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Sample records for retrograde autologous priming

  1. Arthroscopic retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation to chondral lesion in femoral head.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Sarper; Toker, Berkin; Taser, Omer

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the treatment of 2 cases of full-thickness cartilage defect of the femoral head. The authors performed osteochondral autologous transplantation with a different technique that has not been reported to date. One patient was 37 years old, and the other was 42 years old. Both presented with hip pain. In both patients, radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a focal chondral defect on the weight-bearing area of the femoral head and acetabular impingement. A retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation technique combined with hip arthroscopy and arthroscopic impingement treatment was performed. After a 2-month recovery period, the symptoms were resolved. In the first year of follow-up, Harris Hip scores improved significantly (case 1, 56.6 to 87.6; case 2, 58.6 to 90). The technique described yielded good short- and midterm clinical and radiologic outcomes. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to describe a retrograde osteochondral transplantation technique performed with hip arthroscopy in the femoral head.

  2. Retrograde reamer/irrigator/aspirator technique for autologous bone graft harvesting with the patient in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Mansour, John; Conway, Janet D

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator (RIA) system (Synthes, West Chester, Pennsylvania) has emerged as an extremely effective alternative in harvesting large volumes of autologous bone graft through reaming of the femoral intramedullary canal. The technique has been described in the literature as using an antegrade approach to the femur with the patient in the supine or prone position. It has also been described as a retrograde approach in the supine position. In this article, we describe a new technique-a retrograde femoral approach with the patient in the prone position. This technique allows for more efficient preparation by eliminating the need to reposition, reprepare, and redrape the extremity, thus decreasing operative time and risk of infection. Although we present this technique for use in ankle and hindfoot arthrodesis, we think it can be valuable in any prone-position procedure, including spine surgery.

  3. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Priming Using Autologous Cord Blood in Neonatal Congenital Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Seok; Cho, Sungkyu; Jang, Woo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A blood transfusion is almost inevitable in neonatal cardiac surgery. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using autologous cord blood for a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) priming as an alternative to an allo-transfusion in neonatal cardiac surgery. Subjects and Methods From January 2012 to December 2014, cord blood had been collected during delivery after informed consent and was stored immediately into a blood bank. Eight neonatal patients had their own cord blood used for CPB priming during cardiac surgery. Results All patients underwent surgery for their complex congenital heart disease. The median age and body weight at surgery was 11 days (from 0 to 21 days) and 3.2 kg (from 2.2 to 3.7 kg). The median amount and hematocrit of collected cord blood was 72.5 mL (from 43 to 105 mL) and 48.7% (from 32.0 to 51.2%). The median preoperative hematocrit of neonates was 36.5% (from 31.0 to 45.0%); the median volume of CPB priming was 130 mL (From 120 to 140 mL). Seven out of eight patients did not need an allo-transfusion in CPB priming and only one neonate used 20 mL of packed red blood cells in CPB priming to obtain the target hematocrit. Conclusion Autologous cord blood can be used for CPB priming as alternative to packed red blood cells in neonatal congenital cardiac surgery in order to reduce allo-transfusion. PMID:27721864

  4. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune disease--is it now ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Atkins, Harold L; Muraro, Paolo A; van Laar, Jacob M; Pavletic, Steven Z

    2012-01-01

    Current systemic therapies are rarely curative for patients with severe life-threatening forms of autoimmune disease (AID). During the past 15 years, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) has been demonstrated to cure some patients with severe AID refractory to all other available therapies, and thus AID has become an emerging indication for cell therapy. The sustained clinical effects after autologous HCT are better explained by qualitative change in the reconstituted immune repertoire rather than transient depletion of immune cells. Since 1996, more than 1300 AID patients have been registered by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and almost 500 patients by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Autologous HCT is most commonly performed for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or systemic sclerosis (SSc). Systemic lupus, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis are other common indications. Allogeneic transplants are still considered too toxic for use in AID, except for cases of immune cytopenia. Although biologic therapies have been effective at controlling the manifestations of the disease, they require continuous administration, thus raising questions about their increasing costs, morbidity, and mortality related to prolonged therapy. Perhaps it is a reasonable time to ask, "Is autologous HCT for severe AID now ready for prime time?" Yet, the paucity of controlled studies, the short-term toxicities, and the upcoming availability of second-generation biologic and targeted immunotherapies argues that perhaps HCT for AID should be still limited to clinical trials. In this article, we focus on the results of autologous HCT for MS and SSc because these are the two most commonly transplanted diseases. The promising data that is emerging may establish these diseases as standard indications for HCT.

  5. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO.

    PubMed

    Neal, James R; Blau, Caitlin L; Cornelius, Amanda M; Pike, Roxann B; Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N

    2016-03-01

    Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods.

  6. Autologous lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination followed by adoptive transfer of vaccine-primed ex vivo co-stimulated T cells in recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Lana E; Powell, Daniel J; Chiang, Cheryl L; Tanyi, Janos; Kim, Sarah; Bosch, Marnix; Montone, Kathy; Mick, Rosemarie; Levine, Bruce L; Torigian, Drew A; June, Carl H; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Novel strategies for the therapy of recurrent ovarian cancer are warranted. We report a study of a combinatorial approach encompassing dendritic cell (DC)-based autologous whole tumor vaccination and anti-angiogenesis therapy, followed by the adoptive transfer of autologous vaccine-primed CD3/CD28-co-stimulated lymphocytes. Recurrent ovarian cancer patients for whom tumor lysate was available from prior cytoreductive surgery underwent conditioning with intravenous bevacizumab and oral metronomic cyclophosphamide, sequentially followed by (1) bevacizumab plus vaccination with DCs pulsed with autologous tumor cell lysate supernatants, (2) lymphodepletion and (3) transfer of 5 × 10(9) autologous vaccine-primed T-cells in combination with the vaccine. Feasibility, safety as well as immunological and clinical efficacy were evaluated. Six subjects received this vaccination. Therapy was feasible, well tolerated, and elicited antitumor immune responses in four subjects, who also experienced clinical benefits. Of these, three patients with residual measurable disease received outpatient lymphodepletion and adoptive T-cell transfer, which was well tolerated and resulted in a durable reduction of circulating regulatory T cells and increased CD8(+) lymphocyte counts. The vaccine-induced restoration of antitumor immunity was achieved in two subjects, who also demonstrated clinical benefits, including one complete response. Our findings indicate that combinatorial cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer is well tolerated and warrants further investigation. Several modifications of this approach can be envisioned to optimize immunological and clinical outcomes.

  7. Bone Marrow Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells: New Generation of Autologous Cell Therapy Soon Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M

    2017-01-18

    Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are major pluripotent stem cells described in human and mouse. In this issue of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, Shaikh and colleagues show in a valuable work that mouse bone marrow collected after 5FU treatment contains VSELs able to undergo in vitro multi-lineage differentiation into cells from all three germ layers and also in germ and hematopoietic cells. These findings are robust since no confounding factor such as feeder cell fusion with VSELs can occur here. This paper allows one to better appreciate bone marrow-VSELs differentiation potential and opens new perspectives for autologous cell therapy. Furthermore, it might help explaining lots of contradictive data from the past 20 years, in particular related to ability of bone marrow cells to differentiate into cardiomyocytes.

  8. Combination Immunotherapy after ASCT for Multiple Myeloma Using MAGE-A3/Poly-ICLC Immunizations Followed by Adoptive Transfer of Vaccine-Primed and Costimulated Autologous T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Aaron P.; Aqui, Nicole A.; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Vogl, Dan T.; Xu, Yin Yan; Kalos, Michael; Cai, Ling; Fang, Hong-Bin; Weiss, Brendan M.; Badros, Ashraf; Yanovich, Saul; Akpek, Gorgun; Tsao, Patricia; Cross, Alan; Mann, Dean; Philip, Sunita; Kerr, Naseem; Brennan, Andrea; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ruehle, Kathleen; Milliron, Todd; Strome, Scott E.; Salazar, Andres M.; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Myeloma-directed cellular immune responses after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) may reduce relapse rates. We studied whether coinjecting the TLR-3 agonist and vaccine adjuvant Poly-ICLC with a MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine was safe and would elicit a high frequency of vaccine-directed immune responses when combined with vaccine-primed and costimulated autologous T cells. Experimental Design In a phase II clinical trial (NCT01245673), we evaluated the safety and activity of ex vivo expanded autologous T cells primed in vivo using a MAGE-A3 multipeptide vaccine (compound GL-0817) combined with Poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ± montanide. Twenty-seven patients with active and/or high-risk myeloma received autografts followed by anti-CD3/anti-CD28–costimulated autologous T cells, accompanied by MAGE-A3 peptide immunizations before T-cell collection and five times after ASCT. Immune responses to the vaccine were evaluated by cytokine production (all patients), dextramer binding to CD8+ T cells, and ELISA performed serially after transplant. Results T-cell infusions were well tolerated, whereas vaccine injection site reactions occurred in >90% of patients. Two of nine patients who received montanide developed sterile abscesses; however, this did not occur in the 18 patients who did not receive montanide. Dextramer staining demonstrated MAGE-A3–specific CD8 T cells in 7 of 8 evaluable HLA-A2+ patients (88%), whereas vaccine-specific cytokine-producing T cells were generated in 19 of 25 patients (76%). Antibody responses developed in 7 of 9 patients (78%) who received montanide and only weakly in 2 of 18 patients (11%) who did not. The 2-year overall survival was 74% [95% confidence interval (CI), 54%–100%] and 2-year event-free survival was 56% (95% CI, 37%–85%). Conclusions A high frequency of vaccine-specific T-cell responses were generated after transplant by combining costimulated autologous T

  9. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem. Alternative Names Ejaculation retrograde; Dry climax Images Male reproductive system References Bhasin S, Basson R. Sexual dysfunction in men and women. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Williams ... management of male infertility. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . ...

  10. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  11. Retrograde gastroesophageal intussusception.

    PubMed

    David, S; Barkin, J S

    1992-01-01

    This is an initial report of spontaneous retrograde gastroesophageal intussusception in an adult. The patient is a 72-yr-old women with a history of ovarian cancer and hiatal hernia, who presented with symptoms of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. Retrograde intussusception was diagnosed endoscopically and confirmed radiographically with an upper gastrointestinal series. Heightened awareness of this entity may lead to its more frequent diagnosis.

  12. Functional (dissociative) retrograde amnesia.

    PubMed

    Markowitsch, H J; Staniloiu, A

    2017-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia is described as condition which can occur after direct brain damage, but which occurs more frequently as a result of a psychiatric illness. In order to understand the amnesic condition, content-based divisions of memory are defined. The measurement of retrograde memory is discussed and the dichotomy between "organic" and "psychogenic" retrograde amnesia is questioned. Briefly, brain damage-related etiologies of retrograde amnesia are mentioned. The major portion of the review is devoted to dissociative amnesia (also named psychogenic or functional amnesia) and to the discussion of an overlap between psychogenic and "brain organic" forms of amnesia. The "inability of access hypothesis" is proposed to account for most of both the organic and psychogenic (dissociative) patients with primarily retrograde amnesia. Questions such as why recovery from retrograde amnesia can occur in retrograde (dissociative) amnesia, and why long-term new learning of episodic-autobiographic episodes is possible, are addressed. It is concluded that research on retrograde amnesia research is still in its infancy, as the neural correlates of memory storage are still unknown. It is argued that the recollection of episodic-autobiographic episodes most likely involves frontotemporal regions of the right hemisphere, a region which appears to be hypometabolic in patients with dissociative amnesia.

  13. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated.

  14. Chloroplast signaling: retrograde regulation revelations.

    PubMed

    Beale, Samuel I

    2011-05-24

    Developing chloroplasts are able to communicate their status to the nucleus and regulate expression of genes whose products are needed for photosynthesis. Heme is revealed to be a signaling molecule for this retrograde communication.

  15. What is autologous blood transfusion?

    PubMed

    Sansom, A

    1993-07-01

    The word autologous is Greek in origin. The definition is exact 'autos' means self and 'logus' means relation. Thus, the meaning is 'related to self'. Autologous blood transfusion, which also is referred to frequently but incorrectly and imprecisely as auto transfusion, designates the reinfusion of blood or blood components to the same individual from whom they were taken. Homologous blood is blood or blood components, from another human donor, taken and stored for later transfusion as required.

  16. Chloroplast retrograde signal regulates flowering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Chi, Wei; Chai, Xin; Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Xiumei; Ma, Jinfang; Rochaix, Jean-David; Leister, Dario; Wang, Haiyang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Light is a major environmental factor regulating flowering time, thus ensuring reproductive success of higher plants. In contrast to our detailed understanding of light quality and photoperiod mechanisms involved, the molecular basis underlying high light-promoted flowering remains elusive. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, a chloroplast-derived signal is critical for high light-regulated flowering mediated by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). We also demonstrate that PTM, a PHD transcription factor involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling, perceives such a signal and mediates transcriptional repression of FLC through recruitment of FVE, a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Thus, our data suggest that chloroplasts function as essential sensors of high light to regulate flowering and adaptive responses by triggering nuclear transcriptional changes at the chromatin level. PMID:27601637

  17. Does Perceptual Learning Suffer from Retrograde Interference?

    PubMed Central

    Aberg, Kristoffer C.; Herzog, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    In motor learning, training a task B can disrupt improvements of performance of a previously learned task A, indicating that learning needs consolidation. An influential study suggested that this is the case also for visual perceptual learning [1]. Using the same paradigm, we failed to reproduce these results. Further experiments with bisection stimuli also showed no retrograde disruption from task B on task A. Hence, for the tasks tested here, perceptual learning does not suffer from retrograde interference. PMID:21151868

  18. Learning about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachran, Alec

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates his unhappy experience in learning about prime numbers at secondary school. To introduce primes, a teacher first told students a definition of a prime number, then students were taught how to find prime numbers. Students defined and listed them and at some later point were tested on their memory of both the…

  19. Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiu; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo

    2016-02-10

    Starch retrogradation is a term used to define the process in which gelatinized starch undergoes a disorder-to-order transition. A thorough understanding of starch retrogradation behavior plays an important role in maintaining the quality of starchy foods during storage. By means of DSC, we have demonstrated for the first time that at low water contents, the enthalpy change of retrograded starch is higher than that of native starch. In terms of FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results, we showed that the molecular order of reheated retrograded starch samples is lower than that of DSC gelatinized starch. These findings have led us to conclude that enthalpy change of retrograded starch at low water contents involves the melting of recrystallized starch during storage and residual starch crystallites after DSC gelatinization, and that the endothermic transition of retrograded starch gels at low water contents does not fully represent the retrogradation behavior of starch. Very low or high water contents do not favor the occurrence of starch retrogradation.

  20. Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiu; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Starch retrogradation is a term used to define the process in which gelatinized starch undergoes a disorder-to-order transition. A thorough understanding of starch retrogradation behavior plays an important role in maintaining the quality of starchy foods during storage. By means of DSC, we have demonstrated for the first time that at low water contents, the enthalpy change of retrograded starch is higher than that of native starch. In terms of FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results, we showed that the molecular order of reheated retrograded starch samples is lower than that of DSC gelatinized starch. These findings have led us to conclude that enthalpy change of retrograded starch at low water contents involves the melting of recrystallized starch during storage and residual starch crystallites after DSC gelatinization, and that the endothermic transition of retrograded starch gels at low water contents does not fully represent the retrogradation behavior of starch. Very low or high water contents do not favor the occurrence of starch retrogradation. PMID:26860788

  1. Rhinoplasty using autologous costal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Nancy; Larocca, Carlos Gil; Aponte, Ciro

    2013-06-01

    Most Latin American patients looking to have a primary septorhinoplasty share common characteristics in relation to an incorrect projection of the nasal tip complex and a low dorsal line. Thus, the frequent use of structural techniques and of surgical enhancement techniques becomes necessary to improve the nasal contour. In cases of secondary septorhinoplasty, it is also usual in our practice not to have sufficient septal cartilage available or with the required quality to give structure and support to the nasal tip complex, handle the nasal dorsum, and simultaneously correct postseptorhinoplasty deformities. For these reasons, in our practice costal cartilage represents an excellent option as autologous graft material. We present our experience using autologous costal cartilage for structural and nonstructural purposes in 286 selected patients who underwent open rhinoplasty between 2004 and 2011. We emphasize preoperative analyses, we discuss the criteria for selecting costal graft as graft material, we show key aspects of the dynamic of the surgery, and we consider the possibility of using autologous costal graft in combination with heterologous grafts. In this work we also establish the disadvantages of costal cartilage as graft material in specific areas of the surgical anatomy of the nose.

  2. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1996-10-15

    A process is disclosed for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  3. Process for forming retrograde profiles in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    A process for forming retrograde and oscillatory profiles in crystalline and polycrystalline silicon. The process consisting of introducing an n- or p-type dopant into the silicon, or using prior doped silicon, then exposing the silicon to multiple pulses of a high-intensity laser or other appropriate energy source that melts the silicon for short time duration. Depending on the number of laser pulses directed at the silicon, retrograde profiles with peak/surface dopant concentrations which vary from 1-1e4 are produced. The laser treatment can be performed in air or in vacuum, with the silicon at room temperature or heated to a selected temperature.

  4. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  5. Studies of retrograde memory: A long-term view

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Elizabeth K.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia are reviewed. First, the issues of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia are discussed. Second, the question of the anatomical substrates of this syndrome are considered. Finally, some evidence for fractionation of different classes of memoranda within the retrograde time period are presented. PMID:8942966

  6. Doppler-guided retrograde catheterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Leon J.; Vonesh, Michael J.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Khasho, Fouad; Lanza, George M.; Talano, James V.; McPherson, David D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a Doppler guided catheterization system as an adjunctive or alternative methodology to overcome the disadvantages of left heart catheterization and angiography. These disadvantages include the biological effects of radiation and the toxic and volume effects of iodine contrast. Doppler retrograde guidance uses a 20 MHz circular pulsed Doppler crystal incorporated into the tip of a triple lumen multipurpose catheter and is advanced retrogradely using the directional flow information provided by the Doppler waveform. The velocity detection limits are either 1 m/second or 4 m/second depending upon the instrumentation. In a physiologic flow model of the human aortic arch, multiple data points revealed a positive wave form when flow was traveling toward the catheter tip indicating proper alignment for retrograde advancement. There was a negative wave form when flow was traveling away from the catheter tip if the catheter was in a branch or bent upon itself indicating improper catheter tip position for retrograde advancement. In a series of six dogs, the catheter was able to be accurately advanced from the femoral artery to the left ventricular chamber under Doppler signal guidance without the use of x-ray. The potential applications of a Doppler guided retrograde catheterization system include decreasing time requirements and allowing safer catheter guidance in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and suspected aortic dissection. The Doppler system may allow left ventricular pressure monitoring in the intensive care unit without the need for x-ray and it may allow left sided contrast echocardiography. With pulse velocity detection limits of 4 m/second, this system may allow catheter direction and passage into the aortic root and left ventricle in patients with aortic stenosis. A modification of the Doppler catheter may include transponder technology which would allow precise catheter tip localization once the

  7. Retrograde transport on the COG railway.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Daniel; Oka, Toshihiko; Krieger, Monty; Hughson, Frederick M

    2006-02-01

    The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is essential for establishing and/or maintaining the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus, in turn, has a central role in protein sorting and glycosylation within the eukaryotic secretory pathway. As a consequence, COG mutations can give rise to human genetic diseases known as congenital disorders of glycosylation. We review recent results from studies of yeast, worm, fly and mammalian COG that provide evidence that COG might function in retrograde vesicular trafficking within the Golgi apparatus. This hypothesis explains the impact of COG mutations by postulating that they impair the retrograde flow of resident Golgi proteins needed to maintain normal Golgi structure and function.

  8. An ERP investigation of orthographic priming with superset primes.

    PubMed

    Ktori, Maria; Midgley, Katherine; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-12

    Prime stimuli formed by inserting unrelated letters in a given target word (called "superset" primes) provide a means to modify the relative positions of the letters shared by prime and target. Here we examined the time-course of superset priming effects in an ERP study using the sandwich-priming paradigm. We compared the effects of superset primes formed by the insertion of unrelated letters (e.g., maurkdet-MARKET), or by the insertion of hyphens (e.g., ma-rk-et-MARKET), with identity priming (e.g., market-MARKET), all measured relative to unrelated control primes. Behavioral data revealed significantly greater priming in the hyphen-insert condition compared with the letter-insert condition. In the ERP signal, letter-insert priming emerged later than hyphen-insert priming and produced a reversed priming effect in the N400 time-window compared with the more typical N400 priming effects seen for both hyphen-insert priming and identity priming. The different pattern of priming effects seen for letter-insert primes and hyphen-insert primes suggests that compared with identity priming, letter superset priming reflects the joint influence of: (1) a disruption in letter position information, and (2) an inhibitory influence of mismatching letters.

  9. Priming Reduced Extracorporeal Circulation Setup (PRECiSe) with the DeltaStream diagonal pump.

    PubMed

    Beholz, Sven; Kessler, Michael; Thölke, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang F

    2003-12-01

    Different systems for beating heart procedures and low priming systems limited to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have been introduced. We describe Priming Reduced Extracorporeal Circulation Setup (PRECiSe), a new low priming system which sup-plies all the features of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). PRECiSe incorporates the DeltaStream diagonal pump, which pumps blood from the right atrium to the aorta via a membrane oxygenator and a filter; the system is placed beneath the patient's head resulting in extremely short tubing. A reservoir allows the use of suckers and vents. Autologous blood priming furthers reduces hemodilution. In a safety study the system was used for extracorporeal circulation in 11 patients undergoing CABG without adverse effects. By use of PRECiSe mean priming was reduced to 268.5 ml resulting in minimal hemo-dilution and transfusion requirements.

  10. An overview of sipuleucel-T: autologous cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Johnna D; Whitmore, James; Trager, James; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2012-04-01

    Sipuleucel-T, the first autologous active cellular immunotherapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, is designed to stimulate an immune response to prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T is manufactured by culturing a patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (including antigen presenting cells) with a recombinant protein comprising a tumor-associated antigen (prostatic acid phosphatase) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Treatment consists of 3 infusions at approximately 2-week intervals, resulting in a prime-boost pattern of immune activation, a robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune response, and, consequently, a survival benefit in subjects with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer. Adverse events are generally mild to moderate and resolve within 2 d. Serious adverse events occur at a low rate. As the first autologous cellular immunotherapy to demonstrate a survival benefit, sipuleucel-T is a novel oncologic therapeutic that warrants the reassessment of the current prostate cancer treatment paradigm.

  11. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  12. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants.

  13. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  14. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  15. PRIME Lab Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D. J.; Mueller, K. A.; Ma, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1996-03-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is one of three NSF national facilities for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and is the only one capable of determining six cosmogenic radionuclides: 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. This abstract describes the current status of the radiocarbon analysis program at PRIME Lab.

  16. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  17. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Parnham, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been an increased interest on premature ejaculation in the recent years, our understanding regarding the disorders of retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia remain limited. All three of these conditions require a keen clinical acumen and willingness to engage in thinking outside of the standard established treatment paradigm. The development of novel investigational techniques and treatments has led to progress in the management of these conditions symptoms; however, the literature almost uniformly is limited to small series and rare randomised trials. Further investigation and randomised controlled trials are needed for progress in these often challenging cases. PMID:27652230

  18. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Although there has been an increased interest on premature ejaculation in the recent years, our understanding regarding the disorders of retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia remain limited. All three of these conditions require a keen clinical acumen and willingness to engage in thinking outside of the standard established treatment paradigm. The development of novel investigational techniques and treatments has led to progress in the management of these conditions symptoms; however, the literature almost uniformly is limited to small series and rare randomised trials. Further investigation and randomised controlled trials are needed for progress in these often challenging cases.

  19. [Autologous fat grafting and rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Baptista, C; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2014-12-01

    Revision rhinoplasty can be very challenging especially in cases of thin skin. Autologous fat graft is utilized in numerous applications in plastic surgery; however, its use relative to the nasal region remains uncommon. Adipose tissue, by virtue of its volumetric qualities and its action on skin trophicity, can be considered to be a gold standard implant. From 2006 until 2012, we have treated patients by lipofilling in order to correct sequelae of rhinoplasty. The mean quantity of adipose tissue injected was 2.1cm(3) depending on the importance of the deformity and the area of injection: irregularity of the nasal dorsum, visible lateral osteotomies, saddle nose. Following the course of our practice, we conceived micro-cannulas that allow a much greater accuracy in the placement of the graft and enable to perform interventions under local anesthesia. These non-traumatic micro-cannulas do not cause post-operative ecchymosis and swelling which shorten the recovery time for the patient. On patients who have undergone multiple operations, lipofilling can be a simple and reliable alternative to correct imperfections that may take place after a rhinoplasty.

  20. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing

    PubMed Central

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  1. Terminal retrograde turn of rolling rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Mir Abbas; Sarebangholi, Milad S.; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-09-01

    We report an unexpected reverse spiral turn in the final stage of the motion of rolling rings. It is well known that spinning disks rotate in the same direction of their initial spin until they stop. While a spinning ring starts its motion with a kinematics similar to disks, i.e., moving along a cycloidal path prograde with the direction of its rigid body rotation, the mean trajectory of its center of mass later develops an inflection point so that the ring makes a spiral turn and revolves in a retrograde direction around a new center. Using high speed imaging and numerical simulations of models featuring a rolling rigid body, we show that the hollow geometry of a ring tunes the rotational air drag resistance so that the frictional force at the contact point with the ground changes its direction at the inflection point and puts the ring on a retrograde spiral trajectory. Our findings have potential applications in designing topologically new surface-effect flying objects capable of performing complex reorientation and translational maneuvers.

  2. Largest known twin primes and Sophie Germain primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indlekofer, Karl-Heinz; Járai, Antal

    The numbers 242206083* 2^38880+-1 are twin primes. The number p=2375063906985* 2^19380-1 is a Sophie Germain prime, i.e. p and 2p+1 are both primes. For p=4610194180515* 2^ 5056-1, the numbers p, p+2 and 2p+1 are all primes.

  3. Masked priming effect reflects evidence accumulated by the prime.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In the same-different match task, masked priming is observed with the same responses but not different responses. Norris and Kinoshita's (2008) Bayesian reader account of masked priming explains this pattern based on the same principle as that explaining the absence of priming for nonwords in the lexical decision task. The pattern of priming follows from the way the model makes optimal decisions in the two tasks; priming does not depend on first activating the prime and then the target. An alternative explanation is in terms of a bias towards responding "same" that exactly counters the facilitatory effect of lexical access. The present study tested these two views by varying both the degree to which the prime predicts the response and the visibility of the prime. Unmasked primes produced effects expected from the view that priming is influenced by the degree to which the prime predicts the response. In contrast, with masked primes, the size of priming for the same response was completely unaffected by predictability. These results rule out response bias as an explanation of the absence of masked priming for different responses and, in turn, indicate that masked priming is not a consequence of automatic lexical access of the prime.

  4. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways coverage to antogonistically regulate a light-induced transcription network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde and photosensory-receptor signaling has remained undefined. Here, we show that the phytochrome (phy) and retrograde signaling pathways converge a...

  5. How important is a prime's gestalt for subliminal priming?

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Slósarek, Maciej

    2007-06-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Under some conditions, reactions to the main stimulus can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response). In the majority of studies in which inverse priming was demonstrated arrows pointing left or right were used as prime and targets. There is, however, evidence that arrows are special overlearned stimuli which are processed in a favorable way. Here we report three experiments designated to test whether the "arrowness" of primes/targets is a sufficient condition for inverse priming. The results clearly show that although inverse priming appeared when non-arrow shapes were used, the magnitude of the priming effect was larger with arrows. The possible reasons for this effect are discussed.

  6. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Ted

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that…

  7. Laser-induced priming of human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichuk, Tatyana V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Strashkevich, I. A.; Klebanov, Gennady I.

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the influence of He-Ne ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm) laser irradiation (LI) on a functional activity of human blood leucocytes. The method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with the zymosan-activated phagocytes was used. The leucocytes were irradiated without and in the presence of autologic human blood plasma, containing of the endogenous (porphyrins) and/or exogenous (phthalocyanine) photosensitizers. The LI initiated a priming of the leucocytes. Priming revealed itself after the activation of the phagocytes by zymosan. The changes of the calcium concentration in leucocytes cytoplasm were studied too. Fluorimetric method with Fura-2AM was used for this. The laser irradiation initiated the changes of the calcium concentration in the leucocytes cytoplasm. All the investigating parameters depended on the irradiation dose and on the concentration of photosensitizers. The results of this work allowed to formulate the main theses of the free radical mechanism of the low intensive laser irradiation action on human blood leucocytes.

  8. Distant retrograde orbits for the Moon's exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Vladislav

    We discuss the properties of the distant retrograde orbits (which are called quasi-satellite orbits also) around Moon. For the first time the distant retrograde orbits were described by J.Jackson in studies on restricted three body problem at the beginning of 20th century [1]. In the synodic (rotating) reference frame distant retrograde orbit looks like an ellipse whose center is slowly drifting in the vicinity of minor primary body while in the inertial reference frame the third body is orbiting the major primary body. Although being away the Hill sphere the third body permanently stays close enough to the minor primary. Due to this reason the distant retrograde orbits are called “quasi-satellite” orbits (QS-orbits) too. Several asteroids in solar system are in a QS-orbit with respect to one of the planet. As an example we can mention the asteroid 2002VE68 which circumnavigates Venus [2]. Attention of specialists in space flight mechanics was attracted to QS-orbits after the publications of NASA technical reports devoted to periodic moon orbits [3,4]. Moving in QS-orbit the SC remains permanently (or at least for long enough time) in the vicinity of small celestial body even in the case when the Hill sphere lies beneath the surface of the body. The properties of the QS-orbit can be studied using the averaging of the motion equations [5,6,7]. From the theoretical point of view it is a specific case of 1:1 mean motion resonance. The integrals of the averaged equations become the parameters defining the secular evolution of the QS-orbit. If the trajectory is robust enough to small perturbations in the simplified problem (i.e., restricted three body problem) it may correspond to long-term stability of the real-world orbit. Our investigations demonstrate that under the proper choice of the initial conditions the QS-orbits don’t escape from Moon or don’t impact Moon for long enough time. These orbits can be recommended as a convenient technique for the large

  9. Asteroids in Retrograde Orbits: Interesting Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, Paweł; Włodarczyk, Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    We present the most interesting examples of the orbital evolution of asteroids in retrograde orbits (i > 90°). First, we used the latest observational data to determine nominal and averaged orbital elements of these objects. Next, the equations of motion of these asteroids were integrated backward 1 My, taking into account the propagation of observational errors. We used so-called 'cloning' procedure to reproduce the reliability of initial data. We obtained some possible scenarios of the orbit inversion in the past, what is often caused by the long-term influence of outer planets. For two most interesting cases (Apollo and Amor type) we did additional calculations: 100 My in the future. Additionally, we investigated the potential influence of Yarkovski/YORP effects on the long-time orbital evolution.

  10. Evidence for retrograde lithospheric subduction on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Schubert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Annular moats and outer rises around large Venus coronas such as Artemis, Latona, and Eithinoha are similar in arcuate planform and topography to the trenches and outer rises of terrestrial subduction zones. On earth, trenches and outer rises are modeled as the flexural response of a thin elastic lithosphere to the bending moment of the subducted slab; this lithospheric flexure model also accounts for the trenches and outer rises outboard of the major coronas on Venus. Accordingly, it is proposed that retrograde lithospheric subduction may be occurring on the margins of the large Venus coronas while compensating back-arc extension is occurring in the expanding coronas interiors. Similar processes may be taking place at other deep arcuate trenches or chasmata on Venus such as those in the Dali-Diana chasmata area of aestern Aphrodite Terra.

  11. Alterations of mitochondrial dynamics allow retrograde propagation of locally initiated axonal insults

    PubMed Central

    Lassus, Benjamin; Magifico, Sebastien; Pignon, Sandra; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Peyrin, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In chronic neurodegenerative syndromes, neurons progressively die through a generalized retraction pattern triggering retrograde axonal degeneration toward the cell bodies, which molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recent observations suggest that direct activation of pro-apoptotic signaling in axons triggers local degenerative events associated with early alteration of axonal mitochondrial dynamics. This raises the question of the role of mitochondrial dynamics on both axonal vulnerability stress and their implication in the spreading of damages toward unchallenged parts of the neuron. Here, using microfluidic chambers, we assessed the consequences of interfering with OPA1 and DRP1 proteins on axonal degeneration induced by local application of rotenone. We found that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevented axonal damage induced by rotenone, in low glucose conditions. While alteration of mitochondrial dynamics per se did not lead to spontaneous axonal degeneration, it dramatically enhanced axonal vulnerability to rotenone, which had no effect in normal glucose conditions, and promoted retrograde spreading of axonal degeneration toward the cell body. Altogether, our results suggest a mitochondrial priming effect in axons as a key process of axonal degeneration. In the context of neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, mitochondria fragmentation could hasten neuronal death and initiate spatial dispersion of locally induced degenerative events. PMID:27604820

  12. Selective retrograde transsynaptic transfer of a protein, tetanus toxin, subsequent to its retrograde axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, ME; Suda, K; Thoenen, H

    1979-01-01

    The fate of tetanus toxin (mol wt 150,000) subsequent to its retrograde axonal transport in peripheral sympathetic neurons of the rat was studied by both electron microscope autoradiography and cytochemistry using toxin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) coupling products, and compared to that of nerve growth factor (NGF), cholera toxin, and the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and ricin. All these macromolecules are taken up by adrenergic nerve terminals and transported retrogradely in a selective, highly efficient manner. This selective uptake and transport is a consequence of the binding of these macromolecules to specific receptive sites on the nerve terminal membrane. All these ligands are transported in the axons within smooth vesicles, cisternae, and tubules. In the cell bodies these membrane compartments fuse and most of the transported macromolecules are finally incorporated into lysosomes. The cell nuclei, the parallel golgi cisternae, and the extracellular space always remain unlabeled. In case the tetanus toxin, however, a substantial fraction of the labeled material appears in presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals which innervate the labeled ganglion cells. In these terminals tetanus toxin-HRP is localized in 500-1,000 A diam vesicles. In contrast, such a retrograde transsynaptic transfer is not at all or only very rarely detectable after retrograde transport of cholera toxin, NGF, WGA, PHA, or ricin. An atoxic fragment of the tetanus toxin, which contains the ganglioside-binding site, behaves like intact toxin. With all these macromolecules, the extracellular space and the glial cells in the ganglion remain unlabeled. We conclude that the selectivity of this transsynaptic transfer of tetanus toxin is due to a selective release of the toxin from the postsynaptic dendrites. This release is immediately followed by an uptake into the presynaptic terminals. PMID:92475

  13. Development of an autologous canine cancer vaccine system for resectable malignant tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yannelli, J R; Wouda, R; Masterson, T J; Avdiushko, M G; Cohen, D A

    2016-12-01

    While conventional therapies exist for canine cancer, immunotherapies need to be further explored and applied to the canine setting. We have developed an autologous cancer vaccine (K9-ACV), which is available for all dogs with resectable disease. K9-ACV was evaluated for safety and immunogenicity for a variety of cancer types in a cohort of companion dogs under veterinary care. The autologous vaccine was prepared by enzymatic digestion of solid tumor biopsies. The resultant single cell suspensions were then UV-irradiated resulting in immunogenic cell death of the tumor cells. Following sterility and endotoxin testing, the tumor cells were admixed with CpG ODN adjuvant and shipped to the participating veterinary clinics. The treating veterinarians then vaccinated each patient with three intradermal injections (10 million cells per dose) at 30-day intervals (one prime and two boost injections). In a cohort of 20 dogs completing the study, 17 dogs (85%) developed an augmented IgG response to autologous tumor antigens as demonstrated using western blot analysis of pre- and post-peripheral blood samples. We also report several dogs have lived beyond expected survival time based on previously published data. In summary, K9-ACV is an additional option to be considered for the treatment of dogs with resectable cancer.

  14. Pituitary abscess after autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leff, R S; Martino, R L; Pollock, W J; Knight, W A

    1989-05-01

    The first case of pituitary abscess arising in a patient during recovery from autologous bone marrow transplantation is reported. A 31-year-old man with a 9 month history of T-cell lymphoma died suddenly more than 60 days after successful treatment with high-dose cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation, and autologous bone marrow infusion. Autopsy revealed a pituitary abscess associated with clinically silent sphenoid sinusitis. Unique aspects of this case are presented and clinical and pathologic features of pituitary abscess are reviewed. Although rare, pituitary abscess may complicate recovery from bone marrow transplantation.

  15. PRODUCTION OF NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS ON RETROGRADE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B.; Ngo, H.; Granvik, M.; Larson, S.

    2012-04-20

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that {approx}0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for {approx}0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  16. Production of Near-Earth Asteroids on Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B.; Ngo, H.; Granvik, M.; Larson, S.

    2012-04-01

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that ~0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for ~0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  17. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Ted

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that students who participated in these activities performed better on examination questions pertaining to retrograde motion than students who did not. Potential explanations for this result, including the breaking of classroom routine, the effect of body movement on conceptual memory, and egocentric spatial proprioception, are considered.

  18. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards.

  19. Autologous blood products in rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Mei-Dan, Omer; Carmont, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We review the management of rotator cuff tears, the mechanism of action of autologous blood products, principally platelet-rich plasma, and the current evidence for effective use of platelet-rich plasma, particularly in relation to the shoulder and chronic rotator cuff tears, for biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair.

  20. Autologous Diced Cartilage in Nasal Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sersar, Sameh Ibrahim; Yassin, Ibrahim; Eldin Aly, Mohammed Saad

    2016-01-01

    Diced rib cartilage is an acceptable option in severe nasal deformities. We present our preliminary experience in KAMC in nasal septoplasties using the autologous diced costal cartilage. This is a retrospective study of the 22 cases who needed the autologous diced costal cartilage in our centre in 4 years. All our patients needed autologous diced rib cartilages. Twelve were wrapped with temporalis fascia, eight needed rectus fascia and perichondrium was used in only 2 cases. The naso-frontal angle for the whole series decreased by a mean of 4.41° (p=0.008) for the group using the rectus fascia diced cartilage graft. From the aesthetic point of view, all cases were satisfied except 3 (13.6%); two in the group of diced cartilage temporalis fascia; group 1. From the functional breathing view, only 1 case was not satisfied. He was in group 1. Autologous rib cartilage was shown to be a good graft in nasal septoplasty especially if wrapped with rectus fascia. PMID:27853694

  1. Retrograde metasomatic effects on phase assemblages in an interlayered blueschist-greenschist sequence (Coastal Cordillera, Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, Ralf; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Interlayered blueschists and greenschists of the Coastal Cordillera (Chile) are part of a Late Palaeozoic accretionary complex. They represent metavolcanic rocks with oceanic affinities based on predominantly OIB-type REE patterns and immobile trace element ratios. Both rock types have similar mineralogies, albeit with different mineral modal abundances. Amphibole is the major mafic mineral and varies compositionally from glaucophane to actinolite. The presence of glaucophane relicts as cores in zoned amphiboles in both blueschists and greenschists is evidence for a pervasive high-pressure metamorphic stage, indicating that tectonic juxtaposition is an unlikely explanation for the cm-dm scale interlayering. During exhumation, a retrograde greenschist-facies overprint stabilized chlorite + albite + winchitic/actinolitic amphibole + phengitic white mica ± epidote ± K-feldspar at 0.4 ± 0.1 GPa. Geochemical variability can be partly ascribed to primary magmatic and partly to secondary metasomatic processes that occurred under greenschist-facies conditions. Isocon diagrams of several adjacent blueschist-greenschist pairs with similar protolith geochemistry were used to evaluate metasomatic changes due to retrograde fluid-rock interaction. The most important geochemical changes are depletion of Si and Na and addition of water in the greenschists compared to the blueschists. Transition metals and LILE are mobilized to varying degrees. The unsystematic deviations from magmatic fractionation trends suggest open system conditions and influx of an external fluid. Pseudosection and water isopleth calculations show that the rocks were dehydrating during most of their exhumation history and remained at water-saturated conditions. The mineralogical changes, in particular breakdown of blue amphibole and replacement by chlorite, albite and calcic/sodic-calcic amphibole, are the prime cause for the distinct coloring. Pseudo-binary phase diagrams were used as a means to link bulk

  2. Prime Retrieval of Motor Responses in Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel; Dentale, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Three auditory identification experiments were designed to specify the prime-response retrieval model of negative priming (S. Mayr & A. Buchner, 2006), which assumes that the prime response is retrieved in ignored repetition trials and interferes with probe responding. In Experiment 1, shortly before (in Experiment 1A) or after (in Experiment 1B)…

  3. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Bassilakis, R.; Kroo, E.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the proposed processing schemes for improving liquefaction yields involve favoring bond-breaking and radical stabilization reactions over the retrograde reactions. The retrograde reactions are often encountered before liquefaction temperatures are reached. The objective of this program is to elucidate and model the retrograde reaction chemistry in direct coal liquefaction through the application of experimental techniques and theoretical models which have been successfully employed at Advanced Fuel Research (AFR) and SRI International (a subcontractor) to understand and predict coal reaction behavior. The study of retrograde reactions is being done using an integrated approach using extensive characterization of the liquefaction chemistry of three kinds of systems: (1) model polymers; (2) coal; and (3) modified coals.

  4. Inhibition of retrograde transport protects mice from lethal ricin challenge.

    PubMed

    Stechmann, Bahne; Bai, Siau-Kun; Gobbo, Emilie; Lopez, Roman; Merer, Goulven; Pinchard, Suzy; Panigai, Laetitia; Tenza, Danièle; Raposo, Graça; Beaumelle, Bruno; Sauvaire, Didier; Gillet, Daniel; Johannes, Ludger; Barbier, Julien

    2010-04-16

    Bacterial Shiga-like toxins are virulence factors that constitute a significant public health threat worldwide, and the plant toxin ricin is a potential bioterror weapon. To gain access to their cytosolic target, ribosomal RNA, these toxins follow the retrograde transport route from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, via endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Here, we used high-throughput screening to identify small molecule inhibitors that protect cells from ricin and Shiga-like toxins. We identified two compounds that selectively block retrograde toxin trafficking at the early endosome-TGN interface, without affecting compartment morphology, endogenous retrograde cargos, or other trafficking steps, demonstrating an unexpected degree of selectivity and lack of toxicity. In mice, one compound clearly protects from lethal nasal exposure to ricin. Our work discovers the first small molecule that shows efficacy against ricin in animal experiments and identifies the retrograde route as a potential therapeutic target.

  5. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  6. Plant Intracellular Transport: Tracing Functions of the Retrograde Kinesin.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sabine

    2015-09-21

    Adding to its varied repertoire of functions in cell morphogenesis and cell division, a molecular motor protein of the kinesin-14 class has recently been implicated in rapid retrograde transport along cellular tracks in moss.

  7. "Fell" Primes "Fall", but Does "Bell" Prime "Ball"? Masked Priming with Irregularly-Inflected Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2010-01-01

    Recent masked priming experiments have brought to light a morphological level of analysis that is exclusively based on the orthographic appearance of words, so that it breaks down corner into corn- and -er, as well as dealer into deal- and -er (Rastle, Davis, & New, 2004). Being insensitive to semantic factors, this morpho-orthographic…

  8. Prime-Time Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Lois

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study identifying, analyzing, and describing messages on prime-time network television related to food, eating behavior, and ideal body image. Program content and commercials studied present conflicting messages: (1) that we eat in ways almost guaranteed to make us fat, and (2) that we strive to remain too slim. (JMF)

  9. A reappraisal of retrograde cerebral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brain protection during aortic arch surgery by perfusing cold oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava was first reported by Lemole et al. In 1990 Ueda and associates first described the routine use of continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in thoracic aortic surgery for the purpose of cerebral protection during the interval of obligatory interruption of anterograde cerebral flow. The beneficial effects of RCP may be its ability to sustain brain hypothermia during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and removal of embolic material from the arterial circulation of the brain. RCP can offer effective brain protection during HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes. Animal experiments revealed that RCP provided inadequate cerebral perfusion and that neurological recovery was improved with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP), however, both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates by risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study. RCP still remains a valuable adjunct for brain protection during aortic arch repair in particular pathologies and patients. PMID:23977600

  10. San Andreas Fault tremor and retrograde metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Diener, Johann F. A.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is an enigmatic low-frequency seismic phenomenon mainly observed in subduction zones, but also documented along the deep extension of the central San Andreas Fault. The physical mechanisms behind this unusual seismic event are not yet determined for any tectonic setting; however, low effective stress conditions arising from metamorphic fluid production are commonly inferred for subduction-related tremor. We investigate the petrologic conditions at which the San Andreas tectonic tremor is inferred to occur through calculations of the pressure - temperature - time evolution of stable mineral assemblages and their water content in the dominant lithologies of the Franciscan Complex. We find that tremor locations around Parkfield and Cholame are currently experiencing retrograde metamorphic conditions. Within the temperature-depth conditions of observed tremor activity, at approximately 500°C and 20 km depth, several mineralogical transitions may occur in cooling greywacke and mafic rocks, leading to localised, significant removal of free water and an associated volume decrease. This indicates that, contrary to subduction-related tremor, tremor on the San Andreas Fault is not linked to prograde, crustal metamorphic fluid production within the fault zone; rather it might be related to mantle-derived fluids from below the tremor zone, and/or fault zone weakening that occurs as phyllosilicates replace more competent and granular mineral phases.

  11. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Bilioenteric Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Taek

    2016-01-01

    For diagnosis and treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is useful method nowadays and its technically success rate is usually in about 90%-95% of patients with normal gastric and pancreaticobiliary anatomy. Recently ERCP is significantly challenging after intestinal reconstruction, particularly in patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, classic Whipple’s operation) or pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) with reconstruction. PD and PPPD relate to numerous techniques have been presented for reconstruction of the digestive tract and pancreaticobiliary tree during the resection bilioenteric stricture commonly occurs later in the postoperative course and developed in 5-year cumulative probability of biliary stricture rate of 8.2% and pancreaticoenteric stricture of 4.6%. This complication was no difference in incidence between patients with benign or malignant disease. In PD or PPPD with reconstruction, short pancreatobiliary limb with biliojejunal anastomosis site is made usually, modestly success rate of intubation to blind loop and cannulation with conventional endoscope. However, in combined Reux-en-Y anastomosis, longer pancreatobiliary limb and additional Reux limb are obstacle to success intubation and cannulation by using conventional endoscope. In this situation, new designed enetroscope with dedicated accessories is efficient. PMID:27838918

  12. Pleuropancreatic fistula: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, S.; Pellegrini, C.A.; Moss, A.A.; Way, L.W.

    1984-06-01

    The complementary use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of pleuropancreatic fistulas is described in relation to four cases in which computed tomography revealedthe thoracic extension of a pancreatic fistula not demonstrable by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, although the latter indicated an abnormal pancreatic duct. The complementary use of both techniques may be necessary to define the pathologic anatomy so that the appropriate therapy, particularly the surgical approach, can be decided.

  13. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  14. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ballester, O F; Tummala, R; Janssen, W E; Fields, K K; Hiemenz, J W; Goldstein, S C; Perkins, J B; Sullivan, D M; Rosen, R; Sackstein, R; Zorsky, P; Saez, R; Elfenbein, G J

    1997-10-01

    Six patients with multiple myeloma and chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dl), including four on dialysis, received high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BUCY) followed by autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after priming with cyclophosphamide, etoposide and G-CSF. Patterns of engraftment and toxicities were not apparently different from those seen in myeloma patients with normal renal function. There was one toxicity-related death, resulting from a massive spontaneous subdural hematoma. One patient died of disease progression 6 months after transplant, while the remaining four patients are alive and free of myeloma progression 6 to 39 months after high-dose therapy. Two of these patients have remained in complete remission for 28 and 39 months. Our experience suggests that high-dose therapy with BUCY and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue is feasible in patients with multiple myeloma and renal failure.

  15. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  16. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  17. Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

  18. Autologous antibodies that bind neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Sholler, Giselle S; Shukla, Girja S; Pero, Stephanie C; Carman, Chelsea L; Zhao, Ping; Krag, David N

    2015-11-01

    Antibody therapy of neuroblastoma is promising and our goal is to derive antibodies from patients with neuroblastoma for developing new therapeutic antibodies. The feasibility of using residual bone marrow obtained for clinical indications as a source of tumor cells and a source of antibodies was assessed. From marrow samples, neuroblastoma cells were recovered, grown in cell culture and also implanted into mice to create xenografts. Mononuclear cells from the marrow were used as a source to generate phage display antibody libraries and also hybridomas. Growth of neuroblastoma patient cells was possible both in vitro and as xenografts. Antibodies from the phage libraries and from the monoclonal hybridomas bound autologous neuroblastoma cells with some selectivity. It appears feasible to recover neuroblastoma cells from residual marrow specimens and to generate human antibodies that bind autologous neuroblastoma cells. Expansion of this approach is underway to collect more specimens, optimize methods to generate antibodies, and to evaluate the bioactivity of neuroblastoma-binding antibodies.

  19. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  20. [Cartilage biopsy for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)].

    PubMed

    Pestka, J M; Salzmann, G M; Südkamp, N P; Niemeyer, P

    2013-06-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an established two-step procedure for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee. Cartilage harvest from the affected knee joint represents the first step of this procedure and is essential for further in vitro expansion of autologous chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the cartilage biopsy process itself is underrepresented in the scientific literature and currently there is only a limited amount of data available addressing this process. Biopsy location as well as the technique itself and instruments used for cartilage collection are not well defined and only little standardisation can be found. The article describes the relevant aspects of the biopsy in the context of ACI with regard to the literature available. Follow-up studies to better define and standardise the cartilage biopsy process are thus required.

  1. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  2. Cryptococcal meningitis post autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chaaban, S; Wheat, L J; Assi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated Cryptococcus disease occurs in patients with defective T-cell immunity. Cryptococcal meningitis following autologous stem cell transplant (SCT) has been described previously in only 1 patient, 4 months post SCT and while off antifungal prophylaxis. We present a unique case of Cryptococcus meningitis pre-engraftment after autologous SCT, while the patient was receiving fluconazole prophylaxis. A 41-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent autologous SCT. Post-transplant prophylaxis consisted of fluconazole 400 mg daily, levofloxacin 500 mg daily, and acyclovir 800 mg twice daily. On day 9 post transplant, he developed fever and headache. Peripheral white blood cell count (WBC) was 700/μL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed lesions consistent with meningoencephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a WBC of 39 with 77% lymphocytes, protein 63, glucose 38, CSF pressure 20.5 cmH2 O, and a positive cryptococcal antigen. CSF culture confirmed Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B 5 mg/kg intravenously daily, and flucytosine 37.5 mg/kg orally every 6 h. He was switched to fluconazole 400 mg daily after 3 weeks of amphotericin therapy, with sterilization of the CSF with negative CSFCryptococcus antigen and negative CSF culture. Review of the literature revealed 9 cases of cryptococcal disease in recipients of SCT. Median time of onset was 64 days post transplant. Only 3 meningitis cases were described; 2 of them after allogeneic SCT. Fungal prophylaxis with fluconazole post autologous SCT is recommended at least through engraftment, and for up to 100 days in high-risk patients. A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose and treat opportunistic infections, especially in the face of immunosuppression and despite adequate prophylaxis. Infection is usually fatal without treatment, thus prompt diagnosis and therapy might be life saving.

  3. Pyoderma gangrenosum following autologous breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prateush; Tuffaha, Sami H; Robbins, Sanford H; Bonawitz, Steven C

    2017-02-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon disorder characterized by the development of painful cutaneous ulceration, commonly precipitated by dermal injury at surgical sites. It is a diagnostic challenge as it manifests as necrotizing wounds which are commonly misdiagnosed as postoperative wound infection or ischemia. We discuss the clinical features and histopathological findings that allow for rapid identification of PG following autologous breast reconstruction and suggest an algorithm to aid diagnosis.

  4. Pyoderma gangrenosum following autologous breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tuffaha, Sami H.; Robbins, Sanford H.; Bonawitz, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon disorder characterized by the development of painful cutaneous ulceration, commonly precipitated by dermal injury at surgical sites. It is a diagnostic challenge as it manifests as necrotizing wounds which are commonly misdiagnosed as postoperative wound infection or ischemia. We discuss the clinical features and histopathological findings that allow for rapid identification of PG following autologous breast reconstruction and suggest an algorithm to aid diagnosis. PMID:28210559

  5. Autologous platelet-labeling in thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect

    Sinzinger, H.; Virgolini, I.; Vinazzer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Field studies performed with peripheral platelets obtained from 6 male volunteers aged 23 to 29 years revealed an extraordinary dependence of labeling efficiency on incubation time and platelet concentration after {sup 111}In-oxine platelet labeling. Since the monitoring of in vivo-platelet function in patients with thrombocytopenia may cause problems due to insufficient labeling results and homologous platelets may show a different in vivo behaviour to autologous ones, we have searched for the minimal amount of platelets necessary to allow appropriate labeling and imaging in patients with thrombocytopenia. In 15 patients with untreated thrombocytopenia aged 14 to 79 years demonstrating a mean peripheral platelet count of 2.509 +/- 1.45 x 10(4) cells/microliters autologous {sup 111}In-oxine platelet labeling was performed. The results indicate that approximately 1 x 10(8) (concentrated) platelets/ml are necessary to obtain an adequate labeling efficiency and recovery. This platelet concentration can be easily achieved by drawing one more Monovette of whole blood per each 5 x 10(4) platelets/microliter peripheral platelet count less than 2 x 10(5)/microliter. It is concluded, that calculation of the required number of platelets in advance, variation of the blood volume drawn and the volume of incubation buffer allow informative, qualitative and quantitative results using autologous platelets. The method presented effectively circumvents the requirement of homologous platelets for radiolabeling in thrombocytopenia.

  6. Two primes priming: does feature integration occur before response activation?

    PubMed

    Grainger, Julianne E; Scharnowski, Frank; Schmidt, Thomas; Herzog, Michael H

    2013-07-17

    Responses to a target can be sped up or slowed down by a congruent or incongruent prime, respectively. Even though presentations are rapid, the prime and the target are thought to activate motor responses in strict sequence, with prime activation preceding target activation. In feature fusion, the opposite seems to be the case. For example, a vernier offset to the left is immediately followed by a vernier offset to the right at the same location. The two verniers are not perceived as two elements in sequence but as a single, aligned vernier. Here, we ask the question as to how features are integrated: before or after motor activation? We presented two vernier primes with opposite offset directions preceding a single vernier target. No priming effect occurred when the vernier primes were presented at the same location, indicating that verniers integrate before motor activation. There was also no priming effect when the primes were presented simultaneously at different locations, indicating that there is an integration stage different from the perceptual fusion stage. When the second prime is delayed, it determines priming, even for very long delays. To explain these long integration times, we argue that there is a buffer preceding motor activation.

  7. Dystrophic calcifications after autologous fat injection on face.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Jang, Hee Won; Kim, Hee Joo; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-06-01

    Autologous fat injection is widely used procedure for various functional and aesthetic purposes. However, it could result in many immediate or delayed complications including dystrophic calcifications. Almost all of the case reports about dystrophic calcification after autologous fat injection were result from the iatrogenic tissue trauma of breast augmentation. This is a report of a 30-year-old patient who developed pathologically proven multiple dystrophic calcifications on the face after autologous fat injection.

  8. Successful treatment of a humeral capitulum osteonecrosis with bone morphogenetic protein-7 combined with autologous bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Marsell, Richard; Hailer, Nils P

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 27-year-old female with subcortical osteonecrosis of the humeral capitulum. Percutaneous retrograde drilling of the lesion and application of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 were combined with autologous bone grafting. At follow-up the patient was almost pain-free, had normalized her range of motion, and radiography showed consolidation of the lesion without any heterotopic bone formation. By timing surgery prior to subchondral collapse, biomechanical stability of the subchondral bone was maintained. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of an osteonecrosis in this location with a BMP, and this strategy could potentially be applied in other locations with juxta-articular osteonecrosis.

  9. Autologous Growth Factor Injections in Chronic Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sandrey, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Reference: de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63–77. Clinical Question: The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich–plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? Data Sources: The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). Data Extraction: All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of

  10. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  11. Yarkovsky effect in the motion of asteroids in retrograde orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, Paweł; Włodarczyk, Ireneusz

    2016-06-01

    Since the last few years, many small bodies in retrograde orbits was discovered, classified as asteroids. %Most of these orbits are located in peripherals of the Solar System. Main aim of our work is the analysis of their dynamical past and future. For 56 asteroids in retrograde orbits (i > 90) we studied the orbital evolution and calculated median dynamical lifetimes. Due to important role of the Yarkovsky effect in the motion of small bodies, we decided to apply the model with the Yarkovsky forces. Because the physical properties of these objects are still not well determined, we collected thermal parameters from literature or calculated from available formulas. The complete set of 'thermal' properties of each body is still not available from observational data, so our approach is a kind of approximation. Results obtained with these parameters allowed us to estimate the influence of the Yarkovsky effect on the stability of retrograde orbits.

  12. Retrograde resonance in the planar three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, M. H. M.; Namouni, F.

    2013-12-01

    We continue the investigation of the dynamics of retrograde resonances initiated in Morais and Giuppone (Mon Notices R Astron Soc 424:52-64, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21151.x, 2012). After deriving a procedure to deduce the retrograde resonance terms from the standard expansion of the three-dimensional disturbing function, we concentrate on the planar problem and construct surfaces of section that explore phase-space in the vicinity of the main retrograde resonances (2/1, 1/1 and 1/2). In the case of the 1/1 resonance for which the standard expansion is not adequate to describe the dynamics, we develop a semi-analytic model based on numerical averaging of the unexpanded disturbing function, and show that the predicted libration modes are in agreement with the behavior seen in the surfaces of section.

  13. Apollo 1 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Portrait of the Apollo 1 prime crew for first manned Apollo space flight. From left to right are: Edward H. White II, Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, and Roger B. Chaffee. On January 27, 1967 at 5:31 p.m. CST (6:31 local time) during a routine simulated launch test onboard the Apollo Saturn V Moon rocket, an electrical short circuit inside the Apollo Command Module ignited the pure oxygen environment and within a matter of seconds all three Apollo 1 crewmembers perished.

  14. Retrograde tibial nail: anatomical implantation and surgical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, S; Appelmann, P; Pairon, P; Gruszka, D; Rommens, P M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The treatment of distal tibial fractures requires a stable fixation while minimizing the secondary trauma to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implant. The experimental Retrograde Tibial Nail is currently investigated as a minimally invasive alternative to plating and antegrade nailing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility in a cadaver model for all distal tibial fracture types generally considered treatable by nailing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five different fracture types (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3 and 43-C1/C2) were created on separate cadaveric limbs. In simple fractures (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3) primary nailing was performed. In intraarticular fractures (AO/OTA 43-C1/2) reduction of the articular block and lag screw fixation was performed before nailing. Intraoperative complications, quality of reduction, fluoroscopy duration and operative time were evaluated. RESULTS Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps. Retrograde nailing is possible in fractures with simple intraarticular involvement after primary lag screw fixation. The duration of surgery averaged 51.8 minutes (range 40-62 min). No major complications occurred during nailing. CONCLUSIONS The minimally invasive retrograde nail combines a minimally invasive local osteosynthesis with the ability to adequately fix extraarticular and simple intraarticular distal tibial fractures. The results suggests that retrograde tibia nailing is a promising new concept for the treatment of distal tibia fractures. Key words: minimally invasive surgery, tibia, metaphyseal fractures, intramedullary nailing, retrograde nailing.

  15. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  16. Physiology and pathology of endosome-to-Golgi retrograde sorting.

    PubMed

    Burd, Christopher G

    2011-08-01

    Bidirectional traffic between the Golgi apparatus and the endosomal system sustains the functions of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in secretion and organelle biogenesis. Export of cargo from the TGN via anterograde trafficking pathways depletes the organelle of sorting receptors, processing proteases, SNARE molecules, and other factors, and these are subsequently retrieved from endosomes via the retrograde pathway. Recent studies indicate that retrograde trafficking is vital to early metazoan development, nutrient homeostasis, and for processes that protect against Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases.

  17. Orbital Evolution and Impact Hazard of Asteroids on Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Włodarczyk, I.

    2014-07-01

    We present the past evolutional scenarios of known group of asteroids in retrograde orbits. Applying the latest observational data, we determined their nominal and averaged orbital elements. Next, we studied the behaviour of their orbital motion 1~My in the past (100~My in the future for two NEAs) taking into account the limitations of observational errors. It has been shown that the influence of outer planets perturbations in many cases can import small bodies on high inclination or retrograde orbits into the inner Solar System.

  18. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    PubMed

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  19. Prime mover progress

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-05-01

    Manufacturers continue to upgrade fluidized bed and steam technologies to meet more stringent emission, efficiency and service challenges from global power market customers. Offshore, suppliers are being pushed to provide quality, low-cost production and significant local competitive presence in nearly all international markets. The ability to meet customer and regulatory demands for emissions across different global market segments remains a priority for prime mover suppliers as they develop environmental technical improvements. Products initially developed for the more stringent European regulations are now finding a market in the US. In developing countries, demand continues for utility-size boiler products, but pollution control equipment costs remain a parallel consideration. Industry improvements to steam cycle equipment, namely turbines, continue to reap benefits in terms of efficiency and operational flexibility. Boiler and steam manufacturers` response to global markets remains right on target as product development strategies are constantly adjusted and analyzed to reach an optimum marketing mix. Innovation and advances in prime mover power equipment technology remain a mainstay of suppliers` ability to meet the needs of a changing, competitive clientele.

  20. Autologous stem cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Farge, Dominique; Nash, Richard; Laar, Jacob M

    2008-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a generalised autoimmune disease, of yet unknown origin, with two major clinical subsets: the limited (lcSSc) and the diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) forms, which can be distinguished by the extent of skin involvement, the autoantibody profile and the pattern of organ involvement. With an incidence of 1/10(5), SSc affects around 250,000 people in Europe and is responsible for significant morbidity with a 5-year mortality rate of at least 30% of all patients. In patients with rapidly progressive dcSSc, the 5-year mortality is estimated to be 40-50%. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), mostly autologous but also allogeneic in some specific cases, has been employed worldwide since 1996 as a new therapeutic strategy in patients with a poor prognosis. In 2007, 150 HSCT procedures have been reported in the EBMT data base. We review herein both the short and the long-term reports from the various European and North American phase I-II studies, which have shown that autologous HSCT in selected patients with severe dcSSc results in sustained improvement of skin thickening and stabilisation of organ function up to seven years after transplantation. Based on these promising results, ongoing phase III trials have been designed in parallel, both in Europe (ASTIS) and in North America (SCOTT) aiming to analyse the respective benefits from autologous HSCT respectively without or with high dose irradiation. This review reports the current data concerning the effects of HSCT on survival, skin, and major organ function in patients with severe dcSSc.

  1. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  2. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  3. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  4. Attention to primes modulates affective priming of pronunciation responses.

    PubMed

    De Houwer, Jan; Randell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In studies on affective priming of pronunciation responses, two words are presented on each trial and participants are asked to read the second word out loud. Whereas some studies revealed shorter reaction times when the two words had the same valence than when they had a different valence, other studies either found no effect of affective congruence or revealed a reversed effect. In the present experiments, a significant effect of affective congruence only emerged when filler trials were presented in which the prime and target were identical and participants were instructed to attend to the primes (Experiment 2). No effects were found when participants were merely instructed to attend to or ignore the primes (Experiment 1), or when affectively incongruent filler trials were presented and participants were instructed to ignore the primes (Experiment 2).

  5. Development of sipuleucel-T: autologous cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sims, Robert B

    2012-06-19

    Sipuleucel-T, the first autologous cellular immunotherapy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, is designed to stimulate an immune response to prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T is manufactured by culturing a patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells, including autologous antigen presenting cells (APCs), with a recombinant protein comprising a tumor-associated antigen (prostatic acid phosphatase [PAP]) and granulocyte colony-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF). A full course of treatment comprises 3 infusions of sipuleucel-T, given at approximately 2-week intervals. The pattern of APC activation is consistent with priming by the first infusion, and boosting by the second and third infusions. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated evidence of a robust antigen-specific immune response that includes a progressive and persistent increase in antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Treatment with sipuleucel-T has demonstrated a survival benefit in Phase 3 studies of subjects with metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer (mCRPC). Adverse events with sipuleucel-T were generally mild to moderate and resolved within 2 days. Serious adverse events, autoimmune events, and cerebrovascular events occurred at a similar rate to control subjects. As the first autologous cellular immunotherapy to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients, sipuleucel-T represents a new treatment paradigm in oncology.

  6. Water dynamics and retrogradation of ultrahigh pressurized wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2006-09-06

    The water dynamics and retrogradation kinetics behavior of gelatinized wheat starch by either ultrahigh pressure (UHP) processing or heat are investigated. Wheat starch completely gelatinized in the condition of 90, 000 psi at 25 degrees C for 30 min (pressurized gel) or 100 degrees C for 30 min (heated gel). The physical properties of the wheat starches were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T2 times) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluated using commercially available continuous distribution modeling software. Different T2 distributions in both micro- and millisecond ranges between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels suggest distinctively different water dynamics between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels. Smaller water self-diffusion coefficients were observed for pressurized wheat starch gels and are indicative of more restricted translational proton mobility than is observed with heated wheat starch gels. The physical characteristics associated with changes taking place during retrogradation were evaluated using melting curves obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. Less retrogradation was observed in pressurized wheat starch, and it may be related to a smaller quantity of freezable water in pressurized wheat starch. Starches comprise a major constituent of many foods proposed for commercial potential using UHP, and the present results furnish insight into the effect of UHP on starch gelatinization and the mechanism of retrogradation during storage.

  7. Light intensity-dependent retrograde signalling in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2013-11-15

    Plants are able to acclimate to highly fluctuating light environment and evolved a short- and long-term light acclimatory responses, that are dependent on chloroplasts retrograde signalling. In this review we summarise recent evidences suggesting that the chloroplasts act as key sensors of light intensity changes in a wide range (low, high and excess light conditions) as well as sensors of darkness. They also participate in transduction and synchronisation of systemic retrograde signalling in response to differential light exposure of distinct leaves. Regulation of intra- and inter-cellular chloroplast retrograde signalling is dependent on the developmental and functional stage of the plastids. Therefore, it is discussed in following subsections: firstly, chloroplast biogenic control of nuclear genes, for example, signals related to photosystems and pigment biogenesis during early plastid development; secondly, signals in the mature chloroplast induced by changes in photosynthetic electron transport, reactive oxygen species, hormones and metabolite biosynthesis; thirdly, chloroplast signalling during leaf senescence. Moreover, with a help of meta-analysis of multiple microarray experiments, we showed that the expression of the same set of genes is regulated specifically in particular types of signals and types of light conditions. Furthermore, we also highlight the alternative scenarios of the chloroplast retrograde signals transduction and coordination linked to the role of photo-electrochemical signalling.

  8. [Subcapsular hepatic hematoma: an uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography].

    PubMed

    Baudet, Juan-Salvador; Arguiñarena, Xabier; Redondo, Ignacio; Tadeo, Eva; Navazo, Lucía; Mendiz, Javier; Montiel, Raquel

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the case of a patient who developed a subcapsular hepatic hematoma 48 hours after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. She was treated by embolizing the sites of bleeding and by surgically resecting the area. We review the literature and discuss the potential mechanisms that cause this complication.

  9. Selected properties of acetylated adipate of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Kapelko, M

    2014-01-01

    Native potato starch (NS) and retrograded starch (R - obtained via freezing and defrosting of a starch paste) were used to prepare starch acetates: NS-A and R-A, and then acetylated distarch adipates: NS-ADA and R-ADA. The chemically-modified preparations produced from retrograded starch (R-A; R-ADA) were characterized by a higher degree of esterification compared to the modified preparations produced under the same conditions from native potato starch (NS-A; NS-ADA). Starch resistance to amylolysis was observed to increase (to 30-40 g/100 g) as a result of starch retrogradation and acetylation. Starch cross-linking had a significant impact on the increased viscosity of the paste in the entire course of pasting characteristics and on the increased values of rheological coefficients determined from the equations describing flow curves. The produced preparation of acetylated retrograded starch cross-linked with adipic acid (R-ADA) may be deemed an RS3/4 preparation to be used as a food thickening agent.

  10. Chloroplast Retrograde Regulation of Heat Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ai-Zhen; Guo, Fang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the major targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. The efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus is highly required for such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions during adaptation processes to environmental stresses. In recent years, several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and organellar gene expression (OGE) in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation, and cellular coordination in plants. PMID:27066042

  11. Representing Numbers: Prime and Irrational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    2005-01-01

    This article draws an analogy between prime and irrational numbers with respect to how these numbers are defined and how they are perceived by learners. Excerpts are presented from two research studies: a study on understanding prime numbers by pre-service elementary school teachers and a study on understanding irrational numbers by pre-service…

  12. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  13. Detection methods for autologous blood doping.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Monfort, N; Ventura, R

    2012-11-01

    The use of blood doping is forbidden by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Several practices, such as blood transfusions are used to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and all of them are highly pursued. In this regard, the development of accurate methodologies for detecting these prohibited practices is one of the current aims of the anti-doping control laboratories. Flow cytometry methods are able to detect allogeneic blood transfusions but there is no official methodology available to detect autologous blood transfusions. This paper reviews protocols, including the Athlete Biological Passport, that use indirect markers to detect misuse of blood transfusions, especially autologous blood transfusions. The methods of total haemoglobin mass measurements and the detection of metabolites of blood bags plasticizers in urine are reviewed. The latter seems to be an important step forward because it is a fast screening method and it is based on urine, a fluid widely available for doping control. Other innovative approaches to blood transfusion detection are also mentioned. A combination of the reported methodologies and the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport is becoming a promising approach.

  14. Exodus: Prime Mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  15. Retrograde fluids in granulites: Stable isotope evidence of fluid migration

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J. ); Valley, J.W. )

    1991-07-01

    Widespread retrograde alteration assemblages document the migration of mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluids into granulite facies rocks in the Adirondack Mountains. Fluid migration is manifest by (1) veins and patchy intergrowths of chlorite {plus minus} sericite {plus minus} calcite, (2) small veins of calcite, many only identifiable by cathodoluminescence, and (3) high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich or mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluid inclusions. The distinct and varied textural occurrences of the alteration minerals indicate that fluid-rock ratios were low and variable on a local scale. Stable isotope ratios of C, O, and S have been determined in retrograde minerals from samples of the Marcy anorthosite massif and adjacent granitic gneisses (charnockites). Retrograde calcite in the anorthosite has a relatively small range in both {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} (8.6 to 14.9% and {minus}4.1 to 0.4%, respectively), probably indicating that the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the calcite had exchanged with a variety of crustal lithologies including marbles and orthogneisses, and that calcite was precipitated over a relatively narrow temperature interval. Values of {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} that range from 2.8 to 8.3% within the anorthosite can also be interpreted to reflect exchange between orthogneisses and metasediments. The recognition of retrograde fluid migration is particularly significant in granulite facies terranes because the controversy surrounding the origin of granulites arises in part from differing interpretations of fluid inclusion data, specifically, the timing of entrapment of high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich inclusions. Results indicate that retrograde fluid migration, which in some samples may leave only cryptic petrographic evidence, is a process capable of producing high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich fluid inclusions.

  16. Autologous versus allogeneic transfusion: patients' perceptions and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Graham, I D; Fergusson, D; Dokainish, H; Biggs, J; McAuley, L; Laupacis, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous donation is one way to decrease a patient's exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion. This study was designed to determine patients' perceptions about the autologous blood donation process and their experiences with transfusion. METHODS: To assess patient perception, a questionnaire was administered a few days before surgery to patients undergoing elective cardiac and orthopedic surgery in a Canadian teaching hospital. All patients attending the preoperative autologous donation clinic during a 10-month period were eligible. A convenience sample of patients undergoing the same types of surgery who had not predonated blood were selected from preadmission clinics. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively to assess actual transfusion practice in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients underwent cardiac surgery (40 autologous donors, 40 nondonors) and 73 underwent orthopedic surgery (38 autologous donors, 35 nondonors). Of the autologous donors, 75 (96%) attended all scheduled donation appointments, 73 (93%) said that they were "very likely" or "likely" to predonate again, and 75 (96%) said that they would recommend autologous donation to others. There was little difference in preoperative symptoms between the autologous donors and the nondonors, although the former were more likely than the latter to report that their overall health had remained the same during the month before surgery (30 [75%] v. 21 [52%] for the cardiac surgery patients and 30 [79%] v. 18 [51%] for the orthopedic surgery patients). When the autologous donors were asked what they felt their chances would have been of receiving at least one allogeneic blood transfusion had they not predonated, the median response was 80%. When they were asked what their chances were after predonating their own blood, the median response was 0%. The autologous donors were significantly less likely to receive allogeneic blood transfusions (6 [15%] for cardiac surgery and 3 [8

  17. Participation of estradiol and progesterone in the retrograde labeling of pubococcygeus motoneurons of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, E; Camacho, M; Alvarado, M; Hudson, R; Pacheco, P

    2006-07-21

    Retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin showed that the pubococcygeus muscles of the female rat are innervated by a population of motoneurons located in a column approximately 2 mm in length in the central region of lamina IX of the sixth lumbar-first sacral spinal cord segments. These neurons have a dendritic distribution that projects to the lateral, medial and ventral regions of the gray matter. Values for soma size, primary dendrite length and arborization area obtained from intact animals that were in diestrous-2, were significantly reduced following ovariectomy. After hormone priming of the ovariectomized animals with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, an additional injection of estradiol benzoate alone or followed by progesterone increased the labeled length of the primary dendrites distributed to the lateral, but not to the medial or ventral regions of the gray matter in the spinal cord. However, dendritic labeling was not significantly increased when only progesterone was additionally injected. It therefore seems that pubococcygeus muscle motoneurons of the female rat are sensitive to the effects of gonadal hormones.

  18. Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kellie N.; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Piazza, Paolo A.; Fischer, Will; Korber, Bette T.; Fecek, Ronald J.; Ratner, Deena; Gupta, Phalguni; Mullins, James I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing HIV-1 infection will require elimination of persistent cellular reservoirs that harbor latent virus in the face of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Proposed immunotherapeutic strategies to cure HIV-1 infection include enhancing lysis of these infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge in this strategy is overcoming viral immune escape variants that have evaded host immune control. Here we report that naive CD8+ T cells from chronic HIV-1-infected participants on long-term cART can be primed by dendritic cells (DC). These DC must be mature, produce high levels of interleukin 12p70 (IL-12p70), be responsive to CD40 ligand (CD40L), and be loaded with inactivated, autologous HIV-1. These DC-primed CD8+ T cell responders produced high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to a broad range of both conserved and variable regions of Gag and effectively killed CD4+ T cell targets that were either infected with the autologous latent reservoir-associated virus or loaded with autologous Gag peptides. In contrast, HIV-1-specific memory CD8+ T cells stimulated with autologous HIV-1-loaded DC produced IFN-γ in response to a narrow range of conserved and variable Gag peptides compared to the primed T cells and most notably, displayed significantly lower cytolytic function. Our findings highlight the need to selectively induce new HIV-1-specific CTL from naive precursors while avoiding activation of existing, dysfunctional memory T cells in potential curative immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infection. PMID:27247230

  19. Effects of inulin with different degree of polymerization on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Luo, Denglin; Li, Yun; Xu, Baocheng; Ren, Guangyue; Li, Peiyan; Li, Xuan; Han, Sihai; Liu, Jianxue

    2017-08-15

    The effects of three types of inulin, including FS (DP≤10), FI (DP of 2-60) and FXL (DP≥23), on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of wheat starch were investigated. As the concentration of inulin added into starch increased, the gelatinization temperature increased whereas the breakdown value decreased, and the value of setback first decreased and then increased slightly. The three types of inulin with lower concentrations (<15%) all showed obvious suppression effects on the short-term retrogradation of wheat starch. After 7days of storage, the three types of inulin showed a significant suppression of starch retrogradation in the addition range of 5-7.5%. They can all inhibit amylose retrogradation, but accelerate amylopectin retrogradation. Inulin with lower DP has stronger effects on the starch retrogradation. Generally, the three types of inulin can all retard the retrogradation performance of wheat starch to some extent in the long-term storage.

  20. Effects of chitin nano-whiskers on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and potato starches.

    PubMed

    Ji, Na; Liu, Chengzhen; Zhang, Shuangling; Yu, Jing; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-01-01

    Starch is very prone to retrogradation after gelatinization. Inhibition of starch retrogradation has been an important factor in improving the quality of food. For the first time, we investigated the effect of nano-materials, represented by chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs), on the short- and long-term retrogradation of maize and potato starches. Rapid Visco-Analyser results showed that the addition of CNWs significantly decreased the setback values of maize and potato starches, which suggested that CNWs could retard the short-term retrogradation of starch. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed that the percentage of retrogradation of maize and potato starches significantly decreased (P<0.05), suggesting the inhibition of long-term retrogradation. The CNWs could be used as a new inhibitor of starch retrogradation to develop starch-based food with longer shelf life.

  1. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  2. Retrograde amnesia induced by drugs acting on different molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Janine I; Bonini, Juliana S; Coitinho, Adriana S; Vianna, Monica R M; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2004-06-01

    The gamma aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-sub(A)) agonist, muscimol, the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5), and the inhibitor of the extracellularly regulated kinases (ERKs), UO 126, cause retrograde amnesia when administered to the hippocampus. In the present study, the authors found that they all cause retrograde amnesia for 1-trial inhibitory avoidance, not only when infused into the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus, but also when infused into the basolateral amygdala or the entorhinal, parietal, and posterior cingulate cortices. The posttraining time course of the effect of each drug was, however, quite different across brain structures. Thus, in all of them, NMDA receptors and the ERK pathway are indispensable for memory consolidation, and GABA-sub(A) receptor activation inhibits memory consolidation: but in each case, their influence is interwoven differently.

  3. Photosynthetic light reactions: integral to chloroplast retrograde signalling.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Peter J; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-10-01

    Chloroplast retrograde signalling is ultimately dependent on the function of the photosynthetic light reactions and not only guides the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to changing environmental and metabolic cues, but has a much wider influence on the growth and development of plants. New information generated during the past few years about regulation of photosynthetic light reactions and identification of the underlying regulatory proteins has paved the way towards better understanding of the signalling molecules produced in chloroplasts upon changes in the environment. Likewise, the availability of various mutants lacking regulatory functions has made it possible to address the role of excitation energy distribution and electron flow in the thylakoid membrane in inducing the retrograde signals from chloroplasts to the nucleus. Such signalling molecules also induce and interact with hormonal signalling cascades to provide comprehensive information from chloroplasts to the nucleus.

  4. Retrograde amnesia following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Acland, Peter R; Heaver, Catriona

    2008-07-01

    Retrograde amnesia is a recognised neurological complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. This article describes the case of a female found dead in her bath where initial post-mortem findings and the surrounding circumstances raised strong suspicions of homicide, especially when there was contradictory evidence from her husband who was the only other person present. He was later diagnosed as having retrograde amnesia between his two visits to the bathroom to attend to his wife which caused him to merge them into one event, thus arousing suspicions of foul play. The discussion explores the current clinical views on non-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning as well as problems of interpretation of information derived from case work.

  5. WLS retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum during Wnt secretion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia; Chia, Joanne; Canning, Claire Ann; Jones, C Michael; Bard, Frédéric A; Virshup, David M

    2014-05-12

    Wnts are transported to the cell surface by the integral membrane protein WLS (also known as Wntless, Evi, and GPR177). Previous studies of WLS trafficking have emphasized WLS movement from the Golgi to the plasma membrane (PM) and then back to the Golgi via retromer-mediated endocytic recycling. We find that endogenous WLS binds Wnts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cycles to the PM, and then returns to the ER through the Golgi. We identify an ER-targeting sequence at the carboxyl terminus of native WLS that is critical for ER retrograde recycling and contributes to Wnt secretory function. Golgi-to-ER recycling of WLS requires the COPI regulator ARF as well as ERGIC2, an ER-Golgi intermediate compartment protein that is also required for the retrograde trafficking of the KDEL receptor and certain toxins. ERGIC2 is required for efficient Wnt secretion. ER retrieval is an integral part of the WLS transport cycle.

  6. Suppressive effect of interleukin 10 on priming of naive hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Niesen, Emanuel; Schmidt, Julia; Flecken, Tobias; Thimme, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) T-cell failure. To address the possible role of IL-10 during priming, we performed in vitro priming experiments with naive HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells and autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the absence or presence of IL-10. Our results showed that IL-10, when present during priming, significantly reduced the frequency of HCV-specific CD8(+) T cells after coculture; It was directly targeting CD8(+) T cells and led to impaired effector cell differentiation. These results may provide a possible mechanistic basis for the association between early IL-10 elevation, T-cell failure, and viral persistence.

  7. The PRIME Lab biomedical program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, George S.; Elmore, David; Rickey, Frank A.; Musameh, Sharif M.; Sharma, Pankaj; Hillegonds, Darren; Coury, Louis; Kissinger, Peter

    2000-10-01

    The biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) initiative at PRIME Lab including the status of equipment and sample preparation is described. Several biomedical projects are underway involving one or more of the nuclides: 14C, 26Al and 41Ca. Routine production of CaF 2 and graphite is taking place. Finally, the future direction and plans for improvement of the biomedical program at PRIME Lab are discussed.

  8. MIL-PRIME Program System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rall, F. T., Jr.

    1982-11-01

    The MIL-PRIME Program was developed to provide the Aeronautical Systems Division with a specifications and standards program for the development of new weapon systems. This program was started in 1976 and is still in the process of being implemented. This presentation provides the background and insight into the MIL PRIME System, the use of these new documents in the acquisition process, and the current status of the program.

  9. Propofol use in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Danny G; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Compared to standard endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are often lengthier and more complex, thus requiring higher doses of sedatives for patient comfort and compliance. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with information regarding the use, safety profile, and merits of propofol for sedation in advanced endoscopic procedures like ERCP and EUS, based on the current literature. PMID:24833847

  10. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-03-20

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. < i < 170 deg., only reducing in amplitude for i>170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. < i < 135 deg., and then declining for i>135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i {<=} 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  11. The pharmacology of nociceptor priming.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Ram; Price, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptors and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) that receive nociceptive input show remarkable plasticity in response to injury. This plasticity is thought to underlie the development of chronic pain states. Hence, further understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving and maintaining this plasticity has the potential to lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of chronic pain states. An important concept in pain plasticity is the presence and persistence of "hyperalgesic priming." This priming arises from an initial injury and results in a remarkable susceptibility to normally subthreshold noxious inputs causing a prolonged pain state in primed animals. Here we describe our current understanding of how this priming is manifested through changes in signaling in the primary nociceptor as well as through memory like alterations at CNS synapses. Moreover, we discuss how commonly utilized analgesics, such as opioids, enhance priming therefore potentially contributing to the development of persistent pain states. Finally we highlight where these priming models draw parallels to common human chronic pain conditions. Collectively, these advances in our understanding of pain plasticity reveal a variety of targets for therapeutic intervention with the potential to reverse rather than palliate chronic pain states.

  12. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    PubMed Central

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST). Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy. PMID:23508724

  13. The Pharmacology of Nociceptor Priming

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptors and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) that receive nociceptive input show remarkable plasticity in response to injury. This plasticity is thought to underlie the development of chronic pain states. Hence, further understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving and maintaining this plasticity has the potential to lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of chronic pain states. An important concept in pain plasticity is the presence and persistence of “hyperalgesic priming.” This priming arises from an initial injury and results in a remarkable susceptibility to normally subthreshold noxious inputs causing a prolonged pain state in primed animals. Here we describe our current understanding of how this priming is manifested through changes in signaling in the primary nociceptor as well as through memory like alterations at CNS synapses. Moreover, we discuss how commonly utilized analgesics, such as opioids, enhance priming therefore potentially contributing to the development of persistent pain states. Finally we highlight where these priming models draw parallels to common human chronic pain conditions. Collectively, these advances in our understanding of pain plasticity reveal a variety of targets for therapeutic intervention with the potential to reverse rather than palliate chronic pain states. PMID:25846612

  14. Test Sequence Priming in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Elizabeth E.; Mewhort, D. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined priming within the test sequence in 3 recognition memory experiments. A probe primed its successor whenever both probes shared a feature with the same studied item ("interjacent priming"), indicating that the study item like the probe is central to the decision. Interjacent priming occurred even when the 2 probes did…

  15. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Recent theoretical work in celestial mechanics has revealed that an asteroid may orbit stably in the same region as a planet, despite revolving around the Sun in the sense opposite to that of the planet itself. Asteroid 2015 BZ509 was discovered in 2015, but with too much uncertainty in its measured orbit to establish whether it was such a retrograde co-orbital body. Here we report observations and analysis that demonstrates that asteroid 2015 BZ509 is indeed a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter. We find that 2015 BZ509 has long-term stability, having been in its current, resonant state for around a million years. This is long enough to preclude precise calculation of the time or mechanism of its injection to its present state, but it may be a Halley-family comet that entered the resonance through an interaction with Saturn. Retrograde co-orbital asteroids of Jupiter and other planets may be more common than previously expected.

  16. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2017-03-29

    Recent theoretical work in celestial mechanics has revealed that an asteroid may orbit stably in the same region as a planet, despite revolving around the Sun in the sense opposite to that of the planet itself. Asteroid 2015 BZ509 was discovered in 2015, but with too much uncertainty in its measured orbit to establish whether it was such a retrograde co-orbital body. Here we report observations and analysis that demonstrates that asteroid 2015 BZ509 is indeed a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter. We find that 2015 BZ509 has long-term stability, having been in its current, resonant state for around a million years. This is long enough to preclude precise calculation of the time or mechanism of its injection to its present state, but it may be a Halley-family comet that entered the resonance through an interaction with Saturn. Retrograde co-orbital asteroids of Jupiter and other planets may be more common than previously expected.

  17. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876

  18. Novel class of potential therapeutics that target ricin retrograde translocation.

    PubMed

    Redmann, Veronika; Gardner, Thomas; Lau, Zerlina; Morohashi, Keita; Felsenfeld, Dan; Tortorella, Domenico

    2013-12-23

    Ricin toxin, an A-B toxin from Ricinus communis, induces cell death through the inhibition of protein synthesis. The toxin binds to the cell surface via its B chain (RTB) followed by its retrograde trafficking through intracellular compartments to the ER where the A chain (RTA) is transported across the membrane and into the cytosol. Ricin A chain is transported across the ER membrane utilizing cellular proteins involved in the disposal of aberrant ER proteins by a process referred to as retrograde translocation. Given the current lack of therapeutics against ricin intoxication, we developed a high-content screen using an enzymatically attenuated RTA chimera engineered with a carboxy-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein (RTA(E177Q)egfp) to identify compounds that target RTA retrograde translocation. Stabilizing RTA(E177Q)egfp through the inclusion of proteasome inhibitor produced fluorescent peri-nuclear granules. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescent granules provided the basis to discover compounds from a small chemical library (2080 compounds) with known bioactive properties. Strikingly, the screen found compounds that stabilized RTA molecules within the cell and several compounds limited the ability of wild type RTA to suppress protein synthesis. Collectively, a robust high-content screen was developed to discover novel compounds that stabilize intracellular ricin and limit ricin intoxication.

  19. Autologous anti-metatype immune response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Voss, E W; Moore, J K; Weidner-McGufficke, K M; Denzin, L K; Bedzyk, W D; Voss, V H

    1992-02-01

    Rabbits hyperimmunized with fluorescyl-conjugated KLH exhibited bound ligand associated with a high affinity circulating IgG anti-fluorescein population. After cessation of immunogen administration the liganded complexes were eventually spontaneously cleared from the circulation. Individual rabbits synthesized autologous anti-metatype antibodies specific for ligand-antibody complexes. Autologous anti-metatype antibodies reacted optimally with autologous liganded anti-fluorescein antibodies. However, cross reactivity was noted with allogenic rabbit liganded antibodies from three affinity-purified pools. An autologous anti-metatype response, reminiscent of autoanti-idiotype responses, has important implications concerning in vivo clearance of antigen-antibody complexes and may serve as a model to study immune complex diseases.

  20. Locus of single-prime negative priming: the role of perceptual form.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2013-07-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon in which after a single prime word is briefly presented, repeating it as the probe target results in a delay in responding to the target. The present study investigated the locus of this negative priming effect. Experiment 1 showed that repeating the identity of the prime produced a negative priming effect but merely repeating the response of the prime did not. Experiment 2 showed that the negative priming effect transformed into positive priming when the probe distractor was absent. Experiments 3 and 4 further revealed that single-prime negative priming was observed when the perceptual form was repeated. Taken together, these results suggest that single-prime negative priming involves a perceptual locus.

  1. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  2. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  3. NK cells are primed by ANRS MVA(HIV)-infected DCs, via a mechanism involving NKG2D and membrane-bound IL-15, to control HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Nieves, Uriel Y; Didier, Céline; Lévy, Yves; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scott-Algara, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the major antiviral effector cell population of the innate immune system. It has been demonstrated that NK-cell activity can be modulated by the interaction with dendritic cells (DCs). The HIV-1 vaccine candidate Modified Vaccinia Ankara encoding an HIV polypeptide (MVA(HIV)), developed by the French National Agency for Research on AIDS (ANRS), has the ability to prime NK cells to control HIV-1 infection in DCs. However, whether or not MVA(HIV)-primed NK cells are able to better control HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells, and the mechanism underlying the specific priming, remain undetermined. In this study, we show that MVA(HIV)-primed NK cells display a greater capacity to control HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. We also highlight the importance of NKG2D engagement on NK cells and DC-produced IL-15 to achieve the anti-HIV-1 specific priming, as blockade of either NKG2D or IL-15 during MVA(HIV)-priming lead to a subsequent decreased control of HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we show that the decreased control of HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells might be due, at least in part, to the decreased expression of membrane-bound IL-15 (mbIL-15) on DCs when NKG2D is blocked during MVA(HIV)-priming of NK cells.

  4. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Robert W; Harrell, David B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG) with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose

  5. Evaluation of autologous bone marrow in wound healing in animal model: a possible application of autologous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Akela, Ashok; Nandi, Samit Kumar; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Das, Partha; Roy, Subhasis; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Mandal, Mohan; Das, Pradip Kumar; Pradhan, Nisith Ranjan

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of autologous bone marrow-derived cells in comparison with buffy coat of autologous blood for rapid cutaneous wound healing in rabbit model. Three square full-thickness skin excisional wounds were created in 15 selected experimental animals (rabbit) divided randomly into three groups. The wound was treated with autologous bone marrow cells in plasma (group 1), buffy coat of blood in plasma (group 2) and autologous plasma as control (group 3). Wounds were observed for 30 days for granulation tissue formation, biochemical, histomorphological and histochemical evaluation. In this study, granulation tissue appeared significantly lesser in wounds of group 3 animals followed by group 2 and 1 animals. Neovascularisation, granulation tissue formation, denser, thicker and better arranged collagen fibres, reticulin fibres and elastin fibres formation was more in group 1 as compared with other groups. It was concluded that the application of bone marrow-derived nucleated cells into the wound margins resulted in early and significantly faster rate of complete healing as compared with buffy coat of autologous blood and autologous plasma (control). This approach may be beneficial in various surface wounds that heal at a slower rate and recommended for healing of various complicated wound in future.

  6. Autologous cord blood transplantation for metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ning, Botao; Cheuk, Daniel Ka-Leung; Chiang, Alan Kwok-Shing; Lee, Pamela Pui-Wah; Ha, Shau-Yin; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-03-01

    Auto-SCT is a common approach for metastatic neuroblastoma with the intention to rescue hematopoiesis after megadose chemotherapy. PBSC or BM is the usual stem cell source for auto-SCT. Auto-CBT for neuroblastoma has very rarely been performed. Currently, case reports are available for two patients only. We performed 13 auto-SCTs for high-risk neuroblastoma from 2007 to 2013, including four cases of metastatic neuroblastoma aged 11-64 months treated with auto-CBT. All four patients had partial or CR to upfront treatments before auto-CBT. Nucleated cell dose and CD34+ cell dose infused were 2.8-8.7 × 10(7) /kg and 0.36-3.9 × 10(5) /kg, respectively. Post-thawed viability was 57-76%. Neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 × 10(9) /L) occurred at 15-33 days, while platelet engraftment occurred at 31-43 days (>20 × 10(9) /L) and 33-65 days (>50 × 10(9) /L) post-transplant, respectively. There was no severe acute or chronic complication. Three patients survived for 1.9-7.7 yr without evidence of recurrence. One patient relapsed at 16 months post-transplant and died of progressive disease. Cord blood may be a feasible alternative stem cell source for auto-SCT in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma, and outcomes may be improved compared to autologous PBSC or BM transplants.

  7. Clinical outcomes following osteochondral autologous transplantation (OATS).

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amit; Burks, Robert T; Greis, Patrick E; Chapman, Andrew W; Ford, Gregory M; Fink, Barbara P

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome in 21 patients (22 knees) undergoing osteochondral autologous transplantation (OATS) in the knee over a 5-year period. Sixteen knees in 15 patients were available for follow-up at an average of 40 months after the procedure. The clinical outcome was analyzed using the IKDC and Knee and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) evaluation forms, a subjective questionnaire, and a clinical examination. At final follow-up, the average KOOS result for pain was 80.6 (range: 56-94), symptoms 53.6 (range: 25-71), function of activities of daily living 93.4 (range: 79-100), function of sports and recreational activities 65.3 (range: 20-100), and quality of life 51.0 (range: 6-88). The average IKDC score was 68.2. On our subjective questionnaire, the average preoperative grade given was 3.1 (range: 1-7) with an improvement at the most recent follow-up to a grade of 8.0 (range: 5-10) (P < .00001). Thirteen (86%) patients reported that they would have the surgery again if they had to make the decision a second time. Age did not correlate with subjective results on the IKDC evaluation (P = .7048) or score difference on our questionnaire (P = .9175). This procedure provides an option for articular resurfacing of the femoral condyles for focal areas of chondral defects with promising results regarding subjective improvement.

  8. Adhesive strength of autologous fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Hirozane, K; Kamiya, A

    2000-03-01

    To establish an easy and rapid method for measuring the adhesive strength of fibrin glue and to clarify the factor(s) most affecting the strength, a study was made on the effect of the concentration of plasma components on the strength of cryoprecipitate (Cryo) prepared from a subject's own autologous plasma to be used as fibrin glue. The adhesive strength of the Cryo was measured with various supporting materials instead of animal skin using a tester of tension and compression. The results were as follows: (1) the strength of Cryo applied to ground flat glass (4 cm2) was significantly greater than that applied to clear glass, clear plastic, or smooth and flat wood chips; (2) the adhesive strength of Cryo depended on the concentration of thrombin with the optimal concentration being 50 units/ml; (3) the concentration of CaCl2 did not affect the adhesive strength of Cryo; (4) the adhesive reaction was dependent on the temperature and the adhesive strength more quickly reached a steady state at 37 degrees C than at lower temperature; (5) the adhesive strength was correlated well with the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. These results indicate that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be easily and quickly evaluated using a tester and ground glass with thrombin at 50 units/ml, and that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be predicted from the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin.

  9. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  10. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  11. The "Lantern" Procedure to Simplify Treatment of Retrograde Type A Dissection After Thoracic Endograft Stenting.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Lin

    2016-04-01

    The emergency repair of retrograde type A aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair is a complex and challenging surgical procedure and carries a surgical challenge. Previous studies have reported a significant mortality in the complex repair of retrograde type A aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. We devised a simplified hybrid method-the "Lantern" procedure-to solve this retrograde type A aortic dissection complication.

  12. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  13. Allogeneic versus autologous blood transfusion and survival after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chalfin, Heather J.; Frank, Steven M.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J.; Drake, Charles G.; Partin, Alan W.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Ness, Paul M.; Jeong, Byong C.; Lee, Seung B.; Han, Misop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Potential adverse effects of blood transfusion (BT) remain controversial, especially for clinical outcomes after curative cancer surgery. Some postulate that immune modulation after allogeneic BT predisposes to recurrence and death, but autologous superiority is not established. This study assessed whether BT is associated with long-term prostate cancer recurrence and survival a large single-institutional radical prostatectomy (RP) database. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Between 1994 and 2012, a total of 11,680 patients had RP with available outcome and transfusion data. A total of 7443 (64%) had complete covariate data. Clinical variables associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were identified with Cox proportional hazards models for three groups: no BT (reference, 27.7%, n = 2061), autologous BT only (68.8%, n = 5124), and any allogeneic BT (with or without autologous, 3.5%, n = 258). RESULTS Median (range) follow-up was 6 (1–18) years. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly decreased OS (but not BRFS or PCSS) in the allogeneic group versus autologous and no BT groups (p = 0.006). With univariate analysis, any allogeneic BT had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.29 (range, 1.52–3.46; p < 0.0001) for OS, whereas autologous BT was not significant (HR, 1.04 [range, 0.82–1.32], p = 0.752). In multivariable models, neither autologous nor allogeneic BT was independently associated with BRFS, CSS, or OS, and a dose response was not observed for allogeneic units and BRFS. CONCLUSION Although allogeneic but not autologous BT was associated with decreased long-term OS, after adjustment for confounding clinical variables, BT was not independently associated with OS, BRFS, or CSS regardless of transfusion type. Notably, no association was observed between allogeneic BT and cancer recurrence. Observed differences in OS may reflect confounding. PMID:24601996

  14. Structural Priming: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior, and researchers make extensive use of it to illuminate psychological functioning. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is structural priming, a tendency to repeat or better process a current sentence because of its structural similarity to a previously experienced (“prime”) sentence (Bock, 1986). The recent explosion of research in structural priming has made it the dominant means of investigating the processes involved in the production (and increasingly, comprehension) of complex expressions such as sentences. This review considers its implications for the representation of syntax and the mechanisms of production, comprehension, and their relationship. It then addresses the potential functions of structural priming, before turning to its implications for first language acquisition, bilingualism, and aphasia We close with theoretical and empirical recommendations for future investigations. PMID:18444704

  15. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  16. Intraoperative hemodilution and autologous platelet rich plasma collection: two techniques for collecting fresh autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, D J; Ness, P M

    1995-03-01

    Intraoperative hemodilution (IH) and autologous platelet rich plasma (APRP) collection are two techniques used to obtain autologous blood in the operating room. They have been used to reduce allogeneic blood exposure in patients undergoing both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Both components have the advantage of providing fresh blood not subject to the storage lesion. Whole blood (IH) or platelet rich plasma is removed from the patient as anesthesia is induced and replaced with acellular fluid. The blood is transfused back after bypass or major bleeding has ceased. Although used commonly, the data supporting the use of either technique are controversial. Methodologic problems which have confounded studies evaluating their utility include: poorly defined transfusion criteria, concommitant use of other blood conservation techniques (i.e. cell salvage, pharmacologic agents, hypothermia, controlled hypotension) and changing transfusion practices with greater tolerance of normovolemic anemia. Randomized controlled studies with well defined up to date transfusion criteria are needed to identify patients likely to benefit from these techniques.

  17. Physicochemical and release kinetics of natural and retrograded starch of Indian palmyrah shoots.

    PubMed

    Kumar Varma, Ch Ashok; Panpalia, S G; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2014-05-01

    Starch was isolated from the shoots of Indian palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) and it was subjected to the process of retrogradation. The influence of retrogradation on morphological, physicochemical and drug release properties was studied. Retrogradation of native starch changed its morphology from oval, elliptical to crystalline rods. Due to retrogradation there is an increase in amylose content and better hydration capacity, swelling and solubility power. The micromeritic properties of native and retrograded starch uncover its usage as excipients in tablet manufacturing. The retrograded starch showed better powder characteristics to that of native starch. The characteristic peaks for d-glucopyranosyl ring confirms the carbohydrate nature of starch. The TGA data reveals that the retrograded starch shows less bound water to that of native starch during the first decomposition step. In-vitro release study reveals that the retrograded starch attained a better release retardant property and was best explained by Hixson-Crowell model. The result showed that retrograded starches can be used for the preparation of sustained release tablets.

  18. Successful rescue of a perforated chronic total occlusion using retrograde technique.

    PubMed

    Nah, Jong Chun; Cho, Wook Hyun; Choi, Suk Koo

    2009-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusion (CTO) is one of the greatest challenges in coronary interventions. Retrograde wiring is suggested as a solution to improve the success rate of intervention for CTO. We experienced the coronary perforation during antegrade wiring at the CTO lesion and sealed it using retrograde wiring and antegrade stenting in a patient who underwent coronary arterial bypass grafting. We found that, in selected cases, the retrograde wire technique may provide a valuable rescue option for perforated CTO in a patient having a retrogradely accessible conduit vessel.

  19. Hemodynamic changes and retrograde flow in LVAD failure.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Koenig, Steven C; Soucy, Kevin G; Choi, Young; Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Bartoli, Carlo R; Monreal, Gretel; Sobieski, Michael A; Schumer, Erin; Cheng, Allen; Slaughter, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    In the event of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) failure, we hypothesized that rotary blood pumps will experience significant retrograde flow and induce adverse physiologic responses. Catastrophic LVAD failure was investigated in computer simulation with pulsatile, axial, and centrifugal LVAD, mock flow loop with pulsatile (PVAD) and centrifugal (ROTAFLOW), and healthy and chronic ischemic heart failure bovine models with pulsatile (PVAD), axial (HeartMate II), and centrifugal (HVAD) pumps. Simulated conditions were LVAD "off" with outflow graft clamped (baseline), LVAD "off" with outflow graft unclamped (LVAD failure), and LVAD "on" (5 L/min). Hemodynamics (aortic and ventricular blood pressures, LVAD flow, and left ventricular volume), echocardiography (cardiac volumes), and end-organ perfusion (regional blood flow microspheres) were measured and analyzed. Retrograde flow was observed with axial and centrifugal rotary pumps during LVAD failure in computer simulation (axial = -3.4 L/min, centrifugal = -2.8 L/min), mock circulation (pulsatile = -0.1 L/min, centrifugal = -2.7 L/min), healthy (pulsatile = -1.2 ± 0.3 L/min, axial = -2.2 ± 0.2 L/min, centrifugal = -1.9 ± 0.3 L/min), and ischemic heart failure (centrifugal = 2.2 ± 0.7 L/min) bovine models for all test conditions (p < 0.05). Differences between axial and centrifugal LVAD were statistically indiscernible. Retrograde flow increased ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes and workload, and decreased myocardial and end-organ perfusion during LVAD failure compared with baseline, LVAD support, and pulsatile LVAD failure.

  20. Prevention of retrograde calculus migration with the Stone Cone.

    PubMed

    Pardalidis, N P; Papatsoris, A G; Kosmaoglou, E V

    2005-02-01

    Retrograde calculus migration during ureteroscopic lithotripsy remains a problem in 5-40% of cases. We assessed the safety and efficacy of the Stone Cone device, in comparison with the standard flat wire basket. A total of 56 consecutive patients with ureteral calculi, suitable for ureteroscopic extraction and/or lithotripsy, where included in this prospective study. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. In group A (30 patients), we used the Stone Cone, while in group B (26 patients) we used the standard flat wire basket. The Stone Cone was placed through a cystoscope under fluoroscopic guidance, or when necessary under direct ureteroscopic control. Whenever necessary, intracorporeal electrohydraulic lithotripsy took place in both groups. Statistical significance was assessed by the paired t-test. The mean operative time was 48.5 min in group A, and 42.4 min in group B. Intact calculus extraction was possible in 16.6% in group A, and in 7.6% in group B (P < 0.01). Retrograde stone migration was revealed in 23% in group B only (P < 0.001). Also, residual fragments > 3 mm were recorded in 30.7% in group B only (P < 0.001). None of the patients in group A required auxiliary procedures, in contrary to 23% in group B (P < 0.001). No major complications were recorded in group A, while in group B a case of major ureteral mucosal abrasion was recorded. The Stone Cone is safe and efficient in preventing retrograde stone migration and in minimizing residual fragments during ureteroscopic lithotripsy in comparison with the flat wire basket.

  1. A chloroplast retrograde signal regulates nuclear alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Ezequiel; Herz, Micaela A. Godoy; Fuchs, Armin; Reifer, Dominik; Fuller, John; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.; Simpson, Craig; Brown, John W. S.; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2015-01-01

    Light is a source of energy and also a regulator of plant physiological adaptations. We show here that light/dark conditions affect alternative splicing of a subset of Arabidopsis genes preferentially encoding proteins involved in RNA processing. The effect requires functional chloroplasts and is also observed in roots when the communication with the photosynthetic tissues is not interrupted, suggesting that a signaling molecule travels through the plant. Using photosynthetic electron transfer inhibitors with different mechanisms of action we deduce that the reduced pool of plastoquinones initiates a chloroplast retrograde signaling that regulates nuclear alternative splicing and is necessary for proper plant responses to varying light conditions. PMID:24763593

  2. Strategy to Prime the Host and Cells to Augment Therapeutic Efficacy of Progenitor Cells for Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeehoon; Kim, Tae-Won; Hur, Jin; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy in myocardial infarction (MI) is an innovative strategy that is regarded as a rescue therapy to repair the damaged myocardium and to promote neovascularization for the ischemic border zone. Among several stem cell sources for this purpose, autologous progenitors from bone marrow or peripheral blood would be the most feasible and safest cell-source. Despite the theoretical benefit of cell therapy, this method is not widely adopted in the actual clinical practice due to its low therapeutic efficacy. Various methods have been used to augment the efficacy of cell therapy in MI, such as using different source of progenitors, genetic manipulation of cells, or priming of the cells or hosts (patients) with agents. Among these methods, the strategy to augment the therapeutic efficacy of the autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by priming agents may be the most feasible and the safest method that can be applied directly to the clinic. In this review, we will discuss the current status and future directions of priming PBMCs or patients, as for cell therapy of MI. PMID:27933299

  3. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Milanetti, Francesca; Bucha, Jurate; Testori, Alessandro; Burt, Richard K

    2011-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare disorder manifesting as skin and internal organ fibrosis, a diffuse vasculopathy, inflammation, and features of autoimmunity. Patients with diffuse cutaneous disease or internal organ involvement have a poor prognosis with high mortality. To date no therapy has been shown to reverse the natural course of the disease. Immune suppressive drugs are commonly utilized to treat patients, but randomized trials have generally failed to demonstrate any long-term benefit. In phase I/II trials, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has demonstrated impressive reversal of skin fibrosis, improved functionality and quality of life, and stabilization of internal organ function, but initial studies were complicated by significant treatment-related mortality. Treatment-related mortality was reduced by better pre-transplant evaluation to exclude patients with compromised cardiac function and by treating patients earlier in disease, allowing selected patients the option of autologous HSCT treatment. There are currently three ongoing randomized trials of autologous HSCT for systemic sclerosis: ASSIST (American Systemic Sclerosis Immune Suppression versus Transplant), SCOT (scleroderma cyclophosphamide versus Transplant), and ASTIS (Autologous Stem cell Transplantation International Scleroderma). The results from these trials should clarify the role of autologous HSCT in the currently limited therapeutic arsenal of severe systemic sclerosis.

  4. Cryopreservation of Autologous Blood (Red Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebine, Kunio

    Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis is still a problem in cardiovascular surgery. We initiated the cryopreservation of autologous blood for the transfusion in elective cardiovascular surgery since 1981. This study includes 152 surgical cases in which autologous frozen, allogeneic frozen, and/or allogeneic non-frozen blood were used. In the 152 surgical cases, there were 69 cases in which autologous blood only (Group I) was used; 12 cases with autologous and allogeneic frozen blood (Group II); 46 cases with autologous and allgeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group III); and 25 cases with allogeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group IV). No hepatitis developed in Groups I (0%) and II (0%), but there was positive hepatitis in Groups III (4.3%) and IV (8.0%) . In 357 cases of those who underwent surgery with allogeneic non-frozen whole blood during the same period, the incidence rate of hepatitis was 13.7% (49/357). Patients awaiting elective surgery can store their own blood in the frozen state. Patients who undergo surgery with the cryoautotransfusion will not produce any infections or immunologic reactions as opposed to those who undergo surgery with the allogeneic non-frozen blood.

  5. On the control of single-prime negative priming: the effects of practice and time course.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-09-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict the following probe target, and sometimes it has not. An integrative account is postulated to account for these findings. Three experiments supported this account by demonstrating that (a) regardless of the proportion of prime repetition, negative priming was the default effect; (b) the control mechanism was triggered to activate the prime after there was enough practice for the detection of the contingency between the prime and probe; and (c) it took time for the control mechanism to overcome the negative-priming effect and produce a positive-priming effect.

  6. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  7. The Search for Prime Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerance, Carl

    1982-01-01

    Until recently the testing of a 100-digit number to determine whether it is prime or composite could have taken a century. However, in the past two years a method has been developed enabling a computer to determine the primality of an arbitrary number in about 40 seconds of running time. (Author/JN)

  8. Evaluative Priming in the Pronunciation Task.

    PubMed

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Becker, Manuel; Spruyt, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    We replicated and extended a study by Spruyt and Hermans (2008) in which picture primes engendered an evaluative-priming effect on the pronunciation of target words. As preliminary steps, we assessed data reproducibility of the original study, conducted Pilot Study I to identify highly semantically related prime-target pairs, reanalyzed the original data excluding such pairs, conducted Pilot Study II to demonstrate that we can replicate traditional associative priming effects in the pronunciation task, and conducted Pilot Study III to generate relatively unrelated sets of prime pictures and target words. The main study comprised three between-participants conditions: (1) a close replication of the original study, (2) the same condition excluding highly related prime-target pairs, and (3) a condition based on the relatively unrelated sets of prime pictures and target words developed in Pilot Study III. There was little evidence for an evaluative priming effect independent of semantic relatedness.

  9. Retrograde bilin signaling enables Chlamydomonas greening and phototrophic survival

    PubMed Central

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Casero, David; Dent, Rachel M.; Gallaher, Sean; Yang, Wenqiang; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Grossman, Arthur R.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of functional chloroplasts in photosynthetic eukaryotes requires real-time coordination of the nuclear and plastid genomes. Tetrapyrroles play a significant role in plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling in plants to ensure that nuclear gene expression is attuned to the needs of the chloroplast. Well-known sites of synthesis of chlorophyll for photosynthesis, plant chloroplasts also export heme and heme-derived linear tetrapyrroles (bilins), two critical metabolites respectively required for essential cellular activities and for light sensing by phytochromes. Here we establish that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, one of many chlorophyte species that lack phytochromes, can synthesize bilins in both plastid and cytosol compartments. Genetic analyses show that both pathways contribute to iron acquisition from extracellular heme, whereas the plastid-localized pathway is essential for light-dependent greening and phototrophic growth. Our discovery of a bilin-dependent nuclear gene network implicates a widespread use of bilins as retrograde signals in oxygenic photosynthetic species. Our studies also suggest that bilins trigger critical metabolic pathways to detoxify molecular oxygen produced by photosynthesis, thereby permitting survival and phototrophic growth during the light period. PMID:23345435

  10. Retrograde bilin signaling enables Chlamydomonas greening and phototrophic survival.

    PubMed

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Casero, David; Dent, Rachel M; Gallaher, Sean; Yang, Wenqiang; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Pellegrini, Matteo; Niyogi, Krishna K; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Grossman, Arthur R; Lagarias, J Clark

    2013-02-26

    The maintenance of functional chloroplasts in photosynthetic eukaryotes requires real-time coordination of the nuclear and plastid genomes. Tetrapyrroles play a significant role in plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling in plants to ensure that nuclear gene expression is attuned to the needs of the chloroplast. Well-known sites of synthesis of chlorophyll for photosynthesis, plant chloroplasts also export heme and heme-derived linear tetrapyrroles (bilins), two critical metabolites respectively required for essential cellular activities and for light sensing by phytochromes. Here we establish that Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, one of many chlorophyte species that lack phytochromes, can synthesize bilins in both plastid and cytosol compartments. Genetic analyses show that both pathways contribute to iron acquisition from extracellular heme, whereas the plastid-localized pathway is essential for light-dependent greening and phototrophic growth. Our discovery of a bilin-dependent nuclear gene network implicates a widespread use of bilins as retrograde signals in oxygenic photosynthetic species. Our studies also suggest that bilins trigger critical metabolic pathways to detoxify molecular oxygen produced by photosynthesis, thereby permitting survival and phototrophic growth during the light period.

  11. Role of phospholipase A(2) in retrograde transport of ricin.

    PubMed

    Klokk, Tove Irene; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2011-09-01

    Ricin is a protein toxin classified as a bioterror agent, for which there are no known treatment options available after intoxication. It is composed of an enzymatically active A-chain connected by a disulfide bond to a cell binding B-chain. After internalization by endocytosis, ricin is transported retrogradely to the Golgi and ER, from where the ricin A-chain is translocated to the cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis and thus induces cell death. We have identified cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) as an important factor in ricin retrograde transport. Inhibition of PLA(2) protects against ricin challenge, however the toxin can still be endocytosed and transported to the Golgi. Interestingly, ricin transport from the Golgi to the ER is strongly impaired in response to PLA(2) inhibition. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that ricin is still colocalized with the trans-Golgi marker TGN46 in the presence of PLA(2) inhibitor, but less is colocalized with the cis-Golgi marker GM130. We propose that PLA(2) inhibition results in impaired ricin transport through the Golgi stack, thus preventing it from reaching the ER. Consequently, ricin cannot be translocated to the cytosol to exert its toxic action.

  12. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, A R; Raviola, C A; Weber, P N; McDonald, P T; Navarro, D A; Jasko, I

    1989-10-01

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of apendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging111 In oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis.

  13. High-dose ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide: maximum tolerable doses, toxicities, and hematopoietic recovery after autologous stem cell reinfusion.

    PubMed

    Fields, K K; Elfenbein, G J; Perkins, J B; Janssen, W E; Ballester, O F; Hiemenz, J W; Zorsky, P E; Kronish, L E; Foody, M C

    1994-10-01

    We treated 115 patients in a phase I/II dose-escalation study of ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide (ICE) followed by autologous stem cell rescue. Patients treated had a variety of diagnoses, including breast cancer (high-risk stage II disease with eight or more positive nodes, stage III disease, and responsive metastatic disease), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia in first remission, and various solid tumors that were responsive to induction therapy. Patients received autologous bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood stem cells primed by one of several methods. The maximum tolerated dose of ICE was determined to be ifosfamide 20,100 mg/m2, carboplatin 1,800 mg/m2, and etoposide 3,000 mg/m2 when administered as a 6-day regimen. The dose-limiting toxicities included acute renal failure, severe central nervous system toxicity, and "leaky capillary syndrome" with hypoalbuminemia, profound fluid overload, and pulmonary insufficiency. Analysis of hematologic recovery based on stem cell source and influence of hematopoietic growth factor administration was undertaken. Hematopoietic growth factor use significantly reduced neutrophil engraftment time for patients receiving bone marrow stem cells, with evidence of earlier recovery times for patients receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Neutrophil recovery times varied based on the source of stem cells used, with the earliest engraftment times seen for patients receiving peripheral blood stem cells primed with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Platelet recovery times were not statistically different for any of the subsets. In conclusion, the maximum tolerated dose of ICE has been defined, and the source of stem cells and the use of hematopoietic growth factors influence hematopoietic recovery.

  14. Retrograde replacement, reaction-driven cracking and rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.

    2011-12-01

    Retrograde reactions involve hydration, carbonation and/or oxidation of volatile-poor, high grade metamorphic and igneous rocks. They can increase solid volume, via increasing solid mass and decreasing solid density, provided fluid is supplied in an open system, and dissolution does not remove significant solid mass. Increasing solid volume can create deviatoric stress, causing fractures to form. This can be a positive feedback, maintaining or increasing permeability and reactive surface area. Alternatively, high viscosity host rock can act as a rigid container. Transient stress rise due to initial volume change causes nearly equal volumetric rates of precipitation and pressure solution. Retrograde reactions can be self-limiting, consuming fluid that is required both as a reactant and as a catalyst, filling pore space with newly crystallized material, and armoring reactive surface areas. However, retrograde products, such as serpentine, talc and clays are common, and have important controls on crustal rheology and physical properties, e.g., in the "cold nose" above subduction zones, in subducting plates, and in fault zones. The best-known retrograde processes are hydration and carbonation of olivine, in igneous rocks and residual mantle peridotite, e.g. near the seafloor. Fully hydrated (serpentinites) or carbonated (listwanites) peridotites show that retrograde reactions can proceed to completion. It is common to find that replacement is nearly isochemical, with the exception of H2O and CO2, suggesting that large-scale dissolution did not take place and solid volume expansion was significant. The free energy changes driving hydration and carbonation of olivine could generate overpressures of 100's to 1000's of MPa. These thermodynamic upper bounds can be compared to estimates based on microstructure. Evans (Int Geol Rev 2004) and Jamtveit et al. (EPSL 2008) provide microphotographs of igneous troctolites, with interstitial plagioclase surrounding rounded olivine

  15. Competition Effects in Phonological Priming: The Role of Mismatch Position between Primes and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Peereman, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined lexical competition effects using the phonological priming paradigm in a shadowing task. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that an inhibitory priming effect occurred when the primes mismatched the targets on the last phoneme (/bagar/-/bagaj/). In contrast, a facilitatory priming effect was observed when the primes…

  16. Evidence for Episodic Retrieval of Inadequate Prime Responses in Auditory Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments are reported in which the mechanisms underlying auditory negative priming were investigated. In Experiments 1A and 1B, preprime-prime intervals and prime-probe intervals were manipulated.The ratio between the 2 intervals determined the size of the negative priming effect. Results are compatible with the episodic retrieval account,…

  17. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  18. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  19. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  20. Spatial priming in ecologically relevant reference frames.

    PubMed

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M; Leber, Andrew B; Golomb, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have observed many phenomena demonstrating how the visual system exploits spatial regularities in the environment in order to benefit behavior. In this paper, we question whether spatial priming can be considered one such phenomenon. Spatial priming is defined as a response time facilitation to a visual search target when its spatial position has been repeated in recent trials (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1996, Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 977-991). Does this priming serve a behaviorally adaptive role or is it merely a byproduct of ongoing visual processing? Critically, an adaptive priming mechanism must actively transform visual inputs from native retinotopic (eye-centered) coordinates into ecologically relevant coordinates, e.g., spatiotopic (world-centered) and/or object-centered. In Experiment 1, we tested this hypothesis by having participants move their eyes between trials, which dissociated retinotopic and spatiotopic frames of reference. Results showed only weak retinotopic priming, but robust spatiotopic priming. The second experiment again had participants move their eyes between trials but also manipulated the placement of a grouped array of display objects from trial to trial. This allowed us to measure not just retinotopic and spatiotopic priming, but object-centered priming as well. Results from this experiment did not yield retinotopic priming but showed robust spatiotopic and object-centered priming. These findings demonstrate that spatial priming operates within ecologically relevant coordinate systems, and the findings support the notion that spatial priming serves an adaptive role in human behavior.

  1. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  2. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma successfully treated with autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Goede, Jeroen S; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Taverna, Christian; Schanz, Urs; Dispenzieri, Angela; Hummel, Yvonne; Trüeb, Ralph M; Fehr, Jörg

    2007-04-01

    Paraproteinemia can be complicated by necrobiotic xanthogranuloma. Therapeutic options for this progressive disease are limited, and there is no agreement on a single best strategy. We report the case of a patient with a massive periorbital infiltration narrowing the palpebral fissure and blinding the patient. Conventional myeloma therapy had only limited benefit in our patient. However, he was successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, rendering the patient free of symptoms. This is the first report of autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with necrobiotic xanthogranuloma.

  3. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  4. Automatic non-associative semantic priming: episodic affective priming of naming responses.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Adriaan; Hermans, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan; Eelen, Paul

    2004-05-01

    Affective priming for associatively unrelated prime-target pairs was investigated using (a) the naming task, (b) a short stimulus onset asynchrony (250 ms), and (c) primes that had acquired their affective connotation during a differential evaluative conditioning procedure. Despite the fact that the primes and the targets were related on the affective dimension only, significant priming emerged. This finding indicates that mere affective overlap is sufficient to produce automatic priming. As such, our results are in line with theoretical accounts of automatic priming that are based on semantic relatedness.

  5. Semantic priming in the prime task effect: evidence of automatic semantic processing of distractors.

    PubMed

    Marí-Beffa, P; Fuentes, L J; Catena, A; Houghton, G

    2000-06-01

    The automaticity of the semantic processing of words has been questioned because of the reduction of semantic priming when the prime word is processed nonsemantically--for example, in letter search (the prime task effect). In two experiments, prime distractor words produced semantic priming in a subsequent lexical decision task, but with the direction of priming (positive or negative) depending on the prime task. Lexico-semantic tasks produced negative semantic priming, whereas letter search produced positive semantic priming. These results are discussed in terms of task-based inhibition. We argue that, given the results from the distractors, the absence of semantic priming does not indicate an absence of semantic activation but reflects the action of control processes on prepotent responses when less practiced responses are needed.

  6. Splenic Subcapsular Hematoma After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in a Liver Transplant Recipient: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Montenovo, Martin; Javed, Emran; Bakthavatsalam, Ramasamy; Reyes, Jorge

    2017-02-01

    Splenic injuries after an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are a rare but lethal complication. We describe a subcapsular splenic hematoma requiring emergent splenectomy after an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in a liver transplant recipient.

  7. Polyurethane Self-Priming Topcoats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-23

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A corrosion -resistant coating which can be applied directly...57] ABSTRACT A corrosion -resistant coating which can be applied directly to a surface as a self-priming topcoat compris- ing from about 10 to 90... corrosion -inhibiting pigments consisting The invention described herein mav be manufactured 5 «»eniially of ar alkaline earth metal or zinc phosphate

  8. Maglev ready for prime time.

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

    2003-01-01

    Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

  9. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives.

  10. Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2010-04-21

    Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.

  11. CONFIRMATION OF A RETROGRADE ORBIT FOR EXOPLANET WASP-17b

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Daniel D. R.; Sackett, Penny D.; Winn, Joshua N.; Mardling, Rosemary A.

    2010-10-20

    We present high-precision radial velocity observations of WASP-17 throughout the transit of its close-in giant planet, using the MIKE spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. By modeling the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find the sky-projected spin-orbit angle to be {lambda} = 167.4 {+-} 11.2 deg. This independently confirms the previous finding that WASP-17b is on a retrograde orbit, suggesting it underwent migration via a mechanism other than just the gravitational interaction between the planet and the disk. Interestingly, our result for {lambda} differs by 45 {+-} 13 deg from the previously announced value, and we also find that the spectroscopic transit occurs 15 {+-} 5 minutes earlier than expected, based on the published ephemeris. The discrepancy in the ephemeris highlights the need for contemporaneous spectroscopic and photometric transit observations whenever possible.

  12. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Lorcan; Choi, P. I.; Severson, S. A.; Spjut, E.

    2013-01-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration over UV-NIR wavelengths from Pomona College’s telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, KAPAO Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software that uses custom off-axis paraboloid mirrors (OAPs) to manipulate light appropriately for a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and science cameras. KAPAO Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 81” field of view of our optical camera at f/33 as well as over the smaller field of view of our NIR camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of our optical camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to λ/10 surface irregularity (632.8nm). Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75°F when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of KAPAO Prime in Q1 2013.

  13. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Lorcan

    2012-11-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration from Pomona College's telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, referred to as Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software. Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 73'' field of view of our Andor Camera at f/33 as well as for our NIR Xenics camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of the Andor camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to l/10 surface irregularity. Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75 F; when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of ``Prime'' in Q1 2013.

  14. Lack of autologous tissue transmission of eosinophilic plaques in cats.

    PubMed

    Moriello, K A; Kunkle, G; Miller, L M; Crowley, A

    1990-07-01

    Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

  15. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography associated pancreatitis: A 15-year review

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Kevin E; Willingham, Field F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature regarding post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis. We searched for and evaluated all articles describing the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, morbidity, mortality and prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in adult patients using the PubMed database. Search terms included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, pancreatitis, ampulla of vater, endoscopic sphincterotomy, balloon dilatation, cholangiography, adverse events, standards and utilization. We limited our review of articles to those published between January 1, 1994 and August 15, 2009 regarding human adults and written in the English language. Publications from the reference sections were reviewed and included if they were salient and fell into the time period of interest. Between the dates queried, seventeen large (> 500 patients) prospective and four large retrospective trials were conducted. PEP occurred in 1%-15% in the prospective trials and in 1%-4% in the retrospective trials. PEP was also reduced with pancreatic duct stent placement and outcomes were improved with endoscopic sphincterotomy compared to balloon sphincter dilation in the setting of choledocholithiasis. Approximately 34 pharmacologic agents have been evaluated for the prevention of PEP over the last fifteen years in 63 trials. Although 22 of 63 trials published during our period of review suggested a reduction in PEP, no pharmacologic therapy has been widely accepted in clinical use in decreasing the development of PEP. In conclusion, PEP is a well-recognized complication of ERCP. Medical treatment for prevention has been disappointing. Proper patient selection and pancreatic duct stenting have been shown to reduce the complication rate in randomized clinical trials. PMID:21160744

  16. Feasibility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Thomas; Willard, Michael D; Ruhnke, Isabelle; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Cats are predisposed to diseases of the biliary tract and the exocrine pancreas and these can be challenging to diagnose. In humans and dogs > 10 kg, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been successfully used to diagnose some of these disorders. The purpose of our study was to determine whether ERCP would also be feasible in cats using a pediatric duodenoscope. Four purpose-bred, clinically healthy, castrated domestic shorthair cats participated in two studies. Study 1 compared standard white light endoscopy with chromoendoscopy for localizing the major duodenal papilla. In Study 2 ERCP was performed. Repeated clinical examinations and measurements of serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) were performed before and up to 18 hours after interventions on all cats. Chromoendoscopy was subjectively judged to be superior for localizing the major papilla. Insertion of the ERCP catheter was best accomplished when cats were in dorsal recumbency. Complete ERCP was successful in two cats. In the other cats, either retrograde cholangiography or pancreatography was possible. Serum fPLI concentrations increased temporarily in two cats during Study 2 when measured immediately, 2, 4, and 18 h after ERCP. Peak fPLI concentrations were detected either immediately after ERCP or 2 h later. No clinical signs of complications were observed within 18 h after the procedures. Findings indicated that ERCP is technically demanding but feasible in healthy cats. Future studies need to determine whether the temporary increases in serum fPLI concentrations are clinically important and to investigate the utility of ERCP in feline patients.

  17. Conscious Sedation for Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: Dexmedetomidine Versus Midazolam

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Neslihan; Sahin, Sukran; Aksu, Hale; Yavascaoglu, Belgin; Gurbet, Alp; Turker, Gurkan; Kadioglu, Asli Guler

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Midazolam and dexmedetomidine, which are used for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, were compared to evaluate the differences in efficacy, hemodynamics, and side effects. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients aged between 18 and 80 were randomly assigned to two groups according to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification: Group M received midazolam with an initial bolus infusion of 0.04 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), followed by additional doses of 0.5 mg i.v. midazolam, titrated to achieve a Ramsay sedation scale score of 3–4. Group D received dexmedetomidine with an initial bolus infusion of 1 mcg/kg/hr i.v. over 10 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2–0.7 mcg/kg/hr, titrated to achieve an RSS of 3–4. A Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was performed prior to sedation and in the recovery room once the Modified Aldrete Score (MAS) reached 9–10. Patient heart rates, arterial pressure and pain were evaluated. Results: Patients in Group D had lower heart rates at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes following the initiation of sedation (p<0.05). There was no statistical difference in arterial pressure, RSS, MMSE or respiratory rate between the two groups. Coughing, nausea and vomiting occurred in 3 patients in Group M (12%), whereas no patient in Group D experienced these symptoms. The procedure elicited a gag response in 7 patients in Group M (28%) and in 4 patients in Group D (16%), with no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). When patient and surgeon satisfaction was compared between the two groups, Group D showed higher surgeon satisfaction scores (p<0.05). Conclusion: The use of dexmedetomidine for conscious sedation during short, invasive procedures, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, could be a superior alternative to the use of midazolam. PMID:25610153

  18. What determines the direction of subliminal priming

    PubMed Central

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Verleger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that

  19. Detection of autologous blood transfusions in athletes: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mørkeberg, Jakob

    2012-07-01

    Autologous blood transfusions (ABTs) has been used by athletes for approximately 4 decades to enhance their performance. Although the method was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee in the mid 1980s, no direct detection method has yet been developed and implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Several indirect methods have been proposed with the majority relying on changes in erythropoiesis-sensitive blood markers. Compared with the first methods developed in 1987, the sensitivity of subsequent tests has not improved the detection of blood doping. Nevertheless, the use of sophisticated statistical algorithms has assured a higher level of specificity in subsequent detection models, which is a crucial aspect of antidoping testing particularly to avoid "false positives." Today, the testing markers with the best sensitivity/specificity ratio are the Hbmr model (an algorithm based on the total amount of circulating hemoglobin level [hemoglobin level mass] and percentage of reticulocytes, 4.51·ln(Hbmass)-√%ret) and the OFF-hr model (algorithm based on hemoglobin level concentration and percentage of reticulocytes, Hb(g/L)-60·√%ret). Only the OFF-hr model is currently approved by WADA. Recently, alternative indirect strategies for detecting blood doping have been proposed. One method is based upon a transfusion-induced immune-response resulting in specific changes in gene expression related to leukocytes such as T lymphocytes. Another method relies on detecting increased plasticizer metabolite levels in the urine caused by the leakage of plasticizers from the blood bags used during the blood storage. These methods need further development and validation across different types of transfusion regimes before they can be implemented. In addition, several research projects have been funded by WADA in recent years and are now under development including "Detection of Autologous Blood Transfusions Using Activated Red Blood Cells (the red blood cells

  20. Regeneration of Tissues and Organs Using Autologous Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Atala

    2010-04-28

    The Joint Commission for Health Care Organizations recently declared the shortage of transplantable organs and tissues a public health crisis. As such, there is about one death every 30 seconds due to organ failure. Complications and rejection are still significant albeit underappreciated problems. It is often overlooked that organ transplantation results in the patient being placed on an immune suppression regimen that will ultimate shorten their life span. Patients facing reconstruction often find that surgery is difficult or impossible due to the shortage of healthy autologous tissue. In many cases, autografting is a compromise between the condition and the cure that can result in substantial diminution of quality of life. The national cost of caring for persons who might benefit from engineered tissues or organs has reached $600 billion annually. Autologous tissue technologies have been developed as an alternative to transplantation or reconstructive surgery. Autologous tissues derived from the patient's own cells are capable of correcting numerous pathologies and injuries. The use of autologous cells eliminates the risks of rejection and immunological reactions, drastically reduces the time that patients must wait for lifesaving surgery, and negates the need for autologous tissue harvest, thereby eliminating the associated morbidities. In fact, the use of autologous tissues to create functional organs is one of the most important and groundbreaking steps ever taken in medicine. Although the basic premise of creating tissues in the laboratory has progressed dramatically, only a limited number of tissue developments have reached the patients to date. This is due, in part, to the several major technological challenges that require solutions. To that end, we have been in pursuit of more efficient ways to expand cells in vitro, methods to improve vascular support so that relevant volumes of engineered tissues can be grown, and constructs that can mimic the native

  1. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  2. Mechanical and chemical characteristics of an autologous glue.

    PubMed

    De Somer, Filip; Delanghe, Joris; Somers, Pamela; Debrouwere, Maarten; Van Nooten, Guido

    2008-09-15

    The study evaluates the mechanical and chemical characteristics of autologous surgical glue made by mixing ultrafiltered plasma with glutaraldehyde (GTA). Human albumin 200 g/L mixed with different concentrations of GTA (25, 50, 75, or 100 g/L) was used as a single protein set-up for testing tensile strength, elasticity, and rate of crosslinking. Subsequently, ultrafiltered canine or human plasma to obtain autologous glue replaced human albumin. BioGlue, a surgical glue, and Tissucol Duo, a fibrin sealant, were used as controls. Tensile strength of human albumin 200 g/L mixed with 75 g/L GTA is 825 +/- 109 N versus 672 +/- 167 N for BioGlue. Ultrafiltered canine plasma showed a maximum tensile strength of 634 +/- 137 N when mixed with GTA 75 g/L. For human plasma, the maximum tensile strength of 436 +/- 69 N was reached after mixing with GTA 25 g/L. Autologous glue had a higher elasticity of 144 +/- 66 N versus 322 +/- 104 N for BioGlue at maximum load. Autologous glues for vascular repair can be easily prepared out of the patient's plasma. The optimal characteristics, compared to BioGlue, are obtained for ultrafiltered canine and human plasma by mixing with a GTA concentration of 50-75 g/L and 25-50 g/L, respectively. The autologous glue will exert less tensile strength than BioGlue but has a better compliance. In case where no plasma can obtained from the patient, mixing human albumin 200 g/L with GTA 75 g/L can be an alternative to BioGlue.

  3. The retromer complex and clathrin define an early endosomal retrograde exit site.

    PubMed

    Popoff, Vincent; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Tenza, Danièle; Rojas, Raúl; Lamaze, Christophe; Bonifacino, Juan S; Raposo, Graça; Johannes, Ludger

    2007-06-15

    Previous studies have indicated a role for clathrin, the clathrin adaptors AP1 and epsinR, and the retromer complex in retrograde sorting from early/recycling endosomes to the trans Golgi network (TGN). However, it has remained unclear whether these protein machineries function on the same or parallel pathways. We show here that clathrin and the retromer subunit Vps26 colocalize at the ultrastructural level on early/recycling endosomes containing Shiga toxin B-subunit, a well-studied retrograde transport cargo. As previously described for clathrin, we find that interfering with Vps26 expression inhibits retrograde transport of the Shiga toxin B-subunit to the TGN. Under these conditions, endosomal tubules that take the Shiga toxin B-subunit out of transferrin-containing early/recycling endosomes appear to be stabilized. This situation differs from that previously described for low-temperature incubation and clathrin-depletion conditions under which Shiga toxin B-subunit labeling was found to overlap with that of the transferrin receptor. In addition, we find that the Shiga toxin B-subunit and the transferrin receptor accumulate close to multivesicular endosomes in clathrin-depleted cells, suggesting that clathrin initiates retrograde sorting on vacuolar early endosomes, and that retromer is then required to process retrograde tubules. Our findings thus establish a role for the retromer complex in retrograde transport of the B-subunit of Shiga toxin, and strongly suggest that clathrin and retromer function in consecutive retrograde sorting steps on early endosomes.

  4. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (△H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein.

  5. The Yeast Retrograde Response as a Model of Intracellular Signaling of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jazwinski, S. Michal; Kriete, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction activates intracellular signaling pathways that impact yeast longevity, and the best known of these pathways is the retrograde response. More recently, similar responses have been discerned in other systems, from invertebrates to human cells. However, the identity of the signal transducers is either unknown or apparently diverse, contrasting with the well-established signaling module of the yeast retrograde response. On the other hand, it has become equally clear that several other pathways and processes interact with the retrograde response, embedding it in a network responsive to a variety of cellular states. An examination of this network supports the notion that the master regulator NFκB aggregated a variety of mitochondria-related cellular responses at some point in evolution and has become the retrograde transcription factor. This has significant consequences for how we view some of the deficits associated with aging, such as inflammation. The support for NFκB as the retrograde response transcription factor is not only based on functional analyses. It is bolstered by the fact that NFκB can regulate Myc–Max, which is activated in human cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and impacts cellular metabolism. Myc–Max is homologous to the yeast retrograde response transcription factor Rtg1–Rtg3. Further research will be needed to disentangle the pro-aging from the anti-aging effects of NFκB. Interestingly, this is also a challenge for the complete understanding of the yeast retrograde response. PMID:22629248

  6. Is retrograde drilling really useful for osteochondral lesion of talus with subchondral cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong-Yup; Kim, Jong-Kil; Lee, Kwang-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Retrograde drilling is a well accepted procedure for osteochondral lesion of the talus and subchondral cyst with intact overlying cartilage. It has good results in most reports. Compared to anterograde drilling, retrograde drilling can protect the integrity of the articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using retrograde drilling for osteochondral lesion with subchondral cyst and discuss the mechanism involved in the development of subchondral cyst. Patient concerns: We report a 53-year-old man who had complained left ankle pain that lasted over 6 months which was exacerbated by walking. Diagnoses: We diagnosed it as osteochondral lesion of the talus with subchondral cyst. Interventions: Plain X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the ankle. Outcomes: He undertook retrograde drilling without debridement of cartilage. After the surgery, the pain had been subsided for 1 year, although arthritic change had progressed. However, after 5 years of retrograde drilling, he revisited our hospital due to severe ankle pain. Plain X-ray and MRI showed arthritic change of the ankle and multiple cystic formation of talus. Lessons: Retrograde drilling has some problem because this procedure is not theoretically correct when the development of a subchondral cyst in osteochondral lesion of the talus is considered. In addition, retrograde drilling may impair uninjured bone marrow of the talus, resulting in the development of multiple cystic formations. PMID:27930520

  7. Microbial stress priming: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana R; Lehmann, Anika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2016-04-01

    Microbes have to cope with complex and dynamic environments, making it likely that anticipatory responses provide fitness benefits. Mild, previous stressors can prepare microbes (stress priming) to further and potentially damaging stressors (triggering). We here quantitatively summarize the findings from over 250 trials of 34 studies including bacteria and fungi, demonstrating that priming to stress has a beneficial impact on microbial survival. In fact, survival of primed microbes was about 10-fold higher compared with that in non-primed microbes. Categorical moderators related to microbial taxonomy and the kind of stress applied as priming or as triggering revealed significant differences of priming effect size among 14 different microbial species, 6 stress categories and stressor combination. We found that priming by osmotic, physiological and temperature stress had the highest positive effect sizes on microbial response. Cross-protection was evident for physiological, temperature and pH stresses. Microbes are better prepared against triggering by oxidative, temperature and osmotic stress. Our finding of an overall positive mean effect of priming regardless of the microbial system and particular stressor provides unprecedentedly strong evidence of the broad ecological significance of microbial stress priming. These results further suggest that stress priming may be an important factor in shaping microbial communities.

  8. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  9. The temporal dynamics of visual object priming.

    PubMed

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P; Mason, Emily J; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-11-01

    Priming reflects an important means of learning that is mediated by implicit memory. Importantly, priming occurs for previously viewed objects (item-specific priming) and their category relatives (category-wide priming). Two distinct neural mechanisms are known to mediate priming, including the sharpening of a neural object representation and the retrieval of stimulus-response mappings. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between these neural mechanisms could help explain why item-specific priming generates faster responses than category-wide priming. Participants studied pictures of everyday objects, and then performed a difficult picture identification task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP). The identification task gradually revealed random line segments of previously viewed items (Studied), category exemplars of previously viewed items (Exemplar), and items that were not previously viewed (Unstudied). Studied items were identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of item-specific priming, and importantly Exemplar items were also identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of category-wide priming. Early activity showed sustained neural suppression of parietal activity for both types of priming. However, these neural suppression effects may have stemmed from distinct processes because while category-wide neural suppression was correlated with priming behavior, item-specific neural suppression was not. Late activity, examined with response-locked ERPs, showed additional processes related to item-specific priming including neural suppression in occipital areas and parietal activity that was correlated with behavior. Together, we conclude that item-specific and category-wide priming are mediated by separate, parallel neural mechanisms in the context of the current paradigm. Temporal differences in behavior are determined by the timecourses of these distinct processes.

  10. RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 Promote Retrograde Transport in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglei; Dubey, Jyoti; Koushika, Sandhya P; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling) back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6.1, together regulate retrograde transport in both neurons and non-neuronal tissue. Mutants for rab-6.1 or rab-6.2 fail to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. Loss of both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 results in an additive effect on GLR-1 retrograde recycling, indicating that these two C. elegans Rab6 isoforms have overlapping functions. MIG-14 (Wntless) protein, which undergoes retrograde recycling, undergoes a similar degradation in intestinal epithelia in both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 mutants, suggesting a broader role for these proteins in retrograde transport. Surprisingly, MIG-14 is localized to separate, spatially segregated endosomal compartments in rab-6.1 mutants compared to rab-6.2 mutants. Our results indicate that RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 have partially redundant functions in overall retrograde transport, but also have their own unique cellular- and subcellular functions.

  11. RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 Promote Retrograde Transport in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Dubey, Jyoti; Koushika, Sandhya P.; Rongo, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling) back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6.1, together regulate retrograde transport in both neurons and non-neuronal tissue. Mutants for rab-6.1 or rab-6.2 fail to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. Loss of both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 results in an additive effect on GLR-1 retrograde recycling, indicating that these two C. elegans Rab6 isoforms have overlapping functions. MIG-14 (Wntless) protein, which undergoes retrograde recycling, undergoes a similar degradation in intestinal epithelia in both rab-6.1 and rab-6.2 mutants, suggesting a broader role for these proteins in retrograde transport. Surprisingly, MIG-14 is localized to separate, spatially segregated endosomal compartments in rab-6.1 mutants compared to rab-6.2 mutants. Our results indicate that RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2 have partially redundant functions in overall retrograde transport, but also have their own unique cellular- and subcellular functions. PMID:26891225

  12. Coronary perforation with tamponade successfully managed by retrograde and antegrade coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore Davide; Azzarelli, Salvatore; Elhadj, Zied Ibn; Marzà, Francesco; Galassi, Alfredo Ruggero

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, retrograde approach for chronic total occlusions has rapidly evolved, enabling a higher rate of revascularization success. Compared to septal channels, epicardial collaterals tend to be more tortuous, more difficult to negotiate, and more prone to rupture. Coronary perforation is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of coronary angioplasty, often leading to emergency cardiac surgery. We report a case of a retrograde chronic total occlusion revascularization through epicardial collaterals, complicated by both retrograde and antegrade coronary perforation with tamponade, and successfully managed by coil embolization.

  13. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    PubMed Central

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  14. On Anti-Elite Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M"Uller, Tom

    2007-09-01

    An odd prime number p is called anti-elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers are quadratic non-residues to p. This concept is the exact opposite to that of elite prime numbers. We study some fundamental properties of anti-elites and show that there are infinitely many of them. A computational search among all the numbers up to 100 billion yielded 84 anti-elite primes.

  15. All Elite Primes Up to 250 Billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumont, Alain; Müller, Tom

    2006-08-01

    A prime number p is called elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers 2^(2^n)+1 are quadratic residues of p. Previously only the interval up to 10^9 was systematically searched for elite primes and 16 such primes were found. We extended this research up to 2.5*10^11 and found five further elites, among which 1,151,139,841 is the smallest and 171,727,482,881 the largest.

  16. Antibody-mediated inhibition of ricin toxin retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Yermakova, Anastasiya; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-04-08

    Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous family of plant and bacterial AB toxins that gain entry into the cytosol of host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and retrograde traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While a few ricin toxin-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, the mechanisms by which these antibodies prevent toxin-induced cell death are largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and a TGN-specific sulfation assay, we demonstrate that 24B11, a MAb against ricin's binding subunit (RTB), associates with ricin in solution or when prebound to cell surfaces and then markedly enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, however, toxin-antibody complexes failed to reach the TGN; instead, they were shunted to Rab7-positive late endosomes and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes. Monovalent 24B11 Fab fragments also interfered with toxin retrograde transport, indicating that neither cross-linking of membrane glycoproteins/glycolipids nor the recently identified intracellular Fc receptor is required to derail ricin en route to the TGN. Identification of the mechanism(s) by which antibodies like 24B11 neutralize ricin will advance our fundamental understanding of protein trafficking in mammalian cells and may lead to the discovery of new classes of toxin inhibitors and therapeutics for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE Ricin is the prototypic member of the AB family of medically important plant and bacterial toxins that includes cholera and Shiga toxins. Ricin is also a category B biothreat agent. Despite ongoing efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against ricin, very little is known about the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize this toxin. In general, it is thought that antibodies simply prevent toxins from attaching to cell surface receptors or promote their clearance through Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated uptake

  17. Prime Graph Components of Finite Simple Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat'ev, A. S.

    1990-02-01

    Let G be a finite group and π(G) the set of prime factors of its order. The prime graph of G is the graph with vertex-set π(G), two vertices p and q being joined by an edge whenever G contains an element of order pq. This article contains an explicit description of the primes in each of the connected components of the prime graphs of the finite simple groups of Lie type of even characteristic. This solves question 9.16 of the Kourovka Notebook. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  18. Priming effects in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontikaki, Evina; Thornton, Barry; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin sediments (<2000 m) cover merely 15 % of the ocean's seafloor but are responsible for more than 70 % of the global benthic mineralization. Understanding when these systems act as a source or sink of carbon (C) is thus of primary importance if we are to produce reliable global C budgets and predict the effects of future perturbations on the global C cycle. The chemical nature of organic matter (OM) is thought to be one of the major controls on the degradation/preservation balance in sediments; labile and refractory OM pools degrade at different rates but not independently. Priming effects (PE), i.e. changes in the decomposition of refractory organic matter following inputs of labile OM, have the potential to alter the C budget in sediments but have been largely ignored by marine scientists. Climate-driven changes in primary production, and land erosion and run-off are likely to change the quantity and composition of organic matter inputs in marine ecosystems and influence the magnitude and direction of PEs in seawater and sediments. Here, we attempt to evaluate the importance of priming effects on C cycling in marine sediments by use of labelled substrates of different quantity and quality in stable isotope tracer experiments and argue that PEs need to be incorporated in global change models.

  19. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction. Topical report, September 30, 1988--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Bassilakis, R.; Kroo, E.

    1989-12-31

    Most of the proposed processing schemes for improving liquefaction yields involve favoring bond-breaking and radical stabilization reactions over the retrograde reactions. The retrograde reactions are often encountered before liquefaction temperatures are reached. The objective of this program is to elucidate and model the retrograde reaction chemistry in direct coal liquefaction through the application of experimental techniques and theoretical models which have been successfully employed at Advanced Fuel Research (AFR) and SRI International (a subcontractor) to understand and predict coal reaction behavior. The study of retrograde reactions is being done using an integrated approach using extensive characterization of the liquefaction chemistry of three kinds of systems: (1) model polymers; (2) coal; and (3) modified coals.

  20. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    PubMed

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  1. Retrograde left ventricular catheterization in patients with an aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Karsh, D L; Michaelson, S P; Langou, R A; Cohen, L S; Wolfson, S

    1978-05-01

    Twenty-seven consecutive patients with an aortic valve prosthesis were evaluated with retrograde left ventricular catheterization. The prosthesis was successfully crossed, permitting hemodynamic and angiographic evaluation of function of the prosthetic valve, left ventricle and mitral valve in all 27 cases. No complications were encountered. In patients with active endocarditis or recent embolization, the retrograde technique was avoided when possible, and attempts were made to utilize other techniques for study. However, three such patients were evaluated with the retrograde technique without complication. Examination of pressure tracings and cineangiographic films suggested only minor interference with valve poppet movement induced by the catheter transversing the valve. In three cases, hemodynamic data were recorded with the catheter crossing the prosthesis at one time and a paraprosthetic valve defect at another time. Identical gradients were recorded. This series documents the safety and efficacy of the retrograde approach, which is proposed as an alternative to the transseptal technique and left ventricular puncture.

  2. A photographic approach to the possible mechanism of retrogradation of sweet potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Zhao, Shuyi; Liu, Qinsheng; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Although the subject of starch retrogradation has been studied for about 20 years, the mechanism of starch retrogradation seems not yet to be completely established. In this paper, the possible retrogradation mechanism of sweet potato starch was postulated from four optical micrographs at the stages of melting of the starch granules, autoclaving treatment and aging. The possible process of retrogradation consists of three stages. Firstly, starch granules was swelled and melted with loss of X-ray crystallinity and formation of both crystalline and amorphous lamellae; secondly, in crystalline lamellae, amylopectin began to form nucleation when they were autoclaved; finally, the nucleus grew up to great rod-like crystals as the result of congregating of amylose on plates which were composed of and prolongated by amylopectin.

  3. Fiberoptic Guided Retrograde Intubation in an Anticipated Difficult Airway: Revival of an Antiquated Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ninu, Marie; Yunus, Md.; Syiemiong, Newstar

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde intubation is an invaluable technique which can be helpful in anticipated difficult airway situation. In this advanced era where fiberoptic intubation and video laryngoscopes are in abundant use, retrograde intubation is a forgotten technique. However, it may be useful in various difficult airway situations in this advanced era. In our case the patient had a bitter experience with previous fiberoptic intubation. Owing to that we had planned and performed a fiber optic guided retrograde intubation, where we had kept the fiberoptic bronchoscope in the pharynx keeping larynx and vocal cords in the focus to facilitate the emergence of guide wire through one of the nostrils as well as direct visual confirmation of intubation. This fiber optic guided retrograde intubation is a first reported case of its kind in a predicted difficult airway which can be beneficial in different difficult airway situations. PMID:27891428

  4. Veiled right kidney sign in retroperitoneal duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Banerji, John Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Retropneumoperitoneum due to duodenal perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is rare. Recognizing the presence of free air, which outlines the right kidney, is essential for its early diagnosis and appropriate management.

  5. Pancreatitis with an unusual fatal complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kanen, Boris; Loffeld, Ruud JLF

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography has been the treatment of choice for stones in the common bile duct. Although the procedure is usually safe, procedure-related complications do occur. Case presentation A case of pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography is described in a 55-year-old woman. After an uneventful recovery the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly 16 days after the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography, and the patient died within 1 hour. Post-mortem examination revealed massive intrapulmonary fat embolism. The complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography and pancreatitis are described. Conclusion Fat embolism can occur after the remission of pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis may be overlooked on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning. PMID:18577211

  6. Defective autologous mixed lymphocyte reactivity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, R L

    1986-01-01

    T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and normal controls were assessed for their ability to respond in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). Cells from stable MS patients demonstrated a significant defect in their proliferative response to non-T cells in comparison to normal controls. Despite the defective AMLR response, T cells from MS patients reacted as well as T cells from normal controls to allogeneic stimuli. Furthermore, MS non-T-cells were fully capable of stimulating allogeneic MLR responses by normal and MS T cells. Since the T4+ cell is the major subpopulation which proliferates in the AMLR, these studies suggest a functional defect in a subpopulation of T4+ cells in MS patients. Since the AMLR may represent an important mechanism by which immune responses are regulated, a defect in the ability of MS T cells to respond to autologous cells could account for several of the autoimmune features of the disease. PMID:2942317

  7. Tight coupling between positive and reversed priming in the masked prime paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2011-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learnt, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are not consciously perceived. However, when the delay between prime and target is increased, reversed priming effects are often found instead (the negative compatibility effect, NCE). The main accounts of the NCE assume that it too is a sensorimotor phenomenon, predicting that it should occur only when the initial positive priming phase also occurs. Alternatively, reversed priming may reflect a perceptual process entirely independent from positive motor priming (which is simply evident at a different temporal delay), in which case no dependency is expected between the NCE and positive priming. We tested these predictions while new sensorimotor associations were learnt, and when learnt associations were suddenly reversed. We found a remarkable symmetry between positive and reversed priming during all such learning phases, supporting the idea that reversed priming represents a sensorimotor process that is contingent on, and automatically follows, the positive priming phase. We discuss also whether the NCE mechanism is subject to a trigger threshold. PMID:20695707

  8. Longer prime presentation decreases picture-word cross-domain priming.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Kiyofumi; Kimura, Yusuke; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A short prime presentation has been shown to provide a greater priming magnitude, whereas a longer prime presentation results in a lower priming magnitude. In Experiment 1, we attempted to replicate the decrease of priming using word stimuli. Words were presented in both prime and test sessions, and participants judged whether each stimulus was natural or manmade. In Experiment 2, we employed a cross-domain priming paradigm to assess the impact of prime duration on non-perceptual processes. Pictures were presented in prime sessions, and their semantically matched words were presented in test sessions. We did not observe a significant decrease in priming in Experiment 1. However, we found that 2000 ms of prime exposure led to weaker cross-domain priming when compared with 250 ms of the exposure in Experiment 2. The results suggest that the longer presentation of pictures causes a non-perceptual adaptation effect. This effect may occur at conceptual, linguistic, and/or response-related levels.

  9. Unconscious congruency priming from unpracticed words is modulated by prime-target semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllón, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility were used in all experiments. On 80% of the trials the primes and targets belonged to different categories (incongruent trials), whereas in the remaining 20% (congruent trials) they could be either strong or weak semantically related category members. Positive congruency effects (reaction times faster on congruent than on incongruent trials) were consistently found, but only when the mask immediately followed the primes, and participants reported being unaware of the identity of the primes. Primes followed by a delayed mask (such that participants reported being aware of their identity) produced either nonreliable facilitation or reliable reversed priming (strategic), depending on whether the prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony was either short (200 ms; Experiments 1 and 4) or long (1,000 ms; Experiment 4). Facilitatory priming with immediate mask was found strong (a) even for participants who performed at chance in prime visibility tests; and (b) for high but not for weakly semantically related category coordinates, irrespective of category size (animals, body parts). These findings provide evidence that unconscious congruency priming by unpracticed words from large stimulus sets critically depends on associative strength and/or semantic similarity between category coexemplars.

  10. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A.; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  11. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge")…

  12. Tight Coupling between Positive and Reversed Priming in the Masked Prime Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learned, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are…

  13. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  14. On the robustness of prime response retrieval processes: evidence from auditory negative priming without probe interference.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2014-02-01

    Visual negative priming has been shown to depend on the presence of probe distractors, a finding that has been traditionally seen to support the episodic retrieval model of negative priming; however, facilitated prime-to-probe contingency learning might also underlie this effect. In four sound identification experiments, the role of probe distractor interference in auditory negative priming was investigated. In each experiment, a group of participants was exposed to probe distractor interference while another group ran the task in the absence of probe distractors. Experiments 1A, 1B, and 1C varied in the extent to which fast versus accurate responding was required. Between Experiments 1 and 2, the spatial cueing of the to-be-attended ear was varied. Whereas participants switched ears from prime to probe in Experiment 1, they kept a stable attentional focus throughout Experiment 2. For trials with probe distractors, a negative priming effect was present in all experiments. For trials without probe distractors, the only ubiquitous after-effect of ignoring a prime distractor was an increase of prime response errors in ignored repetition compared to control trials, indicating that prime response retrieval processes took place. Whether negative priming beyond this error increase was found depended on the stability of the attentional focus. The findings suggest that several mechanisms underlie auditory negative priming with the only robust one being prime response retrieval.

  15. Statistical mechanical description of supercritical fluid extraction and retrograde condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. J.; Kwak, T. Y.; Mansoori, G. A.

    1987-07-01

    The phenomena of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and its reverse effect, which is known as retrograde condensation (RC), have found new and important applications in industrial separation of chemical compounds and recovery and processing of natural products and fossil fuels. Full-scale industrial utilization of SFE/RC processes requires knowledge about thermodynamic and transport characteristics of the asymmetric mixtures involved and the development of predictive modeling and correlation techniques for performance of the SFE/RC system under consideration. In this report, through the application of statistical mechanical techniques, the reasons for the lack of accuracy of existing predictive approaches are described and they are improved. It is demonstrated that these techniques also allow us to study the effect of mixed supercritical solvents on the solubility of heavy solutes (solids) at different compositions of the solvents, pressures, and temperatures. Fluid phase equilibrium algorithms based on the conformal solution van der Waals mixing rules and different equations of state are presented for the prediction of solubilities of heavy liquid in supercritical gases. It is shown that the Peng-Robinson equation of state based on conformal solution theory can predict solubilites of heavy liquid in supercritical gases more accurately than the van der Waals and Redlich-Kwong equations of state.

  16. Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Liewen, Heike; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Oliveira, Vasco; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Luo Guorong; Wadle, Andreas; Jung, Martin; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Stenner-Liewen, Frank . E-mail: stenlie@t-online.de

    2005-05-15

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the 'orphan' SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells.

  17. Subcapsular hepatic haematoma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bao-Ying; Li, Cai-Hong

    2013-03-07

    Subcapsular hepatic haematoma is a rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and there are few reports about this unusual complication worldwide. The primary symptom of most cases reported in the literature is abdominal pain. We report an unusual case with the primary symptom of fever. A 56-year-old man who had a six-month history of recurrent episodes of upper abdominal pain was diagnosed with a common bile duct stone by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy was performed, and stones from the common bile duct were successfully extracted with a basket. The patient had a persistent fever after ERCP, and treatment with intravenous antibiotics was unsuccessful. Computed tomography showed a 13 cm × 6 cm subcapsular hepatic haematoma filled with air and liquid on the surface of the right hepatic lobe. The patient was successfully treated with peritoneal drainage under B-ultra guidance. Subcapsular liver haematoma should be considered when hard-to- explain symptoms persist in the early period after ERCP. Percutaneous drainage is an effective treatment.

  18. Retrograde dacryocystography (RDC) utilizing a round-tipped needle.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masaaki; Kamiishi, Hiroshi

    2001-09-01

    Because the application of conventional anterograde dacryocystography has been restricted in cases with an intact lacrimal punctum, the indications are rather limited. The authors developed a new method for retrograde dacryocystography (RDC) using a hand-made round-tipped needle inserted directly into the orifice of the nasolacrimal duct. A 60 mm long aluminum tube (3 mm in diameter) was used to prepare the round-tipped needle. The distal portion of the tube was bent to an angle of about 80 degrees. The tip was then coated with synthetic resin adhesive to make it round. Following the insertion of the round-tipped needle directly into the inferior meatus, the tip was moved back and forth to find the orifice without visual observation. The complete insertion of the tip of the needle into the nasolacrimal duct was recognized by a fixed sensation of the tip. Contrast medium was then injected, and PA radiography was carried out. In the present paper, the authors report the usefulness of RDC, which is applicable even in cases of injury or obstruction in the upper lacrimal system. In 16 of 20 patients, the quality of the RDC images was judged as excellent. RDC can be carried out within a few seconds after acquiring the technical skills, and is thought to be a useful method, especially in cases of upper lacrimal injury.

  19. Management of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related perforations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Seup; Kim, In-Gyu; Ryu, Byoung Yoon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Yoo, Kyo Sang; Baik, Gwang Ho; Kim, Jin Bong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment strategies of patients with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforations. This is a retrospective study. Methods We experienced 13 perforations associated with ERCP. We reviewed the medical recordsand classified ERCP-related perforations according to mechanism of injury in terms of perforating device. Injury by endoscopic tip or insertion tube was classified as type I, injury by cannulation catheter or sphincterotomy knife as type II, and injury by guidewire as type III. Results Of four type I injuries, one case was managed by conservative management after primary closure with a hemoclip during ERCP. The other three patients underwent surgical treatments such as primary closure orpancreatico-duodenectomy. Of five type II injuries, two patients underwent conservative management and the other three cases were managed by surgical treatment such as duodenojejunostomy, duodenal diverticulization and pancreatico-duodenectomy. Of four type III injuries, three patients were managed conservatively and the remaining patient was managed by T-tube choledochostomy. Conclusion Type I injuries require immediate surgical management after EPCP or immediate endoscopic closure during ERCP whenever possible. Type II injuries require surgical or conservative treatment according to intra- and retro-peritoneal dirty fluid collection findings following radiologic evaluation. Type III injuries almost always improve after conservative treatment with endoscopic nasobilliary drainage. PMID:22066121

  20. Early Results of Retrograde Transpopliteal Angioplasty of Iliofemoral Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Saumitra; Gibson, Matthew; Magee, Timothy R.; Galland, Robert B.; Torrie, E. Peter H.

    2001-12-15

    Purpose: To assess whether the retrograde transpopliteal approach is a safe, practical and effective alternative to femoral puncture for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: Forty PTAs in 38 patients were evaluated. Intentional subintimal recanalization was performed in 13 limbs. Ultrasound evaluation of the popliteal fossa was carried out 30 min and 24 hr post procedurally in the first 10 patients to exclude local complications. All patients had a follow-up of at least 6 weeks.Results: The indication for PTA was critical ischemia in seven limbs and disabling claudication in the remainder.Stenoses (single or multiple) were present in 24 and occlusion in 15.The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was the commonest segment affected(36) followed by common femoral artery (CFA) in four and iliac artery in four. Technical success was achieved in 38 of 39 limbs where angioplasty was carried out. In one limb no lesion was found.Immediate complications were distal embolization in two and thrombosis in one. None of these required immediate surgery. There were no puncture site hematomas or popliteal arteriovenous fistulae.Symptomatic patency at 6 weeks was 85%. Further reconstructive surgery was required in three limbs and amputation in two.Conclusion: The transpopliteal approach has a high technical success rate and a low complication rate with a potential to develop into an outpatient procedure. It should be considered for flush SFA occulsions or iliac disease with tandem CFA/SFA disease where the contralateral femoral approach is often technically difficult.

  1. Radiation exposure to personnel performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, L; Singhal, S; Preece, D; Vohrah, A; Loft, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) relies on the use of ionising radiation but risks to operator and patient associated with radiation exposure are unclear. The aim of this prospective study was to estimate the radiation dose received by personnel performing fluoroscopic endoscopic procedures, mainly ERCP. Methods: Consecutive procedures over a two month period were included. The use of thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure radiation exposure to the abdomen, thyroid gland, and hands of the operator permitted an estimation of the annual whole body effective dose equivalent. Results: During the study period 66 procedures (61 ERCP) were performed and the estimated annual whole body effective dose equivalent received by consultant operators ranged between 3.35 and 5.87 mSv. These values are similar to those received by patients undergoing barium studies and equate to an estimated additional lifetime fatal cancer risk between 1 in 7000 and 1 in 3500. While within legal safety limits for radiation exposure to personnel, these doses are higher than values deemed acceptable for the general public. Conclusions: It is suggested that personnel as well as patients may be exposed to significant values of radiation during ERCP. The study emphasises the need to carefully assess the indication for, and to use measures that minimise radiation exposure during any fluoroscopic procedure. PMID:16210465

  2. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Amer, Syed; Horsley-Silva, Jennifer L; Menias, Christine O; Pannala, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), can be more challenging compared to those with a normal anatomy. Detailed assessment of cross-sectional imaging features by the radiologist, especially the pancreaticobiliary anatomy, strictures, and stones, is very helpful to the endoscopist in planning the procedure. In addition, any information on enteral anastomoses (for e.g., gastrojejunal strictures and afferent limb obstruction) is also very useful. The endoscopist should review the operative note to understand the exact anatomy prior to procedure. RYGB, which is performed for medically complicated obesity, is the most commonly encountered altered anatomy ERCP procedure. Other situations include patients who have had a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a hepaticojejunostomy. Balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy (single and double-balloon enteroscopy) or rotational endoscopy is often used to traverse the length of the intestine to reach the papilla. In addition, ERCP in these patients is further challenging due to the oblique orientation of the papilla relative to the forward viewing endoscope and the limited enteroscopy-length therapeutic accessories that are currently available. Overall, reported therapeutic success is approximately 70-75% with a complication rate of 3-4%. Alternative approaches include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, or surgery. Given the complexity, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy should be performed in close collaboration with body imagers, interventional radiology, and surgical services.

  3. Intraparenchymal hematoma as a late complication of retrograde intrarenal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yahsi, Sedat; Tonyali, Senol; Ceylan, Cavit; Yildiz, Kenan Y; Ozdal, Levent

    2017-01-01

    A 34 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain. A non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) revealed a 1.5x2cm left proximal ureter stone. Patient was scheduled for ureterorenoscopy (URS) and stone removal. She was submitted to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). At the postoperative 1st day, the patient began to suffer from left flank pain. A NCCT was taken, which revealed a subcapsular hematoma and perirenal fluid. The patient was managed conservatively with intravenous fluid, antibiotic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy and was discharged at the postoperative 6th day. Two weeks after the discharge the patient was admitted to emergency department with severe left flank pain, palpitation and malaise. KUB (kidney-ureter-bladder) radiography showed double-J stent (DJS) to be repositioned to the proximal ureter. Patient was evaluated with contrast enhanced CT which revealed an 8cm intraparenchymal hematoma/abscess in the middle part of the kidney. A percutaneous drainage catheter was inserted into the collection. The percutaneous drainage catheter and the DJS were removed at the 10th day of second hospitalization. RIRS surgery is an effective and feasible choice for renal stones with high success and acceptable complication rates. However, clinician should be alert to possible complications.

  4. Retrograde guidewire fracture complicated with pericardial tamponade in chronic total occlusive coronary lesion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Her, Keun

    2015-10-01

    Along with various coronary devices progress, there is a now growing trend to percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion (CTO). However, the risk of guidewire fracture rate might be increased in complex lesion such as tortuous, calcific lesion or retrograde route. We report a case of successful surgical removal of fractured and entrapped guidewire in a septal channel during retrograde CTO intervention in a patient complicated with pericardial tamponade by delayed penetration of broken guidewire into pericardium.

  5. Optimizing Cost Versus Time Shipping of U.S. Navy Retrograde Materiel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    bS ATAIqTA-\\PER S C IE NTL4AMj•. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS OPTIMIZING COST VERSUS TIME SHIPPING OF U.S. NAVY ...SUBTITLE: 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Optimizing Cost Versus Time Shipping of U.S. Navy Retrograde Materiel 6. AUTHOR(S) Colbert, Charles W. 7. PERFORMING...materiel. This thesis models the NAVICP shipping of unserviceable but repairable (retrograde) Navy materiel or Depot Level Repairables (DLRs). It

  6. Pulmonary arterial intimal sarcoma with retrograde extension: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Vaideeswar, Pradeep; Pillai, Raji

    2013-01-01

    Most of the pulmonary arterial sarcomas arise from multi-potential mesenchymal intimal cells and are designated as intimal sarcomas. These tumors grow in the direction of blood flow into peripheral arteries producing clinical features mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism. Retrograde extension is rare. We report one such case of intimal sarcoma that had a retrograde extension into the right ventricular outflow tract, and review such a presentation in the last ten years.

  7. Surgical Repair of Retrograde Type A Aortic Dissection after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo; Ryoo, Ji Yoon

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that the stent graft will become an alternative method for treating aortic diseases or reducing the extent of surgery; therefore, thoracic endovascular aortic repair has widened its indications. However, it can have rare but serious complications such as paraplegia and retrograde type A aortic dissection. Here, we report a surgical repair of retrograde type A aortic dissection that was performed after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. PMID:24570865

  8. Successful Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varix Mainly Draining into the Pericardiophrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, Ken; Nishida, N. Matsui, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Nakamura, K.; Miki, Y.

    2012-02-15

    Two cases of gastric varices were treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein at our hospital, and both were successful. One case developed left hydrothorax. Gastric varices did not bled and esophageal varices were not aggravated in both cases for 24-30 months thereafter. These outcomes indicate the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein.

  9. Amount of Priming in the Difference of Mental Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Nobuhiro; Yagi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the prime task, 16 participants were asked to…

  10. Inverse Target- and Cue-Priming Effects of Masked Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattler, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The processing of a visual target that follows a briefly presented prime stimulus can be facilitated if prime and target stimuli are similar. In contrast to these positive priming effects, inverse priming effects (or negative compatibility effects) have been found when a mask follows prime stimuli before the target stimulus is presented: Responses…

  11. Autologous Bone Graft in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher P; Chiodo, Christopher P

    2016-12-01

    Bone graft is a common adjunct procedure in orthopedic surgery used for fusions, fracture repair, and the reconstruction of skeletal defects in the foot and ankle. Autologous graft, or autograft, involves the transport of bone from a donor site to another location in the same patient. It is considered by many to be the gold standard of bone grafting, as it is provides all biologic factors required for functional graft. Further, autograft is 100% histocompatible with no risk of disease transmission.

  12. Antibodies: Immunoconjugates and autologous cellular therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Advani, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Using a case study of a 57-year-old man with relapsed/refractory precursor-B (pre-B) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), this review discusses treatment with immunoconjugates and autologous therapy in acute ALL. Three therapies--blinatumomab, inotuzumab, and CAR T cells--are considered here, each with advantages in specific clinical situations. These therapies represent some of the exciting advances that have been made in the treatment of ALL over the last several years.

  13. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jimi; Kim, Hwa Mi; Kim, Tae-Heung; Kim, Chung-Won; Sun, Young-Woo; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer. PMID:23139658

  14. [History of autologous blood transfusion in neurosurgical operations].

    PubMed

    Nagai, M

    1998-12-01

    The first report on predeposit autologous blood transfusion was made in 1921 by F.C. Grant, neurosurgeon in the University Hospital of Pennsylvania. The patient was a 42-year-old man with cerebellar tumor, having a rare blood type for which no donor had been listed up. 500 ml of autologous blood was obtained, kept in 0.2% sodium citrate solution in a refrigerator and retransfused following a suboccipital exploration. Clinically, no reaction was noted and there was a favorable postoperative course, and 'autotransfusion' was evaluated as a life-saving procedure. In 1925, L.E. Davis and H. Cushing reported the first case of intraoperative autotransfusion (intraoperative blood salvage). The patient was a 42-year-old man with left occipital meningioma which, due to massive bleeding, could not be removed even by two-stage operations. In a 3rd stage operation, they could remove the tumor of 120 g totally by the aid of intraoperative replacement using 600 ml autologous blood collected with a home-made suction apparatus. No adverse side-effect was noted. This procedure was performed for 23 cases and it revealed beneficial effects except in one case. In ten of the cases, the procedure was estimated as a life-saving treatment. At the present time, the appropriate use of the patients' blood for transfusion therapy is recommended due to a shortage of donors. The use of autologous blood could play a key role, not only in saving the homologous blood supply, but also in avoiding complications encountered in conventional transfusion treatments. The methods of 'Autotransfusion' originated from operations in the neurosurgical area. On that account, it is desirable that neurosurgeons should be concerned with this subject even now.

  15. A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives

    PubMed Central

    Segaert, Katrien; Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in response tendencies for passives and in response latencies for actives. However, when participants' pre-existing preference for actives was altered in Experiment 2, syntactic priming occurred for both actives and passives in response tendencies as well as in response latencies. This is the first investigation of the effects of structure frequency on both response tendencies and latencies in syntactic priming. We discuss the implications of these data for current theories of syntactic processing. PMID:22022352

  16. [Therapeutic intensification and autologous stem cell transplantation in autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Marjanovic, Z; Gerber, I; Toledano, C; Hen-Solal, J; Damade, R; de Saint-Cyr, I; Sarrot-Reynauld, F; Ilié, D; Daneshpouy, M; Mounier, N; Ruivard, M; Tyndall, C; Vidal, E; Quere, I; Durand, J-M; Constans, J; Farge, D

    2005-02-26

    THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY of most autoimmune diseases is often poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS and clinical experience suggest that high doses immunoablation followed by stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic option to consider for certain severe autoimmune disorders. THE CONCEPT OF RESTORING NORMAL IMMUNE REACTIVITY must in part br true since current results of 466 transplants (445 autologous, 21 allogeneic) patients suffering from various autoimmune diseases show a beneficial outcome in approximately 2/3 of the patients. TO IMPROVE THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF SUCH AN AGGRESSIVE PROCEDURE in patients with potentially affected vital organs by the underlying autoimmune disease, it is especially important to follow international consensus guidelines and to centrally collect clinical data for in depth analysis in the EBMT International Stem Cell Project for Autoimmune Disease in Basel, Switzerland. PHASE III STUDIES ARE RUNNING FOR SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS (Astis, Autologous Stem cell Transplantation International Rheumatoid Arthritis Trial) started in 2003. A STUDY PROJECT IS PLANNED FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (Astims, Autologous Stem cell Transplantation International Multiple Sclerosis).

  17. The effects of autologous platelet gel on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jenifer L; Cupp, Craig L; Ross, E Victor; Shick, Paul C; Keefe, Michael A; Wester, Derin C; Hannon, Timothy; McConnell, Devin

    2003-08-01

    Laser resurfacing techniques have become a popular means of achieving rejuvenation of damaged skin. Interest is great in attempting to speed re-epithelialization and healing so that patients can return to their normal activities as quickly as possible. Previous studies have demonstrated that wounds heal more quickly when they are covered and kept moist than when they are left open to the air. Until now, no study has been conducted to investigate whether the healing process of a superficial skin burn might be accelerated by the use of an autologous platelet gel as a biologic dressing. Our study of five pigs showed that autologous platelet gel can influence wound healing by stimulating an intense inflammatory process that leads to highly significant increases in the production of extracellular matrices and granulation tissue. The platelet gel accelerated vascular ingrowth, increased fibroblastic proliferation, and accelerated collagen production. However, the gel did not appear to accelerate re-epithelialization. The aggressive production of granulation tissue and the acceleration of collagen production might mean that autologous platelet gel will have a future role in the treatment of burns because the highly vascularized bed it helps create should promote the success of skin grafting in patients with deep partial-thickness and full-thickness burns.

  18. Alignment of the Fibrin Network Within an Autologous Plasma Clot.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Jan; Seybold, Dominik; Peter, Elvira; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Köller, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Autologous plasma clots with longitudinally aligned fibrin fibers could serve as a scaffold for longitudinal axonal regrowth in cases of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Three different techniques for assembling longitudinally oriented fibrin fibers during the fibrin polymerization process were investigated as follows: fiber alignment was induced by the application of either a magnetic field or-as a novel approach-electric field or by the induction of orientated flow. Fiber alignment was characterized by scanning electron microscopy analysis followed by image processing using fast Fourier transformation (FFT). Besides FFT output images, area xmin to xmax, as well as full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the FFT graph plot peaks, was calculated to determine the relative degree of fiber alignment. In addition, fluorescently labeled human fibrinogen and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used to visualize fibrin and cell orientation in aligned and nonaligned plasma clots. Varying degrees of fiber alignment were achieved by the three different methods, with the electric field application producing the highest degree of fiber alignment. The embedded MSCs showed a longitudinal orientation in the electric field-aligned plasma clots. The key feature of this study is the ability to produce autologous plasma clots with aligned fibrin fibers using physical techniques. This orientated internal structure of an autologous biomaterial is promising for distinct therapeutic applications, such as a guiding structure for cell migration and growth dynamics.

  19. Tissue-Engineered Autologous Grafts for Facial Bone Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Bernhard, Jonathan C.; Alfi, David M.; Yeager, Keith; Eton, Ryan E.; Bova, Jonathan; Shah, Forum; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lopez, Mandi J.; Eisig, Sidney B.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Facial deformities require precise reconstruction of the appearance and function of the original tissue. The current standard of care—the use of bone harvested from another region in the body—has major limitations, including pain and comorbidities associated with surgery. We have engineered one of the most geometrically complex facial bones by using autologous stromal/stem cells, without bone morphogenic proteins, using native bovine bone matrix and a perfusion bioreactor for the growth and transport of living grafts. The ramus-condyle unit (RCU), the most eminent load-bearing bone in the skull, was reconstructed using an image-guided personalized approach in skeletally mature Yucatan minipigs (human-scale preclinical model). We used clinically approved decellularized bovine trabecular bone as a scaffolding material, and crafted it into an anatomically correct shape using image-guided micromilling, to fit the defect. Autologous adipose-derived stromal/stem cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in perfusion for 3 weeks in a specialized bioreactor to form immature bone tissue. Six months after implantation, the engineered grafts maintained their anatomical structure, integrated with native tissues, and generated greater volume of new bone and greater vascular infiltration than either non-seeded anatomical scaffolds or untreated defects. This translational study demonstrates feasibility of facial bone reconstruction using autologous, anatomically shaped, living grafts formed in vitro, and presents a platform for personalized bone tissue engineering. PMID:27306665

  20. Clinical Allogeneic and Autologous Islet Cell Transplantation: Update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is categorized as a β-cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients who lack the ability to secrete insulin. Allogeneic islet cell transplantation is for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, and autologous islet cell transplantation is for the prevention of surgical diabetes after a total pancreatectomy. The issues of allogeneic islet cell transplantation include poor efficacy of islet isolation, the need for multiple donor pancreata, difficulty maintaining insulin independence and undesirable side effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Those issues have been solved step by step and allogeneic islet cell transplantation is almost ready to be the standard therapy. The donor shortage will be the next issue and marginal and/or living donor islet cell transplantation might alleviate the issue. Xeno-islet cell transplantation, β-cell regeneration from human stem cells and gene induction of the naïve pancreas represent the next generation of β-cell replacement therapy. Autologous islet cell transplantation after total pancreatectomy for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis with severe abdominal pain is the standard therapy, even though only limited centers are able to perform this treatment. Remote center autologous islet cell transplantation is an attractive option for hospitals performing total pancreatectomies without the proper islet isolation facilities. PMID:21785738

  1. Delayed Cranioplasty: Outcomes Using Frozen Autologous Bone Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Hng, Daniel; Bhaskar, Ivan; Khan, Mumtaz; Budgeon, Charley; Damodaran, Omprakash; Knuckey, Neville; Lee, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of skull defects following decompressive craniectomy is associated with a high rate of complications. Implantation of autologous cryopreserved bone has been associated with infection rates of up to 33%, resulting in considerable patient morbidity. Predisposing factors for infection and other complications are poorly understood. Patients undergoing cranioplasty between 1999 and 2009 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Records and imaging were reviewed retrospectively. Demographics, the initial craniectomy and subsequent cranioplasty surgeries, complications, and outcomes were recorded. A total of 187 patients underwent delayed cranioplasty using autologous bone flaps cryopreserved at –30°C following decompressive craniectomy. Indications for craniectomy were trauma (77.0%), stroke (16.0%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (2.67%), tumor (2.14%), and infection (2.14%). There were 64 complications overall (34.2%), the most common being infection (11.2%) and bone resorption (5.35%). After multivariate analysis, intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak was significantly associated with infection, whereas longer duration of surgery and unilateral site were associated with resorption. Cranioplasty using frozen autologous bone is associated with a high rate of infective complications. Intraoperative CSF leak is a potentially modifiable risk factor. Meticulous dissection during cranioplasty surgery to minimize the chance of breaching the dural or pseudodural plane may reduce the chance of bone flap. PMID:26269726

  2. Retrograde reactions in coal processing: The behavior of ether and sulfide model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Skeen, J.T.

    1997-04-01

    Retrograde reactions that produce more refractory molecular structures are undesirable in coal liquefaction. The authors previously found that restricted mass transport, induced by immobilization on a silica support, promotes retrograde reactions for 1,2-diphenylethane (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) by both skeletal rearrangement and ring growth (cyclization-dehydrogenation) pathways involving free-radical intermediates. They are now examining the influence of heteroatoms on the retrograde pathways for the corresponding surface-immobilized ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OCH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) and sulfide (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}SCH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) model compounds at 275--350 C. Cyclization-dehydrogenation pathways are not detected for either model compound. However, retrograde skeletal rearrangements involving 1,2-phenyl shifts in C{sub 6}H{sub 5}XCH{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 5} (X = O,S) are found to be significant under restricted diffusion, and for X = O, radical coupling at ring carbons to form benzylphenols is also observed as a major pathway. For surface-immobilized benzyl phenyl ether, the two retrograde processes account for ca. 50% of the thermolysis products, and also generate reactive hydroxyl and keto functionalities that can be involved in additional retrograde reactions.

  3. Clathrin adaptor epsinR is required for retrograde sorting on early endosomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pol, Agnès; Yélamos, Belén; Amessou, Mohamed; Mills, Ian G; Dugast, Marc; Tenza, Danièle; Schu, Peter; Antony, Claude; McMahon, Harvey T; Lamaze, Christophe; Johannes, Ludger

    2004-04-01

    Retrograde transport links early/recycling endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), thereby connecting the endocytic and the biosynthetic/secretory pathways. To determine how internalized molecules are targeted to the retrograde route, we have interfered with the function of clathrin and that of two proteins that interact with it, AP1 and epsinR. We found that the glycosphingolipid binding bacterial Shiga toxin entered cells efficiently when clathrin expression was inhibited. However, retrograde transport of Shiga toxin to the TGN was strongly inhibited. This allowed us to show that for Shiga toxin, retrograde sorting on early/recycling endosomes depends on clathrin and epsinR, but not AP1. EpsinR was also involved in retrograde transport of two endogenous proteins, TGN38/46 and mannose 6-phosphate receptor. In conclusion, our work reveals the existence of clathrin-independent and -dependent transport steps in the retrograde route, and establishes a function for clathrin and epsinR at the endosome-TGN interface.

  4. Impaired motoneuronal retrograde transport in two models of SBMA implicates two sites of androgen action.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael Q; Poort, Jessica L; Baqri, Rehan M; Lieberman, Andrew P; Breedlove, S Marc; Miller, Kyle E; Jordan, Cynthia L

    2011-11-15

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) impairs motor function in men and is linked to a CAG repeat mutation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Defects in motoneuronal retrograde axonal transport may critically mediate motor dysfunction in SBMA, but the site(s) where AR disrupts transport is unknown. We find deficits in retrograde labeling of spinal motoneurons in both a knock-in (KI) and a myogenic transgenic (TG) mouse model of SBMA. Likewise, live imaging of endosomal trafficking in sciatic nerve axons reveals disease-induced deficits in the flux and run length of retrogradely transported endosomes in both KI and TG males, demonstrating that disease triggered in muscle can impair retrograde transport of cargo in motoneuron axons, possibly via defective retrograde signaling. Supporting the idea of impaired retrograde signaling, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of diseased muscles reverses the transport/trafficking deficit. Transport velocity is also affected in KI males, suggesting a neurogenic component. These results demonstrate that androgens could act via both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms to disrupt axonal transport in motoneurons affected by SBMA.

  5. Real-time Visualization and Quantification of Retrograde Cardioplegia Delivery using Near Infrared Fluorescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraj, Aravind T.; Ghanta, Ravi K.; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Soltesz, Edward G.; Laurence, Rita G.; Fox, John; Cohn, Lawrence H.; Bolman, R. M.; Frangioni, John V.; Chen, Frederick Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim of the Study Homogeneous delivery of cardioplegia is essential for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. Presently, there exist no established methods to quantitatively assess cardioplegia distribution intraoperatively and determine when retrograde cardioplegia is required. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for real-time visualization of cardioplegia distribution in a porcine model. Methods A portable, intraoperative, real-time NIR imaging system was utilized. NIR fluorescent cardioplegia solution was developed by incorporating indocyanine green (ICG) into crystalloid cardioplegia solution. Real-time NIR imaging was performed while the fluorescent cardioplegia solution was infused via the retrograde route in 5 ex-vivo normal porcine hearts and in 5 ex-vivo porcine hearts status post left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Horizontal cross-sections of the hearts were obtained at proximal, middle, and distal LAD levels. Videodensitometry was performed to quantify distribution of fluorophore content. Results The progressive distribution of cardioplegia was clearly visualized with NIR imaging. Complete visualization of retrograde distribution occurred within 4 minutes of infusion. Videodensitometry revealed that retrograde cardioplegia primarily distributed to the left ventricle and anterior septum. In hearts with LAD ligation, antegrade cardioplegia did not distribute to the anterior left ventricle. This deficiency was compensated for with retrograde cardioplegia supplementation. Conclusions Incorporation of ICG into cardioplegia allows real-time visualization of cardioplegia delivery via NIR imaging. This technology may prove useful in guiding intraoperative decisions pertaining to when retrograde cardioplegia is mandated. PMID:19016995

  6. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-09-01

    The importance of endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51-VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.

  7. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Udomrati, Sunsanee

    2013-01-01

    The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (Tg′), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The Tg′ value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the Tg′ value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below Tg′. This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below Tg′. PMID:26904602

  8. One version of direct response priming requires automatization of the relevant associations but not awareness of the prime.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2015-07-01

    Priming is the influence of one event on performance during a second event. One type of priming is known as semantic priming because it biases interpretation of the subsequent stimulus. Another type, direct response priming, biases responding directly without semantic mediation. Research reviewed in this article indicates that two versions of the second type, direct response priming, can be distinguished. One version, explicit priming, requires awareness of the prime. The other version, associative response priming, occurs even if the prime is masked and not phenomenally visible. This version, which is attributed to associations relating specific sensory events to movements of particular muscles, is enabled only if the association has previously been automatized by brief practice in which the to-be-primed response is made to the stimulus that subsequently appears as the prime. Associative response priming can be explained by a simple stimulus-response interpretation; other varieties of priming are more theoretically challenging.

  9. Cost minimization analysis of preoperative erythropoietin vs autologous and allogeneic blood donation in total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Green, William Scott; Toy, Pearl; Bozic, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    Autologous blood donation and erythropoietin (EPO) have been shown to be effective in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion, but the cost-effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. A cost minimization analysis was performed, comparing the total costs of allogeneic blood transfusion strategy and autologous and allogeneic blood transfusion strategy for 161 primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 195 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients. An EPO cost minimization model was constructed using a previously published algorithm for blood management after total joint arthroplasty. The least costly strategy was autologous blood donation in combination with allogeneic blood for THA and TKA patients at $856 and $892 per patient, respectively. The most costly strategy was allogeneic only at $1769 and $1352 per THA and TKA patient, respectively. The EPO strategy model predicted costs similar to the autologous and allogeneic. A strategy that combines autologous blood donation with EPO for patients who cannot donate autologous blood may provide the greatest cost savings and minimize allogeneic blood transfusion.

  10. Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

  11. Perceptual learning can reverse subliminal priming effects.

    PubMed

    Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    Masked primes presented prior to a target can result in inverse priming (i.e., benefits on trials in which the prime and the target are mapped onto opposite responses). In five experiments, time-of-task effects on subliminal priming of motor responses were investigated. First, we replicated Klapp and Hinkley's (2002) finding that the priming effect is initially straight (i.e., it benefits congruent trials, in which the prime and targets are mapped onto the same response) or absent, and only later reverses (i.e., faster responses in incongruent than in congruent trials). We show that the presentation of the mask plays a crucial role in this reversal and that the reversal occurs later if the mask pattern is very complex. We suggest that perceptual learning improves the recognition of task-relevant features. Once recognized, these features can trigger the preparation of the alternative response and/or inhibit the prime-activated response. These findings support an active role of the mask in priming.

  12. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  13. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  14. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  15. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  16. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  17. Priming by the variability of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  18. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  19. The Actual Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9 backup crew members are, Commander, Thomas P. Stafford and pilot Eugene A. Cernan. The back-up crew became the prime crew when on February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T- 38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building during a landing approach in bad weather.

  20. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  1. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  2. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  3. Does translation involve structural priming?

    PubMed

    Maier, Robert M; Pickering, Martin J; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    When asked to translate utterances, people might merely make sure that their translations have the same meaning as the source, but they might also maintain aspects of sentence form across languages. We report two experiments in which English-German and German-English bilinguals (without specialist translator training) repeated German ditransitive sentences whose meaning was compatible with more than one grammatical form or translated them into English. Participants almost invariably repeated the sentences accurately, thereby retaining the grammatical structure. Importantly, Experiment 1 found that they tended to repeat grammatical form across languages. Experiment 2 included a condition with sentences that had no grammatical equivalent form in English; here participants tended to persist in the order of thematic roles. We argue that cross-linguistic structural priming plays a major role in the act of translation.

  4. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  5. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  6. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  7. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  8. B-1 cells promote immunosurveillance against murine melanoma in host absence of CCR5: new perspective in autologous vaccination therapy.

    PubMed

    Vivanco, Bruno C; Viana, Jacqueline D; Perez, Elisabeth C; Konno, Fabiana T C; Guereschi, Marcia G; Xander, Patricia; Keller, Alexandre C; Lopes, José D

    2014-11-01

    Autologous vaccination with tumor-primed dendritic cells increases immune response against tumor, which seems to be improved in host absence of CCR5. Because B-1 lymphocytes modulate the activity of different immune cells, we decided to study their influence in the resistance against murine B16F10 melanoma in a CCR5 deprived environment. Adoptive transfer of peritoneal B-1 CCR5(+/+) lymphocytes to CCR5(-/-) animals inhibited the establishment of lung metastasis and melanoma cell growth, in comparison to saline-treated CCR5(-/-) mice. In loco cell analysis demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of B-1 CCR5(+/+) lymphocytes to CCR5 deficient host was associated with a more intense influx of T CD8(+) to tumor site, indicating that the presence of CCR5(+/+) B-1 cells in the tumor environment induces the migration of T CD8 CCR5(-/-) cells to the implantation site. To corroborate this idea, CCR5(-/-) mice were injected with non B-1 peritoneal cells from wild type (WT) mice before B16F10 inoculation. In this regimen, CCR5(-/-) mice were not protected from tumor growth reinforcing the idea that, in host absence of CCR5, B-1 cells are essential to confer tumor resistance. This work indicates that, in the host absence of CCR5, naive B-1 cells may activate CD8T lymphocytes thereby promoting tumor resistance. Our results strongly suggest that autologous vaccination with B-1 lymphocytes in combination with CCR5 antagonists can be an alternative approach to tumor therapy.

  9. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  10. Shifting Evaluation Windows: Predictable Forward Primes with Long SOAs Eliminate the Impact of Backward Primes

    PubMed Central

    Fockenberg, Daniel A.; Koole, Sander L.; Lakens, Daniël; Semin, Gün R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that people evaluate target stimuli within short and flexible time periods called evaluation windows. Stimuli that briefly precede a target (forward primes) or briefly succeed a target (backward primes) are often included in the target's evaluation. In this article, the authors propose that predictable forward primes act as “go” signals that prepare target processing, such that earlier forward primes pull the evaluation windows forward in time. Earlier forward primes may thus reduce the impact of backward primes. This shifting evaluation windows hypothesis was tested in two experiments using an evaluative decision task with predictable (vs. unpredictable) forward and backward primes. As expected, a longer time interval between a predictable forward prime and a target eliminated backward priming. In contrast, the time interval between an unpredictable forward primes and a target had no effects on backward priming. These findings suggest that predictable features of dynamic stimuli can shape target extraction by determining which information is included (or excluded) in rapid evaluation processes. PMID:23359809

  11. The effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming depends on neighborhood distribution.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2012-06-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., LOBE/robe-loge) or concentrated on a single letter position (e.g., FARD/tard-lard). Word targets were preceded by their highest frequency neighbor or by a control prime. Four prime durations were compared (27, 39, 53, and 67 ms). Results showed that the inhibitory priming effect found for words with distributed neighbors at a 67-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was canceled when prime duration decreased. In contrast, no priming effect was found in any of the four prime durations for words with concentrated neighbors. Simulations run on the word materials revealed that the interactive activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981) captured the increasing inhibitory priming effect in the distributed neighbor condition but failed to capture the loss of priming in the concentrated neighbor condition.

  12. Correlation between prime duration and semantic priming effect: evidence from N400 effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wu, G; Meng, X; Dang, J

    2013-05-15

    When the prime word is masked and flashed very quickly, its presence cannot be perceived by the subjects, but it can still accelerate the processing of the subsequent relevant target stimulus. This is known as the masked priming effect. Adopting a similar experimental paradigm, in this study we take the gray scale pictures describing ordinary objects as prime stimuli and the environmental sounds as target stimuli. The subjects are then asked to classify the target sounds to investigate whether incongruent target sounds elicit the N400 semantic priming effect. At the same time, the prime-mask withdraw value is made at these time intervals: 16ms, 33ms, 50ms, 66ms and 83ms, so as to reveal whether there exists a correlation between the prime duration and the priming effect. The result shows that, at each time interval, the processing of sounds that are congruent with prime pictures is sped up and sounds that are incongruent with prime pictures trigger the N400 effect. The amplitude of the N400 effect is enlarged proportionally with the time interval and gradually approaches the point of saturation. Given this, it is believed that the N400 effect reflects automatic semantic processing, that consciousness is not a prerequisite of semantic priming, and that early visual information has an accumulative priming effect on target sounds.

  13. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation.

  14. Movement-Based Priming: Clinical Applications and Neural Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel Montie; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-01

    Priming can be described as behavior change generated by preceding stimuli. Although various types of priming have been long studied in the field of psychology, priming that targets motor cortex is a relatively new topic of research in the fields of motor control and rehabilitation. In reference to a rehabilitation intervention, priming is categorized as a restorative approach. There are a myriad of possible priming approaches including noninvasive brain stimulation, motor imagery, and sensory-based priming, to name a few. The authors report on movement-based priming which, compared to other priming types, is less frequently examined and under reported. Movement-based priming includes, but is not limited to, bilateral motor priming, unilateral priming, and aerobic exercise. Clinical and neural mechanistic aspects of movement-based priming techniques are explored.

  15. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word.

  16. Reading a standing wave: figure-ground-alternation masking of primes in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Kuhlmann, Michael; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    We propose a new masking technique for masking word stimuli. Drawing on the phenomena of metacontrast and paracontrast, we alternately presented two prime displays of the same word with the background color in one display matching the font color in the other display and vice versa. The sequence of twenty alterations (spanning approx. 267 ms) was sandwich-masked by structure masks. Using this masking technique, we conducted evaluative priming experiments with positive and negative target and prime words. Significant priming effects were found - for primes and targets drawn from the same as well as from different word sets. Priming effects were independent of prime discrimination performance in direct tests and they were still significant after the sample was restricted to those participants who showed random responding in the direct test.

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Boming; Li, Quanpeng; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jiang, Guobing; Ge, Xianxiu; Nie, Junjie; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wu, Ping; Ji, Jie; Miao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered anatomy is challenging. Results of ERCP in those patients varied. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of various endoscopes-assisted ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Fifty-two patients with Billroth II reconstruction (group A), 20 patients with subtotal or total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis (group B), 25 patients with pancreatoduodenectomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy reconstruction (group C) were included. Gastroscope, duodenoscope, colonoscope, and double-balloon enteroscope were used. The endoscope insertion success rate of groups A, B, C was 96.2% (50/52), 85.0% (17/20), 80% (20/25), respectively. χ2 test showed that there was no significant difference between the 3 groups (P = 0.068). The mean insertion time was 36.7, 68.4, and 84.0 minutes, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that the insertion time of group C was significantly longer than that of groups B and C (both P <0.001). The endoscopic cannulation success rates of groups A, B, C were 90%, 82.4%, and 100%, respectively. χ2 test showed that there was no significant difference between the 3 groups (P = 0.144). The mean cannulation time was 19.4, 28.1, and 20.4 minutes, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that the cannulation time of group B was longer than that of groups A and C (P <0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). In total, 74 patients with successful biliary cannulation achieved the therapeutic goal; thus, the clinical success rate was 76.3% (74/97). Our study showed that ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy was safe and feasible. PMID:28033284

  18. Procedure for decellularization of porcine heart by retrograde coronary perfusion.

    PubMed

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Wearden, Peter D; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2012-12-06

    Perfusion-based whole organ decellularization has recently gained interest in the field of tissue engineering as a means to create site-specific extracellular matrix scaffolds, while largely preserving the native architecture of the scaffold. To date, this approach has been utilized in a variety of organ systems, including the heart, lung, and liver (1-5). Previous decellularization methods for tissues without an easily accessible vascular network have relied upon prolonged exposure of tissue to solutions of detergents, acids, or enzymatic treatments as a means to remove the cellular and nuclear components from the surrounding extracellular environment(6-8). However, the effectiveness of these methods hinged upon the ability of the solutions to permeate the tissue via diffusion. In contrast, perfusion of organs through the natural vascular system effectively reduced the diffusion distance and facilitated transport of decellularization agents into the tissue and cellular components out of the tissue. Herein, we describe a method to fully decellularize an intact porcine heart through coronary retrograde perfusion. The protocol yielded a fully decellularized cardiac extracellular matrix (c-ECM) scaffold with the three-dimensional structure of the heart intact. Our method used a series of enzymes, detergents, and acids coupled with hypertonic and hypotonic rinses to aid in the lysis and removal of cells. The protocol used a Trypsin solution to detach cells from the matrix followed by Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate solutions to aid in removal of cellular material. The described protocol also uses perfusion speeds of greater than 2 L/min for extended periods of time. The high flow rate, coupled with solution changes allowed transport of agents to the tissue without contamination of cellular debris and ensured effective rinsing of the tissue. The described method removed all nuclear material from native porcine cardiac tissue, creating a site-specific cardiac ECM

  19. Retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in homonymous hemianopsia

    PubMed Central

    Herro, Angela M; Lam, Byron L

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between topographic reduction in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness as detected with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual field defects caused by ischemic occipital cortical injury. Methods This study was a retrospective review of all patients who presented to our eye institution between January 2012 and July 2014 with visual field defects secondary to ischemic cortical injury. The visual field defect pattern and mean deviation were analyzed. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular GCC were both assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Patients with any ocular pathology that could affect these measurements were excluded. The topographic relationship of visual field defect to reduction in GCC was specifically analyzed. Results Nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 65 (57–73) years; eight were men and six had right hemianopsias. The laterality of the visual field defect was used to assign an affected and unaffected side of analysis for RNFL and GCC layer thickness. A right hemianopsia meant that the nasal fibers of the right eye and temporal fibers of the left eye were assigned as the “affected side”, and the temporal fibers of the right eye and nasal fibers of the left eye were assigned as “unaffected”. There was no statistically significant difference between affected and unaffected RNFL. However, there was a significant difference in GCC layer reduction between the affected and unaffected sides (P=0.029). Conclusion There is evidence of retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss in patients with homonymous hemianopsias from cortical visual impairment. This relationship is reflected in thinning of the GCC and maintains the topographic relationship of the visual field defect. PMID:26089638

  20. A possible structure of retrograded maize starch speculated by UV and IR spectra of it and its components.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Luo, Qingfeng; Wang, Chen; Liu, Xueyan

    2012-01-01

    "Retrogradation" has been used to describe the changes that occur in starch after gelatinization, from an initially amorphous state to a more ordered or crystalline state, which has a significant impact on starch application in food, textiles and materials fields. But mechanism of starch retrogradation is still unclear until now and there is no breakthrough in this area. Here we are speculating a possible structure of retrograded maize starch by UV (binding with iodine) and IR spectra of it and its compositions. We speculate that nucleation of retrograded starch origins from combination of reducing end of amylopectin and non-reducing end of amylose, and retrogradation terminates at combining of non-reducing end of amylopectin and reducing end of amylose. The chain length of resistant digestion retrograded starch should be nearly same. The hydroxyl associated with sixth carbon atoms of glucan must form hydrogen bond with other hydroxyl of starch.

  1. Percutaneous radiologically guided gastrostomy tube placement: comparison of antegrade transoral and retrograde transabdominal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Zachary M.; Charles, Hearns W.; Gross, Jonathan S.; Pflager, Daniel; Deipolyi, Amy R.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare the antegrade transoral and the retrograde transabdominal approaches for fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement. METHODS Following institutional review board approval, all G-tubes at two academic hospitals (January 2014 to May 2015) were reviewed retrospectively. Retrograde approach was used at Hospital 1 and both antegrade and retrograde approaches were used at Hospital 2. Chart review determined type of anesthesia used during placement, dose of radiation used, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, medical history, and complications. RESULTS A total of 149 patients (64 women, 85 men; mean age, 64.4±1.3 years) underwent G-tube placement, including 93 (62%) placed via the retrograde transabdominal approach and 56 (38%) placed via the antegrade transoral approach. Retrograde placement entailed fewer anesthesiology consultations (P < 0.001), less overall procedure time (P = 0.023), and less fluoroscopy time (P < 0.001). A comparison of approaches for placement within the same hospital demonstrated that the retrograde approach led to significantly reduced radiation dose (P = 0.022). There were no differences in minor complication rates (13%–19%; P = 0.430), or major complication rates (6%–7%; P = 0.871) between the two techniques. CONCLUSION G-tube placement using the retrograde transabdominal approach is associated with less fluoroscopy time, procedure time, radiation exposure, and need for anesthesiology consultation with similar safety profile compared with the antegrade transoral approach. Additionally, it is hypothesized that decreased procedure time and anesthesiology consultation using the transoral approach are likely associated with reduced cost. PMID:27911264

  2. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  3. Effectiveness of autologous serum as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in adipose-derived stem cell engineering.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehoon; Chung, Jee-Hyeok; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Ki-Wan; Kim, Sukwha; Chang, Hak

    2013-09-01

    In cell culture, medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum is commonly used, and it is widely known that fetal bovine serum supplies an adequate environment for culture and differentiation of stem cells. Nevertheless, the use of xenogeneic serum can cause several problems. We compared the effects of four different concentrations of autologous serum (1, 2, 5, and 10%) on expansion and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using 10% fetal bovine serum as a control. The stem cells were grafted on nude mice and the in vivo differentiation capacity was evaluated. The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells was successful irrespective of the culture medium. The proliferation potential was statistically significant at passage 2, as follows: 10% autologous serum > 10% fetal bovine serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. The differentiation capacity appeared statistically significant at passage 4, as follows: 10% fetal bovine serum > 10% autologous serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. Ten percent autologous serum and 10% fetal bovine serum had greater differentiation capacity than 1 and 2% autologous serum in vivo, and no significant difference was observed between the groups at ≥ 5% concentration at 14 weeks. In conclusion, 10% autologous serum was at least as effective as 10% fetal bovine serum with respect to the number of adipose-derived stem cells at the end of both isolation and expansion, whereas 1 and 2% autologous serum was inferior.

  4. Retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending chronic total occlusion through a left internal mammary artery graft.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pawan; Kirtane, Ajay J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde approach to chronic total occlusions (CTO) has been described via saphenous vein grafts, septal and epicardial collaterals. We report for the first time a successful retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending (LAD) artery CTO through a failed left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD anastamosis. This case demonstrates the technical aspects of using a LIMA conduit as a retrograde approach to CTO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Re-naming D Double Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  6. Electrophysiology reveals semantic priming at a short SOA irrespective of depth of prime processing.

    PubMed

    Küper, Kristina; Heil, Martin

    2009-04-03

    The otherwise robust behavioral semantic priming effect is reduced to the point of being absent when a letter search has to be performed on the prime word. As a result the automaticity of semantic activation has been called into question. It is unclear, however, in how far automatic processes are even measurable in the letter search priming paradigm as the prime task necessitates a long prime-probe stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). In a modified procedure, a short SOA can be realized by delaying the prime task response until after participants have made a lexical decision on the probe. While the absence of lexical decision priming has already been demonstrated in this design it seems premature to draw any definite conclusions from this purely behavioral result since event related potential (ERP) measures have been shown to be a more sensitive index of semantic activation. Using the modified paradigm we thus recorded ERP in addition to lexical decision times. Stimuli were presented at two different SOAs (240 ms vs. 840 ms) and participants performed either a grammatical discrimination (Experiment 1) or a letter search (Experiment 2) on the prime. Irrespective of prime task, the modulation of the N400, the ERP correlate of semantic activation, provided clear-cut evidence of semantic processing at the short SOA. Implications for theories of semantic activation as well as the constraints of the delayed prime task procedure are discussed.

  7. The retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starches as observed with FT-IR, 13C NMR and DSC.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xijun; Wang, Changjun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Li, Lin

    2014-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starch with wavelengths of maximum absorbance, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and DSC. The results show that the starches in retrograded glutinous rice starch and glutinous rice amylopectin could not form double helix. The IR results show that protein inhabits in glutinous rice and maize starches in a different way and appearance of C-H symmetric stretching vibration at 2852 cm(-1) in starch might be appearance of protein. Retrogradation untied the protein in glutinous amylopectin. Enthalpies of sweet potato and maize granules are higher than those of their retrograded starches. The (13)C NMR results show that retrogradation of those two starches leads to presence of β-anomers and retrogradation might decompose lipids in glutinous rice amylopectin into small molecules. Glutinous rice starch was more inclined to retrogradation than buckwheat starch. The DSC results show that the second peak temperatures for retrograded glutinous rice and buckwheat starches should be assigned to protein. The SEM results show that an obvious layer structure exists in retrograded glutinous rice amylopectin.

  8. The use of a cutting balloon in contemporary reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (reverse CART) technique.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Okada, Hisayuki; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-07-11

    The key concept of reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking (CART) technique is retrograde puncture with a tapered wire to an antegrade balloon (contemporary reverse CART) or new connections between the antegrade and retrograde subintimal space (classical reverse CART). In our case, a 75-year-old man with severe chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery, reverse CART with conventional balloons could not be accomplished. Externalization wiring was completed by contemporary reverse CART using a cutting balloon as an antegrade balloon to improve the fenestration force of the retrograde guidewire. Thus, the use of a cutting balloon for contemporary reverse CART might be promising.

  9. Dissociated backward priming effects in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks.

    PubMed

    Kahan, T A; Neely, J H; Forsythe, W J

    1999-03-01

    Backward priming was examined at 150- and 500-msec prime-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using visually presented primes and targets in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Two kinds of backward relations were used: compound items for which targets and primes formed a word in the backward direction (e.g., prime: HOP; target: bell), and noncompound items for which targets and primes did not form a word but were associatively related in the backward but not the forward direction (e.g., prime: BABY; target: stork). Results showed that backward priming effects were equivalent for compounds and noncompounds. However, for lexical decisions, backward priming occurred at both SOAs, whereas for pronunciation, it occurred only at the 150-msec SOA. We discuss how this SOA-dissociated backward priming effect in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks poses a serious challenge for all theories of semantic priming.

  10. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Afonso José Pereira; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Saboya, Rosaura; Mendrone Júnior, Alfredo; Amigo Filho, Ulisses; Coracin, Fabio Luiz; Buccheri, Valéria; Linardi, Camila da Cruz Gouveia; Ruiz, Milton Artur; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Background Hodgkin's lymphoma has high rates of cure, but in 15% to 20% of general patients and between 35% and 40% of those in advanced stages, the disease will progress or will relapse after initial treatment. For this group, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered one option of salvage therapy. Objectives To evaluate a group of 106 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who suffered relapse or who were refractory to treatment, submitted to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single transplant center. Methods A retrospective study was performed with data collected from patient charts. The analysis involved 106 classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were consecutively submitted to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplants in a single institution from April 1993 to December 2006. Results The overall survival rates of this population at five and ten years were 86% and 70%, respectively. The disease-free survival was approximately 60% at five years. Four patients died of procedure-related causes but relapse of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after transplant was the most frequent cause of death. Univariate analysis shows that sensitivity to pre-transplant treatment and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL at diagnosis had an impact on patient survival. Unlike other studies, B-type symptoms did not seem to affect overall survival. Lactic dehydrogenase and serum albumin concentrations analyzed at diagnosis did not influence patient survival either. Conclusion Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment strategy for early and late relapse in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma for cases that were responsive to pre-transplant chemotherapy. Refractory to treatment is a sign of worse prognosis. Additionally, a hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/dL at diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma has a negative impact on the survival of patients after transplant. As far as we know this relationship has not been previously reported

  11. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-10-27

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The patients (76 females and 44 males) were evaluated after procedure. The mean age group was 40.67±8.21. The mean follow up was 5.7±1.72 (range 3 to 9 years). The mean pain score and Nirschl stage before the procedure was 3.3±0.9 and 6.2±0.82 respectively. At final follow up the pain score and Nirschl were 1.1±0.9 and 1.5±0.91 respectively. Autologous blood injection was found to be one of the modalities for treatment of TE. Being cheap, available and easy method of treatment, it should be considered as a treatment modality before opting for the surgery. Universal guidelines for the management of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  12. New method to prepare autologous fibrin glue on demand.

    PubMed

    Alston, Steven M; Solen, Kenneth A; Broderick, Adam H; Sukavaneshvar, Sivaprasad; Mohammad, S Fazal

    2007-04-01

    Fibrin-based sealants are commonly employed to arrest bleeding after surgery. Usually, fibrinogen obtained from pooled human plasma is used to prepare sealants, with attendant risk of blood-borne infections. Availability of autologous fibrinogen would eliminate this risk. To prepare autologous fibrin sealant, fibrinogen was precipitated from human plasma using protamine. Under optimal conditions (10-mg/mL protamine and 22 degrees C), 96 +/- 4% of clottable fibrinogen was recovered by a simple and inexpensive technique. Nearly 50% of the plasma factor XIII was also recovered with the fibrinogen. Using bovine thrombin, the fibrinogen was clotted (1) in a specially designed mold to measure tensile strength and (2) in a lap joint between 2 aortic vessel strips to measure adhesion strength. Tensile and adhesion strengths increased with increasing fibrinogen concentration, and they were increased by the addition of calcium chloride. The addition of aprotinin and -aminocaproic acid to the fibrinogen concentrate before clotting had no effect on the mechanical properties of the clots. After adding thrombin to sealant containing 15-mg/mL fibrinogen, maximum tensile strength was achieved in 1-5 min, and maximum adhesion strength was reached in 5-15 min. For the sealant with 30-60-mg/mL fibrinogen and added calcium, the tensile strength was equivalent to that of the commercial fibrin sealant Tisseel. The adhesion strength of sealant with 30-60-mg/mL fibrinogen exceeded the adhesive strength of Tisseel under identical conditions. Autologous fibrin sealant is an attractive alternative to commercial sealants. It can be readily prepared from 5-mL plasma or more and exhibits mechanical properties equivalent to those of the leading commercial sealant.

  13. The effect of partial gelatinization of corn starch on its retrogradation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zong-qiang; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yu-guang; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of partial gelatinization of starch on its retrogradation using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Avrami equation was used to predict the evolution of starch retrogradation kinetics. The degree of retrogradation in starch samples partially gelatinized 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and control (S25) increased with storage time. The retrogradation enthalpies of S68 and S70 were almost four times as high as that of S64. The S25 and S64 had dominant A-type crystalline pattern while S68 and S70 showed dominant B-type crystalline pattern. The growth of remainder crystals was faster in S25 and S64, while both the nucleation and growth rates of new crystals were faster in S68 and S70. The Avrami model was found to represent the retrogradation kinetics data of these partially gelatinized starch samples quite satisfactorily (R(2)>0.95).

  14. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: evidence from an amnesic artist

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Landau, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impairments to other forms of general world knowledge, we explored losses across a broad range of knowledge domains in a newly-identified amnesic. LSJ is a professional artist, amateur musician and history buff with extensive bilateral medial temporal and left anterior temporal damage. We examined LSJ's knowledge across a range of everyday domains (e.g., sports) and domains for which she had premorbid expertise (e.g., famous paintings). Across all domains tested, LSJ showed losses of knowledge at a level of breadth and depth never before documented in retrograde amnesia. These results show that retrograde amnesia can involve broad and deep deficits across a range of general world knowledge domains. Thus, losses that have already been well-documented (famous people and public events) may severely underestimate the nature of human knowledge impairment that can occur in retrograde amnesia. PMID:24834048

  15. Retrograde versus Antegrade Approach for the Management of Large Proximal Ureteral Stones

    PubMed Central

    Mykoniatis, Ioannis; Isid, Ayman; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Rosenberg, Shilo; Hidas, Guy; Landau, Ezekiel H.; Pode, Dov; Duvdevani, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of retrograde versus antegrade ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of large proximal ureteral stones. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with proximal ureteral stones >15 mm, treated in our institution from January 2011 to January 2016. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative outcomes, and complications were recorded and compared between the two techniques. Results. Our analysis included 57 patients. Thirty-four patients (59.6%) underwent retrograde and 23 patients (40.4%) underwent antegrade ureteroscopy. There was no significant difference in patients' demographics and stone characteristics between the groups. Stone-free rate was significantly higher (p = 0.033) in the antegrade group (100%) compared to retrograde one (82.4%). Fluoroscopy time, procedure duration, and length of hospitalization were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in retrograde approach. On the other hand, the need for postoperative stenting was significantly lower in the antegrade group (p < 0.001). No difference was found between the groups (p = 0.745) regarding postoperative complications. Conclusions. Antegrade ureteroscopy is an efficient and safe option for the management of large proximal ureteral stones. It may achieve high stone-free rates compared to retrograde ureteroscopy with the drawback of longer operative time, fluoroscopy time, and length of hospitalization. PMID:27766263

  16. Preparation of chitosan oligomers COS and their effect on the retrogradation of intermediate amylose rice starch.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Lin, Qin Lu; Chen, Zheng Xing; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Hua Xi

    2012-12-01

    Chitosan oligomers (COS) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis and H2O2 oxidative treatment, and then separated into different fractions using ultra-filtration membranes. Each COSM fraction prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis retained its structure, especially the reduced end residue (-NH2 group), and had a peak for molecular weight. On the other hand, each COSH fraction prepared by oxidative treatment had partly damaged -NH2 groups and two peaks for molecular weight. These results indicate that the same COS fractions prepared by the two methods differ in their amino groups and in their molecular weights, though they can both pass through the same size ultra-filtration membrane. The effect of COS on the retrogradation of intermediate amylose rice starch (IA-RS) was also investigated. The 5 k < COSM < 10 k fraction had the best anti-retrogradation ability; the retrogradation ratio of IA-RS with this fraction was reduced by 14.5%, compared to the control, and its relative crystallinity was only 59.69%. 10 k < COSM < 30 k fraction was second best, while the COSM < 5 k fraction had no effect. Therefore, the molecular size of COS determined its anti-retrogradation capability. All COSH fractions from oxidative treatment had no effect on the retrogradation.

  17. Mechanisms influencing retrograde flow in the atrioventricular canal during early embryonic cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bulk, Alexander; Bark, David; Johnson, Brennan; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2016-10-03

    Normal development of the heart is regulated, in part, by mechanical influences associated with blood flow during early stages of embryogenesis. Specifically, the potential for retrograde flow at the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is particularly important in valve development. However, the mechanisms causing this retrograde flow have received little attention. In this study, a numerical analysis was performed on images of the embryonic zebrafish heart between 48 and 55hpf. During these stages, normal retrograde flow is prevalent. To manipulate this flow, zebrafish were placed in a centrifuge and subjected to a hypergravity environment to alter the cardiac preload at various six-hour intervals between 24 and 48hpf. Parameters of the pumping mechanics were then analyzed through a spatiotemporal analysis of processed image sequences. We find that the loss of retrograde flow in experimentally manipulated embryos occurs in part because of a greater resistance in the form of atrial and AVC contractile closure. Additionally, during retrograde flow, these embryos exhibit significantly greater pressure difference across the AVC based on calculations of expansive and contractile rates of the atrium and ventricle. These results elucidated that the developing heart is highly sensitive to small changes in pumping mechanics as it strives to maintain normal hemodynamic conditions necessary for later cardiac development.

  18. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed. PMID:27219066

  19. Characterization of the primary spinal afferent innervation of the mouse colon using retrograde labelling.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D R; McNaughton, P A; Evans, M L; Hicks, G A

    2004-02-01

    Visceral pain is the most common form of pain produced by disease and is thus of interest in the study of gastrointestinal (GI) complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome, in which sensory signals perceived as GI pain travel in extrinsic afferent neurones with cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). The DRG from which the primary spinal afferent innervation of the mouse descending colon arises are not well defined. This study has combined retrograde labelling and immunohistochemistry to identify and characterize these neurones. Small to medium-sized retrogradely labelled cell bodies were found in the DRG at levels T8-L1 and L6-S1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and P2X3-like immunoreactivity (LI) was seen in 81 and 32%, respectively, of retrogradely labelled cells, and 20% bound the Griffonia simplicifolia-derived isolectin IB4. CGRP-LI and IB4 were co-localized in 22% of retrogradely labelled cells, whilst P2X3-LI and IB4 were co-localized in 7% (vs 34% seen in the whole DRG population). Eighty-two per cent of retrogradely labelled cells exhibited vanilloid receptor 1-like immunoreactivity (VR1-LI). These data suggest that mouse colonic spinal primary afferent neurones are mostly peptidergic CGRP-containing, VR1-LI, C fibre afferents. In contrast to the general DRG population, a subset of neurones exist that are P2X3 receptor-LI but do not bind IB4.

  20. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    accretion only explores the late evolution stages of the binary in an otherwise unperturbed retrograde disc to illustrate how eccentricity evolves with time in relation to the shape of the underlying surface density distribution.

  1. Pharmacological prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pande, Hemant; Thuluvath, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of clinically significant pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ranges from 1-13.5%. It is more common after therapeutic procedures such as sphincterotomy or balloon dilatation of the sphincter, and diagnostic procedures such as biliary or pancreatic manometry. The severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis may vary from very mild to extremely severe disease with multiple organ failure and fatal outcome. Several factors including papillary oedema, injection of hyperosmolar contrast-material, introduction of previously activated enzymes during repeated cannulation, bacterial contamination and thermal injury from endoscopic sphincterotomy have been implicated as triggering factors that initiate the sequential cascade of pancreatic autodigestion and release of proinflammatory cytokines leading to acute pancreatitis. Recovery from post-ERCP pancreatitis is usually rapid when the injury is confined to the pancreas. However, systemic production of inflammatory mediators may lead to the development of more serious manifestations including multiorgan failure.A wide range of pharmacological agents has been tested in experimental and clinical trials, but the results have been largely disappointing. Several drugs are discussed in this review, but only somatostatin and gabexate (gabexate mesilate) have consistently shown a moderate beneficial effect. In clinical trials, both gabexate and somatostatin appear equally effective in reducing the incidence of pancreatitis by two-thirds compared with controls. However, both drugs need to be given by continuous infusion for about 12 hours and this makes them less cost-effective than conventional treatment. One potential strategy is to reserve these drugs for high-risk patients undergoing ERCP. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results with nitroglycerin, antibacterials and heparin. However, these observations need to be corroborated in a rigorous fashion in large, randomised, double

  2. The PRISM/PRIME Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, R. J.

    2011-09-01

    Lepton Flavour violation is predicted by many theories beyond the standard model. In the muon sector such a violation entails not only direct μ→eγ decay but also the conversion process μ→e. To measure this to high precision requires a large number of muons of very similar energy, and this is difficult to achieve from a muon target with conventional beam optics. PRISM is an FFAG system designed to accept large numbers of muons ( 10/sec) with a wide range of energies, and render them monochromatic by accelerating the less energetic muons and decelerating the more energetic ones. To preserve Liouville's theorem, this is accompanied by a broadening in the timing of the muons, hence the name 'Phase Rotated Intense Slow Muon source.' The principles of this device have been demonstrated and components prototyped. PRIME is a detector (PRISM Muon Electron Conversion) which has been designed to stop 20 MeV bunches of muons in a thin foil, giving a very clean signal and reaching a background sensitivity of 10, four orders of magnitude better than today's limits and probing the interesting region for BSM theories.

  3. Anaphylactic reaction after autologous blood transfusion: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shailendra; Goyal, Keshav; Dubey, Surya; Bindra, Ashish; Kedia, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Autologous blood transfusion as a cause of intraoperative anaphylaxis is very rare. We encountered one such life-threatening event in a 72-year-old patient undergoing laminectomy and pedicle screw fixation. The probable cause identified was the floseal mixed autologous blood transfusion. Review of literature has been done, and measures to avoid such an event in the future are discussed. PMID:25972952

  4. Autologous Fat Grafting for Treating Blepharoplasty-induced Lower Eyelid Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, Francesco P.; Fezza, John; Hartstein, Morris E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Autologous fat grafting for blepharoplasty-induced lower eyelid retraction offers potential for a long-term solution while avoiding the morbidity associated with posterior lamellar spacer grafts. By combining traditional methods of lifting the retracted lower eyelid with autologous fat grafting, both functional and aesthetic concerns can be successfully addressed in these patients. PMID:28293531

  5. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein.

  6. Mediated priming in the cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Livesay, Kay; Burgess, Curt

    2003-11-01

    The present experiment investigates hemispheric differences in mediated priming. Theories of lexical representation have argued for an asymmetrical coding between the right and left hemispheres ([Beeman, 1998]), claiming that the right hemisphere is more diffusely represented compared to the left hemisphere. Thus, the right hemisphere activates a larger semantic field compared to the left hemisphere. Mediated (two-step) priming is an ideal task to examine this representational claim, because of the distant nature of the prime-target pairs. Results showed no difference in the magnitude of priming (both mediated and direct) between the right and left hemispheres. These results suggest that the lexical representation of the two hemispheres is equivalent, not asymmetrical as Beeman suggests.

  7. Preserved conceptual priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla A R; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2006-10-01

    We assessed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older adult control (HC) group performance on: (1) a conceptual priming task, in which participants had to make a semantic decision as to whether a degraded picture of an object encountered previously belonged to the category of living or non-living things; and (2) a recognition memory task. The AD group showed a dissociation between impaired performance on the recognition task and preserved priming for semantic decisions to degraded pictures. We argue that it is not whether priming is conceptual or perceptual that is important for the observation of priming in AD, rather it is the nature of the response that is required (c.f., Gabrieli et al., 1999).

  8. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. PMID:26595066

  9. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  10. NASA and OPTIMUS PRIME Team Up

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and OPTIMUS PRIME have teamed up to educate! Kids everywhere created videos showing how NASA technology is truly more than meets the eye, and now you can vote on your favorite! Visit http://ip...

  11. OVATION Prime Model and "Aurorasaurus" Auroral Observations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the auroral oval, as modeled using OVATION Prime (2013), along with citizen science reports collected by the Aurorasaurus project for the St. Patrick’s Day storm over March 17-19, ...

  12. Degree of handedness and priming: further evidence for a distinction between production and identification priming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    LaVoie, Donna J; Olbinski, Brianna; Palmer, Shayna

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between implicit and explicit forms of memory retrieval is long-standing, and important to the extent it reveals how different neural architecture supports different aspects of memory function. Similarly, distinctions have been made between kinds of repetition priming, a form of implicit memory retrieval. This study focuses on the production-identification (ID) priming distinction, which delineates priming tasks involving verification of stimulus features as compared to priming tasks that require use of a cue to guide response retrieval. Studies investigating this dissociation in dementia or similar patient populations indicate that these forms of priming may differ in their neural bases. The current study looks at degree of handedness as a way of investigating inferred neural architecture supporting these two forms of priming. A growing body of research indicates that degree of handedness (consistent, or CH, versus inconsistent, or ICH) is associated with greater interhemispheric interaction and functional access to right hemisphere processing in ICH, with superior performance seen in ICH on memory tasks reliant on this processing. Arguments about the theoretical mechanisms underlying ID and production forms of perceptual priming tasks suggest that performance on these tasks will differ as a function of degree of handedness. We tested this question in a group of CH and ICH young adults, who were asked to study lists of words prior to performing a production priming task (word stem completion, WSC), a perceptual word ID task, and a word stem cued recall task. While both handedness groups exhibited reliable priming across tasks, WSC priming was greater in ICH than CH participants, with ID priming not differing between groups. This dissociation supports the argument that production and ID forms of priming have different underlying neural bases.

  13. GBT Reveals Satellite of Milky Way in Retrograde Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    New observations with National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) suggest that what was once believed to be an intergalactic cloud of unknown distance and significance, is actually a previously unrecognized satellite galaxy of the Milky Way orbiting backward around the Galactic center. Path of Complex H Artist's rendition of the path of satellite galaxy Complex H (in red) in relation to the orbit of the Sun (in yellow) about the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The outer layers of Complex H are being stripped away by its interaction with the Milky Way. The hydrogen atmosphere (in blue) is shown surrounding the visible portion (in white) of the Galaxy. CREDIT: Lockman, Smiley, Saxton; NRAO/AUI Jay Lockman of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia, discovered that this object, known as "Complex H," is crashing through the outermost parts of the Milky Way from an inclined, retrograde orbit. Lockman's findings will be published in the July 1 issue of the Astrophysical Journal, Letters. "Many astronomers assumed that Complex H was probably a distant neighbor of the Milky Way with some unusual velocity that defied explanation," said Lockman. "Since its motion appeared completely unrelated to Galactic rotation, astronomers simply lumped it in with other high velocity clouds that had strange and unpredictable trajectories." High velocity clouds are essentially what their name implies, fast-moving clouds of predominately neutral atomic hydrogen. They are often found at great distances from the disk of the Milky Way, and may be left over material from the formation of our Galaxy and other galaxies in our Local Group. Over time, these objects can become incorporated into larger galaxies, just as small asteroids left over from the formation of the solar system sometimes collide with the Earth. Earlier studies of Complex H were hindered because the cloud currently is passing almost exactly behind the outer disk of

  14. Spectroscopic and photophysical properties of complexes of 4{prime}-ferrocenyl-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine and related ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, K.; Morris, J.C.; Nile, T.A.; Walsh, J.L.; Thompson, D.W.; Petersen, J.D.; Schoonover, J.R.

    1999-05-17

    4{prime}-(Ferrocenyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime}2{double_prime}-terpyridine (Fctpy) and 4{prime}-(4-pyridyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine (pytpy) were prepared from the corresponding ferrocene- and pyridinecarboxaldehyle and 2-acetylpyridine using the Krohnke synthetic methodology. Metal complexes, [M(Fctpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (M = Ru, Fe, Zn), [Ru(tpy)(Fctpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (tpy = 2,2{prime}:6{prime},6{double_prime}-terpyridine), and [Ru(pytpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} were prepared and characterized. Cyclic voltammetric analysis indicated Ru(III/II) and ferrocenium/ferrocene redox couples near expected potentials (Ru{sup III/II} {approximately}1.3 V and ferrocenium/ferrocene {approximately}0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl). In addition to dominant {pi}{sub tpy} {r_arrow} {pi}{sub tpy}{sup *} UV absorptions near 240 and 280 nm and d{sub {pi}}{sup Ru} {r_arrow} {pi}{sub tpy}{sup *} MLCT absorptions around 480 nm, the complexes [Ru(Fctpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} and [Ru(tpy)(Fctpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} exhibit an unusual absorption band around 530 nm. Resonance Raman measurements indicate that this band is due to a {sup 1}[(d({pi}){sub Fc}){sup 6}] {r_arrow} {sup 1}[(d({pi}){sub Fc}){sup 5}({pi}{sup *}{sub tpy}{sup Ru}){sup 1}] transition. For [Ru(Fctpy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} and [Ru(tpy)(Fctpy)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}, excited-state emission and lifetime measurements indicated an upper-limit emission quantum yield of 0.003 and an upper-limit emission lifetime of 0.025 {micro}s. The influence of the ferrocenyl site on excited-state decay is discussed, and an excited-state energy level diagram is proposed.

  15. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    statistically strong periodicity is identified in the counting function giving the total number of intervals of a certain size. The nature of the periodic...positive intervals among the first n<=10^6 prime numbers as a probe of the global nature of the sequence of primes. A statistically strong periodicity is...Let x = x1, x2, . . . be an increasing sequence of real numbers which may be either finite or infinitely long. Throughout the following every bold

  16. Integrative Priming of Compositional and Locative Relations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lara L.; Wurm, Lee H.; Calcaterra, Ryan D.; Ofen, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Integrative priming refers to the facilitated recognition of a target word (bench) as a real word following a prime (park). Prior integrative priming studies have used a wide variety of integrative relations including temporal (summer rain), topical (travel book), locative (forest river), and compositional (peach pie) relations. Yet differences in the types of integrative relations may yield differences in the underlying explanatory processes of integrative priming. In this study, we compared the magnitude, time course, and three theoretically based correlates of integrative priming for compositional (stone table) and locative (patio table) pairs in a lexical decision task across four stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50, 300, 800, and 1,600 ms). Based on the Complementary Role Activation theory, integrative ratings (the extent to which the prime and target can be combined into a meaningful phrase) were predicted to facilitate target RTs. Based on the Embodied Conceptual Combination (ECCo) theory, the local co-occurrence of the prime and target, and the ability to perceptually simulate (visually experience) the prime-target pair were tested as predictors. In comparison to unrelated pairs (nose table), target RTs were faster for the compositional and locative pairs, though did not differ between these relations. In support of the Complementary Role Activation theory, integrative ratings predicted target RTs above and beyond our control variables. In support of the ECCo theory, co-occurrence emerged as an early predictor of target RTs, and visual experience ratings was a reliable predictor at the 300 ms SOA, though only for the compositional relations. PMID:28360872

  17. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1988--November 20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  18. Effect of high-speed jet on flow behavior, retrogradation, and molecular weight of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhen; Luo, Shun-Jing; BeMiller, James N; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2015-11-20

    Effects of high-speed jet (HSJ) treatment on flow behavior, retrogradation, and degradation of the molecular structure of indica rice starch were investigated. Decreasing with the number of HSJ treatment passes were the turbidity of pastes (degree of retrogradation), the enthalpy of melting of retrograded rice starch, weight-average molecular weights and weight-average root-mean square radii of gyration of the starch polysaccharides, and the amylopectin peak areas of SEC profiles. The areas of lower-molecular-weight polymers increased. The chain-length distribution was not significantly changed. Pastes of all starch samples exhibited pseudoplastic, shear-thinning behavior. HSJ treatment increased the flow behavior index and decreased the consistency coefficient and viscosity. The data suggested that degradation of amylopectin was mainly involved and that breakdown preferentially occurred in chains between clusters.

  19. Transport According to GARP: Receiving Retrograde Cargo at the Trans-Golgi Network

    PubMed Central

    Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, COG and Dsl1, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, underscoring the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport. PMID:21183348

  20. Subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) and rertograde access for critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Nicholas J; Sabri, Saher S

    2014-09-01

    Retrograde access techniques involve the addition of a retrograde access into the distal target vessel to aid in recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Many patients with critical limb ischemia are also poor surgical candidates because of comorbidities or lack of suitable landing zone for bypass procedures. This approach may be helpful in the setting of chronic occlusions that cannot be crossed via conventional antegrade true-lumen approaches. Subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention technique can be used when the occlusion was crossed in the subintimal plane and antegrade re-entry techniques failed. It may also be useful for flush superficial femoral artery occlusions or those lesions that extend into the trifurcation vessels. Proficiency in these techniques allows limb salvage in patients who lack surgical options and would otherwise undergo amputation.

  1. [Shock wave lithotripsy, retrograde intrarenal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy for lower pole renal stones?].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alejandro; Gallegos, Héctor; Salvadó, José A

    2015-09-09

    Among the therapeutic alternatives available for the treatment of lower pole renal calculi are extracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and retrograde intrarenal surgery. There is controversy about which of these techniques is more effective, especially for stones smaller than 20 mm. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews including 11 pertinent randomized controlled trials overall. We combined the evidence and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded percutaneous nephrolithotomy probably increases success rate, but it is not clear if it decreases the need of retreatment compared to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In comparison to retrograde intrarenal surgery, it may increase success rate, but it is not clear if it decreases the need of retreatment. Retrograde intrarenal surgery may increase success rate, and probably decreases need of retreatment compared to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

  2. Retrograded maize starch used as a medium to enrich Monascus from the air in winter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizeng; Wang, Danli; Lian, Xijun; Wu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Red pigments extracted from fungus Monascus are used for food coloration in China. Wild-growing Monascus spores are usually enriched in the yeast and mold media in the air, but those media are also favorable for yeast and bacteria. In the paper, Monascus species have grown in retrograded maize starch lain in air outdoors in winter, molds, yeast or bacteria colonies have been absent. Then a medium of the retrograded maize starch for enriching Monascus in the air is explored and its physicochemical properties are determined by ordinary camera photos, NMR, SEM spectra and X-ray diffraction. The lamellar structure of frozen retrograded maize starch, whose interlamellar spacing is about 2μm, provides a favorable condition for Monascus spore to germinate and grow.

  3. Transport according to GARP: receiving retrograde cargo at the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Bonifacino, Juan S; Hierro, Aitor

    2011-03-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) and Dsl1 (dependence on SLY1-20) complexes, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, emphasizing the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport.

  4. Failure of conventional retrograde cystography to detect bladder ruptures in pelvic trauma.

    PubMed

    Berber, O; Emeagi, C; Perry, M; Rickman, M S

    2011-03-01

    Conventional retrograde cystography is often used to investigate patients with suspected bladder ruptures in pelvic trauma. Clinical indicators suggestive of a rupture include haematuria and suprapubic tenderness and should increase the suspicion of bladder and urinary tract injury and prompt the clinician to undertake further investigations. Two patients with high-energy pelvic fractures had bladder ruptures detected intraoperatively despite normal preoperative retrograde cystogram. Both patients had significant clinical indicators suggestive of underlying bladder and urinary tract injury. In both cases, a routine conventional retrograde cystogram was performed but failed to identify the full extent of the bladder injury. A possible reason for misdiagnosis in these cases is the delay between injury and investigation due to tertiary referral of care.

  5. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with (/sup 3/H)choline

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-07-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following (/sup 3/H)choline application in their zone of termination. (/sup 3/H)Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After (/sup 3/H)choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic.

  6. Retrograde diurnal motion of the instantaneous rotation axis observed by a large ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.

    2017-01-01

    Ring laser gyroscope technique directly senses the Earth's instantaneous rotation pole (IRP), whose polar motion contains strong retrograde diurnal components induced by external torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. The first direct measurement of this retrograde diurnal motion with three large ring lasers was reported by Schreiber et al. (J Geophys Res 109(B18):B06405, significant increase in precision and stability of ring laser gyroscopes; however, precise determination of amplitude and phase at main partial waves has not been given in the literature. In this paper, I will report on determination of the retrograde diurnal motion of the IRP at main partial waves (Oo_1, J_1, K_1, M_1, O_1, Q_1) by the ring laser "G", located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  7. On the relation between conceptual priming, neural priming, and novelty assessment.

    PubMed

    Habib, R

    2001-07-01

    A consistently reported finding in functional neuroimaging studies which compare processing of new information to processing of old information is a reduction in blood flow, and hence neural activity, associated with the old condition. This deactivation has been labeled neural priming. Some investigators have hypothesized that neural priming is the physiological mechanism underlying conceptual priming--a facilitation in the semantic processing of repeated information. Others, however, have hypothesized that neural priming reflects novelty assessment--a mechanism which minimizes the probability that redundant information will be stored in long-term memory. In this paper, the conceptual priming and novelty assessment hypotheses are compared and contrasted in order to ask, and tentatively answer, the question: Are conceptual priming and novelty assessment cognitively and neurophysiologically distinct? Based on a review of the literature, it is suggested that whereas novelty assessment and conceptual priming are distinct cognitive entities, they cannot be presently separated neurophysiologically. That is, some novelty assessment deactivations may in fact reflect priming, and some priming deactivations may in fact reflect novelty assessment.

  8. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-09-09

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  9. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic.

  10. Conditional discriminations, symmetry, and semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Manish; Hudgins, Caleb D; Ortu, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    Psychologists interested in the study of symbolic behavior have found that people are faster at reporting that two words are related to one another than they are in reporting that two words are not related - an effect called semantic priming. This phenomenon has largely been documented in the context of natural languages using real words as stimuli. The current study asked whether laboratory-generated stimulus-stimulus relations established between arbitrary geometrical shapes would also show the semantic priming effect. Participants learned six conditional relations using a one-to-many training structure (A1-B1, A1-C1, A1-D1, A2-B2, A2-C2, A2-D2) and demonstrated, via accurate performance on tests of derived symmetry, that the trained stimulus functions had become reversible. In a lexical decision task, subjects also demonstrated a priming effect as they displayed faster reaction times to target stimuli when the prime and target came from the same trained or derived conditional relations, compared to the condition in which the prime and target came from different trained or derived conditional relations. These data suggest that laboratory-generated equivalence relations may serve as useful analogues of symbolic behavior. However, the fact that conditional relations training and symmetry alone were sufficient to produce the effect suggests that semantic priming like effects may be the byproduct of simpler stimulus-stimulus relations.

  11. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Early Effects of Masked Morphological Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (corner-corn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandal-scan) using the masked priming technique…

  12. Masked Priming from Orthographic Neighbors: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massol, Stephanie; Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stephane; Holcomb, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments combined masked priming with event-related potential (ERP) recordings to examine effects of primes that are orthographic neighbors of target words. Experiment 1 compared effects of repetition primes with effects of primes that were high-frequency orthographic neighbors of low-frequency targets (e.g., faute-faune [error-wildlife]),…

  13. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  14. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  15. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  16. Cytokinin primes plant responses to wounding and reduces insect performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a potential role of endogenous cytokinin supply in priming plant defense against herbivory. Cytokinin priming significantly reduced weight gain by insect larvae. Unlike previously described priming by volatile compounds, priming by cytokinin did not overcome vascular restrictions on system...

  17. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  18. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated…

  19. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Components in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Corral, Nuvia I.; Jones, Mary L.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive mechanisms underlying repetition priming in picture naming were decomposed in several experiments. Sets of encoding manipulations meant to selectively prime or reduce priming in object identification or word production components of picture naming were combined factorially to dissociate processes underlying priming in picture naming.…

  20. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...-1). Further requirements for emergency generator prime movers are in 46 CFR subpart 112.50. (b) Each generator prime mover must have an overspeed device that is independent of the normal operating governor...

  1. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...-1). Further requirements for emergency generator prime movers are in 46 CFR subpart 112.50. (b) Each generator prime mover must have an overspeed device that is independent of the normal operating governor...

  2. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...-1). Further requirements for emergency generator prime movers are in 46 CFR subpart 112.50. (b) Each generator prime mover must have an overspeed device that is independent of the normal operating governor...

  3. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...-1). Further requirements for emergency generator prime movers are in 46 CFR subpart 112.50. (b) Each generator prime mover must have an overspeed device that is independent of the normal operating governor...

  4. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...-1). Further requirements for emergency generator prime movers are in 46 CFR subpart 112.50. (b) Each generator prime mover must have an overspeed device that is independent of the normal operating governor...

  5. Quantitative two-dimensional EXSY spectroscopy and dynamic behavior of a paramagnetic lanthanide macrocyclic chelate: YbDOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{double_prime}{prime}-tetraacetic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, V.; Desreux, J.F.

    1994-08-31

    The chelate, YbDOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{double_prime}{prime}-tetraacetic acid) has two possible conformations. Interconversion between isomers was studied by EXSY NMR spectroscopy. The activation energy for conversion was found to be 65.6 kJ/mol for conversion from the major to the minor species.

  6. Retrograde Gene Delivery to Hypoglossal Motoneurons Using Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 9

    PubMed Central

    ElMallah, Mai K.; Falk, Darin J.; Lane, Michael A.; Conlon, Thomas J.; Lee, Kun-Ze; Shafi, Nadeem I.; Reier, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Retrograde viral transport (i.e., muscle to motoneuron) enables targeted gene delivery to specific motor pools. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) robustly infects motoneurons, but the retrograde transport capabilities of AAV9 have not been systematically evaluated. Accordingly, we evaluated the retrograde transduction efficiency of AAV9 after direct tongue injection in 129SVE mice as well as a mouse model that displays neuromuscular pathology (Gaa−/−). Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons were histologically evaluated 8 weeks after tongue injection with AAV9 encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) with expression driven by the chicken β-actin promoter (1×1011 vector genomes). On average, GFP expression was detected in 234±43 XII motoneurons 8 weeks after AAV9-GFP tongue injection. In contrast, tongue injection with a highly efficient retrograde anatomical tracer (cholera toxin β subunit, CT-β) resulted in infection of 818±88 XII motoneurons per mouse. The retrograde transduction efficiency of AAV9 was similar between the 129SVE mice and those with neuromuscular disease (Gaa−/−). Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and cluster of differentiation (CD) immunostaining for T cells (CD3) indicated no persistent inflammation within the tongue or XII nucleus after AAV9 injection. Additional experiments indicated no adverse effects of AAV9 on the pattern of breathing. We conclude that AAV9 can retrogradely infect a significant portion of a given motoneuron pool in normal and dystrophic mice, and that its transduction efficiency is approximately 30% of what can be achieved with CT-β. PMID:22693957

  7. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik-Bakalarz, Joanna; Arif, Salech; Chyrchel, Michał; Rakowski, Tomasz; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males) who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5%) patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5%) patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2%) patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8%) patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy), 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death). The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications. PMID:28344617

  8. Analysis of articulation between clathrin and retromer in retrograde sorting on early endosomes.

    PubMed

    Popoff, Vincent; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Bai, Siau-Kun; Chambon, Valérie; Tenza, Danièle; Burgos, Patricia V; Shi, Anbing; Benaroch, Philippe; Urbé, Sylvie; Lamaze, Christophe; Grant, Barth D; Raposo, Graça; Johannes, Ludger

    2009-12-01

    Clathrin and retromer have key functions for retrograde trafficking between early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous studies on Shiga toxin suggested that these two coat complexes operate in a sequential manner. Here, we show that the curvature recognition subunit component sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) of retromer interacts with receptor-mediated endocytosis-8 (RME-8) protein, and that RME-8 and SNX1 colocalize on early endosomes together with a model cargo of the retrograde route, the receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB). RME-8 has previously been found to bind to the clathrin uncoating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Hsc70, and we now report that depletion of RME-8 or Hsc70 affects retrograde trafficking at the early endosomes-TGN interface of STxB and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, an endogenous retrograde cargo protein. We also provide evidence that retromer interacts with the clathrin-binding protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) not only via SNX1, as previously published (Chin Raynor MC, Wei X, Chen HQ, Li L. Hrs interacts with sorting nexin 1 and regulates degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem 2001;276:7069-7078), but also via the core complex component Vps35. Hrs codistributes at the ultrastructural level with STxB on early endosomes, and interfering with Hrs function using antibodies or mild overexpression inhibits retrograde transport. Our combined data suggest a model according to which the functions in retrograde sorting on early endosomes of SNX1/retromer and clathrin are articulated by RME-8, and possibly also by Hrs.

  9. Autologous blood preparations rich in platelets, fibrin and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    FIORAVANTI, C.; FRUSTACI, I.; ARMELLIN, E.; CONDÒ, R.; ARCURI, C.; CERRONI, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Bone regeneration is often needed prior to dental implant treatment due to the lack of adequate quantity and quality after infectious diseases. The greatest regenerative power was obtained with autologous tissue, primarily the bone alive, taken from the same site or adjacent sites, up to the use centrifugation of blood with the selection of the parts with the greatest potential regenerative. In fact, various techniques and technologies were chronologically successive to cope with an ever better preparation of these concentrates of blood. Our aim is to review these advances and discuss the ways in which platelet concentrates may provide such unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects. Methods The research has been carried out in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database by choosing keywords as “platelet rich plasma”, “platelet rich fibrin”, “platelet growth factors”, and “bone regeneration” and “dentistry”. Results Autologous platelet rich plasma is a safe and low cost procedure to deliver growth factors for bone and soft tissue healing. Conclusion The great heterogeneity of clinical outcomes can be explained by the different PRP products with qualitative and quantitative difference among substance. PMID:28042422

  10. Autologous Blood Injection Works for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Bora; Balta, Orhan; Aşçı, Murat; Aytekin, Kürşad; Eser, Enes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis may be a disabling condition. Treatment of this condition is still controversial. Aims: In the present prospective study, we evaluated the long-term results of autologous blood injection for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis. Study Design: Prospective clinical study. Methods: A total of 42 elbows of 40 consecutive patients (28 female, 12 male) were enrolled in this prospective study. Seven patients left the study (3 patients moved to another city, 1 patient died in the second week due to a heart condition, 1 patient quit the study because of the resolution of pain in the fourth week and 2 patients did not agree to the second injection). Thirteen patients were lost to third year follow-up. Therefore, a total of 21 elbows of 20 patients with 3 years of follow-up were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.25 years (range, 20–68 years). Results: Visual analogue scale (VAS), Nirschl score and grip strength were significantly improved after injections when compared to before treatment. The best improvement in terms of grip strength, Nirschl score and VAS score was detected at the one year follow-up. The improvement in Nirschl and VAS score sustained until the third year. Conclusion: We suggest that autologous blood injection for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis is an effective, safe and successful procedure in the long-term. PMID:27403393

  11. AUTOLOGOUS CHONDROCYTE TRANSPLANTATION-SERIES OF 3 CASES

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Barreto, Ronald Bispo; Pécora, José Ricardo; Rezende, Múrcia Uchõa de; Filho, Tarcisio E.P Barros; Lombello, Christiane Bertachini

    2015-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage covers joint surfaces and plays an important role in reducing friction and mechanical loading on synovial joints such as the knee. This tissue is not supplied with blood vessels, nerves or lymphatic circulation, which may be one of the reasons why joint cartilage has such poor capacity for healing. Chondral lesions that reach the subchondral bone (osteochondral lesions) do not heal and may progress to arthrosis with the passage of time. In young patients, treatment of chondral defects of the knee is still a challenge, especially in lesions larger than 4 cm. One option for treating these patients is autologous chondrocyte transplantation/implantation. Because this treatment does not violate the subchondral bone and repairs the defect with tissue similar to hyaline cartilage, it has the theoretical advantage of being more biological, and mechanically superior, compared with other techniques. In this paper, we describe our experience with autologous chondrocyte transplantation/implantation at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital das Clínicas, University of Sâo Paulo, through a report on three cases. PMID:27022579

  12. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Meyerle, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices. PMID:24828202

  13. OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANTATION FOR TREATING CHONDRAL LESIONS IN THE PATELLA

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Moises; Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Fernandes, Ricardo de Souza Campos; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego da Costa; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Skaf, Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional evolution of patients with total-thickness symptomatic cartilaginous injury of the patellar joint surface, treated by means of osteochondral autologous transplantation. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from June 2008 to March 2011 and involved 17 patients. The specific questionnaires of Lysholm, Kujala and Fulkerson were completed preoperatively and one year postoperatively in order to assess the affected knee, and SF-36 was used to assess these patients’ general quality of life. The nonparametric paired Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis on the pre and postoperative questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows software, version 16.0, and a significance level of 5% was used. Results: The Lysholm preoperative and postoperative average scores were 54.59 and 75.76 points (p < 0.05). The Fulkerson pre and postoperative average scores were 52.53 and 78.41 points (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We believe that autologous osteochondral transplantation is a good treatment method for total-thickness symptomatic chondral lesions of the joint surface of the patella. PMID:27042645

  14. Alteration of skin properties with autologous dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Darling, Thomas N; Meyerle, Jon

    2014-05-13

    Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  15. The Orbital Evolution of 2007 VA85, an Amor-type Asteroid on a Retrograde Orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Włodarczyk, I.

    2010-06-01

    Among the known population of asteroids on retrograde orbits (i > 90°) we found an object classified as an Amor-type asteroid. During the analysis of the first results of astrometry, we found some possible Earth-impact solutions for this asteroid. After taking into account the latest observations, we excluded any significant impact solution. However, this asteroid is the first known example of potentially hazardous object on a retrograde orbit. We also investigated the orbital evolution of 2007 VA85 (1 My in the past), obtaining possible scenarios of its dynamical origin.

  16. A novel fluorescent retrograde neural tracer: cholera toxin B conjugated carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan; Hao, Zeyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Maharjan, Suraj; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai; Lu, Laijin

    2015-09-01

    The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde tracers.The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde

  17. Modulation of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase by environmental stress in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, H.C.; Wiens, M.; Mueller, W.E.G.; Kuusksalu, A.; Kelve, M.

    1997-07-01

    Recently the authors established the presence of relatively high amounts of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylates (2{prime}-5{prime} A) and 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase (2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase) in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. Here they determined by applying radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatographical methods that the concentration of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase change following exposure of G. cydonium tissue to environmental stress. The 2{prime}-5{prime} A content and the activity of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase, present in crude sponge extract, increase by up to three-fold after treating sponge cubes for 2 h with natural stressors including heat shock (26 C), cold shock (6 C), pH shock (pH 6), and hypertonic shock and subsequent incubation for 18 h under ambient conditions (16 C). No response was observed after exposure of sponges to an alkaline (pH 10) or hypotonic environment. Similar changes have been found for the expression of heat shock protein HSP70 in G. cydonium. These results show that 2{prime}-5{prime} A in sponges may be useful as a novel biomarker for environmental monitoring.

  18. An ERP Investigation of Masked Cross-Script Translation Priming

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Noriko; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The time course of cross-script translation priming and repetition priming was examined in two different scripts using a combination of the masked priming paradigm with the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). Japanese-English bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task in their second language (L2) English and in their first language (L1) Japanese. Targets were preceded by a visually presented related (translation equivalent/repeated) or unrelated prime. The results showed that the amplitudes of the N250 and N400 ERP components were significantly modulated for L2-L2 repetition priming, L1-L2 translation priming, and L1-L1 repetition priming, but not for L2-L1 translation priming. There was also evidence for priming effects in an earlier 100-200 ms time window for L1-L1 repetition priming and L1-L2 translation priming. We argue that a change in script across primes and targets provides optimal conditions for prime word processing, hence generating very fast-acting translation priming effects when primes are in L1. PMID:20478274

  19. [Priming effects in picture problems: preliminary solutions].

    PubMed

    Wippich, W; Mecklenbräuker, S; Weidmann, K; Reichert, A

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments explored whether picture puzzles are an adequate instrument to investigate implicit memory for pictorial information. During the testing phase, the subjects had to identify hidden figures in picture puzzles. In a preceding learning phase, the priming conditions were varied systematically. In the first experiment, some subjects had to solve picture puzzles in the learning phase, whereas others made esthetic judgments (global processing) or estimated the number of triangles in the picture puzzles (local processing). In the second experiment, the subjects inspected copies of figures that were hidden at testing, modified versions of these figures, or their names in the learning phase. In the first experiment, the subjects of the different encoding conditions showed comparable priming effects. Picture puzzles that had already been processed or seen during learning were solved more often than new ones. Interview data revealed that subjects in the local or global processing conditions did not identify hidden figures at encoding. Furthermore, these subjects could not discriminate between old and new picture puzzles in a final explicit test of recognition. Thus, nonconscious storage of perceptual information that is not semantically interpreted may be sufficient to evoke priming effects. In the second experiment, the subjects in the different encoding conditions showed reliable priming effects, too. The presentation of the duplicates at encoding produced the greatest amount of priming. Effects of verbal priming, however, indicate that the solution of picture puzzles is not based solely on perceptual information. Depending on the priming conditions at learning, the solution of picture puzzles may be based primarily on data-driven processing or may be guided more heavily by conceptual information. It is concluded that perceptual, lexical, and/or conceptual information can contribute to the solution of picture puzzles.

  20. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Rojas, Donald C

    2011-03-15

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in the left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task.

  1. Early Morphological Decomposition of Suffixed Words: Masked Priming Evidence with Transposed-Letter Nonword Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Coltheart, Max; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have previously reported that the recognition of a stem target (e.g., "teach") is facilitated by the prior masked presentation of a prime consisting of a derived form of it (e.g., "teacher"). We conducted two lexical decision experiments to investigate masked morphological priming in Spanish. Experiment 1 showed…

  2. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, M. A. M.; Dijksterhuis, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming. PMID:24575071

  3. Priming tool actions: Are real objects more effective primes than pictures?

    PubMed

    Squires, Scott D; Macdonald, Scott N; Culham, Jody C; Snow, Jacqueline C

    2016-04-01

    Humans are faster to grasp an object such as a tool if they have previewed the same object beforehand. This priming effect is strongest when actors gesture the use of the tool rather than simply move it, possibly because the previewed tool activates action-specific routines in dorsal-stream motor networks. Here, we examined whether real tools, which observers could physically act upon, serve as more potent primes than two-dimensional images of tools, which do not afford physical action. Participants were presented with a prime stimulus that could be either a real tool or a visually matched photograph of a tool. After a brief delay, participants interacted with a real tool target, either by 'grasping to move,' or 'grasping to use' it. The identities of the prime and target tools were either the same (congruent trials; e.g., spatula-spatula) or different (incongruent trials; e.g., whisk-spatula). As expected, participants were faster to initiate grasps during trials when they had to move the tool rather than gesture its use. Priming effects were observed for grasp-to-use, but not grasp-to-move, responses. Surprisingly, however, both pictures of tools and real tools primed action responses equally. Our results indicate that tool priming effects are driven by pictorial cues and their implied actions, even in the absence of volumetric cues that reflect the tangibility and affordances of the prime.

  4. Retrograde shear rate in formerly preeclamptic and healthy women before and after exercise training: relationship with endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Ralph R; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Green, Daniel J; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-08-01

    Blood flow patterns in conduit arteries characterized by high levels of retrograde shear stress can be detrimental for vascular health. In this study we examined whether retrograde shear rate and endothelial function are related in healthy and formerly preeclamptic (PE) women and whether this relationship is altered by exercise training. Formerly PE women (32 ± 4 yr, n = 20) and controls (32 ± 4 yr, n = 20), all 6-12 mo postpartum, performed 12-wk aerobic exercise training. We measured brachial artery shear rate (SR) and endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD, echo-Doppler). We additionally performed power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and calculated low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Antegrade SR was not different between groups, while retrograde SR was significantly higher and FMD% lower in PE women compared with controls (both P < 0.05). Retrograde shear correlated strongly with FMD% in PE women and controls (P < 0.05). LF/HF ratio inversely correlated with brachial artery retrograde SR and FMD% (both P < 0.05) in PE women and controls. Exercise training reduced retrograde shear, improved FMD%, and reduced LF/HF ratios similarly in both groups (all P < 0.05). Training-induced changes in retrograde SR correlated with changes in FMD% and LF/HF ratio. A higher brachial artery retrograde SR relates to lower brachial artery endothelial function, in both controls and formerly PE women. Exercise training improves retrograde SR, while the magnitude of this change correlated strongly with improvements in FMD and reductions in LF/HF ratio. Therefore, the impact of PE and exercise training on endothelial health may, at least partly, be related to retrograde shear rate.

  5. Long Term Results in Refractory Tennis Elbow Using Autologous Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Naseem ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The patients (76 females and 44 males) were evaluated after procedure. The mean age group was 40.67±8.21. The mean follow up was 5.7±1.72 (range 3 to 9 years). The mean pain score and Nirschl stage before the procedure was 3.3±0.9 and 6.2±0.82 respectively. At final follow up the pain score and Nirschl were 1.1±0.9 and 1.5±0.91 respectively. Autologous blood injection was found to be one of the modalities for treatment of TE. Being cheap, available and easy method of treatment, it should be considered as a treatment modality before opting for the surgery. Universal guidelines for the management of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment. PMID:25568727

  6. The Efficacy and Safety of Autologous Transfusion in Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Moon-Jib; Ryu, Jee-Won; Kim, Jeong-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although allogeneic blood transfusion is the most common method of transfusion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are reports showing significant decrease in the amount of allogeneic transfusion and incidence of side effects after combined use of autologous transfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of using an autologous transfusion device in TKA. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent TKA at our institution from January 2003 to January 2014 were divided into two groups: group A (n=127) who received allogeneic transfusion only in TKA and group B (n=118) who received autologous transfusion via an autologous transfusion device and allogeneic transfusion. In both groups, the patients were transfused when the hemoglobin level was below 9 g/dL. In group B, blood collected by the autologous transfusion device was transfused only once after surgery. The total blood loss volume, total transfusion volume, and the presence of side effects were assessed based on medical records. Results Group A received 294.6 mL more allogeneic transfusion than group B (p<0.001). There were no significant differences with regard to the development of side effects between groups. Conclusions Application of an autologous transfusion device during TKA can be effective in reducing the allogeneic transfusion volume. Moreover, allogeneic transfusion was not necessary after autologous transfusion in some patients. PMID:26389070

  7. Lexical–semantic priming effects during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2009-01-01

    When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word–word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants’ attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime–target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical–semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic–associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

  8. Avoid self-priming centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The self-priming horizontal centrifugal pump becomes known to its operator either as a good pump or a bad pump. The latter is usually replaced by another type of pump, even though a properly specified self-priming centrifugal pump might have been a good choice. Use of the guidelines described in this article are intended to help in the purchase and installation of a good pump. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are used for removing liquids from below grade sumps or pits that may also contain solids, fibers and/or muck. Alternate pumps for this service include submersible pumps, vertical turbine pumps and positive displacement pumps. These alternate pumps do not pass solid particles as large as self-priming pumps do without damage. Positive displacement pumps are not normally cost-effective when pumping liquid at rates in excess of 500 gallons per minute in low-head applications. Vertical and submersible pumps must be removed when cleaning of the pump is required. Self-priming pumps are easily cleaned by opening the access plates without moving the pump; and they cost less than the other types.

  9. A computational approach to negative priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  10. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  11. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Effect of phospholipids transesterified enzymatically with polyunsaturated fatty acids on gelatinization and retrogradation of starch.

    PubMed

    Siswoyo, L A; Morita, N

    2000-10-01

    The effects of phospholipids (PLs) transesterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with lipase (Aspergillus niger) on gelatinization and retrogradation of starch during storage were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The resulting transesterified PLs were rich in PUFAs and linoleic acid, while the total percentage of PUFAs incorporated was 20.2%. The addition of PLs or PLs enzymatically transesterified with PUFAs (PUFA-PLs) to the starch sample decreased the gelatinization enthalpy of starch (deltah(g)) slightly, but clearly increased the starch-lipid complexes (deltah(s-1)) by DSC. After 21 days of storage, the percent of retrogradation of starch became lower by the addition of 4%, PLs or 4% PUFA-PLs to the starch sample when compared with the control. These results suggest that PLs retard retrogradation of starch during storage, whereas PUFA-PLs retard it greatly. The addition of PLs or PUFA-PLs increased the amount of deltah(s-1), while re-gelatinization enthalpy decreased during storage, which suggests that PLs or PUFA-PLs could retard the retrogradation of starch.

  13. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  14. Behavioral and Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anterograde Autobiographical Memory in Isolated Retrograde Amnesic Patient M. L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Brian; Svoboda, Eva; Turner, Gary R.; Mandic, Marina; Mackey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Patient M. L. [Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cabeza, R., Sinden, M., Mcintosh, A. R., Toth, J. P., et al. (1998). "Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia." "Brain", "121", 1951-1973], lost memory for events occurring before his severe traumatic brain injury, yet his anterograde (post-injury) learning and memory appeared…

  15. Compatibility of DAPl and silver staining for combined anterograde and retrograde tracing of neural connections.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R W

    1980-11-10

    The geniculocortical and corticogeniculate pathways in hamster were used to test the compatibility of 4'6 diamidino-2 phenylindole 2HCl (DAPl)6,10 and anterograde degeneration techniques for tracing reciprocal connections in the brain. The two methods were compatible within a single brain and, with some loss of sensitivity in the retrograde labeling, within a single section.

  16. A Hands-on Exploration of the Retrograde Motion of Mars as Seen from the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincelli, M. M.; Otranto, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of activities based on the use of a celestial simulator to gain insights into the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from the Earth. These activities provide a useful link between the heliocentric concepts taught in schools and those tackled in typical introductory physics courses based on classical mechanics for…

  17. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation.

  18. Effects of HIV-1 Nef on retrograde transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezo, Valérie; Mallard, Frédéric; Tenza, Danièle; Wiltz, Aimée; Saint-Pol, Agnès; Helft, Julie; Antony, Claude; Benaroch, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    HIV-1 Nef protein down-regulates several important immunoreceptors through interactions with components of the intracellular sorting machinery. Nef expression is also known to induce modifications of the endocytic pathway. Here, we analyzed the effects of Nef on retrograde transport, from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum using Shiga toxin B-subunit (STxB). Nef expression inhibited access of STxB to the endoplasmic reticulum, but did not modify the surface expression level of STxB receptor, Gb3, nor its internalization rate as measured with a newly developed assay. Mutation of the myristoylation site or of a di-leucine motif of Nef involved in the interaction with the clathrin adaptor complexes AP1 and AP2 abolished the inhibition of retrograde transport. In contrast, mutations of Nef motifs known to interact with PACS-1, beta COP or a subunit of the v-ATPase did not modify the inhibitory activity of Nef on retrograde transport. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that Nef was present in clusters located on endosomal or Golgi membranes together with internalized STxB. Furthermore, in strongly Nef-expressing cells, STxB accumulated in endosomal structures that labeled with AP1. Our observations show that Nef perturbs retrograde transport between the early endosome and the endoplasmic reticulum. The potential transport steps targeted by Nef are discussed.

  19. The role of the dynein light intermediate chain in retrograde IFT and flagellar function in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Reck, Jaimee; Schauer, Alexandria M; VanderWaal Mills, Kristyn; Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Perrone, Catherine A; Porter, Mary E

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT. Flagellar assembly, motility, gliding, and mating are altered in a dose-dependent manner. iTRAQ-based proteomics identifies a small subset of proteins that are significantly reduced or elevated in d1blic flagella. Transformation with D1bLIC-GFP rescues the mutant phenotypes, and D1bLIC-GFP assembles into the dynein 1b complex at wild-type levels. D1bLIC-GFP is transported with anterograde IFT particles to the flagellar tip, dissociates into smaller particles, and begins processive retrograde IFT in <2 s. These studies demonstrate the role of D1bLIC in facilitating the recycling of IFT subunits and other proteins, identify new components potentially involved in the regulation of IFT, flagellar assembly, and flagellar signaling, and provide insight into the role of D1bLIC and retrograde IFT in other organisms.

  20. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varix Via the Pericardiacophrenic Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimatsu, Rika Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kotaro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a case of gastric varix without a gastrorenal shunt that drained through the left pericardiacophrenic vein, which entered the left brachiocephalic vein. For this case we successfully performed balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, in which sclerotic agents were infused via the left pericardiacophrenic vein approached from the left subclavian vein.

  1. Structure of waxy maize starch hydrolyzed by maltogenic alpha-amylase in relation to its retrogradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maltogenic a-amylase is widely used as an antistaling agent in bakery foods. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and starch structure after maltogenic amylase treatments in relation to its retrogradation. Waxy maize starch was cooked and hydrolyzed to different...

  2. [Subcapsular hepatic hematoma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Petit-Laurent, Fabien; Scalone, Olivia; Penigaud, Marianne; Barbeys, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Subcapsular hepatic hematoma is a rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The mechanism of this lesion has not been clearly established. The following observation clarifies the physiopathology, as well as providing a review of the various cases described in the literature.

  3. Self-repair in a bidirectionally coupled astrocyte-neuron (AN) system based on retrograde signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wade, John; McDaid, Liam; Harkin, Jim; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Kelso, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that retrograde signaling via astrocytes may underpin self-repair in the brain. Faults manifest themselves in silent or near silent neurons caused by low transmission probability (PR) synapses; the enhancement of the transmission PR of a healthy neighboring synapse by retrograde signaling can enhance the transmission PR of the “faulty” synapse (repair). Our model of self-repair is based on recent research showing that retrograde signaling via astrocytes can increase the PR of neurotransmitter release at damaged or low transmission PR synapses. The model demonstrates that astrocytes are capable of bidirectional communication with neurons which leads to modulation of synaptic activity, and that indirect signaling through retrograde messengers such as endocannabinoids leads to modulation of synaptic transmission PR. Although our model operates at the level of cells, it provides a new research direction on brain-like self-repair which can be extended to networks of astrocytes and neurons. It also provides a biologically inspired basis for developing highly adaptive, distributed computing systems that can, at fine levels of granularity, fault detect, diagnose and self-repair autonomously, without the traditional constraint of a central fault detect/repair unit. PMID:23055965

  4. The role of the dynein light intermediate chain in retrograde IFT and flagellar function in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Reck, Jaimee; Schauer, Alexandria M.; VanderWaal Mills, Kristyn; Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Perrone, Catherine A.; Porter, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT. Flagellar assembly, motility, gliding, and mating are altered in a dose-dependent manner. iTRAQ-based proteomics identifies a small subset of proteins that are significantly reduced or elevated in d1blic flagella. Transformation with D1bLIC-GFP rescues the mutant phenotypes, and D1bLIC-GFP assembles into the dynein 1b complex at wild-type levels. D1bLIC-GFP is transported with anterograde IFT particles to the flagellar tip, dissociates into smaller particles, and begins processive retrograde IFT in <2 s. These studies demonstrate the role of D1bLIC in facilitating the recycling of IFT subunits and other proteins, identify new components potentially involved in the regulation of IFT, flagellar assembly, and flagellar signaling, and provide insight into the role of D1bLIC and retrograde IFT in other organisms. PMID:27251063

  5. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and generates breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guha, M; Srinivasan, S; Ruthel, G; Kashina, A K; Carstens, R P; Mendoza, A; Khanna, C; Van Winkle, T; Avadhani, N G

    2014-11-06

    Metastatic breast tumors undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which renders them resistant to therapies targeted to the primary cancers. The mechanistic link between mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) reduction, often seen in breast cancer patients, and EMT is unknown. We demonstrate that reducing mtDNA content in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) activates Calcineurin (Cn)-dependent mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway, which induces EMT-like reprogramming to fibroblastic morphology, loss of cell polarity, contact inhibition and acquired migratory and invasive phenotype. Notably, mtDNA reduction generates breast cancer stem cells. In addition to retrograde signaling markers, there is an induction of mesenchymal genes but loss of epithelial markers in these cells. The changes are reversed by either restoring the mtDNA content or knockdown of CnAα mRNA, indicating the causal role of retrograde signaling in EMT. Our results point to a new therapeutic strategy for metastatic breast cancers targeted to the mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway for abrogating EMT and attenuating cancer stem cells, which evade conventional therapies. We report a novel regulatory mechanism by which low mtDNA content generates EMT and cancer stem cells in hMECs.

  6. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  7. Structure of Waxy Maize Starch Hydrolyzed by Maltogenic α-Amylase in Relation to Its Retrogradation.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navneet; Faubion, Jon; Feng, Guohua; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2015-04-29

    Maltogenic α-amylase is widely used as an antistaling agent in bakery foods. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and starch structure after maltogenic amylase treatments in relation to its retrogradation. Waxy maize starch was cooked and hydrolyzed to different degrees by a maltogenic amylase. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were used to determine saccharides formed and the molecular weight (Mw) distributions of the residual starch structure, respectively. Chain length (CL) distributions of debranched starch samples were further related to amylopectin (AP) retrogradation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed the complete inhibition of retrogradation when starches were hydrolyzed to >20% DH. Mw and CL distributions of residual AP structure indicated that with an increase in %DH, a higher proportion of unit chains with degree of polymerization (DP) ≤9 and a lower proportion of unit chains with DP ≥17 were formed. A higher proportion of short outer AP chains that cannot participate in the formation of double helices supports the decrease in and eventual inhibition of retrogradation observed with the increase in %DH. These results suggest that the maltogenic amylase could play a powerful role in inhibiting the staling of baked products even at limited starch hydrolysis.

  8. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwen; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Qiu, Yijing; Cheng, Li; Hong, Yan; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-07-15

    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic time sweep analysis confirmed that the storage modulus (G') of corn starch stored at 4 °C decreased with increasing GBE treatment time. PNMR analysis demonstrated that the transverse relaxation times (T2) of corn starches treated with GBE were higher than that of control during the storage at 4 °C. DSC results demonstrated that the retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr) of corn starch was reduced by 22.3% after GBE treatment for 10h. Avrami equation analysis showed that GBE treatment reduced the rate of starch retrogradation. FTIR analysis revealed that GBE treatment led to a decrease in hydrogen bonds within the starch. Overall, these results demonstrate that both short- and long-term retrogradation of corn starch were retarded by GBE treatment.

  9. Excimer laser coronary atherectomy in septal collaterals during retrograde recanalization of a chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lotze, Ullrich; Lauer, Bernward

    2011-01-01

    Management of chronic total occlusions has been refined through the development of a retrograde approach via collateral pathways. We describe here the use of excimer laser coronary atherectomy in the septal collaterals. This appraoch was not yet described in the literature. PMID:22355487

  10. F-actin polymerization and retrograde flow drive sustained PLCγ1 signaling during T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Babich, Alexander; Li, Shuixing; O'Connor, Roddy S.; Milone, Michael C.; Freedman, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of T cells by antigen-presenting cells involves assembly of signaling molecules into dynamic microclusters (MCs) within a specialized membrane domain termed the immunological synapse (IS). Actin and myosin IIA localize to the IS, and depletion of F-actin abrogates MC movement and T cell activation. However, the mechanisms that coordinate actomyosin dynamics and T cell receptor signaling are poorly understood. Using pharmacological inhibitors that perturb individual aspects of actomyosin dynamics without disassembling the network, we demonstrate that F-actin polymerization is the primary driver of actin retrograde flow, whereas myosin IIA promotes long-term integrity of the IS. Disruption of F-actin retrograde flow, but not myosin IIA contraction, arrested MC centralization and inhibited sustained Ca2+ signaling at the level of endoplasmic reticulum store release. Furthermore, perturbation of retrograde flow inhibited PLCγ1 phosphorylation within MCs but left Zap70 activity intact. These studies highlight the importance of ongoing actin polymerization as a central driver of actomyosin retrograde flow, MC centralization, and sustained Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22665519

  11. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways converge to antagonistically regulate a light-induced transcriptional network.

    PubMed

    Martín, Guiomar; Leivar, Pablo; Ludevid, Dolores; Tepperman, James M; Quail, Peter H; Monte, Elena

    2016-05-06

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde- and photosensory-receptor signalling has remained unclear. Here, we show that the phytochrome and retrograde signalling (RS) pathways converge antagonistically to regulate the expression of the nuclear-encoded transcription factor GLK1, a key regulator of a light-induced transcriptional network central to photomorphogenesis. GLK1 gene transcription is directly repressed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF)-class bHLH transcription factors in darkness, but light-activated phytochrome reverses this activity, thereby inducing expression. Conversely, we show that retrograde signals repress this induction by a mechanism independent of PIF mediation. Collectively, our data indicate that light at moderate levels acts through the plant's nuclear-localized sensory-photoreceptor system to induce appropriate photomorphogenic development, but at excessive levels, sensed through the separate plastid-localized RS system, acts to suppress such development, thus providing a mechanism for protection against photo-oxidative damage by minimizing the tissue exposure to deleterious radiation.

  12. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways converge to antagonistically regulate a light-induced transcriptional network

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Guiomar; Leivar, Pablo; Ludevid, Dolores; Tepperman, James M.; Quail, Peter H.; Monte, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde- and photosensory-receptor signalling has remained unclear. Here, we show that the phytochrome and retrograde signalling (RS) pathways converge antagonistically to regulate the expression of the nuclear-encoded transcription factor GLK1, a key regulator of a light-induced transcriptional network central to photomorphogenesis. GLK1 gene transcription is directly repressed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF)-class bHLH transcription factors in darkness, but light-activated phytochrome reverses this activity, thereby inducing expression. Conversely, we show that retrograde signals repress this induction by a mechanism independent of PIF mediation. Collectively, our data indicate that light at moderate levels acts through the plant's nuclear-localized sensory-photoreceptor system to induce appropriate photomorphogenic development, but at excessive levels, sensed through the separate plastid-localized RS system, acts to suppress such development, thus providing a mechanism for protection against photo-oxidative damage by minimizing the tissue exposure to deleterious radiation. PMID:27150909

  13. Chronic Traumatic Giant Macular Hole Repair with Autologous Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Makkouk, Fuad; Picciani, Renata; Godley, Bernard; Elkeeb, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    We report on the closure of a chronic posttraumatic giant macular hole. The patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye following blunt trauma 20 years prior. His dilated fundus examination revealed a 3000 um base-diameter full thickness macular hole. Surgical repair was performed with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), internal limiting membrane peeling and autologous platelet concentrate (APC) injected over the macular hole. At one month follow-up, the macular hole had closed on exam and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the patient reported subjective visual improvement. To our knowledge, this report presents the first case of a chronic giant macular hole successfully closed after undergoing surgery with adjuvant platelets therapy. PMID:28168133

  14. G-spot augmentation with autologous fat transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Christian; Motamedi, Melodi; Hartmann, Uwe; Allert, Sixtus

    2015-01-01

    Lipofilling for G-spot augmentation is appealing because long-term persistence of the fat is expected to be very good. We report the case of a 29-year-old patient who requested G-spot augmentation to enhance sexual sensation. Autologous fat (8 cc) that was harvested from the trochanteric area was injected. Although there are few published data acknowledging the presence of the G-spot, the patient was satisfied with the procedure and no side effects occurred. Nevertheless, evaluation with standard questionnaires, such as Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ) and Kurzfragebogen für sexuelle Probleme (KFSP-F), did not indicate the positive effects on subjective well-being and sexual parameters of a surgical G-spot augmentation. Studies comprising a larger series of patients are required before substantiated recommendations regarding the benefits and risks of this procedure will be possible. PMID:26401115

  15. Dramatic improvement of POEMS syndrome following autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rovira, M; Carreras, E; Bladé, J; Graus, F; Valls, J; Fernández-Avilés, F; Montserrat, E

    2001-11-01

    POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, serum monoclonal protein and skin changes) is a rare plasma cell disorder of unknown pathogenesis and is diagnosed by the demonstration of a plasma cell proliferation at the biopsy of an osteoesclerotic lesion. When the lesions are in a limited area, radiation therapy is usually highly effective. Patients with disseminated disease require systemic chemotherapy, which is not effective in most cases. A patient with severe widespread POEMS syndrome resistant to melphalan who experienced a dramatic improvement after high-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is reported. We believe that this is the first reported case of POEMS syndrome treated with AHCT, a procedure that could be considered in similarly affected patients.

  16. Surgical management and autologous intestinal reconstruction in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Matthijs J; van Baren, Robertine; Haveman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. When treatment with parenteral nutrition fails and life-threatening complications occur, autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) should be considered before intestinal transplantation (ITx). Single or combined ITx should be reserved for patients with severe liver disease and as last resort in the treatment of SBS. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has proven its value in AIR, but its availability depends on the expertise of the surgeons. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) has similar success rates as LILT and fewer patients progress to ITx. STEP is also applicable at small bowel dilatation in ultra-short bowel syndrome. The scope may be widened when duodenal dilatation can be treated as well. Spiral intestinal lengthening and tailoring (SILT) is a promising alternative. More research is needed to confirm these findings. Therefore we suggest an international data registry for all intestinal lengthening procedures.

  17. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  18. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  19. Descendants of primed Arabidopsis plants exhibit resistance to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Ana; Daniel, Xavier; Flors, Victor; Luna, Estrella; Hohn, Barbara; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    An attack of plants by pathogens or treatment with certain resistance-inducing compounds can lead to the establishment of a unique primed state of defense. Primed plants show enhanced defense reactions upon further challenge with biotic or abiotic stress. Here, we report that the primed state in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is still functional in the next generation without additional treatment. We compared the reactions of Arabidopsis plants that had been either primed with β-amino-butyric acid (BABA) or with an avirulent isolate of the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PstavrRpt2). The descendants of primed plants showed a faster and higher accumulation of transcripts of defense-related genes in the salicylic acid signaling pathway and enhanced disease resistance upon challenge inoculation with a virulent isolate of P. syringae. In addition, the progeny of primed plants was also more resistant against the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. When transgenerationally primed plants were subjected to an additional priming treatment, their descendants displayed an even stronger primed phenotype, suggesting that plants can inherit a sensitization for the priming phenomenon. Interestingly, this primed to be primed phenotype was much reduced in the Arabidopsis β-amino-butyric acid priming mutant ibs1 (induced BABA sterility1). Our results demonstrate that the primed state of plants is transferred to their progeny and confers improved protection from pathogen attack as compared to the descendants of unprimed plants.

  20. Autologous fibrin glue with growth factors in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Thorn, J J; Sørensen, H; Weis-Fogh, U; Andersen, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe a method for the preparation of autologous fibrin glue with platelet growth factors and to report its use with particulate cancellous bone in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery. The fibrin glue is a two-component glue, where the one component is a concentrated fibrinogen solution with platelet growth factors and the other component is a thrombin solution. Both components were produced from the patients own blood, thus making the glue entirely autologous. The glue was prepared from platelet rich plasma separated from 200 ml of the patient's blood prior to the operation. The fibrinogen in the glue was precipitated from the platelet rich plasma by ethanol precipitation at low temperature and separated together with the platelets by centrifugation. Raising the temperature to 37 degrees C redissolved the precipitate. The thrombin solution in the glue was produced from prothrombin precipitated from 10 ml of the platelet rich plasma by lowering the pH and the ionic strength. The precipitate was separated by centrifugation and dissolved in a calcium ion solution. Increasing the pH to neutral value induced activation to thrombin. Preparation of the fibrin glue was performed in the blood bank within 60 to 90 min with the use of standard equipment. The outcome from 200 ml of blood was approximately 8 ml of fibrin glue: 6 ml fibrinogen to be coagulated with 2 ml of thrombin. The glue had a fibrinogen concentration of approximately 12 times the value in platelet rich plasma and the concentration of growth factors was approximately eight times the value in platelet rich plasma. We have used this glue successfully with particulate bone grafts for reconstructive purposes within the oral and maxillofacial field. It might as well be applied to other surgical areas. Whenever larger amount of the glue will be needed, a whole unit of blood may be taken from the patient, and the red cells re-transfused to the patient during or after the operation.

  1. Autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells for rheumatoid and inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bell, G M; Anderson, A E; Diboll, J; Reece, R; Eltherington, O; Harry, R A; Fouweather, T; MacDonald, C; Chadwick, T; McColl, E; Dunn, J; Dickinson, A M; Hilkens, C M U; Isaacs, John D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the safety of intra-articular (IA) autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC) in patients with inflammatory arthritis and an inflamed knee; to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the approach and to assess potential effects on local and systemic disease activities. Methods An unblinded, randomised, controlled, dose escalation Phase I trial. TolDC were differentiated from CD14+ monocytes and loaded with autologous synovial fluid as a source of autoantigens. Cohorts of three participants received 1×106, 3×106 or 10×106 tolDC arthroscopically following saline irrigation of an inflamed (target) knee. Control participants received saline irrigation only. Primary outcome was flare of disease in the target knee within 5 days of treatment. Feasibility was assessed by successful tolDC manufacture and acceptability via patient questionnaire. Potential effects on disease activity were assessed by arthroscopic synovitis score, disease activity score (DAS)28 and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Immunomodulatory effects were sought in peripheral blood. Results There were no target knee flares within 5 days of treatment. At day 14, arthroscopic synovitis was present in all participants except for one who received 10×106 tolDC; a further participant in this cohort declined day 14 arthroscopy because symptoms had remitted; both remained stable throughout 91 days of observation. There were no trends in DAS28 or HAQ score or consistent immunomodulatory effects in peripheral blood. 9 of 10 manufactured products met quality control release criteria; acceptability of the protocol by participants was high. Conclusion IA tolDC therapy appears safe, feasible and acceptable. Knee symptoms stabilised in two patients who received 10×106 tolDC but no systemic clinical or immunomodulatory effects were detectable. Trial registration number NCT01352858. PMID:27117700

  2. Patient satisfaction following nipple reconstruction incorporating autologous costal cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Lipa, Joan E; Addison, Patrick D; Neligan, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nipple-areolar reconstruction completes post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. Many techniques for nipple reconstruction have been described, and each has their advocates and critics. One of the frequent failings of most designs is loss of nipple projection with time. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of including autologous costal cartilage on patient satisfaction with their nipple reconstruction. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients were identified who had undergone fishtail flap nipple reconstruction following autologous free flap breast reconstruction between 1990 and 2004. Qualitative questionnaires, using Likert scales, were sent to each patient to specifically assess their satisfaction with their nipple reconstruction. RESULTS: Of 26 respondents (mean ± SEM follow-up period 3.7±3.6 years), 13 had undergone nipple reconstruction incorporating costal cartilage banked at the time of initial breast reconstruction, and the other 13 had no cartilage in their nipple reconstructions. While both groups would opt for nipple reconstruction again, patients with cartilage grafts incorporated into their reconstructions had overall satisfaction ratings 1.92 grades higher on average (not significant, P=0.12) than those without. This difference increased to 3.2 grades when the satisfaction of the patient’s partner was taken into account (P<0.05). Improved satisfaction corresponded to higher scores for volume, consistency, texture, and particularly for projection and contour of the nipple (P<0.05). Although nipple morphology changed over time, there was a trend toward improved stability in the cartilage group. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction with nipple reconstruction can be improved by incorporating costal cartilage beneath the skin flaps. Superior contour and projection are sustained over time. PMID:19554171

  3. Control of Autophagosome Axonal Retrograde Flux by Presynaptic Activity Unveiled Using Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Martin, Sally; Papadopulos, Andreas; Harper, Callista B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Glass, Nick R.; Cooper-White, Justin J.; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Davletov, Bazbek; Meunier, Frédéric A.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that elicits flaccid paralysis by enzymatic cleavage of the exocytic machinery component SNAP25 in motor nerve terminals. However, recent evidence suggests that the neurotoxic activity of BoNT/A is not restricted to the periphery, but also reaches the CNS after retrograde axonal transport. Because BoNT/A is internalized in recycling synaptic vesicles, it is unclear which compartment facilitates this transport. Using live-cell confocal and single-molecule imaging of rat hippocampal neurons cultured in microfluidic devices, we show that the activity-dependent uptake of the binding domain of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-Hc) is followed by a delayed increase in retrograde axonal transport of BoNT/A-Hc carriers. Consistent with a role of presynaptic activity in initiating transport of the active toxin, activity-dependent uptake of BoNT/A in the terminal led to a significant increase in SNAP25 cleavage detected in the soma chamber compared with nonstimulated neurons. Surprisingly, most endocytosed BoNT/A-Hc was incorporated into LC3-positive autophagosomes generated in the nerve terminals, which then underwent retrograde transport to the cell soma, where they fused with lysosomes both in vitro and in vivo. Blocking autophagosome formation or acidification with wortmannin or bafilomycin A1, respectively, inhibited the activity-dependent retrograde trafficking of BoNT/A-Hc. Our data demonstrate that both the presynaptic formation of autophagosomes and the initiation of their retrograde trafficking are tightly regulated by presynaptic activity. PMID:25878289

  4. Morphology and Immunoreactivity of Retrogradely Double-Labeled Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the specificity and reliability of a retrograde double-labeling technique that was recently established for identification of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and to characterize the morphology of displaced (d)GCs (dGs). Methods. A mixture of the gap-junction–impermeable dye Lucifer yellow (LY) and the permeable dye neurobiotin (NB) was applied to the optic nerve stump for retrograde labeling of GCs and the cells coupled with them. A confocal microscope was adopted for morphologic observation. Results. GCs were identified by LY labeling, and they were all clearly labeled by NB. Cells coupled to GCs contained a weak NB signal but no LY. LY and NB revealed axon bundles, somas and dendrites of GCs. The retrogradely identified GCs numbered approximately 50,000 per retina, and they constituted 44% of the total neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Somas of retrogradely identified dGs were usually negative for glycine, ChAT (choline acetyltransferase), bNOS (brain-type nitric oxidase), GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), and glial markers, and occasionally, they were weakly GABA-positive. dGs averaged 760 per retina and composed 1.7% of total GCs. Sixteen morphologic subtypes of dGs were encountered, three of which were distinct from known GCs. dGs sent dendrites to either sublaminas of the IPL, mostly sublamina a. Conclusions. The retrograde labeling is reliable for identification of GCs. dGs participate in ON and OFF light pathways but favor the OFF pathway. ChAT, bNOS, glycine, and GAD remain reliable AC markers in the GCL. GCs may couple to GABAergic ACs, and the gap junctions likely pass NB and GABA. PMID:21482641

  5. Continuous butanol fermentation and feed starch retrogradation: butanol fermentation sustainability using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N; Blaschek, H P

    2005-01-26

    Use of starch solution as feed for butanol bioconversion processes employing Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 may have added economic advantage over the use of glucose. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from 30 gL(-1) starch solution using a continuous process. The bioreactor was fed at a dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1) and starch solution/feed volume (3 L) was replaced every 72 h. The continuous reactor fed with cornstarch solution (feed temperature 19 degrees C) produced approximately 6.0 gL(-1) total ABE. Increasing the feed storage temperature to 37 degrees C improved ABE production to 7.2 gL(-1) suggesting that retrogradation was occurring more rapidly at 19 degrees C. In both these cases the fermentation drifted toward acid production after approximately 260 h, consistent with the retrogradation of starch overtime. The use of soluble starch, which is less prone to retrogradation, resulted in the production of 9.9 gL(-1) ABE at 37 degrees C feed storage temperature, as compared to 7.2 gL(-1) ABE when cornstarch was used. It should be noted that gelatinized starch retrogradation takes place after sterilization and prior to use of the feed medium, and does not occur during long-term storage of the raw corn material in the months leading up to processing. The degree of hydrolysis of gelatinized starch decreased from 68.8 to 56.2% in 3 days when stored at 37 degrees C. Soluble starch which does not retrograde demonstrated no change in the degree of hydrolysis.

  6. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Retrograde Motoneuronal Axonal Transport in an SBMA Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Halievski, Katherine; Kemp, Michael Q.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Miller, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Defects in axonal transport are seen in motoneuronal diseases, but how that impairment comes about is not well understood. In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. The non-cell-autonomous mechanism is suggested by data from a unique “myogenic” transgenic (TG) mouse model in which an AR transgene expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle fibers triggers an androgen-dependent SBMA phenotype, including defects in retrograde transport. However, motoneurons in this TG model retain the endogenous AR gene, leaving open the possibility that impairments in transport in this model also depend on ARs in the motoneurons themselves. To test whether non-cell-autonomous mechanisms alone can perturb retrograde transport, we generated male TG mice in which the endogenous AR allele has the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) and, consequently, is nonfunctional. Males carrying the Tfm allele alone show no deficits in motor function or axonal transport, with or without testosterone treatment. However, when Tfm males carrying the myogenic transgene (Tfm/TG) are treated with testosterone, they develop impaired motor function and defects in retrograde transport, having fewer retrogradely labeled motoneurons and deficits in endosomal flux based on time-lapse video microscopy of living axons. These findings demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous disease mechanisms originating in muscle are sufficient to induce defects in retrograde transport in motoneurons. PMID:27517091

  7. Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Retrograde Motoneuronal Axonal Transport in an SBMA Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Halievski, Katherine; Kemp, Michael Q; Breedlove, S Marc; Miller, Kyle E; Jordan, Cynthia L

    2016-01-01

    Defects in axonal transport are seen in motoneuronal diseases, but how that impairment comes about is not well understood. In spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a disorder linked to a CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, the disease-causing AR disrupts axonal transport by acting in both a cell-autonomous fashion in the motoneurons themselves, and in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in muscle. The non-cell-autonomous mechanism is suggested by data from a unique "myogenic" transgenic (TG) mouse model in which an AR transgene expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle fibers triggers an androgen-dependent SBMA phenotype, including defects in retrograde transport. However, motoneurons in this TG model retain the endogenous AR gene, leaving open the possibility that impairments in transport in this model also depend on ARs in the motoneurons themselves. To test whether non-cell-autonomous mechanisms alone can perturb retrograde transport, we generated male TG mice in which the endogenous AR allele has the testicular feminization mutation (Tfm) and, consequently, is nonfunctional. Males carrying the Tfm allele alone show no deficits in motor function or axonal transport, with or without testosterone treatment. However, when Tfm males carrying the myogenic transgene (Tfm/TG) are treated with testosterone, they develop impaired motor function and defects in retrograde transport, having fewer retrogradely labeled motoneurons and deficits in endosomal flux based on time-lapse video microscopy of living axons. These findings demonstrate that non-cell-autonomous disease mechanisms originating in muscle are sufficient to induce defects in retrograde transport in motoneurons.

  8. Prime factorization using magnonic holographic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khivintsev, Yuri; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Filimonov, Yuri; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Determining the prime factors of a given number N is a problem that requires super-polynomial time for conventional digital computers. A polynomial-time algorithm was invented by Shor for quantum computers. In this paper, we present experimental data that demonstrate prime factorization using spin-wave interference but without quantum entanglement. Prime factorization includes three major steps. First, a general-type computer calculates the sequence of numbers mkmod(N), where N is the number to be factorized, m is a randomly chosen positive integer, and k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…. Next, the period of the calculated sequence r is determined by exploiting spin-wave interference. Finally, the general-type computer determines the primes based on the obtained r. The experiment for period finding was conducted on a six-terminal Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 device. We chose number 15 for testing and determined its primes using a sequence of measurements. The obtained experimental data for a micrometer-sized prototype aimed to demonstrate the benefits of using spin-wave devices to solve complex computational problems. Scalability is one of the major strengths inherent in this type of wave-based device, which may provide a route to nanometer-sized logic circuits. We discuss the physical and technological limitations of this approach, which define the maximum size of N and the computational speed. Although this classical approach cannot compete with the quantum algorithm in terms of efficiency, magnonic holographic devices can potentially be used as complementary logic units aimed at speeding up prime factorization for classical computers.

  9. Mare Orientale Prime Meridian lunar coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, B.; York, C.; McGown, R.; Billings, T.

    The Moon was the first extraterrestrial body to be mapped. From 1514 to 1840, navigators sailing the open seas needed accurate lunar maps to determine longitude by the "lunar-distance" method. For the convenience of early navigators, astronomers and selenographers, the lunar prime meridian was made to bisect the lunar disk as seen from Earth, formalized as the present Mean Earth / Polar Axis system. In 1961, the International Astronomical Union reversed lunar east and west to avoid confusion by astronauts and their controllers, so that now Mare Orientale -- the Eastern Sea -- lies on the Moon's western limb. By international agreement in 1974, lunar longitude was defined to increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees and prime meridians are generally defined by an observable feature. Examination of popular lunar maps indicates these newer standards are not widely accepted. Modern navigation no longer relies on the Moon. Lunar maps are now made by satellite imagery from lunar orbit. Today, humankind anticipates navigating the Moon itself. A relatively simple change to the lunar coordinate system could benefit upcoming lunar activities and promote acceptance of a 360 degree standard: move the lunar prime meridian. We propose the lunar prime meridian intersect some natural monument that most nearly represents the center longitude of Mare Orientale (perhaps crater Hohmann), and longitude increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees. Mare Orientale is a dramatic large "target," easily identifiable from space. Nearside traffic will use low longitude numbers from zero to r ughly 180 degrees,o and will not frequently cross this prime meridian. Earth's angle above the eastern horizon equals approximate longitude. Low and high longitude numbers will reflect the distinctive nearside and farside geological domains. The face of the Moon as seen from Earth will no longer be split in two. Calculations are simplified and sources of error eliminated. This system is more convenient and

  10. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test–retest design

    PubMed Central

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming effect during the first study, in order to see if we could replicate this effect and therefore select high scoring participants. An additional objective was to try to find correlations between psychological characteristics (anomalous experiences, mental health, mental boundaries, trauma, negative life events) and retro-priming results for the high scoring participants. The retro-priming effect was also compared with performance on a classical priming task. Twenty-eight participants returned to the laboratory for this new study. The results, for the whole group, on the retro-priming task, were negative and non-significant (es = −0.25, ns) and the results were significant on the priming task (es = 0.63, p < 0.1). We obtained overall negative effects on retro-priming results for all the sub-groups (students, male, female). Ten participants were found to have positive results on the two retro-priming studies, but no specific psychological variables were found for these participants compared to the others. Several hypotheses are considered in explaining these results, and the author provide some final thoughts concerning psi and replicability. PMID:24672466

  11. Magna-field irradiation and autologous marrow rescue in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, L.L.; Wharam, M.D.; Kaizer, H.; Leventhal, B.G.; Ruymann, R.

    1983-12-01

    Marrow ablative therapy has been given to pediatric patients with a variety of disseminated tumors. Eight patients with advanced neuroblastoma received autologous marrow reinfusion after intensive therapy. Three of eight are in continuous complete remission from 7 to 60 months. An additional four patients received allogeneic marrow transplantation and two remain in continuous complete response at 21 and 39 months. Intensive therapy and autologous marrow reinfusion have been applied to Ewing's sarcoma, but only preliminary results are available. Six patients with disseminated rhabdomyosarcoma and extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma received conventional chemotherapy followed by sequential hemi-body irradiation. Four of six patients received autologous marrow rescue. Their median disease-free survival is 17 months. This preliminary experience demonstrates the feasibility of using marrow ablative therapy with autologous marrow transplantation in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors. Continuing Phase II studies are required to substantiate its efficacy.

  12. Emergence, Self-Organization and Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    1998-04-01

    Pattern of primes (PP) is critical for dynamics of universal emergence, self-organization and complexity ascendance [1-3]. Due to gradual logarithmic dilution of primes (prime number theorem), PP gives only base envelop for above effects. More informative are full factorizational spectra (FS) of all intermediate composites. Tower exponential mappings like f(N) = 10(N)10 with (N) indicating N vertical arrows [4] lead to infinite fractal-like hierarchy of integer trails; say, FS of intervals between f(N) and f(N+1). This allows FAPP-infinite informational content of PP and FS be "used" as catalyzer of emergence dynamics. This is "Platonic pressure effect" (physical embodiments of PP and FS). Said effect may provide more direct picture for cosmogenesis than traditional quantum tunneling ("Big Bang") and/or inflationary scenarios. Furthermore, we can speculate that metrics of (Mega)universe at tower exponential scales becomes asymptotically Euclidean (multi or infinitely dimensional), due to unchangability of PP and FS. - [1] Arnold Arnold, "The Corrupted Sciences", Paladin (Harper Collins), 1992; [2] Peter Plichta, "God's Secret Formula: Deciphering the Riddle of the Universe and the Prime Number Code", Element, 1997; [3] Alexander Berezin, URAM Journal, 20, 72 (1997); [4] Donald E. Knuth, Science, 194, 1235, 17 Dec 1976. abstract.

  13. Values in Prime-Time Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how values are portrayed on prime-time network television. Looks at the prominence of values incidents in a story line and at how fully the values are explained. Examines how values incidents are structured and linked. Concludes that values incidents play an integral, if not principal, role in television programs. (RS)

  14. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  15. Tcf15 Primes Pluripotent Cells for Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Owen R.; Lin, Chia-Yi; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Zhou, Xinzhi; Taube, Jessica; Blin, Guillaume; Waterhouse, Anna; Smith, Andrew J.H.; Lowell, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Summary The events that prime pluripotent cells for differentiation are not well understood. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) proteins, which are inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor activity, contribute to pluripotency by blocking sequential transitions toward differentiation. Using yeast-two-hybrid screens, we have identified Id-regulated transcription factors that are expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). One of these, Tcf15, is also expressed in the embryonic day 4.5 embryo and is specifically associated with a novel subpopulation of primed ESCs. An Id-resistant form of Tcf15 rapidly downregulates Nanog and accelerates somatic lineage commitment. We propose that because Tcf15 can be held in an inactive state through Id activity, it may prime pluripotent cells for entry to somatic lineages upon downregulation of Id. We also find that Tcf15 expression is dependent on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, providing an explanation for how FGF can prime for differentiation without driving cells out of the pluripotent state. PMID:23395635

  16. A Fresh Approach to Prime Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Homer F.

    1979-01-01

    The introduction of prime numbers in the intermediate grades should be handled with care or the concept will appear arbitrary, artificial, and unreal to the pupils. The approach suggested here is in the form of a game-like activity. A knowledge of multiplication and factors is a prerequisite. (BB)

  17. Attentional Control and Asymmetric Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Heap, Shelly J.; Neely, James H.; Thomas, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Participants completed a battery of 3 attentional control (AC) tasks (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop, as in Hutchison, 2007) and performed a lexical decision task with symmetrically associated (e.g., "sister-brother") and asymmetrically related primes and targets presented in both the forward (e.g., "atom-bomb") and backward…

  18. Predicting the Unbeaten Path through Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie; Mazuka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    A number of previous studies showed that comprehenders make use of lexically based constraints such as subcategorization frequency in processing structurally ambiguous sentences. One piece of such evidence is lexically specific syntactic priming in comprehension; following the costly processing of a temporarily ambiguous sentence, comprehenders…

  19. Thematic Mathematics: The Combinatorics of Prime Factorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a particular example to illustrate a thematic approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Our theme, suitable for undergraduates and able sixth-form students, is the enumeration of mathematical objects associated with the prime factorizations of integers. It is shown in detail how this gives rise to some beautiful…

  20. Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

  1. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  2. PRIME: probing the very early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Ford, Holland C.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.; Szalay, Alexander; Hartig, George F.; Stockman, Hervey S.; Postman, Marc; Voit, G. M.; Shu, Peter K.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Lenzen, Rainer; Kent, Steven M.; Stoughton, Christopher; Omont, Alain; Mellier, Yannick

    2003-03-01

    PRIME (The Primordial Explorer) is a proposed Explorer-class mission. It will carry out a deep sky survey from space in four near-infrared bands between ~0.9-3.5 μm. It surveys a quarter of the sky to AB magnitude of ~24, which is ~600 times deeper than 2MASS and ~ five million times deeper than COBE at long wavelengths. Deeper surveys in selected sky regions are also planned. PRIME will reach an epoch during which the first quasars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies were formed in the early universe, map the large-scale structure of the dark matter, discover Type-Ia supernovae to be used in measuring the acceleration of the expanding universe, and detect thousands of brown dwarfs and even Jupiter-size planets in the vicinity of the solar system. Most of these objects are so rare that they may be identified only in large and deep surveys. PRIME will serve as the precursor for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), supplying rare targets for its spectroscopy and deep imaging. It is more than capable of providing targets for the largest ground-based telescopes (10-30m). Combining PRIME with other surveys (SDSS, GALEX) will yield the largest astronomical database ever built.

  3. PRIMING THE PUMP AND CONTROLLING THE FLOW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUCHAN, VIVIAN

    THE BEGINNING WRITER NEEDS BOTH ENCOURAGEMENT AND DIRECTION. ONCE A STUDENT, NONVERBAL OR FLUENT, HAS EXPRESSED AN OPINION, SIGNIFICANT OR TRIVIAL, THE PUMP CAN BE PRIMED BY ASKING HIM "WHY," AND HIS FLOW OF "BECAUSES" CAN BE CONTROLLED BY CHANNELING THEM INTO A SIMPLE PATTERN. THE NONVERBAL STUDENT IS ENCOURAGED TO WRITE WHEN HE LEARNS THAT A…

  4. Comparison of affective and semantic priming in different SOA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Qu, Yuhong; Xiao, Yanli; Wu, Qi; Xia, Likun; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms. The results show that the difference between two types of priming effect is revealed when the SOA is at 50 ms, in which the affective priming effect is presented when the prime has negative emotion. It indicates that SOA can affect the comparison between the affective and semantic priming, and the former takes the priority in the automatic processing level.

  5. Semantic priming without association: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M

    2000-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that automatic semantic priming can occur without association. Priming did not vary substantially with differences in variables that affect automatic versus strategic processing, such as time spent processing the prime and target, relationship proportion, and task (except that average effects were smaller in the naming task). Although category coordinates were investigated in the majority of studies, synonyms, antonyms, and script relations also demonstrated priming; functional relations showed greater priming, and essential and perceptual relations showed less. The average effect size for semantic priming was smaller than that for associative priming, suggesting that there is an "associative boost" from adding an associative relationship to a semantic one. The implications of these findings for the modularity thesis and for models of semantic priming are discussed.

  6. Spinal fluid lymphocytes responsive to autologous and allogeneic cells in multiple sclerosis and control individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, G; Kotilinek, L; Schwartz, M; Sternad, M

    1984-01-01

    Spinal fluid lymphocytes from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls were stimulated with either autologous non-T cells or with allogeneic non-T cells followed by stimulation with autologous non-T lymphocytes. Cells responding to these stimuli were cloned and their proliferative responses to autologous and allogeneic MS and normal non-T cells were measured. Large numbers of clones with specific patterns of reaction to both autologous and allogeneic cells were obtained from lymphocytes in MS cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but only occasionally from cells in control CSF. Patterns of responses among clones from a particular CSF were similar and often identical, which suggested that cells in MS CSF were relatively restricted in their specificities. Surface antigen phenotyping of the clones showed them to be predominantly OKT4+, with 13% OKT8+ and 11% OKT4+8+. Peripheral T cells that were stimulated and cultured in parallel with CSF cells were different in that they usually did not give rise to as many clones nor were their patterns of response similar. Many CSF clones were heteroclitic, that is they responded to particular allogeneic cells but not autologous cells. Lymphocytes in MS CSF thus appear to represent a selected population of cells with a high frequency of responsiveness to autologous and allogeneic antigens. Such responses may be evidence for immune regulation within the central nervous system or could represent responses to altered-self antigens. PMID:6237121

  7. Ex vivo production of autologous whole inactivated HIV-1 for clinical use in therapeutic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gil, Cristina; Climent, Núria; García, Felipe; Hurtado, Carmen; Nieto-Márquez, Sara; León, Agathe; García, M Teresa; Rovira, Cristina; Miralles, Laia; Dalmau, Judith; Pumarola, Tomás; Almela, Manel; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Zamora, Laura; Miró, José M; Brander, Christian; Clotet, Bonaventura; Gallart, Teresa; Gatell, José M

    2011-08-05

    This study provides a detailed description and characterization of the preparation of individualized lots of autologous heat inactivated HIV-1 virions used as immunogen in a clinical trial designed to test an autologous dendritic-cell-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine (Clinical Trial DCV-2, NCT00402142). For each participant, ex vivo isolation and expansion of primary virus were performed by co-culturing CD4-enriched PBMCs from the HIV-1-infected patient with PBMC from HIV-seronegative unrelated healthy volunteer donors. The viral supernatants were heat-inactivated and concentrated to obtain 1 mL of autologous immunogen, which was used to load autologous dendritic cells of each patient. High sequence homology was found between the inactivated virus immunogen and the HIV-1 circulating in plasma at the time of HIV-1 isolation. Immunogens contained up to 10⁹ HIV-1 RNA copies/mL showed considerably reduced infectivity after heat inactivation (median of 5.6 log₁₀), and were free of specified adventitious agents. The production of individualized lots of immunogen based on autologous inactivated HIV-1 virus fulfilling clinical-grade good manufacturing practice proved to be feasible, consistent with predetermined specifications, and safe for use in a clinical trial designed to test autologous dendritic cell-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine.

  8. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  9. Characterisation of osteophytes as an autologous bone graft source

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K.; Akiyama, T.; Akasaki, Y.; Nakashima, Y.

    2017-01-01

    provide evidence of favourable features of osteophytes for bone mineralisation through a direct effect on osteoblasts. The acceleration in metabolic activity of the osteophyte provides justification for future studies evaluating the clinical use of osteophytes as autologous bone grafts. Cite this article: K. Ishihara, K. Okazaki, T. Akiyama, Y. Akasaki, Y. Nakashima. Characterisation of osteophytes as an autologous bone graft source: An experimental study in vivo and in vitro. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:73–81. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0199.R1. PMID:28148490

  10. Long-term cryopreservation of bone marrow for autologous transplantation.

    PubMed

    Attarian, H; Feng, Z; Buckner, C D; MacLeod, B; Rowley, S D

    1996-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of long-term cryopreservation on the viability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or on the success of autologous bone marrow transplantation. Although progenitor cell assays such as culture of CFU-GM after thawing can be predictive of engraftment, the most rigorous assay for the cryosurvival of HSC is engraftment after reinfusion of stem cells. We retrospectively evaluated the engraftment data for 36 patients with hematologic malignancies or solid tumors treated at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between 1981 and 1993 who received bone marrows stored for 2 years or more. The median duration of cryopreservation for this study group was 2.7 years (range 2.0-7.8). Ninety-seven percent of patients in the study group achieved a granulocyte count of > or = 0.5 x 1.0(9)/1 at a median of 19 days (range 10-115) vs 86% of control group (selected by diagnosis and date of storage) at a median of 20 days (P = 0.14). Seventy percent of patients in the study group achieved a platelet count > or = 20 x 10(9)/1 at a median of 27 days (range 9-69) vs 74% of control group at a median of 23 days (P = 0.47). Also, samples of 28 marrows cryopreserved for a median of 4.4 years (range 2.0-7.8) were cultured to determine if a loss of hematopoietic progenitors relative to duration of storage could be detected. The storage length was not predictive for the quantity of colonies formed (P = 0.57 for BFU-E-derived colonies; P = 0.65 for CFU-GM-derived colonies). We found no consistent detrimental effect of long-term cryopreservation on the success rate of autologous bone marrow transplantation. This report confirms previous reports that marrow cells cryopreserved for several years are capable of engrafting. Therefore, bone marrow cells may be stored at an early appropriate time before the side-effects of multiple cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on hematopoietic tissues are incurred.

  11. Autologous breast reconstruction with the extended latissimus dorsi flap.

    PubMed

    Chang, David W; Youssef, Adel; Cha, Sumi; Reece, Gregory P

    2002-09-01

    provide good to excellent autologous reconstruction of small to medium sized breasts. In selected patients, larger breasts may be reconstructed with the extended latissimus dorsi flap alone. This flap's main disadvantage is donor-site morbidity with prolonged drainage and risk of seroma. Patients who are obese are at higher risk of developing these donor-site complications. In conclusion, the extended latissimus dorsi flap is a reliable method for total autologous breast reconstruction in most patients and should be considered more often as a primary choice for breast reconstruction.

  12. Use of autologous growth factors in lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Lowery, G L; Kulkarni, S; Pennisi, A E

    1999-08-01

    The results of spinal fusion, especially posteriorly above the lumbosacral junction, have been mixed. Autologous growth factor concentrate (AGF) prepared by ultraconcentration of platelets contains multiple growth factors having a chemotactic and mitogenic effect on mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts and may play a role in initiating bone healing. The purpose of this retrospective study is to review our results with AGF in lumbar spinal fusions. To date, AGF has been used in 39 patients having lumbar spinal fusion. The study group consisted of the first 19 consecutive cases to allow at least 6 months follow-up. The average follow-up was 13 months (range 6 to 18 months). Follow-up compliance was 91%. There were 7 men and 12 women. Average age was 52 years (range 30-72 years). Nine patients had prior back surgery. There were 8 smokers. AGF was used in posterior (n = 15) or anterior intradiscal (n = 4) fusions. AGF was used with autograft and coraline hydroxyapatite in all posterior fusions, and autograft, coral, and intradiscal spacer (carbon fiber spinal fusion cages or Synthes femoral ring) in intradiscal fusions. Posterior stabilization was used in all cases. Eight cases were single-level fusions, 6 were two-level, and 1 was a three-level fusion. Autologous iliac crest bone graft was taken in 14 cases and local autograft used in 5 cases. Posteriorly, a total of 23 levels were fused; of these, nine were at L5-S1, eight at L4-L5, five at L3-L4, and one at L2-L3. No impending pseudoarthroses were noted on plain radiographic examination at last follow-up visit. Solid fusion was confirmed in 3 patients having routine hardware removal, and in 2 patients who had surgery at an adjacent level. There was one posterior wound infection, which was managed without sequelae. When used as an adjunct to autograft, AGF offers theoretical advantages that need to be examined in controlled studies. Further study is necessary to determine whether coralline hydroxyapatite used as a

  13. [Suitability of autologous blood donation before bone marrow donation].

    PubMed

    Gouëzec, H; Ferré, N; Hervé, F; Lapart, C; Leberre, C; Bernard, M; Dauriac, C; Nimubona, S

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the benefit of predeposite autologous blood donation (PAD) before bone marrow (BM) donation on transfusion requirements, haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) and the occurrence of adverse events (AE). We collected data retrospectively from 50 donors of BM with PAD from 2010 to 2014. An autologous transfusion (AT) was given to 50% of the donors (group 1). In the group 2, the products from PAD were not used. The total volume median of marrow harvested was 17.7 mL/k (range 12.3-21.4) in the group 1 and 13.3 mL/k (8.6-22.6) in the group 2. The female ratio was higher in the group 1 (60%) than in the group 2 (16%). Bone marrow harvest led to a decline in Hb (from PAD to first day after BM donation) by 2.9 g/dL (1.5-5.5) in the group 1 and by 3.5 g/dL (1.2-5) in the group 2. The post-harvest Hb (D+1) median was identical in the two groups: 10.9 g/dL (7.6-13.5) in the group 1 versus 11.5 g/dL (9.3-13.4) in the group 2. Six AE were reported in each group. In the group with AE, the median weight was lower: 58 k (50-71) versus 75 k (52-110); and the median total volume of marrow harvested was higher: 20.1 mL/k (9.9-21.4) versus 14.3 mL/k (8.6-22.6). All post-harvest Hb were ≥ 7.6g/dL. This study shows the high loss of Hb after BM donation but not enough to prove a blood transfusion in BM donors with median age of 36 years (16-62) and without comorbidity. The occurrence of AE (25% of BM donors) justifies a careful surveillance after the BM donation. The PAD should not be routinely offered to bone marrow donors.

  14. Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.

    PubMed

    Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules.

  15. Lexical enhancement during prime-target integration: ERP evidence from matched-case identity priming.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gómez, Pablo; Jiménez, María; Perea, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    A number of experiments have revealed that matched-case identity PRIME-TARGET pairs are responded to faster than mismatched-case identity prime-TARGET pairs for pseudowords (e.g., JUDPE-JUDPE < judpe-JUDPE), but not for words (JUDGE-JUDGE = judge-JUDGE). These findings suggest that prime-target integration processes are enhanced when the stimuli tap onto lexical representations, overriding physical differences between the stimuli (e.g., case). To track the time course of this phenomenon, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) masked-priming lexical decision experiment that manipulated matched versus mismatched case identity in words and pseudowords. The behavioral results replicated previous research. The ERP waves revealed that matched-case identity-priming effects were found at a very early time epoch (N/P150 effects) for words and pseudowords. Importantly, around 200 ms after target onset (N250), these differences disappeared for words but not for pseudowords. These findings suggest that different-case word forms (lower- and uppercase) tap into the same abstract representation, leading to prime-target integration very early in processing. In contrast, different-case pseudoword forms are processed as two different representations. This word-pseudoword dissociation has important implications for neural accounts of visual-word recognition.

  16. It takes time to prime: semantic priming in the ocular lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted in which the manual response mode typically used in lexical decision tasks (LDTs) was replaced with an eye-movement response through a sequence of 3 words. This ocular LDT combines the explicit control of task goals found in LDTs with the highly practiced ocular response used in reading text. In Experiment 1, forward saccades indicated an affirmative lexical decision (LD) on each word in the triplet. In Experiment 2, LD responses were delayed until all 3 letter strings had been read. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contribution of task goals and response mode to semantic priming. Semantic priming is very robust in tasks that involve recognition of words in isolation, such as LDT, but limited during text reading, as measured using eye movements. Gaze durations in both experiments showed robust semantic priming even though ocular response times were much shorter than manual LDs for the same words in the English Lexicon Project. Ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the priming effect was concentrated in estimates of tau (τ), meaning that priming was most pronounced in the slow tail of the distribution. This pattern shows differential use of the prime information, which may be more heavily recruited in cases in which the LD is difficult, as indicated by longer response times. Compared with the manual LD responses, ocular LDs provide a more sensitive measure of this task-related influence on word recognition as measured by the LDT.

  17. Alcohol Expectancy Priming and Drinking Behavior: The Role of Compatibility between Prime and Expectancy Content

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ronald S.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Hicks, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    According to information-processing models of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies constitute representations in long-term memorythat may be activated in the presence of drinking-related cues, thereby influencing alcohol consumption. A fundamental implication of this approach is that primed expectancies should affect drinking only for those individuals who possess the specific expectancies primed. To test this notion, in the present study, participants were initially assessed on three distinct domains of positive alcohol expectancies. Approximately one week later, they completed an ad libitum drinking study during which only a single expectancy domain (sociability) was primed in the experimental condition. Consistent with predictions, following exposure to sociability primes, but not control primes, individuals with stronger expectancies that alcohol would enhance sociability uniquely showed increased placebo consumption of nonalcoholic beer. These results, which demonstrate the moderating role of compatibility between the specific content of primes and that of underlying expectancies, offer new, direct support for memory network-based models of drinking behavior. PMID:19586149

  18. A Statistical Argument for the Weak Twin Primes Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Certain definitions introduce appropriate concepts, among which are the definitions of the counting functions of the primes and twin primes, along with definitions of the correlation coefficient in a bivariate sample space. It is argued conjecturally that the characteristic functions of the prime "p" and of the quantity "p"+2 are highly…

  19. Going back to Donald: how comparisons shape judgmental priming effects.

    PubMed

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Damisch, Lysann

    2008-12-01

    The authors examine how judgmental priming effects are shaped by comparisons. Specifically, they suggest that concept priming involves spontaneous activation of concept-consistent standards, which are then spontaneously compared to the judgmental target. In 6 studies, they used a variety of priming methods (contextual cue, subliminal priming, indirect priming) to test these notions of spontaneous standard activation and spontaneous comparison. Study 1 demonstrates that priming a trait concept activates concept-consistent standards. Study 2 suggests that these activated standards contribute to priming effects. If alternative standards that are not particularly consistent with the primed concept are activated, priming effects diminish. Studies 3-6 show that the magnitude and direction of priming effects depend on the intensity and the type of the engaged comparison. Specifically, Study 3 demonstrates that the magnitude of a priming effect depends on the intensity of comparative processing. Studies 4 through 6 show that the direction of a priming effect (assimilation vs. contrast) depends on whether judges engage in a similarity or dissimilarity testing comparison mechanism--a factor which has been found to shape comparison consequences in other domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar,…

  1. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  2. The effects of alerting signals in masked priming

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska; Kiesel, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Alerting signals often serve to reduce temporal uncertainty by predicting the time of stimulus onset. The resulting response time benefits have often been explained by facilitated translation of stimulus codes into response codes on the basis of established stimulus-response (S-R) links. In paradigms of masked S-R priming alerting signals also modulate response activation processes triggered by subliminally presented prime stimuli. In the present study we tested whether facilitation of visuo-motor translation processes due to alerting signals critically depends on established S-R links. Alerting signals resulted in significantly enhanced masked priming effects for masked prime stimuli that included and that did not include established S-R links (i.e., target vs. novel primes). Yet, the alerting-priming interaction was more pronounced for target than for novel primes. These results suggest that effects of alerting signals on masked priming are especially evident when S-R links between prime and target exist. At the same time, an alerting-priming interaction also for novel primes suggests that alerting signals also facilitate stimulus-response translation processes when masked prime stimuli provide action-trigger conditions in terms of programmed S-R links. PMID:23882248

  3. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E.; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  4. 48 CFR 45.501 - Prime contractor alternate locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prime contractor alternate... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Support Government Property Administration 45.501 Prime contractor... administration from another contract administration office, for purposes of evaluating prime...

  5. Prospective and Retrospective Processing in Associative Mediated Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2012-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the faster word recognition of a target (e.g., milk) following presentation of a prime (e.g., pasture) that is related indirectly via a connecting "mediator" (e.g., cow). Association strength may be an important factor in whether mediated priming occurs prospectively (with target activation prior to its presentation) or…

  6. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  7. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  8. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  9. The Role of Polysemy in Masked Semantic and Translation Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Forster, Kenneth; Nicol, Janet; Nakamura, Kumiko

    2004-01-01

    A well-known asymmetry exists in the bilingual masked priming literature in which lexical decision is used: namely, masked primes in the dominant language (L1) facilitate decision times on targets in the less dominant language (L2), but not vice versa. In semantic categorization, on the other hand, priming is symmetrical. In Experiments 1-3 we…

  10. Cognitive Conflict and Inhibition in Primed Dichotic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saetrevik, Bjorn; Specht, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In previous behavioral studies, a prime syllable was presented just prior to a dichotic syllable pair, with instructions to ignore the prime and report one syllable from the dichotic pair. When the prime matched one of the syllables in the dichotic pair, response selection was biased towards selecting the unprimed target. The suggested mechanism…

  11. Give and Take: Syntactic Priming during Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven…

  12. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  13. Being Forward Not Backward: Lexical Limits to Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether masked priming is mediated by existing memory representations by determining whether nonwords targets would show repetition priming. To avoid the potential confound that nonword repetition priming would be obscured by a familiarity response bias, the standard lexical decision and naming tasks were modified to make…

  14. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence of Syntactic Priming in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2009-01-01

    Event-related potentials and eye tracking were used to investigate the nature of priming effects in sentence comprehension. Participants read 2 sentences (a prime sentence and a target sentence), both of which had a difficult and ambiguous sentence structure. The prime and target sentences contained either the same verb or verbs that were very…

  15. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  19. The temporal dynamics of masked repetition picture priming effects: manipulations of stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and prime duration.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Marianna D; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2010-06-22

    The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) and masked repetition priming to examine the time-course of picture processing. We manipulated the stimulus-onset asynchrony (110 ms, 230 ms, 350 ms, and 470 ms) between repeated and unrepeated prime-target pairs while holding the prime duration constant (50 ms) (Experiment 1) as well as the prime durations (30 ms, 50 ms, 70 ms, and 90 ms) (Experiment 2) with a constant SOA of 110 ms in a masked repetition priming paradigm with pictures. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying previously observed ERP components in masked priming with pictures. We found that both the N/P190 and N400 are modulated by changes in prime duration and SOA, however, it appears that longer prime exposure rather than a longer SOA leads to more in-depth processing as indexed by larger N400 effects.

  20. The electromotor system of the electric eel investigated with horseradish peroxidase as a retrograde tracer.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M V; Sandri, C

    1989-05-29

    The electromotor system of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, was studied by injection of horseradish peroxidase as a retrograde tracer. The electromotor neurons, which innervate the electrocytes, comprise a midline nucleus, largely dorsal to the spinal canal. Spinal motoneurons lie ventrolaterally. The electromotor and skeletal motor neuron populations correspond to the acetylcholinesterase-negative and -positive cells previously described. The medullary relay neurons were labeled following HRP injection into the spinal cord at a level where electromotor neurons occurred, but not after injection into the cord in the abdominal region rostral to these cells. Other medullary neurons, presumably bulbospinal motor fibers, were labeled after both levels of spinal cord injection. The results suggest that these axosomatic synapses, which are electrically transmitting but morphologically mixed, take up retrograde tracers in a manner similar to chemical synapses and that tracer uptake is at least largely at terminal regions.

  1. LRRK2 regulates retrograde synaptic compensation at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Jay; Tsurudome, Kazuya; Liao, Edward H.; Kauwe, Grant; Gray, Lindsay; Yanagiya, Akiko; R. Calderon, Mario; Sonenberg, Nahum; Haghighi, A. Pejmun

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease gene leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been implicated in a number of processes including the regulation of mitochondrial function, autophagy and endocytic dynamics; nevertheless, we know little about its potential role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate that postsynaptic knockdown of the fly homologue of LRRK2 thwarts retrograde, homeostatic synaptic compensation at the larval neuromuscular junction. Conversely, postsynaptic overexpression of either the fly or human LRRK2 transgene induces a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release by increasing the size of the release ready pool of vesicles. We show that LRRK2 promotes cap-dependent translation and identify Furin 1 as its translational target, which is required for the synaptic function of LRRK2. As the regulation of synaptic homeostasis plays a fundamental role in ensuring normal and stable synaptic function, our findings suggest that aberrant function of LRRK2 may lead to destabilization of neural circuits. PMID:27432119

  2. Air embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in a patient with budd Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wills-Sanin, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Yenny R; Polanco, Lucas; Rivero, Oscar; Suarez, Sebastian; Buitrago, Andrés F

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a procedure commonly used for the diagnosis and treatment of various pancreatic and biliary diseases. Air embolism is a rare complication, which may be associated with this procedure. This condition can be manifested as cardiopulmonary instability and/or neurological symptoms. Known risk factors include: sphincterotomy; application of air with high intramural pressure; anatomic abnormalities; and chronic hepatobiliary inflammation. It is important for the health-care staff, including anesthesiologists, interventional gastroenterologists, and critical care specialists, amongst others, to promptly recognize air embolism and to initiate therapy in a timely fashion, thus preventing potentially fatal outcomes. We submit a brief review of the literature and a case report of air embolism which occurred in the immediate postoperative stage of an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, performed in a woman with a history of liver transplantation due to Budd Chiari syndrome and biliary stricture.

  3. Air Embolism after Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in a Patient with Budd Chiari Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wills-Sanin, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Yenny R.; Polanco, Lucas; Rivero, Oscar; Suarez, Sebastian; Buitrago, Andrés F.

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a procedure commonly used for the diagnosis and treatment of various pancreatic and biliary diseases. Air embolism is a rare complication, which may be associated with this procedure. This condition can be manifested as cardiopulmonary instability and/or neurological symptoms. Known risk factors include: sphincterotomy; application of air with high intramural pressure; anatomic abnormalities; and chronic hepatobiliary inflammation. It is important for the health-care staff, including anesthesiologists, interventional gastroenterologists, and critical care specialists, amongst others, to promptly recognize air embolism and to initiate therapy in a timely fashion, thus preventing potentially fatal outcomes. We submit a brief review of the literature and a case report of air embolism which occurred in the immediate postoperative stage of an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, performed in a woman with a history of liver transplantation due to Budd Chiari syndrome and biliary stricture. PMID:25478242

  4. Combined retrograde labeling and calcium imaging in spinal cord and brainstem neurons of the lamprey.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; McPherson, D; O'Donovan, M J

    1994-11-07

    Neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the lamprey were retrogradely labeled with Calcium Green-dextran, an indicator dye that increases its fluorescence when intracellular calcium levels increase. Optical signals could be recorded from these labeled neurons during spinal cord stimulation, nerve stimulation, or spontaneous activity, up to 4 days after dye application and for distances of 5-14 mm away from the application site. Optical signals were enhanced by 4-AP, a potassium channel blocker, and blocked by cadmium, a calcium channel blocker. Taken together, the results suggest that the optical signals recorded from labeled neurons were due to calcium influx during electrical activity. Thus, retrograde labeling with calcium indicator dyes may provide a general purpose method for simultaneously monitoring the activity-related changes of intracellular calcium in anatomically identified groups of neurons in the lamprey nervous system.

  5. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    PubMed

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming.

  6. A light microscope-based double retrograde tracer strategy to chart central neuronal connections.

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, Tom J H; Apps, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes a double retrograde tracing method to chart divergent projections in the CNS using light microscope techniques. It is based on immunohistochemical visualization of retrograde transport of cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb) and silver enhancement of a gold-lectin conjugate. Production of the gold-lectin is explained in detail, and a technique is offered to record through the injection pipettes, to help guide accurate placement of injections. Visualization of the two tracers results in light brown staining of CTb-labeled neurons and labeling by black particles of gold-lectin-containing neurons. Both types of label are easily recognized in the same neuron. The labeling is permanent and is well suited for studies in which large areas of the brain need to be surveyed. The whole procedure (excluding survival time) takes approximately 5-7 d to complete.

  7. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  8. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma extending retrograde into the superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Portillo-Sanchez, José; Hessein-Abdou, Yasser; Puga-Alcalde, Eugenio; Perez-Martinez, Maria Angeles; Del Carmen Jimenez-Meneses, Maria; Camacho-Pedrero, Agustín; Valdepeñas-Herrero, Luís Ruíz

    2011-01-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor that is highly fatal. It can be misdiagnosed as acute or chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Herein, we report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and superior vena caval thrombosis. Intraoperatively, an extensive sarcoma was seen to extend retrograde from the pulmonary artery, past the right ventricle and right atrium, and into the superior vena cava. Surgical resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the central pulmonary arteries, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, relieved the clinical symptoms. The patient remained free of cancer at 14 months postoperatively. We believe that this is the 1st report of a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma that extended retrograde into the superior vena cava.

  9. CEUS Retrograde Cystography Is Helpful in Percutaneous Drainage of Complex Posttransplant Lymphocele.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Stefano; Patti, Valentina; Fazio, Federico; Moggia, Elisabetta; Fontana, Iris; Valente, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    After monolateral dual kidney transplantation, a 69 years old male patient developed symptomatic lymphocele with mild hydroureteronephrosis, impaired renal function, and right inferior limb oedema. A percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the fluid collection was planned, but the complex mutual relations between the collection and the renal hilus did not allow to identify a suitable route for a safe drainage insertion during conventional ultrasound examination. A retrograde cystography using echographic contrast agent was, therefore, performed, and it clarified the position of both ureters and the renal vessels, permitting an harmless ultrasound-guided percutaneous lymphocele drainage. In conclusion contrast-enhanced ultrasound retrograde cystography may be helpful in percutaneous drainage of complex posttransplant lymphocele.

  10. Retrograde intubation in a case of ankylosing spondylitis posted for correction of deformity of spine

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Chetankumar; Patel, Heena; Patel, Pranoti; Kharod, Utpala

    2010-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients are most challenging. These patient present the most serious array of intubation and difficult airway imaginable, secondary to decrease or no cervical spine mobility, fixed flexion deformity of thoracolumbar spine and possible temporomandibular joint disease. Sound clinical judgment is critical for timing and selecting the method for airway intervention. The retrograde intubation technique is an important option when fiberoptic bronchoscope is not available, and other method is not applicable for gaining airway access for surgery in prone position. We report a case of AS with fixed flexion deformity of thoracic and thoracolumbar spine, fusion of posterior elements of cervical spine posted for lumbar spinal osteotomy with anticipated difficult intubation. An awake retrograde oral intubation with light sedation and local block is performed. PMID:20668567

  11. Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Siming; Liu, Youming; Liu, Ru

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects. Microscopic observations confirmed such effects of salts on both starches. Furthermore, the effects of salts were more significant on waxy maize and on normal maize starch. Generally, salts could significantly influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch, following the order of the Hofmeister series.

  12. Adrenocortical hemorrhagic necrosis: the role of catecholamines and retrograde medullary-cell embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; McComb, D.J.; Kovacs, K.; Huettner, I.

    1981-10-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of adrenal necrosis using animal models of the disease (induced by administration of acrylonitrile, cysteamine, or pyrazole) and human cases. Results of electron-microscopic and histochemical time-response studies with rat models revealed an early, retrograde embolization of medullary cells and cell fragments in the cortical capillaries that showed prominent endothelial injury. The experimental adrenal lesions were prevented by surgical removal of the medulla one month before administration of adrenocorticolytic chemicals, or by the administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride. Histochemical staining for medullary (argyrophil) granules in human cases of adrenal necrosis demonstrated tissue fragments that stained positively for silver in vascular cortical spaces in nine of ten autopsy specimens and in all four surgical cases we reviewed. Thus, catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla and from the retrograde medullary emboli in the cortex may have a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical necrosis.

  13. Structural Constraints of Vaccine-Induced Tier-2 Autologous HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Fera, Daniela; Bhiman, Jinal; Eslamizar, Leila; Lu, Xiaozhi; Anasti, Kara; Zhang, Ruijung; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Stolarchuk, Christina; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Eaton, Amanda; Foulger, Andrew; Nie, Xiaoyan; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Barnett, Susan; Kelsoe, Garnett; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Morris, Lynn; Santra, Sampa; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-01-05

    Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization.

  14. Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Jodie L.; Thieman Mankin, Kelley M.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    This study reports electrolyte and acid/base disturbances observed in clinical cases receiving autologous transfusion of blood processed by a cell salvage device. The records of 12 client-owned dogs that received an autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device with pre- and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work from 12 control dogs with similar diseases. Control dogs received similar surgical treatment and were administered a similar volume per kg of packed red blood cells as case dogs, but did not undergo autologous transfusion. Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were significantly more likely to experience a decrease in ionized calcium and magnesium levels post-transfusion than were control dogs. Calcium and magnesium levels should be closely monitored during and after autologous transfusion. Calcium and/or magnesium supplementation may be required. PMID:26345136

  15. Retrograde Inversion Stripping as a Complication of the Clarivein® Mechanochemical Venous Ablation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Moore, HM; Franklin, IJ; Davies, AH

    2015-01-01

    The endovenous revolution has accelerated the development of new techniques and devices for the treatment of varicose veins. The ClariVein® mechanochemical ablation device offers tumescentless treatment with a rotating ablation tip that can theoretically become stuck in tissue. We present the first report of retrograde stripping of the small saphenous vein without anaesthesia following attempted use of the ClariVein® device, without adverse sequelae. PMID:25723675

  16. Percutaneous Retrograde Sclerotherapy for Refractory Bleeding of Jejunal Varices: Direct Injection via Superficial Epigastric Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Manabu Nakata, Waka; Isoda, Norio Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-02-15

    Small-bowel varices are rare and almost always occur in cases with portal hypertension. We encountered a patient with bleeding jejunal varices due to liver cirrhosis. Percutaneous retrograde sclerotherapy was performed via the superficial epigastric vein. Melena disappeared immediately after treatment. Disappearance of jejunal varices was confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. After 24 months of follow-up, no recurrent melena was observed.

  17. The movement of membranous organelles in axons. Electron microscopic identification of anterogradely and retrogradely transported organelles

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    To identify the structures to be rapidly transported through the axons, we developed a new method to permit local cooling of mouse saphenous nerves in situ without exposing them. By this method, both anterograde and retrograde transport were successfully interrupted, while the structural integrity of the nerves was well preserved. Using radioactive tracers, anterogradely transported proteins were shown to accumulate just proximal to the cooled site, and retrogradely transported proteins just distal to the cooled site. Where the anterogradely transported proteins accumulated, the vesiculotubular membranous structures increased in amount inside both myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Such accumulated membranous structures showed a relatively uniform diameter of 50--80 nm, and some of them seemed to be continuous with the axonal smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Thick sections of nerves selectively stained for the axonal membranous structures revealed that the network of the axonal SER was also packed inside axons proximal to the cooled site. In contrast, large membranous bodies of varying sizes accumulated inside axons just distal to the cooled site, where the retrogradely transported proteins accumulated. These bodies were composed mainly of multivesicular bodies and lamellated membranous structures. When horseradish peroxidase was administered in the distal end of the nerve, membranous bodies showing this activity accumulated, together with unstained membranous bodies. Hence, we are led to propose that, besides mitochondria, the membranous components in the axon can be classified into two systems from the viewpoint of axonal transport: "axonal SER and vesiculotubular structures" in the anterograde direction and "large membranous bodies" in the retrograde direction. PMID:6153657

  18. Functional relationship between mTERF4 and GUN1 in retrograde signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Duorong; Liu, Zhixin; Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling plays an important role in regulating the expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) in accordance with physiological demands on chloroplast biogenesis and function. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about the molecular nature of the plastid gene expression (PGE)-dependent type of retrograde signaling. PGE is a multifaceted process, and several factors, including pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, are involved in its regulation. The PPR protein GUN1 plays a central role in PGE-dependent retrograde signaling. In this study, we isolated a mutant exhibiting up-regulation of CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEIN (CAB) under normal growth conditions (named coe1 for CAB overexpression 1). The coe1 mutant has a single-base mutation in the gene for mitochondrial transcription termination factor 4 (mTERF4)/BSM/RUG2, which plays a role in regulating the processing of certain plastid transcripts. Defects in GUN1 or mTERF4 de-repressed the expression of specific plastid mRNAs in the presence of lincomycin (LIN). In wild-type plants, treatment with LIN or spectinomycin (SPE) inhibited processing of plastid transcripts. Comparative analysis revealed that in gun1 and coe1/mterf4, but not in wild-type, gun4, or gun5 plants, the processing of plastid transcripts and expression levels of Lhcb1 mRNA were affected in opposite ways when plants were grown in the presence of LIN or SPE. In addition, the coe1 mutation affected the intracellular accumulation and distribution of GUN1, as well as its plastid signaling activity. Taken together, these results suggest that GUN1 and COE1 cooperate in PGE and retrograde signaling. PMID:26685190

  19. Retrograde Stent Placement for Coil Embolization of a Wide-Necked Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo; Cho, Joon; Moon, Won-Jin; Solander, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Wide-necked aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are infrequently encountered in cerebrovascular practice, and endovascular treatment is difficult or impossible even with the use of several neck remodeling techniques. We present the case of a patient with a wide-necked aneurysm of the PICA, which was treated by the retrograde stenting through the contralateral vertebral artery and vertebrobasilar junction with antegrade coil embolization. PMID:22778576

  20. Role of Retrograde Trafficking in Stress Response, Host Cell Interactions, and Virulence of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaoping; Solis, Norma V.; Heilmann, Clemens J.; Phan, Quynh T.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Klis, Frans M.

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the vacuolar protein sorting complexes Vps51/52/53/54 and Vps15/30/34/38 are essential for efficient endosome-to-Golgi complex retrograde transport. Here we investigated the function of Vps15 and Vps51, representative members of these complexes, in the stress resistance, host cell interactions, and virulence of Candida albicans. We found that C. albicans vps15Δ/Δ and vps51Δ/Δ mutants had abnormal vacuolar morphology, impaired retrograde protein trafficking, and dramatically increased susceptibility to a variety of stressors. These mutants also had reduced capacity to invade and damage oral epithelial cells in vitro and attenuated virulence in the mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Proteomic analysis of the cell wall of the vps51Δ/Δ mutant revealed increased levels of the Crh11 and Utr2 transglycosylases, which are targets of the calcineurin signaling pathway. The transcript levels of the calcineurin pathway members CHR11, UTR2, CRZ1, CNA1, and CNA2 were elevated in the vps15Δ/Δ and vps51Δ/Δ mutants. Furthermore, these strains were highly sensitive to the calcineurin-specific inhibitor FK506. Also, deletion of CHR11 and UTR2 further increased the stress susceptibility of these mutants. In contrast, overexpression of CRH11 and UTR2 partially rescued their defects in stress resistance, but not host cell interactions. Therefore, intact retrograde trafficking in C. albicans is essential for stress resistance, host cell interactions, and virulence. Aberrant retrograde trafficking stimulates the calcineurin signaling pathway, leading to the increased expression of Chr11 and Utr2, which enables C. albicans to withstand environmental stress. PMID:24363364