heated IN SITU through fracturing and...injection of a high temperature fluid, or the shale must be mined and retorted on the surface. In either case the rate at which the shale can be heated ...fact that rich oil shale will burn, thereby providing heat to cook or retort ’^^, ■ • ■. .-. . , .■■:.: ■■ : , ^^^J

  19. Early dumping syndrome and reflux esophagitis prevention with pouch reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dikic, Srdjan; Randjelovic, Tomislav; Dragojevic, Svetlana; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Granic, Miroslav; Gacic, Dragan; Zdravkovic, Darko; Stefanovic, Branislav; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Pazin, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Total gastrectomy causes numerous disorders, such as reflux esophagitis, dumping syndrome, malabsorption, and malnutrition. To minimize the consequences, different variants of reconstruction are performed. The aim of our study is the comparison of two reconstructive methods: the standard Roux-en-Y and a new modality of pouch interposition, preduodenal-pouch interposition. This study aims to investigate the advantage of bile reflux prevention and to reduce symptoms of dumping syndrome after 3- and 6-mo follow-up. A total of 60 patients were divided in two groups: (A) 30 patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction, and (B) 30 patients with the preduodenal-pouch (PDP) type of reconstruction. Endoscopic examination and endoluminal jejunal limb pressure measurements were performed. Scintigraphic measurements of half-emptying time were performed to evaluate meal elimination in the context of reflux esophagitis and early dumping syndrome. The Japan Society of Gastrointestinal Surgery has provided guidelines with which to classify the symptoms of early dumping syndrome. Patients were followed up for periods of 3 and 6 mo after the surgery. Our study groups did not differ with regard to the level of reflux esophagitis (P = 0.688). Average values of pressure at 10 and 15 cm below the esophago-jejunal junction were significantly lower in the PDP group (P < 0.001). Elimination of the test meal between two groups was not significant (P = 0.222). Evaluation of early dumping syndrome symptoms revealed a significant reduction among PDP patients after 3 and 6 mo. Our study showed significant superiority of the new pouch reconstruction over the standard Roux-en-Y approach in the treatment of early dumping syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Various presentations of fourth branchial pouch sinus tract during surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wu-Hao; Feng, Long; Sang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Liang; Yuan, Lin-Lin; Gao, Ling; Lou, Wei-Hua

    2012-05-01

    A recurrent neck abscess or acute suppurative thyroiditis should arouse suspicion of fourth branchial pouch sinus. Complete surgical excision is usually curative. The classification of sinus tract according to the area where it is emerging from the larynx may be helpful in identifying the tract during surgery. To describe our experience of the diagnosis and management of fourth branchial pouch sinus and elucidate three different emerging pathways of the sinus tract during surgery. Retrospective case series with eight patients who were diagnosed with fourth branchial pouch sinus between January 2007 and July 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Six patients presented with recurrent neck abscess, two presented with acute suppurative thyroiditis. All patients had barium swallow and sinus tract was delineated in six cases. All eight patients underwent surgical excision of the sinus tract. Three different emerging pathways of the sinus tract were identified during surgery. The tract could penetrate the thyroid cartilage near the inferior horn, the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle or the cricothyroid membrane when it emerged from the larynx. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was commonly dissected to avoid inadvertent damage. Hemithyroidectomy was performed in six patients. All eight are currently asymptomatic.

  1. The Kock pouch reconsidered: an alternative surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran

    The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature (White and Hunt, 1997; Borwell, 2009; Williams, 2005; Brown, 2005). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity (Castillo et al 2005; Nessar and Wu, 2012) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition.

  2. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G; Hart, Robert W; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H

    2011-12-15

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer's design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum.

  3. Physiology of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Goes, R; Beart, R W

    1995-09-01

    Increasing experience with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) associated with increasing knowledge about anorectal physiology has lead to a large number of publications. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current understanding of fecal continence as revealed by the evolution of the ileoanal procedure. Review of the literature covering the most important physiologic parameters involved in fecal continence was undertaken. Rectoanal inhibitory reflex is probably absent after IPAA but is preserved when distal anorectal mucosa is spared. Anal resting pressure decreases but is less affected when the internal anal sphincter is less traumatized. Squeeze pressure is not importantly affected, and the importance of reservoir function as a determinant of stool frequency is emphasized. IPAA does not affect the coordination between pouch and anal canal motility in the majority of cases. Normal continence is preserved, even during the night, by preserving a gradient of pressure between the pouch and anal canal. Physiologic concepts are well established, but controversies about the continence mechanism related to IPAA remain. The IPAA procedure has allowed discrimination of details about the function of multiple structures involved in fecal continence.

  4. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  5. Plasmodium berghei-Hamster Cheek Pouch Model for the Study of Severe Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    rCFILE COY ] Plasmodium berghei-llansler Cheek Pouch Model for the study of Severe Malaria Lfl C) David R. Franz, Wallace B. Baze, G. David Young...PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Plasmodium bergehei-Hamster Cheek Pouch Model...CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesry and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Hamster cheek pouch, Plasmodium berghei

  6. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.S.

    1982-02-16

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  7. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOEpatents

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  8. Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Robert S.; Rundberg, Sten I.; Vaughn, James V.; Williams, Thomas P.; Benson, Gregory C.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

  9. Creation of a Jejunal Pouch During Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Esophagojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marc A; Ujiki, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    The creation of Hunt-Lawrence jejunal pouches after total gastrectomy is associated with a better quality of life compared with the standard Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first video to show the technical aspects of creating a jejunal pouch during a laparoscopic total gastrectomy. A 35-year-old woman was seen for surgical evaluation of a newly diagnosed CDH1 gene mutation. The authors recommended a laparoscopic total gastrectomy with Hunt-Lawrence pouch reconstruction. The jejunal pouch was created using an extracorporeal approach after removal of the stomach. A laparoscopic gel port was then placed over the extraction site to maintain pneumoperitoneum to facilitate a laparoscopic esophagojejunal pouch anastomosis using a circular stapler. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. Her pathology showed no gastric cancer, and all 31 lymph nodes harvested were free of malignancy. At 1 year postoperatively, she had lost 25 lb from her presurgerical weight and was maintaining a healthy body mass index of 24 kg/m(2). Hunt-Lawerence jejunal pouches have been shown to improve quality of life compared with esophagojejunostomy without pouch formation after total gastrectomy. This video shows a novel technique for jejunal pouch creation during laparoscopic total gastrectomy using a laparoscopic gel port after gastric extraction to facilitate a laparoscopic esophagojejunal pouch anastomosis.

  10. A review of complementary mechanisms which protect the developing marsupial pouch young.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Hinds, L A; Deane, E M; Deakin, J E

    2012-06-01

    Marsupials are born without a functioning adaptive immune system, into a non-sterile environment where they continue to develop. This review examines the extent of exposure of pouch young to microorganisms and describes the protective mechanisms that are complementary to adaptive immunity in the developing young. Complementary protective mechanisms include the role of the innate immune system and maternal protection strategies, such as immune compounds in milk, prenatal transfer of immunoglobulins, antimicrobial compounds secreted in the pouch, and chemical or mechanical cleaning of the pouch and pouch young.

  11. Preservation of speech and swallowing after excision of a pharyngeal pouch tumour.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Sankar, V; Vallamkondu, V; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2015-04-01

    A pharyngeal pouch is not an uncommon cause of dysphagia in older population. However, finding a tumour in a pharyngeal pouch is very rare. A 79-year-old gentleman presented with dysphagia and a neck lump. Videofluoroscopy showed a pharyngeal pouch. Rigid endoscopy confirmed a tumour arising from the pharyngeal pouch. The histology showed it to be squamous cell carcinoma. The MRI scan based staging was T3N1M0. The patient underwent modified right radical neck dissection, partial pharyngectomy with primary repair and tracheostomy. He completed postoperative radiotherapy and remained disease-free at 4 years follow-up.

  12. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  13. Coagulation/sedimentation and activated carbon treatment of a true in situ oil shale retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Kocornik, D.J.; Mcternan, W.F.

    1984-08-01

    The wastewater studied in this paper is from a Geokinetics true in situ oil shale retort, which produced approximately equal volumes of wastewater and oil. This retort water is characterized by high levels of organic and inorganic carbon, alkalinity, ammonia and inorganic salts. Since no single water treatment process has proved effective on this complex waste, the authors' purpose in this paper is to present data on two different processes used both singly and in sequence. Inorganic metallic coagulants, both alone and in combination with organic polymers, were considered for use in coagulation-flocculationsedimentation systems. The most promising of these treatments were then experimented with as pretreatments for batch powdered activated carbon adsorption studies. Adsorption studies consisted of standard isotherm and equilibrium uptake tests conducted with two types of activated carbon on both pretreated and previously untreated retort water. The treatment effectiveness and physics of a flow-through granular activated carbon column system were also investigated. Results for each of the above sequences and for each step in each sequence are presented. The data collected indicate that coagulation will not be effective as a stand alone treatment process. Results of the flow-through carbon column study indicate that pretreatment of the influent may be beneficial to the performance of that system.

  14. Formation, deposition, and drainage of mist in porous media with application to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, S.L.

    1984-06-01

    The research is aimed at developing the technological base for understanding and ultimately modeling the physical processes which control droplet size and droplet deposition within oil shale retorts. Two types of experiments were performed for this study: (1) size distributions of oil mists formed by condensation of oil vapor in an inert carrier gas were measured for a wide range of cooling rates and vapor concentrations thought to be typical of retorting conditions. Most experiments were conducted using a steady state tubular condenser which simulates a typical channel through a packed bed. Some unsteady-state experiments were conducted using an initially cold bed of shale rock and following the size distribution of the mist with time as the thermal front propagated through the bed; (2) capture efficiencies of oil mists in packed beds were measured for a wide range of droplet sizes, and gas velocities thought to be typical of retorting conditions. Both clean beds and beds with simulated liquid loading were used. 50 figures.

  15. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Martin M.

    1982-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  16. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  17. Modeling study of carbonate decomposition in LLNL`s 4TU pilot oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1994-10-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) 4 tonne-per-day oil shale Pilot Retort (4TU-Pilot) has been modeled to study the degree of carbonate decomposition occurring in the process. The modeling uses a simplified version of the processes occurring in the retort to allow parametric studies to be performed. The primary focus of the work is on the sensitivity of computed carbonate decomposition to the assumed manner in which solid material leaves the retort. It was found that for a variety of assumptions about solid passage and evolution within the process the computed carbonate decomposition varied by only a few percent. It was also determined that using available kinetic expressions based on literature data led to a consistent underestimate of the carbonate decomposition, from 12--17% low on an absolute basis and on a relative basis as much as a factor of seven times too low. A simplified kinetic expression based on limited data from laboratory experiments on the same shale as used in the 4TU-Pilot run was also employed and found to match the pilot results fairly well.

  18. Microbiological degradation of organic components in oil shale retort water: organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J E; Riley, R G; Li, S W; Mann, D C; Wildung, R E

    1981-11-01

    The losses of benzoic acid and a homologous series of both mono- and dibasic aliphatic acids in oil shale retort water were monitored with time (21 days) in liquid culture (4% retort water, vol/vol) inoculated with soil. The organic acids constituted approximately 12% of the dissolved organic carbon in retort water, which served as the sole source of carbon and energy in these studies. The levels of the acids in solution were reduced by 80 to 90% within 9 days of incubation. From mass balance calculations, the decrease in dissolved organic carbon with time of incubation was equal to the formation of CO(2) and bacterial cell carbon. The decrease in the level of the acid components, either from degradation to CO(2) or incorporation into bacteria, would account for approximately 70% of the loss in dissolved organic carbon within the first 9 days of incubation and would account for approximately 50% of the loss over the entire 21-day incubation period.

  19. Management and outcome of pouch-vaginal fistulas after IPAA surgery.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Ismail H; Hull, Tracy L; Remzi, Feza H; Kiran, Ravi P

    2014-04-01

    After IPAA, the timing, management, and outcome of pouch-vaginal fistulas are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, management, and outcome of patients who develop a pouch-vaginal fistula. This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database. The study was conducted in a single-center, high-volume tertiary referral colorectal unit. Women with a pouch-vaginal fistula after IPAA from 1983 to 2010 were included in the study. The healing rate of pouch-vaginal fistulas was measured. Of 152 patients with a pouch-vaginal fistula after IPAA, 59 fistulas occurred at <12 months, constituting the early onset group, and 43 occurred at >12 months, constituting the late-onset group. Seventy-five patients (77.3%) underwent local repair (48 (49.5%) had ileal pouch advancement flap and 27 (27.8%) had transvaginal repair). The healing rate after ileal pouch advancement flap performed as a primary procedure was 42% and 66% when performed secondarily after a different procedure. The healing rate for transvaginal repair was 55% when done as a primary procedure and 40% when performed secondarily. Nineteen patients underwent redo ileal pouch construction, with an overall pouch retention rate of 40%. At median follow-up of 83 months (range, 5-480 months), 56 (57.7%) of the 102 patients had healed the pouch-vaginal fistula, whereas pouch failure occurred in 34 women (35%, 12 early onset and 22 late onset). Healing of the fistula was significantly lower (22% versus 73%; p < 0.001) and pouch failure higher (52.7% versus 22.7%, p < 0.001) when compared with Crohn's disease. On multivariate analysis, a postoperative delayed diagnosis of Crohn's disease was associated with failure (p = 0.01). No other factors were associated with pouch failure. This was a retrospective study. Pouch-vaginal fistula after IPAA surgery is indolent and may persist after repairs. A delayed diagnosis of Crohn's disease is associated with a poor outcome and a

  20. Safety and Long-Term Performance of Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the highest energy density of the batteries available in the commercial market today. Although most lithium-ion cell designs use a metal can design, this has changed significantly in recent years. Cell designs are offered in the pouch format as they offer better volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and in some cases, higher tolerance to abuse or off-nominal conditions. In the past decade, several state-of-the-art lithium-ion pouch cell designs have been tested. The pouch cell designs have become more robust in the past two years but there are still a few issues that need to be looked into for optimization. The pouch cells seem to have a tendency to swell when left in storage under ambient conditions. The cells also swell under overvoltage and undervoltage conditions. A significant issue that has been observed is the swelling of the cells under a vacuum condition which could lead to deformation of the cell pouch after this exposure. This last factor would be very critical in the use of these cell designs for space applications as vacuum exposure is used to check for cell and battery leaks before it is flown into space. In rare cases, corrosion of the aluminum layer of the pouches has been observed in stored cells. Pouch material analysis has been carried out in an effort to understand the strength of the pouches and determine if this is a factor in the corrosion as well as unsafe condition of the cells as deformation of the inner layers of the pouch could occur when the cells swell under the various conditions described above. Pouch materials are typically aluminized plastic, made up of a layer of Al sandwiched between one or more layers of polymeric material. Deformations or cell manufacturing processes could lead to a compromise of the inner polymeric layer/s of the pouch leading to the corrosion of the Al layer in the aluminized pouch material. The safety of the pouch cell designs has been determined for cells from various

  1. Parafilm-M®, An Available Cost-Effective Alternative for Immuno-blot Pouches.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed M S

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available standard immuno-blot pouches do play an efficient role in antibody incubation in performing an immuno-blot, but are not readily available in the laboratory and have to be specifically ordered. We have developed an equally efficient technique to make an immune-blot more cost-effective with more conservation of antibodies by using a common and readily available laboratory product Parafilm-M(®). Parafilm-M(®) which serves as a sealant for various items of laboratory equipment can be used for antibody incubation. Manually made Parafilm-M(®) pouch has a clear advantage over standard immuno-blot pouches in terms of availability, cost-effectiveness, and consumption of antibodies that ultimately reduces the cost of an immuno-blot. We have performed a series of experiments to check the efficacy of both the techniques. Samples with equal amount of protein were analyzed on separate SDS PAGE gels. The proteins were transferred electrophoretically to the nitrocellulose membrane using Trans-Blot(®) Turbo™ Mini Nitrocellulose Transfer Pack. Antibody incubation was done using standard immuno-blot pouch, standard container and Parafilm-M(®) sealed pouch. The expression of protein was determined and the results of immuno-blots were compared. We found that antibodies are binding the membrane in Parafilm-M(®) pouches as efficiently as in container method or in standard immuno-blot pouches. By restricting the membrane, the surface area of the manually made Parafilm-M(®) pouch can be reduced, less diluent is required to cover the membrane as a result less antibodies are consumed. We also calculated that each immuno-blot pouch cost around $0.1906, whereas the cost for Parafilm-M(®) pouch is 0.0695 which is almost one-third the price of an immuno-blot pouch. Thus, Parafilm-M(®) method distinctly provides a cost-effective solution for antibody incubation.

  2. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    PubMed

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  3. Male sexual function improves after ileal pouch anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Gorgun, E; Remzi, F H; Montague, D K; Connor, J T; O'Brien, K; Loparo, B; Fazio, V W

    2005-11-01

    Restorative Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis has become the gold standard surgical therapy for the majority of patients with mucosal ulcerative colitis. However sexual functional disturbances after this procedure can be a concern for patients. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the outcome of sexual-function related quality of life in male patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy. One hundred and twenty-two male patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis between 1995 and 2000 were evaluated by the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scoring instrument. This index scale examines sexual function in five categories. These are erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction. The IIEF instrument was administered after surgery and then scores before and after RP/IPAA were evaluated and compared. The significance of age at the time of the surgery, type of surgery, type of anastomotic technique (mucosectomy vs stapled) and septic complications on sexual functional outcome were also investigated. Mean age at the time of the surgery was 39.9 +/- 11.5 years. The mean follow-up period (time between pouch surgery and IIEF completed) was 3.6 +/- 1.8 years. There was statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 categories of sexual function (erectile function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) where patients had improved scores after surgery compared to prior to surgery. The mean erectile function score increased pre to post surgery by 2.12 points (P = 0.02), which indicates better sexual results. Anastomotic technique and septic complication did not influence the results, however, older age had a negative impact on results. Despite some adverse sexual functions, male patients who undergo RP/IPAA for the surgical management of their colitis may preserve or improve their overall sexual

  4. Social and sexual function following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, B; Wettergren, A; Kirkegaard, P

    1995-03-01

    Patients who undergo surgery for ulcerative colitis are usually young and active. When surgery becomes necessary, their future social and sexual function is of major concern. This study was performed to be able to give more detailed information of what is to be expected. Forty-nine consecutive patients (26 men and 23 women) who underwent ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis between November 1983 and September 1986 in the authors' institution were personally interviewed regarding details of their preoperative and postoperative social and sexual functions. Eighty-eight percent had reduced capacity to work preoperatively compared with 6 percent postoperatively. Thirty-one percent resumed work in the period with diverting ileostomy. Leisure time activities were reduced in 47 percent preoperatively, whereas 6 percent had limitations postoperatively. In 35 percent of women, frequency of intercourse was increased postoperatively, and none reported a decreased frequency. None of the women who were able to achieve orgasm preoperatively reported a postoperative disturbance of this ability, and 16 percent experienced an increased quality of orgasm. Postoperatively none reported dyspareunia, vaginal discharge, or changes in their menstrual cycle. Frequency of intercourse and ability to achieve orgasm remained unchanged for the majority of men; however, one developed erectile dysfunction, and one complained of retrograde ejaculation. Sexual activity in men was less affected by the presence of an ileostomy, and 69 percent had intercourse in the period with ileostomy compared with 30 percent of women. None of the patients complained of anal pain, soiling, or fecal leakage during intercourse, but one women reported some discomfort from the pouch during intercourse. None of the patients wanted to return to a life with an ileostomy. The social and sexual function, quality of life, after ileal J-pouch anastomosis is improved when compared with the period with

  5. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  6. Method for flattening the combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort by the addition of fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.Y.

    1980-09-30

    A secondary combustion zone is established and its location is controlled in a fragmented mass of particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. A processing zone including a primary combustion zone is established in the retort by igniting a portion of the mass of particles. An oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into the retort to advance the processing zone through the fragmented mass. If the primary combustion zone is not substantially planar or has not progressed uniformly, a secondary combustion zone is established upstream of the primary combustion zone by introducing into the retort a retort inlet mixture comprising fuel and at least sufficient oxygen for combustion of the fuel at a temperature no greater than the primary combustion zone temperature. The secondary combustion zone is maintained at an upstream location and allowed to spread laterally through the fragmented mass, heating portions of such fragmented mass, to the self-ignition temperature of oil shale which spreads the primary combustion zone laterally across the fragmented mass at the upstream location. 48 claims.

  7. Horizontal free face blasting for minimizing channeling and mounding in situ retort with cusp at intermediate elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-07-10

    A method is claimed for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in a retort site within a subterranean formation. A void is excavated into the formation and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. A plurality of explosive charges are formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. At least one central explosive charge is in a central portion of the zone of unfragmented formation, and a plurality of outer explosive charges are in the zone of unfragmented formation nearer the side walls of the void than the central explosive charge. The distance from each such outer explosive charge to an adjacent side wall of the void is about equal to the crater radius of the outer explosive charge. The central and outer explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ retort. The retort has a horizontal cross-sectional area at an intermediate elevation which is less than the horizontal cross-sectional area of the retort at elevations above and below the intermediate elevation.

  8. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3–77) and 62% (17–98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful. PMID:26854162

  9. Cytological and microbiological findings in guttural pouch lavages of clinically normal horses with head restraint.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, O A; Cuenca, R; Mayayo, E; Guarro, J; Santamaria, J; Stchigel, A M

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the cytological and microbiological contents of guttural pouch washes of ten randomly selected horses restrained so as to prevent them lowering their heads, and to assess the possible effects on the guttural pouch environment in these horses. Cytological and microbiological studies were performed on guttural pouch washes of ten clinically normal horses restrained in a standing position so as to prevent them from lowering their heads below normal, as would happen during transportation on long journeys. They were restrained for 12 or 24 h and cytological, bacteriological and mycological findings in guttural pouch washes were recorded. The cytological gradings and neutrophil concentrations of guttural pouch washings were higher in horses that had their heads restrained for a longer period. Washings from these horses were more likely to contain cultivable bacteria and were the only washes yielding potentially pathogenic bacterial species. Variation in the cytological differential counts and bacterial cultures of guttural pouch lavages may be found in clinically normal horses which have had their heads restrained in an elevated position for periods from 12 to 24 h. This should be considered when examining this site and care must be taken when interpreting cytology of guttural pouch lavages in samples taken after transportation for more than 12 h. Restriction of head movement could also affect the normal pouch enviroment and predispose it to disease.

  10. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend; Kjeldsen, Jens; Gerke, Oke; Qvist, Niels

    2015-10-10

    Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105-365). Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF) was 49% (3-77) and 62% (17-98) after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100-360). A median daily stool frequency of nine (4-25) was reported and three (14%) patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90%) patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF) and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  11. Pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction associated with bilateral guttural pouch tympany in a foal

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old warmblood filly was presented for a 1-week history of a large, nonpainful, fluctuant swelling of the parotid and laryngeal area. Bilateral guttural pouch tympany was diagnosed. Surgical correction resolved the guttural pouch tympany; however, postoperative pharyngeal neuromuscular dysfunction developed. PMID:17334035

  12. A mouse air pouch model for evaluating the immune response to Taenia crassiceps infection.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Emanuelle B; Sakai, Yuriko I; Gaspari, Elizabeth De

    2014-02-01

    The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection.

  13. High Capacity Pouch-Type Li-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    The pouch-type Li-air batteries operated in ambient condition are reported in this work. The battery used a heat sealable plastic membrane as package material, O2¬ diffusion membrane and moisture barrier. The large variation in internal resistance of the batteries is minimized by a modified separator which can bind the cell stack together. The cells using the modified separators show improved and repeatable discharge performances. It is also found that addition of about 20% of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) in PC:EC (1:1) based electrolyte solvent improves can improve the wetability of carbon electrode and the discharge capacities of Li-air batteries, but further increase in DME amount lead to a decreased capacity due to increase electrolyte loss during discharge process. The pouch-type Li-air batteries with the modified separator and optimized electrolyte has demonstrated a specific capacity of 2711 mAh g-1 based on carbon and a specific energy of 344 Wh kg-1 based on the complete batteries including package.

  14. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Cheek pouch use in relation to interspecific competition and predator risk for three guenon monkeys (Cercopithecus spp.).

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    Forest guenons (Cercopithecus spp.) are often found in polyspecific associations that may decrease predator risk while increasing interspecific competition for food. Cheek pouch use may mitigate interspecific competition and predator risk by reducing the time spent in areas of high competition/predator risk. I investigated these ideas in three forest guenons: Campbell's monkey (Cercopithecus campbelli), spot-nosed monkey (C. petaurista), and Diana monkey (C. diana). I present 13 months of scan sample data from Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire, including 3,675, 3,330, and 5,689 records of cheek pouch distention, to quantify cheek pouch use, for Campbell's, spot-nosed, and Diana monkeys, respectively. Cheek pouches are often used to hold fruit, so I first predicted that the most frugivorous species, Diana monkeys, would have the most cheek pouch distension. Spot-nosed monkeys ate the least amount of fruit over the study period and had the least distended cheek pouches, suggesting the importance of frugivory in relation to cheek pouch distension for this species. This was not a sufficient explanation for Campbell's monkeys; Campbell's ate fruit less than Diana monkeys, but had more distended cheek pouches, suggesting that cheek pouch use was not simply a reflection of high frugivory. From the interspecific competition hypothesis, I predicted that Campbell's monkeys would have more distended cheek pouches than Diana and spot-nosed monkeys, and more distended cheek pouches when associated with Diana because Campbell's monkeys have the highest potential for interspecific competition with dominant Diana monkeys. From the predator risk hypothesis, I predicted that Campbell's would have more distended cheek pouches when not associated with highly vigilant Diana monkeys. Campbell's monkeys had the most distended cheek pouches overall, but had more distended cheek pouches when not in association with Diana, suggesting the greater importance of predator risk rather than

  16. Serology of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis After Pouch Surgery Is More Comparable with that of Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Goren, Idan; Yahav, Lior; Tulchinsky, Hagit; Dotan, Iris

    2015-10-01

    The serologic status of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who develop postoperative pouchitis was compared with that of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and unoperated patients with UC. Pouch patients were stratified into normal pouch, acute/recurrent acute pouchitis, and chronic pouchitis/Crohn's-like disease of the pouch groups. Antibodies against glycans associated with CD (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, anti-laminaribioside, anti-chitobioside, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies [ASCA, ALCA, ACCA, and AMCA, respectively]) were detected and correlated with type of inflammatory bowel disease and pouch behavior. A total of 501 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases were recruited: 250 (50%) CD, 124 (24.7%) unoperated UC, and 127 (25.3%) UC-pouch. At least 1 positive antibody was detected in 77.6% CD, 52.0% UC-pouch and 33.1% unoperated UC (P < 0.0001 for all). ACCA and AMCA prevalence in CD, UC-pouch and unoperated patients with UC were 33.2%, 24.4%, and 16.9% (P = 0.003 for all) and 35.2%, 26.8%, and 7.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001 for all). ALCA and ASCA were more prevalent in patients with CD than unoperated UC and UC-pouch patients. A longer interval since pouch surgery was associated with inflammatory pouch behavior: 12.45, 11.39, and 8.5 years for acute/recurrent acute pouchitis, chronic pouchitis/Crohn's-like disease of the pouch, and normal pouch, respectively, P = 0.01 for all. The prevalence of the CD-associated anti-glycan antibodies ACCA and AMCA is significantly increased in UC-pouch patients, suggesting that pouch surgery may trigger differential immune responses to glycans. The finding that the serology of UC-pouch patients shares similarities with that of patients with CD supports the notion that those 2 inflammatory bowel diseases share a common pathogenic pathway.

  17. True in situ oil shale retorting experiment at Rock Springs site 12

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A. Jr.; Merriam, N.W.; Virgona, J.E.; Parrish, R.L.

    1980-05-01

    A true in situ oil shale fracturing and retorting experiment was conducted near Rock Springs, Wyoming in 1977, 1978, and 1979. A 20-foot (6.1 m) thick zone of oil shale located 200 feet (61 m) below surface was hydraulically and explosively fractured. The fractured oil shale was extensively evaluated using flow tests, TV logging, caliper logging, downhole flow logging, core samples, and tracer tests. Attempts to conduct true in situ retorting tests in portions of the pattern with less than 5 percent void space as measured by caliper logs and less than 1 percent active void space measured by tracer test were curtailed when air could not be injected at desired rates. It is thought the fractures plugged as a result of thermal swelling of the oil shale. Air was injected at programmed rates in an area with 10 percent void measured by caliper log and 1.4 pecent active void measured by tracer test. A burn front was propagated in a narrow path moving away from the location of the production well. The vertical sweep of the burn front was measured at less than 4 feet (1.3 m). The burn front could not be sustained beyond 10 days without use of supplemental fuel. The authors recommend a minimum of 5 percent well-distributed void for attempts to retort 20 gpt (81 L/m ton) oil shale in confined beds. A void space of 5 percent may be roughly equivalent to 5 to 10 percent measured by caliper log and 1.4 percent or more by tracer test.

  18. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  19. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  1. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  2. Mathematical Analysis of the Effect of Retorting Pressure on Oil Yield and Rate of Oil Generation from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.S.; Sohn, H.Y.

    1985-04-01

    The principal objective in the mathematical analysis presented was to describe mathematically the oil yield, the amounts of oil degradation into coke and gas, and the rate of oil generation in the retorting of oil shale at various pressures. The results of the analysis are in good agreement with the experimental results obtaine under various retorting conditions. In this analysis, the rate equations for the decomposition of organic matter the recovery of liquid oil as oil mist or oil vapor, and the stoichiometry factors were determined from the experimental data on powdered oil shale with nitrogen as a sweep gas.

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Transitional Zone after Ileal Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Treatment Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellino, Gianluca; Kontovounisios, Christos; Tait, Diana; Nicholls, John; Tekkis, Paris P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very rare. Method A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. Results Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0.06% after IPAA. Many patients had neoplasia on the preoperative specimen, but squamous metaplasia of the pouch or anorectal mucosa may have an important role in SCC. These patients are rarely offered chemoradiation therapy and the outcome is poor. Selected patients with SCC located close to the pouch outlet can be treated with chemoradiation prior to consideration of surgery and salvage their pouch. A chemoradiation regimen is suggested to avoid pouch excision in these patients. Conclusions SCC is rare after pouch surgery but associated with extremely poor survival. Very low SCC can be managed with chemoradiation treatment, preserving the pouch and avoiding surgery, even in older patients. The role of pouch metaplasia, surveillance frequency, and treatment modalities after IPAA need further studying. PMID:28203173

  4. Relationship between gastric pouch and weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Giulio; Romanucci, Giovanna; Ortu, Valeria; Zuliani, Monica; Miotto, Diego; Pomerri, Fabio; Albanese, Alice; Verdi, Daunia; Prevedello, Luca; Foletto, Mirto

    2016-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is considered safe and effective even as conversion procedure after primary bariatric operations. The correlation between gastric pouch volumes and patients weight loss remains unclear. To assess a correlation between the gastric remnant size and the weight loss, we reviewed 49 consecutive barium swallow UGS performed at our institute from August 2012 through May 2014 in LSG patients with symptoms and/or unsatisfactory weight loss. The anteroposterior (AP), laterolateral (LL) and vertical (CC) diameters of the gastric pouch were measured to calculate the volume by the formula of the ellipsoid (AP × LL × CC × 0.5). Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 without gastric pouch (n = 36) and group 2 with gastric pouch (n = 13). Correlation between pouch volume and weight loss data was calculated with t Student's and Fisher tests to compare the percent excess body mass index (BMI) and percent excess body mass loss (EBL) between two groups, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean percent EBL was 26.54 ± 11.02 and 27.12 ± 12.35 kg/m(2) in groups with and without pouch, respectively. The mean volume of the pouch after LSG was 17.13 ± 21.56 mm(3). Pouch volume, when present, was not significantly correlated to weight loss (P = 0.88 95% CI, CL 19.88-33.20 group 2; CL 22.94-31.30 group 1). No statistical correlation was found between the volume of the gastric pouch and weight loss (percent EBL) after LSG in symptomatic or with unsatisfactory weight loss patients.

  5. Histological properties and biological significance of pouch in red kangaroo, Macropus rufus.

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Shimizu, T; Shibanai, S; Nagae, K; Nagata, S

    1989-01-01

    2 embryos, 4 youngs, 4 older youngs and the pouch of 2 mothers of the red kangaroos were examined. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The initial muscle spindles are already observed light microscopically in the vertebral, dorsal neck and forelimb muscles of the newborn baby and a little bit later in the masticatory muscles of the young of 68 mm in craniorump length and 28 g in body weight. 2. In the skin with less hair lining the inner surface of the pouch, abundant apocrine large sweat glands are observed, especially surrounding the basal region of the nipple and in the pleat formation of the skin. 3. The lactiferous mammary gland is enlarged, the lobules being divided by the interlobular muscle fiber tissue and enwrapped by the muscular capsule. The milk is squirted automatically by the muscle fiber contraction from the gland to the nipple, to which the baby attaches itself. 4. The musculature of the pouch wall is developed to form the sphincter muscle in the pouch orifice. The sphincter muscle plays an important role in conditioning the optimum temperature for the naked baby inside the pouch. 5. The apocrine perfume plays an important role in guiding the baby on the journey to the pouch after birth and the apocrine products also in maintaining the optimum humidity of the pouch to accomodate the baby. 6. During the long period of stay in the pouch, the masticatory and locomotive systems and their neuromuscular mechanism related to the herbivorous mastication become fully established and then the young leaves the pouch to feed on the animal's proper diet.

  6. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  7. Congenital pouch colon in girls: Genitourinary abnormalities and their management

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Rajiv; Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Shah, Shalu; Pant, Nitin; Gupta, Amit; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Debnath, Pinaki Ranjan; Puri, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To discuss the assessment and management of genitourinary (GU) tract abnormalities in 21 girls with Types I-III congenital pouch colon (CPC), studied over a period of 10 years. Materials and Methods: Assessment included clinical and radiological assessment, examination under anesthesia (EUA), endoscopy of the lower GU tract, and evaluation of the surgical findings, operative procedures for the GU anomalies, and the results of management. Results: Initial examination of the external genitalia showed a “clover-leaf” appearance (n = 6) and a single perineal opening (n = 6). In 9 patients, the openings of the urethra and double vagina were seen, of which a vestibular fistula was seen in 5 and an anterior perineal fistula in 1. Seventeen patients (81%) had urinary incontinence (UI) - partial in 10, and complete in 7. Renal function tests, X-ray sacrum, and abdominal US were normal in all patients. Micturating cystourethrogram (n = 9) showed a wide, bladder neck incompetence (BNI) with reduced bladder capacity in seven patients. EUA and endoscopy revealed a septate vagina in all patients and the urethral opening at a “high” position (n = 14) or at a relatively normal or “low” position (n = 7). In 8 patients, the intervaginal septum was thick and fleshy. Endoscopy showed a short, wide urethra, an open incompetent bladder neck, poorly developed trigone, and reduced bladder capacity in the patients with UI. The fistula from the colonic pouch opened in the proximal urethra (n = 4), high in the vestibule (n = 3), low in the vestibule (n = 8), perineum just posterior to the vestibule (n = 1), and undetermined (n = 5). Vaginoscopy (n = 8) showed normal cervices in all and cervical mucus in 4 patients. The subtypes of CPC were Type I CPC (n = 4), Type II CPC (n = 16), and Type III CPC (n = 1). All 21 patients had uterus didelphys. In four patients with UI, during tubular colorraphy, a segment of the colonic pouch was preserved for later bladder augmentation if

  8. Congenital pouch colon in girls: Genitourinary abnormalities and their management.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Shah, Shalu; Pant, Nitin; Gupta, Amit; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Debnath, Pinaki Ranjan; Puri, Archana

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the assessment and management of genitourinary (GU) tract abnormalities in 21 girls with Types I-III congenital pouch colon (CPC), studied over a period of 10 years. Assessment included clinical and radiological assessment, examination under anesthesia (EUA), endoscopy of the lower GU tract, and evaluation of the surgical findings, operative procedures for the GU anomalies, and the results of management. Initial examination of the external genitalia showed a "clover-leaf" appearance (n = 6) and a single perineal opening (n = 6). In 9 patients, the openings of the urethra and double vagina were seen, of which a vestibular fistula was seen in 5 and an anterior perineal fistula in 1. Seventeen patients (81%) had urinary incontinence (UI) - partial in 10, and complete in 7. Renal function tests, X-ray sacrum, and abdominal US were normal in all patients. Micturating cystourethrogram (n = 9) showed a wide, bladder neck incompetence (BNI) with reduced bladder capacity in seven patients. EUA and endoscopy revealed a septate vagina in all patients and the urethral opening at a "high" position (n = 14) or at a relatively normal or "low" position (n = 7). In 8 patients, the intervaginal septum was thick and fleshy. Endoscopy showed a short, wide urethra, an open incompetent bladder neck, poorly developed trigone, and reduced bladder capacity in the patients with UI. The fistula from the colonic pouch opened in the proximal urethra (n = 4), high in the vestibule (n = 3), low in the vestibule (n = 8), perineum just posterior to the vestibule (n = 1), and undetermined (n = 5). Vaginoscopy (n = 8) showed normal cervices in all and cervical mucus in 4 patients. The subtypes of CPC were Type I CPC (n = 4), Type II CPC (n = 16), and Type III CPC (n = 1). All 21 patients had uterus didelphys. In four patients with UI, during tubular colorraphy, a segment of the colonic pouch was preserved for later bladder augmentation if required. A Young-Dees bladder-neck repair (BNR

  9. The effect of distending a pouch of the left atrium on the heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Ledsome, J. R.; Linden, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. A pouch has been prepared consisting of a part of the wall of the left atrium together with the left pulmonary vein—atrial junctions. 2. An increase of perfusion pressure in the pouch caused a reflex increase in heart rate. 3. The afferent path of the reflex was in the vagus nerves and the efferent path was in the sympathetic nerves. 4. The receptors most likely to be stimulated by an increase in pressure in the pouch are those receptors situated in the subendocardium of the pulmonary vein—left atrial junctions. PMID:16992279

  10. Hydraulic pouches of canine latissimus dorsi. Potential for left ventricular assistance.

    PubMed

    Mannion, J D; Hammond, R; Stephenson, L W

    1986-04-01

    We have studied the fatigue rates of hydraulic pouches constructed in the form of a multilayered conical spiral using the latissimus dorsi muscle of 17 beagles. The roles that electrical muscle conditioning and early interruption of collateral blood supply have in the prevention of pouch fatigue were evaluated. The length of time that a pouch could generate flow in a hydraulic test system was measured; afterload was set at 80 mm Hg and preload 24 mm Hg. Pouches (N = 3) fashioned from muscles subject to neither electrical conditioning nor a vascular delay generated an initial flow of 990 +/- 346 ml/min, but could sustain flow for only 2.3, 3.8 and 3.6 minutes. Pouches (N = 5) constructed with electrically unconditioned muscles after a vascular delay (median 3 weeks) demonstrated a variable improvement in fatigue rates (initial flow 826 +/- 265 ml/min; time to no forward flow, 2.5, 7.5, 7.5, 10, and 200 minutes). Four of six pouches that received the benefit of long-term electrical muscle conditioning and a vascular delay (N = 6) were able to generate flow for a 4 hour period, at which time the experiment was terminated (initial flow 478 +/- 204 ml/min; final flow 195 +/- 157 ml/min). After the 4 hour fatigue test was completed, one electrically conditioned pouch was placed in series with the heart and served as a counterpulsator. The initial volume of blood pumped by the muscle pouch was 262 ml/min or 13.8% of cardiac output. After the pouch had contracted at a rate of approximately 45 beats/min for 1 hour, the volume of blood pumped was 178 ml/min, or 11% of cardiac output. In three other animals a pouch was fashioned and then left in situ for a 1 to 3 week period before hydraulic testing. These pouches generated significant initial flows (390 +/- 60 ml/min), which demonstrates the feasibility of further study of permanent pouches. These results suggest that permanent electrical muscle conditioning and perhaps a vascular collateral delay might permit an auxiliary

  11. Pharyngeal Pouch Co-existing with Thyroid Mass: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Saleem Asif; Shah, Mohamad Yousaf; Ahmad, Maqsood; Ullah, Sibghat

    2015-12-01

    A 60-year male presented with a 4-year history of a mass in the lower third of the neck, which had gradually increased in size. On initial examination, it was considered a thyroid mass. On detailed examination, another mass was found in the upper neck which was doughy in consistency and reducible in size. With available investigations, he was diagnosed as a thyroid mass associated with pharyngeal pouch. On exploration of the neck, the whole mass revealed to be a pharyngeal pouch. We have discussed the patho-physiology of the pharyngeal pouch and reviewed the literature in detail.

  12. An audit of pharyngeal pouch surgery using endoscopic stapling. The patient's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Weller, M D; Porter, M J; Rowlands, J

    2004-07-01

    We report an audit designed to assess patient satisfaction resulting from pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler. A personal series of 16 patients all operated on by the senior author over a 3-year period is reported. Information was gathered using a retrospective telephone questionnaire to establish pre- and postoperative symptoms, complications of surgery and patient satisfaction. This showed endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery to be successful in the majority of cases. Eighty-seven percent of patients felt better as a result of surgery. Seventy-five percent had no symptoms postoperatively. This series shows that surgery on pharyngeal pouches results in significant improvement in patient symptoms with minimal morbidity and mortality.

  13. A Novel Lithium-ion Laminated Pouch Cell Tested For Performance And Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Inoue, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A new Li-ion 4.0 Ah pouch cell from GS Yuasa has been tested to determine its performance and safety. The cell is of a laminate pouch design with liquid electrolyte. The rate, thermal and vacuum performance capabilities have been tested to determine the optimum parameters. Under vacuum conditions, the cells were cycled under restrained and unrestrained configurations. The burst pressure of the laminate pouch was also determined. The overcharge, overdischarge into reversal and external short circuit safety tests were also performed to determine the cell s tolerance to abuse. Key Words: Li-ion, safety, vacuum test, abuse, COTS batteries, rate capability

  14. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in a Patient with Mainz Pouch II Urinary Diversion: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Mykoniatis, Ioannis; Poulios, Evangelos; Paikos, Dimitrios; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios

    Mainz pouch II is a reliable and viable technique of continent urinary diversion. Patients are at increased risk of long-term complications including urolithiasis of the upper urinary tract and reservoir. We report the case of a 67-year-old male with prior Mainz pouch II due to invasive bladder cancer treated for a large renal calculus. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was successfully performed. Stone management in these type of patients is of increased interest due to existed "anatomical challenges" concerning the access and safety during the procedure. To our knowledge this is the first case of PCNL in a patient with Mainz pouch II that has been reported in the literature.

  15. Development of Stainless Steel Laminate Li-Ion Pouch Cell for Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooto, Hiroki; Koide, Kazuya; Ohira, Kenji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Abe, Hidetoshi; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, Yu; Hirose, Kazuyuki

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the development of stainless steel laminate Li-ion pouch battery cells for space application. Currently, the cells have a high specific energy of 118 Wh/kg for 10-Ah cells at the moment. Unlike conventional Li-ion pouch cells for terrestrial use, where the casing is made of aluminum laminate, Li-ion pouch cells made with stainless steel laminate neither expand nor lose their capacity after charge/discharge cycles in vacuum. The results of a mechanical environment test show that the cell also meet the requirements for vibration and pyroshock tolerance during launch.

  16. Analysis of the outcome of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Hartley, J E; Fazio, V W; Remzi, F H; Lavery, I C; Church, J M; Strong, S A; Hull, T L; Senagore, A J; Delaney, C P

    2004-11-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has come to represent the procedure of choice for patients requiring surgery for mucosal ulcerative colitis. In contrast, a proven diagnosis of Crohn's disease is generally held to preclude ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. However, patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for apparent mucosal ulcerative colitis who are subsequently found to have Crohn's disease have a variable course. We reviewed our experience in this scenario to determine whether selected patients with Crohn's disease may be candidates for ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. A retrospective review of the prospectively maintained ileal pouch-anal anastomosis database was undertaken to identify patients with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Clinical outcome and quality-of-life data were obtained from the database and chart review. End points were the development of recrudescent Crohn's disease, pouch failure, and quality of life and functional outcome at the time of data collection. Differences between groups were calculated using the chi-squared test. Cumulative incidence of recrudescent Crohn's disease and pouch loss were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of development of recrudescent Crohn's disease and pouch loss were examined by univariate analysis. Sixty patients (32 females; median age, 33 (range, 15-74) years) who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for mucosal ulcerative colitis subsequently had that diagnosis revised to Crohn's disease. Median follow-up of all patients was 46 (range, 4-158) months at time of data collection by which time 21 patients (35 percent) had developed recrudescent Crohn's disease. No pre-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis factors examined were predictors of the development of recrudescent Crohn's disease on univariate analysis. Median follow-up of the latter group was 63 (range, 0-132) months from time of diagnosis, by which time six patients underwent pouch excision and another patient

  17. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  18. Increased Pouch Sizes and Resulting Changes in the Amounts of Nicotine and Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in Single Pouches of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Joni; Biener, Lois; Bliss, Robin L.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Initial analyses of the novel smokeless tobacco products Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus demonstrated that these products contain relatively low amounts of nicotine and the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), as compared with traditional smokeless products. It is unknown whether the modifications in packaging, flavors, and pouch sizes that occurred for both Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus since their first introduction to the market were accompanied by any changes in nicotine or nitrosamine levels. Methods: We examined the available data on nicotine and NNN and NNK levels in 60 samples of Camel Snus and 87 samples of Marlboro Snus that were analyzed in our laboratory between 2006 and 2010. Results: Due to the increase in pouch size, the amounts of total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, and the sum of NNN and NNK present in the large Camel Snus pouches released in 2010 are 1.9-fold, 2.4-fold, and 3.3-fold higher, respectively, than in the original smaller pouches that entered the market in 2006. Total and unprotonated nicotine content in the current version of Marlboro Snus pouches are 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold higher, respectively, and the sum of NNN and NNK is 1.5-fold lower than in the original version. Conclusions: We observed an increase in nicotine content in single portions of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus, and an increase in tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine content in single portions of Camel Snus, due to the increases in pouch size that occurred between 2006 and 2010. This finding stresses the importance of tobacco product regulation and ingredient disclosures. PMID:22259150

  19. Increased pouch sizes and resulting changes in the amounts of nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in single pouches of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Biener, Lois; Bliss, Robin L; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2012-10-01

    Initial analyses of the novel smokeless tobacco products Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus demonstrated that these products contain relatively low amounts of nicotine and the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), as compared with traditional smokeless products. It is unknown whether the modifications in packaging, flavors, and pouch sizes that occurred for both Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus since their first introduction to the market were accompanied by any changes in nicotine or nitrosamine levels. We examined the available data on nicotine and NNN and NNK levels in 60 samples of Camel Snus and 87 samples of Marlboro Snus that were analyzed in our laboratory between 2006 and 2010. Due to the increase in pouch size, the amounts of total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, and the sum of NNN and NNK present in the large Camel Snus pouches released in 2010 are 1.9-fold, 2.4-fold, and 3.3-fold higher, respectively, than in the original smaller pouches that entered the market in 2006. Total and unprotonated nicotine content in the current version of Marlboro Snus pouches are 2.1-fold and 1.9-fold higher, respectively, and the sum of NNN and NNK is 1.5-fold lower than in the original version. We observed an increase in nicotine content in single portions of Camel Snus and Marlboro Snus, and an increase in tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine content in single portions of Camel Snus, due to the increases in pouch size that occurred between 2006 and 2010. This finding stresses the importance of tobacco product regulation and ingredient disclosures.

  20. Carcinoid tumor of the ileoanal pouch in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Murray; Pricolo, Victor; Chen, Sonja

    2013-01-04

    Carcinoid tumors have been reported to occur in various locations, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. The relationship between the development of carcinoids and ulcerative colitis has been an unclear and controversial one. The association of ulcerative colitis and the development of ileal-pouch carcinoids has not, however, been well documented. We report a case of carcinoid tumor arising in an ileoanal pouch and discuss its unique diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.

  1. High-G Verification of Lithium-Polymer (Li-Po) Pouch Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-19

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 766 Technical Report ARMET-TR-15067 HIGH-G VERIFICATION OF LITHIUM- POLYMER (LI-PO) POUCH...TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH-G VERIFICATION OF LITHIUM- POLYMER (LI-PO) POUCH CELLS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...causing re-evaluation of power sources. This report evaluates two types of lithium- polymer cells for use in high acceleration environments for

  2. Adenocarcinoma of the ileoanal pouch for ulcerative colitis--a complication of severe chronic atrophic pouchitis?

    PubMed

    Knupper, N; Straub, E; Terpe, H J; Vestweber, K H

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of a carcinoma in the ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative proctocolitis is rare. Most of these adenocarcinomas previously described in literature develop from residual viable rectal mucosa. We report a case of an adenocarcinoma arising in all probability from the ileal pouch after malignant transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa based on a chronic atrophic pouchitis. A 34-year-old man developed an adenocarcinoma after a double-stapled ileorectal J-pouch for ulcerative colitis (UC) proceeded from malignant ileal transformation. Before surgery, he had a 20-year history of UC refractory to medical therapy, but no occurrence of backwash ileitis, dysplasia or colitis-associated illness. He experienced severe pouchitis after IPAA since the ileostomy closure. Carcinoma was ensured by endoscopy, and the patient underwent an abdominoperineal pouch extirpation combined with excision of perirectal tissues and anal canal. Histology after surgery showed a pT4,pN2(4/16)pM0,G3 adenocarcinoma with global severe chronic atrophic pouchitis (CAP), villous atrophy and malignant ileal transformation. No metaplasia of the rectal mucosa was found, not even malignant epithelial transformation of the anal canal. This case suggests that a malignant transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa may occur as a pure complication of severe CAP, even in the absence of backwash ileitis or a previous history of cancer. The absence of metaplasia of the rectal mucosa revealed the passage from CAP to dysplastic epithelium and to cancer. A multifactorial development of carcinogenesis is supposed, but we emphasize the importance of severe CAP, and that careful surveillance is needed in patients after IPAA. We must submit that this is just a case report and cannot stand for general cancer development in ulcerative colitis, but it may point out the risk factor of chronic inflammation and leads the surgeon to skillful working

  3. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sofo, Luigi; Caprino, Paola; Sacchetti, Franco; Bossola, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RP-IPAA) is the gold standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis. However, despite the widespread use of RP-IPAA, many aspects of this treatment still remain controversial, such as the approach (open or laparoscopic), number of stages in the surgery, type of pouch, and construction type (hand-sewn or stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis). The present narrative review aims to discuss current evidence on the short-, mid-, and long-term results of each of these technical alternatives as well as their benefits and disadvantages. A review of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Ovid databases was performed to identify studies published through March 2016. Few large, randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn regarding controversial issues. The available data from retrospective studies suggest that laparoscopic surgery has no clear advantages compared with open surgery and that one-stage RP-IPAA may be indicated in selected cases. Regarding 2- and 3-stage RP-IPAA, patients who underwent these surgeries differed significantly with respect to clinical and laboratory variables, making any comparisons extremely difficult. The long-term results regarding the pouch type show that the W- and J-reservoirs do not differ significantly, although the J pouch is generally preferred by surgeons. Hand-sewn and stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomoses have their own advantages, and there is no clear benefit of one technique over the other. PMID:27648159

  4. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages.

  5. Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

  6. Inheritance of guttural pouch tympany in the arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Blazyczek, I; Hamann, H; Ohnesorge, B; Deegen, E; Distl, O

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the mode of inheritance of guttural pouch tympany (GPT) using pedigrees of Arabian horses. Complex segregation analyses were employed to test for the significance of nongenetic transmission and for monogenic, polygenic, and mixed monogenic-polygenic modes of inheritance. Horses affected by GPT comprised 27 Arabian purebred foals. Of these 27 animals, 22 were patients at the Clinic for Horses, School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany, between 1994 and 2001 and 5 Arabian foals were from stud farms. Information on the pedigrees of these patients allowed us to classify the affected foals into four families with a total of 276 animals. The regressive logistic model analysis took into account the nonrandomness of the pedigrees through multiple single ascertainment correction. The complex segregation analysis showed that, among all other models employed, a polygenic and a mixed monogenic-polygenic model best explained the segregation of Arabian foals with GPT. Models including only nongenetic distributions and monogenic inheritance could be significantly rejected. This is the first report in which a genetic component could be shown to be responsible for GPT in horses.

  7. Experimental modal analysis of lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James

    2015-07-01

    If future electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries are to be designed such that the impact of vibration induced resonance is minimized, engineers tasked with the design of the vehicle's energy storage system must have a rigorous understanding of key system attributes such as the natural frequencies of the cell, the level of damping present and the mode shapes induced within the battery under mechanical load. This paper describes the underpinning theory and experimental method employed when using the impulse excitation technique to quantify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a commercially available 25 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Laminate Pouch Cell. Experimental results are presented for fifteen cells at five different values of state of charge (SOC). The results indicate that irrespective of the energy content within the cell, the same four modes of vibration (torsion and bending) exist within a frequency range of 191 Hz-360 Hz. This is above the frequency range (0-150 Hz) typically associated with road-induced vibration. The results also indicate that the cell's natural frequencies of vibration and damping do not vary with changing values of SOC.

  8. Laparoscopic proctocolectomy with restorative ileal-anal pouch.

    PubMed

    Gill, T S; Karantana, A; Rees, J; Pandey, S; Dixon, A R

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the outcome of restorative proctocolectomy carried out by laparoscopic surgery. A prospectively collected electronic database of all colorectal laparoscopic procedures performed between April 2001 and July 2003 has been used to identify surgical outcomes in 14 consecutive patients who have undergone laparoscopic RPC. Fourteen patients (5 male), median BMI 24 kg/m(2) have undergone restorative laparoscopic proctocolectomy over a two year period: 13 (ulcerative colitis, one with cancer) and 1 (FAP). The median operation time was 260 min; time has not decreased with experience. There were no intra-operative surgical complications or deaths. Patient controlled analgesia continued for a median of 36 h. The median time to diet was 48 h and median hospital stay 7 days; three patients required nasogastric aspiration for delayed gastric emptying. Eighteen regional lymph nodes were retrieved local to the carcinoma. There was one anastomotic leak. All covering stomas were closed by 6 months (12 by eight weeks). All 14 patients are fully continent, able to suppress urgency and have a median pouch frequency of 4/24 h. None admit to having problems with potency, orgasm sensation, ejaculation, micturition. One lady reports dysparunia. All are highly satisfied with functional outcome and cosmesis. We are encouraged to continue to offer our patients the option of a laparoscopic resection.

  9. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  10. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  11. Alkaline scrubbing of in-situ oil shale retort offgas at Geokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Taback, H.; Goldstick, R.; Bates, E.

    1985-08-01

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's mobile wet scrubber on a 200-acfm slipstream of Geokinetics' retort offgas to investigate the H2S removal efficiency and selectivity (percent H2S removal/percent CO2 removal) as a function of liquid/gas contact time, alkaline solution OH(minus) concentration, and the specific scrubbing chemical. A venturi and spray tower were used to produce contact times of about 0.003 and 0.2 second, respectively. Three alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, and NH4OH) were employed on each contactor at various concentrations for a total of 22 runs. To analyze these results and provide design criteria for future alkaline scrubbers a sophisticated computer model employing the penetration theory for liquid-phase mass transfer was developed.

  12. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, Carlon C.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting such method are disclosed for igniting a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort. The method is conducted by forming a hole through unfragmented formation to the fragmented mass. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the hole. A fuel is introduced into a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The fuel and oxygen-containing gas mix forming a combustible mixture which is ignited for establishing a combustion zone in a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The hot gas generated in the combustion zone is conducted from the hole into the fragmented mass for heating a portion of the fragmented mass above an ignition temperature of oil shale.

  13. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of the shale-oil produced in the Estonian Kiviter retort.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P; Veidebaum, T; Tamme, J; Põldvere, E

    1990-01-01

    Skin painting experiments in CC57Bl mice showed that the total oil (TO) obtained by thermal processing of lump oil shale in the high capacity 'Kiviter' retort containing 56 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and diluted with benzene (66.6%) induced skin tumours in five out of 60 effective mice--in three mice squamous-cell papillomas and in two mice carcinomas. The light fraction (230-350 degrees C) of this oil and the laboratory residue (82 ppm BP) of the latter failed to induce skin tumours. An industrial residue of a blend of shale oils containing 590 ppm BP induced in 10 mice papillomas and in three mice carcinomas, gave a positive response in the Ames assay and also induced chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. The laboratory residue and light fraction were clearly mutagenic in the Ames assay and positive responses were also obtained with the basic and neutral fractions and a polynuclear aromatics fraction.

  14. Pollution control technical manual: Lurgi oil shale retorting with open pit mining. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The Lurgi oil shale PCTM addresses the Lurgi retorting technology, developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany, in the manner in which this technology may be applied to the oil shales of the western United States. This manual proceeds through a description of the Lurgi oil shale plant proposed by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, characterizes the waste streams produced in each medium, and discusses the array of commercially available controls which can be applied to the Lurgi plant waste streams. From these generally characterized controls, several are examined in more detail for each medium in order to illustrate typical control technology operation. Control technology cost and performance estimates are presented, together with descriptions of the discharge streams, secondary waste streams and energy requirements. A summary of data limitations and needs for environmental and control technology considerations is presented.

  15. KECL finds that 18-8 alloys are needed for oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Kentucky Energy Cabinet Laboratory (KECL) has, over a period of several years, investigated the corrosion and wear of materials of construction in oil shale retorting. The objective of the program was to develop an alloy performance database so that cost-effective materials of construction can be selected for plant designs. The KECL researchers conclude that 18-8 type alloys are needed for components exposed to gas and mist. For components exposed to interaction of erosion or abrasion with corrosion, wastage rates can be 10-20 times those under corrosion alone. These areas should probably be refractory or ceramic lined. Any metallic components (thermowells, etc.) will need to be protected by hard coatings or overlays. In condensate systems, the low alloys suffered extensive corrosive damage. Ferritic and stabilized austinitic stainless steels can be used to prevent stress corrosion cracking in these systems. 4 tables.

  16. Improving the dependability of critical thermocouple thermometry for fossil-fuel gasifiers and retorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.

    1982-07-01

    Critical thermocouple thermometry is such a measurement in which either excessive error or loss of signal can result in unacceptable consequences. To avoid these consequences it is necessary that the thermometry survive whatever adverse environment accompanies the measurement; however, it is just as essential to accomplish definite, adequate, demonstrated accuracy. This report describes some of the more significant problems involved in applying thermocouple thermometry in hostile environments. For example a hostile environment is encountered in some locations in gasifiers and retorts; there sensor damage is likely. A model of defective thermocouples is used to describe several damage mechanisms, their effects on dependability, and the symptoms that allow their detection. The model illustrates why many significant errors can occur unrecognized and demonstrates the practical need for real-time validation diagnostics. Special continual diagnostic techniques are described that can help to establish the dependability of critical measurement throughout the period of use.

  17. Changes in physicochemical properties of retort-sterilized dairy beverages during storage.

    PubMed

    Cano-Ruiz, M E; Richter, R L

    1998-08-01

    The effects of composition, storage time, and storage temperature on the physicochemical properties of a retort-sterilized dairy beverage were investigated. Drinks with eight formulations were stored at 4, 25, and 37 degrees C for 6 mo and were analyzed monthly for pH, net color difference, apparent viscosity, sedimentation index, homogenization index, particle size index, and soluble calcium. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the beverages increased as storage time and temperature increased. The degree of change was affected by the composition of the product. Sodium tripolyphosphate was implicated in promoting age gelation of samples with 11% nonfat milk solids, but sedimentation was observed in the absence of sodium tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. The apparent viscosity of samples affected the rate of age gelation and sedimentation, both of which increased as viscosity decreased. Interactions between milk fat, carrageenan, and nonfat milk solids were important in determining the apparent viscosity of the beverages and the rate of change observed during storage.

  18. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Relationship between peel force, opening force, and burst force for a semi-rigid cup and lid, pre- and post-retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalakha, Raj Prakash

    This research determines if there is any relationship between the peel force, the opening force and the burst force for a semi-rigid cup and lid system, for pre- and post-retort conditions. It also compares the relationship (regression lines) between these forces pre- and post-retort. These seal results were studied by varying the sealing parameters of dwell time and temperature while keeping the pressure constant. Polypropylene cups and a peelable barrier retort lidding were used in this study. As compared to past research, a different peel testing technique was used to measure the peel and the opening force. The entire lid was peeled to measure the "true" opening and peel forces experienced by the consumer. A dynamic burst test was performed using unrestrained plates. Creep tests were performed to ensure a good quality of seals. The relationship for these forces, which were measured on different cups due to their destructive nature, were found using instrument variables (dwell time and temperature). The study found that there was a relationship between these the three force for both pre- and post-retort conditions. Six regression equations for these relationships were found. The pre- and post-retort regression lines were compared. The nature of these forces were found to be different pre- and post-retort. Different concepts were discussed to better understand the nature of these forces pre- and post-retort, such as modes of failure, cold crystallization of materials in the retort, sealant flow at high temperatures and dwell times, and so on.

  20. Comparison of the InPouch TV culture system and Diamond's modified medium for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, M H; Torres, J; Piña, C; Klein, R S

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the use of Diamond's modified medium to InPouch for the culture of Trichomonas vaginalis from pooled vaginal secretions. The sensitivity for InPouch was 82.4% (61/74) versus 87.8% (65/74) for Diamond's modified medium. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity and negative predictive value of InPouch compared to Diamond's modified medium. PMID:9399542

  1. Characteristic and antioxidant activity of retorted gelatin hydrolysates from cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Ho, Hsin-Yi; Chu, Yuh-Jwo; Chow, Chau-Jen

    2008-09-01

    Alkali-pretreated cobia (Rachycentron canadum) skin was extracted in a retort (121°C) for 30min to obtain a retorted skin gelatin hydrolysate (RSGH). The molecular mass distributions and antioxidant activities of cobia RSGH and enzyme-treated RSGHs (ET-RSGHs) derived from bromelain, papain, pancreatin, and trypsin digestion were then characterized. The molecular mass distribution of the RSGH ranged mainly between 20,000 and 700Da and those of ET-RSGHs ranged between 6500 and 700Da. The DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effects (%) of 10mg/ml of RSGH and 10mg/ml of the four ET-RSGHs were 55% and 51-61%, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition (%) of RSGH and ET-RSGHs (10mg/ml) were 58% and 60-71% on the fifth day in a linoleic acid model system, respectively. The 3Kd-ET-RSGHs, obtained by using a series of centrifugal ultrafiltration filters (molecular weight cut-offs of 10, 5, and 3kDa done sequentially with decreasing pore size), exhibited dramatically improved antioxidant activity, with most of the molecular mass ranging below 700Da. Compared to 10mg/ml of the RSGH, 10mg/ml of 3Kd-ET-RSGHs exhibited 45-65% more scavenging of DPPH radical and 24-38% more inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The peptides with molecular masses below 700Da in the ET-RSGHs or 3Kd-ET-RSGHs significantly affect the antioxidant properties. These peptides are composed of a small number of amino acids or free amino acids and have the potential to be added as antioxidants in foods.

  2. Functional results after TME: J-pouch vs straight coloanal anastomosis and role of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luglio, Gaetano; Masone, Stefania; Quarto, Gennaro; Benassai, Giacomo; Sollazzo, Viviana; Tarquini, Rachele; Celentano, Valerio; Giglio, Mariano; Bucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to evaluate short and long term functional outcomes after TME (total mesorectal excision) for rectal cancer. The role of straight anastomosis or colonic J-pouch reconstruction is investigated, as well as the impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy is analyzed as a cause of the so called "anterior resection syndrome". We enrolled 40 patients (17 male and 23 female), in which a low anterior resection was performed: they were divided in four groups: A1 (Straight and no RCT), A2 (Straight and RCT), B1 (J-pouch and no RCT), B2 (J-pouch and RCT). Follow-up was performed six and twelve months after surgery, through a clinical questionnaire ( to assess: stool frequency, incomplete emptying, the presence of fecal leakage, urgency and incontinence ) and through anorectal manometry ( to assess rest pressure, squeeze pressure, max tolerated volume and compliance). Results were evaluated through T-Student and Chi-Squared test. Six months after surgery, colonic J-pouch offers the best clinical and functional results, in both radiated and not radiated patients (except for incomplete emptying); in the straight group, however, there is an improvement of results after twelve months. Chemoradiation therapy is always associated with worse functional results. RCT seems to invalidate J-pouch function in particular, in fact twelve months after surgery the difference between J-Pouch and Straight groups is not statistically different for most of the parameters. J-pouch gives a real functional advantage for only six months after surgery, especially in patients treated with neoajuvant chemoradiation therapy.

  3. Evidence for hyaluronan production in the air pouch model in rats.

    PubMed

    Generini, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Partsch, G; Stancikova, M; Pignone, A; Konttinen, Y T; Rovensky, J; Baker, D J; Schumacher, H R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our work was to investigate the presence of hyaluronan (HA) in the rat air pouch and its behaviour in response to inflammatory stimuli. HA levels (by a microplate assay) and the leucocyte count were determined in the fluid obtained from air pouches in which acute or subacute inflammation had been induced by the injection of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) debris respectively and in relative controls. In control pouches of both groups, remarkable levels of HA were found; these levels were higher in the very first hours (2475 and 1850 micrograms/l at 6 hrs) and then gradually decreased. In pouches injected with MSU, HA moderately increased (p < 0.001) after 6 hrs, reached a peak after 12 hrs (p < 0.001) and began to taper at 24 hrs (p < 0.001). The leucocyte count was also increased at 6 hrs (p < 0.001), became higher at 12 hrs (p < 0.001) and tapered at 24 hrs (p < 0.001). In the HDPE pouches, HA levels were significantly reduced with respect to controls after 6 hours (p < 0.001), increasing later (p < 0.001) to reach a peak at 24 hrs (p < 0.001), and returning to the original levels, or even below, in the following 72 hours. These data confirm that the pouch lining produces fair amounts of HA and provide evidence that, in this system, HA levels seem to be influenced by the degree of inflammation even if with variable behaviour in relation to the different characteristics and phases of phlogosis. The present data suggest that the air pouch is a useful experimental model for studies on HA metabolism in either acute or chronic inflammation.

  4. An in vitro metronidazole susceptibility test for trichomoniasis using the InPouch TV test.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, K A; Li, Z; Zhang, M Z; Shing, H

    1996-04-01

    An efficient anaerobic culture system, the InPouch TV test, was used to determine the susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole. Glacial acetic acid was employed as a solvent for metronidazole. T vaginalis isolates were cultured from 16 symptomatic female patients. The 11 who responded to oral metronidazole, 250 mg tid for 7 days, were considered as having sensitive trichomonads; the 5 who remained infected after treatment were considered to have resistant organisms. All isolates were cultured for minimum lethal concentrations (MLC). Metronidazole was added to a series of pouches; two-fold dilution of the most concentrated was 50 micrograms/ml and the least was 0.4 micrograms/ml. The inoculum of viable trichomonads was 1 x 105/ml in each pouch. Pouches were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h, examined microscopically for motile trichomonads, and then 0.5 ml was subcultured to drug free pouches. After 5 days incubation at 37 degrees C, each subculture and culture were examined microscopically for viable trichomonads. Eleven isolates of T vaginalis from patients responding to metronidazole treatment had MLC between 0.4 to 3.1 micrograms/ml. The MLC from the 5 treatment failure patients were between 12.5 to 50 micrograms/ml. For the 16 patients in this study, the MLC values determined with the InPouch TV test differentiated between infection caused by metronidazole sensitive and resistant trichomonads. The mean MLC of clinically resistant isolates was approximately eleven fold higher than the mean MLC of clinically sensitive isolates (15 micrograms/ml vs 1.32 micrograms/ml). There was a significant difference between clinically resistant and sensitive isolates (t = 5.47, p < 0.0005). This study suggests that the InPouch TV test could be used for distinguishing between metronidazole resistant and sensitive isolates.

  5. Correlation between pouch function and sexual function in patients with IPAA.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Marie Louise; Øresland, Tom; Engebreth Færden, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the treatment of choice for ulcerative colitis refractory to medical treatment and familial adenomatous polyposis. The objective of this study was to study the impact of postoperative pouch function on sexual function. Sexual function after IPAA surgery has also been compared to sexual function in the average Norwegian population. All patients having undergone IPAA from 2000 to June 2013 were identified from the hospital medical record files and sent validated questionnaires regarding their sexual function. Pouch function was scored according to Oresland score through a phone interview. Patients operated on or before June 2012 were asked to answer the same questionnaires twice with an interval of one year to see how stable sexual function is over time. Sixty-eight out of 100 consecutive patients answered the questionnaire regarding both sexual function and pouch function (44 men, 24 women). There was no significant relationship between pouch and sexual function in men (p-value 0.158, corr. coefficient - 0.216). In women there was a significant relationship (p-value - 0.01, corr. coefficient 0.517). There was no significant shift in sexual function during the study period. We found no significant correlation between sexual function and pouch function in men. In women, we found a significant correlation between poor pouch function and impaired sexual function. As similar studies have found, sexual function remains good after IPAA surgery. This is an important information for patients and physicians, both to inform patients correctly prior to surgery, and in the postoperative follow-up.

  6. IPAA-related sepsis significantly increases morbidity of ileoanal pouch excision.

    PubMed

    Maya, Antonio M; Boutros, Marylise; DaSilva, Giovanna; Wexner, Steven D

    2015-05-01

    Perineal wound complications after ileoanal pouch excision remain a significant cause of morbidity. The purpose of this work was to describe the incidence, outcomes, and predictors of perineal wound complications after pouch excision. This was a retrospective medical chart review. The study was conducted in a single clinical institution. Patients who underwent pouch excision at our institution from July 1992 through July 2012 were identified. Patient and perioperative variables were reviewed. Multivariate and univariate analyses were undertaken. Perineal wound (including perineal wound infection and persistent perineal sinus [nonhealing by 6 months]) and perineal hernia were measured. A total of 47 patients (mean age, 46 years; 42.6% men) with familial adenomatous polyposis (10.6%), mucosal ulcerative colitis (61.7%), or Crohn's disease (27.7%) underwent pouch excision, including 36.2% for IPAA-related sepsis (presacral abscess; perineal-, sacral-, or pouch-vaginal fistula; and anastomotic defect), 44.7% for pouch dysfunction, 10.6% for refractory pouchitis, and 8.5% for neoplasia. Fourteen (29.8%) developed perineal wound complications, including 100% perineal wound infection, 28.6% persistent perineal sinus, and 7.1% perineal hernia. Perineal wound infection was associated with delayed healing (>6 weeks; 71.4% vs 24.2%; p = 0.002) and IPAA-related sepsis (28.6% vs 0%; p = 0.001). Patients with and without perineal wound complications were similar in age, diagnoses, fecal diversion, immunosuppression, comorbid conditions, nutrition, and surgical variables. Most patients underwent intersphincteric dissection (87.2%) with primary perineal closure (97.0%). Perineal wound complications were significantly associated with IPAA-related sepsis as an indication for pouch excision (57.1% vs 27.2%; p = 0.05), intraoperative pouch perforation (35.7% vs 9.1%, p =0.03), and smoking (21.4% vs 3.0%; p = 0.04). IPAA-related sepsis and a current smoking status (OR, 19.3 [95% CI, 1

  7. Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

  8. Optimization of processing conditions for the sterilization of retorted short-rib patties using the response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Hee; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum sterilization conditions for short-rib patties in retort trays by considering microbiological safety, nutritive value, sensory characteristics, and textural properties. In total, 27 sterilization conditions with various temperatures, times, and processing methods were tested using a 3(3) factorial design. The response surface methodology (RSM) and contour analysis were applied to find the optimum sterilization conditions for the patties. Quality attributes were significantly affected by the sterilization temperature, time, and processing method. From RSM and contour analysis, the final optimum sterilization condition of the patties that simultaneously satisfied all specifications was determined to be 119.4°C for 18.55min using a water-cascading rotary mode. The findings of the present study suggest that using optimized sterilization conditions will improve the microbial safety, sensory attributes, and nutritional retention for retorted short-rib patties.

  9. Design of small-size pouch motors for rat gait rehabilitation device.

    PubMed

    Shih-Yin Chang; Takashima, Kenta; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Niiyama, Ryuma; Someya, Takao; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that active gait training can recover voluntary locomotive ability of paralyzed rats. Rehabilitation devices used for studying spinal cord injury to date are usually fixed on a treadmill, but they have been used only slightly for active training. To process active rehabilitation, a wearable, lightweight device with adequate output is needed. Pouch motors, soft pneumatic actuators, are extremely light and have other benefits such as low cost, easy fabrication, and highly customizable design. They can be used to develop active gait rehabilitation devices. However, performance details of different motor designs have not been examined. As described herein, to build a wearable gait assistive device for rat study, we specifically examine how to design small pouch motors with a good contraction ratio and force output. Results show that pouch performance decreases dramatically with size, but better output is obtainable by separation into small 0.8 length-to-width ratio rooms. We used this knowledge to produce an assistive robot suit for gait rehabilitation and to test it with paralyzed rats. Results show that these small pouches can produce sufficient power to control hip joint movements during gait training. They can reveal the potential for new pouch motor applications for spinal cord injury studies.

  10. Heterogeneity of vascular innervation in hamster cheek pouch and retractor muscle.

    PubMed

    Grasby, D J; Morris, J L; Segal, S S

    1999-01-01

    The hamster cheek pouch and its retractor muscle have provided valuable insights into microvascular physiology of an epithelial tissue and striated muscle, respectively. Nevertheless, the innervation of these vascular beds has not been resolved. This study has investigated the nature of autonomic and sensory innervation of these vascular beds and has tested whether it varies within or between tissues. Multiple-labelling immunohistochemistry identified autonomic and peptide-containing sensory nerve fibres. Presumptive sympathetic vasoconstrictor axons with immunoreactivity (IR) for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervated feed arteries and arterioles (but not veins or venules) of the retractor and anterior (muscular) cheek pouch; these axons were absent from the posterior (epithelial) region of the cheek pouch, as confirmed by catecholamine fluorescence. Presumptive autonomic vasodilator axons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) consistently innervated feed arteries and proximal arterioles of the cheek pouch, but generally not those of the retractor muscle nor distal arterioles of either tissue. Sparse presumptive sensory axons with IR for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P were found near arterial and venous vessels in all regions of the cheek pouch and retractor muscle; CGRP-IR was also located in motor end plates associated with striated muscle fibres. Such regional differences in vascular innervation by autonomic and sensory neurons may selectively effect local and regional control of blood flow between and within vascular beds. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term exposure to an aqueous extract of hog barn dust increases macromolecular efflux from the intact hamster cheek pouch and, if so, to begin to determine the mechanism(s) underlying this response. By using intravital microscopy, we found that suffusion of hog barn dust extract onto the intact hamster cheek pouch for 60 min elicited a significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (molecular mass, 70 kDa). This response was significantly attenuated by suffusion of catalase (60 U/ml), but not by heat-inactivated catalase, and by pretreatment with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg iv) (P < 0.05). Catalase had no significant effects on adenosine-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the cheek pouch. Suffusion of hog barn dust extract had no significant effects on arteriolar diameter in the cheek pouch. Taken together, these data indicate that hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch, in part, through local elaboration of reactive oxygen species that are inactivated by catalase. This response is specific and attenuated by corticosteroids. We suggest that plasma exudation plays an important role in the genesis of upper airway dysfunction evoked by short-term exposure to hog barn dust.

  12. A follow up audit of pharyngeal pouch surgery using endoscopic stapling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard P; Weller, Matt D; Porter, Martin J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess patient satisfaction, success at controlling symptoms and conversion rates to open surgery in patients undergoing pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler in a second cycle of audit. The design consisted of a review of patient records augmented by an electronic search of operation codes in the hospitals' theatre records. The setting was in Worcester Royal Hospital, BUPA Southbank Hospital and Hereford Hospital, UK. Participants include all patients with pharyngeal pouches undergoing endoscopic pharyngeal pouch repair by the senior author between July 2002 and July 2007. The total number of participants was 31. All patients were undergoing treatment for the first time. The main outcome measures were pre- and postoperative symptom prevalence, conversion rates to open surgery, patient satisfaction. Endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery was successful in the vast majority of cases, with 97% of patients being satisfied with the result. The conversion rate to open surgery was 9.7%. These figures are improved from the last round of audit. In conclusion, endoscopic surgery to treat pharyngeal pouches is safe, effective and patient selection is improving. A modified method of endoscopy using a Negus scope rather than a Baldwin scope has allowed more patients to be treated via endoscopic methods. Open surgery is still required in some patients.

  13. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Strniste, G F; Chen, D J

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  14. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). PMID:26195886

  15. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA).

  16. Development and evaluation of a reflective solar disinfection pouch for treatment of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Walker, D Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-04-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials.

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Reflective Solar Disinfection Pouch for Treatment of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-01-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials. PMID:15066858

  18. Computed tomography-guided endoscopic needle knife therapy for ileal pouch sinus.

    PubMed

    Nyabanga, Custon T; Veniero, Joseph; Shen, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery can be complicated by anastomotic leaks, leading to the formation of abscess and chronic sinus that have been routinely managed by a surgical approach. We developed the endoscopic needle knife sinusotomy (NKSi) technique, which has become a valid alternative. The basic principle of endoscopic NKSi is dissection and drainage of the sinus through its orifice internally into the lumen of pouch body. The success of NKSi requires an access to the sinus from the pouch side. One of the most challenging situations for NKSi is a closed orifice of the sinus, which leaves an isolated chronic abscess cavity. Here we report a case of complicated presacral sinus with a closed orifice that was not amenable to NKSi, necessitating a CT-guided guide wire placement and subsequent NKSi.

  19. Morphological characteristics of the temporomandibular joint in the pouch young of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Sugisaki, M; Kino, K; Ishikawa, T; Kawashima, S; Amemiya, T

    2015-04-01

    We recently reported the absence of the articular disc, which is a constant structure in mammals, in the temporomandibular joint of the adult Tasmanian devil. However, whether the articular disc disappears with growth of the animal was unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pouch young of the Tasmanian devil has the articular disc. The temporomandibular joint of a fresh carcass of the pouch young, whose crown-rump length was 43 mm, was examined microscopically and by microcomputed tomography. The absence of the articular disc in the pouch young temporomandibular joint was histologically confirmed. It is suggested that the articular disc of the Tasmanian devil is naturally absent. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Female reproductive health after ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2003-04-01

    Ileal pouch anal anastomosis is the surgical treatment of choice for ulcerative colitis, offering intestinal continuity and fecal continence. IPAA does not seem to affect menstrual function or gynecologic symptoms. Overall sexual satisfaction may be improved with surgery, although ability to experience orgasm and coital frequency remain essentially unchanged. However, dyspareunia seems to increase postoperatively. Fertility is also adversely affected by IPAA, possibly a result of pelvic adhesions. Pregnancy is characterized by a transient increase in day and night stool frequency and incontinence that resolves after delivery. The ideal route of delivery has not been determined, but vaginal delivery seems safe and does not directly cause pouch dysfunction. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader will be able to describe the procedure ileal pouch anal anastomosis, to summarize the effects of IPAA on menstrual function and sexual health, and to outline the association of IPAA and infertility.

  1. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome.

  2. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  3. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  4. Endoscopic closure instead of surgery to close an ileal pouch fistula with the over-the-scope clip system

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Gong, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Ming

    2017-01-01

    An ileal pouch fistula is an uncommon complication after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Most patients who suffer from an ileal pouch fistula will need surgical intervention. However, the surgery can be invasive and has a high risk compared to endoscopic treatment. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system was initially developed for hemostasis and leakage closure in the gastrointestinal tract during flexible endoscopy. There have been many successes in using this approach to apply perforations to the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, this approach has not been used for ileal pouch fistulas until currently. In this report, we describe one patient who suffered a leak from the tip of the “J” pouch and was successfully treated with endoscopic closure via the OTSC system. A 26-year-old male patient had an intestinal fistula at the tip of the “J” pouch after an ileal pouch anal anastomosis procedure. He received endoscopic treatment via OTSC under intravenous anesthesia, and the leak was closed successfully. Endoscopic closure of a pouch fistula could be a simpler alternative to surgery and could help avoid surgery-related complications. PMID:28250903

  5. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  6. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  7. Influence of age at ileoanal pouch creation on long-term changes in functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kiran, R P; El-Gazzaz, G; Remzi, F H; Church, J M; Lavery, I C; Hammel, J; Fazio, V W

    2011-02-01

    We reviewed the functional results and quality of life (QOL) of patients who had had an ileoanal pouch (IPAA) for at least 15 years. Retrospective analysis was undertaken of data accrued prospectively into a pouch database since 1983. Patients who had retained an IPAA for at least 15 years were identified. Trends in IPAA function and QOL of the patients were determined over a time-period of 15 years after formation of the IPAA. Data were compared for patients who were < 35, 35-55 and > 55 years of age when the IPAA was formed. Three hundred and ninety-six of a total of 3276 patients in the database (53% men, median age 36 years and median follow-up 17.1 years) underwent IPAA with at least 15 years of follow-up. The final pathology was ulcerative colitis in 78%; 66.4% of patients had a restorative proctocolectomy, 91.4% underwent temporary diversion, 59% had a J-pouch configuration and 63.1% a stapled anastomosis. The frequency of bowel movements remained the same over the follow-up period. There was an increase in the incidence of incontinence and urgency after 15 years with no significant change in dietary, social, work and sexual restrictions during follow-up. Patients in all three age groups experienced deterioration in pouch function at 15 years of follow up compared with the function at 5 years. The QOL of the patients remained high and stable. There is a deterioration of pouch function after 15 years, irrespective of the age of the patient when the IPAA was formed. Despite this, QOL appears to be high for all patients who retain their pouch. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Significant bacterial contamination risk reduction with the use of diversion pouch.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Wong, H K; Ho, P L; Tsoi, W C; Lee, K Y; Tsui, G T F; Chua, E; Leung, J N S; Lin, C K

    2012-12-01

    Significant efforts have been made towards bacterial risk minimization by limiting the chance of bacteria entering into collected blood, detecting its presence and eliminating them by pathogen reduction technology. Improved skin disinfection and the use of diversion pouch are effective upstream measures to reduce the risk of bacterial sepsis. Here we report on our experience with the use of blood bags with diversion pouch. An observational study was performed to compare the bacterial contamination rate for two periods of time, i.e. before and after introduction of diversion pouch into blood bags. The incidence of bacterial contamination was monitored by the existing bacterial surveillance programme using pooled samples from 5 units of random donor platelets underwent aerobic culture in the BacT/ALERT 3D system. Between 1 June 2004 and 31 May 2006 (blood bag without diversion pouch), 50 (0·0213%) out of 234,252 units of random donor platelets were found to have bacteria on culture whereas 15 (0·0057%) isolates out of 262,156 units were found from 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2009 (after diversion pouch was introduced). Overall, there was an 85% reduction in bacterial contaminated risk due to skin flora (P < 0·0001) but an increasing trend of detection of non skin flora such as Streptococcus bovis was noted. Integration of diversion pouch into blood bags to divert the first 30 mL blood during blood collection on top of the current skin disinfection protocol can significantly reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. © 2012 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2012 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Vaginal delivery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Remzi, Feza H; Gorgun, Emre; Bast, Jane; Schroeder, Tom; Hammel, Jeffrey; Philipson, Elliot; Hull, Tracy L; Church, James M; Fazio, Victor W

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of childbirth on anal sphincter integrity and function, functional outcome, and quality of life in females with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The patients who had at least one live birth after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were asked to return for a comprehensive assessment. They were asked to complete the following questionnaires: the Short Form-36, Cleveland Global Quality of Life scale, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons fecal incontinence severity index, and time trade-off method. Additionally, anal sphincter integrity (endosonography) and manometric pressures were measured by a medical physician blinded to the delivery technique. Anal sphincter physiology also was evaluated with electromyography and pudendal nerve function by nerve terminal motor latency technique. Of 110 eligible females who had at least one live birth after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 57 participated in the study by returning for clinical evaluation to the clinic and 25 others by returning the quality of life and functional outcome questionnaires. Patients were classified into two groups: patients who had only cesarean section delivery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 62) and patients who had at least one vaginal delivery after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 20). The mean follow-up from the date of the most recent delivery was 4.9 years. The vaginal delivery group had significantly higher incidence of an anterior sphincter defect by anal endosonography (50 percent) vs. cesarean section delivery group (13 percent; P = 0.012). The mean squeeze anal pressure was significantly higher in the patients who had only cesarean section delivery (150 mmHg) after restorative proctocolectomy than patients who had at least one vaginal delivery (120 mmHg) after restorative proctocolectomy (P = 0.049). Quality of life evaluated by time trade-off method also was significantly better in the cesarean section delivery

  10. Factors affecting cost and length of stay associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Brian R; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Koltun, Walter A

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis procedure and identify those factors that most affected or determined such costs. Specifically evaluated were the costs, complication rates, and length of stay associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis done as a one-stage, two-stage, two-stage modified, or three-stage procedure. Costs from the hospital accounting database and clinical data from retrospective chart review of 135 ileal pouch-anal anastomosis patients from a ten-year period were compiled. Overall costs and length of stay (the sum of all hospitalizations for all surgeries and any related complications) for each group were compared by analysis of variance. Linear regression was used to compute net costs and length of stay excluding contributions from other relevant factors such as number of operative stages, complications, demographics, and nonelective operations. The average overall cost and length of stay of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis ranged from a low of $12,738 and 13.5 days for the one-stage procedure to a high of $32,758 and 23.9 days for the three-stage pathway. Overall costs, length of stay, and incidence of complications increased with the number of operations necessary to complete the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This pattern of increased costs and length of stay with the greater number of stages persisted even after demographic and preoperative characteristics were controlled for in the analyses. The occurrence of a complication added an average of $9,304 (P < 0.0001) and 7.4 days to the procedure (P = 0.0002), whereas an urgent presentation added an average of $5,258 (P = 0.15) and 6.1 days (P = 0.04). The two most definitive determinants of cost and length of stay after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are complications and number of operative stages used to complete the operation. Elective ileal pouch-anal anastomosis operations done in the fewest stages with the least

  11. Puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage for pouch-vaginal fistula after rectal cancer surgery with colonic J pouch-anal reconstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Aya; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okigami, Masato; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The management of postoperative rectovaginal fistula (RVF) after rectal cancer surgery is difficult and requires reconstruction of the anastomotic site and fistula. Though various surgical procedures have been reported for the repair of RVFs, the results of surgical repair are often unsatisfactory, and failure of the initial repair leads to difficulty in the later operations. Furthermore, it has been reported that cases associated with local infection result in low success rates. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman with a recurrent colonic J pouch-vaginal fistula after anoabdominal rectal resection with partial internal sphincteric resection, who achieved a good outcome following a repair using a puborectal sling interposition combined with seton drainage. It may be a useful option for RVF management in repair of such pouch-vaginal fistula after coloanal anastomosis with intersphincteric resection.

  12. Developing the Geokinetics/Department of Energy horizontal in situ retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under a cooperative agreement between Geokinetics Inc., and the US Department of Energy, spanning on eight year period. A large body of experimental data was generated which has been previously reported in a series of published and unpublished reports, as indicated in Chapter VII. The report summarizes research work performed from April of 1975 to August 15, 1985, but emphasizes data generated during the final three years of the project, when five large retorts were tested. The report draws conclusions based upon the total program, including work performed by Geokinetics prior to entering into the Cooperative Agreement, and presents the initial parameters useful for scaleup and design of a commercial scale operation, including data useful for assessing the environmental impacts and criteria for mitigation of such impacts. Specific details concerning the various aspects of the program may be obtained from the many previous reports that have been generated from the date of project initiation. A list of these reports is presented in Chapter VII. 28 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Shale oil from the LLNL pilot retort: Metal ions as markers for water and dust

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Duewer, T.I.; King, K.J.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A metal ion found primarily in one of the three phases (oil, water, or dust) can serve as a marker for that phase. Emulsified water contains most of the magnesium detected in a shale oil. Extraction with saturated salt solution removes most of that Mg. The Mg content of retort water and the percentage of water in the oil (by ASTM D-4006) provides a good estimate of an oil`s Mg content. Mineral matter elements with poorly water soluble carbonates (or oxides) at pH 8 (calcium, for example) serve as markers for dust. When the water is separated from the main and light oil fractions before adding the heavy fraction containing dust, a much drier oil can be obtained. However, when done in this way, a powder containing Ca and Si remains in the oil; it cannot be completely removed even by filtering through a 0.24-{mu} frit. Iron, and certain other transition metal ions, is quite oil soluble. Extraction with dilute nitric acid to remove basic amines reduces the Fe content of shale oil. Unlike carboxylate- complexed metal ions in crude oils, the iron in shale oil does not extract efficiently into an aqueous EDTA solution (pH 5.9). Distillation of shale oil leaves most of the iron and other metals behind in the vacuum residum. Shale oil corrodes the hottest condenser`s steel interior; this is the chief source of iron in the oil.

  14. Gamma 60Co-irradiation of organic matter in the Phosphoria Retort Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Ulmishek, G. F.; Harrison, W.; Schreiner, F.

    1991-04-01

    Irradiation experiments were conducted on a thermally immature rock sample of the Phosphoria Retort Shale and its isolated kerogen. A 60Co-source for gamma radiation was employed at dosages ranging from 81 to 885 Mrads, which are attainable by Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales with syngenetic uranium enrichments. Kerogen elemental, isotopic, and pyrolysate compositions are not affected at these dosages, but the bitumens extracted from the irradiated rock are affected. The major effects are reductions in the amounts of bitumen, acyclic isoprenoids, and high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids. Natural differences in the amounts of bitumen and acyclic isoprenoid due to regional and stratigraphie variations in organic source input and depositional conditions make the radiation-induced reductions in these parameters difficult to use as indicators of natural radiation damage in black shales. However, the preferential reduction in the high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids, which are ubiquitous in the living precursory organic matter, is diagnostic of experimental γ-irradiation but may not be diagnostic of natural irradiation. The overall process associated with radiation damage is polymerization by cross-linking through a free radical mechanism. As a result, irradiation of organic matter in black shales is more likely to retard rather than enhance petroleum generation.

  15. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Vego, A.; Stehn, J.; Taulbee, D.; Robl, T.; Hower, J.; Mahboub, K.; Robertson, R.; Hornsberger, P.; Oduroh, P.; Simpson, A.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis (shale oil production), gasification (synthesis gas production), and combustion of the spent oil shale for process heat. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The work completed this year involved several different areas. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors were carried out in fluidized and fixed bed reactors using both freshly generated shale oil vapors and model compounds. The design and fabrication of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II reactor was completed and installation of the process components was initiated. The raw oil shale sample (Cleveland Member from Montgomery County, Kentucky) for the program was mined, prepared, characterized and stored. A preliminary study of KENTORT II-derived oil for possible paving applications was completed, and it was concluded that the shale exhibits acceptable properties as an asphalt recycling agent.

  16. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite.

  17. [Use of surgical staplers in proctocolectomy with ileal pouch. Effects on immediate results].

    PubMed

    Montesani, C; Pronio, A; De Milito, R; Narilli, P; D'Amato, A; Ribotta, G

    1992-04-01

    The immediate results of 37 restorative proctocolectomies are reported comparing morbidity of stapled vs manual procedures. The stapled technique is easier and faster but does not reduce the incidence of leakages and pelvic sepsis related to the ileal pouch. It seems, though, to be more useful in reducing the morbidity related to the ileoanal anastomosis.

  18. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  19. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  20. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  1. Storage stability of packaged baby formula in poly(lactide)-whey protein isolate laminated pouch.

    PubMed

    Phupoksakul, Thunyaluck; Leuangsukrerk, Manusawee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Janjarasskul, Theeranun

    2017-08-01

    The use of biodegradable polymeric materials has been proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to petroleum-based packaging. To extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In the present study, shelf life analysis of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches was performed at 4-35 (o) C and 50-59% relative humidity. Despite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the results demonstated that the transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (P > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at a higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain. The results indicate that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch has good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35 (o) C and 50-59% relative humidity for an extended period of time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  3. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of…

  4. Infestation and development of Sitophilus spp. in pouch-packaged spaghetti in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mika; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro

    2008-06-01

    Infestation of pouch-packaged spaghetti by Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was observed in Japan in May 2006. It was suggested that 30% of all shipped pasta products sustain damage to the packages heat-sealed before reaching retail stores. Hence, we investigated the mechanisms by which S. oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults invade pasta packaged in polypropylene pouches. In the damaged packages, both species entered through the breaks in the seal and laid their eggs on the pasta. However, in the intact packages, the adults of both species bit around air vent holes in the film, but they did not make the holes big enough for entry into the pouch. We also compared each species' developmental periods from oviposition to emergence in pasta and brown rice (Oryza spp.). The average developmental period of both species at 25 degrees C was shorter in rice than in pasta. The number of individuals emerging from brown rice was significantly higher than that from pasta. Finally, we suggested a measure to prevent infestation by insect pests in pouch-packaged pasta products.

  5. Long-term adjustment to living with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Berndtsson, Ina E; Carlsson, Eva K; Persson, Eva I; Lindholm, Elisabet A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe long-term adjustment to life with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis after surgery for ulcerative colitis, to investigate the relationship of pouch function to adjustment, and to explore factors affecting quality of life. A total of 369 patients treated between 1982 and 1993 were included in the study. Questionnaires designed to assess bowel (pouch) function (Öresland score) and disease-specific adjustment (Swedish version of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale), plus open-ended questions regarding quality of life, were sent by mail. Open-ended questions were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. A total of 252 patients (84%) returned the disease-specific adjustment questionnaire (141 males/111 females); median age, 51 (range, 26-77) years; median follow-up, 15 (range, 10-21) years after construction of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. High adjustment ratings were found for all statements, with the maximum median score of 6 on 28 of the 36 items. Items with the lowest ratings (median score, 5) pertained to things one would do if not for the IPAA, feeling free to travel, ability to enjoy sexual activities, comfort with body image, ability to laugh about awkward situations, confidence in the appliance, and whether the surgery helped with decisions on what things are most important in life. Participants with the lowest adjustment scores had low bowel function scores (P < .0001). Open-ended quality of life questions were answered by 150 patients (59.5%). The most important areas for quality of life were health, family, restroom access, and friends. Five categories emerged from the qualitative content analysis: living a "normal" life, food restrictions, physical limitations, influence of restroom access on social life, and being dependent on medical care. Most participants had adjusted well to life with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and considered life to be normal. Good public restrooms were important for quality of life. Improving

  6. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  7. Outcome and functional prognosis of pelvic sepsis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ide, Shozo; Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Kawamura, Mikio; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2017-03-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis, but pouch failure or pelvic sepsis still occurs in some patients. We conducted this study to investigate the cause of pouch failure and evaluate defecatory function after pelvic sepsis. A total of 234 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy were enrolled. We analyzed the cause of pouch failure, as well as defecatory function and manometric outcomes, with and without the complication of pelvic sepsis. Pelvic sepsis developed in 29 (12.3%) of the 234 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy (pelvic sepsis group). The pelvic sepsis led to pouch failure in two of these patients (as a vaginal fistula in one and ileo-anal anastomotic leakage in one). Of the remaining majority of patients who did not suffer pelvic sepsis (control group), nine suffered pouch failure (as vaginal fistula in four, perianal abscess in two, pouch-spinal marrow fistula in one, and chronic pouchitis in two). There were no significant differences in defecatory function or manometric outcomes between the two groups. In the pelvic sepsis group, stool frequency was significantly correlated with white blood cell count (P = 0.01) and the duration until onset of pelvic sepsis (P < 0.01). Pelvic sepsis after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis does not affect defecatory and manometric function, but control of the inflammation caused by pelvic sepsis is integral for defecatory function.

  8. Revisional Laparoscopic Gastric Pouch Resizing for Inadequate Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Ibtisam; Khoursheed, Mousa; Al Sharaf, Khalid; Mouzannar, D Ali; Ashraf, Aqeel; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-07-01

    Weight regain due to gastric pouch dilatation after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is seen more frequently after long-term follow-up. We studied the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic pouch resizing (LPR) for dilated gastric pouch after RYGB associated with inadequate weight loss. From 1st June 2011 to 1st September 2013, patients who underwent LPR after failed RYGB were retrospectively compared and analyzed. Data included patient demographics, comorbidity, indication for revision, preoperative weight and BMI, operative time, hospital stay, conversion rate, mean follow-up, body mass index (BMI) loss, percentage excess weight loss (%EWL), reoperation rate, morbidity, and mortality. Out of 170 revisional bariatric procedures, 32 LPR (27/5, F/M) were performed for dilated gastric pouch after RYGB. The mean age, preoperative weight, and BMI were 38.3 ± 9.3 years, 101.7 ± 22.8 kg, 38.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), respectively. The median operative time and hospital stay were 100 min and 2 days, respectively. All pouch resizing procedures were carried out laparoscopically, with none requiring conversion to open surgery. The overall complication and reoperation rates were 15.6 and 3.1 %, respectively. There were no deaths. The mean follow-up was 14.1 ± 6.2 months. The mean postoperative BMI was 32.8 ± 7.3 kg/m(2), and the median %EWL was 29.1 %. LPR is safe and can lead to adequate weight loss. However, long-term follow-up is needed to determine the efficiency and durability of this procedure.

  9. Pouch young removal and return to oestrus in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Finlayson, G R; Taggart, D A; Shimmin, G A; White, C R; Dibben, R; Steele, V; Paris, M C J; Temple-Smith, P D

    2007-07-01

    The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is a seasonal breeding, burrowing marsupial adapted to a semi-arid environment and the closest relative of the endangered northern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii). Females typically give birth to one to two young every 3 years with young weaned at 360-400 days. This study examined the occurrence of polyoestry in a wild population of southern hairy-nosed wombats, and in particular the ability of this species to produce additional offspring in the same breeding season if a young was prematurely lost or removed. Pouch young were removed during the breeding seasons of 1996/1997 and 2003. No females from the 1996 (n=3)/1997 (n=3) group gave birth to a second pouch young in the same breeding season. However, two females in this group gave birth to young the following season. In contrast, all the 2003 group of females (n=6) produced a second offspring in the same breeding season after removal of pouch young (RPY). The reason for the different response to RPY between the two groups is unknown. These studies confirm that southern hairy-nosed wombats are polyoestrus in the wild and are capable of producing more than one offspring in a single breeding season. Females that failed to return to oestrus in the breeding season that pouch young were removed bred again in the following season. Rapid replacement of southern hairy-nosed wombat pouch young in the same breeding season as RPY suggests that this procedure, linked to either hand-rearing or interspecific cross-fostering, should be seriously considered as a priority conservation action to increase the population size of the critically endangered sister species, the northern hairy-nosed wombat.

  10. Measuring neoplastic transformation in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Brown, William; Wax, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is a promising technique which combines the depth resolution of low coherence interferometry with the sensitivity of light scattering spectroscopy for probing the health of epithelial tissue layers. Our new fLCI system configuration utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source and a 4-f interferometer which re-images light scattered from the sample onto the detection plane. The system employs an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire depth resolved profiles from 252 adjacent spatial points without the need for any scanning. The limited spatial coherence of the light source requires the resolution of adjacent spatial points for the generation of depth information. Depth-resolved spectral information is recovered by performing a short-time Fourier transform on the detected spectra, similar to spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain information about the neoplastic transformation of the probed cells. Previous studies have demonstrated fLCI as an excellent technique for probing the scatterer morphology of simple phantoms and of in vitro cancer cell monolayers. We now seek to assess the ability of the new fLCI system to measure the health of subsurface tissue layers using the hamster cheek pouch model. Seven hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. We expect our results to establish the feasibility of fLCI to distinguish between healthy and dysplastic epithelial tissues in the hamster cheek pouch.

  11. Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kocornik, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    Laboratory research was initiated to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated Rio Blanco oil shale retort water. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, MICROTOX assays and particle-size analysis were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. Based on MICROTOX tests, the water was much less toxic after treatment by reverse osmosis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  13. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  14. Effects of thermal maturation on steroid hydrocarbons as determined by hydrous pyrolysis of Phosphoria Retort Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Bjorøy, M.; Dolcater, D. L.

    1986-09-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Phosphoria Retort Shale generate bitumen extracts and expelled oils that have steroid hydrocarbons with m/z 217-, 231-, and 253-mass Chromatographic distributions that are similar to those of bitumens and crude oils in the natural system. These experiments agree with the natural observations that diasteroid hydrocarbons increase relative to their regular counterparts with increasing thermal stress, while their C 27 through C 29 proportionality shows a slight enrichment in C 27. Relative concentrations of 20S to 20R configurations of 24-ethyl-14α,17α-cholestane show the expected increase with increasing thermal stress into the early part of the primary oil generation stage, but thereafter decrease with increasing thermal stress. If this reversal is found in high maturity sections of the natural system, the utility of this transformation as a maturity index will be limited. Triaromatic- to monoaromatic-steroid hydrocarbon concentrations increase with increasing thermal stress as observed in the natural system. Preferred migration of monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons from bitumen extracts to expelled oils places considerable doubt on currently employed kinetic models for this aromatization reaction. As in the natural system, the experiments show relative concentrations of low-molecular weight- to high-molecular weight-triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons to increase with increasing thermal stress. Assuming a first-order reaction rate, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for this apparent side-chain cleavage reaction are 175.59 kJ mol -1 and 2.82 × 10 13hr-1, respectively. These kinetic parameters are geologically reasonable and are similar to those for the overall generation of expelled oil.

  15. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  16. Crohn's-like complications in patients with ulcerative colitis after total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, N S; Sanford, W W; Bodzin, J H

    1997-11-01

    Total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become an established surgical procedure for ulcerative colitis. Occasional patients who have undergone IPAA develop persistent or recurrent episodes of pouchitis (chronic pouchitis), from which a subset also develop gastrointestinal and systemic complications that are identical to those seen in Crohn's disease. These complications include enteric stenoses or fistulas in the pouch or pouch inlet segment, perianal fistulas or abscesses, pouch fistulas, arthritis, iridocyclitis, and pyoderma gangrenosum. The development of Crohn's-like gastrointestinal complications in a patient with chronic pouchitis frequently engenders concern that the pathologist misinterpreted the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease. We describe eight patients who developed chronic pouchitis and Crohn's-like complications after IPAA and total proctocolectomy. In each case, concern was voiced about misinterpretation of the proctocolectomy specimen as ulcerative colitis instead of Crohn's disease after the development of the Crohn's-like complications. Preoperatively, all eight patients had characteristic clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of ulcerative colitis. Review of the pathology specimens indicated that all eight had ulcerative colitis. Crohn's-like complications are most likely related to chronic pouchitis, which probably is a form of recrudescent ulcerative colitis within the novel environment of the pouch. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease after IPAA surgery should only be made when reexamination of the original proctocolectomy specimen shows typical pathologic features of Crohn's disease, Crohn's disease arises in parts of the gastrointestinal tract distant from the pouch, pouch biopsies contain active enteritis with granulomas, or excised pouches show the characteristic features of Crohn's disease, including granulomas. There were no histologic differences in the total

  17. Effects of in-situ oil-shale retorting on water quality near Rock Springs, Wyoming, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Plafcan, M.; Lowham, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental in-situ retorting techniques (methods of extracting shale oil without mining) were used from 1969 to 1979 by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) at a test area near Rock Springs in southwestern Wyoming. The retorting experiments at site 9 have produced elevated concentrations of some contaminants in the ground water. During 1988 and 1989, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, conducted a site characterization study to evaluate the chemical contamination of ground water at the site. Water samples from 34 wells were analyzed; more than 70 identifiable organic compounds were detected using a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analytical methods. This report provides information that can be used to evaluate possible remedial action for the site. Remediation techniques that may be applicable include those techniques based on removing the contaminants from the aquifer and those based on immobilizing the contaminants. Before a technique is selected, the risks associated with the remedial action (including the no-action alternative) need to be assessed, and the criteria to be used for decisions regarding aquifer restoration need to be defined. 31 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Effect of retorting and oven cooking on the nutritional properties of beef frankfurters blended with palm oils.

    PubMed

    Wan Rosli, W I; Babji, A S; Aminah, A; Foo, S P; Abd Malik, O

    2010-08-01

    The effect of retorting and oven cooking on the nutritional properties of beef frankfurters blended with palm oil (PO), red PO35 and red PO48 were compared against the control beef fat treatment. Red PO oven-cooked beef frankfurters resulted in a significant loss of vitamin E from 538.5 to 287.5 microg after 6 months. Oven cooked sausages stored at -18 degrees C and retorted sausages stored for the 6 months of shelf studies resulted in more than 90% loss of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in red PO beef frankfurters. Cholesterol was reduced at the range of 29.0-32.2 mg/100 g when beef fat was substituted with palm-based oils, in beef frankfurters. Differences of heat treatments did not significantly change THE cholesterol content, within all treatments. This study showed the potential of utilizing red palm oils as animal fat analogues in improving vitamin E, reducing cholesterol but not carotenes in beef frankfurters.

  19. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Taulbee, D.; Vego, A.; Stehn, J.; Fei, Y.; Robl, T.; Derbyshire, F.

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993 under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27286 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The PDU was assembled, instrumented and tested during this fiscal year. Along with the major activity of commissioning the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  20. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. [Kentort II process--50-lb/hr

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.; Taulbee, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of January 1, 1992 through March 31, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The design of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II retort was completed and fabrication is ready to begin. Data from the cold-flow model of the system and operating experience from the 5-lb/hr unit were used as the basis for the design. In another aspect of the program, a study of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors was continued. A mathematical model was implemented to characterize the important mass transfer effects of the system. This model will be eventually broadened to become a general fluidized bed coking model. In addition, experiments were performed to examine the effects of surface area, initial carbon content and steam treatment on coking activity. From the data that has been collected to-date, it appears that the coking activity of the tested substrates can be explained in terms of porosity (surface area and pore volume) and the initial carbon content of the solid.

  1. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.; Taulbee, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of January 1, 1992 through March 31, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The design of the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II retort was completed and fabrication is ready to begin. Data from the cold-flow model of the system and operating experience from the 5-lb/hr unit were used as the basis for the design. In another aspect of the program, a study of the cracking and coking kinetics of shale oil vapors was continued. A mathematical model was implemented to characterize the important mass transfer effects of the system. This model will be eventually broadened to become a general fluidized bed coking model. In addition, experiments were performed to examine the effects of surface area, initial carbon content and steam treatment on coking activity. From the data that has been collected to-date, it appears that the coking activity of the tested substrates can be explained in terms of porosity (surface area and pore volume) and the initial carbon content of the solid.

  2. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  3. Guttural pouch mycosis in horses: a retrospective study of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, O; Schwarz, B; Velde, K; Jahn, P; Zert, Z; Bezdekova, B

    2012-12-01

    The medical records of 28 horses with guttural pouch mycosis were reviewed. The most commonly observed clinical signs were nasal discharge, epistaxis, dysphagia and/or cough. All 28 horses had the disease unilaterally, however, in five of them, it had spread into the contralateral pouch via the mesial septum. Three horses were treated medically, 11 horses underwent surgery and seven horses were treated both medically and surgically. Fifty percent of horses (14/28) were euthanased or died, fifty percent of horses (14/28) survived. There was no significant correlation between treatment method (medical, surgical, combination) and survival rate. The most common reason for euthanasia was dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction. There was a highly significant correlation between the presence of dysphagia and non-survival (p=0.008).

  4. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  5. Cystic Endometrioma with Coexisting Fibroma Originating in a Supernumerary Ovary in the Rectovaginal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Asumi; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogura, Kanako; Miwa, Ayako; Sugimori, Yayoi; Matuoka, Shozo; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A supernumerary ovary is an exceedingly rare disorder, in which the structure containing ovarian tissue is located at some distance from the normally placed ovary. 16 cases of endometriosis or tumors originating in a supernumerary ovary have been published in the English literature, but no case of coexisting endometriosis and a tumor has been published. We present the case of a 40-year-old female with cystic endometrioma with coexisting fibroma originating in a supernumerary ovary in the rectovaginal pouch. The present case is the first to be reported with coexisting endometriosis and a tumor originating in a supernumerary ovary. Our experience with this case and the results of our previous studies of rectovaginal endometriosis indicated that the possibility of originating in a supernumerary ovary shall be examined in cases of cystic endometrioma in the rectovaginal pouch. PMID:28210515

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    PubMed

    Kreimann, E L; Itoiz, M E; Longhino, J; Blaumann, H; Calzetta, O; Schwint, A E

    2001-12-15

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies and shown that boronophenylalanine delivers potentially therapeutic 36.9 +/- 17.5 ppm boron to tumor tissue with tumor:normal tissue and tumor:blood ratios of 2.4:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. Here we report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue, and normal oral tissue to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days posttreatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in an additional 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue.

  7. Auto-inflammatory diseases in ileal pouch patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

    PubMed

    Seril, Darren N; Yao, Qingping; Shen, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Pouchitis is common in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis occurs in a subgroup of the patients. Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, manifesting as periodic fever, rash, arthritis, and serositis. We describe two cases with ulcerative colitis and an ileal pouch, who presented with extra-intestinal manifestations and genetic features atypical for inflammatory bowel disease alone. Case 1 had a spectrum of clinical manifestations including refractory pouchitis, intermittent fevers, polyarthralgia, and pericarditis. Case 2 presented with oral ulcers, migratory oligoarthritis, and periodic papular rash. Genetic testing in both cases revealed mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene, including the IVS8(+158) mutation commonly detected among patients with NOD2-associated auto-inflammatory disease. Both of the patients demonstrated clinical improvement of these diverse systemic complaints following treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies.

  8. Auto-inflammatory diseases in ileal pouch patients with NOD2/CARD15 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Seril, Darren N.; Yao, Qingping; Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pouchitis is common in ulcerative colitis patients undergoing total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis occurs in a subgroup of the patients. Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by systemic inflammation, manifesting as periodic fever, rash, arthritis, and serositis. We describe two cases with ulcerative colitis and an ileal pouch, who presented with extra-intestinal manifestations and genetic features atypical for inflammatory bowel disease alone. Case 1 had a spectrum of clinical manifestations including refractory pouchitis, intermittent fevers, polyarthralgia, and pericarditis. Case 2 presented with oral ulcers, migratory oligoarthritis, and periodic papular rash. Genetic testing in both cases revealed mutations of the NOD2/CARD15 gene, including the IVS8+158 mutation commonly detected among patients with NOD2-associated auto-inflammatory disease. Both of the patients demonstrated clinical improvement of these diverse systemic complaints following treatment with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:25313006

  9. Nd:YAG photovaporization of residual equine guttural-pouch mycotic lesions after internal carotid occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Tudor, R. A.; Little, Edwina D. E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital records reviewed over a 12-year period determined that 6 horses had been presented for guttural pouch mycosis. All had a history of epistaxis and several had accompanying neurologic signs, including dysphagia. Initially, conformation of the disease was obtained by radiographic and endoscopic examinations. Surgical treatment was directed at controlling and preventing additional hemorrhage by occluding the arterial source of the hemorrhage. Direct treatment of the mycotic plaque present within the guttural pouch was conducted using transendoscopic technique to direct irradiation from the Nd:YAG laser. The protocol described for the laser application was successful in resolving the lesions and was less complicated and stressful than previously reported topically applied chemical protocols.

  10. Advanced rectal cancer in a long-term Hartmann's pouch: a forgotten organ revisited.

    PubMed

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed Mahmoud Abd El Aziz; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2016-01-28

    Hartmann's procedure is widely performed as a first-stage operation in cases of left colon emergencies when a one stage management is judged to be unsafe. Forty per cent of patients with Hartmann's procedure never get their stoma reversed, ending with a permanent stoma. The distal excluded Hartmann's pouch is usually forgotten compared to the proximal functioning colon. A 70-year-old man with Hartmann's procedure carried out previously for complicated diverticular disease presented with bleeding per rectum. Invasive adenocarcinoma was confirmed on histology. Subsequent staging revealed a locally advanced rectal cancer. The tumour progressed despite a course of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The general condition of the patient deteriorated with development of renal failure. The patient died a few weeks later. By reporting this case, we are revisiting the long forgotten Hartmann's pouch to highlight the potential pathologies in the distal stump and to emphasise that a distal stump should not be forgotten even in asymptomatic patients. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Mucus accumulation and necrosis of the ventral air pouch in a marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) with productive rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Collarile, Tommaso; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo; Melidone, Raffaele

    2013-09-01

    A captive-born marabou stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) was presented for swelling of the ventral air pouch of 1 month's duration. The pouch appeared fluid filled, and its distal third wall was markedly inspissated. The thickened distal portion of the pouch wall was removed surgically. During anesthesia, mucous discharge from the nares was evident and the nasal mucosa was hyperemic. Aeromonas and Proteus species were isolated from a nasal culture. Postoperative therapy that consisted of nasal flushing, antimicrobial agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was effective in managing the disease. On histologic examination, diffuse hemorrhage, necrosis, and multifocal vasculitis with moderate-to-severe heterophilic inflammation were present within sections of the ventral pouch. To our knowledge this is the first report of a mucus-filled ventral air pouch with associated pathologic changes secondary to a productive infection of the upper respiratory tract in a marabou stork. The unique communication between nasal cavities and the ventral air pouch should be considered in future cases of respiratory infection in marabou storks.

  12. Natural honey: a new and potent anti-angiogenic agent in the air-pouch model of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, T; Najafi, M; Gharehbagheri, A

    2014-10-01

    Despite reports indicating anti-inflammatory effects of honey, the anti-angiogenic effect of honey and its impact on inflammatory mediators in the air pouch model of inflammation have not yet been studied. The aims of present study were to investigate the effects of honey on angiogenesis, inflammatory cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level as an important marker of angiogenesis and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the rat air pouch model of inflammation. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and then 20 ml and 10 ml of sterile air were injected subcutaneously in the back on days 0 and 3, respectively. On day 6, inflammation was induced by injection of 1 ml of carrageenan 1% into pouches. After 72 h, the rats were sacrificed; pouch fluid was collected in order to determine PGE2 concentration and VEGF level. The Pouches were dissected out and weighed. Angiogenesis of granulomatous tissue was assayed using a hemoglobin kit. Honey was able to reduce granulation tissue weight and angiogenesis as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against PGE2 and VEGF in air pouch model of inflammation. The decrease in angiogenesis correlates with the inhibition of PGE2 and VEGF. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of granulomatous inflammatory conditions. It seems that the anti-angiogenic activities of honey are mediated through modulation of PGE2 and VEGF production.

  13. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with transient specific IgE to boiled rice but not to retort-processed rice.

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-02-01

    Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2 h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  15. Marsupial tammar wallaby delivers milk bioactives to altricial pouch young to support lung development.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Hinds, Lyn A; Sharp, Julie A; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2016-11-01

    Our research is exploiting the marsupial as a model to understand the signals required for lung development. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy, the mother gives birth to altricial neonate with an immature lung and the changes in milk composition during lactation in marsupials appears to provide bioactives that can regulate diverse aspects of lung development, including branching morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. These effects are seen with milk collected between 25 and 100days postpartum. To better understand the temporal effects of milk composition on postnatal lung development we used a cross-fostering technique to restrict the tammar pouch young to milk composition not extending beyond day 25 for 45days of its early postnatal life. These particular time points were selected as our previous study showed that milk protein collected prior to ~day 25 had no developmental effect on mouse embryonic lungs in culture. The comparative analysis of the foster group and control young at day 45 postpartum demonstrated that foster pouch young had significantly reduced lung size. The lungs in fostered young were comprised of large intermediate tissue, had a reduced size of airway lumen and a higher percentage of parenchymal tissue. In addition, expression of marker genes for lung development (BMP4, WNT11, AQP-4, HOPX and SPB) were significantly reduced in lungs from fostered young. Further, to identify the potential bioactive expressed by mammary gland that may have developmental effect on pouch young lungs, we performed proteomics analysis on tammar milk through mass-spectrometry and listed the potential bioactives (PDGF, IGFBP5, IGFBPL1 and EGFL6) secreted in milk that may be involved in regulating pouch young lung development. The data suggest that postnatal lung development in the tammar young is most likely regulated by maternal signalling factors supplied through milk.

  16. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  17. Detecting neoplastic development in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Robles, Francisco; Chen, Xiaoxin; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is an optical technique that recovers depth-resolved spectroscopic information about scatterers. The current fLCI system utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source, a 4-f interferometer, and an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire spectra from 256 adjacent spatial points. This configuration permits the acquisition of ultrahigh depth resolution Fourier domain OCT images without the need for any beam scanning. fLCI has traditionally obtained depth-resolved spectral information by performing a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) on the detected spectra, similar to the processing techniques of spectroscopic OCT. We now employ a dual Gaussian window processing method which simultaneously obtains high spectral and temporal resolution, thus avoiding the resolution trade-off normally associated with the STFT. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain structural information about the probed scatterers. We now verify fLCI's ability to distinguish between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissue using the hamster cheek pouch model. Thirty hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. Our results will further establish fLCI as an effective method for distinguishing between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissues.

  18. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  19. Correlation of Mutagenic, Carcinogenic and Co-Carcinogenic Effects of Chemical Substances. Granuloma Pouch Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-25

    of a single dose treatment with procarbazine of GP cells during the time of maximal growth was investigated. Local fibrosarcomas were induced...regardless whether the carcinogen was given (t) Zbinden, G. and Maler, P. Single dose carcinogenicity of procarbazine in rats. Cancer letters in press - ii...locally (into the pouch) or systemically. The administration of croton oil before procarbazine increased the tumor yield. This is the first time that

  20. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  1. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Patients of Congenital Pouch Colon Following Definitive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Nand Kishor; Kumar, Praveen; Dabla, Pradeep Kumar; Jhanwar, Praveen; Chadha, Rajiv; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the nutritional status in 31 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC) who had undergone definitive surgery and closure of a protective stoma, if any, at least 1 year earlier and were below 14 years age. Materials and Methods: The clinical history, demographic details, anthropometric measurements, and results of hematological and biochemical tests were recorded. In addition to collective data, analysis was also performed after grouping by age, subtype of CPC (Types I/II and Types III/IV CPC), and in Types I/II CPC patients, by whether the colonic pouch had been completely excised or else a segment preserved by tubular colorraphy (TC). Results: Severe fecal incontinence (FI) was common (64.52%). Anthropometry showed a significant malnutrition in 53.85–95.45% patients, especially stunting which was most prevalent in the 0–5 years age-group. Serum Vitamin B12, folate, and Vitamin D were lower than normal in 38.71%, 22.58%, and 74.19% patients, respectively, without statistically significant difference among the various groups studied. Patients with Types I/II CPC had a statistically significant higher incidence of anemia, low serum ferritin, and severe FI than patients with Types III/IV CPC. Patients with Types I/II CPC, managed by excision of the colonic pouch, had a higher incidence of severe FI, wasting, and thinness than those undergoing TC. Conclusions: On follow-up of the patients of CPC, anthropometry shows a high incidence of malnutrition, especially stunting in the 0–5 years age-group. There is an adequate adaptation of fluid-electrolyte homeostasis. Although Types I/II CPC patients have a significantly higher incidence of anemia and severe FI than Types III/IV CPC patients, long-term anthropometric parameters are similar. In Types I/II CPC, preservation of the colonic pouch by TC offers long-term benefit. PMID:28082770

  2. Pouch Reshaping for Significant Weight Regain after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Yves; Winkler, Carmen; Kröll, Dino; Nett, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    Significant weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) occurs in around 20 % of patients in the long term. Anatomical reasons include dilatation of the gastric pouch and/or the pouch-jejunal anastomosis, leading to loss of restriction. Pouch reshaping (PR) aims at reestablishing restriction with a subsequent feeling of satiety. This study reports the outcome of PR embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment pathway. Twenty-six patients after PR for weight regain >30 % following RYGB in a university hospital between October 2010 and March 2016 were analyzed. Excluded were patients with PR for gastro-gastric fistulae, hypoglycemia, candy cane syndrome, and concomitant alteration of limb lengths. PR consisted in laparoscopic lateral resection of the gastric pouch, the anastomosis and the proximal 5 cm of the alimentary limb over a 32F bougie. Median follow-up after PR was 48 months (range 24-60). Median BMI at PR was 39.1 kg/m(2) (32.7-59.1). Median operation time was 85 min (25-190), and median length of stay was 3 days (1-35). Minor complications (grade ≤ 2) occurred in seven (27 %) patients and major complications (grade ≥ 3) in four patients (15 %). Nadir BMI and %EBMIL after PR were 32.9 kg/m(2) and 43.3 %, reached after a median of 12 months (3-48). Comorbidities were resolved in 81 %. After 48 months, median BMI was 33.8 kg/m(2) (20.4-49.2) and %EBMIL was 61.4 (39.1-121.2). Used selectively in a multidisciplinary treatment pathway, PR leads to prolonged weight stabilization around the previous nadir. However, its associated perioperative morbidity must not be disregarded.

  3. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  4. Visual pigment coexpression in all cones of two rodents, the Siberian hamster, and the pouched mouse.

    PubMed

    Lukáts, Akos; Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Röhlich, Pál; Vígh, Béla; Bennett, Nigel C; Cooper, Howard M; Szél, Agoston

    2002-07-01

    To decide whether the identical topography of short- and middle-wavelength cone photoreceptors in two species of rodents reflects the presence of both opsins in all cone cells. Double-label immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against short-wavelength (S)-and middle- to long-wavelength (M/L)-sensitive opsin were used to determine the presence of visual pigments in cones of two species of rodents, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) and the pouched mouse (Saccostomus campestris) from South Africa. Topographical distribution was determined from retinal whole-mounts, and the colocalization of visual pigments was examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Opsin colocalization was also confirmed in consecutive semithin tangential sections. The immunocytochemical results demonstrate that in both the Siberian hamster and the pouched mouse all retinal cones contain two visual pigments. No dorsoventral gradient in the differential expression of the two opsins is observed. The retina of the Siberian hamster and the pouched mouse is the first example to show a uniform coexpression of M and S cone opsins in all cones, without any topographical gradient in opsin expression. This finding makes these two species good models for the study of molecular control mechanisms in opsin coexpression in rodents, and renders them suitable as sources of dual cones for future investigations on the role and neural connections of this cone type.

  5. Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G. de M.; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control—C (n = 7), acetone—A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide—CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP—A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP—DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib—DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

  6. Endoscopic treatment of leak at the tip of the “J” ileal pouch

    PubMed Central

    Kochhar, Gursimran Singh; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims The tip of the “J” of the ileal pouch is the vulnerable location for leak after restorative proctocolectomy, which has normally been treated with surgery. We aimed to describe a novel endoscopic method to treat the same. Patients and methods A cohort of 12 consecutive patients with a leak at the tip of the “J” was identified in our prospectively maintained Pouch Registry. The endoscopic over-the-scope clipping (OTSC) system was used for the closure of the leak. Results Eight patients (66.6 %) achieved complete closure of the leak documented by endoscopy confirmed with guidewire and/or contrasted pouchogram, with 6 requiring a single endoscopic session and 2 undergoing a repeat session. Four patients (33.3 %) had a persistent leak and required surgical intervention, of whom 1 developed abscess in the pre-spine region 14 days after the endoscopic procedure and underwent pouch revision surgery. Conclusions OSTC appears to be safe and effective in treating the leak at the tip of the “J” in the majority of patients. PMID:28180150

  7. Total colectomy and J-pouch ileorectal anastomosis for obstructed tumours of the rectosigmoid junction.

    PubMed

    Chrysos, Emmanuel; Athanasakis, Elias; Vassilakis, John Sophocles; Zoras, Odysseas; Xynos, Evaghelos

    2002-02-01

    Subtotal colectomy with ileosigmoid or ileorectal anastomosis is one of the standard procedures for obstructed tumours of the left colon. The lower the level of the anastomosis, the greater the number of bowel motions per day. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an ileal pouch-rectal anastomosis is associated with fewer bowel motions per day. In four patients with obstructed carcinoma of the rectosigmoid junction and upper rectum, a total colectomy with removal of the upper rectum for adequate tumour clearance was used, followed by construction of a 10 cm ileal J-pouch that was subsequently anastomosed to the distal rectal stump. Postoperative recovery was uneventful in all patients. At 3 months postoperatively, anorectal manometry showed anal resting and squeeze pressures at lower normal limits and a neorectal capacity ranging from 160 to 310 mL. One year postoperatively, all patients experienced one to three normal bowel motions daily and no episodes of incontinence. Total colectomy with ileal J-pouch-rectal anastomosis is a reasonable operative alternative in cases with obstructed tumours of the rectosigmoid junction, which necessitate removal of the upper rectum.

  8. Effect of pasteurization, high-pressure processing, and retorting on the barrier properties of nylon 6, nylon 6/ethylene vinyl alcohol, and nylon 6/nanocomposites films.

    PubMed

    Halim, L; Pascall, M A; Lee, J; Finnigan, B

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the impact of pasteurization, high-pressure processing (HPP), and retorting on the barrier properties of nylon 6 (N6), nylon 6/ethylene vinyl alcohol (N6/EVOH), and nylon 6/nanocomposite (N6/nano) materials. The pasteurized and high-pressure treated films were coextruded with low-density polyethylene (PE) as the heat-sealing layer. The retorted films were coextruded with polypropylene (PP). Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the samples were measured after pasteurization (75 degrees C for 30 min), HPP (800 MPa for 10 min at 70 degrees C), and retorting (121 degrees C for 30 min) treatments. These were compared with the thermal characteristics and morphologies of the samples using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that OTR of N6 and N6/Nano increased after HPP (16.9% and 39.7%), pasteurization (13.3% and 75.9%), and retorting (63.3% and 112.6%), respectively. For N6/EVOH, a decrease in OTR after HPP (53.9%) and pasteurization (44.5%) was observed. The HPP treatment increased the WVTR of N6 (21.0%), N6/EVOH (48.9%), and N6/Nano (21.2%). The WVTR of N6, N6/EVOH, and N6/Nano increased by 96.7%, 43.8%, and 40.7%, respectively, after pasteurization. The DSC analyses showed that the enthalpy and percent crystallinity increased (2.3% to 6.5%) in the N6/Nano when compared with the N6 material after each treatment. Retorting caused a decrease (3.5%) in the percent crystallinity of the polypropylene material. HPP did not cause major morphological changes to the samples. Results of the barrier studies were influenced by the crystallinity changes in the materials as seen in the XRD diffractograms.

  9. Paradoxical Impact of Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis on Male and Female Fertility in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Pachler, Frederik R; Brandsborg, Søren B; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-06-01

    Birth rates in males with ulcerative colitis and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis have not been studied. This study aimed to estimate birth rates in males and females with ulcerative colitis and study the impact of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This was a retrospective registry-based cohort study that was performed over a 30-year period. Records for parenting a child from the same period were cross-linked with patient records, and birth rates were calculated using 15 through 49 years as age limits. All data were prospectively registered. All patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between 1980 and 2010 were identified in Danish national databases. The primary outcomes measured were birth rates in females and males with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We included 27,379 patients with ulcerative colitis (12,812 males and 14,567 females); 1544 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (792 males and 752 females). Patients with ulcerative colitis have slightly reduced birth rates (males at 40.8 children/1000 years, background population 43.2, females at 46.2 children/1000 years, background population 49.1). After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, males had increased birth rates at 47.8 children/1000 years in comparison with males with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (40.5 children/1000 years), whereas females had reduced birth rates at 27.6 children/1000 years in comparison with females with ulcerative colitis without ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (46.8 children/1000 years). Only birth rates were investigated and not fecundability. Furthermore, there is a question about misattributed paternity, but this has previously been shown to be less than 5%. Ulcerative colitis per se has little impact on birth rates in both sexes, but ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery leads to a reduction in birth rates in females and an increase in birth rates in males. This has clinical

  10. Characteristics of learning curve in minimally invasive ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Rencuzogullari, Ahmet; Stocchi, Luca; Costedio, Meagan; Gorgun, Emre; Kessler, Hermann; Remzi, Feza H

    2017-03-01

    Previous work from our institution has characterized the learning curve for open ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the learning curve of minimally invasive IPAA. Perioperative outcomes of 372 minimally invasive IPAA by 20 surgeons (10 high-volume vs. 10 low-volume surgeons) during 2002-2013, included in a prospectively maintained database, were assessed. Predicted outcome models were constructed using perioperative variables selected by stepwise logistic regression, using Akaike's information criterion. Cumulative sums (CUSUM) of differences between observed and predicted outcomes were graphed over time to identify possible improvement patterns. Institutional pelvic sepsis and other pouch morbidity rates (hemorrhage, anastomotic separation, pouch failure, fistula) significantly decreased (18.2 vs. 7.0 %, CUSUM peak after 143 cases, p = 0.001; 18.4 vs. 5.3 %, CUSUM peak after 239 cases, respectively, p < 0.001). Institutional total proctocolectomy mean operative times significantly decreased (307 min vs. 253 min, CUSUM peak after 84 cases, p < 0.001), unlike completion proctectomy (p = 0.093) or conversion rates (10 vs. 5.4 %, p = 0.235). Similar learning curves were identified among high-volume surgeons but not among low-volume surgeons. Learning curves were identified in the two busiest individual surgeons for pelvic sepsis (peaks at 47 and 9 cases, p = 0.045 and p = 0.002) and in one surgeon for operative times (CUSUM peak after 16 and 13 cases for both total proctocolectomy and completion proctectomy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006) but not for other pouch complications (peak at 49 and 41 cases, p = 0.199 and p = 0.094). Pouch complications, particularly pelvic sepsis, are the most consistent and relevant learning curve end points in laparoscopic IPAA.

  11. Pregnancy and delivery before and after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for inflammatory bowel disease: immediate and long-term consequences and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hahnloser, Dieter; Pemberton, John H; Wolff, Bruce G; Larson, Dirk; Harrington, Jeffrey; Farouk, Ridzuan; Dozois, Roger R

    2004-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate pregnancy, delivery, and functional outcome in females before and after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. From a prospective database of 1,454 patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis between 1981 and 1995, a standardized questionnaire was sent to all female patients aged 40 years or younger at the time of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 544). The response rate was 83 percent (450/544) with a mean follow-up after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis of 13 years. A total of 141 females were pregnant after the chronic ulcerative colitis diagnosis, but before ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (236 pregnancies; mean, 1.7) and 87 percent delivered vaginally. A mean of five (range, 1-16) years after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, 135 females were pregnant (232 pregnancies; mean, 1.7). Comparison of pregnancy and delivery before and after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in the same females (n = 37) showed no difference in birth weight, duration of labor, pregnancy/delivery complications, vaginal delivery rates (59 percent before vs. 54 percent after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis), and unplanned cesarean section (19 vs.14 percent). Planned cesareans occurred only after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and were prompted by obstetrical concerns in only one of eight. Pouch function at first follow-up after delivery (mean, 7 months) was similar to pregravida function. After ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, daytime stool frequency was the same after delivery as pregravida (5.4 vs. 5.4, not significant) but was increased at the time of last follow-up (68 months after delivery; 5.4 vs. 6.4; P < 0.001). The rate of occasional fecal incontinence also was higher (20 percent after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and 21 percent pregravida vs. 36 percent at last follow-up; P = 0.01). No difference in functional outcome was noted compared with females who were never pregnant after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

  12. Importance of pouch size in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a cohort study of 14,168 patients.

    PubMed

    Edholm, David; Ottosson, Johan; Sundbom, Magnus

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is one of the most common bariatric procedures worldwide, but the importance of gastric pouch size is still under debate. We have studied how pouch size affects risk of marginal ulcer and excess body mass index loss (EBMIL%) at 6 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry included 14,168 LRYGB patients with linear stapled gastrojejunostomies, having complete pre- and postoperative data concerning length of stapler needed to complete the gastric pouch, incidence of marginal ulcers and weight loss. LRYGB technique in Sweden is highly standardized, and total length of stapler was used as a proxy for pouch size. Mean length of stapler used for the pouch was 145 mm. At 1 year, symptomatic marginal ulcers were noted in 0.9 % of the patients. The relative risk of marginal ulcer increased by 14 % (95 % confidence interval 9-20 %), for each centimeter of stapler used for the pouch. Body mass index (BMI) was reduced from 42.4 ± 5.1 to 36.1 kg/m(2) at 6 weeks and 28.9 kg/m(2) at 1 year. The total length of stapler predicted EBMIL% at 6 weeks but not at 1 year. Female gender, low preoperative BMI, young age and absence of diabetes predicted better EBMIL% at 1 year. A smaller pouch reduces the risk of marginal ulcers, but does not predict better weight loss at 1 year. Additional stapling should be avoided as each extra centimeter increases the relative risk of marginal ulcers by 14 %.

  13. A Simple Technique of Gastric Pouch Resizing for Inadequate Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Amor, Imed Ben; Debs, Tarek; Petrucciani, Niccolo; Martini, Francesco; Kassir, Radwan; Gugenheim, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is increasingly reported in the literature Debs et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis (2016). Laparoscopic resizing of the gastric pouch and the gastrojejunal anastomosis is an accepted surgical option Nguyen et al. (Obes Surg 25:928-34, 2015); Iannelli et al. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 9:260-7, 2013); Al-Bader et al. (Obes Surg 25:1103-8, 2015). The aim of this video is to present a simple technique of en bloc resection. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with a BMI of 44 kg/m(2) who underwent laparoscopic RYGB in 2007. In 2015, she regained weight till reaching a BMI of 38 kg/m(2). 3D CT volumetry was performed that showed a pouch volume of 220 cm(3) and a gastrojejunal anastomosis diameter of 20 mm. There are often a lot of adherences between the gastric pouch and the residual stomach, which makes the dissection difficult and tedious, with the possibility to devascularize the residual stomach and lead to a gastric fistula from this residual stomach. We present in this video a simple technique of gastric pouch resizing that consists of en bloc resection of the gastric pouch, the residual stomach, and ± the gastrojejunal anastomosis. We recommend this technique in case of severe adherences and inability to identify a cleavage plane between the excess gastric pouch and the resected stomach. Insufficient weight loss or weight regain after RYGBP is becoming more frequently encountered. As a result, revisional surgery will be more frequently performed. This simple technique allows an easier dissection across healthier tissues and is easier to perform in the presence of severe adherences between the gastric pouch and the residual stomach.

  14. Combat Ration Network for Technology Implementation. CORANET Demonstration Site: Results and Accomplishments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Pouch Heat Bar Sealer Wrapade X Check Weigher HiSpeed X Vertical Pouch Sealer Fresco X Retorting Stock 1100/1 Retort Stock...efforts was the qualification of Fresco for the military Institutional Pouch. The Demonstration facility was also used by combat ration producers to

  15. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.; Fei, Y.; Carter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. Along with the major activity of assembling the components of the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas this quarter. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  16. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.; Stehn, J.; Vego, A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT 11) during the period of January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993 under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27286 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The major activity for this quarter was to install various components of the process and provide utility support including air, water, electrical power, and computerized instrumentation. Following the completion of construction activities which is scheduled for next quarter, cold-flow testing and heat-up procedures will be performed.

  17. Prevalence of Bacterial Contamination when using a Diversion Pouch during Blood Collection: A Single Center Study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    JUMAAH, Norlaili; JOSHI, Sanmukh Ratilal; SANDAI, Doblin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The implementation of diversion pouches is to minimise the risk of bacterial contamination as the initial blood flow is prevented from entering primary bag collections as it is diverted into a pouch. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination in the diversion pouches used during blood collections in the Transfusion Department of Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia. Methods: BD Bactec™ Fx instrument detection system was performed on 702 samples of 20 mL of diverting blood in diversion pouch. The inocullum volume was 10 mL for both aerobic and anaerobic bottles cultures and incubated for 5 days in the BD Bactec™ Fx instrument. Positive sample was flagged by BD Bactec™ Fx instrument and subculture to identify the species of organism. Results: The results showed that of 702 samples, 12 (1.7%) were contaminated. The bacterial species identified were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram positive Bacilli. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that the usage of diversion pouch is of significant importance in reducing bacterial contamination during blood collection. PMID:25246835

  18. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Jackson, Abigail L.; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R.; Basson, M. Albert

    2012-01-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium. PMID:22912418

  19. Localised inhibition of FGF signalling in the third pharyngeal pouch is required for normal thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Jennifer R; Jackson, Abigail L; Gordon, Julie; Lickert, Heiko; Manley, Nancy R; Basson, M Albert

    2012-09-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands are derived from the third pharyngeal pouch endoderm. The mechanisms that establish distinct molecular domains in the third pouch and control the subsequent separation of these organ primordia from the pharynx are poorly understood. Here, we report that mouse embryos that lack two FGF feedback antagonists, Spry1 and Spry2, display parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia and a failure of these organ primordia to completely separate from the pharynx. We show that FGF ligands and downstream reporter genes are expressed in highly regionalised patterns in the third pouch and that sprouty gene deletion results in upregulated FGF signalling throughout the pouch endoderm. As a consequence, the initiation of markers of parathyroid and thymus fate is altered. In addition, a normal apoptotic programme that is associated with the separation of the primordia from the pharynx is disrupted, resulting in the maintenance of a thymus-pharynx attachment and a subsequent inability of the thymus to migrate to its appropriate position above the heart. We demonstrate that the sprouty genes function in the pharyngeal endoderm itself to control these processes and that the defects in sprouty-deficient mutants are, at least in part, due to hyper-responsiveness to Fgf8. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that parathyroid hypoplasia in these mutants is due to early gene expression defects in the third pouch, whereas thymus hypoplasia is caused by reduced proliferation of thymic epithelial cells in the thymus primordium.

  20. The Promoting Effect of Carbamide Peroxide Teeth Bleaching Gel in a Preclinical Model of Head and Neck Cancer in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vilela, Wadson; Vilela Gonçalves, Reggiani; Tavares Rheingantz, Maria Gabriela; Minello, Luiz Fernando; Braga da Silva, Jefferson Luis; Oliveira de Oliveira, Laura Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to verify the promoting effect of carbamide peroxide on dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster buccal pouch, in order to reduce the period of latency for tumor formation. Methods Sixteen hamsters were randomized into two groups of eight animals each. The hamsters of the group I had their right buccal pouches treated with 0.5% DMBA and 10% carbamide peroxide teeth bleaching gel for 55 days. The animals of the group II had their right pouches treated only with DMBA. After, six animals of each group had their pouches prepared for light microscopy. Histomorphometry was performed to assess the presence of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, pattern of invasion, number of blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate in the tumor front. Furthermore, the newly formed lesions were graded according the Bryne's grading system. The remaining animals had the vascular system of the pouches casted by Mercox and qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results Histopathological analysis of the buccal pouches treated with DMBA and carbamide peroxide exhibited formation of squamous cell carcinoma well-differentiated with a high degree of malignancy in all pouches. The development of this neoplasm was associated with a significant increase in the number of blood vessels, presence of keratin pearls, and inflammatory infiltrate. The pouches of the group II showed inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma in only three right pouches. The analysis of the electron micrographs of the pouches chemically inducted with DBMA and carbamide peroxide reveled formation of a new vascular network characteristic of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion The protocol presented here, using DMBA associated with carbamide peroxide, shortens the period of latency to produce squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch, decreasing the time and costs of the experiments. PMID:25177438

  1. Association between gastro-intestinal symptoms and menstruation in patients with ileal pouches

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Wu, Xian-rui; Barber, Matthew D.; Queener, Elaine; Graff, Lesley; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms. PMID:25016379

  2. Controversies in J Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: A Focus on Handsewn Versus Stapled Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Tamar; Khaitov, Sergey; Greenstein, Alexander J

    2016-09-01

    The accepted current standard for treatment of medically refractory ulcerative colitis is total proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for restoration of continence. There are 2 techniques by which the anastomosis can be performed, including handsewn and stapled. Handsewn anastomosis with mucosectomy was the first method described; however, it has been associated with significant incontinence. The double-stapled anastomosis was developed in response to improve postoperative function. Controversy remains as to which technique is superior as both have disadvantages. This review article addresses differences between the 2 methodologies in relation to postoperative complications, anorectal physiology, functional outcomes, and oncological safety.

  3. Manufacturability of Heat and Serve Ration in Institutional Pouch System Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Institutional Pouch Because of the limited commercial demand for polymeric trays and the low volumes required during peace time, investment in polymeric tray...Brine are the three highest volume items under placeable. All but the Dessert items fall under the low acid canning regulations. Items such as...0 7,886 Meatballs in Brown Gravy PCR-M-005 8940-01-455-1873 2 39,910 24,412 8,160 Pasta with Ground Hot Italian Sausage PCR-P-041 8940-01-517-9823

  4. Effect of Withania somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma

    SciTech Connect

    Begum, V.H.; Sadique, J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of /sup 35/S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue.

  5. Composition of gastric mucinous secretion from Heidenhain pouches of dogs treated with aspirin.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, K; Pachkowski, T; Secord, D C

    1979-01-01

    Principal glycoproteins and amino acids of secretions from Heidenhain pouches were studied in control and aspirin-treated dogs in the resting state of fasting and during stimulation with pentagastrin. All samples showed the presence of galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, glucose, fucose, mannose, uronic acid and sulfate. Galactose and glucosamine were found in equimolar amounts, and the galactose/galactosamine ratio was 2/1. Pentagastrin induced the reduction in concentration of major carbohydrate components and amino acids of gastric mucus. The concentrations of major carbohydrate components and of amino acids of gastric secretions were lower in aspirin-treated animals than in controls.

  6. In vitro inhibitory effect of onion extract on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niukian, K; Schwartz, J; Shklar, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies were performed that used varying concentrations of onion extract added to cell cultures of an epidermoid carcinoma cell line derived from hamster buccal pouch carcinoma (HCPC-1). The studies demonstrated tumor growth inhibition beginning after 24 hours of incubation at an onion extract concentration of 25% and above in culture media. After 4 days and 10 days of incubation, there was a noted decrease in tumor proliferation. The plating efficiency for 24 hours was observed to produce a 54-89% inhibition in plating density. The results indicated here provide in vitro evidence of the inhibitory and cytotoxic activity on an oral carcinoma cell line.

  7. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  8. Vascular permeability responses and the role of prostaglandin E2 in an experimental allergic inflammation of air pouch type in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, N.; Ohuchi, K.; Sugio, K.; Tsurufuji, S.; Watanabe, M.; Yoshino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Rats were sensitized with azobenzene arsonate-conjugated acetyl bovine serum albumin. An allergic inflammation was induced in the preformed air pouch in the dorsum of the sensitized rats by injecting the antigen dissolved in a 2% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution into the air pouch. Time course changes of vascular permeability, accumulated pouch fluid volume and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the pouch fluid were compared in sensitized and non-sensitized rats to characterize the allergic inflammatory reaction. Effects of three cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, diclofenac sodium and tiaprofenic acid) on vascular permeability and accumulated pouch fluid volume 4 and 24 h after the immunological challenge injection were examined to elucidate a possible role of PGE2 in the inflammatory response. Four h after initiating the allergic reaction, although the level of PGE2 in the pouch fluid reached a high level, the vascular permeability response, measured over the period 3.5-4 h, was not suppressed by treatment with the three cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors and neither was the pouch fluid volume measured over the period 0-4 h. However, vascular permeability and accumulated pouch fluid volume at 24 h were suppressed by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. These observations suggest that in this model, endogenous PGE2 does not affect oedema formation measured at 4 h. However, oedema formation measured at 24 h may be dependent on PGE2 generation. PMID:3085758

  9. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial).

    PubMed

    Zonča, Pavel; Malý, Tomáš; Ihnát, Peter; Peteja, Matus; Kraft, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604). With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the "J-pouch" group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation) in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016). There were no important adverse events. After total gastrectomy, a J-pouch reconstruction empties more slowly and is associated with higher quality of life compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Whether these two observations have a direct causative link remains unanswered.

  10. Preliminary study of tissue concentrations of penicillin after local administration into the guttural pouches in four healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Kendall, A; Mayhew, I G; Petrovski, K

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of subclinical carriers of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi with a gelatine-penicillin formulation deposited in the guttural pouch has been empirically proposed, but data on local tissue penicillin concentrations after treatment are lacking. We analysed tissue levels of penicillin after administration into the guttural pouches of four healthy horses. Two horses received local treatment with gelatine-penicillin and two horses received local treatment with an intramammary formulation of penicillin. Tissues were harvested for analysis either 12 or 24 h later. Results indicate that local treatment may be effective, but more research on optimal drug formulations in a larger sample size is warranted. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. α1-Acid glycoprotein production in rat dorsal air pouch in response to inflammatory stimuli, dexamethasone and honey bee venom

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiadou, K.; Pantazidis, G.; Papadopoulou, K.; Ligoudistianou, C.; Kourelis, A.; Petrakis, S.; Masmanidou, E.; Testa, T.; Kourounakis, A.P.; Hadjipetrou, L.; Papaconstantinou, J.; Yiangou, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows the rapid and differential production of the 40–43 kDa and the 70–90 kDa α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) fucosylated glycoforms after treatment of the dorsal air pouch with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HgCl2 or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The 40–43 kDa and the 70–90 kDa AGP production is peaked 1–3 h post-LPS treatment. We observed that the responses to LPS and FCA are similar in that both AGP isoforms are induced whereas they differ in that the FCA exhibits a 6 h lag period. The response to HgCl2, however, exhibits the specific biphasic induction only of the 40–43 kDa AGP. The serum 40–43 kDa AGP glycoform gradually increases in response to all of the above stimulants and peaks by 24 h post- treatment. The increase of the 70–90 kDa AGP levels in the air pouch occurs in association with the accumulation of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells while dexamethasone (DEX) increases only the 40–43 kDa AGP production in the absence of PMN accumulation. Macrophage–monocyte lineage cells forming the air pouch lining tissue may potentially be the cells that secrete the 40–43 kDa AGP while polymorphonuclear cells that infiltrate the air pouch secrete the 70–90 kDa AGP. The 40–43 kDa and 70–90 kDa AGP production induced by LPS in the air pouch precedes that of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) while the 40–43 kDa AGP glycoform potentially increases IL-6 production by air pouch PMN exudate cells. These significant differences suggest a local pro-inflammatory role of AGP. Honeybee venom suppressed arthritis development and exhibited differential local or systemic regulation of AGP in serum vs. air pouch exudate or synovial fluid. This study with the air pouch model of facsimile synovium tissue suggests that local α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) production may contribute to pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities during the local acute phase response or during chronic inflammatory stress as in arthritis. PMID

  12. Redo Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease with pelvic fistula: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Ohi, Masaki; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Pouch failure has been reported to occur after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. We report two cases of patients with Crohn's disease, who underwent redo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (redo-IPAA) combined with anti-TNF-α maintenance therapy, with good functional results. The first patient, a man with presumed ulcerative colitis, suffered pelvic fistula recurrence and anastomotic dehiscence. He underwent redo-IPAA, at which time longitudinal ulcers were found. Infliximab was started 4 days postoperatively and continued. The second patient, a woman treated for ulcerative colitis, underwent laparoscopic IPAA 8 years later. After the development of a pelvic fistula, twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch was found intraoperatively and Crohn's disease was diagnosed. Adalimumab therapy resulted in fistula closure. Redo-IPAA was performed to normalize the twisted mesentery of the ileal pouch. No complications have been observed in either patient, both of whom have experienced good functional results after closure of the covering stomas.

  13. A model of persistent antigen-induced chronic inflammation in the rat air pouch.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, S; Bacon, P A; Blake, D R; Scott, D L; Wainwright, A C; Walton, K W

    1984-04-01

    Continuing antigen-induced inflammation was established in a subcutaneous air pouch in rats by recurrent local challenge. The animals were sensitized using bovine serum albumin in Freund's complete adjuvant and were challenged 14 days later by injection of the antigen in a solution containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose into the air pouch to produce allergic inflammation. A single antigenic challenge induced acute inflammation with a predominantly polymorph infiltration in the first 48 h. Later samples showed a low-grade mononuclear response which persisted for 4-5 days. Repeated challenge produced chronic inflammation with an accentuated mononuclear response. Connective tissue activation involving fibronectin and collagen was seen as the inflammation progressed, and this was associated with production of ferritin by mononuclear cells. Discontinuation of challenge injections resulted in resolution of the granuloma. We suggest this model can be used to investigate the mechanisms involved in chronic inflammatory diseases with an immunological component and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic intervention upon chronic allergic inflammation.

  14. The pouch and tunnel technique for management of multiple gingival recession defects

    PubMed Central

    Dani, Sneha; Dhage, Aditi; Gundannavar, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    The desire for improved esthetics has increased tremendously over the years. Periodontal plastic surgery deals with regenerative procedures designed to restore form, function and enhance esthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunnel technique as root coverage procedure. Three patients corresponding to a total of 8 sites participated in the study. Maxillary teeth with miller's class I gingival recession were included in the study. All the sites were treated using subepithelial connective tissue graft using pouch and tunneling technique. Patients were followed up for a period of 6 months and 1 year. All the treated teeth showed 100% root coverage at the end of 6 months and 1 year. Gingival recession is a common occurrence and its prevalence increases with age. It can lead to clinical problems, diminished cosmetic appeal and hence esthetic concern. There are various techniques for root coverage. Subepithelial connective tissue graft has shown the best predictability (95%) of root coverage in Millers class I & II cases. This technique preserves the intermediate papilla, accelerates the initial wound healing & also applies less traction. Due to minimal trauma at the recipient site, this procedure may be advantageous in treatment of recession as compared to other treatment modalities. PMID:25624637

  15. Reduced angiotensin II levels cause generalized vascular dysfunction via oxidant stress in hamster cheek pouch arterioles.

    PubMed

    Priestley, Jessica R C; Buelow, Matthew W; McEwen, Scott T; Weinberg, Brian D; Delaney, Melanie; Balus, Sarah F; Hoeppner, Carlyn; Dondlinger, Lynn; Lombard, Julian H

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of suppressing plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels on arteriolar relaxation in the hamster cheek pouch. Arteriolar diameters were measured via television microscopy during short-term (3-6days) high salt (HS; 4% NaCl) diet and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril (100mg/kg/day). ACE inhibition and/or HS diet eliminated endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation to acetylcholine, endothelium-independent dilation to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside, the prostacyclin analogs carbacyclin and iloprost, and the KATP channel opener cromakalim; and eliminated arteriolar constriction during KATP channel blockade with glibenclamide. Scavenging of superoxide radicals and low dose ANG II infusion (25ng/kg/min, subcutaneous) reduced oxidant stress and restored arteriolar dilation in arterioles of HS-fed hamsters. Vasoconstriction to topically-applied ANG II was unaffected by HS diet while arteriolar responses to elevation of superfusion solution PO2 were unaffected (5% O2, 10% O2) or reduced (21% O2) by HS diet. These findings indicate that sustained exposure to low levels of circulating ANG II leads to widespread dysfunction in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular relaxation mechanisms in cheek pouch arterioles by increasing vascular oxidant stress, but does not potentiate O2- or ANG II-induced constriction of arterioles in the distal microcirculation of normotensive hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Colonic J pouch neo-rectum versus straight anastomosis for low rectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Parray, F Q; Farouqi, U; Wani, M L; Chowdri, N A; Shaheen, F

    2014-01-01

    The development of sphincter saving procedures for low carcinoma rectum has been the consequence of oncological and technological factors. The major disadvantage associated with these procedures is the development of anterior resection syndrome because of the resection of rectal reservoir. Colonic J pouch (CJP) neorectum has been practiced as an antidote to overcome this problem. We are working at a tertiary care center, which is a high volume center for rectal cancers. We thought it worthwhile to assess the efficacy of J Pouch neorectum viz.-a-viz. a straight coloanal anastomosis for low rectal cancers. Hospital based prospective randomized study (June 2007-December 2009) low rectal cancers (4-12 cm from the anal verge). One group (20 patients) subjected to low/ultralow anterior resection with straight anastomosis (SA) and other group (22 patients) to CJP. The two groups were compared on the basis of functional outcome. Anastomotic leak, strictures, frequency of bowel movements, nocturnal bowel movements, use of retarding medication and incontinence to solids, liquids and gases were seen more in SA group. All these findings were statistically significant. We conclude that CJP has a significant functional advantage over SA and improves the overall quality-of-life in patients of low rectal cancers and the advantage persisted over a period of more than 30 months.

  17. Comparison of Colonic J-pouch and Straight Coloanal anastomosis after Low Anterior Resection.

    PubMed

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Towliat, Seyed Mohsen; Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Derakhshani, Saieed; Abavisani, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The tendency towards sphincter preserving for low rectal cancers with low anterior resection, has led to the technique of straight coloanal anastomosis (SCAA) or colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis (CPAA). The aim of our study was to compare functional outcomes, complication rates and quality of life (QoL) after LAR with either a straight or colonic J pouch anastomosis. In 88 patients with rectal tumors located in lower third, who were candidate for LAR with coloanal anastomosis. They were divided for reconstruction using either SCAA (n= 47) or CPAA (n= 41) from January 2007 to May 2009. Functional results were assessed after closure of temporary loop ileostomy, 6 months postoperatively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The two groups were matched for gender, age, and preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There were no significant differences between the SCAA and CPAA groups relative to anastomotic leakage. Among patients with CPAA, the mean of 24 hours bowel movements, daytime bowel movements, incontinence scores, and incidence of urgency were significantly lower than those in the SCAA group. Also, patients with a CPAA had a significantly better quality of life. CPAA provided not only better functional results than SCAA, but also improved quality of life, thus may be the better choice.

  18. Mechanical damage in a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hailing; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Qing

    2017-07-01

    The short circuit of lithium-ion batteries induced by mechanical abuse is a great concern in electric vehicle design. It remains a challenge to fully understand the nature of the mechanical damage process with the aim of improving battery crash safety. The present paper investigates the evolution of the damage process for a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation by loading the cell to various force levels. A significant inflection point on the force-indentation curve is observed before the force peak. Post-mortem examinations indicate that the characteristic change in the local slope of the curve is related to the change occurring at the local interfaces, including three phenomena - formation of tight adhesion on the anode-separator interfaces, delamination in the separators and decoating of graphite particles from the anodes. Analysis of the fracture sequence at the onset of short circuit clearly shows that the number of short-circuited electrode pairs is equal to the number of anode layers adhered with delaminated separator material before fracture occurs. The experimental study in the present paper implies that the inflection point on the force-indentation curve may be an indicator of damage initiation inside pouch cells under indentation.

  19. Thermal behavior and electrochemical heat generation in a commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Elke; Ziebert, Carlos; Melcher, Andreas; Rohde, Magnus; Seifert, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative data on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under charging and discharging conditions are essential for designing thermal management systems and improving battery safety. In this work, commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cells with Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes were tested under isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter at different charging/discharging currents from 5 A to 40 A. Adiabatic tests simulate the worst-case scenario of a battery pack without cooling. For charging and discharging an overall exothermic behavior was found and a total temperature increase for one half cycle between 3 and 11 K. Isoperibolic tests simulate a single cell under constant environmental temperature. Here an exothermic behavior for discharging and an endothermic behavior for charging were observed. To transfer the measured temperature changes into heat data, the effective specific heat capacity and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. For the first time the heat generation data for a large format pouch cell have been determined using both isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions. These data were compared with the total heat data calculated as the sum of reversible and irreversible heat that were measured by potentiometric and current interruption techniques respectively. A good agreement was found between all three heat generation determination methods.

  20. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    PubMed

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-09-05

    Among the many roles played by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Regretfully, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs (1, 2, 3, and 4). The designs were (1) control (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder (3) addition of retort processing (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processing (design 4) significantly reduced total AFs by 57%. The present work demonstrated that design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.