Science.gov

Sample records for retroreflection measurement facility

  1. Diode laser-based standoff absorption measurement of water film thickness in retro-reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Brocksieper, C.; Jeffries, J. B.; Dreier, T.; Schulz, C.

    2016-09-01

    A dual-wavelength diode laser-based absorption sensor for standoff point measurements of water film thickness on an opaque surface is presented. The sensor consists of a diode laser source, a foil as backscattering target, and off-axis paraboloids for collecting the fraction of the laser radiation transmitted through the liquid layer via retro-reflection. Laser wavelengths in the near infrared at 1412 and 1353 nm are used where the temperature dependence of the liquid water absorption cross section is known. The lasers are fiber coupled and the detection of the retro-reflected light was accomplished through a multimode fiber and a single photodiode using time-division multiplexing. The water film thickness at a given temperature was determined from measured transmittance ratios at the two laser wavelengths. The sensor concept was first validated with measurement using a temperature-controlled calibration cell providing liquid layers of variable and known thickness between 100 and 1000 µm. Subsequently, the sensor was demonstrated successfully during recording the time-varying thickness of evaporating water films at fixed temperatures. The film thickness was recorded as a function of time at three temperatures down to 50 µm.

  2. Coherent backscatter: measurement of the retroreflective BRDF peak exhibited by several surfaces relevant to ladar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papetti, Thomas J.; Walker, William E.; Keffer, Charles E.; Johnson, Billy E.

    2007-09-01

    The sharp retroreflective peak that is commonly exhibited in the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function of diffuse surfaces was investigated for several materials relevant to ladar applications. The accurate prediction of target cross-sections requires target surface BRDF measurements in the vicinity of this peak. Measurements were made using the beamsplitter-based scatterometer at the U.S. Army's Advanced Measurements Optical Range (AMOR) at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. Co-polarized and cross-polarized BRDF values at 532 nm and 1064 nm were obtained as the bistatic angle was varied for several degrees about, and including, the monostatic point with a resolution of better than 2 mrad. Measurements covered a wide range of incidence angles. Materials measured included polyurethane coated nylons (PCNs), Spectralon, a silica phenolic, and various paints. For the co-polarized case, a retroreflective peak was found to be nearly ubiquitous for high albedo materials, with relative heights as great as 1.7 times the region surrounding the peak and half-widths between 0.11° and 1.3°. The shape of the observed peaks very closely matched coherent backscattering theory, though the phenomena observed could not be positively attributed to coherent backscattering or shadow hiding alone. Several data features were noted that may be of relevance to modelers of these phenomena, including the fact that the widths of the peaks were approximately the same for 532 nm as for 1064 nm and an observation that at large incidence angles, the width of the peak usually broadened in the in-plane bistatic direction.

  3. Photographic assessment of retroreflective film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, G.; Shortis, M. R.; Scott, P.

    2011-09-01

    Retroreflective film is used widely for target manufacture in close-range photogrammetry, especially where high precision is required for applications in industrial or engineering metrology. 3M Scotchlite 7610 high gain reflective sheeting is the gold standard for retroreflective targets because of the high level of response for incidence angles up to 60°. Retroreflective film is now widely used in the transport industry for signage and many other types of film have become available. This study reports on the performance of six types of retroreflective sheeting, including 7610, based on published metrics for reflectance. Measurements were made using a camera and flash, so as to be directly applicable to photogrammetry. Analysis of the results from this project and the assessment of previous research indicates that the use of standards is essential to enable a valid comparison of retroreflective performance.

  4. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  5. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  6. Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in- and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabal, A. M.; Ferrero, A.; Campos, J.; Fontecha, J. L.; Pons, A.; Rubiño, A. M.; Corróns, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the description and the characterization of the gonio-spectrophotometer GEFE (the acronym for 'Gonio-EspectroFotómetro Español'). This device has been designed and built for the low-uncertainty absolute measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). It comprises a fixed, collimated and uniform light source, a six-axis robot-arm to rotate the sample and a spectroradiometer that may revolve around the sample to be able to vary the source-to-detector angular separation. This gonio-spectrophotometer makes it possible to perform spectral measurements in the visible range, both inside and outside the incidence plane, as well as measurements in retroreflection conditions. This fully automated system is able to measure autonomously a sample's complete spectral BRDF (comprising around 1000 different angular configurations) in less than 4 h.

  7. Retroreflection Focusing Schlieren System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heineck, James T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A retroreflective type focusing schlieren system which permits the light source to be positioned on the optic side of the system is introduced. The system includes an extended light source, as opposed to a point source, located adjacent to a beam splitter which projects light through the flow field onto a reflecting grating in the form of a grid which generates sheets of light that are directed back through the flow field and the beam splitter onto a primary lens behind which is located a cut-off grid having a grid pattern which corresponds to the grid pattern of the reflecting grating. The cut-off grid is adjustably positioned behind the primary lens and an image plane for imaging the turbulence is adjustably located behind the cut-off grid.

  8. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapour concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially direct scanning tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapour concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m × 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv · m · √Hz-1 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  9. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapor concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially scanning direct tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapor concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m x 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv . m (Hz)-0.5 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered as a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  10. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  11. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate Method of Determining the Color of... Subpart F of Part 655—Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and...-fluorescent retroreflective materials may be measured in accordance with ASTM Test Method E1349,...

  12. Retroreflective systems for remote readout

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Ricks, Kirk L.

    1998-01-01

    A sensing device for sensing an environmental factor. The device includes a retroreflective layer disposed in a parallel, facing relationship with a sensing layer. The sensing layer has an initial optical absorption capacity for (i) sensing a presence of an environmental factor, (ii) experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor, and (iii) transmitting and attenuating light. A first portion of the sensing layer is sealed off from exposure to the environment while a second portion remains exposed to the environment such that, when the environmental factor is present, the first portion of the sensing layer is prevented from experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor. Well-collimated light beams are passed through the sensing layer and are reflected back from the retroreflective layer for processing. When the environmental factor is present, the beams which pass through the second portion are attenuated responsive to an increase in optical absorption capacity and are compared with the non-attenuated beams passing through the first portion to calculate the presence and quantity of the environmental factor.

  13. Retroreflective systems for remote readout

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Colwell, F.S.; Ricks, K.L.

    1998-10-13

    A sensing device is described for sensing an environmental factor. The device includes a retroreflective layer disposed in a parallel, facing relationship with a sensing layer. The sensing layer has an initial optical absorption capacity for (1) sensing a presence of an environmental factor, (2) experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor, and (3) transmitting and attenuating light. A first portion of the sensing layer is sealed off from exposure to the environment while a second portion remains exposed to the environment such that, when the environmental factor is present, the first portion of the sensing layer is prevented from experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor. Well-collimated light beams are passed through the sensing layer and are reflected back from the retroreflective layer for processing. When the environmental factor is present, the beams which pass through the second portion are attenuated responsive to an increase in optical absorption capacity and are compared with the non-attenuated beams passing through the first portion to calculate the presence and quantity of the environmental factor. 7 figs.

  14. LAGEOS Solar Radiation Force: Contribution from Cube-Corner Retroreflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabinski, Victor J.

    2016-05-01

    The surface of a spherical LAGEOS satellite contains 426 Cube Corner Reflectors (CCRs) for the retro-reflection of incident laser ranging beams back to their source. For practical reasons, the number of CCRs is finite, so their distribution over the surface is not perfectly uniform.At any time, the ~9 CCRs near the sub-solar point on the LAGEOS surface will also retroreflect incident sunlight back toward the Sun. This concentration of reflected sunlight into a parallel beam increases the resulting radiation force on the satellite over what occurs for the usual broad-beam specular and diffuse reflection by ordinary surfaces. Because of the non-uniform CCR distribution, the retroreflection of sunlight (and hence the solar radiation force on the satellite) varies with the Sun aspect angle, even when averaged over the spin period. The Sun aspect angle is the co-latitude of the sub-solar surface point measured from the spin pole.We use ray tracing of sunlight through the CCRs to determine the Sun angle dependence of the solar radiation force and the resulting variation in secular perturbation rates for the LAGEOS orbit, especially for the eccentricity elements. We investigate the possibility of using the observed variations in the eccentricity vector as a check on the spacecraft spin-axis attitude. Attitude information is important for computing radiation-force perturbations to the orbit node when determining the Lense-Thirring effect.

  15. Retroreflective imaging systems for enhanced optical biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Mark H.; Nichols, Jacqueline; Collier, Christopher M.; Jin, Xian; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2014-05-01

    Biosensing is important for detection and characterization of microorganisms. When the detection and characterization of targeted microorganisms require micron-scale resolutions, optical biosensing techniques are especially beneficial. Optical biosensing can be applied through direct or indirect optical sensing techniques. The latter have demonstrated especially high sensitivities for the detection of targeted microorganisms with labeling. Unfortunately, such systems rely on high-resolution microscopy with microscopic sampling areas to image the labeled target microorganisms. This leads to long characterization times for applications such as pathogen detection in water quality monitoring where users must scan the micron-scale sampling areas across millimeter- or even centimeter-scale samples. This work introduces retroreflector labels for the detection and characterization of microorganisms for macroscopic sample sizes. The demonstrated retroreflective imaging system uses a laser source to illuminate the sample, in lieu of the fluorescent excitation source, and micron-scale retroreflector labels, in lieu of fluorescent stains/proteins. Antibodies are used to bind retroreflectors to targeted microorganisms. The presence of these microscopic retroreflector-microorganism pairs is monitored in a retroreflected image that is captured by a distant image sensor which shows a well-localized retroreflected beamspot for each pair. Characteristics of an appropriately-designed retroreflective imaging system which provide a quantifiable record of microorganism-coupled retroreflectors across macroscopic sample sizes are presented. Retroreflection directionality, collimation, and contrast are investigated for both corner-cube retroreflectors and spherical retroreflectors (of varying refractive indices). It is ultimately found that such a system is an effective tool for the detection and characterization of microorganism targets, down to a single-target detection limit.

  16. Inspection of float glass using a novel retroreflective laser scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jonathan D.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1988, Image Automation has marketed a float glass inspection system using a novel retro-reflective laser scanning system. The (patented) instrument scans a laser beam by use of a polygon through the glass onto a retro-reflective screen, and collects the retro-reflected light off the polygon, such that a stationary image of the moving spot on the screen is produced. The spot image is then analyzed for optical effects introduced by defects within the glass, which typically distort and attenuate the scanned laser beam, by use of suitable detectors. The inspection system processing provides output of defect size, shape and severity, to the factory network for use in rejection or sorting of glass plates to the end customer. This paper briefly describes the principles of operation, the system architecture, and limitations to sensitivity and measurement repeatability. New instruments based on the retro-reflective scanning method have recently been developed. The principles and implementation are described. They include: (1) Simultaneous detection of defects within the glass and defects in a mirror coating on the glass surface using polarized light. (2) A novel distortion detector for very dark glass. (3) Measurement of optical quality (flatness/refractive homogeneity) of the glass using a position sensitive detector.

  17. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this standard in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting. 224... Application, Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.103 Characteristics...

  18. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  19. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  20. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  1. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  2. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.; Mitchell, Kenneth B.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  3. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded in or suspended beneath the film so as to form a non-exposed retroreflective optical system. (b) Color... incorporation by reference of this standard in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  4. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provide a backup for red pier lights, red channel margin lights, and green mid channel lights, which are... District Commander may require or authorize the display of high intensity red or green retroreflective... lighting. Lateral significant red triangles and green square retroreflective panels shall be used....

  5. Use of retroreflective material for pseudo single-ended CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John D.; Parker, Richard J.

    1990-08-01

    Use of the retroreflective materials composed of miniature corner cube reflectors in CARS (Coherent AntiStokes Raman Spectroscpy) was demonstrated, with a view to their application where no line of sight access is available. Spectra were obtained in air and laboratory flames using commercial 'load sign' material to retroreflect CARS signal beams.

  6. A Compact Wakefield Measurement Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.

    2015-10-01

    The conceptual design of a compact, photoinjector-based, facility for high precision measurements of wakefields is presented. This work is motivated by the need for a thorough understanding of beam induced wakefield effects for any future linear collider. We propose to use a high brightness photoinjector to generate (approximately) a 2 nC, 2 mm-mrad drive beam at 20 MeV to excite wakefields and a second photoinjector to generate a 5 MeV, variably delayed, trailing witness beam to probe both the longitudinal and transverse wakefields in the structure under test. Initial estimates show that we can detect a minimum measurable dipole transverse wake function of 0.1 V/pC/m/mm and a minimum measurable monopole longitudinal wake function of 2.5 V/pC/m. Simulations results for the high brightness photoinjector, calculations of the facility's wakefield measurement resolution, and the facility layout are presented.

  7. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this standard in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded...

  8. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference of this standard in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded...

  9. Heat-Flux-Measuring Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus simulates conditions in turbine engines. Automated facility generates and measures transient and steady-state heat fluxes at flux densities from 0.3 to 6 MW/m(Sup2) and temperatures from 100 to 1,200 K. Positioning arm holds heat-flux gauge at focal point of arc lamp. Arm previously chilled gauge in liquid nitrogen in Dewar flask. Cooling water flows through lamp to heat exchanger. Used to develop heat-flux gauges for turbine blades and to test materials for durability under rapidly changing temperatures.

  10. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  11. Enhanced optical discrimination system based on switchable retroreflective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Phillip; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Reported herein is the design, characterization, and demonstration of a laser interrogation and response optical discrimination system based on large-area corner-cube retroreflective films. The switchable retroreflective films use light-scattering liquid crystal to modulate retroreflected intensity. The system can operate with multiple wavelengths (visible to infrared) and includes variable divergence optics for irradiance adjustments and ease of system alignment. The electronic receiver and switchable retroreflector offer low-power operation (<4 mW standby) on coin cell batteries with rapid interrogation to retroreflected signal reception response times (<15 ms). The entire switchable retroreflector film is <1 mm thick and is flexible for optimal placement and increased angular response. The system was demonstrated in high ambient lighting conditions (daylight, 18k lux) with a visible 10-mW output 635-nm source out to a distance of 400 m (naked eye detection). Nighttime demonstrations were performed using a 1.5-mW, 850-nm infrared laser diode out to a distance of 400 m using a night vision camera. This system could have tagging and conspicuity applications in commercial or military settings.

  12. Enhanced optical discrimination system based on switchable retroreflective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Phillip; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Reported herein is the design, characterization, and demonstration of a laser interrogation and response optical discrimination system based on large-area corner-cube retroreflective films. The switchable retroreflective films use light-scattering liquid crystal to modulate retroreflected intensity. The system can operate with multiple wavelengths (visible to infrared) and includes variable divergence optics for irradiance adjustments and ease of system alignment. The electronic receiver and switchable retroreflector offer low-power operation (<4 mW standby) on coin cell batteries with rapid interrogation to retroreflected signal reception response times (<15 ms). The entire switchable retroreflector film is <1 mm thick and is flexible for optimal placement and increased angular response. The system was demonstrated in high ambient lighting conditions (daylight, 18k lux) with a visible 10-mW output 635-nm source out to a distance of 400 m (naked eye detection). Nighttime demonstrations were performed using a 1.5-mW, 850-nm infrared laser diode out to a distance of 400 m using a night vision camera. This system could have tagging and conspicuity applications in commercial or military settings.

  13. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administrator that provides for distribution of material along the length of each car and as close as... horizontal pattern along the length of the car sides, with the bottom edge of the sheeting as close as....001 ER28OC05.002 (ii) Horizontal application. If retroreflective sheeting is applied in a...

  14. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., retroreflective sheeting need not be applied over existing or required car stencils and markings. If necessary to avoid appurtenances, discontinuous surfaces, or existing or required car markings or stencils, 4x18 and... side of the appurtenance, discontinuous surface, or car markings or stencils, as practicable....

  15. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., retroreflective sheeting need not be applied over existing or required car stencils and markings. If necessary to avoid appurtenances, discontinuous surfaces, or existing or required car markings or stencils, 4x18 and... side of the appurtenance, discontinuous surface, or car markings or stencils, as practicable....

  16. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., retroreflective sheeting need not be applied over existing or required car stencils and markings. If necessary to avoid appurtenances, discontinuous surfaces, or existing or required car markings or stencils, 4x18 and... side of the appurtenance, discontinuous surface, or car markings or stencils, as practicable....

  17. Floating aerial LED signage based on aerial imaging by retro-reflection (AIRR).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Tomiyama, Yuka; Suyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    We propose a floating aerial LED signage technique by utilizing retro-reflection. The proposed display is composed of LEDs, a half mirror, and retro-reflective sheeting. Directivity of the aerial image formation and size of the aerial image have been investigated. Furthermore, a floating aerial LED sign has been successfully formed in free space.

  18. Electro-optical detection probability of optical devices determined by bidirectional laser retro-reflection cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Schertzer, Stephane; Hengy, Sebastien

    2015-05-01

    A good measure for the probability to detect a sniper telescopic sight is the effective bi-directional laser retro-reflection cross section. This angular (bi-directional) property of an optical device can be measured and can be used for a fist estimation of its probability to be detected by an active imaging. In the present paper, the authors give examples for resolved and non-resolved sensing of a telescopic sight under mono-static and bi-static conditions. As a result of these measurements, the resolved sensing under mono-static conditions shows the highest signal response in a wide angular range.

  19. Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.

  20. Waste measurements at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator's perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

  1. Directional reflectance characterization facility and measurement methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuckin, B. T.; Haner, D. A.; Menzies, R. T.; Esproles, C.; Brothers, A. M.

    1996-08-01

    A precision reflectance characterization facility, constructed specifically for the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance properties of Spectralon panels planned for use as in-flight calibrators on the NASA Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument is described. The incident linearly polarized radiation is provided at three laser wavelengths: 442, 632.8, and 859.9 nm. Each beam is collimated when incident on the Spectralon. The illuminated area of the panel is viewed with a silicon photodetector that revolves around the panel (360 ) on a 30-cm boom extending from a common rotational axis. The reflected radiance detector signal is ratioed with the signal from a reference detector to minimize the effect of amplitude instabilities in the laser sources. This and other measures adopted to reduce noise have resulted in a bidirectional reflection function (BRF) calibration facility with a measurement precision with regard to a BRF measurement of 0.002 at the 1 confidence level. The Spectralon test piece panel is held in a computer-controlled three-axis rotational assembly capable of a full 360 rotation in the horizontal plane and 90 in the vertical. The angular positioning system has repeatability and resolution of 0.001 . Design details and an outline of the measurement methodology are presented.

  2. The magnet measurement facility for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Doose, C.; Hogrefe, R.; Kim, K.; Merl, R.

    1993-10-01

    A magnet measurement facility has been developed to measure the prototype and production magnets for the Advance Photon Source. The measurement facility is semi-automatic in measurement control and data analysis. One dipole system and three rotating coil measurement systems for quadrupole and sextupole magnets and corresponding probe coils are described.

  3. Double pass retroreflection for corrosion detection in aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorowski, J. P.; Krishnakumar, S.; Gould, R. W.; Bellinger, N. C.; Karpala, F.; Hageniers, O. L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical double pass retroreflection surface inspection technique (D Sight) used for visualizing surface distortions, depressions or pertrusions has been adapted as a rapid, enhanced visual inspection method inspection of large external aircraft surfaces. A project to fully characterize the D Sight indications of corrosion damage in lap splices is currently active. Over 150 large transport aircraft fuselage lap splice specimens have been collected. D Sight Aircraft Inspection System - (DAIS) 250C has been developed and tested both in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory tests lap splices retrieved from retired aircraft and subjected to accelerated corrosion and lap splices naturally corroded in-service were inspected with DAIS, eddy current, X-ray, shadow moire and subjected to tear down. It has been shown that the DAIS 250C is capable of locating corrosion pillowing indicative of a thickness loss as low as 2 percent. The first field trial of the DAIS 250C was based on two service bulletins requiring inspection of longitudinal and circumferential lap splices on the 737-200 aircraft from BS 259.5 to BS 1016. The DAIS 250C inspection, including analysis and report, took 36 man-hours. The recommended technique in the SB was close visual inspection and the time required according to the service bulletins, was 278 man-hours.

  4. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45)...

  5. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45)...

  6. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45)...

  7. 49 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting (Minimum Photometric Performance Requirements..., Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 224—Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in...

  8. Chroma key without color restrictions based on asynchronous amplitude modulation of background illumination on retroreflective screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Borja; Lafuente, Juan A.

    2016-03-01

    A simple technique to avoid color limitations in image capture systems based on chroma key video composition using retroreflective screens and light-emitting diodes (LED) rings is proposed and demonstrated. The combination of an asynchronous temporal modulation onto the background illumination and simple image processing removes the usual restrictions on foreground colors in the scene. The technique removes technical constraints in stage composition, allowing its design to be purely based on artistic grounds. Since it only requires adding a very simple electronic circuit to widely used chroma keying hardware based on retroreflective screens, the technique is easily applicable to TV and filming studios.

  9. Rayleigh Scattering for Measuring Flow in a Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Carlos R.; Panda, Jayanta

    2006-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-engine-component test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust. A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-enginecomponent test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust

  10. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in a red and white pattern (see Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), S5.7... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December...

  11. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in a red and white pattern (see Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), S5.7... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December...

  12. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in a red and white pattern (see Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), S5.7... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December...

  13. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in a red and white pattern (see Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), S5.7... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December...

  14. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in a red and white pattern (see Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), S5.7... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December...

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-10-02

    This Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter covers the following topics: The Raman lidar at the SGP central facility is receiving upgrades to its environmental controls; The instrument tower at Okmulgee State Park is receiving upgrades to prevent Turkey Vultures from roosting on the booms.

  16. Hyper-spectral measurements of Howardites with the SPIM facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, S.; Manzari, P.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Di Iorio, T.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-04-01

    We report visible and infrared measurements on powdered samples (<75μm) of three howardite meteorites. These preliminary measurements are part of a set of spectroscopic measurements performed on 33 HED samples with different laboratory setups in use at INAF-IAPS. Here we describe reflectance spectra measured with the SPIM facility on three meteorites: CRE-01400, EET-87509 and EET-87513.

  17. [Supply services at health facilities: measuring performance].

    PubMed

    Dacosta Claro, I

    2001-01-01

    Performance measurement, in their different meanings--either balance scorecard or outputs measurement--have become an essential tool in today's organizations (World-Class organizations) to improve service quality and reduce costs. This paper presents a performance measurement system for the hospital supply chain. The system is organized in different levels and groups of indicators in order to show a hierarchical, coherent and integrated vision of the processes. Thus, supply services performance is measured according to (1) financial aspects, (2) customers satisfaction aspects and (3) internal aspects of the processes performed. Since the informational needs of the managers vary within the administrative structure, the performance measurement system is defined in three hierarchical levels. Firstly, the whole supply chain, with the different interrelation of activities. Secondly, the three main processes of the chain--physical management of products, purchasing and negotiation processes and the local storage units. And finally, the performance measurement of each activity involved. The system and the indicators have been evaluated with the participation of 17 health services of Quebec (Canada), however, and due to the similarities of the operation, could be equally implemented in Spanish hospitals.

  18. Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Puro, Vincenzo; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an “insider attack.” PMID:22571373

  19. Linearity Study of a Spectral Emissivity Measurement Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.; Liang, Y.; Duan, Y.

    2009-02-01

    Linearity is one of the important characteristics of a spectral radiation measurement facility. Basically, it depends on the linearity of the spectral responsivity of the detector and amplifier at different wavelengths. As spectral emissivity is measured over wide wavelength and temperature ranges and the detection system has significant drift and noise, it is not easy to measure the linearity of this facility accurately using only one standard radiator. A simple double-blackbody method has been adopted to simulate reference emissivity samples and test the linearity of the spectral emissivity measurement facility developed at the National Institute of Metrology. Good linearity results were obtained from 3 μm to 15 μm. This method minimizes the influence of drift on the emissivity measurement over a wide ratio of measurement signals and wide spectral range.

  20. Direct shaft torque measurements in a transient turbine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Paul F.; Povey, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a shaft torque measurement system for the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (formerly the Turbine Test Facility (TTF) at QinetiQ, Farnborough), or OTRF. As part of the recent EU TATEF II programme, the facility was upgraded to allow turbine efficiency measurements to be performed. A shaft torque measurement system was developed as part of this upgrade. The system is unique in that, to the authors' knowledge, it provided the first direct measurement of shaft torque in a transient turbine facility although the system has wider applicability to rotating test facilities in which power measurement is a requirement. The adopted approach removes the requirement to quantify bearing friction, which can be difficult to accurately calibrate under representative operating conditions. The OTRF is a short duration (approximately 0.4 s run time) isentropic light-piston facility capable of matching all of the non-dimensional parameters important for aerodynamic and heat studies, namely Mach number, Reynolds number, non-dimensional speed, stage pressure ratio and gas-to-wall temperature ratio. The single-stage MT1 turbine used for this study is a highly loaded unshrouded design, and as such is relevant to modern military, or future civil aero-engine design. Shaft torque was measured directly using a custom-built strain gauge-based torque measurement system in the rotating frame of reference. This paper describes the development of this measurement system. The system was calibrated, including the effects of temperature, to a traceable primary standard using a purpose-built facility. The bias and precision uncertainties of the measured torque were ±0.117% and ±0.183%, respectively. To accurately determine the shaft torque developed by a turbine in the OTRF, small corrections due to inertial torque (associated with changes in the rotational speed) and aerodynamic drag (windage) are required. The methods for performing these

  1. Control System Upgrade for a Mass Property Measurement Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Mass Property Measurement Facility (MPMF) at the Goddard Space Flight Center has undergone modifications to ensure the safety of Flight Payloads and the measurement facility. The MPMF has been technically updated to improve reliability and increase the accuracy of the measurements. Modifications include the replacement of outdated electronics with a computer based software control system, the addition of a secondary gas supply in case of a catastrophic failure to the gas supply and a motor controlled emergency stopping feature instead of a hard stop.

  2. The insertion device magnetic measurement facility: Prototype and operational procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Burkel, L.; Dejus, R.; Maines, J.; O'Brien, J.; Vasserman, I. . Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Div.); Pfleuger, J. , Hamburg . Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor)

    1993-03-01

    This report is a description of the current status of the magnetic measurement facility and is a basic instructional manual for the operation of the facility and its components. Please refer to the appendices for more detailed information about specific components and procedures. The purpose of the magnetic measurement facility is to take accurate measurements of the magnetic field in the gay of the IDs in order to determine the effect of the ID on the stored particle beam and the emitted radiation. The facility will also play an important role when evaluating new ideas, novel devices, and inhouse prototypes as part of the ongoing research and development program at the APS. The measurements will be performed with both moving search coils and moving Hall probes. The IDs will be evaluated by computer modeling of the emitted radiation for any given (measured) magnetic field map. The quality of the magnetic field will be described in terms of integrated multipoles for the effect on Storage Ring performance and in terms of the derived trajectories for the emitted radiation. Before being installed on the Storage Ring, every device will be measured and characterized to assure that it is compatible with Storage Ring requirements and radiation specifications. The accuracy that the APS needs to achieve for magnetic measurements will be based on these specifications.

  3. Full-scale high-speed ``Edgerton'' retroreflective shadowgraphy of gunshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary

    2005-11-01

    Almost 1/2 century ago, H. E. ``Doc'' Edgerton demonstrated a simple and elegant direct-shadowgraph technique for imaging large-scale events like explosions and gunshots. Only a retroreflective screen, flashlamp illumination, and an ordinary view camera were required. Retroreflective shadowgraphy has seen occasional use since then, but its unique combination of large scale, simplicity and portability has barely been tapped. It functions well in environments hostile to most optical diagnostics, such as full-scale outdoor daylight ballistics and explosives testing. Here, shadowgrams cast upon a 2.4 m square retroreflective screen are imaged by a Photron Fastcam APX-RS digital camera that is capable of megapixel image resolution at 3000 frames/sec up to 250,000 frames/sec at lower resolution. Microsecond frame exposures are used to examine the external ballistics of several firearms, including a high-powered rifle, an AK-47 submachine gun, and several pistols and revolvers. Muzzle blast phenomena and the mechanism of gunpowder residue deposition on the shooter's hands are clearly visualized. In particular, observing the firing of a pistol with and without a silencer (suppressor) suggests that some of the muzzle blast energy is converted by the silencer into supersonic jet noise.

  4. Position estimation for fiducial marks based on high intensity retroreflective tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkina, Anna; Serikova, Mariya; Pantyushin, Anton

    2016-04-01

    3D position estimation of an object usually involve computer vision techniques, which require fiducial markers attached to the objects surface. Modern technology provides a high intensity retroreflective material in the form of a tape which is easy to mount to the object and can be used as a base for fiducial marks. But inevitable drawback of the tapes with the highest retroreflective intensity is the presence of technological pattern which affects spatial distribution of retroreflected light and deforms border of any print on tape's surface. In this work we compare various shapes of metrological pattern and examine Fourier descriptors based image processing to obtain estimation of accuracy of mark image position. To verify results we developed a setup consisting of a camera based on Sony ICX274 CCD, 25 mm lens, 800 nm LED lightning and high intensity microprismatic tape. The experiment showed that there is no significant difference between proposed mark shapes as well as between direct and indirect contrast when proposed image processing is used. The experiments confirmed that the image processing implemented without elimination of non-reflective netting pattern can only provide an accuracy of coordinates extraction close to 1 pix.

  5. Flow Disturbance Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility to assess the test-section unsteady flow environment. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the facility to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition-sensitive testing at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range. The facility can operate in two modes, warm and cryogenic test conditions for testing full and semispan-scaled models. Data were acquired for Mach and unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.95 and 3.3 × 10(exp 6) less than Re/m less than 220×10(exp 6) collectively at air and cryogenic conditions. Measurements were made in the test section using a survey rake that was populated with 19 probes. Roll polar data at selected conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. This paper focuses primarily on the unsteady pressure and hot-wire results. Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the facility may be a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  6. Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

  7. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Joseph M.; Reina-Torres, Ester; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Rowe, Barnaby; Overby, Darryl R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied in vivo to mice, as

  8. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Joseph M; Reina-Torres, Ester; Bertrand, Jacques A; Rowe, Barnaby; Overby, Darryl R

    2016-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied in vivo to mice, as

  9. Quality assessment in nursing home facilities: measuring customer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mostyn, M M; Race, K E; Seibert, J H; Johnson, M

    2000-01-01

    A national study designed to assess the reliability and validity of a nursing home customer satisfaction survey is summarized. One hundred fifty-nine facilities participated, each responsible for the distribution and collection of 200 questionnaires randomly sent to the home of the resident's responsible party. A total of 9053 completed questionnaires were returned, for an average adjusted response rate of 53%. The factor analysis identified 4 scales: Comfort and Cleanliness, Nursing, Food Services, and Facility Care and Services, each with high reliability. Based on a multiple regression analysis, the scales were shown to have good criterion-related validity, accounting for 64% of the variance in overall quality ratings. Comparisons based on select characteristics indicated significantly different satisfaction ratings among facilities. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the construct validity of a multidimensional customer satisfaction scale with measured reliability and criterion-related validity. Moreover, the scale can be used to differentiate satisfaction levels among facilities. PMID:10763218

  10. Quality assessment in nursing home facilities: measuring customer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mostyn, M M; Race, K E; Seibert, J H; Johnson, M

    2000-01-01

    A national study designed to assess the reliability and validity of a nursing home customer satisfaction survey is summarized. One hundred fifty-nine facilities participated, each responsible for the distribution and collection of 200 questionnaires randomly sent to the home of the resident's responsible party. A total of 9053 completed questionnaires were returned, for an average adjusted response rate of 53%. The factor analysis identified 4 scales: Comfort and Cleanliness, Nursing, Food Services, and Facility Care and Services, each with high reliability. Based on a multiple regression analysis, the scales were shown to have good criterion-related validity, accounting for 64% of the variance in overall quality ratings. Comparisons based on select characteristics indicated significantly different satisfaction ratings among facilities. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the construct validity of a multidimensional customer satisfaction scale with measured reliability and criterion-related validity. Moreover, the scale can be used to differentiate satisfaction levels among facilities.

  11. National Ignition Facility neutron time-of-flight measurements (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R. A.; Moran, M. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Eckart, M. J.; Zacharias, R. A.; Haslam, J. J.; Clancy, T. J.; Yeoman, M. F.; Warwas, D. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2010-10-15

    The first 3 of 18 neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) channels have been installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The role of these detectors includes yield, temperature, and bang time measurements. This article focuses on nTOF data analysis and quality of results obtained for the first set of experiments to use all 192 NIF beams. Targets produced up to 2x10{sup 10} 2.45 MeV neutrons for initial testing of the nTOF detectors. Differences in neutron scattering at the OMEGA laser facility where the detectors were calibrated and at NIF result in different response functions at the two facilities. Monte Carlo modeling shows this difference. The nTOF performance on these early experiments indicates that the nTOF system with its full complement of detectors should perform well in future measurements of yield, temperature, and bang time.

  12. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR IS FUELED AS AN ETR MOCK-UP. LIGHTS DANGLE BELOW WATER LEVEL. CONTROL RODS AND OTHER APPARATUS DESCEND FROM ABOVE WATER LEVEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-900. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT OF MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WOOD PLANKS REST ON CANAL WALL OBSERVABLE IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11745. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Optical measurement of propeller blade deflections in a spin facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.; Meyn, Erwin H.; Mehmed, Oral; Kurkov, Anatole P.

    1990-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical system for measuring propeller blade deflections has been used in the NASA Lewis dynamic spin facility. Deflection of points at the leading and trailing edges of a blade section can be obtained with a narrow light beam from a low power helium-neon laser. A system used to measure these deflections at three spanwise locations is described. Modifications required to operate the lasers in a near-vacuum environment are also discussed.

  15. Measurement and Control Systems of Tritium Facilities for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.

    2005-07-15

    The technical approach, equipment and software developed during the creation of measurement and control systems for two complexes are described. The first one is a complex that prepares the gas mixture and targets of the 'TRITON' facility. The 'TRITON' facility is designed for studying muon catalyzed fusion reactions in triple mixtures of H/D/T hydrogen isotopes over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The second one is 'ACCULINNA' - the liquid tritium target designed to investigate the neutron overloaded hydrogen and helium nuclei. These neutron-overloaded nuclei are produced in reactions of tritium beams on a heavy hydrogen and tritium target.

  16. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement results.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Austin L; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Martinez, David M; Vaughn, Timothy L; Williams, Laurie L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Floerchinger, Cody; Omara, Mark; Subramanian, R; Zimmerle, Daniel; Marchese, Anthony J; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-01

    Facility-level methane emissions were measured at 114 gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in the United States natural gas system. At gathering facilities, the measured methane emission rates ranged from 0.7 to 700 kg per hour (kg/h) (0.6 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm)). Normalized emissions (as a % of total methane throughput) were less than 1% for 85 gathering facilities and 19 had normalized emissions less than 0.1%. The range of methane emissions rates for processing plants was 3 to 600 kg/h (3 to 524 scfm), corresponding to normalized methane emissions rates <1% in all cases. The distributions of methane emissions, particularly for gathering facilities, are skewed. For example, 30% of gathering facilities contribute 80% of the total emissions. Normalized emissions rates are negatively correlated with facility throughput. The variation in methane emissions also appears driven by differences between inlet and outlet pressure, as well as venting and leaking equipment. Substantial venting from liquids storage tanks was observed at 20% of gathering facilities. Emissions rates at these facilities were, on average, around four times the rates observed at similar facilities without substantial venting. PMID:25668106

  17. Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic Levitation Facility EML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillo, Jurgen; Fritze, Holger; Lohofer, Georg; Schulz, Michal; Stenzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two advanced measurement devices for the microgravity electromagnetic levitation facility (EML), which is currently under construction for the use onboard the "International Space Station (ISS)": the "Sample Coupling Electronics (SCE)" and the "Oxygen Sensing and Control Unit (OSC)". The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented.

  18. Measurement Capabilities of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Kluzek, C. D.; Chand, D.; Pekour, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites in three important climatic regimes that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties. ARM also operates mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months) to investigate understudied climate regimes around the globe. Finally, airborne observations by ARM's Aerial Facility (AAF) enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval algorithm development, and model evaluation that is not possible using ground-based techniques. AAF started out in 2007 as a "virtual hangar" with no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments owned by ARM. In this mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, the Battelle owned G-1 aircraft was included in the ARM facility. The G-1 is a large twin turboprop aircraft, capable of measurements up to altitudes of 7.5 km and a range of 2,800 kilometers. Furthermore the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of seventeen new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also heavily engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments. In the presentation we will showcase science applications based on measurements from recent field campaigns such as CARES, CALWATER and TCAP.

  19. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  20. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices... Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure Observation angle (degrees) Entrance angle (degrees)...

  1. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices... Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure Observation angle (degrees) Entrance angle (degrees)...

  2. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices... Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure Observation angle (degrees) Entrance angle (degrees)...

  3. Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tyler J; Lang, Amy W; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Westcott, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value. PMID:20887004

  4. Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tyler J; Lang, Amy W; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Westcott, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value.

  5. Experimental demonstration of population inversion driven by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Klein, Jens; Oberst, Martin; Halfmann, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    We present experimental data to demonstrate coherently driven population inversion by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage in metastable helium atoms. Complete and robust population transfer from an initial to a target state is induced by coherent interaction of the atoms in a supersonic beam with two counterpropagating and temporally delayed laser pulses of different intensities. The radiation fields intersect the atomic beam slightly tilted away from normal incidence, thereby inducing Doppler shifts of the atomic resonance between the initial and the target state. Thus the laser pulses produce a bichromatic field in the rest frame of each atom, which induces complete coherent population transfer by an adiabatic passage process.

  6. Compact tunable microwave filter using retroreflective acousto-optic filtering and delay controls.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Ghauri, Farzan N

    2007-03-01

    Programmable broadband rf filters are demonstrated using a compact retroreflective optical design with an acousto-optic tunable filter and a chirped fiber Bragg grating. This design enables fast 34 micros domain analog-mode control of rf filter time delays and weights. Two proof-of-concept filters are demonstrated including a two-tap notch filter with >35 dB notch depth and a four-tap bandpass filter. Both filters have 2-8 GHz tunability and a 34 micros reset time.

  7. Thermal design of retroreflective stray light fore-baffles for spaceborne optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Edward

    2001-03-01

    The use of stray light fore-baffles in space-borne optical systems solves the problem of protecting the optical system from unwanted radiation. However, this introduces the problem of adding a large area black cavity at the system entrance aperture, and this cavity will run hot due to capture of solar, planetary albedo, and planetary emission radiation. The optical system may need to be baffled by a cool shield to keep system absolute temperatures sufficiently low. Alternately, a reflecting baffle system can be used that retro-reflects the input environment radiation. This reduces absorbed heat loads by the baffle system and reduces system absolute temperature levels.

  8. A cooler Penning trap for the TITAN mass measurement facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, U.; Kootte, B.; Good, M.; Lascar, D.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.; Gwinner, G.

    2015-01-09

    The TITAN facility at TRIUMF makes use of highly charged ions, charge-bred in an electron beam ion trap, to carry out accurate mass measurements on radioactive isotopes. We report on our progress to develop a cooler Penning trap, CPET, which aims at reducing the energy spread of the ions to ≈ 1 eV/charge prior to injection into the mass measurement trap. In off-line mode, we can now trap electron plasmas for minutes, and we observe the damping of the m = 1 diocotron plasma mode within ≈ 2 s.

  9. A facile microfluidic strategy for measuring interfacial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongbo; Yao, Yuan; Chen, Qiang; Li, Gang; Yao, Shuhuai

    2013-12-01

    We report a facile method for measuring interfacial tension (IFT, γ) of immiscible fluids using a microfluidic device. The IFT is determined by monitoring the pressure drop across a microchannel, where a pair of modified Laplace sensors (formed by tapered channels) are connected, and the curvatures of the interfaces in the tapered channels. The method was tested with the model oil/water systems, and the results agreed well with a commercial tensiometry. We expect this method to be easily implemented in common microfluidic laboratories and supply a low-cost and fast way for interfacial tension measurement.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  11. Optical transfer function measurment facility for aerial survey cameras.

    PubMed

    Bewsher, A; Powell, I

    1994-10-01

    The optical transfer function measurement facility developed at the National Research Council of Canada primarily for testing aerial survey cameras has been upgraded to perform the task in an appreciably more convenient manner. Modifications made to the facility, which is based on the line spread function technique, include the replacement of the cumbersome physical scanning mechanism and detector unit with a detector assembly comprising a relay lens and a linear photodiode array. While eliminating the need for physically scanning the line spread function, it did require a change of light source, a daylight filter, and a new computer software package. The new setup is described in this paper. Several aerial survey cameras have been evaluated with the system, and results are given for a fairly standard Zeiss camera. PMID:20941194

  12. In-line retro-reflective polarizing contrast scope for translucent objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2012-11-01

    We propose a very-low-cost fixed interferential polarizing phase contrast scope suitable for the study of translucent objects. Our key design approach is relied on the arrangement of a circular polarizer sheet, a mirror, and a digital camera in a retro-reflective optical structure. The linear polarizer embedded in the circular polarizer sheet acts as both a polarization beam splitter and a polarization beam combiner. Meanwhile the quarter waveplate inside the circular polarizer sheet functions as a fixed phase plate but without narrowing the field of view of the digital camera. The retroreflective configuration amplifies the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarized optical beams twice, thus automatically creating an initial dark background. Experimental demonstration using an off-the-shelf digital microscope with built-in white light emitting diodes and a specified 400x maximum magnification, a circular polarizer sheet, and a mirror shows that onion cells and Steinernema Thailandense nematodes can be clearly observed with striking color, high contrast, and three-dimensional appearance.

  13. TELEsarPHONE: Mutual Telexistence Master-Slave Communication System Based on Retroreflective Projection Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachi, Susumu; Kawakami, Naoki; Nii, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Minamizawa, Kouta

    TELEsarPHONE is a conceptual prototype of a mutual telexistence system, designed for face-to-face telecommunication via robots. Because of the development of telexistence technology, we can acquire a feeling that we are present in several actual remote places using remote robots as our surrogates and can work and act freely there. However, people in the place where someone telexists using a robot see only the robot, and they cannot feel the existence of the telexisting person. Mutual telexistence aims to solve this problem so that the existence of a telexisting person (visitor) is apparent to the people in the remote environment by providing mutual sensations of presence. On the basis of the concept of mutual telexistence, we have designed and developed a prototype of a telexistence master-slave system for remote communication by applying retroreflective projection technology. In the TELEsarPHONE system, the face and chest of the slave robot TELESAR II are covered by retroreflective material. To provide the feeling of existence, the real-time image of the visitor is projected onto the robot so that people can see the visitor in real time.

  14. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, William S

    1999-09-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  15. Retroreflective microprismatic materials in image-based control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikova, Mariya G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Anisimov, Andrei G.

    2015-05-01

    This work addresses accurate position measurement of reference marks made of retroreective microprismatic materials by image-based systems. High reflection microprismatic technology implies tiny hermetically sealed pockets, which improve material reflectivity, but result in non-reflective preprinted netting pattern. The mark pattern to be used for measuring can be simply printed on the reflective material as an opaque area with predefined shape. However, the non-reflecting pattern acts as a spatial filter that affects resultant spatial reflectivity of the mark. When an image of the mark is taken, the desired mark shape can be deformed by the netting pattern. This deformational may prevent accurate estimation of the mark position in the image. In this paper experimental comparison of three image filtering approaches (median filtering, morphological close and filtering in a frequency domain) in order to minimize the affection of the netting pattern is provided. These filtering approaches were experimentally evaluated by processing of the images of the mark that was translated in a camera field of view. For that a developed experimental setup including a camera with LED backlight and the mark placed on a translation stage was used. The experiment showed that median filtering provided better netting pattern elimination and higher accuracy of key features position estimation (approximately +/-0.1 pix) in the condition of the experiment. The ways of future use of reference marks based on microprismatic material in image-based control applications are discussed.

  16. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Martinez, Derwin; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  18. Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  19. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  20. Measuring and monitoring KIPT Neutron Source Facility Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yan; Gohar, Yousry; Zhong, Zhaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on developing and constructing a neutron source facility at Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven subcritical system. The accelerator has a 100 kW electron beam using 100 MeV electrons. The subcritical assembly has keff less than 0.98. To ensure the safe operation of this neutron source facility, the reactivity of the subcritical core has to be accurately determined and continuously monitored. A technique which combines the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method is purposed to determine the reactivity of the KIPT subcritical assembly at various conditions. In particular, the area-ratio method can determine the absolute reactivity of the subcritical assembly in units of dollars by performing pulsed-neutron experiments. It provides reference reactivities for the flux-to-current ratio method to track and monitor the reactivity deviations from the reference state while the facility is at other operation modes. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to simulate both methods using the numerical model of the KIPT subcritical assembly. It is found that the reactivities obtained from both the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method are spatially dependent on the neutron detector locations and types. Numerical simulations also suggest optimal neutron detector locations to minimize the spatial effects in the flux-to-current ratio method. The spatial correction factors are calculated using Monte Carlo methods for both measuring methods at the selected neutron detector locations. Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the flux-to-current ratio method in monitoring the reactivity swing during a fuel burnup cycle.

  1. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations... REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224—Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock Freight car or locomotive...

  2. MEASURE: An integrated data-analysis and model identification facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jaidip; Iyer, Ravi K.

    1990-01-01

    The first phase of the development of MEASURE, an integrated data analysis and model identification facility is described. The facility takes system activity data as input and produces as output representative behavioral models of the system in near real time. In addition a wide range of statistical characteristics of the measured system are also available. The usage of the system is illustrated on data collected via software instrumentation of a network of SUN workstations at the University of Illinois. Initially, statistical clustering is used to identify high density regions of resource-usage in a given environment. The identified regions form the states for building a state-transition model to evaluate system and program performance in real time. The model is then solved to obtain useful parameters such as the response-time distribution and the mean waiting time in each state. A graphical interface which displays the identified models and their characteristics (with real time updates) was also developed. The results provide an understanding of the resource-usage in the system under various workload conditions. This work is targeted for a testbed of UNIX workstations with the initial phase ported to SUN workstations on the NASA, Ames Research Center Advanced Automation Testbed.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  4. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  5. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  6. Near-field measurement facility plans at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R. G.

    1983-05-01

    The direction of future antenna technology will be toward antennas which are large, both physically and electrically, will operate at frequencies up to 60 GHz, and are non-reciprocal and complex, implementing multiple-beam and scanning beam concepts and monolithic semiconductor devices and techniques. The acquisition of accurate antenna performance measurements is a critical part of the advanced antenna research program and represents a substantial antenna measurement technology challenge, considering the special characteristics of future spacecraft communications antennas. Comparison of various antenna testing techniques and their relative advantages and disadvantages shows that the near-field approach is necessary to meet immediate and long-term testing requirements. The LeRC facilities, the 22 ft x 22 ft horizontal antenna boresight planar scanner and the 60 ft x 60 ft vertical antenna boresight plant scanner (with a 60 GHz frequency and D/lamdba = 3000 electrical size capabilities), will meet future program testing requirements.

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, July 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-08-12

    ARM Participating in Off-site Intensive Operational Period--The ARM Program is playing a role in the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) intensive operational period (IOP), under way through July in South Florida. The objective of CRYSTAL-FACE is to investigate the physical properties and formation processes of tropical cirrus clouds. The ARM Program has deployed a suite of ground-based instruments in Florida for CRYSTAL-FACE. In addition, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides six research aircraft equipped with state-of-the-art instruments to measure characteristics of cirrus clouds and their ability to alter the temperature of the atmosphere. The reliability of climate predictions depends on the accuracy of computer models of climate. Interactions between clouds and solar radiation are a major source of current uncertainty in the models, hindering accurate climate prediction. A goal of CRYSTAL-FACE is to improve on the way clouds are represented in and integrated into the models and thus achieve more reliable climate predictions. CRYSTAL-FACE will be followed in 2004 by CRYSTAL-TWP, to be held at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) location on Manus and Nauru Islands. New Storage Building Proposed for Central Facility--Now in the design phase is a new storage building to be erected at the central facility, west of the shipping and receiving trailer. The added storage is needed because shipping needs for the TWP are now being handled by the SGP site. New Seminole Extended Facility Location Approved--The extended facility formerly on the property of the Seminole Industrial Foundation had to be removed from service in April, after the land was sold to a new owner. Both the foundation and the new land owner offered options for new extended facility locations in the area. An Environmental Evaluation Notification Form has now been approved by the USDOE (ARM Program sponsor), as

  8. Opportunistic Mass Measurements at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Beene, James R; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Larochelle, Y; Liang, J Felix; Mueller, Paul Edward; Shapira, Dan; Stracener, Daniel W; Thomas, J. S.; Varner Jr, Robert L; Wollnik, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    A technique for measuring mass differences has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) that requires no specialized equipment. Mass differences are measured as position differences between known and unknown-mass isobars, dispersed at the image of the energy-analyzing magnet following the 25MV tandem post-accelerator, and identified by an energy-loss measurement. The technique has been demonstrated on neutron-rich 77 79Cu and 83 86Ge isotopes produced using the isotope separator online (ISOL) method with the 238U(p,fission) reaction, where a mass accuracy of 500 keV was achieved. These nuclides are well suited to the measurement technique, as they readily migrate out of the production target and to the ion source and comprise the most neutron-rich elements of the isobarically mixed beam. Because modest precision mass values can be obtained with only a few tens of counts of the nuclide of interest among orders of magnitude more of the isobaric neighbors closer to stability, the sensitivity of this technique makes it appropriate for initial mass measurements far from stability.

  9. Algorithm for the evaluation of imperfections in auto bodywork using profiles from a retroreflective image.

    PubMed

    Barber, Ramon; Zwilling, Valerie; Salichs, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the automobile industry is becoming more and more demanding as far as quality is concerned. Within the wide variety of processes in which this quality must be ensured, those regarding the squeezing of the auto bodywork are especially important due to the fact that the quality of the resulting product is tested manually by experts, leading to inaccuracies of all types. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for the automated evaluation of the imperfections in the sheets of the bodywork after the squeezing process. The algorithm processes the profile signals from a retroreflective image and characterizes an imperfection. It is based on a convergence criterion that follows the line of the maximum gradient of the imperfection and gives its geometrical characteristics as a result: maximum gradient, length, width, and area.

  10. D Phase Space Measurements at the SLAC Gun Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerge, J. F.; Bolton, P. R.; Clendenin, J. E.; Dowell, D. H.; Gierman, S. M.; Limborg, C. G.; Murphy, B. F.

    2003-12-01

    Proposed fourth generation light sources using SASE FELs to generate short pulse, coherent, X-rays require demonstration of high brightness electron sources. The Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC was built to test high brightness sources for the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC. The GTF is composed of an S-band photocathode rf gun with a Cu cathode, emittance compensating solenoid, single 3 m SLAC linac section and e-beam diagnostic section with a UV drive laser system. The longitudinal emittance exiting the gun has been determined by measuring the energy spectrum downstream of the linac as a function of the linac phase. The e-beam pulse width, correlated and uncorrelated energy spread at the linac entrance have been fit to the measured energy spectra using a least square error fitting routine. The fit yields a pulse width of 2.9 ps FWHM for a 4.3 ps FWHM laser pulsewidth and 2% rms correlated energy spread with 0.07% rms uncorrelated energy spread. The correlated energy spread is enhanced in the linac to allow slice emittance measurements by conducting a quadrupole scan in a dispersive section. The normalized slice emittance has been measured to be as low as 2 mm-mrad for beams with peak currents up to 150 A (300 pC with a laser pulse length of 1.8 ps) while the full projected emittance is 3 mm-mrad.

  11. "Measurement Monday": one facility's approach to standardizing skin impairment documentation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Suzanne; Bennett, Sally; Blokzyl, Angela; Bowman, Winnie; Butcher, Ida; Chapman, Kelly; Koop, Kelly; Lebo, Barb; Siebecker, Diane; Signs, Heidi; Streeter, Jane; Russo, Catherine; Wenzel, Susan

    2009-12-01

    Accurate, timely wound assessment and documentation is fundamental to nursing practice. A 2005 retrospective chart audit (N = 54) at a rural, 238-bed tertiary care facility in Northeastern Pennsylvania (average daily census 175 to 180) found that complete wound assessment documentation (including measurements) was lacking in 59% of patient charts. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative, led by the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurse (WOCN), was to evaluate and improve nursing assessment and documentation of impaired skin (pressure ulcers, skin tears, open surgical wounds, diabetic ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers). A review of the literature confirmed the importance of consistency, which led to the hospital-wide implementation of education programs and "Measurement Monday." Using AHCPR guidelines of care for pressure ulcers and beginning in January 2006 all wounds were assessed and measured every Monday and the proportion of incomplete charts declined to 38%. Following addition of a wound documentation tool in 2007, the proportion of incomplete records was 14.8%. This quality improvement initiative improved the quality and consistency of wound assessment/measurement and documentation. PMID:20038791

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-02-05

    In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil moisture and temperature at eight distinct subsurface levels. A special set of probes used in the SWATS measures soil temperature, soil-water potential, and volumetric water content. Sensors are placed at eight different depths below the soil surface, starting at approximately 5 cm (2 in.) below the surface and ending as deep as 175 cm (69 in.). Each site has two identical sets of probes buried 1 m (3.3 ft) apart, to yield duplicate measurements as a quality control measure. At some sites, impenetrable soil or rock layers prevented installation of probes at the deeper levels. The sensors are connected to an electronic data logger that collects and stores the data. Communication equipment transfers data from the site. All of the electronic equipment is housed in a weatherproof enclosure mounted on a concrete slab.

  13. Wing Twist Measurements at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Wahls, Richard A.; Goad, William K.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for measuring wing twist currently in use at the National Transonic Facility is described. The technique is based upon a single camera photogrammetric determination of two dimensional coordinates with a fixed (and known) third dimensional coordinate. The wing twist is found from a conformal transformation between wind-on and wind-off 2-D coordinates in the plane of rotation. The advantages and limitations of the technique as well as the rationale for selection of this particular technique are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate run-to-run and test-to-test repeatability of the technique in air mode. Examples of wing twist in cryogenic nitrogen mode are also presented.

  14. Experimental uncertainty and drag measurements in the national transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study which was conducted in order to establish a framework for the quantitative description of the uncertainty in measurements conducted in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The importance of uncertainty analysis in both experiment planning and reporting results has grown significantly in the past few years. Various methodologies have been proposed and the engineering community appears to be 'converging' on certain accepted practices. The practical application of these methods to the complex wind tunnel testing environment at the NASA Langley Research Center was based upon terminology and methods established in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards. The report overviews this methodology.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-09-06

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive

  16. Angle-resolved retroreflection: what can it tell us about optical properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Sergei G.

    2016-04-01

    The retroreflection spectroscopy have been developed with the aim to investigate the spectra of light scattered at intrinsic defects of photonic crystals. Self-assembled 3-dimensional colloidal crystals, opals, have been investigated. Compared to conventional spectroscopies of reflected and transmitted light, which evaluate the rejected by photonic crystal light, the retroreflectance is designed to visualize the propagating eigenmodes of photonic crystals. The principal advantages of this method are the direct experimental evaluation of the stop-bandwidth and the quantitative estimate of defect concentration by the slope of the angle diagram of the scattered light intensity. The added value of this method is the independent evaluation of the periodicity and the effective refractive index of photonic crystals under interrogation by simultaneous observation of the angle dispersions of volume and surface resonances of the photonic crystal lattice.

  17. Method for Standardizing Sonic-Boom Model Pressure Signatures Measured at Several Wind-Tunnel Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-boom model pressure signatures are often measured at two or more wind-tunnel facilities. Preliminary measurements are made at small separation distances in a wind tunnel close at hand, and a second set of pressure signatures is measured at larger separation distances in a wind-tunnel facility with a larger test section. In this report, a method for correcting and standardizing the wind-tunnel-measured pressure signatures obtained in different wind tunnel facilities is presented and discussed.

  18. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-05-03

    ) Validation Campaign--Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California will be deploying instruments at the CART site in May. Portable micrometeorology towers will be used to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, water, and heat between the surface and the atmosphere. The exchange of these constituents varies with regional climate, soil type, and surface vegetation. Greater knowledge will improve the accuracy of computer models (and hence predictions) of the exchanges. Measurements made with the portable instruments will be compared with measurements being collected by instruments at the central facility. AWS Campaign--The State University of New York at Albany will deploy an oxygen A-band and water vapor band spectrometer (AWS) at the CART site on May 20-June 30, 2001. Measurements made by the AWS will be used to determine absorption of radiation by water vapor within clouds, a quantity important to understanding the behavior of solar radiation as it passes through clouds.

  19. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M. J.; Nathan, B. R.; Nikroo, A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rygg, J. R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Simanovskaia, N.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Widmann, K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hsing, W. W.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Edwards, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% ± 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel ρR on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell thickness

  20. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Doeppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; and others

    2012-12-15

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% {+-} 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel {rho}R on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell

  1. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability...

  2. Physical Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Measurements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boussommier-Calleja, Alexandra; Li, Guorong; Wilson, Amanda; Ziskind, Tal; Scinteie, Oana Elena; Ashpole, Nicole E.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Farsiu, Sina; Challa, Pratap; Gonzalez, Pedro; Downs, J. Crawford; Ethier, C. Ross; Stamer, W. Daniel; Overby, Darryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mice are commonly used to study conventional outflow physiology. This study examined how physical factors (hydration, temperature, and anterior chamber [AC] deepening) influence ocular perfusion measurements in mice. Methods Outflow facility (C) and pressure-independent outflow (Fu) were assessed by multilevel constant pressure perfusion of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6 mice. To examine the effect of hydration, seven eyes were perfused at room temperature, either immersed to the limbus in saline and covered with wet tissue paper or exposed to room air. Temperature effects were examined in 12 eyes immersed in saline at 20°C or 35°C. Anterior chamber deepening was examined in 10 eyes with the cannula tip placed in the anterior versus posterior chamber (PC). Posterior bowing of the iris (AC deepening) was visualized by three-dimensional histology in perfusion-fixed C57BL/6 eyes and by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in living CD1 mice. Results Exposure to room air did not significantly affect C, but led to a nonzero Fu that was significantly reduced upon immersion in saline. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 35°C increased C by 2.5-fold, more than could be explained by viscosity changes alone (1.4-fold). Perfusion via the AC, but not the PC, led to posterior iris bowing and increased outflow. Conclusions Insufficient hydration contributes to the appearance of pressure-independent outflow in enucleated mouse eyes. Despite the large lens, AC deepening may artifactually increase outflow in mice. Temperature-dependent metabolic processes appear to influence conventional outflow regulation. Physical factors should be carefully controlled in any outflow studies involving mice. PMID:26720486

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-11-04

    Aerosol Observing System Upgraded--The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the SGP central facility recently received maintenance and was upgraded to improve its performance. The AOS measures the properties of the aerosol particles around it. Several AOS components were removed, repaired, and calibrated to operate within specifications. The system continuously gathers information about the way minute aerosol particles interact with solar radiation. A better understanding of these interactions will help climate change researchers integrate aerosol effects more accurately into global climate computer models. Polar Bears Make Work Dangerous at ARM North Slope of Alaska Site--The late development of seasonal sea ice has increased polar bear sitings at ARM's Barrow site. The bears were recently seen next to the ARM instrument towers at Barrow, making the normal work day a bit more tricky for the technicians who are at the site year-round. Polar bears are not afraid of people and will attack and kill. The bears usually spend most of their time on off-shore ice floes hunting seals. This season, a large storm pushed the floes out to sea while the bears were ashore at Barrow, leaving them to forage for food on land until the sea ice reforms with the onset of colder weather. The hungry bears have made working at the Barrow CART site a dangerous proposition. ARM workers carry shotguns with them at all times for protection. On a recent journey to the site, ARM instrument mentor Michael Ritsche encountered the animals. ''You become much more aware of your surroundings,'' said Ritsche after returning safely to Argonne. Barrow residents protect themselves by shooting warning shells to scare the bears away from developed areas. Hearing the firing in the early mornings and late evenings at Barrow reminded Ritsche that he was in a more dangerous world.

  4. [Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

    2007-03-01

    The health care program in working facilities and companies have played a significant part in prevention of tuberculosis. However, the ordinary national tuberculosis survey policy was abolished in April, 2005 and the tuberculosis survey for salary-earners is on the brink of drastic change. In this symposium the current status of the prevailing survey of tuberculosis in working facilities and companies was reviewed and the future direction of the tuberculosis survey in comparison to that in lung cancer survey was discussed. 1. Epidemiological trends of tuberculosis from the tuberculosis surveillance data: Masako OHMORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). The estimated rate of tuberculosis case discovery by periodical mass screening in the working facilities was 0.033% and it was higher than that in general adult population. The detection rate of tuberculosis in nurses who suffered from tuberculosis reached 40.4% by an aid of mass X-ray screening and 8.7% by contact tracing. The risk of onset of the disease was 4.3 times higher nurses than in general at the same years of age. The importance of infection control measures in the medical facilities was emphasized. 2. Current status and problems in tuberculosis control in a large-sized company: Yusuke NAKAOKA (Department of Occupational Health, Osaka Railway Hospital, West Japan Railway Company). Some preventive modalities against TB such as periodical medical check-up and awareness programs have been done for the purpose of prevention in our company. The prevalence of the disease has significantly reduced in number. The specific circumstances in large-sized company should be taken into consideration, and it is important for company workers and health professionals to recognize their roles in preventing the infectious disease. 3. Are there any differences between clinical cases and control people working for small-sized companies in the onset of tuberculosis?: Osamu NAKASHIMA, Kohei

  5. [Tuberculosis prevention measure in medical and correlated facilities].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2011-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection of healthcare workers in medical and correlated facilities is serious issue. For the prevention of TB transmission in the facilities, there are five important matters which are management of work environment, self protection manner, TB infection screening, a system for infection control, and TB education. The air containing TB nuclei must be exhausted from the work space mechanically, the workers should wear N95 mask at high risk places, regular chest X-ray examination and periodically QuantiFERON test for healthcare workers should undergo, the infection control committee must be active and TB education course for healthcare workers must be held annually. PMID:21838052

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  7. Noise measurements in a free-jet, flight simulation facility - Shear layer refraction and facility-to-flight corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfey, C. L.; Tester, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of free-jet facility into equivalent flyover results is discussed. The essential problem is to 'calibrate out' the acoustic influence of the outer free-jet shear layer on the measurement, since this is absent in the flight case. Results are presented which illustrate the differences between current simplified models (vortex-sheet and geometric acoustics), and a more complete model based on the Lilley equation. Finally, the use of geometric acoustics for facility-to-flight data conversion is discussed.

  8. Air-bearing spin facility for measuring energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The air-bearing spin facility was developed to determine experimentally the effect of energy dissipation upon the motion of spinning spacecraft. The facility consists of an air-bearing spin table, a telemetry system, a command system, and a ground control station. The air-bearing spin table was designed to operate in a vacuum chamber. Tests were run on spacecraft components such as fuel tanks, nutation dampers, reaction wheels, and active nutation damper systems. Each of these items affected the attitude of a spinning spacecraft. An experimental approach to determine these effects was required because the dissipation of these components could not be adequately analyzed. The results of these experiments have been used, with excellent results, to predict spacecraft motion.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-03-08

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled--The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded--New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''--Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog--Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated

  10. Miniature On-Board Angle of Attack Measurement System for Hypersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Rhode, Matthew N.

    2006-01-01

    The most prevalent method of establishing model angle of attack (AoA) in hypersonic wind tunnel facilities is using an encoder in the model support system then calculating sting/balance deflections based on balance output. This method has been shown to be less accurate than on-board methods in subsonic and transonic facilities and preliminary indications, as compared to optical methods, show large discrepancies in a hypersonic facility as well. With improvements in Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer technology more accurate onboard AoA measurement systems are now available for the small models usually found in hypersonic research facilities.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, May 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-06-03

    Eight eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement systems are now deployed throughout the ARM SGP CART site. These systems are used to determine the flux (flow) of sensible heat, the flux of latent heat, and air momentum just above cropland a few hundred feet upwind of the ECOR locations. Sensible heat is energy we feel as warmth. Latent heat is the energy that evaporated water vapor measured in the atmosphere. The ECOR systems actually measure wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, water vapor, and barometric pressure. The surface flux values for sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are calculated from these measurements.

  12. 47 CFR 2.948 - Description of measurement facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... site calibration data is required. It is acceptable to retain the description of the measurement... be filed with the Commission's Laboratory in Columbia, Maryland. The data describing the measurement... filing the data with the Commission shall certify that the data on file is current. A laboratory that...

  13. Low-Cost Security Measures for School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a variety of school safety and security measures that may be implemented at little or no cost and without the use of complex technology. Measures are presented according to these categories: (1) General; (2) Outside the Building; and (3) Inside the Building.

  14. NOTE: Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K. J.; Yasumura, S.; Shypailo, R. J.; Pierson, R. N., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-07-23

    Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-09-19

    This is the third water vapor IOP and it will focus on the lower portions of the atmosphere. Again, scientists will work to achieve absolute calibrations of water vapor instrumentation. For this purpose, several instruments will be deployed, and measurements will be compared. Instruments to be used include radiosondes, Raman lidar, chilled-mirror hygrometers, surface meteorological observation station (SMOS) towers, a variety of microwave radiometers, and global positioning systems (GPS). The current experiment has two goals. The first is to characterize the accuracy of the water vapor measurements, especially the daily operational observations being made around the clock in the lower levels of the atmosphere at the CART site. The second goal is to develop techniques for improving the accuracy of these observations in order to obtain the best possible water vapor measurements under a wide range of atmospheric conditions.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    1999-07-30

    Summer research efforts continue in July with the SGP99 Hydrology Campaign headed by the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Other participants are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the ARM Program. This campaign focuses on measuring soil moisture by using satellite-based instruments and takes place July 7--22, 1999. Soil moisture is an important component of Earth's hydrologic cycle and climate, but the understanding of it and the ability to measure it accurately are limited. Scientists need to understand soil moisture better so that it can be incorporated correctly into general circulation models. As an important factor in growing crops, soil moisture dictates a farmer's success or failure. Too much soil moisture can drown out croplands and cause flooding, whereas too little can lead to drought conditions, robbing crops of their life-supporting water. Decisions about which crops to plant and other land use issues depend on the understanding of soil moisture patterns. Soil moisture can be measured in various ways. ARM employs several direct methods using soil moisture probes buried from 1 inch to 6.5 feet below the surface. One type of probe has two stainless steel screens separated by a piece of fiberglass. Electrical resistance, which is a function of soil moisture content, is measured between the screens. Another type of probe measures soil temperature and the increase in temperature after the soil is heated by small heating element. From this measurement, the volume of water in the soil can be calculated.

  18. CARS Temperature Measurements in Turbulent and Supersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Antcliff, R. R.; Smith, M. W.; Cutler, A. D.; Diskin, G. S.; Northam, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center ( LaRC) Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) systems for measurements of temperature in a turbulent subsonic or supersonic reacting hydrogen-air environment. Spectra data provides temperature data when compared to a precalculated library of nitrogen CARS spectra. Library validity was confirmed by comparing CARS temperatures derived through the library with three different techniques for determination of the temperature in hydrogen-air combustion and an electrically heated furnace. The CARS system has been used to survey temperature profiles in the simulated flow of a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) model. Measurement results will be discussed.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-02-16

    The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

  20. 47 CFR 2.948 - Description of measurement facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Conditions Attendant to... supporting structures, and all structures within 5 times the distance between the measuring antenna and the... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...

  1. Crew Quarters (CQ) and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Measurement Facility Combined Impedance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents an investigation into observed failures associated with conducted susceptibility testing of Crew Quarters (CQ) hardware in the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Measurement Facility, and the work accomplished to identify the source of the observed behavior. Investigation led to the conclusion that the hardware power input impedance was interacting with the facility power impedance leading to instability at the observed frequencies of susceptibility. Testing performed in other facilities did not show this same behavior, pointing back to the EMI Measurement Facility power as the potential root cause. A LISN emulating the Station power bus impedance was inserted into the power circuit, and the susceptibility was eliminated from the measurements.

  2. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  3. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  4. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  5. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  7. Technical note: A facility for respiration measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Machado, F S; Tomich, T R; Ferreira, A L; Cavalcanti, L F L; Campos, M M; Paiva, C A V; Ribas, M N; Pereira, L G R

    2016-06-01

    A respiration system consisting of 4 climate-controlled chambers and 1 set of flowmeters and analyzers was constructed and validated. Each chamber had volume of 21.10m(3) (3.68×2.56×2.24m) and was made from steel with double-glazed windows on either side enabling visual contact between animals. The chambers are independently climate-controlled and can maintain temperature and relative humidity in a range from 5 to 45°C and 30 to 80%, respectively. A flow generator and mass flowmeter continuously pull air from each chamber and a slight negative pressure inside the chamber is ensured. Air from all chambers and ambient air share a common gas analysis and data acquisition system for monitoring O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations over the measurement period, with the cycle time set to 20min. Analyzers are regularly calibrated and the chambers have mean recoveries of 99.0 and 98.0% for CO2 and CH4, respectively. The chambers are equipped with infrared cameras and electronic feed and water bins for intake measurements, as well as sensors for monitoring animal position and heart rate. Data acquisition and analysis software is used to calculate the rate of consumption of O2 and production of CO2 and CH4. The dynamic respiration measurements are integrated with feed intake data and other sensors. The daily gas exchanges are estimated by integration to determine methane emission and heat production. We conducted a trial with 12 lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gyr crossbred dairy cows (6 multiparous and 6 primiparous) under 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum or restricted) to validate the system. Two 22-h respiration measurements were obtained from each cow. Restricted-fed cows showed lower values for milk yield, methane emission, and heat production compared with ad libitum-fed animals. We found no difference between groups for CH4 produced per kilogram of dry matter intake. Repeatability for CH4 emission and heat production was high (0.97 and 0.92, respectively). The respiration

  8. Technical note: A facility for respiration measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Machado, F S; Tomich, T R; Ferreira, A L; Cavalcanti, L F L; Campos, M M; Paiva, C A V; Ribas, M N; Pereira, L G R

    2016-06-01

    A respiration system consisting of 4 climate-controlled chambers and 1 set of flowmeters and analyzers was constructed and validated. Each chamber had volume of 21.10m(3) (3.68×2.56×2.24m) and was made from steel with double-glazed windows on either side enabling visual contact between animals. The chambers are independently climate-controlled and can maintain temperature and relative humidity in a range from 5 to 45°C and 30 to 80%, respectively. A flow generator and mass flowmeter continuously pull air from each chamber and a slight negative pressure inside the chamber is ensured. Air from all chambers and ambient air share a common gas analysis and data acquisition system for monitoring O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations over the measurement period, with the cycle time set to 20min. Analyzers are regularly calibrated and the chambers have mean recoveries of 99.0 and 98.0% for CO2 and CH4, respectively. The chambers are equipped with infrared cameras and electronic feed and water bins for intake measurements, as well as sensors for monitoring animal position and heart rate. Data acquisition and analysis software is used to calculate the rate of consumption of O2 and production of CO2 and CH4. The dynamic respiration measurements are integrated with feed intake data and other sensors. The daily gas exchanges are estimated by integration to determine methane emission and heat production. We conducted a trial with 12 lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gyr crossbred dairy cows (6 multiparous and 6 primiparous) under 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum or restricted) to validate the system. Two 22-h respiration measurements were obtained from each cow. Restricted-fed cows showed lower values for milk yield, methane emission, and heat production compared with ad libitum-fed animals. We found no difference between groups for CH4 produced per kilogram of dry matter intake. Repeatability for CH4 emission and heat production was high (0.97 and 0.92, respectively). The respiration

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-12-03

    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane can carry

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-05-05

    This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-11-09

    Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System--Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell researchers a great deal about the effects of interactions between the sun's energy and Earth. Surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat can be estimated by measuring temperature and relative humidity gradients across a vertical distance. Sensible heat is what we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be measured with a thermometer. Latent heat, on the other hand, is released or absorbed during transformations such as the freezing of water into ice or the evaporation of morning dew from a lawn. Such a transformation is referred to as a ''phase change,'' the conversion of a substance among its solid, liquid, and vapor phases. Phase change is an important aspect of our climate. Earth's water cycle abounds with phase changes: rain falls and evaporates, changing from liquid to vapor; the water vapor in the air condenses to form clouds, changing from a gas into a liquid cloud droplet, and eventually falls to Earth's surface as rain or snow; snow falls and melts to liquid or sublimes directly to water vapor. This cyclic process has no end. Surface vegetation and land use play extremely important roles in surface energy fluxes. Plants absorb and reflect solar radiation and also take up water and expel water vapor. The type of plant material, its stage of growth, and its color determine whether and to what extent the surface and air can couple and exchange energy.

  13. Beam dynamics simulations and measurements at the Project X Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Scarpine, V.E.; Webber, R.C.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X, under study at Fermilab, is a multitask high-power superconducting RF proton beam facility, aiming to provide high intensity protons for rare processes experiments and nuclear physics at low energy, and simultaneously for the production of neutrinos, as well as muon beams in the long term. A beam test facility - former known as High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) - is under commissioning for testing critical components of the project, e.g. dynamics and diagnostics at low beam energies, broadband beam chopping, RF power generation and distribution. In this paper we describe the layout of the test facility and present beam dynamics simulations and measurements.

  14. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-10

    Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-08-29

    ARM in Australia--The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched its newest Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) in Darwin, Australia. This is the fifth research site established since ARM Program inception in 1989. The new Darwin site and two other ARCS sites--on Manus Island and the island of Nauru--are in the Tropical Western Pacific region. The North American sites in the U.S. Southern Great Plains and on the North Slope of Alaska represent two different climate regions. A goal of the ARM Program is to improve understanding of (1) the ways clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and (2) the effects of these interactions on both a local and global climate. Years of collected data are being used to improve computer climate models so that their predictions are more accurate. The new Darwin site is at the Darwin International Airport, adjacent to the Darwin Airport Meteorological Office. The site features state-of-the-art instrumentation used to measure solar radiation and surface radiation balance; cloud parameters; and standard meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric moisture, precipitation rates, and barometric pressure. A data management system (DMS) consisting of two computer workstations collects, stores, processes, and backs up data from each of the ARCS instruments. Data are transmitted via the Internet to the United States for further processing and archiving with data from the other ARM sites. All ARM data are freely available via the Internet to the public and the worldwide scientific community (http://www.arm.gov/). Operational since April 2002, the Darwin site was officially dedicated on July 30, 2002, by dignitaries from both the United States and Australia. The site is a collaborative effort between DOE and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Special Services Unit--the equivalent of the U.S. National Weather Service

  16. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  17. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, Olin, Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. Burt; Cutler, A. D.; Capriotti, D. P.; Taylor, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Nonintrusive diagnostic measurements were performed in the supersonic reacting flow of the Hypersonic Propulsion Test Cell 2 at NASA-Langley. A Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) system was assembled specifically for the test cell environment. System design considerations were: (1) test cell noise and vibration; (2) contamination from flow field or atmospheric borne dust; (3) unwanted laser or electrically induced combustion (inside or outside the duct); (4) efficient signal collection; (5) signal splitting to span the wide dynamic range present throughout the flow field; (6) movement of the sampling volume in the flow; and (7) modification of the scramjet model duct to permit optical access to the reacting flow with the CARS system. The flow in the duct was a nominal Mach 2 flow with static pressure near one atmosphere. A single perpendicular injector introduced hydrogen into the flow behind a rearward facing step. CARS data was obtained in three planes downstream of the injection region. At least 20 CARS data points were collected at each of the regularly spaced sampling locations in each data plane. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting flow region are presented.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-04-29

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently announced the development of El Nino conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean near the South American coastline. Scientists detected a 4 F increase in the sea-surface temperatures during February. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, NOAA administrator and Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, indicated that this warming is a sign that the Pacific Ocean is heading toward an El Nino condition. Although it is too early to predict how strong the El Nino will become or the conditions it will bring to the United States, Lautenbacher said that the country is likely to feel the effects as soon as midsummer (Figure 1). During the last El Nino in 1997-1998, the United States experienced strong weather impacts. Even though researchers don't understand what causes the onset of El Nino, they do recognize what to expect once development has begun. Scientists can monitor the development of El Nino through NOAA's advanced global climate monitoring system of polar-orbiting satellites and 72 ocean buoys moored across the equator in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting measurements of surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperatures are made available to scientists on a real-time basis, allowing for timely monitoring and predictions. This complex monitoring array enabled NOAA to predict the 1997-1998 El Nino six months in advance.

  19. New opacity measurement principle for LMJ-PETAL laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pennec, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Ducret, J.-E.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar seismology reveals some interior properties of thousands of solar-type stars but the solar seismic sound speed stays puzzling since a decade as it disagrees with the Standard Solar Model (SSM) prediction. One of the explanations of this disagreement may be found in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. As the same framework is used for other stars, it is important to check precisely the reliability of the interacting cross sections of photons with each species in order to ensure the energy transport for temperature T > 2-106 K and density ρ > 0.2 g/cm3. In this paper, we propose a new technique to reach the domain of temperature and density found in the solar radiative interior. This technique called the Double Ablation Front (DAF) is based on a high conversion of the laser energy into X-rays thanks to moderated Z material irradiated by laser intensity between 1.5 × 1015 W/cm2 and 4 × 1015 W/cm2. This high conversion creates, in addition to the electronic front a second ablation front in the moderated Z material. Between the two fronts there is a plateau of density and temperature that we exploit to heat a sample of iron or of oxide. The first simulations realized with the hydrodynamic code CHIC show that this technique allows to reach conditions equivalent to half the radiative zone of the Sun with high stability both in time and space. We examine the possibility to measure both iron and oxygen absorption spectra.

  20. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-09-03

    With the end of summer drawing near, the fall songbird migration season will soon begin. Scientists with the ARM Program will be able to observe the onset of the migration season as interference in the radar wind profiler (RWP) data. An RWP measures vertical profiles of wind and temperature directly above the radar from approximately 300 feet to 3 miles above the ground. The RWP accomplishes this by sending a pulse of electromagnetic energy skyward. Under normal conditions, the energy is scattered by targets in the atmosphere. Targets generally consist of atmospheric irregularities such as variations in temperature, humidity, and pressure over relatively short distances. During the spring and fall bird migration seasons, RWP beam signals are susceptible to overflying birds. The radar beams do not harm the birds, but the birds' presence hampers data collection by providing false targets to reflect the RWP beam, introducing errors into the data. Because of the wavelength of the molar beam, the number of individuals, and the small size of songbirds' bodies (compared to the larger geese or hawks), songbirds are quite likely to be sampled by the radar. Migrating birds usually fly with the prevailing wind, making their travel easier. As a result, winds from the south are ''enhanced'' or overestimated in the spring as the migrating birds travel northward, and winds from the north are overestimated in the fall as birds make their way south. This fact is easily confirmed by comparison of RWP wind data to wind data gathered by weather balloons, which are not affected by birds.

  1. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  2. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.,ed.

    2001-09-04

    Summer 2001 Heat Wave--This summer has proved to be downright hot in the Southern Great Plains states. The temperatures soared to record-setting levels. The state of Oklahoma saw its fourth hottest July since 1895, while Kansas experienced its seventh warmest. The average temperature throughout most of Oklahoma for the month of July was 2.5-5.5 F above normal. The highest temperature recorded in the region during July was 107 F in Oklahoma City. Wichita, Kansas, had 17 July days with recorded temperatures of 100 F or above, while Medicine Lodge, Kansas, had 21. In addition, Oklahoma suffered its ninth driest July, with precipitation levels much below normal. Kansas fared better, receiving above-normal precipitation amounts. Nevertheless, regional July rainfall averaged 1.5-3.0 inches below normal. Not only is a summer heat wave uncomfortable, but it can also be dangerous. The National Weather Service (NWS) has increased efforts to alert the public to the hazards of heat waves. Prolonged excessive heat and humidity stress the human body and can, in some cases, cause death. The NWS has devised a heat index that is a measure of the heat we perceive as a function of air temperature and humidity. A heat index chart displays different zones from caution to extreme danger, much like a wind chill index chart used in the winter. The values represent conditions of light winds and shade. Thus, in full sunshine heat index values can increase by 15 F. Exposure to winds in hot, dry weather can be equally dangerous. The NWS sends out alerts when the heat index is expected to reach values with significant potential impact. The danger of heat-related illness increases with the number of consecutive days with high heat and humidity levels. Heat and humidity take their toll faster on the elderly, small children, and those with respiratory health problems. Heat-related illnesses come in several forms with different symptoms. From common sunburns to heat stroke, these heat disorders

  3. Development of a High Accuracy Angular Measurement System for Langley Research Center Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Brett; Yu, Si-bok; Rhew, Ray D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Modern experimental and test activities demand innovative and adaptable procedures to maximize data content and quality while working within severely constrained budgetary and facility resource environments. This report describes development of a high accuracy angular measurement capability for NASA Langley Research Center hypersonic wind tunnel facilities to overcome these deficiencies. Specifically, utilization of micro-electro-mechanical sensors including accelerometers and gyros, coupled with software driven data acquisition hardware, integrated within a prototype measurement system, is considered. Development methodology addresses basic design requirements formulated from wind tunnel facility constraints and current operating procedures, as well as engineering and scientific test objectives. Description of the analytical framework governing relationships between time dependent multi-axis acceleration and angular rate sensor data and the desired three dimensional Eulerian angular state of the test model is given. Calibration procedures for identifying and estimating critical parameters in the sensor hardware is also addressed.

  4. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Glebov, V Y; Moran, M J; McNaney, J M; Kilkenny, J D; Eckart, M; Zacharias, R A; Haslam, J J; Clancy, T J; Yeoman, M F; Warwas, D P; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C; Knauer, J; Horsfield, C J

    2010-05-13

    The first three of eighteen neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) channels have been installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The role of these detectors includes yield, temperature, and bang time measurements. This article focuses on nTOF data analysis and quality of results obtained for the first set of experiments to use all 192 NIF beams. Targets produced up to 2 x 10{sup 10} 2.45-MeV neutrons for initial testing of the nTOF detectors. Differences in neutron scattering at the OMEGA laser facility where the detectors were calibrated and at NIF result in different response functions at the two facilities. Monte Carlo modeling shows this difference. The nTOF performance on these early experiments indicates the nTOF system with its full complement of detectors should perform well in future measurements of yield, temperature, and bang time.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ADVANCED REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, TRA660, INTERIOR. REACTOR INSIDE TANK. METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADVANCED REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, TRA-660, INTERIOR. REACTOR INSIDE TANK. METAL WORK PLATFORM ABOVE. THE REACTOR WAS IN A SMALL WATER-FILLED POOL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 66-6373. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1966 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Analysis of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) measurements in the National Ignition Facility's target bay and chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. G.; Clancy, T. J.; Eder, D. C.; Ferguson, W.; Throop, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    From May 2009 to the present we have recorded electromagnetic pulse (EMP) strength and spectrum (100 MHz - 5 GHz) in the target bay and chamber of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The dependence of EMP strength and frequency spectrum on target type and laser energy is discussed. The largest EMP measured was for relatively low-energy, short-pulse (100 ps) flat targets.

  8. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  9. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  10. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  11. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  12. Temperature and pressure measurement techniques for an advanced turbine test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, F. G.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    A high pressure, high-temperature turbine test facility constructed for use in turbine cooling research is described. Several recently developed temperature and pressure measuring techniques are used in this facility. The measurement techniques, their status, previous applications and some results are discussed. Noncontact surface temperature measurements are made by optical methods. Radiation pyrometry principles combined with photoelectric scanning are used for rotating components and infrared photography for stationary components. Contact (direct) temperature and pressure measurements on rotating components are expected to be handled with an 80 channel rotary data package which mounts on and rotates with the turbine shaft at speeds up to 17,500 rpm. The data channels are time-division multiplexed and converted to digital words in the data package. A rotary transformer couples power and digital data to and from the shaft.

  13. Upgrade of the Goddard Space Flight Center's Mass Properties Measuring Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brian P.; McLeod, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has a Mass Properties Measuring Facility (MPMF), which is used to measure weight, center of gravity, moment of inertia, and product of inertia of satellites and space flight hardware. The system was originally purchased more than 30 years ago. While the MPMF was still in good mechanical condition, the measurement and control subsystem had begun to experience more frequent component failures. Many of the outdated, discrete components in the system are no longer available for replacement. A decision was made to upgrade the measurement and control subsystem of the MPMF to improve its reliability and reduce the chance of component failures leading to extended facility outages. This paper will describe details of the upgraded subsystems and summarize the new performance capabilities of the system.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Use of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's thermal measurement system for the verification of thermal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, William M.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) postflight thermal model predicted temperatures were matched to flight temperature data recorded by the Thermal Measurement System (THERM), LDEF experiment P0003. Flight temperatures, recorded at intervals of approximately 112 minutes for the first 390 days of LDEF's 2105 day mission were compared with predictions using the thermal mathematical model (TMM). This model was unverified prior to flight. The postflight analysis has reduced the thermal model uncertainty at the temperature sensor locations from +/- 40 F to +/- 18 F. The improved temperature predictions will be used by the LDEF's principal investigators to calculate improved flight temperatures experienced by 57 experiments located on 86 trays of the facility.

  17. The CERN n_TOF facility: a unique tool for nuclear data measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia-Rios, A. A.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Gonzàlez, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Göbel, K.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-06-01

    The study of the resonant structures in neutron-nucleus cross-sections, and therefore of the compound-nucleus reaction mechanism, requires spectroscopic measurements to determine with high accuracy the energy of the neutron interacting with the material under study. To this purpose, the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF has been operating since 2001 at CERN. Its characteristics, such as the high intensity instantaneous neutron flux, the wide energy range from thermal to few GeV, and the very good energy resolution, are perfectly suited to perform high-quality measurements of neutron-induced reaction cross sections. The precise and accurate knowledge of these cross sections plays a fundamental role in nuclear technologies, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear physics. Two different measuring stations are available at the n_TOF facility, called EAR1 and EAR2, with different characteristics of intensity of the neutron flux and energy resolution. These experimental areas, combined with advanced detection systems lead to a great flexibility in performing challenging measurement of high precision and accuracy, and allow the investigation isotopes with very low cross sections, or available only in small quantities, or with very high specific activity. The characteristics and performances of the two experimental areas of the n_TOF facility will be presented, together with the most important measurements performed to date and their physics case. In addition, the significant upcoming measurements will be introduced.

  18. Lidar based emissions measurement at the whole facility scale: Method and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Gail E.; Marchant, Christian C.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Ahlstrom, Douglas J.; Moore, Kori D.; Jones, Derek S.; Wilkerson, Thomas; Hipps, Larry E.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Prueger, John H.; Pfeiffer, Richard L.

    2009-02-01

    Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regional, well-mixed aerosols are challenged by changing wind directions, disrupted flow fields caused by structures, varied surface temperatures, and the episodic nature of the sources found at these facilities. We describe a three-wavelength lidar-based method, which, when added to a standard point sampler array, provides unambiguous measurement and characterization of the particulate emissions from agricultural production operations in near real time. Point-sampled data are used to provide the aerosol characterization needed for the particle concentration and size fraction calibration, while the lidar provides 3D mapping of particulate concentrations entering, around, and leaving the facility. Differences between downwind and upwind measurements provide an integrated aerosol concentration profile, which, when multiplied by the wind speed profile, produces the facility source flux. This approach assumes only conservation of mass, eliminating reliance on boundary layer theory. We describe the method, examine measurement error, and demonstrate the approach using data collected over a range of agricultural operations, including a swine grow-finish operation, an almond harvest, and a cotton gin emission study.

  19. Measurement of Atmospheric Sea Salt Concentration in the Dry Storage Facility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Masumi Wataru; Hisashi Kato; Satoshi Kudo; Naoko Oshima; Koji Wada; Hirofumi Narutaki

    2006-07-01

    concentration on the canister. In present, the evaluation on that point is not sufficient. In this study, the concentration of the sea salt particles in the air and on the surface of the storage facility are measured inside and outside of the building. For the measurement, two sites of the dry storage facility using the metal cask are chosen. This data is applicable for the evaluation on the SCC of the canister to realize the interim storage using the concrete overpack. (authors)

  20. Setting up a Rayleigh Scattering Based Flow Measuring System in a Large Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Gomez, Carlos R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering based air density measurement system has been built in a large nozzle testing facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The technique depends on the light scattering by gas molecules present in air; no artificial seeding is required. Light from a single mode, continuous wave laser was transmitted to the nozzle facility by optical fiber, and light scattered by gas molecules, at various points along the laser beam, is collected and measured by photon-counting electronics. By placing the laser beam and collection optics on synchronized traversing units, the point measurement technique is made effective for surveying density variation over a cross-section of the nozzle plume. Various difficulties associated with dust particles, stray light, high noise level and vibration are discussed. Finally, a limited amount of data from an underexpanded jet are presented and compared with expected variations to validate the technique.

  1. Analysis of Fluctuating Static Pressure Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igoe, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were taken with flush-mounted, high-frequency response pressure transducers at 11 locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) across the complete operating range of this wind tunnel. Measurements were taken at test-section Mach numbers from 0.1 to 1.2, at pressures from 1 to 8.6 atm, and at temperatures from ambient to -250 F, which resulted in dynamic flow disturbance measurements at the highest Reynolds numbers available in a transonic ground test facility. Tests were also made by independent variation of the Mach number, the Reynolds number, or the fan drive power while the other two parameters were held constant, which for the first time resulted in a distinct separation of the effects of these three important parameters.

  2. Neutron dose rate at the SwissFEL injector test facility: first measurements.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, E; Frey, N; Fuchs, A; Harm, C; Hödlmoser, H; Lüscher, R; Mayer, S; Morath, O; Philipp, R; Rehmann, A; Schietinger, T

    2014-10-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the new SwissFEL Free Electron Laser facility is currently in the design phase. It is foreseen to accelerate electrons up to a maximum energy of 7 GeV with a pulsed time structure. An injector test facility is operated at a maximum energy of 300 MeV and serves as the principal test and demonstration plant for the SwissFEL project. Secondary radiation is created in unavoidable interactions of the primary beam with beamline components. The resulting ambient dose-equivalent rate due to neutrons was measured along the beamline with different commercially available survey instruments. The present study compares the readings of these neutron detectors (one of them is specifically designed for measurements in pulsed fields). The experiments were carried out in both, a normal and a diagnostic mode of operation of the injector.

  3. Groundwater flow velocity measurements in a sinkhole at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Facility, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Gibson, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992, a sinkhole was discovered above a Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana. The oil is stored in an old salt mine located within a salt dome. In order to assess the hydrologic significance of the sink hole, an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor was deployed within a sand-filled conduit in the salt dome directly beneath the sinkhole. The flow sensor is a recently developed instrument which uses a thermal perturbation technique to measure the magnitude and direction of the full 3-dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in saturated, permeable materials. The flow sensor measured substantial groundwater flow directed vertically downward into the salt dome. The data obtained with the flow sensor provided critical evidence which was instrumental in assessing the significance of the sinkhole in terms of the integrity of the oil storage facility.

  4. Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones

    2010-12-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

  5. Measurement of the 21Na(p,{gamma})22Mg Reaction with the Dragon Facility at TRIUMF-ISAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.A.; Bishop, S.; D'Auria, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Lamey, M.; Liu, W.; Wrede, C.; Buchmann, L.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Laird, A.; Ottewell, D.; Rogers, J.; Chatterjee, M. L.; Engel, S.; Strieder, F.; Gigliotti, D.; Hussein, A.; Greife, U.; Jewett, C.; King, J.

    2003-08-26

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility, designed to measure the rates of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions important for nuclear astrophysics, is now operational at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beam facility in Vancouver, Canada. We report on first measurements of the 21Na(p,{gamma})22Mg reaction rate with radioactive beams of 21Na.

  6. Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 1: Test facility and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.; Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    A special test facility was developed to characterize frost growing on heat exchanger fins where the cold surfaces and the air supply conditions were similar to those experienced in freezers, i.e., cold surface temperatures ranging from {minus}35 C to {minus}40 C, air supply temperatures from {minus}10 C to {minus}20 C, and 80% to 100% relative humidity (RH). This test facility included a test section with removable fins to measure the frost height and mass concentration. Frost height on heat exchanger fins was measured using a new automated laser scanning system to measure the height of frost and its distribution on selected fins. The increase in air pressure loss resulting from frost growth on the fins was measured directly in the test loop. The frost mass accumulation distribution was measured for each test using special pre-etched fins that could be easily subdivided and weighed. The total heat rate was measured using a heat flux meter. These frost-measuring instruments were calibrated and the uncertainty of each is stated.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Sisterson

    2010-01-12

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY 2010 for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208); for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues; its OPSMAX time this quarter is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are the result of downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to

  8. Optimization of a measurement facility for radioactive waste free release by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Solc, Jaroslav; Kovar, Petr; Suran, Jiri; Peyres, Virginia; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    A novel free release measurement facility (FRMF) was developed within the joint research project "Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management" of the European Metrology Research Programme. Before and during FRMF design and construction, Monte Carlo calculations with MCNPX and PENELOPE codes were used to optimize the thickness of the shielding, the dimensions of the container, and the shape of detector collimators. Validation of the numerical models of the FRMF detectors and the results of the optimization are discussed in the paper. PMID:24300969

  9. Temperature Measurement in PV Facilities on a Per-Panel Scale

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Andújar, José M.; Enrique, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

  10. A Neutron Source Facility for Neutron Cross-Section Measurements on Radioactive Targets at RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E; Bernstein, L; Rusnak, B; Berio, R

    2003-05-20

    The stockpile stewardship program is interested in neutron cross-section measurements on nuclei that are a few nucleons away from stability. Since neutron targets do not exist, radioactive targets are the only way to directly perform these measurements. This requires a facility that can provide high production rates for these short-lived nuclei as well as a source of neutrons. The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) promises theses high production rates. Thus, adding a co-located neutron source facility to the RIA project baseline would allow these neutron cross-section measurements to be made. A conceptual design for such a neutron source has been developed, which would use two accelerators, a Dynamitron and a linac, to create the neutrons through a variety of reactions (d-d, d-t, deuteron break-up, p-Li). This range of reactions is needed in order to provide the desired energy range from 10's of keV to 20 MeV. The facility would also have hot cells to perform chemistry on the radioactive material both before and after neutron irradiation. The present status of this design and direction of future work will be discussed.

  11. Position measurements for the isotope production facility and the switchyard kicker upgrade projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D. S.; O'Hara, J. F.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.; Martinez, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is installing two beam lines to both improve operational tuning and provide new capabilities within the facility. The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) will provide isotopes for medical purposes by using the H' beam spur at 100 MeV and the Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK) will allow the LANSCE 800-MeV H beam to be rapidly switched between various beam lines within the facility. The beam position measurements for both of these beam lines uses a standard micro-stripline beam position monitor (BPM) with both a 50-mm and 75-mm radius. The cable plant is unique in that it unambiguously provides a method of verifying the operation of the complete position measurement. The processing electronics module uses a log ratio technique with error corrections such that it has a dynamic range of -12 dBm to -85 dBm with errors less than 0.15 dB within this range. This paper will describe the primary components of these measurement systems and provide initial data of their operation.

  12. Development of a neutron measurement system in unified non-destructive assay for the PRIDE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee; Park, Se-Hwan; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Shin, Hee-Sung; Na, Sang-Ho; Song, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ho-Dong; Lee, Seung Kyu

    2013-12-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has made an effort to develop pyroprocessing technology to resolve an on-going problem in Korea, i.e., the management of spent nuclear fuels. To this end, a test-bed facility for pyroprocessing, called PRIDE (PyRoprocessing Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility), is being constructed at KAERI. The main objective of PRIDE is to evaluate the performance of the unit processes, remote operation, maintenance, and proliferation resistance. In addition, integrating all unit processes into a one-step process is also one of the main goals. PRIDE can also provide a good opportunity to test safeguards instrumentations for a pyroprocessing facility such as nuclear material accounting devices, surveillance systems, radiation monitoring systems, and process monitoring systems. In the present study, a non-destructive assay (NDA) system for the testing of nuclear material accountancy of PRIDE was designed by integrating three different NDA techniques, i.e., neutron, gamma-ray, and mass measurements. The developed neutron detection module consists of 56 3He tubes and 16 AMPTEK A111 signal processing circuits. The amplifiers were matched in terms of the gain and showed good uniformity after a gain-matching procedure (%RSD=0.37%). The axial and the radial efficiency distributions within the cavity were then measured using a 252Cf neutron source and were compared with the MCNPX calculation results. The measured efficiency distributions showed excellent agreement with the calculations, which confirmed the accuracy of the MCNPX model of the system.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operation quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2010-10-26

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to

  14. Aero-optics measurement system for the AEDC aero-optics test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosswy, F. L.; Havener, A. G.

    1991-02-01

    A fundamental problem associated with hypersonic, endoatmospheric, optically guided vehicles for interception of ballistic reentry vehicles is target image degradation caused by the complex flow field of the intercept vehicle. The image degradation mechanisms are collectively referred to as aero-optics (AO) effects. The AEDC aero-optics measurement system provides the hardware, software, techniques, and expertise for measurement of the fundamental AO effects parameters in a ground test facility. The AO measurement system is presently configured for use in AEDC Tunnel C, a continuous flow hypersonic wind tunnel. AO effects measurements are based upon image analysis, image jitter, and holographic interferometry techniques. The primary purpose of this report is to provide hardware descriptions for the imaging and holography systems and their associated data acquisition and data reduction systems. Information is also provided in the appendixes, which describe several AO measurements technology advances in various stages of development.

  15. The Full Aperture Backscatter Station Measurement System on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, D; McCarville, T; Alvarez, S; Ault, L; Brown, M; Chrisp, M; Damian, C; DeHope, W; Froula, D; Glenzer, S; Grace, S; Gu, K; Holdener, F; Huffer, C; Kamperschroer, J; Kelleher, T; Kimbrough, J

    2004-04-07

    A Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) target diagnostic has been activated on the first four beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Backscattered light from the target propagates back down the beam path into the FABS diagnostic system. FABS measures both stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with a suite of measurement instruments. Digital cameras and spectrometers record spectrally resolved energy for both P and S polarized light. Streaked spectrometers measure the spectral and temporal behavior of the backscattered light. Calorimeters and fast photodetectors measure the integrated energy and temporal behavior of the light, respectively. This paper provides an overview of the FABS measurements system and detailed descriptions of the diagnostic instruments and the optical path.

  16. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  17. Design and Development of a Real-Time Model Attitude Measurement System for Hypersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and applies photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw variables. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, development, and testing process, including lighting, vibration, operational range and optical access is included. Initial measurement results from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.

  18. Design and Development of a Real-Time Model Attitude Measurement System for Hypersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.

    2004-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and applies photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw variables. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, development, and testing process, including lighting, vibration, operational range and optical access is included. Initial measurement results from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.

  19. Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Scott, Molly M; Evenson, Kelly R; Cohen, Deborah A; Cox, Christine E

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents' perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl's home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls' homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). Although girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p < 0.05) per basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing facilities may

  20. Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Scott, Molly M; Evenson, Kelly R; Cohen, Deborah A; Cox, Christine E

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents' perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl's home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls' homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). Although girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p < 0.05) per basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing facilities may

  1. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-13

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.

  2. Multisphere neutron spectroscopy measurements at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hajnal, F.

    1993-06-01

    Multisphere neutron spectroscopy methods are applied to measure representative working fields within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility. This facility hosts dynamic processes, which include the fabrication of {sup 238}Pu heat sources for radioisotope generators used to power space equipment and a variety of plutonium research programs that involve recovery, hydrofluorination, and metal production. Neutron fluence per unit lethargy, as a function of neutron energy measured for locations throughout this facility, are described. Dosimeter/remmeter response functions [e.g., determined for a 22.8-cm-diameter neutron rem detector (NRD), an Anderson/Braun-type neutron ``Snoopy`` monitor, track-etch CR-39, BDI-100 bubble detectors, and Kodak type A nuclear track emulsion film, (NTA)] are folded into these spectra to calculate absolute response values of counts, tracks, or bubbles per unit-dose equivalent. The relative response values per unit- dose equivalent for bare and albedo {sup 6}LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are also calculated to estimate response scenarios encountered with use of the LANL-TLD. These results are further compared to more conventional methods of estimating neutron spectral energies such as the ``9-to-3 ratio`` method.

  3. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  4. Requirements for facilities and measurement techniques to support CFD development for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    1992-01-01

    The design of a hypersonic aircraft poses unique challenges to the engineering community. Problems with duplicating flight conditions in ground based facilities have made performance predictions risky. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed as an additional means of providing design data. At the present time, CFD codes are being validated based on sparse experimental data and then used to predict performance at flight conditions with generally unknown levels of uncertainty. This paper will discuss the facility and measurement techniques that are required to support CFD development for the design of hypersonic aircraft. Illustrations are given of recent success in combining experimental and direct numerical simulation in CFD model development and validation for hypersonic perfect gas flows.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2006-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-04-13

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - January 1 - March 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 – June 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2006-07-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - July 1 - September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-03-17

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-01-08

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-10-10

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - October 1 - December 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2009-01-15

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-06-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-07-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 – March 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-01-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. The effect of sensor sheltering and averaging techniques on wind measurements at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents results of a field study of the effect of sheltering of wind sensors by nearby foliage on the validity of wind measurements at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Standard measurements are made at one second intervals from 30-feet (9.1-m) towers located 500 feet (152 m) from the SLF centerline. The centerline winds are not exactly the same as those measured by the towers. A companion study, Merceret (1995), quantifies the differences as a function of statistics of the observed winds and distance between the measurements and points of interest. This work examines the effect of nearby foliage on the accuracy of the measurements made by any one sensor, and the effects of averaging on interpretation of the measurements. The field program used logarithmically spaced portable wind towers to measure wind speed and direction over a range of conditions as a function of distance from the obstructing foliage. Appropriate statistics were computed. The results suggest that accurate measurements require foliage be cut back to OFCM standards. Analysis of averaging techniques showed that there is no significant difference between vector and scalar averages. Longer averaging periods reduce measurement error but do not otherwise change the measurement in reasonably steady flow regimes. In rapidly changing conditions, shorter averaging periods may be required to capture trends.

  2. Velocity Measurements at Three Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima Basin, Washington : Summer 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Lusty, E. William

    1990-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) measured the velocity conditions at three fish screening facilities in the Yakima River Basin: Wapato, Chandler, and Easton Screens. The measurement objectives were different at the three screens. At Wapato, approach and sweep velocities were measured to evaluate the effect of rearing pens in the screen forebay. A complete survey was performed at the Chandler Screens. At Easton, velocity was measured behind the screens to provide information for the installation of porosity boards to balance flow through the screens. Salmon-rearing pens used at the Wapato Canal had a minimal effect on the magnitude of approach and sweep velocities at the face of the drum screens, although the pens caused increased turbulence and variability in water velocities. The net pens did not appear to affect flows through the three fish bypasses. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Preliminary Measurements From A New Flat Plate Facility For Aerodynamic Research

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; D. W. Nigg; E. J. Walsh; D. Hernon; M.R.D. Davies

    2005-03-01

    This paper details the design and preliminary measurements used in the characterisation of a new flat plate research facility. The facility is designed specifically to aid in the understanding of entropy generation throughout the boundary layer with special attention given to non-equilibrium flows. Hot-wire measurements were obtained downstream of two turbulence generating grids. The turbulence intensity, integral and dissipation length scale ranges measured are 1.6%-7%, 5mm-17mm and 0.7mm-7mm, respectively. These values compared well to existing correlations. The flow downstream of both grids was found to be homogenous and isotropic. Flow visualisation is employed to determine aerodynamic parameters such as flow 2-dimensionality and the effect of the flap angle on preventing separation at the leading edge. The flow was found to be 2-dimensional over all measurement planes. The non-dimensional pressure distribution of a modern turbine blade suction surface is simulated on the flat plate through the use of a variable upper wall. The Reynolds number range based on wetted plate length and inlet velocity is 70,000-4,000,000.

  4. Emission Spectroscopy and Radiometric Measurements in the NASA Ames IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael W.; Raiche, George A.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma diagnostic measurement campaigns in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) have been conducted over the last several years with a view towards characterizing the flow in the arc jet facility by providing data necessary for modeling and simulation. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used in the plenum and in the free jet of the nozzle. Radiation incident over a probe surface has also been measured using radiometry. Plenum measurements have shown distinct radial profiles of temperature over a range of operating conditions. For cases where large amounts of cold air are added radially to the main arc-heated stream, the temperature profiles are higher by as much as 1500 K than the profiles assumed in flow simulations. Optical measurements perpendicular to the flow direction in the free jet showed significant contributions to the molecule emission through inverse pre-dissociation, thus allowing determination of atom number densities from molecular emission. This has been preliminarily demonstrated with the N2 1st Positive System. Despite the use of older rate coefficients, the resulting atom densities are reasonable and surprisingly close to flow predictions.

  5. Microdosimetric measurements in the thermal neutron irradiation facility of LENA reactor.

    PubMed

    Colautti, P; Moro, D; Chiriotti, S; Conte, V; Evangelista, L; Altieri, S; Bortolussi, S; Protti, N; Postuma, I

    2014-06-01

    A twin TEPC with electric-field guard tubes has been constructed to be used to characterize the BNCT field of the irradiation facility of LENA reactor. One of the two mini TEPC was doped with 50ppm of (10)B in order to simulate the BNC events occurring in BNCT. By properly processing the two microdosimetric spectra, the gamma, neutron and BNC spectral components can be derived with good precision (~6%). However, direct measurements of (10)B in some doped plastic samples, which were used for constructing the cathode walls, point out the scarce accuracy of the nominal (10)B concentration value. The influence of the Boral(®) door, which closes the irradiation channel, has been measured. The gamma dose increases significantly (+51%) when the Boral(®) door is closed. The crypt-cell-regeneration weighting function has been used to measure the quality, namely the RBEµ value, of the radiation field in different conditions. The measured RBEµ values are only partially consistent with the RBE values of other BNCT facilities.

  6. Neutron-Induced Fission Measurements at the Dance and Lsds Facilities at Lanl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Fowler, M. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G. Y.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Alexander, C. W.; Belier, G.

    2014-09-01

    New results from neutron-induced fission measurements performed at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) and Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) are presented. New correlated data on promptfission γ-ray (PFG) distributions were measured using the DANCE array for resonant neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U and 239Pu. The deduced properties of PFG emission are presented using a simple parametrization. An accurate knowledge of fission γ-ray spectra enables us to analyze the isomeric states of 236U created after neutron capture on 235U. We briefly discuss these new results. Finally, we review details and preliminary results of the challenging 237U(n,f) cross section measurement at the LSDS facility.

  7. Development of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Field testing of biointrustion barriers at closed-out waste disposal sites at Los Alamos and in the experimental clusters are reported. The final results of an experiment designed to measure the extent of contaminant transport to the surface of a SLB facility, and the influence of plants on this relationship, are presented. An experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system is described and current field data are presented. 11 references, 11 figures, 5 tables.

  8. MAGNETIC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE NSLS SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATOR VERTICAL TEST FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    HARDER, D.; CHOUHAN, S.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.; TANABE, T.

    2005-05-16

    One of the challenges of small-gap superconducting undulators is measurement of magnetic fields within the cold bore to characterize the device performance and to determine magnetic field errors for correction or shimming, as is done for room-temperature undulators. Both detailed field maps and integrated field measurements are required. This paper describes a 6-element, cryogenic Hall probe field mapper for the NSLS superconducting undulator Vertical Test Facility (VTF) [1]. The probe is designed to work in an aperture only 3 mm high. A pulsed-wire insert is also being developed, for visualization of the trajectory, for locating steering errors and for determining integrated multi-pole errors. The pulsed-wire insert will be interchangeable with the Hall probe mapper. The VTF and the magnetic measurement systems can accommodate undulators up to 0.4 m in length.

  9. First Results from the CARIBU Facility: Mass Measurements on the r-Process Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Bertone, P. F.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Morgan, G. E.; Orford, R.; Segel, R. E.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the Sn132 double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A=135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100 ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations.

  10. Pitfalls and Security Measures for the Mobile EMR System in Medical Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Kiho; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Hwang, Hee; Baek, Rong Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this paper is to examine the security measures that should be reviewed by medical facilities that are trying to implement mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems designed for hospitals. Methods The study of the security requirements for a mobile EMR system is divided into legal considerations and sectional security investigations. Legal considerations were examined with regard to remote medical services, patients' personal information and EMR, medical devices, the establishment of mobile systems, and mobile applications. For the 4 sectional security investigations, the mobile security level SL-3 from the Smartphone Security Standards of the National Intelligence Service (NIS) was used. Results From a compliance perspective, legal considerations for various laws and guidelines of mobile EMR were executed according to the model of the legal considerations. To correspond to the SL-3, separation of DMZ and wireless network is needed. Mobile access servers must be located in only the smartphone DMZ. Furthermore, security measures like 24-hour security control, WIPS, VPN, MDM, and ISMS for each section are needed to establish a secure mobile EMR system. Conclusions This paper suggested a direction for applying regulatory measures to strengthen the security of a mobile EMR system in accordance with the standard security requirements presented by the Smartphone Security Guideline of the NIS. A future study on the materialization of these suggestions after their application at actual medical facilities can be used as an illustrative case to determine the degree to which theory and reality correspond with one another. PMID:22844648

  11. Optimized design of a facility for measuring sodium-24 in blood by using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Li, Rui; Liu, Zhi; Huang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code is adopted for numerical calculations and simulation analyses of the parameters for the designed irradiation facility for human blood (including the neutron moderator and its thickness, the neutron source's location, and the collimator's radius) and of the parameters for the unit for measuring human blood (such as the crystal thickness and radius of NaI) to measure the activity of 24Na in the human body exposed to neutron irradiation in nuclear accidents. Calculation results show that the most suitable parameters for the irradiation facility for human blood include 6-cm polyethylene as the neutron moderator, collimator radius of 7 mm, and a neutron source placed at the bottom of the collimator. However, the parameters for the unit to measure human blood are as follows: both the thickness and the radius of the crystal at the bottom of the NaI detector are 5 cm. The effectiveness of the design parameters was verified by using actual experiments.

  12. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    PubMed

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  13. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Motley, William R., III; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sun sensors has allowed a confirmation of the attitude of LDEF during its first year in orbit. Eight observations of the yaw angle at specific times were made and are tabulated in this paper. These values range from 4.3 to 12.4 deg with maximum uncertainty of plus or minus 2.0 deg and an average of 7.9 deg. No specific measurements of pitch or roll were made but the data indicates that LDEF had an average pitch down attitude of less than 0.7 deg.

  14. Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M.; Nicholls, A.K.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.

  15. Evaluation of Emissions from R&D Facilities Using Stack Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    Research and development (R&D) facilities may be required to estimate air chemical emissions to demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations, or to manage emissions to avoid nuisance impacts from their operations. These emissions are difficult to estimate because R&D facilities typically use a large number of chemicals in small quantities and engage in numerous and diverse activities which can change over time. Although not required for compliance, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sampled air chemical emissions from facility stacks during 1998--2008. The purpose of the sampling was to provide data to compare estimated release fractions to those used for emissions estimates and to verify that methods used to determine compliance with air regulations and permits conservatively predict actual emissions. This unique data set was analyzed to compare emissions with regulatory criteria; determine relationships with chemical inventories, use quantities, and properties; and identify signatures of sources contributing to the emissions. For comparison with regulatory data, stack measurements were used as a basis to calculate 24-hr and annual average emissions and ambient air concentrations. The study included an extreme worst-case analysis maximizing emissions and alternate more realistic analyses using a Monte Carlo method that takes into account the full distribution of sampling results. The results from these analyses were then compared to emissions estimated from chemical inventories. Ambient air concentrations calculated from the measurement data were below acceptable source impact levels for almost all cases even under extreme worst-case assumptions. More realistic scenarios reduced the estimate significantly depending on the chemical and the mode of operation. Release fractions were calculated by dividing emission estimates obtained using a Monte Carlo technique on the measured data by a building chemical inventory quantity. Release

  16. Advanced Distributed Measurements and Data Processing at the Vibro-Acoustic Test Facility, GRC Space Power Facility, Sandusky, Ohio - an Architecture and an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.; Evans, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale, distributed, high-speed data acquisition system (HSDAS) is currently being installed at the Space Power Facility (SPF) at NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, OH. This installation is being done as part of a facility construction project to add Vibro-acoustic Test Capabilities (VTC) to the current thermal-vacuum testing capability of SPF in support of the Orion Project s requirement for Space Environments Testing (SET). The HSDAS architecture is a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enables the system to support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and a very large system channel count. The architecture of the system is presented along with details on system scalability and measurement verification. In addition, the ability of the system to automate many of its processes such as measurement verification and measurement system analysis is also discussed.

  17. The effect of sensor spacing on wind measurements at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents results of a field study of the effect of sensor spacing on the validity of wind measurements at the Space Shuttle landing Facility (SLF). Standard measurements are made at one second intervals from 30 foot (9.1m) towers located 500 feet (152m) from the SLF centerline. The centerline winds are not exactly the same as those measured by the towers. This study quantifies the differences as a function of statistics of the observed winds and distance between the measurements and points of interest. The field program used logarithmically spaced portable wind towers to measure wind speed and direction over a range of conditions. Correlations, spectra, moments, and structure functions were computed. A universal normalization for structure functions was devised. The normalized structure functions increase as the 2/3 power of separation distance until an asymptotic value is approached. This occurs at spacings of several hundred feet (about 100m). At larger spacings, the structure functions are bounded by the asymptote. This enables quantitative estimates of the expected differences between the winds at the measurement point and the points of interest to be made from the measured wind statistics. A procedure is provided for making these estimates.

  18. HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS FOR THREE VISUAL EXAMINATION AND TRU REMEDIATION GLOVEBOX FACILITIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-04

    Visual Examination (VE) gloveboxes are used to remediate transuranic waste (TRU) drums at three separate facilities at the Savannah River Site. Noncompliant items are removed before the drums undergo further characterization in preparation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Maintaining the flow of drums through the remediation process is critical to the program's seven-days-per-week operation. Conservative assumptions are used to ensure that glovebox contamination from this continual operation is below acceptable limits. Holdup measurements using cooled HPGe spectrometers are performed in order to confirm that these assumptions are conservative. {sup 239}Pu is the main nuclide of interest; however, {sup 241}Pu, equilibrium {sup 237}Np/{sup 233}Pa and {sup 238}Pu (if detected) are typically assayed. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) facility {sup 243,244,245}Cm are also generally observed and are always reported at either finite levels or at limits of detection. A complete assay at each of the three facilities includes a measure of TRU content in the gloveboxes and HEPA filters in the glovebox exhaust. This paper includes a description of the {gamma}-PHA acquisitions, of the modeling, and of the calculations of nuclide content. Because each of the remediation facilities is unique and ergonomically unfavorable to {gamma}-ray acquisitions, we have constructed custom detector support devices specific to each set of acquisitions. This paper includes a description and photographs of these custom devices. The description of modeling and calculations include determination and application of container and matrix photon energy dependent absorption factors and also determination and application of geometry factors relative to our detector calibration geometry. The paper also includes a discussion of our measurements accuracy using off-line assays of two SRNL HEPA filters. The comparison includes assay of the filters inside of 55-gallon

  19. Large Volume Calorimeter Comparison Measurement Results Collected at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    A calorimeter capable of measuring the power output from special nuclear material in 208-liter (55-gal) shipping or storatge containers was designed and fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This high-sensitivity, large-volume calorimeter (LVC) provides a reliable NDA method to measure many difficult-to-assay forms of plutonium and tritium more accurately. The entire calorimeter is 104 cm wide x 157 cm deep x 196 cm high in the closed position. The LVC also requires space for a standard electronics rack. A standard 208-1 drum with a 60-cm-diameter retaining ring with bolt will fit into the LVC measurement chamber. With careful positioning, cylindrical items up to 66 cm in diameter and 100 cm tall can be assayed in the LVC. The LVC was used to measure numerous plutonium-bearing items in 208-1 drums at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Measurement results from real waste drums that were previously assayed using multiple NDA systems are compared with the LVC results. The calorimeter previously performed well under laboratory conditions using Pu-238 heat standards. The in-plant instrument performance is compared with the laboratory performance. Assay times, precision, measurement threshold, and operability of the LVC are also presented.

  20. Radon Measurements at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility from August 1997 through April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-04-01

    From August 1997 through April 1998, radon and radon progeny measurements were collected at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the baseline concentrations of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and their progeny in the air at selected points with emphasis on the characterization of 220Rn and its daughter products in the high bay area. The daughter product concentrations ranged from the equivalent of approximately 0.001 times the derived air concentration (DAC) of the isotope mixture up to 0.09 DAC, with the highest measurements occurring inside the pit above the equipment drain tank cell. Direct radon measurements in this area indicated a relatively constant 222Rn concentration with an average value of 1.4 pCi/L and a 220Rn concentration that fluctuated from <1 pCi/L up to about 30 pCi/L. Measurements were also collected inside the vent house adjacent to building 7503. The progeny concentrations inside the room ranged from an equivalent of about 0.002 DAC up to 0.01 DAC. The direct radon measurements in the vent house indicated a relatively constant 222Rn concentration with an average value of 0.7 pCi/L while the 220Rn concentration varied appreciably and ranged from <0.5 pCi/L up to almost 200 pCi/L with an average concentration of 18 pCi/L.

  1. Flow Property Measurement Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Porter, Barry J.; Carballo, Julio Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species has been applied to single-point measurements of velocity and static temperature in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet. Excitation spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen were recorded while scanning a tunable dye laser over the absorption feature. Thirty excitation spectra were acquired during 8 arc jet runs at two facility operating conditions; the number of scans per run varied between 2 and 6. Curve fits to the spectra were analyzed to recover their Doppler shifts and widths, from which the flow velocities and static temperatures, respectively, were determined. An increase in the number of independent flow property pairs from each as-measured scan was obtained by extracting multiple lower-resolution scans. The larger population sample size enabled the mean property values and their uncertainties for each run to be characterized with greater confidence. The average plus or minus 2 sigma uncertainties in the mean velocities and temperatures for all 8 runs were plus or minus 1.4% and plus or minus 11%, respectively.

  2. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry Development for In-situ Measurement in High-Temperature Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Test Facility, HTTF, at Oregon State University (OSU) is an integral-effect test facility designed to model the behavior of a Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) during a Depressurized Conduction Cooldown (DCC) event. It also has the ability to conduct limited investigations into the progression of a Pressurized Conduction Cooldown (PCC) event in addition to phenomena occurring during normal operations. Both of these phenomena will be studied with in-situ velocity field measurements. Experimental measurements of velocity are critical to provide proper boundary conditions to validate CFD codes, as well as developing correlations for system level codes, such as RELAP5 (http://www4vip.inl.gov/relap5/). Such data will be the first acquired in the HTTF and will introduce a diagnostic with numerous other applications to the field of nuclear thermal hydraulics. A laser-based optical diagnostic under development at The George Washington University (GWU) is presented; the technique is demonstrated with velocity data obtained in ambient temperature air, and adaptation to high-pressure, high-temperature flow is discussed.

  3. Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II

    2016-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Â F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Â F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.

  4. Whistler mode based explanation for the fast reconnection rate measured in the mit versatile toroidal facility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nagendra

    2011-12-01

    Despite the widely discussed role of whistler waves in mediating magnetic reconnection (MR), the direct connection between such waves and the MR has not been demonstrated by comparing the characteristic temporal and spatial features of the waves and the MR process. Using the whistler wave dispersion relation, we theoretically predict the experimentally measured rise time (τ(rise)) of a few microseconds for the fast rising MR rate in the Versatile Toroidal Facility at MIT. The rise time is closely given by the inverse of the frequency bandwidth of the whistler waves generated in the evolving current sheet. The wave frequencies lie much above the ion cyclotron frequency, but they are limited to less than 0.1% of the electron cyclotron frequency in the argon plasma. The maximum normalized MR rate R=0.35 measured experimentally is precisely predicted by the angular dispersion of the whistler waves.

  5. Neutron measurements from beam-target reactions at the ELISE neutral beam test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Xufei, X. Fan, T.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Bonomo, F.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Grünauer, F.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-11-15

    Measurements of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from beam-target reactions performed at the ELISE neutral beam test facility are presented in this paper. The measurements are used to study the penetration of a deuterium beam in a copper dump, based on the observation of the time evolution of the neutron counting rate from beam-target reactions with a liquid scintillation detector. A calculation based on a local mixing model of deuterium deposition in the target up to a concentration of 20% at saturation is used to evaluate the expected neutron yield for comparison with data. The results are of relevance to understand neutron emission associated to beam penetration in a solid target, with applications to diagnostic systems for the SPIDER and MITICA Neutral Beam Injection prototypes.

  6. Measurement of Neutron Energy Spectra behind Shielding of a 120 GeV/c Hadron Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, N.; Rokni, S.H.; Vincke, H.; Khater, Hesham; Prinz, A.A.; Taniguchi, S.; Roesler, S.; Brugger, M.; Hagiwara, Masayuki; /Tohoku U.

    2005-12-14

    Neutron energy spectra were measured behind the lateral shield of the CERF (CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field) facility at CERN with a 120 GeV/c positive hadron beam (mainly a mixture of protons and pions) on a cylindrical copper target (7-cm diameter by 50-cm long). NE213 organic liquid scintillator (12.7-cm diameter by 12.7-cm long) was located at various longitudinal positions behind shields of 80- and 160-cm thick concrete and 40-cm thick iron. Neutron energy spectra in the energy range between 12 MeV and 380 MeV were obtained by unfolding the measured pulse height spectra with the detector response functions which have been experimentally verified in the neutron energy range up to 380 MeV in separate experiments. The corresponding MARS15 Monte Carlo simulations generally gave good agreements with the experimental energy spectra.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-03-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 through December 31, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. For all fixed sites, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2007. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a Central Facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the current deployment in Niamey, Niger, Africa. PYE represents the AMF statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be

  8. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-09-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2008 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-01-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, they calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The US Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January-March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2006-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 × 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 × 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program: Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - April 1 - June 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-06-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 × 2,184 hours this quarter). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1,965.6 hours (0.90 × 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1,856.4 hours (0.85 × 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.8 (0.95 × 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the

  14. Neutron spectrum measurements in the aluminum oxide filtered beam facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Becker, G K; Harker, Y D; Miller, L G; Anderl, R A; Wheeler, F J

    1990-01-01

    Neutron spectrum measurements were performed on the aluminum oxide filter installed in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). For these measurements, activation foils were irradiated at the exit port of the beam facility. A technique based on dominant resonances in selected activation reactions was used to measure the epithermal neutron spectrum. The fast and intermediate-energy ranges of the neutron spectrum were measured by threshold reactions and 10B-shielded 235U fission reactions. Neutron spectral data were derived from the activation data by two approaches: (1) a short analysis which yields neutron flux values at the energies of the dominant or primary resonances in the epithermal activation reactions and integral flux data for neutrons above corresponding threshold or pseudo-threshold energies, and (2) the longer analysis which utilized all the activation data in a full-spectrum, unfolding process using the FERRET spectrum adjustment code. This paper gives a brief description of the measurement techniques, analysis methods, and the results obtained.

  15. INL Capabilities For Nuclear Data Measurements Using The Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aryaeinejad; D. W. Nigg; R.V.F. Janssens; B. J. Micklich; G. Ter-Akopian; J. D. Cole

    2005-07-01

    The relevant facts concerning the Argonne National Laboratory – Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (ANL/IPNS) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) apparatus for use at the ANL/IPNS facility to measure differential neutron interaction cross sections of interest for advanced reactor physics applications are presented. The INL apparatus, which consists of an array of multiple types of multiple detectors operated in coincidence, signal electronics, and a data acquisition system, is presented as an application of new means and methods to measure the relevant parameters described. The immediate measurement goals involve measurement of neutron induced interaction cross sections for 240Pu and 242Pu with 241Pu, 241Am, with measurements for other nuclides of interest for advanced reactor physics applications to follow later. Specific uncertainties and error limits are presented and methods for controlling these uncertainties are described. The post experiment analysis using data sorts and data selection from a large, self-consistent data set to produce spectra that will be analyzed for direct results and used to determine cross sections is also discussed.

  16. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  17. TITAN: An ion trap facility for on-line mass measurement experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Andreoiu, C.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Delheij, P.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Jang, F.; Lennarz, A.; Ma, T.; Mané, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision determinations of ground state or even isomeric state masses reveal fingerprints of nuclear structure. In particular, at the limits of existence for very neutron-rich or -deficient isotopes, one can extract detailed information about nuclear structure from separation energies or binding energies. Mass measurements are important to uncover new phenomena, to test new theoretical predictions, or to refine model approaches. For example, the N = 28 shell has proven more stable than previously expected; however, the predicted new "magic" number at N = 34 in the K and Ca isotopes has yet to be confirmed experimentally. For these neutron-rich nuclei, the inclusion of three-body forces leads to significantly better predictions of the ground-state mass. Similarly, halo nuclei present an excellent application for ab-initio theory, where ground state properties, like masses and radii, test our understanding of nuclear structure. Precision mass determinations at TRIUMF are carried out with the TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science) facility. It is an ion-trap setup coupled to the on-line facility ISAC. TITAN has measured masses of isotopes as short-lived as 9 ms (almost an order of magnitude shorter-lived than any other Penning trap system), and it is the only one with charge breeding capabilities, which allow us to boost the precision by almost 2 orders of magnitude. We recently made use of this feature by measuring short-lived, proton-rich Rb-isotopes, up to 74Rb while reaching the 12 + charge state, which together with other improvements led to an increase in precision by a factor 36.

  18. Characteristics of beta detection and dose measurement at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvehill, J.M.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1987-02-01

    This report considers the current state of the art of beta dosimetry practices and beta detection methods used by health physicists at US Department of Energy facilities. This information is based on a survey of DOE facilities. Beta measurements are technically difficult and innovative efforts must be expended to improve their accuracy. Perhaps the most pronounced problem is that beta dosimetry and instrumentation in use are highly energy and angular dependent. Many believe that beta exposures are adequately controlled because beta to photon ratios are assumed to be low. This assumption is not always valid as demonstrated by the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). Significant beta doses exist where personnel are exposed to mixed fission products; for example, chemical reprocessing plants, reactor accidents, or where uranium metals are processed. This report is part of an effort to increase the DOE response to this technically difficult area of health protection. Problem areas are addressed and methods recommended to improve beta dosimetry through a cooperative effort among the various DOE contractors. 34 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Reaction Rate Measurement at the Californium User Facility (CUF) for unfolding the neutron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, Mohammad; Ortega, Ruben

    2011-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine Reaction Rate measurement of several activation detectors at the ORNL Californium User Facility (CUF). The irradiations were performed with 34 mg Cf 252 neutron source strength.. Ten source capsules > 34 mgwerepositionedconcentricallyaroundasamplecavity . Wehavedeterminedabsoluteactivityperatomof 9 detectors : Au 197 (n , γ) Au 198 , Al 27 (n , α) Na 24 , Al 27 (n , p) Mg 27 , Fe 56 (n , p) Mn 5 , Fe 54 (n , p) Mn 54 , In 115 (n , γ) In 116 , Ti 46 (n , p) Sc 46 , Ni 60 (n , p) Co 60 , Fe 58 (n , γ) Fe 59 . Theerrorsarewithin 1.5 - 8 60 and Fe 58 have errors of 46% and 32 %. These high errors may be attributed to the counting statistics. These reaction rate values will be used to unfold the neutron spectrum of the CUF using the MAXED 2000, a computer code for the de convolution of multi sphere neutron spectrometer data and the results are discussed. The authors acknowledge help, advise, and using facility at ORNL-CUF to Dr. Rodger martin and Mr. David C. Galsgow.

  20. BENCHMARK EVALUATION OF THE INITIAL ISOTHERMAL PHYSICS MEASUREMENTS AT THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    John Darrell Bess

    2010-05-01

    The benchmark evaluation of the initial isothermal physics tests performed at the Fast Flux Test Facility, in support of Fuel Cycle Research and Development and Generation-IV activities at the Idaho National Laboratory, has been completed. The evaluation was performed using MCNP5 with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries and according to guidelines provided for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project Handbook. Results provided include evaluation of the initial fully-loaded core critical, two neutron spectra measurements near the axial core center, 32 reactivity effects measurements (21 control rod worths, two control rod bank worths, six differential control rod worths, two shutdown margins, and one excess reactivity), isothermal temperature coefficient, and low-energy electron and gamma spectra measurements at the core center. All measurements were performed at 400 ºF. There was good agreement between the calculated and benchmark values for the fully-loaded core critical eigenvalue, reactivity effects measurements, and isothermal temperature coefficient. General agreement between benchmark experiment measurements and calculated spectra for neutrons and low-energy gammas at the core midplane exists, but calculations of the neutron spectra below the core and the low-energy gamma spectra at core midplane did not agree well. Homogenization of core components may have had a significant impact upon computational assessment of these effects. Future work includes development of a fully-heterogeneous model for comprehensive evaluation. The reactor physics measurement data can be used in nuclear data adjustment and validation of computational methods for advanced fuel cycle and nuclear reactor systems using Liquid Metal Fast Reactor technology.

  1. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, E.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Hahn, I. S.; Kim, G. W.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-17

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example {sup 106}Cd and {sup 156}Dy) and rare β decays ({sup 96}Zr, {sup 180m}Ta , etc ) are under study.

  2. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1985 from LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Chen, Ili; Van Etten, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) continued to measure external radiation levels during 1985 caused by radionuclides emitted from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during this study. A more complex finite model, which takes into account the contribution of radiation at a receptor from different locations of the passing plume, was also tested. Monitoring results indicate that, as in 1984, a persistent wind up the Rio Grande Valley during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest external radiation levels to occur to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. However, because of increased turbulent mixing during the day, external radiation levels are generally much less during the day than at night. External radiation levels during 1985 show approximately a 75% reduction over 1984 levels. This resulted from a similar percentage reduction in LAMPF emissions caused by newly implemented emission controls. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer time periods. Comparison of predicted and measured hourly values indicates that the model generally tends to overpredict during the day and underpredict at night. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example 106Cd and 156Dy) and rare β decays (96Zr, 180mTa , etc ) are under study.

  4. Reflectivity and scattering measurements of an Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility test coating sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, J. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Madison, L.

    1995-10-01

    Reflectivity and scattering profile measurements were made on a gold-coated witness sample produced to evaluate mirror coatings for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program. Reflectivity measurements were made at Al K, Ti K, and Cu K energies as a function of incident graze angle. The results are fit to a model that includes the effects of roughness, particulate and organic contamination layers, and gold-coating density. Reflectivities are close to theoretical, with the difference being well accounted for by 4.1 A of roughness at spatial frequencies above 4 mu m-1, a gold-coating density equal to 0.98 bulk, and a surface contaminant layer 27 A thick. Scattering measurements extending to +/-35 arcmin of the line center were obtained by the use of Al K x rays and incidence angles from 0.75 deg to 3 deg The scattering profiles imply a power spectral density of surface-scattering frequencies that follows a power law with an index of -1.0 and a total surface roughness for the spatial frequency band between 0.05 mu m-1 and 4 mu m -1 of 3.3 A. Combining the roughnesses derived from both the reflectivity and scattering measurements yields a total roughness of 5.3 A for scattering frequencies between 0.05 mu m-1 and 15,000 mu m-1.

  5. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Cooper, G. W.; Drury, O. B.; Hagmann, C. A.; Knittel, K. M.; Leeper, R. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ˜20-200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM), 25-50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n') reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n) reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-01-24

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 - December 31, 2007, for the fixed sites and the mobile site. The AMF has been deployed to Germany and this was the final operational quarter. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. Although the average exceeded our goal this quarter, a series of severe weather events (i.e., widespread ice storms) disrupted utility services, which affected the SGP performance measures. Some instruments were covered in ice and power and data communication lines were down for more than 10 days in some areas of Oklahoma and Kansas, which resulted in lost data at the SGP site. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. The AMF completed its mission at the end of this quarter in Haselback, Germany (FKB designation). NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility post-flight data as it influences the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is an earth observing satellite that will be in a low earth orbit (350 kilometers) during the next period of maximum solar activity. The TRMM observatory is expected to experience an atomic oxygen fluence of 8.9 x 10(exp 22) atoms per square centimeter. This fluence is ten times higher than the atomic oxygen impingement incident to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Other environmental concerns on TRMM include: spacecraft glow, silicon oxide contaminant build-up, severe spacecraft material degradation, and contamination deposition resulting from molecular interactions with the dense ambient atmosphere. Because of TRMM's predicted harsh environment, TRMM faces many unique material concerns and subsystem design issues. The LDEF data has influenced the design of TRMM and the TRMM material selection process.

  9. X-ray scattering measurements on imploding CH spheres at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, D.; Chapman, D. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Baggott, R. A.; Bachmann, B.; Collins, G. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Kalantar, D. H.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Nilsen, J.; Swift, D. C.; Neumayer, P.; Falcone, R. W.; Gericke, D. O.; Döppner, T.

    2016-07-01

    We have performed spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements on highly compressed polystyrene at pressures of several tens of TPa (100 Mbar) created by spherically convergent shocks at the National Ignition Facility. Scattering data of line radiation at 9.0 keV were recorded from the dense plasma shortly after shock coalescence. Accounting for spatial gradients, opacity effects, and source broadening, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering component to carbon K -shell ionization while at the same time constraining the temperature of the dense plasma. For six times compressed polystyrene, we find an average temperature of 86 eV and carbon ionization state of 4.9, indicating that widely used ionization models need revision in order to be suitable for the extreme states of matter tested in our experiment.

  10. Raman distributed temperature measurement at CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Signorini, Alessandro; Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Brugger, Markus; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) at the CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM), newly developed in order to qualify electronics for the challenging radiation environment of accelerators and connected high energy physics experiments. By investigating the effect of wavelength dependent radiation induced absorption (RIA) on the Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes light components in radiation tolerant Ge-doped multi-mode (MM) graded-index optical fibers, we demonstrate that Raman DTS used in loop configuration is robust to harsh environments in which the fiber is exposed to a mixed radiation field. The temperature profiles measured on commercial Ge-doped optical fibers is fully reliable and therefore, can be used to correct the RIA temperature dependence in distributed radiation sensing systems based on P-doped optical fibers.

  11. X-ray scattering measurements on imploding CH spheres at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Kraus, D; Chapman, D A; Kritcher, A L; Baggott, R A; Bachmann, B; Collins, G W; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J A; Kalantar, D H; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Le Pape, S; Nilsen, J; Swift, D C; Neumayer, P; Falcone, R W; Gericke, D O; Döppner, T

    2016-07-01

    We have performed spectrally resolved x-ray scattering measurements on highly compressed polystyrene at pressures of several tens of TPa (100 Mbar) created by spherically convergent shocks at the National Ignition Facility. Scattering data of line radiation at 9.0 keV were recorded from the dense plasma shortly after shock coalescence. Accounting for spatial gradients, opacity effects, and source broadening, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering component to carbon K-shell ionization while at the same time constraining the temperature of the dense plasma. For six times compressed polystyrene, we find an average temperature of 86 eV and carbon ionization state of 4.9, indicating that widely used ionization models need revision in order to be suitable for the extreme states of matter tested in our experiment. PMID:27575070

  12. 238U Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurements at the GELINA Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Becker, B.; Gunsing, F.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.

    2014-05-01

    A set of neutron capture experiments based on the time-of-flight technique were performed in order to determine the 238U capture cross section in the unresolved resonance region. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the uranium sample. The analysis of the experimental data is based on the total energy principle applied in combination with the pulse height weighting technique. The experimental details along with the analysis process are described. The first results in the resolved resonance region are presented and their validity provide a solid base to extend the analysis and extract the average cross section in the keV region.

  13. Turbulent Boundary Layer Measurements in the Princeton/ONR High Reynolds Number Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, James; Smits, Alexander

    2003-11-01

    Zero pressure gradient, high Reynolds number boundary layers are studied in the Princeton/ONR High Reynolds Number Test Facility (HRTF). The HRTF uses air at pressures up to 2500Ψ as the working fluid. Mean flow velocity profiles and turbulence measurements have been obtained at Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness from 5× 10^3 up to 10^5. The log region at this Reynolds number is approximately two decades long in terms of y^+. The maximum y^+ achieved before departure from the log curve is of order y^+≃ 10,000. Results will be presented on the form of the best fit for the log law over this large Reynolds number range.

  14. Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system at RIBRAS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2013-05-06

    Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  15. Measurement system support at the JAERI-CRT Facility: pressure transducers. [Containment Research Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, W.M. Jr.; McCauley, E.W.

    1981-11-01

    As part of a continuing liaison between the US NRC and foreigh full scale containment research programs, measurements assistance in the form of the loan of 30 flush diaphram pressure transducers has been provided to the JAERI-CRT MK II research program at Tokai-Mura, Japan. Procedures developed earlier at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under similar research work sponsored by the US NRC were used by LLNL to successfully complete final installation and in-situ end-to-end calibration of the transducers in the CRT facility. The results from this calibration showed a very close agreement between sensitivities and linearities calculated at LLNL and the ones calculated at JAERI and indicate the transducers should give valid data during future testing.

  16. Estimates of radioxenon released from Southern Hemisphere medical isotope production facilities using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Lowrey, Justin D; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Schrom, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and (133)Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of (133)Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 × 10(14) Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 × 10(16) to 2.4 × 10(16) Bq, estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 × 10(13) to 3.7 × 10(14) Bq and estimates for the facility in Argentina range from 4.5 × 10(12) to 9.5 × 10(12) Bq. PMID:24811887

  17. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  18. Summary of 1988 WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Facility horizon gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    Numerous gas flow measurements have been made at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Facility horizon during 1988. All tests have been pressure decay or constant pressure tests from single boreholes drilled from the underground excavations. The test fluid has been nitrogen. The data have been interpreted as permeabilities and porosities by means of a transient numerical solution method. A closed-form steady-state approximation provides a reasonable order-of-magnitude permeability estimate. The effective resolution of the measurement system is less than 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2}. Results indicate that beyond 1 to 5 m from an excavation, the gas flow is very small and the corresponding permeability is below the system resolution. Within the first meter of an excavation, the interpreted permeabilities can be 5 orders of magnitude greater than the undisturbed or far-field permeability. The interpreted permeabilities in the region between the undisturbed region and the first meter from an excavation are in the range of 10{sup {minus}16} to 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2}. Measurable gas flow occurs to a greater depth into the roof above WIPP excavations of different sizes and ages than into the ribs and floor. The gas flows into the formation surrounding the smallest excavation tested are consistently lower than those at similar locations surrounding larger excavations of comparable age. Gas flow measured in the interbed layers near the WIPP excavations is highly variable. Generally, immediately above and below excavations, relatively large gas flow is measured in the interbed layers. These results are consistent with previous measurements and indicate a limited disturbed zone surrounding WIPP excavations. 31 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A Unique Test Facility to Measure Liner Performance with a Summary of Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A very ambitious study was initiated to obtain detailed acoustic and flow data with and without a liner in a duct containing a mean flow so that available theoretical models of duct liners can be validated. A unique flow-duct facility equipped with a sound source, liner box, flush-walled microphones, traversable microphones and traversable pressure and temperature probes was built. A unique set of instrumentation boxes equipped with computer controlled traverses were designed and built that allowed measurements of Mach number, temperature, SPLs and phases in two planes upstream of a liner section and two planes downstream at a large number of measurement points. Each pair of planes provided acoustic pressure gradients for use in estimating the particle velocities. Specially-built microphone probes were employed to make measurements in the presence of the flow. A microphone traverse was also designed to measure the distribution of SPLs and phases from the beginning of the liner to its end along the duct axis. All measurements were made with the help of cross-correlation techniques to reject flow noise and/or other obtrusive noise, if any. The facility was designed for future use at temperatures as high as 1500 F. In order to validate 2-D models in the presence of mean flow, the flow duct was equipped with a device to modify boundary layer flow on the smaller sides of a rectangular duct to simulate 2-D flow. A massive amount of data was acquired for use in validating duct liner models and will be provided to NASA in an electronic form. It was found that the sound in the plane-wave regime is well behaved within the duct and the results are repeatable from one run to another. At the higher frequencies corresponding to the higher-order modes, the SPLs within a duct are not repeatable from run to run. In fact, when two or more modes have the same frequency (i.e., for the degenerate modes), the SPLs in the duct varied between 2 dB to 12 dB from run to run. This made the

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for this second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 90

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-10-08

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period July 1 - September 30, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF has been deployed to China, but the data have not yet been released. The fourth quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. The average exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. HFE represents the AMF statistics for the Shouxian, China, deployment in 2008. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-05-22

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period January 1 - March 31, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF is being deployed to China and is not in operation this quarter. The second quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. The average as well as the individual site values exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the research accounts are located at the Barrow

  4. First Measurement of Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Cerjan, C.; Fortner, D.; Henry, E.; Shaughnessy, D.; Schnieder, D.; Stoeffl, W.; Stoyer, M.; Yeamans, C.; Boswell, M.; Bredeweg, T.; Grim, G.; Jungman, G.; Fowler, M.; Hayes, A.; Obst, A.; Rundberg, R.; Schulz, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Wilde, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M.; Howell, C.; Toenow, W.; LLNL/LANL/TUNL Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The first measurement of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons, also known as tertiary neutrons, has been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using an activation technique. Thulium foils positioned at 50 cm from the burning deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule have been exposed to the characteristic DT neutron spectrum. The high-energy part of these neutrons with energies above 15.0 MeV can produce 167Tm via the 169Tm(n,3n) reaction. The 208-keV γ-ray, emitted from the decay of 167Tm with a half-life of 9.2 days, has been measured using two clover detectors. The first preliminary result implies that the ratio of RIF neutrons (En>15.0 MeV) versus the total neutrons is 1x10-4 +/- 3x10-5. The important implication of these measurements on our knowledge of the charged-particle stopping power in strongly coupled quantum-degenerate plasma will be presented.

  5. First Measurement of Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A.; Becker, J.; Bleuel, D.; Bionta, R.; Fortner, D.; Henry, E.; Khater, H.; Shaughnessy, D.; Schnider, D.; Stoeffl, W.; Yeamans, C.; Boswell, M.; Bredeweg, T.; Grim, G.; Jungman, G.; Fowler, M.; Hayes, A.; Obst, A.; Rundberg, R.; Schulz, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tornow, W.; Bhike, M.; Howell, C.; Gooden, M.; LLNL/LANL/TUNL Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The first measurement of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons, also known as tertiary neutrons, has been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using an activation technique. Thulium foils positioned at 50 cm from the burning deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule have been exposed to the characteristic DT neutron spectrum. The high-energy part of these neutrons with energies above 15.0 MeV can produce 167Tm via the 169Tm(n,3n) reaction. The 208-keV γ-ray, emitted from the decay of 167Tm with a half-life of 9.2 days, has been measured using two clover detectors. The first preliminary result implies that the ratio of RIF neutrons (En > 15.0 MeV) versus the total neutrons is 1 × 10 -4 +/- 3 × 10 -5. The important implication of these measurements on our knowledge of the charged-particle stopping power in strongly coupled quantum-degenerate plasma will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Phase B: Data capture facility definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Aerospace Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to obtain more accurate measurements of tropical rainfall then ever before. The measurements are to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms effecting the intra-annual and interannual variability of the Earth's climate. The TRMM is largely dependent upon the handling and processing of the data by the TRMM Ground System supporting the mission. The objective of the TRMM is to obtain three years of climatological determinations of rainfall in the tropics, culminating in data sets of 30-day average rainfall over 5-degree square areas, and associated estimates of vertical distribution of latent heat release. The scope of this study is limited to the functions performed by TRMM Data Capture Facility (TDCF). These functions include capturing the TRMM spacecraft return link data stream; processing the data in the real-time, quick-look, and routine production modes, as appropriate; and distributing real time, quick-look, and production data products to users. The following topics are addressed: (1) TRMM end-to-end system description; (2) TRMM mission operations concept; (3) baseline requirements; (4) assumptions related to mission requirements; (5) external interface; (6) TDCF architecture and design options; (7) critical issues and tradeoffs; and (8) recommendation for the final TDCF selection process.

  7. Neutron Spectra Measured with Time-of-Flight Detectors at the National Ignition Facility*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Moran, M. J.; Hatarik, R.; McNaney, J. M.; Friedrich, S.; Bond, E. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Padalino, S. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2011-10-01

    Neutron time-of-fight (nTOF) instruments are used to provide data on the performance of National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. nTOF detectors are used to measure the total neutron emission, temperature of the fuel, time of peak emission (bang time), and areal density of the compressed fuel (ρR). These instruments are precision diagnostics with sufficient dynamic range and high signal-to-noise so that the neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions can be measured. This talk will focus on data from the scintillation detectors located at 20 m. Analysis techniques using both time-domain and energy-domain data are discussed. The next-generation detector based on an organic crystal scintillator show that improvements to scintillator decay, recording fidelity, and reduced scattering from the housing improve the precision of the neutron spectral measurement. *This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  8. New Mexico Tech landmine, UXO, IED detection sensor test facility: measurements in real field soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Alkov, Nicole; Hong, Sung-ho; Van Dam, Remke L.; Kleissl, Jan; Shannon, Heather; Meason, John; Borchers, Brian; Harmon, Russell S.

    2006-05-01

    Modeling studies and experimental work have demonstrated that the dynamic behavior of soil physical properties has a significant effect on most sensors for the detection of buried land mines. An outdoor test site has been constructed allowing full control over soil water content and continuous monitoring of important soil properties and environmental conditions. Time domain reflectometry sensors and thermistors measure soil water1 content and temperature, respectively, at different depths above and below the land mines as well as in homogeneous soil away from the land mines. During the two-year operation of the test-site, the soils have evolved to reflect real field soil conditions. This paper compares visual observations as well as ground-penetrating radar and thermal infrared measurements at this site taken immediately after construction in early 2004 with measurements from early 2006. The visual observations reveal that the 2006 soil surfaces exhibit a much higher spatial variability due to the development of mini-reliefs, "loose" and "connected" soil crusts, cracks in clay soils, and vegetation. Evidence is presented that the increased variability of soil surface characteristics leads to a higher natural spatial variability of soil surface temperatures and, thus, to a lower probability to detect landmines using thermal imagery. No evidence was found that the soil surface changes affect the GPR signatures of landmines under the soil conditions encountered in this study. The New Mexico Tech outdoor Landmine Detection Sensor Test Facility is easily accessible and anyone interested is welcome to use it for sensor testing.

  9. Use of the Long Duration Exposure Facility's thermal measurement system for the verification of thermal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of the comparison between the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Thermal Measurements Systems (THERM) recorded temperature data and the predicted values as calculated prior to the LDEF deployment. The postflight thermal model was verified and calculated temperature uncertainties were reduced to under + or - 18 F from the preflight uncertainties of + or - 40 F. The THERM consisted of 8 temperature sensors, a shared tape recorder, a standard LDEF flight battery, and an electronics control box. The temperatures were measured at selected locations on the LDEF structure interior during the first 490 days of flight and recorded for postflight analysis. After the recorder was recovered from space, the tape recorder was recovered and the data reduced for comparison to the LDEF predicted temperatures. By comparing the calculated values to the measured data, a verified thermal model that presents the best agreement with the THERM data was obtained. The THERM experiment provided an economical way of performing a postflight verification of the LDEF Thermal Model by recording a limited number of flight temperatures on typical locations of the LDEF structure.

  10. 129I measurements on the 1MV AMS facility at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Holm, E

    2012-01-01

    The AMS system at CNA has been the first 1MV compact AMS system designed and manufactured by HVE. In this paper we present the experimental set-up for (129)I measurements in this facility. Charge state +3 has been selected at high-energy side and an optimum stripper pressure of 6×10(-3)mbar of argon (mass thickness of about 0.15μgcm(-2)) has been reached to obtain lowest blank values ((129)I/(127)I≅3×10(-13)). The measurements of the reference materials provided by the IAEA have demonstrated the viability of this facility to make routine measurements of (129)I at environmental levels. This blank value obtained is enough for the measurement of most environmental samples and comparable with other reported backgrounds obtained in facilities working at higher energies and higher charge states.

  11. 129I measurements on the 1MV AMS facility at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Holm, E

    2012-01-01

    The AMS system at CNA has been the first 1MV compact AMS system designed and manufactured by HVE. In this paper we present the experimental set-up for (129)I measurements in this facility. Charge state +3 has been selected at high-energy side and an optimum stripper pressure of 6×10(-3)mbar of argon (mass thickness of about 0.15μgcm(-2)) has been reached to obtain lowest blank values ((129)I/(127)I≅3×10(-13)). The measurements of the reference materials provided by the IAEA have demonstrated the viability of this facility to make routine measurements of (129)I at environmental levels. This blank value obtained is enough for the measurement of most environmental samples and comparable with other reported backgrounds obtained in facilities working at higher energies and higher charge states. PMID:21840221

  12. Radiation levels in cyclotron-radiochemistry facility measured by a novel comprehensive computerized monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishani, E.; Lifshits, N.; Osavistky, A.; Kaufman, J.; Ankry, N.; Tal, N.; Chisin, R.

    1999-04-01

    Radiation levels in a cyclotron-radiochemistry facility were measured during the production of commonly used PET radiopharmaceuticals by a comprehensive computerized monitoring system. The system consists of three major components: on-line radiation monitoring channels, an area control unit, and a gas waste management unit. During production the radiation levels were measured in the cyclotron vault, inside automatic chemistry production and research shielded cells, in the radiochemistry room, in the gas waste decay tank, in the chimney filters, and at the top of the cells chimney. Each detector was calibrated in a known radiation field, and a special detector dead time correction was performed in order to achieve detected signal-to-radiation linearity for the Geiger tubes located in the radiochemistry production and research cells. During production of C-11 and O-15 PET radiopharmaceuticals, high radiation levels were measured in the gas waste decay tank (240 and 80 mR/h, respectively). In contrast, the radiation levels at the chimney filters and at the top of the cells chimney did not exceed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Drive Air Concentration (DAC) recommended for C-11 or O-15. During production of FDG, high radiation levels were measured at the chimney filters, however the radiation level at the top of the chimney (3.7 μCi/m 3) did not exceed the F-18 DAC recommendation (27 μCi/m 3). Low radiation levels of approximately 0.5-1 mR/h were measured in the radiochemistry room during production of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In the cyclotron vault, 2 min after bombardment the radiation levels at 2 m from the cyclotron decreased to 1-2 mR/h. The addition of a gas waste decay system to computerized monitoring channels located near each strategic point of the site allows for a comprehensive survey of the radiochemical processes.

  13. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AROUND A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gasses around an integrated industrial swine production facility in eastern North Carolina. Several single-path measurements were made ove...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facilities quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-07-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter); for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale it is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale it is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 1390.80 hours (0.95 x 1464). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-07-26

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2007 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.6 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.4 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - Sep. 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 ? 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 ? 2,208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 ? 2,208). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive result from downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-04-23

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052.00 hours (0.95 x 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944.00 hours (0.90 x 2,160), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836.00 hours (0.85 x 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because not all of the metadata have been acquired that are used to generate this metric. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability

  18. Emission Spectroscopic Measurements with an Optical Probe in the NASA Ames IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Raiche, George A.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Hui, Frank C. L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical probe was designed to measure radiation (from inside the arc heater) incident on a test sample immersed in the arc-heated stream. Currently, only crude estimates are available for this incident radiation. Unlike efforts of the past, where the probe line of sight was inclined to the nozzle centerline, the present development focuses on having the probe line of sight coincide with the nozzle centerline. A fiber-coupled spectrometer was used to measure the spectral distribution of incident radiation in the wavelength range of 225 to 900 nm. The radiation heat flux in this wavelength range was determined by integration of measured emission spectral intensity calibrated to incident irradiance from an integrating sphere. Two arc-heater conditions, corresponding to stream bulk enthalpy levels of 12 and 22 MJ/kg, were investigated in the 13-inch diameter nozzle of the Interaction Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. With the probe placed at a distance of 10 inches from the nozzle exit plane, total radiative heat fluxes were measured to be 3.3 and 8.4 W/sq cm for the 12 and 22 MJ/kg conditions, respectively. About 17% of these radiative fluxes were due to bound-bound radiation from atoms and molecules, while the remaining 83% could be attributed to continua (bound-free and/or free-free). A comparison with spectral simulation based on CFD solutions for the arc-heater flow field and with spectroscopic measurements in the plenum region indicates that more than 95% of the measured radiation is generated in the arc region. The total radiative heat flux from the line radiation could increase by a factor of two through contributions from wavelengths outside the measured range, i.e., from the vacuum ultraviolet (wavelengths less than 225 nm) and the infrared (wavelengths greater than 900 nm). An extrapolation of the continuum radiation to these two wavelength regions was not attempted. In the tested configuration, the measured radiative heat flux accounts for

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the ACRF fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at PNNL for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The DOE requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 × 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 × 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating

  20. Continuous measurements of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from air scrubbers at pig housing facilities.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, C; Brusselman, E; Volcke, E I P; Demeyer, P

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia, largely emitted by agriculture, involves a great risk for eutrophication and acidification leading to biodiversity loss. Air scrubbers are widely applied to reduce ammonia emission from pig and poultry housing facilities, but it is not always clear whether their performance meets the requirements. Besides, there is a growing international concern for the livestock related greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide but hardly any data concerning their fate in air scrubbers are available. This contribution presents the results from measurement campaigns conducted at a chemical, a biological and a two-stage biological air scrubber installed at pig housing facilities in Flanders. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane at the inlet and outlet of the air scrubbers were monitored on-line during one week using a photoacoustic gas monitor, which allowed to investigate diurnal fluctuations in the removal performance of air scrubbers. Additionally, the homogeneity of the air scrubbers, normally checked by gas detection tubes, was investigated in more detail using the continuous data. The biological air scrubber with extra nitrification tank performed well in terms of ammonia removal (86 ± 6%), while the two-stage air scrubber suffered from nitrifying bacteria inhibition. In the chemical air scrubber the pH was not kept constant, lowering the ammonia removal efficiency. A lower ammonia removal efficiency was found during the day, when the ventilation rate was the highest. Nitrous oxide was produced inside the biological and two-stage scrubber, resulting in an increased outlet concentration of more than 200%. Methane could not be removed in the different air scrubbers because of its low water solubility. PMID:27341376

  1. Continuous measurements of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from air scrubbers at pig housing facilities.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, C; Brusselman, E; Volcke, E I P; Demeyer, P

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia, largely emitted by agriculture, involves a great risk for eutrophication and acidification leading to biodiversity loss. Air scrubbers are widely applied to reduce ammonia emission from pig and poultry housing facilities, but it is not always clear whether their performance meets the requirements. Besides, there is a growing international concern for the livestock related greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide but hardly any data concerning their fate in air scrubbers are available. This contribution presents the results from measurement campaigns conducted at a chemical, a biological and a two-stage biological air scrubber installed at pig housing facilities in Flanders. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane at the inlet and outlet of the air scrubbers were monitored on-line during one week using a photoacoustic gas monitor, which allowed to investigate diurnal fluctuations in the removal performance of air scrubbers. Additionally, the homogeneity of the air scrubbers, normally checked by gas detection tubes, was investigated in more detail using the continuous data. The biological air scrubber with extra nitrification tank performed well in terms of ammonia removal (86 ± 6%), while the two-stage air scrubber suffered from nitrifying bacteria inhibition. In the chemical air scrubber the pH was not kept constant, lowering the ammonia removal efficiency. A lower ammonia removal efficiency was found during the day, when the ventilation rate was the highest. Nitrous oxide was produced inside the biological and two-stage scrubber, resulting in an increased outlet concentration of more than 200%. Methane could not be removed in the different air scrubbers because of its low water solubility.

  2. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  3. Experimental measurement and Monte Carlo assessment of Argon-41 production in a PET cyclotron facility.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Angelo; Valtieri, Lorenzo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Pancaldi, Davide; Mostacci, Domiziano; Marengo, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In a medical cyclotron facility, (41)Ar (t1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux during irradiation, according to the (40)Ar(n,γ)(41)Ar reaction; this is particularly relevant in widely diffused high beam current cyclotrons for the production of PET radionuclides. While theoretical estimations of the (41)Ar production have been published, no data are available on direct experimental measurements for a biomedical cyclotron. In this work, we describe a sampling methodology and report the results of an extensive measurement campaign. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with the FLUKA code. To measure (41)Ar activity, air samples were taken inside the cyclotron bunker in sealed Marinelli beakers, during the routine production of (18)F with a 16.5 MeV GE-PETtrace cyclotron; this sampling thus reproduces a situation of absence of air changes. Samples analysis was performed in a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector. Monte Carlo assessment of the (41)Ar saturation yield was performed directly using the standard FLUKA score RESNUCLE, and off-line by the convolution of neutron fluence with cross section data. The average (41)Ar saturation yield per one liter of air of (41)Ar, measured in gamma-ray spectrometry, resulted to be 3.0 ± 0.6 Bq/µA*dm(3) while simulations gave a result of 6.9 ± 0.3 Bq/µA*dm(3) in the direct assessment and 6.92 ± 0.22 Bq/µA*dm(3) by the convolution neutron fluence-to-cross section.

  4. Experimental measurement and Monte Carlo assessment of Argon-41 production in a PET cyclotron facility.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Angelo; Valtieri, Lorenzo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Pancaldi, Davide; Mostacci, Domiziano; Marengo, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In a medical cyclotron facility, (41)Ar (t1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux during irradiation, according to the (40)Ar(n,γ)(41)Ar reaction; this is particularly relevant in widely diffused high beam current cyclotrons for the production of PET radionuclides. While theoretical estimations of the (41)Ar production have been published, no data are available on direct experimental measurements for a biomedical cyclotron. In this work, we describe a sampling methodology and report the results of an extensive measurement campaign. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with the FLUKA code. To measure (41)Ar activity, air samples were taken inside the cyclotron bunker in sealed Marinelli beakers, during the routine production of (18)F with a 16.5 MeV GE-PETtrace cyclotron; this sampling thus reproduces a situation of absence of air changes. Samples analysis was performed in a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector. Monte Carlo assessment of the (41)Ar saturation yield was performed directly using the standard FLUKA score RESNUCLE, and off-line by the convolution of neutron fluence with cross section data. The average (41)Ar saturation yield per one liter of air of (41)Ar, measured in gamma-ray spectrometry, resulted to be 3.0 ± 0.6 Bq/µA*dm(3) while simulations gave a result of 6.9 ± 0.3 Bq/µA*dm(3) in the direct assessment and 6.92 ± 0.22 Bq/µA*dm(3) by the convolution neutron fluence-to-cross section. PMID:26420444

  5. Emission Spectroscopic Measurements in the Plenum Region of the NASA IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael W.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    A newly designed segment with optical access was installed in the plenum chamber of the 60 MW Interaction Heating arcjet Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. This special segment has ports located off axis, and the optical fibers can be inserted into these ports. The special segment allows for optical examination of the arc-heated flow as it enters the plenum, and thus assists in determining estimates of the thermodynamic state of the inflow to the convergent section of the nozzle. In the present work, optical emission measurements have been made in VIS-NIR region (wavelengths between 500 nm to 900 nm) for two settings of the arc heater - a 6000 A condition (high condition) with the minimum amount of radial injection of cold air in the plenum, and a 3300 A condition (low condition) with significant amount of cold air injection to reduce the enthalpy of the arc-heated stream. The results presented here were obtained using an Acton SP300i spectrometer coupled to a Princeton Instruments PI-max intensified camera. In addition to the optical emission measurements, computations were performed for the flow in the plenum and radiation along lines of sight corresponding to the optical ports. Along the centerline, i.e., the longest line of sight across the plenum cross-section, there is good agreement between computations and measurements for the high enthalpy condition, although the off-axis radial profiles show some differences. For the low enthalpy condition, there are significant differences between computations and measurements. The current working hypothesis is that the computational model does not capture details of the mixing process in the plenum.

  6. Measurement of the cosmogenic 11C background with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, D.

    2007-03-28

    Within next year, two organic liquid scintillator detectors, Borexino and KamLAND, will start the measurement of the mono-energetic 7Be solar neutrino flux in real time. Besides this objective, both of them have the potential to detect neutrinos from the pep fusion reaction and the CNO cycle in the Sun.For this purpose, two conditions are required: an extremely low radioactive contamination level and the efficient identification of the 11C background, produced in reactions induced by the residual cosmic muon flux on 12C. In the process, a free neutron is almost always produced. 11C can be tagged on an event by event basis by looking at the three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. We tested successfully this coincidence method with the Borexino Counting Test Facility. The results are reported here.Moreover, we discuss on the effective potential of Borexino and KamLAND in detecting pep+CNO neutrinos compared to SNO+, a detector specifically designed for measuring the pep+CNO {nu} flux and that will take data from 2009.

  7. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Jinsong; Yuan, Xiao; Jin, Fengtao

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH(2)OH)(4) (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code. PMID:19405658

  8. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Jinsong; Yuan, Xiao; Jin, Fengtao

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH2OH)4 (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  9. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yang; Yang Jiamin; Zhang Jiyan; Liu Jinsong; Yuan Xiao; Jin Fengtao

    2009-04-15

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  10. ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector for Gamma Ray Measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). A new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide ~ 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from ~ 100 to ~ 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The first phase is to insert the existing coaxial GCD-3 detector into a reentrant well on the NIF chamber which will put it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by ~ 10x relative to current PMT technology. GCD-3 has been thoroughly tested at the OMEGA Laser Facility and characterized at the High Intensity Gamma Ray Source (HIgS).

  11. Extreme-ultraviolet collector mirror measurement using large reflectometer at NewSUBARU synchrotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Haruki; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Kuki, Masaki; Harada, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo; Platonov, Yuriy Y.; Kriese, Michael D.; Rodriguez, Jim R.

    2016-06-01

    In extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, the development of high-power EUV sources is one of the critical issues. The EUV output power directly depends on the collector mirror performance. Furthermore, mirrors with large diameters are necessary to achieve high collecting performance and take sufficient distance to prevent heat and debris from a radiation point of the source. Thus collector mirror development with accurate reflectometer is important. We have developed a large reflectometer at BL-10 beamline of the NewSUBARU synchrotron facility that can be used for mirrors with diameters, thicknesses, and weights of up to 800 mm, 250 mm, and 50 kg, respectively. This reflectometer can measure reflectivity with fully s-polarized EUV light. In this study, we measured the reflectance of a 412-mm-diameter EUV collector mirror using a maximum incident angle of 36°. We obtained the peak reflectance, center wavelength and reflection bandwidth results and compared our results with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt results.

  12. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-01-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  13. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  14. Velocity Measurements at Six Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Summer 1988 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Lusty, E. William

    1989-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) are funding the construction and evaluation of fish passage facilities and fish protection facilities at irrigation and hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River Basin, Washington State. The program provides offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric development throughout the Columbia River Basin, and addresses natural propagation of salmon to help mitigate the impact of irrigation in the Yakima River Basin. This report evaluates the flow characteristics of the screening facilities. Studies consisted of velocity measurements taken in front of the rotary drum screens and within the fish bypass systems during peak flows. Measurements of approach velocity and sweep velocity were emphasized in these studies; however, vertical velocity was also measured. 5 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Measurements and modeling of emissions, dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia from swine facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep Singh

    Ammonia has recently gained importance for its increasing atmospheric concentrations and its role in the formation of aerosols. Studies have shown increasing atmospheric concentration levels of NH3 and NH 4+, especially in the regions of concentrated animal feeding operations. Atmospheric inputs of reduced nitrogen as ammonia and ammonium by dry and wet deposition may represent a substantial contribution to the acidification of semi natural ecosystems and could also affect sensitive coastal ecosystems and estuaries. The anaerobic lagoon and spray method, commonly used for waste storage and disposal in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO), is a significant source of ammonia emissions. An accurate emission model for ammonia from aqueous surfaces can help in the development of emission factors. Study of dispersion and dry deposition patterns of ammonia downwind of a hog farm will help us to understand how much ammonia gets dry deposited near the farm, and how remaining ammonia gets transported farther away. An experimental and modeling study is conducted of emissions, dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia taking one swine farm as a unit. Measurements of ammonia flux were made at 11 swine facilities in North Carolina using dynamic flow-through chamber system over the anaerobic waste treatment lagoons. Continuous measurements of ammonia flux, meteorological and lagoon parameters were made for 8-10 days at each farm during each of the warm and cold seasons. Ammonia concentrations were continuously measured in the chamber placed over the lagoon using a Thermo Environmental Instrument Incorporated (TECO) Model 17c chemiluminescnce ammonia analyzer. A similar ammonia analyzer was used to measure ammonia concentrations at selected locations on the farm. Barn emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. A 10 m meteorological tower was erected at each site to measure wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity

  16. Measurement, analysis, and modeling of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a swine facility in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden, Jessica

    Annual global source contributions of sulfur compounds to the natural atmospheric environment are estimated to be 142 x 106 tons. Although not quantified, volatilization from animal wastes may be an important source of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas emitted during decomposition of hog manure that produces an offensive "rotten egg" odor. Once released into the atmosphere, H 2S is oxidized and the eventual byproduct, sulfuric acid, may combine with other atmospheric constituents to form aerosol products such as ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate. In recent years, confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have increased in size, resulting in more geographically concentrated areas of animals and, subsequently, animal waste. In North Carolina and across the southeastern United States anaerobic waste treatment lagoons are traditionally used to store and treat hog excreta at commercial hog farms. Currently, no state regulations exist for H2S gaseous emissions from animal production facilities in North Carolina and the amount of H2S being emitted into the atmosphere from these potential sources is widely unknown. In response to the need for data, this research initiative has been undertaken in an effort to quantify emissions of H2S from swine CAFOs. An experimental study was conducted at a commercial swine farm in eastern North Carolina to measure hydrogen sulfide emissions from a hog housing unit utilizing a mechanical fan ventilation system and from an on-site waste storage treatment lagoon. A dynamic flow-through chamber system was employed to make lagoon flux measurements. Semi-continuous measurements were made over a one-year period (2004-2005) for a few days during each of the four predominant seasons in order to assess diurnal and temporal variability in emissions. Fan rpm from the barn was continuously measured and flow rates were calculated in order to accurately assess gaseous emissions from the system

  17. The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.; Hahn, S.; Paulik, C.; Xaver, A.; Gruber, A.; Drusch, M.; Mecklenburg, S.; van Oevelen, P.; Robock, A.; Jackson, T.

    2011-05-01

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land cover change. Nevertheless, on a worldwide basis the number of meteorological networks and stations measuring soil moisture, in particular on a continuous basis, is still limited and the data they provide lack standardization of technique and protocol. To overcome many of these limitations, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/insitu) was initiated to serve as a centralized data hosting facility where globally available in situ soil moisture measurements from operational networks and validation campaigns are collected, harmonized, and made available to users. Data collecting networks share their soil moisture datasets with the ISMN on a voluntary and no-cost basis. Incoming soil moisture data are automatically transformed into common volumetric soil moisture units and checked for outliers and implausible values. Apart from soil water measurements from different depths, important metadata and meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation and soil temperature) are stored in the database. These will assist the user in correctly interpreting the soil moisture data. The database is queried through a graphical user interface while output of data selected for download is provided according to common standards for data and metadata. Currently (status May 2011), the ISMN contains data of 19 networks and more than 500 stations located in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The time period spanned by the entire database runs from 1952 until the present, although most datasets have originated during the last decade. The database is rapidly expanding, which means that both the

  18. The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.; Hahn, S.; Paulik, C.; Drusch, M.; Mecklenburg, S.; van Oevelen, P.; Robock, A.; Jackson, T.

    2011-02-01

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land cover change. Nevertheless, on a worldwide basis the number of meteorological networks and stations measuring soil moisture, in particular on a continuous basis, is still limited and the data they provide lack standardization of technique and protocol. To overcome many of these limitations, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/insitu) was initiated to serve as a centralized data hosting facility where globally available in situ soil moisture measurements from operational networks and validation campaigns are collected, harmonized, and made available to users. Data collecting networks share their soil moisture datasets with the ISMN on a voluntary and no-cost basis. Incoming soil moisture data are automatically transformed into common volumetric soil moisture units and checked for outliers and implausible values. Apart from soil water measurements from different depths, important metadata and meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation and soil temperature) are stored in the database. These will assist the user in correctly interpreting the soil moisture data. The database is queried through a graphical user interface while output of data selected for download is provided according to common standards for data and metadata. Currently (status January 2011), the ISMN contains data of 16 networks and more than 500 stations located in the North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The time period spanned by the entire database runs from 1952 until the present, although most datasets have originated during the last decade. The database is rapidly expanding, which means that

  19. A Framework for Measuring Student and Staff Satisfaction with University Campus Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kärnä, Sami; Julin, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and discuss the extent of the satisfaction as perceived by the students and staff towards university facilities and services in two campuses in Finland. The aim is to analyse which facility-related factors have the greatest impacts on students' and staff's overall satisfaction.…

  20. Measurement of reaction-in-flight neutrons using thulium activation at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, G. P.; Rundberg, R.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Boswell, M.; Klein, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tonchev, A.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the first observation of tertiary reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons produced in compressed deuterium and tritium filled capsules using the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. RIF neutrons are produced by third-order, out of equilibrium ("in-flight") fusion reactions, initiated by primary fusion products. The rate of RIF reactions is dependent upon the range of the elastically scattered fuel ions and therefore a diagnostic of Coulomb physics within the plasma. At plasma temperatures of ˜5 keV, the presence of neutrons with kinetic energies greater than 15 MeV is a unique signature for RIF neutron production. The reaction 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm has a threshold of 15.0 MeV, and a unique decay scheme making it a suitable diagnostic for observing RIF neutrons. RIF neutron production is quantified by the ratio of 167Tm/168Tm observed in a 169Tm foil, where the reaction 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm samples the primary neutron fluence. Averaged over 4 implosions1-4 at the NIF, the 167Tm/168Tm ratio is measured to be 1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10-5, leading to an average ratio of RIF to primary neutron ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10-4. These ratios are consistent with the predictions for charged particle stopping in a quantum degenerate plasma.

  1. Diagnostics of PF-1000 Facility Operation and Plasma Concentration on the Basis of Spectral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Scholz, M.; Tsarenko, A. V.

    2006-01-15

    The paper concerns the monitoring of high-current pulse discharges and the determination of the plasma concentration within the dense magnetized plasma by means of optical spectroscopy methods. In experiments with the large PF-1000 facility operated at IPPLM in Warsaw, Poland, attention was paid to the determination of the operational mode and electron concentration under different experimental conditions. To measure the visible radiation (VR) the use was made of the MECHELLE registered 900-spectrometer equipped with the CCD readout. The VR emission, observed at 65 deg. to the z-axis, originated from a part of the electrode surfaces, the collapsing current-sheath layer and the dense plasma pinch-region (40-50 mm from the electrode ends). Considerable differences were found in the optical spectra recorded for so-called 'good shots' and for cases of some failures. Estimates of the electron concentration, which were performed with different spectroscopic techniques, showed that it ranged from 5.56x1018 cm-3 to 4.8x1019 cm-3, depending on experimental conditions. The correlation of the fusion-neutron yield and the plasma density was proved.

  2. A new and facile method for measurement of apparent density of monodisperse polymer beads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Li, Yuanpeng; Jing, Ying; Xing, Chengguo; Chang, Jin; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2010-03-15

    The apparent density, an intrinsic physical property of polymer beads, plays an important role in the application of beads in micro-total analysis systems and separation. Here we have developed a new, facile and milligram-scale method to describe the motion of beads in aqueous solution and further detect the apparent density of beads. The motion of beads in solutions is determined by the viscosity of solutions and the density difference between beads and solutions. In this study, using various glycerol aqueous solutions with certain viscosities and densities, the motion time (i.e. floating or sedimentation time) of hybrid polymer beads was experimentally measured and theoretically deduced, and consequently, the apparent density of monodisperse beads can be quickly and easily calculated. The results indicated that the present method provided a more precise way to predict the movement of hybrid beads in aqueous solution compared with the approach for commercial use. This new method can be potentially employed in flow cytometry, suspension stability, and particle analysis systems.

  3. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  4. Hard X-ray Imaging for Measuring Laser Absorption Spatial Profiles on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E L; Jones, O S; Landen, O L; Suter, L; Amendt, P; Turner, R E; Regan, S

    2006-04-25

    Hard x-ray (''Thin wall'') imaging will be employed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to spatially locate laser beam energy deposition regions on the hohlraum walls in indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments, relevant for ICF symmetry tuning. Based on time resolved imaging of the hard x-ray emission of the laser spots, this method will be used to infer hohlraum wall motion due to x-ray and laser ablation and any beam refraction caused by plasma density gradients. In optimizing this measurement, issues that have to be addressed are hard x-ray visibility during the entire ignition laser pulse with intensities ranging from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, as well as simultaneous visibility of the inner and the outer laser drive cones. In this work we will compare the hard x-ray emission calculated by LASNEX and analytical modeling with thin wall imaging data recorded previously on Omega and during the first hohlraum experiments on NIF. Based on these calculations and comparisons the thin wall imaging will be optimized for ICF/NIF experiments.

  5. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  6. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  7. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  8. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  9. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the interplanetary dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.; Motley, William R., III

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) was unique in providing a time history of impacts of micron-sized particles on six orthogonal faces of LDEF during the first year in orbit. The value of this time resolved data depended on and was enhanced by the proper operation of some basic LDEF systems. Thus, the value of the data is greatly enhanced when the location and orientation of LDEF is known for each time of impact. The location and velocity of LDEF as a function of time can be calculated from the 'two-line elements' published by GSFC during the first year of the LDEF mission. The attitude of LDEF was passively stabilized in a gravity-gradient mode and a magnetically anchored viscous damper was used to dissipate roll, pitch, and yaw motions. Finally, the IDE used a standard LDEF Experiment Power and Data System (EPDS) to collect and store data and also to provide a crystal derived clock pulse (1 count every 13.1072 seconds) for all IDE time measurements. All that remained for the IDE was to provide a system to calibrate the clock, eliminating accumulative errors, and also verify the attitude of LDEF. The IDE used solar cells on six orthogonal faces to observe the LDEF sunrise and provide data about the LDEF attitude. The data was recorded by the EPDS about 10 times per day for the first 345 days of the LDEF mission. This data consist of the number of IDE counts since the last LDEF sunrise and the status of the six solar cells (light or dark) at the time of the last IDE count. The EPDS determined the time that data was recorded and includes, with each record, the master EPDS clock counter (1 count every 1.6384 seconds) that provided the range and resolution for time measurements. The IDE solar cells provided data for an excellent clock calibration, meeting their primary purpose, and the time resolved LDEF attitude measurements that can be gleaned from this data are presented.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-10-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-07-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. Electrochemical Technology for Oxygen Removal and Measurement in the CELSS Test Facility, Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael E.; Covington, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Life Support Flight Program is evaluating regenerative technologies, including those that utilize higher plants, as a means to reduce resupply over long duration space missions. Constructed to assist in the evaluation process is the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit (CTF-EDU) an environmentally closed (less than 1% mass and thermal leakage) technology test bed. This ground based fully functional prototype is currently configured to support crop growth, utilizing the power, volume and mass resources allocated for two space station racks. Sub-system technologies were selected considering their impact on available resources, their ability to minimize integration issues, and their degree of modularity. Gas specific mass handling is a key sub-system technology for both biological and physical/chemical life support technologies. The CTF-EDU requires such a system to accommodate non-linear oxygen production from crops, by enabling the control system to change and sustain partial pressure set points in the growth volume. Electrochemical cells are one of the technologies that were examined for oxygen handling in the CTF-EDU. They have been additionally considered to meet other regenerative life support functions, such as oxygen generation, the production of potable water from composite waste streams, and for having the potential to integrate life support functions with those of propulsion and energy storage. An oxygen removal system based on an electrochemical cell was chosen for the EDU due to it's low power, volume and mass requirements (10W, 0.000027 cu m, 4.5 kg) and because of the minimal number of integration considerations. Unlike it's competitors, the system doesn't require post treatments of its byproducts, or heat and power intensive regenerations, that also mandate system redundancy or cycling. The EDUs oxygen removal system only requires two resources, which are already essential to controlled plant growth: electricity and water. Additionally

  13. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  14. Comparative Measurements of Earth and Martian Entry Environments in the NASA Langley HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Bey, Kim S.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Arc-jet facilities play a major role in the development of heat shield materials for entry vehicles because they are capable of producing representative high-enthalpy flow environments. Arc-jet test data is used to certify material performance for a particular mission and to validate or calibrate models of material response during atmospheric entry. Materials used on missions entering Earth s atmosphere are certified in an arc-jet using a simulated air entry environment. Materials used on missions entering the Martian atmosphere should be certified in an arc-jet using a simulated Martian atmosphere entry environment, which requires the use of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has not been used as a test gas in a United States arc-jet facility since the early 1970 s during the certification of materials for the Viking Missions. Materials certified for the Viking missions have been used on every entry mission to Mars since that time. The use of carbon dioxide as a test gas in an arc-jet is again of interest to the thermal protection system community for certification of new heat shield materials that can increase the landed mass capability for Mars bound missions beyond that of Viking and Pathfinder. This paper describes the modification, operation, and performance of the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-jet facility with carbon dioxide as a test gas. A basic comparison of heat fluxes, various bulk properties, and performance characteristics for various Earth and Martian entry environments in HYMETS is provided. The Earth and Martian entry environments consist of a standard Earth atmosphere, an oxygen-rich Earth atmosphere, and a simulated Martian atmosphere. Finally, a preliminary comparison of the HYMETS arc-jet facility to several European plasma facilities is made to place the HYMETS facility in a more global context of arc-jet testing capability.

  15. Design of the opacity spectrometer for opacity measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Ahmed, M. F.; Dodd, E.; Huffman, E. J.; Liedahl, D. A.; King, J. A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Perry, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratory Z facility have called into question models used in calculating opacity, of importance for modeling stellar interiors. An effort is being made to reproduce these results at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments require a new X-ray opacity spectrometer (OpSpec) spanning 540 eV-2100 eV with a resolving power E/ΔE > 700. The design of the OpSpec is presented. Photometric calculations based on expected opacity data are also presented. First use on NIF is expected in September 2016.

  16. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in electric-arc jet facilities for planetary entry heating simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes are constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies; the temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its rate of change gives the steady-state, absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. It is concluded that the simple construction of these probes allows them to be expendable and heated to destruction to obtain a measurable temperature slope at high heating rates.

  17. Evaluation of Gas-filled Ionization Chamber Method for Radon Measurement at Two Reference Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2008-08-07

    For quality assurance, gas-filled ionization chamber method was tested at two reference facilities for radon calibration: EML (USA) and PTB (Germany). Consequently, the radon concentrations estimated by the ionization chamber method were in good agreement with the reference radon concentrations provided by EML as well as PTB.

  18. Atmospheric Stability Measurements at a Swine Facility and an Adjacent Corn Field in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric stability conditions at the surface layer can determine direction and momentum transport of air contaminants. Near confined animal facilities, these transport processes can significantly impact air quality as these sites typically act as net source of pollutants; however, little informat...

  19. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of interplanetary dust collected on LDEF. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechtig, H.; Jessberger, E.; Hoerz, F.; Igenbergs, E.; Kuczera, H.

    1985-01-01

    A passive interplanetary dust collection experiment, currently in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility, is described. The collectors, germanium target plates covered by metallized Mylar foils, are designed for secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements of the elemental and isotopic compositions of residues resulting from micrometeoroid (greater than 10 to the -10th grams) impacts. Impact simulation experiments have demonstrated the validity of the collection concept. Quantitative elemental analyses are complicated by the nonuniform distribution of projectile-derived elements.

  20. A table-top ion and electron beam facility for ionization quenching measurement and gas detector calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraz, J. F.; Médard, J.; Couturier, C.; Fourrel, C.; Guillaudin, O.; Lamy, T.; Marton, M.; Riffard, Q.; Sortais, P.; Santos, D.; Sauzet, N.

    2016-10-01

    In the frame of the MiMAC project, the LPSC (Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie) has developed COMIMAC, a miniaturized and transportable table-top beam line, producing ions or electrons to make measurements of the "quenching" factor in ionization and detector calibration. The energy range of the COMIMAC beam facility starts from a few tens of eV up to 50 keV.

  1. Real-Time Measurements of Ethane for Source Attribution of Methane Plumes from Oil and Gas Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Iglesias, G.; Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Lab has conducted several recent studies of the methane emissions from Oil and Gas facilities at varying stages of production: well-heads; processing facilities; and compressor stations. Accurate quantification of methane emission rates are can be complicated by other local sources, notably livestock and microbial production. Methane emissions from oil and gas facilities are always accompanied by small amounts of ethane, while biogenic plumes contain no ethane. A prototype ethane spectrometer based on the Aerodyne-Mini chassis, has been deployed to oil and gas facilities in the Veracruz region of Mexico, as part of the 2013 Short-Lived Climate-Forcing project, and during ground-based measurements in the Barnett Shale in Texas as part of the Barnett Oil and Gas Observation Study. These results suggest a source-dependence in the ethane-to-methane ratio in oil and gas emissions. The results will be contrasted with 13CH4 methane isotope ratios determined using Aerodyne's Methane-Dual instrument. The limits and advantages of ethane-methane ratios and methane isotopes will be discussed. In the current instrumentation, the precision of determined ethane-to-methane ratios in a single plume encounter exceeds the analogous carbon isotope quantification.

  2. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  3. Measurements of plasma conditions in precursor plasmas at the 1-MA Zebra facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouart, N. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Deeney, C.

    2007-11-01

    Precursor plasmas, both the early time precursor flow of mass and the accumulation of this material on axis, were observed on many z-pinch experiments at various facilities, including low current (< 1MA) and high current (>15 MA, Z) facilities. The impact of these precursors on stagnated plasmas, and targets such as those used for ICF experiments, is still under evaluation. Experiments were performed at the UNR 1-MA, 100ns Zebra facility to study these precursor plasmas with Cu wire arrays. Significant precursor radiation at photon energies > 1 keV was observed on filtered PCDs. Te and ne of the precursor radiation were obtained from modeling of time-resolved spectroscopy of the Cu L-shell emissions for 6 wires on 12mm diameter loads. The precursor plasma temperatures are consistently >250eV. Time resolved pinhole images were also collected, which show bright spots of radiation along the axial length of the pinch. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Work was also supported by the DOE/NNSA Coop. agr. DE-FC52-06NA27616, 06NA27588, 06NA27586, and by fellowship from the NPSC with SNL.

  4. US-Russian Cooperation in Upgrading MC&A System at Rosatom Facilities: Measurement of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Jensen, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Improve protection of weapons-usable nuclear material from theft or diversion through the development and support of a nationwide sustainable and effective Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program based on material measurement. The material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) cooperation has yielded significant results in implementing MC&A measurements at Russian nuclear facilities: (1) Establishment of MEM WG and MEMS SP; (2) Infrastructure for development, certification, and distribution of RMs; and (3) Coordination on development and implementation of MMs.

  5. Augmentation of Quick-EXAFS measurement facility at the energy scanning EXAFS beamline at INDUS-2 SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Poswal, A. K. Agrawal, Ankur; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper implementation of Quick-EXAFS data acquisition facility at the Energy Scanning EXAFS beamline(BL-09) at INDUS-2 synchrotron source, Indore is presented. By adopting a continuous-scan mode in the Double Crystal monochromator (DCM), a high signal-to-noise ratio is maintained and the acquisition time is reduced to few seconds. The quality of spectra and repeatability is checked by measuring standards. The present mode of data acquisition would enable EXAFS measurement for in-situ studies even in fluorescence mode.

  6. Aerodynamic force measurement on a large-scale model in a short duration test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tanno, H.; Kodera, M.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Takahasi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2005-03-01

    A force measurement technique has been developed for large-scale aerodynamic models with a short test time. The technique is based on direct acceleration measurements, with miniature accelerometers mounted on a test model suspended by wires. Measuring acceleration at two different locations, the technique can eliminate oscillations from natural vibration of the model. The technique was used for drag force measurements on a 3 m long supersonic combustor model in the HIEST free-piston driven shock tunnel. A time resolution of 350 {mu}s is guaranteed during measurements, whose resolution is enough for ms order test time in HIEST. To evaluate measurement reliability and accuracy, measured values were compared with results from a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation. The difference between measured values and numerical simulation values was less than 5%. We conclude that this measurement technique is sufficiently reliable for measuring aerodynamic force within test durations of 1 ms.

  7. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 151Sm at the CERN neutron time of flight facility (n_TOF).

    PubMed

    Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Benlliure, J; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Cortina, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Koelbl, H; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gallino, R; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez-Val, J; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perlado, J M; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Soares, J C; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2004-10-15

    The151Sm(n,gamma)152Sm cross section has been measured at the spallation neutron facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The new facility combines excellent resolution in neutron time-of-flight, low repetition rates, and an unsurpassed instantaneous luminosity, resulting in rather favorable signal/background ratios. The 151Sm cross section is of importance for characterizing neutron capture nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars. At a thermal energy of kT=30 keV the Maxwellian averaged cross section of this unstable isotope (t(1/2)=93 yr) was determined to be 3100+/-160 mb, significantly larger than theoretical predictions.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2010-01-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  11. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. A.; Stewart, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Schneider, M. B.; Miles, A. R.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Hsing, W. W.

    2012-10-15

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-{alpha} at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma.

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Koch, J A; Stewart, R E; Beiersdorfer, P; Shepherd, R; Schneider, M B; Miles, A R; Scott, H A; Smalyuk, V A; Hsing, W W

    2012-10-01

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-α at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma. PMID:23126948

  13. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 151Sm at the CERN neutron time of flight facility (n_TOF).

    PubMed

    Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Benlliure, J; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Cortina, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Koelbl, H; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gallino, R; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez-Val, J; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perlado, J M; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Soares, J C; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2004-10-15

    The151Sm(n,gamma)152Sm cross section has been measured at the spallation neutron facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The new facility combines excellent resolution in neutron time-of-flight, low repetition rates, and an unsurpassed instantaneous luminosity, resulting in rather favorable signal/background ratios. The 151Sm cross section is of importance for characterizing neutron capture nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars. At a thermal energy of kT=30 keV the Maxwellian averaged cross section of this unstable isotope (t(1/2)=93 yr) was determined to be 3100+/-160 mb, significantly larger than theoretical predictions. PMID:15524972

  14. Extraction simulations and emittance measurements of a Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility electron beam plasma source for radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, II, Anthony J; Liu, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility HRIBF at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a variety of ion sources used to produce radioactive ion beams RIBs. Of these, the workhorse is an electron beam plasma EBP ion source. The recent addition of a second RIB injector, the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 IRIS2, for the HRIBF tandem accelerator prompted new studies of the optics of the beam extraction from the EBP source. The source was modeled using SIMION V8.0, and results will be presented, including comparison of the emittances as predicted by simulation and as measured at the HRIBF offline ion source test facilities. Also presented will be the impact on phase space shape resulting from extraction optics modifications implemented at IRIS2.

  15. Extraction simulations and emittance measurements of a Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility electron beam plasma source for radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A. J. II; Liu, Y.

    2010-02-15

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a variety of ion sources used to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Of these, the workhorse is an electron beam plasma (EBP) ion source. The recent addition of a second RIB injector, the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), for the HRIBF tandem accelerator prompted new studies of the optics of the beam extraction from the EBP source. The source was modeled using SIMION V8.0, and results will be presented, including comparison of the emittances as predicted by simulation and as measured at the HRIBF offline ion source test facilities. Also presented will be the impact on phase space shape resulting from extraction optics modifications implemented at IRIS2.

  16. Extraction Simulations and Emittance Measurements of a Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Electron Beam Plasma Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, II, Anthony J; Liu, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a variety of ion sources used to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Of these, the workhorse is an electron beam plasma (EBP) ion source. The recent addition of a second RIB injector, the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), for the HRIBF tandem accelerator prompted new studies of the optics of the beam extraction from the EBP source. The source was modeled using SIMION V8.0, and results will be presented, including comparison of the emittances as predicted by simulation and as measured at the HRIBF offline ion source test facilities. Also presented will be the impact on phase space shape resulting from extraction optics modifications implemented at IRIS2.

  17. The 234U Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurement at the n_TOF Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lampoudis, C.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Collaboration, n_TOF

    2008-01-01

    The neutron capture cross-section of {sup 234}U has been measured for energies from thermal up to the keV region in the neutron time-of-flight facility n{_}TOF, based on a spallation source located at CERN. A 4n BaF{sub 2} array composed of 40 crystals, placed at a distance of 184.9 m from the neutron source, was employed as a total absorption calorimeter (TAC) for detection of the prompt {gamma}-ray cascade from capture events in the sample. This text describes the experimental setup, all necessary steps followed during the data analysis procedure. Results are presented in the form of R-matrix resonance parameters from fits with the SAMMY code and compared to the evaluated data of ENDF in the relevant energy region, indicating the good performance of the n{_}TOF facility and the TAC.

  18. Fission cross-section measurements on 233U and minor actinides at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calviani, M.; Colonna, N.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Sesura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured at the white neutron source n_TOF at CERN, Geneva. The studied isotopes include 233U, interesting for Th/U based nuclear fuel cycles, 241,243Am and 245Cm, relevant for transmutation and waste reduction studies in new generation fast reactors (Gen-IV) or Accelerator Driven Systems. The measurements take advantage of the unique features of the n_TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, the high instantaneous neutron flux and the low background. Results for the involved isotopes are reported from ~30 meV to around 1 MeV neutron enegy. The measurements have been performed with a dedicated Fission Ionization Chamber (FIC), relative to the standard cross-section of the 235U fission reaction, measured simultaneously with the same detector. Results are here reported.

  19. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for three component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Goldman, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  20. An Overview of the Antenna Measurement Facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Anzic, Godfrey; Zakrajsek, Robert J.; Zaman, Afroz J.

    2002-01-01

    For the past twenty years, the NASA Glenn Research Center (formerly Lewis Research Center) in Cleveland, Ohio, has developed and maintained facilities for the evaluation of antennas. This effort has been in support of the work being done at the center in the research and development of space communication systems. The wide variety of antennas that have been considered for these systems resulted in a need for several types of antenna ranges at the Glenn Research Center. Four ranges, which are part of the Microwave Systems Laboratory, are the responsibility of the staff of the Applied RF Technology Branch. A general description of these ranges is provided in this paper.

  1. Recent Progress in Entry Radiation Measurements in the NASA Ames Electric ARC Shock Tube Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) at NASA Ames Research Center is NASA's only working shock tube capable of obtaining conditions representative of entry in a multitude of planetary atmospheres. The facility is capable of mapping spectroscopic signatures of a wide range of planetary entries from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Mid-Wave Infrared (120-5500 nm). This paper summarizes the tests performed in EAST for Earth, Mars and Venus entries since 2008, then focuses on a specific test case for CO2/N2 mixtures. In particular, the paper will focus on providing information for the proper interpretation of the EAST data.

  2. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  3. Transmittance measurement of a heliostat facility used in the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-08-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  4. Transmittance Measurement of a Heliostat Facility used in the Preflight Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  5. Measurements of flow structure interaction in a plaqued artificial artery using an index matched flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash; Brock, Larry; Sheng, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study the flow structure interaction in an arterial model with a simulated plaque inside a closed loop index matched pulsatile flow facility. The test section is 24.5 inches long 6 inches wide. The experimental models are compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes having an outer diameter of 9 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm. The plaque on the models are simulated by means of a radially asymmetric bump. Both flow and polymeric structures are doped with different particles and imaged with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method. To minimize the optical distortion near liquid solid interface, the facility is fully index matched with NaI at 40% by weight. A suite of analysis procedures quantifying complex interactions including solid-fluid phase separation, near wall flow analysis, and wall shear stress approximation as well as wall deformation quantification, have been developed and applied to study the healthy and plaqued artificial arteries in steady and pulsatile flow conditions. 3D ensemble velocity fields, wall shear stress distributions and corresponding strain deformations will be presented.

  6. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  7. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  8. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.; Cavallo, A.; Perry, P.

    1996-10-01

    Results are presented from the Fifth Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurements conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility in May 1996. In total, thirty-four government, private and academic facilities participated in the exercise with over 170 passive and electronic devices exposed in the EML test chamber. During the first week of the exercise, passive and continuous measuring devices were exposed (usually in quadruplicate) to about 1,280 Bq m{sup {minus}3} {sup 222}Rn for 1--7 days. Radon progeny measurements were made during the second week of the exercise. The results indicate that all of the tested devices that measure radon gas performed well and fulfill their intended purpose. The grand mean (GM) ratio of the participants` reported values to the EML values, for all four radon device categories, was 0.99 {plus_minus} 0.08. Eighty-five percent of all the radon measuring devices that were exposed in the EML radon test chamber were within {plus_minus}1 standard deviation (SD) of the EML reference values. For the most part, radon progeny measurements were also quite good as compared to the EML values. The GM ratio for the 10 continuous PAEC instruments was 0.90 {plus_minus} 0.12 with 75% of the devices within 1 SD of the EML reference values. Most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC underestimated the EML values by about 10--15% probably because the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny were attached was low (1,200--3,800 particles cm{sup {minus}3}). The equilibrium factor at that particle concentration level was 0.10--0.22.

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  10. Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-01

    This document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)) This guidance also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous DOE guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents. 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(7)(A) specifies that facility energy managers shall certify compliance for each covered facility with the 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(2)-(5) requirements via a web-based tracking system and make it publicly available. This document also describes the role of the tracking system that has been developed for the collection and reporting of data needed for the demonstration of compliance and progress toward meeting all energy and water efficiency requirements outlined in the statute.

  11. Neutron H*(10) inside a proton therapy facility: comparison between Monte Carlo simulations and WENDI-2 measurements.

    PubMed

    De Smet, V; Stichelbaut, F; Vanaudenhove, T; Mathot, G; De Lentdecker, G; Dubus, A; Pauly, N; Gerardy, I

    2014-10-01

    Inside an IBA proton therapy centre, secondary neutrons are produced due to nuclear interactions of the proton beam with matter mainly inside the cyclotron, the beam line, the treatment nozzle and the patient. Accurate measurements of the neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) in such a facility require the use of a detector that has a good sensitivity for neutrons ranging from thermal energies up to 230 MeV, such as for instance the WENDI-2 detector. WENDI-2 measurements have been performed at the Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen, at several positions around the cyclotron room and around a gantry treatment room operated in two different beam delivery modes: Pencil Beam Scanning and Double Scattering. These measurements are compared with Monte Carlo simulation results for the neutron H*(10) obtained with MCNPX 2.5.0 and GEANT4 9.6. PMID:24255173

  12. Accelerated Discovery of Thermoelectric Materials: Combinatorial Facility and High-Throughput Measurement of Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Adkins, Nicholas J E; McCain, Stephen; Hauptstein, Bastian; Brew, Ashley; Jarvis, David J; Min, Gao

    2016-06-13

    A series of processes have been developed to facilitate the rapid discovery of new promising thermoelectric alloys. A novel combinatorial facility where elements are wire-fed and laser-melted was designed and constructed. Different sample compositions can be achieved by feeding different element wires at specific rates. The composition of all the samples prepared was tested by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Then, their thermoelectric properties (power factor) at room temperature were screened in a specially designed new high-throughput setup. After the screening, the thermoelectric properties can be mapped with the possibility of identifying compositional trends. As a proof-of-concept, a promising thermoelectric ternary system, Al-Fe-Ti, has been identified, demonstrating the capability of this accelerated approach.

  13. Calibration of the Brookhaven National Laboratory delayed gamma neutron activation facility to measure total body calcium.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Stamatelatos, I E; Yasumura, S

    2000-05-01

    Differences in body size and shape can cause large variances in the in vivo results of neutron activation analysis. To introduce corrections for body size for the delayed gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, "reference man"-sized and "reference woman"-sized phantoms were constructed. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code also provided correction factors for people of different sizes. For individuals with a body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)2) between 20 and 30, no correction was required. At BMIs greater than 30, the effects of neutron attenuation were significant and a correction factor of CF = -0.0192 x BMI + 1.5635 can be applied. PMID:10865727

  14. Accelerated Discovery of Thermoelectric Materials: Combinatorial Facility and High-Throughput Measurement of Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Adkins, Nicholas J E; McCain, Stephen; Hauptstein, Bastian; Brew, Ashley; Jarvis, David J; Min, Gao

    2016-06-13

    A series of processes have been developed to facilitate the rapid discovery of new promising thermoelectric alloys. A novel combinatorial facility where elements are wire-fed and laser-melted was designed and constructed. Different sample compositions can be achieved by feeding different element wires at specific rates. The composition of all the samples prepared was tested by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Then, their thermoelectric properties (power factor) at room temperature were screened in a specially designed new high-throughput setup. After the screening, the thermoelectric properties can be mapped with the possibility of identifying compositional trends. As a proof-of-concept, a promising thermoelectric ternary system, Al-Fe-Ti, has been identified, demonstrating the capability of this accelerated approach. PMID:27186664

  15. Focal spot measurement in ultra-intense ultra-short pulse laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanqin; Peng, Hansheng; Zhou, Kainan; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qihua; Huang, Xiaojun; Wei, Xiaofeng; Ren, Huan

    2005-06-01

    A peak power of 286-TW Ti:sapphire laser facility referred to as SILEX-I was successfully built at China Academy of Engineering Physics, for a pulse duration of 30 fs in a three-stage Ti:sapphire amplifier chain based on chirped-pulse amplification. The beam have a wavefront distortion of 0.63μm PV and 0.09μm RMS, and the focal spot with an f/2.2 OAP is 5.7μm, to our knowledge, this is the best far field obtained for high-power ultra-short pulse laser systems with no deformable mirror wavefront correction. The peak focused intensity of ~1021W /cm2 were expected.

  16. Measurement of transmission loss characteristics using acoustic intensity techniques at the KU-FRL Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    The transmission loss characteristics of panels using the acoustic intensity technique is presented. The theoretical formulation, installation of hardware, modifications to the test facility, and development of computer programs and test procedures are described. A listing of all the programs is also provided. The initial test results indicate that the acoustic intensity technique is easily adapted to measure transmission loss characteristics of panels. Use of this method will give average transmission loss values. The fixtures developed to position the microphones along the grid points are very useful in plotting the intensity maps of vibrating panels.

  17. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  18. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  19. Facilities for the Performance of Fano Effect Measurements as a Probe of Electron Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.W.; Chung, B.W.; Morton, S.A.; Komesu, T.; Waddill, G.D.

    2007-07-01

    Fano Effect measurements are the key to direct observation of the Kondo or spin shielding intrinsic to models of electron correlation. The Fano Effect is the observation of spin polarized photoelectron emission from nonmagnetic materials, under chirally selective excitation, such as circularly polarized photons. Below are described three spectrometers, with which Fano Effects measurements have been made. (authors)

  20. Linking household and facility data for better coverage measures in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health care: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Do, Mai; Micah, Angela; Brondi, Luciana; Campbell, Harry; Marchant, Tanya; Eisele, Thomas; Munos, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently many measures of intervention coverage obtained from household surveys do not measure actual health intervention/service delivery, resulting in a need for linking reports of care–seeking with assessments of the service environment in order to improve measurements. This systematic review aims to identify evidence of different methods used to link household surveys and service provision assessments, with a focus on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care, in low– and middle–income countries. Methods Using pre–defined search terms, articles published in peer–reviewed journals and the grey literature after 1990 were identified, their reference lists scanned and linking methods synthesized. Findings A total of 59 articles and conference presentations were carefully reviewed and categorized into two groups based on the linking method used: 1) indirect/ecological linking that included studies in which health care–seeking behavior was linked to all or the nearest facilities or providers of certain types within a geographical area, and 2) direct linking/exact matching where individuals were linked with the exact provider or facility where they sought care. The former approach was employed in 51 of 59 included studies, and was particularly common among studies that were based on independent sources of household and facility data that were nationally representative. Only eight of the 59 reviewed studies employed direct linking methods, which were typically done at the sub–national level (eg, district level) and often in rural areas, where the number of providers was more limited compared to urban areas. Conclusions Different linking methods have been reported in the literature, each category has its own set of advantages and limitations, in terms of both methodology and practicality for scale–up. Future studies that link household and provider/facility data should also take into account factors such as sources of data, the

  1. Linking household and facility data for better coverage measures in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health care: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Do, Mai; Micah, Angela; Brondi, Luciana; Campbell, Harry; Marchant, Tanya; Eisele, Thomas; Munos, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently many measures of intervention coverage obtained from household surveys do not measure actual health intervention/service delivery, resulting in a need for linking reports of care–seeking with assessments of the service environment in order to improve measurements. This systematic review aims to identify evidence of different methods used to link household surveys and service provision assessments, with a focus on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care, in low– and middle–income countries. Methods Using pre–defined search terms, articles published in peer–reviewed journals and the grey literature after 1990 were identified, their reference lists scanned and linking methods synthesized. Findings A total of 59 articles and conference presentations were carefully reviewed and categorized into two groups based on the linking method used: 1) indirect/ecological linking that included studies in which health care–seeking behavior was linked to all or the nearest facilities or providers of certain types within a geographical area, and 2) direct linking/exact matching where individuals were linked with the exact provider or facility where they sought care. The former approach was employed in 51 of 59 included studies, and was particularly common among studies that were based on independent sources of household and facility data that were nationally representative. Only eight of the 59 reviewed studies employed direct linking methods, which were typically done at the sub–national level (eg, district level) and often in rural areas, where the number of providers was more limited compared to urban areas. Conclusions Different linking methods have been reported in the literature, each category has its own set of advantages and limitations, in terms of both methodology and practicality for scale–up. Future studies that link household and provider/facility data should also take into account factors such as sources of data, the

  2. Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05

    The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL

  3. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  4. Spaced sensor measurements of artificial airglow emission at 630 nm of ionosphere caused by ``Sura'' facility radiation in November 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, Igor; Grach, Savely; Gumerov, Rustam; Shindin, Alexey; Kogogin, Denis; Dementiev, Vladislav

    Some first results on simultaneous observation artificial airglow emission at 630 nm during HF pumping of the ionosphere by “Sura” facility from two spatial situated experimental sites are reported. The measurements of artificial airglow are usually conducted in red and green lines of atomic oxygen (the radiation of levels O((1) D) and O((1) S) under their excitation by electronic impact) with wave lengths of 630 and 557.7 nm and excitation energy of 1.96 and 4.17 eV accordingly. An enhancement of airglow intensity in the red line is related at present to the electron heating by powerful radio waves. The idea of the experiment was to estimate the heated volume three-dimensional structure and drift motion one. The experiment was carried out in November 2013 at the “Sura” radio facility, situated near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (geographical coordinates 56.13(o) N, 46.10(o) E, geomagnetic field declination and inclination are ˜ 10.0(o) east and ˜ 71.5(o) , respectively). Conditions of ionosphere were checked by means of "Cady" ionosonde during “Sura” runs. According to the ionospheric conditions, on the 7(th) of November the “Sura” facility operated at frequency 4.540 MHz. At this frequency the effective radiated power was about 120MW. The HF beam width at the “Sura” facility is ˜ 12(o) . A square wave pump modulation of 5 min on, 5 min off, was used. Measurements were carried out in the period from 14:40 to 17:30 UTC. Optical imaging was performed on two spatial experimental sites: “Vasilsursk” (situated about 500 m from antenna system of “Sura” facility); “Raifa” (situated about 170 km from “Sura” facility at the Magnetic Observatory of Kazan Federal University, geographical coordinates 55.93(o) N, 48.75(o) E). They both were fitted out Peltier-cooled front-illuminated bare CCD cameras with 16-bit slow-scan read-out (S1C3). On “Vasilsursk” site the images were binned down to 256× 256 pixels in addition to cooling, in order

  5. Facilities for the performance of Fano measurements as a probe of electron correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.W.; Komesu, T.; Chung, B.W.; Morton, S.A.; Waddill, G.D.

    2008-10-30

    Fano Effect measurements are the key to direct observation of the Kondo or spin shielding intrinsic to models of electron correlation. The Fano Effect is the observation of spin polarized photoelectron emission from NONMAGNETIC materials, under chirally selective excitation, such as circularly polarized photons. Below are described three spectrometers, with which Fano Effects measurements have been made. The key measurements are based upon spin-resolving and photon-dichroic photoelectron spectroscopy. True spin-resolution is achieved by the use of a Mini-Mott detection scheme. The photon-dichroic measurements include the variants x-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroism angular distributions (XMCDAD and XMLDAD). Both a multichannel, energy dispersive collection scheme as well as the spin-detecting Mini-Mott apparatus are used in data collection.

  6. Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; Dunlop, W. H.; Kane, J. O.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Patterson, R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Guyton, R.; Giraldez, E.

    2013-10-01

    The energetics of silver halfraum targets are presented from laser plasma experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Four beams from the NIF laser were used to heat the halfraum targets with ~ 10 kJ of energy in a 1 ns square laser pulse. The silver halfraum targets were spheres 2 mm in diameter with an 800 μm laser entrance hole (LEH). Targets with different sphere wall thicknesses (8 to 16 μm) were characterized. The energetics and the laser coupling to the targets were determined to be 0.92 by using the NIF X-ray (Dante) and optical backscatter diagnostics (NBI and FABS). The energy losses from the targets were through X-ray radiation and backscatter from laser plasma instabilities (SRS and SBS) from the LEH. As expected the different wall thickness had different levels of burn through emission. The thickest walled target (~ 15.9 μm) had very low radiative losses through the target wall. The thinnest walled targets (~ 8 μm) radiated about 0.2 of the input energy into the X-ray region. This work was done under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Energetics measurements of silver halfraum targets at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; Dunlop, W. H.; Kane, J. O.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-06-01

    The energetics of novel silver halfraum targets are presented from laser experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Four beams from the NIF laser were used to heat the halfraum targets with ˜10 kJ of energy in a 1 ns square laser pulse. The silver halfraum targets were spheres 2 mm in diameter with an 800 μm laser entrance hole (LEH). Targets with different spherical wall thicknesses (8-16 μm) were characterized. The energetics and the laser coupling to the targets were determined using the NIF X-ray (i.e. Dante and FFLEX spectrometers) and optical backscatter diagnostics (NBI and FABS). The energy coupled into the targets was 0.85-0.88 of the total laser energy with a defocused laser spot of 400 μm in diameter and no spatial smoothing of the beams with phase plates. The coupling increased to 0.92 when 400 μm spot size phase plates were used to smooth each of the four lasers beams. The energy losses from the targets were through X-ray radiation and backscatter from laser plasma instabilities (SBS and SRS) from the LEH. As expected the different wall thickness had different levels of burn through emission. The thickest walled target (˜15.9 μm) had very low radiative losses through the target wall. The thinnest walled targets (˜8 μm) radiated about 0.2 of the input energy into X-ray emission.

  8. Suspended sediments under waves measured in a large-scale flume facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Peter D.; Williams, Jon J.; Davies, Alan G.

    2002-08-01

    Measurements of suspended sediment concentration, and the associated bedform morphology, were made beneath regular and irregular waves in a large-scale flume. The bed forms were measured using an acoustic ripple profiler, and the suspended sediments were measured using an acoustic backscatter system, together with pumped sampling. Using the measured bed form dimensions and the flow as inputs, standard approaches have been used to predict the reference concentration and vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration. Nielsen's [1986] empirical expression for the reference concentration, C0, shows reasonable overall agreement with the present measurements in respect of the dependence of C0 on the Shields parameter (skin friction); but the formula somewhat overestimates the measured concentrations. To analyze the form of the measured mean concentration profiles, comparisons have been made with the simple one-dimensional (vertical) formulations, and extensions thereof, proposed by Nielsen [1992] on the basis of pure diffusion, pure convection, and combined convection and diffusion. It is concluded that in a near-bed layer of thickness about two ripple heights (i.e., the layer dominated by vortex formation and shedding above ripples), pure diffusion characterized by a height-independent sediment diffusivity provides a good representation of the measured profiles. Above this, Nielsen's [1992] convection-diffusion solution provides a better representation. It is shown, however, that by use of pure turbulent diffusion modeling concepts, the same profile can also be obtained by the use of a height-varying, ``constant + linear,'' sediment diffusion model. This diffusivity represents the enhanced mixing in the outer part of the oscillatory boundary layer caused by the breakdown of coherent vortex structures into random turbulence. The relative merits of convection and diffusion schemes are discussed.

  9. Review of nuclear data improvement needs for nuclear radiation measurement techniques used at the CEA experimental reactor facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destouches, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The constant improvement of the neutron and gamma calculation codes used in experimental nuclear reactors goes hand in hand with that of the associated nuclear data libraries. The validation of these calculation schemes always requires the confrontation with integral experiments performed in experimental reactors to be completed. Nuclear data of interest, straight as cross sections, or elaborated ones such as reactivity, are always derived from a reaction rate measurement which is the only measurable parameter in a nuclear sensor. So, in order to derive physical parameters from the electric signal of the sensor, one needs specific nuclear data libraries. This paper presents successively the main features of the measurement techniques used in the CEA experimental reactor facilities for the on-line and offline neutron/gamma flux characterizations: reactor dosimetry, neutron flux measurements with miniature fission chambers and Self Power Neutron Detector (SPND) and gamma flux measurements with chamber ionization and TLD. For each technique, the nuclear data necessary for their interpretation will be presented, the main identified needs for improvement identified and an analysis of their impact on the quality of the measurement. Finally, a synthesis of the study will be done.

  10. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Knutson, E.O.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1995-12-01

    The results from the May 1995 Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurement conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility are presented. Represented were 13 participants that measure radon with open faced and diffusion barrier activated carbon collectors, 10 with nuclear alpha track detectors, 9 with short-term and long-term electret/ionization chambers, and 13 with active and passive commercial electronic continuous monitors. For radon progeny, there were four participants that came in person to take part in the grab sampling methodology for measuring individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). There were 11 participants with continuous and integrating commercial electronic instruments that are used for measuring the PAEC. The results indicate that all the tested instruments that measure radon fulfill their intended purpose. All instruments and methods used for grab sampling for radon progeny did very well. However, most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC or working level appear to underestimate the potential risk from radon progeny when the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny are attached is <5,000 cm{sup -3}.

  11. Measurement of the 6Li(n,α) neutron standard cross-section at the GELINA facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Kaj; Al-Adili, Ali; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Pomp, Stephan; Vidali, Marzio

    2016-06-01

    The 6Li(n,α) reaction cross-section is commonly used as a reference cross section. However, it is only considered a neutron standard up to 1MeV. For higher energies, there are discrepancies of several per cents between recent measurements and evaluated data files. In order to extend and establish 6Li(n,α) as a neutron standard above 1MeV these discrepancies must be resolved. Our measurement at the GELINA facility at JRC-IRMM in Geel, Belgium is ongoing. We are using a double twin Frisch-grid setup to detect both α-particles from two 6Li targets and fission products from two 235U reference targets. Our targets have thick backings but are employed in pairs, one forward facing and one backward facing. In this way we still cover, in principle, a solid angle of 4π. We present some preliminary results showing that the existing cross-section data is well reproduced around the resonance at 240 keV. The final data taking will start in the beginning of 2016, when the GELINA facility goes online again after a few months of shut down.

  12. Application of Plenoptic PIV for 3D Velocity Measurements Over Roughness Elements in a Refractive Index Matched Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Brian; Johnson, Kyle; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Best, Jim; Christensen, Ken

    2014-11-01

    The application of Plenoptic PIV in a Refractive Index Matched (RIM) facility housed at Illinois is presented. Plenoptic PIV is an emerging 3D diagnostic that exploits the light-field imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera. Plenoptic cameras utilize a microlens array to measure the position and angle of light rays captured by the camera. 3D/3C velocity fields are determined through application of the MART algorithm for volume reconstruction and a conventional 3D cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The RIM facility is a recirculating tunnel with a 62.5% aqueous solution of sodium iodide used as the working fluid. Its resulting index of 1.49 is equal to that of acrylic. Plenoptic PIV was used to measure the 3D velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth wall, a single wall-mounted hemisphere and a full array of hemispheres (i.e. a rough wall) with a k/ δ ~ 4.6. Preliminary time averaged and instantaneous 3D velocity fields will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1235726.

  13. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  14. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, C; Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Gharibyan, N; Gostic, J M; Wooddy, P T; Torretto, P C; Bandong, B B; Bionta, R; Cerjan, C J; Bernstein, L A; Caggiano, J A; Herrmann, H W; Knauer, J P; Sayre, D B; Schneider, D H; Henry, E A; Fortner, R J

    2015-07-01

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the (198)Au/(196)Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix. PMID:26233419

  15. Modified Miniature Thomson-Type Analyzer For Measurements Of Mass- and Energy-Spectra Of Ions Within Plasma Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.

    2008-03-19

    The paper describes important improvements in the construction and operation of a miniature mass- and energy-analyzer of the Thomson type, which was developed especially for measurements of ions inside vacuum experimental chambers. The described analyzer constitutes a modified and improved version of the prototype miniature mass-spectrometer, which was designed several years ago. The paper describes experimental tests of the modified analyzer, which were carried out in the RPI-IBIS facility equipped with a multi-rod plasma injector. Results of the detailed measurements of energy distributions of protons and deuterons (from deuterium discharges) within the energy range from about 20 keV to about 300 keV are also presented.

  16. First measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth in indirectly driven implosions at ignition-relevant conditions on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Smalyuk, V A; Casey, D T; Clark, D S; Edwards, M J; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hoover, D E; Hsing, W W; Hurricane, O; Kilkenny, J D; Kroll, J; Landen, O L; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Peterson, L; Raman, K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Weber, S V; Widmann, K

    2014-05-01

    Ignition experiments have shown an anomalous susceptibility to hydrodynamic instability growth. To help understand these results, the first hydrodynamic instability growth measurements in indirectly driven implosions on the National Ignition Facility were performed at ignition conditions with peak radiation temperatures up to ∼300  eV. Plastic capsules with two-dimensional preimposed, sinusoidal outer surface modulations of initial wavelengths of 240 (corresponding to a Legendre mode number of 30), 120 (mode 60), and 80  μm (mode 90) were imploded by using actual low-adiabat ignition laser pulses. The measured growth was in excellent agreement, validating 2D hydra simulations for the most dangerous modes in the acceleration phase. These results reinforce confidence in the predictive capability of calculations that are paramount to illuminating the path toward ignition. PMID:24856703

  17. First Measurements of Fuel-Ablator Interface Instability Growth in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Bunn, T. L.; Carlson, L. C.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Sater, J. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Direct measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are reported for the first time. These experiments investigate one of the degradation mechanisms behind the lower-than-expected performance of early ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Face-on x-ray radiography is used to measure instability growth occurring between the deuterium-tritium fuel and the plastic ablator from well-characterized perturbations. This growth starts in two ways through separate experiments—either from a preimposed interface modulation or from ablation front feedthrough. These experiments are consistent with analytic modeling and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which say that a moderately unstable Atwood number and convergence effects are causing in-flight perturbation growth at the interface. The analysis suggests that feedthrough from outersurface perturbations dominates the interface perturbation growth at mode 60.

  18. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the 198Au/196Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  19. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C. Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.

    2015-07-15

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the {sup 198}Au/{sup 196}Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  20. First Measurements of Fuel-Ablator Interface Instability Growth in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Weber, C R; Döppner, T; Casey, D T; Bunn, T L; Carlson, L C; Dylla-Spears, R J; Kozioziemski, B J; MacPhee, A G; Nikroo, A; Robey, H F; Sater, J D; Smalyuk, V A

    2016-08-12

    Direct measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are reported for the first time. These experiments investigate one of the degradation mechanisms behind the lower-than-expected performance of early ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Face-on x-ray radiography is used to measure instability growth occurring between the deuterium-tritium fuel and the plastic ablator from well-characterized perturbations. This growth starts in two ways through separate experiments-either from a preimposed interface modulation or from ablation front feedthrough. These experiments are consistent with analytic modeling and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which say that a moderately unstable Atwood number and convergence effects are causing in-flight perturbation growth at the interface. The analysis suggests that feedthrough from outersurface perturbations dominates the interface perturbation growth at mode 60. PMID:27563971

  1. Measurement of the Neutron Induced Fission Cross Section on Transuranic (TRU) Elements at the n_TOF Facility at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Mastinu, P. F.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Collaboration, n_TOF

    2007-01-01

    During the 2004 campaign, the n{_}TOF collaboration measured neutron fission cross sections for 233U, 241,243Am, 245Cm, as well as the fission standards 235,238U, using a sealed Fission Ionization Chamber (FIC). The setup included a total of 16 targets and 18 electrodes mounted together in a 50-cm length chamber, allowing the measurements of all isotopes at the same time, thus in the same experimental conditions. A brief description of the facility and of the detector setup will be presented followed by the preliminary results of the analysis of 235U, 233U, and 245Cm from thermal energies up to some tenths of MeV

  2. Tool ranking using aberration measurements in a high-volume manufacturing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Cesar M.; Warrick, Scott P.; Seligman, Gary S.; Zavyalova, Lena V.; van Zwol, Adrian; Foster, James

    2003-06-01

    The exposure tool is a critical enabler to continue improving the packing density and transistor speed in the semiconductor industry. In addition to increasing resolution (packing density) a scanner is also expected to provide tight control of the Across Chip Linewidth Variation, ACLV, (transistor speed). An important component of ACLV is lens aberrations. Techniques that measure in-situ the lens aberrations are now available. In a previous paper we reported good agreement between the first 25 Zernike coefficients measured in-situ using one of these techniques ARTEMIS and PMI (Phase Metrology Interferometry) data collected at the lens manufacturer. However questions have arisen as to the practicality of ARTEMIS, especially in view of its heavy reliance on a very large number of SEM images. We have measured the first 25 Zernike coefficients for 13 ASML 500/700 DUV Step & Scan systems in a high-volume wafer fab. In this paper we report on certain enhancements that were made to the best practice of ARTEMIS. We will also present a summary of the measurements taken and our first attempt to cluster the tools according to the aberrations measured.

  3. Developing mass spectrometric techniques for boundary layer measurement in hypersonic high enthalpy test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. M., Jr.; Lewis, B. W.; Nowak, R. J.; Eide, D. G.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    Thermodynamic flow properties of gases in the boundary layer or the flowfield have been mainly deduced from pressures and temperatures measured on a model. However, further progress with respect to an understanding of these properties requires a more complete characterization of the layer including determination of the gas composition and chemistry. Most attempts to measure boundary layer chemistry involve the employment of a mass spectrometer and an associated gas sampling system. The three major limiting factors which must be addressed for species measurement in aerothermodynamic investigations on models at reentry stream velocities, are gas sampling effects, instrument limitations, and problems with data acquisition. The present investigation is concerned with a concentrated effort to quantitatively identify and correct for instrument and sampling system effects, and to develop a miniaturized high performance mass spectrometer for on-model real-time analysis of the boundary layer and its associated atmosphere.

  4. The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Christopher F.; Arms, Dohn; Dufresne, Eric M.; Gibson, Harold; Wang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray radiography has been used to probe the internal structure of dense sprays with microsecond time resolution and a spatial resolution of 15 µm even in high-pressure environments. Recently, the 7BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been commissioned to focus on the needs of X-ray spray radiography measurements. The spatial resolution and X-ray intensity at this beamline represent a significant improvement over previous time-resolved X-ray radiography measurements at the APS. PMID:22713903

  5. Microwave interferometry technique for obtaining gas interface velocity measurements in an expansion tube facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laney, C. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A microwave interferometer technique to determine the front interface velocity of a high enthalpy gas flow, is described. The system is designed to excite a standing wave in an expansion tube, and to measure the shift in this standing wave as it is moved by the test gas front. Data, in the form of a varying sinusoidal signal, is recorded on a high-speed drum camera-oscilloscope combination. Measurements of average and incremental velocities in excess of 6,000 meters per second were made.

  6. Characterization of a High Temporal Resolution TDLAS System for Measurements in a Shock Tube Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, F.; O'Byrne, Sean; Kleine, H.; Weigand, B.

    Transient heating and pressurization of a gas by shock waves can be useful for a variety of purposes, particularly for configurations involving shock wave focussing. Unless the geometry is particularly simple, the time history of temperature can be difficult to predict accurately. Hence, a non-intrusive measurement technique with high temporal resolution is required to record the time history of the very rapidly changing temperature of a shock-heated flow. One promising measurement techniques for these high-speed flows is Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS)

  7. Electron temperature measurements inside the ablating plasma of gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brown, G. V.; Regan, S. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Jaquez, J.; Huang, H.; Hansen, S. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    The first measurement of the electron temperature (Te) inside a National Ignition Facility hohlraum is obtained using temporally resolved K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of a mid-Z tracer dot. Both isoelectronic- and interstage-line ratios are used to calculate the local Te via the collisional-radiative atomic physics code SCRAM [Hansen et al., High Energy Density Phys 3, 109 (2007)]. The trajectory of the mid-Z dot as it is ablated from the capsule surface and moves toward the laser entrance hole (LEH) is measured using side-on x-ray imaging, characterizing the plasma flow of the ablating capsule. Data show that the measured dot location is farther away from the LEH in comparison to the radiation-hydrodynamics simulation prediction using HYDRA [Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)]. To account for this discrepancy, the predicted simulation Te is evaluated at the measured dot trajectory. The peak Te, measured to be 4.2 keV ± 0.2 keV, is ˜0.5 keV hotter than the simulation prediction.

  8. Development and testing of a work measurement tool to assess caregivers' activities in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Munyisia, Esther; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computerized information systems into health care practices may cause changes to the way healthcare workers conduct their routine work activities, such as work flow and the time spend on each activity. To date the available work measurement tools are confined to activities in hospitals and do not cover residential aged care facilities (RACFs). There is little evidence about the effects of technology on caregivers' work practices, including the distribution of time on activities in a RACF. This requires the measurement of caregivers' activities using a valid and reliable measurement tool. The contribution of this research is to develop and test such a tool. The tool was developed based on literature research and validation in two RACFs. The final instrument contains 48 activities that are grouped into seven categories. They include direct care, indirect care, communication, documentation, personal activities, in-transit and others. This measurement tool can be used to measure the changes in caregivers' work activities associated with the introduction of computerized information systems in RACFs, including the efficiency gains of such systems. PMID:20841879

  9. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  10. Measuring ammonia concentration over a grassland near livestock facilities using a semiconductor ammonia sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, S.; Yonemura, S.

    We demonstrated the effectiveness of a semiconductor ammonia sensor capable of performing diachronic measurements; its characteristics were checked in the laboratory by means including comparison with standard gases. We found as a result that the ammonia sensor's readings increased with increasing water vapor pressure. We compared sensor readings with values obtained by chemical analysis of samples collected in situ and checked sensor reading accuracy. Ammonia concentration was determined by combining ammonia sensor readings with measured values for water vapor pressure. In situ conditions were ammonia concentration of under 100 ppbv and water vapor pressure of 4-16 hPa. There was a good correlation with the concentration of samples trapped with boric acid and analyzed by indophenol colorimetry. We discerned a relationship between ammonia concentration and local meteorological conditions such as wind direction and speed. The estimated error of the ammonia sensor's measurements was ±9.7 ppbv when ammonia concentration as measured by acid sampling and colorimetry was regarded as correct. This demonstrated that it is possible to detect in situ fluctuations in low ammonia concentrations of about 10 ppbv, which was the background concentration in farming areas. We have shown a monitoring method for ammonia in situ that is both easy to operate and low-cost.

  11. Application of an electron beam facility for heat transfer measurements in capillary tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. R.; Kramer, T.

    1977-01-01

    A unique method was developed for the determination of heat transfer coefficients for water flowing through capillary tubes using a rastered electron beam heater. Heat flux levels of 150 and 500 watts/sq cm were provided on the top surface of four square tubes. Temperature gradient along the tube length and mass flow rates versus pressure drop were measured.

  12. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level.

  13. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-01

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level. PMID:12141993

  14. The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar II: A new Facility for Measurement of the Dust Environment in near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Weryk, R. J.; Wong, D. K.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.

    2012-10-01

    The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) is a backscatter, multi-station meteor radar operating at 29.85 MHz. CMOR has been in operation as a three station system since 2001, but a major upgrade in 2009 has expanded the system to six stations and doubled the transmit power to 15 kW; the new facility is termed CMOR II. CMOR II measures 5000 individual orbits per day of meteoroids with masses 10-8 kg. These large number statistics permit near real-time identification of as many as a dozen significant daily meteor showers, through application of a 3D wavelet transform. As individual meteor echoes are detected at up to six stations, CMOR II is able to measure electron line density profiles and decelerations for select events. This permits estimation of meteoroid bulk density through comparison with entry models for particles as small 100 μm. For events with more than four station detections, errors in radiant and speed are comparable to similar measurements made with video systems. Making use of multiple, independent techniques for speed measurements, including time-of-flight, Fresnel amplitude and Fresnel phase fitting, it is possible to estimate speed accuracy for individual events. Monte Carlo modeling of individual echoes allow a separate estimate for uncertainty in both speed and radiant measurement. Here we present initial results from CMOR II measurements of major meteor showers including the 2012 Daytime Arietids and South Delta Aquariid streams. Detections of several unusual meteor shower outbursts with CMOR II and verification of previously reported weak showers will also be shown. We will demonstrate the capacity of CMOR II for individual meteoroid physical characterization by using measured trajectory, speed, deceleration and electron line density measurements combined with entry model fits to estimate meteoroid parameters. Funding from the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office through cooperative agreement NNX11AB76A is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Water-storage change measured with high-precision gravimetry at a groundwater recharge facility in Tucson, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzfeldt, B.; Kennedy, J.; Ferre, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater depletion is a serious problem in many regions around the world. Artificial groundwater recharge is used for the short- and long-term storage of water in subsurface and can be an effective tool to prevent aquifer over-draft. Effective design and management of recharge facilities benefits from knowledge of the subsurface conditions and water-storage properties. In this study we combine different types of gravimeters and coupled hydrogeophysical inverse techniques to monitor subsurface water storage and to estimate subsurface hydraulic properties at the field scale. Water storage dynamics are continuously monitored with two iGrav™ superconducting gravimeters and three gPhones at three infiltration basins of the Tucson Water Southern Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project facility. These continuous gravity observations are supported by time-lapse monitoring with absolute and spring gravimeters to map spatial gravity variations. Water level is monitored at 16 wells in the vicinity. The results of the first 6-month drying-wetting-drying cycle of the infiltration basins, during which 4,240,500 cubic meters (3,440 acre-feet) infiltrated over 53 days, are presented in this study. Gravity variations up to 170 μGal were observed. Collocated measurements show an overall good agreement of the different gravimeters. Distinct spatial variations of gravity change indicate variable water storage dynamics caused by subsurface heterogeneity at the field scale. Multiple gravimeter types combined with coupled inversion allows accurate tracking of subsurface water storage, which can improve the predictions of subsurface conditions and the water resources management of artificial recharge facilities.

  16. Costs of measures to control tuberculosis/HIV in public primary care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Hausler, Harry Peter; Sinanovic, Edina; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Naidoo, Pren; Schoeman, Hennie; Karpakis, Barbara; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the costs and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ProTEST package of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) interventions in primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We collected annual cost data retrospectively using ingredients-based costing in three primary care facilities and estimated the cost per HIV infection averted and the cost per TB case prevented. FINDINGS: The range of costs per person for the ProTEST interventions in the three facilities were: US$ 7-11 for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), US$ 81-166 for detecting a TB case, US$ 92-183 for completing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and US$ 20-44 for completing six months of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. The estimated cost per HIV infection averted by VCT was US$ 67-112. The cost per TB case prevented by VCT (through preventing HIV) was US$ 129-215, by intensified case finding was US$ 323-664 and by IPT was US$ 486-962. Sensitivity analysis showed that the use of chest X-rays for IPT screening decreases the cost-effectiveness of IPT in preventing TB cases by 36%. IPT screening with or without tuberculin purified protein derivative screening was almost equally cost-effective. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the ProTEST package is cost saving. Despite moderate adherence, linking prevention and care interventions for TB and HIV resulted in the estimated costs of preventing TB being less than previous estimates of costs of treating it. VCT was less expensive than previously reported in Africa. PMID:16878226

  17. Silicon detectors for the neutron flux and beam profile measurements of the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumarra, Agatino; Cosentino, Luigi; Barbagallo, Massimo; Colonna, Nicola; Damone, Lucia; Pappalardo, Alfio; Piscopo, Massimo; Finocchiaro, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The demand of new and high precision cross section data for neutron-induced reactions is continuously growing, driven by the requirements from several fields of fundamental physics, as well as from nuclear technology, medicine, etc. Several neutron facilities are operational worldwide, and new ones are being built. In the coming years, neutron beam intensities never reached up to now will be available, thus opening new scientific and technological frontiers. Among existing facilities, n_TOF at CERN provides a high intensity pulsed neutron beam in a wide energy range (thermal to GeV) and with an extremely competitive energy resolution that also allows spectroscopy studies. In order to ensure high quality measurements, the neutron beams must be fully characterized as a function of the neutron energy, in particular by measuring the neutron flux and the beam transverse profile with high accuracy. In 2014 a new experimental area (EAR2), with a much higher neutron flux, has been completed and commissioned at n_TOF. In order to characterize the neutron beam in the newly built experimental area at n_TOF, two suitable diagnostics devices have been built by the INFN-LNS group. Both are based on silicon detectors coupled with 6Li converter foils, in particular Single Pad for the flux measurement and Position Sensitive (strips and others) for the beam profile. The devices have been completely characterized with radioactive sources and with the n_TOF neutron beam, fulfilling all the specifications and hence becoming immediately operational. The performances of these devices and their high versatility, in terms of neutron beam intensity, make them suitable to be used in both n_TOF experimental areas. A description of the devices and the main results obtained so far will be presented.

  18. Measurement of Noise Produced by a Plasma Contactor Operating in Ground Based Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Methods to measure electric field fluctuations accurately in a plasma with an active monopole antenna are described. It is shown that the conductive surfaces of the antenna must be adequately isolated from the ambient plasma and that the monopole must be sufficiently short to avoid antenna amplifier saturation. Experimental results illustrate that the noise produced by plasma contactor operation and sensed by the antenna is due to plasma phenomena and is not induced by laboratory power supplies. A good correlation is shown between the current fluctuations in the contactor electrical circuit and the noise detected by the antenna. A large body of experimental data support the conclusion that the majority of noise sensed by the antenna at frequencies less than 1 MHz is due to current fluctuations (electrostatic waves) in the plasma adjacent to the antenna and not to electromagnetic wave radiation. Caution is suggested when comparing antenna noise measurements to conventional specifications for radiated emissions.

  19. Gamma ray facilities at the University of Maryland cyclotron. [data acquisition and radiation measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornyak, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A special beam line was set up in a separate shielded experimental room to provide a low background station for gamma-ray measurements at the University of Maryland cyclotron. The transmitted beam leaving the target is gathered in by a magnetic quadrupole lens located 1.8 m further downstream and focused on a Faraday cup located on the far side of the 2.5 m thick concrete shielding wall of the experimental room. A software computer program permits timing information ot be obtained using the cyclotron beam fine structure as a time reference for the observed gamma-ray events. Measurements indicate a beam fine structure width of less than 1.2 nanoseconds repeated, for example, in the case of 140 MeV alpha particles every 90 nanoseconds. Twelve contiguous time channels of adjustable width may be set as desired with reference to the RF signal. This allows the creation of 12 separate 8192 channel analyzers.

  20. Improved Gamma Bang Time Measurements on Omega and Implications for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Miller , H. W. Hermann, S. E. Caldwell, S. C. Evans, J. M. Mack, P. Shanch, T. Sedillo, C. S. Young; C. J. Holrsfield, D. Drew; V. Yu Glebov

    2007-09-14

    The time of peak fusion reactivity with respect to the impingement of laser light on an ICF capsule is known as Bang Time (BT). This is an essential parameter in the understanding of ICF implosions. Traditionally, BT has been determined through temporal measurements of 14 MeV fusion neutrons. Because the neutron energy spectrum is Doppler broadened, the detector must be positioned close to target-chamber center in order to minimize the neutron temporal spreading which can compromise such a measurement. Fusion gammas, on the other hand, are not subject to temporal spreading, making proximity of the detector to the source a lesser concern. However, the low branching ratio for DT fusion reactions producing gammas ({approx}1e-4) presents detector sensitivity challenges.

  1. Key Future Measurements of TMDs at Jefferson Lab and Other Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allada, Kalyan

    2016-02-01

    Transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) provide a description of nucleon structure in terms of the parton transverse momentum and its transverse spin. At leading twist there are eight TMDs, each offering a unique feature of quarks in a polarized or an unpolarized nucleon. The Sivers distribution is one of the most interesting TMD due to its non-universality. It has been extracted using the data from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS), but there is no data yet from spin-dependent Drell-Yan (DY) process. Such measurement will provide a crucial test of TMD formalism which predicts an equal magnitude and opposite sign for the Sivers function extracted from SIDIS and DY process. We will discuss key future measurements of TMDs using both SIDIS and DY process with a focus on Hall A SoLID SIDIS program at Jefferson Lab.

  2. Neutron Scattering Facility for the Measurement of Light Quenching Factors of Dark Matter Detectors at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, R.; Ciemniak, C.; Deuter, G.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Gütlein, A.; Hagn, H.; Jochum, J.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Lepelmeier, J.; Pfister, S.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Rottler, K.; Sailer, C.; Scholl, S.; von Sivers, M.; Thalhammer, U.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Usherov, I.

    2012-06-01

    The light yield of scintillating crystals which is quantified by light Quenching Factors (QFs) strongly depends on the kind of interaction in the crystal. For Dark Matter experiments like CRESST the precise knowledge of QFs is crucial for the discrimination of background events from possible WIMP signals. At the tandem accelerator of the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium (MLL) in Garching a low-temperature scattering facility was set up, which in its current phase aims at the determination of the QFs of O, Ca, and W in CaWO4 crystals as used in the CRESST experiment. A CRESST detector module consists of a 300 g CaWO4 target crystal operated as a phonon detector and a separate silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) light detector to detect the corresponding scintillation light simultaneously. In order to disentangle the light yield corresponding to O, Ca and W recoils, monoenergetic neutrons (11 MeV) produced by the accelerator are scattered off an especially developed CRESST-like detector module, which is operated at mK temperatures in a dilution refrigerator. Arrays of liquid-scintillator detectors placed at fixed scattering angles allow one to identify the recoiling nuclei by a neutron time-of-flight measurement. The unique facility is suited for the characterization of different detector materials and will be a powerful tool also for the future multi-material experiment EURECA. We report on the experimental approach, the low-temperature setup and present first results.

  3. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  4. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES.

  6. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES. PMID:26597655

  7. Measuring health workers’ motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health

  8. Repeatability Modeling for Wind-Tunnel Measurements: Results for Three Langley Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Houlden, Heather P.

    2014-01-01

    Data from extensive check standard tests of seven measurement processes in three NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels are statistically analyzed to test a simple model previously presented in 2000 for characterizing short-term, within-test and across-test repeatability. The analysis is intended to support process improvement and development of uncertainty models for the measurements. The analysis suggests that the repeatability can be estimated adequately as a function of only the test section dynamic pressure over a two-orders- of-magnitude dynamic pressure range. As expected for low instrument loading, short-term coefficient repeatability is determined by the resolution of the instrument alone (air off). However, as previously pointed out, for the highest dynamic pressure range the coefficient repeatability appears to be independent of dynamic pressure, thus presenting a lower floor for the standard deviation for all three time frames. The simple repeatability model is shown to be adequate for all of the cases presented and for all three time frames.

  9. Lifetimes of (214)Po and (212)Po measured with Counting Test Facility at Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miramonti, L; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chubakov, V; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Göger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Lissia, M; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xhixha, G; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2014-12-01

    The decays of (214)Po into (210)Pb and of (212)Po into (208)Pb tagged by the previous decays from (214)Bi and (212)Bi have been studied inserting quartz vials inside the Counting Test Facility (CTF) at the underground laboratory in Gran Sasso (LNGS). We find that the mean lifetime of (214)Po is (236.00 ± 0.42(stat) ± 0.15(syst)) μs and that of (212)Po is (425.1 ± 0.9(stat) ± 1.2(syst)) ns. Our results are compatible with previous measurements, have a much better signal to background ratio, and reduce the overall uncertainties.

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wink, C. W.; Bell, P.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; et al

    2016-08-02

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with amore » time resolution of ~20 ps and energy resolution of ~100 keV for total neutron yields above ~1016. Lastly, at lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ~20 ps.« less

  11. Lifetimes of (214)Po and (212)Po measured with Counting Test Facility at Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Miramonti, L; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chubakov, V; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Göger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Lissia, M; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Mantovani, F; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Nisi, S; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xhixha, G; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2014-12-01

    The decays of (214)Po into (210)Pb and of (212)Po into (208)Pb tagged by the previous decays from (214)Bi and (212)Bi have been studied inserting quartz vials inside the Counting Test Facility (CTF) at the underground laboratory in Gran Sasso (LNGS). We find that the mean lifetime of (214)Po is (236.00 ± 0.42(stat) ± 0.15(syst)) μs and that of (212)Po is (425.1 ± 0.9(stat) ± 1.2(syst)) ns. Our results are compatible with previous measurements, have a much better signal to background ratio, and reduce the overall uncertainties. PMID:24725806

  12. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wink, C. W.; Bell, P.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-11-01

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ˜20 ps and energy resolution of ˜100 keV for total neutron yields above ˜1016. At lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ˜20 ps.

  13. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  14. Measurement of electron temperature of imploded capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Edwards, J.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S.; Landen, O. L.; Springer, P.; Suter, L.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D. K.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Kyrala, G.; and others

    2012-10-15

    The electron and ion temperatures of the imploded core plasma are two of the most important metrics of inertial confinement fusion experiments. We have developed a technique for inferring electron temperatures from the contrast of x-ray images observed through a group of x-ray filters. Generally, the plasma electron temperature exhibits spatial and temporal variations, so time-averaged and time-resolved measurements are expected to yield somewhat different results. By analyzing the intensity of images observed with both a time-integrated detector (imaging plates) and a time-resolved detector (gated micro-channel plate), we found the electron temperature observed from x-ray images to be systematically higher than the ion temperature inferred from fusion neutron spectroscopy.

  15. Application of 1H DOSY for Facile Measurement of Polymer Molecular Weights

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weibin; Chung, Hoyong; Daeffler, Christopher; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    To address the practical issues of polymer molecular weight determination, the first accurate polymer weight-average molecular weight determination method in diverse living/controlled polymerization via DOSY (diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy) is reported. Based on the linear correlation between the logarithm of diffusion coefficient (log D) and the molecular weights (log Mw), external calibration curves were created to give predictions of molecular weights of narrowly-dispersed polymers. This method was successfully applied to atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), with weight-average molecular weights given by this method closely correlated to those obtained from GPC measurement. PMID:23335819

  16. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  17. A sensitive and facile assay for the measurement of activated protein C activity levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Orthner, C L; Kolen, B; Drohan, W N

    1993-05-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a serine protease which plays an important role as a naturally occurring antithrombotic enzyme. APC, which is formed by thrombin-catalyzed limited proteolysis of the zymogen protein C, functions as an anticoagulant by proteolytic inactivation of the coagulation cofactors VIIIa and Va: APC is inhibited by several members of the serpin family as well a by alpha 2-macroglobulin. APC is being developed as a therapeutic for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. We have developed an assay to quantify circulating levels of enzymatically active APC during its administration to patients, in healthy individuals, and in various disease states. This assay utilizes an EDTA-dependent anti-protein C monoclonal antibody (Mab) 7D7B10 to capture both APC and protein C from plasma, prepared from blood collected in an anticoagulant supplemented with the reversible inhibitor p-aminobenzamidine. Mab 7D7B10-derivatized agarose beads are added to the wells of a 96-well filtration plate, equilibrated with Tris-buffered saline, and incubated for 10 min with 200 microliters of plasma. After washing, APC and protein C are eluted from the immunosorbent beads with a calcium-containing buffer into the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate containing antithrombin III (ATIII) and heparin. The amidolytic activity of APC is then measured on a kinetic plate reader following the addition of L-pyroglutamyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (S-2366) substrate. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was proportional to APC concentration over a 200-fold concentration range (5.0 to 1,000 ng/ml) when measured continuously over a 15 to 30 min time period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Cumulative Quarterly Report October 1, 2003 - September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  19. Using X-Rays to Test CVD Diamond Detectors for Areal Density Measurement at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dauffy, L S; Koch, J A; Tommasini, R; Izumi, N

    2008-05-06

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), 192 laser beams will compress a target containing a mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) that will release fusion neutrons, photons, and other radiation. Diagnostics are being designed to measure this emitted radiation to infer crucial parameters of an ignition shot. Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond is one of the ignition diagnostics that will be used as a neutron time-of-flight detector for measuring primary (14.1 MeV) neutron yield, ion temperature, and plasma areal density. This last quantity is the subject of this study and is inferred from the number of downscattered neutrons arriving late in time, divided by the number of primary neutrons. We determine in this study the accuracy with which this detector can measure areal density, when the limiting factor is detector and electronics saturation. We used laser-produced x-rays to reproduce NIF signals in terms of charge carriers density, time between pulses, and amplitude contrast and found that the effect of the large pulse on the small pulse is at most 8.4%, which is less than the NIF accuracy requirement of {+-} 10%.

  20. Measurements of plasma temperature in indirect drive targets from the shock wave velocity in aluminum in the Iskra-5 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatulin, V. V.; Zhidkov, N. V.; Kravchenko, A. G.; Kuznetsov, P. G.; Litvin, D. N.; Mis'ko, V. V.; Pinegin, A. V.; Pleteneva, N. P.; Senik, A. V.; Starodubtsev, K. V.; Tachaev, G. V.

    2010-05-01

    Results are presented from the development of a method for measuring plasma temperature in indirect (X-ray) drive targets by recording the shock wave velocity in the Iskra-5 facility. The samples under investigation were irradiated by X-rays in a converter box, and the shock wave velocity was determined from the time at which the wave reached the back surface of the sample and the surface began to emit visible radiation. This emission, in turn, was detected by a streak camera. The results of experiments on the interaction of X radiation with a hot dense plasma, as well as the accompanying gas-dynamic processes in aluminum samples, are analyzed both theoretically and numerically. In experiments with Al and Pb samples, the shock wave velocity was measured to vary in the range U = 8-35 km/s, and the range of variation of the temperature of the box walls was measured to be T e = 140-170 eV.

  1. Measurement and control of the air contamination generated in a medical cyclotron facility for PET radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Todde, S; Fazio, F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the data concerning the contamination of the exhausted air from the hot cells dedicated to the large-scale synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals. Two cyclotrons are currently operating in Ospedale San Raffaele for the routine production of C and F. They are linked with four radiochemistry laboratories by means of shielded radioisotope delivery lines. The above labs are dedicated both to the large scale preparation and to the research and development of PET radiopharmaceuticals. The department hosts four CT-PET scanners, which operate with a mean patient workload of 40 per day. Radiosyntheses are performed using automated modules located in 10 hot cells. The air outlets are monitored online by a 2-inch NaI(Tl) counter in a Marinelli geometry counting volume. Contamination values up to 10(5) Bq L(-1) have been measured at the hot cell exit point during the synthesis. The corresponding concentrations at the point of release in atmosphere are largely above the threshold of 1.29 Bq L(-1), defined by national regulations as the limit for free environmental release. A shielded gas storage system controlled by a dedicated, customized software program has thus been installed to prevent the potentially hazardous release of gaseous radioactive contaminants. The system has allowed us to maintain the effective dose to neighboring population groups below the limit of 10 muSv y(-1).

  2. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these

  3. Measurement of the residual contamination of post-weaning facilities for pigs and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Madec, F; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Maris, P

    1999-02-01

    A survey was designed in France to assess residual contamination in post-weaning rooms within the 2 h prior to restocking when all the pigs of the previous batch had been removed (all in-all out) and after application of the 'in use' cleaning procedures. The protocol was based on the results of a pilot study and was considered 'a good compromise'. Special agar plates (Rodac plates) with a prominent agar medium surface were prepared and used to collect the bacteria. They were applied by impression onto the floors and the partitions between the pens. In all, 24 plates were applied per room. The culture medium was VRBG which mainly permits the growth of enterobacteria. The plates were incubated for 24 h (37 degrees C) and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) counted. After sampling, measurements were made and information collected from the farmer to obtain potential explanations for the resulting microbiological data. The same scientist sampled 129 post-weaning rooms with slatted floors. Of the 3045 plates, 18.4% were negative and 12.8% were heavily colonized (> 300 CFU). A score combining six criteria based on the counts was produced, and indicated a wide spread of the rooms. The profile of circumstances associated with the different levels of the score was extracted. The following points should be respected to achieve low residual contamination: removal of the slurry from the pit below the slatted floor; damping to be started soon after pig removal; prolonged damping; thorough washing; disinfecting soon after washing; and attention to the recommended dosage of disinfectant. Smooth surfaces were found to be less contaminated than rough ones. It is concluded that cleaning and disinfecting operations must not be considered as minor tasks and should clearly be integrated into the process of pig production. PMID:10085772

  4. Measurement of the residual contamination of post-weaning facilities for pigs and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Madec, F; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Maris, P

    1999-02-01

    A survey was designed in France to assess residual contamination in post-weaning rooms within the 2 h prior to restocking when all the pigs of the previous batch had been removed (all in-all out) and after application of the 'in use' cleaning procedures. The protocol was based on the results of a pilot study and was considered 'a good compromise'. Special agar plates (Rodac plates) with a prominent agar medium surface were prepared and used to collect the bacteria. They were applied by impression onto the floors and the partitions between the pens. In all, 24 plates were applied per room. The culture medium was VRBG which mainly permits the growth of enterobacteria. The plates were incubated for 24 h (37 degrees C) and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) counted. After sampling, measurements were made and information collected from the farmer to obtain potential explanations for the resulting microbiological data. The same scientist sampled 129 post-weaning rooms with slatted floors. Of the 3045 plates, 18.4% were negative and 12.8% were heavily colonized (> 300 CFU). A score combining six criteria based on the counts was produced, and indicated a wide spread of the rooms. The profile of circumstances associated with the different levels of the score was extracted. The following points should be respected to achieve low residual contamination: removal of the slurry from the pit below the slatted floor; damping to be started soon after pig removal; prolonged damping; thorough washing; disinfecting soon after washing; and attention to the recommended dosage of disinfectant. Smooth surfaces were found to be less contaminated than rough ones. It is concluded that cleaning and disinfecting operations must not be considered as minor tasks and should clearly be integrated into the process of pig production.

  5. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility, October-November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William

    2002-01-01

    The Engineering Test Unit (ETU) of COR1 was made in two configurations. The first configuration, ETU-1, was for vibration testing, while the second, ETU-2, was for optical testing. This is a report on the optical testing performed on ETU-2 at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility during the months of October and November, 2002. This was the same facility used to test the two previous breadboard models. In both configurations, the first two tube sections were complete, with all optical elements aligned. The vibration model ETU-1 had the remaining tube sections attached, with mass models for the remaining optics, for the various mechanisms, and for the focal plane assembly. It was then converted into the optical model ETU-2 by removing tube sections 3 to 5, and mounting the remaining optics on commercial mounts. (The bandpass filter was also installed into tube 2, which had been replaced in ETU-1 by a mass model, so that pre- and post-vibration optical measurements could be made.) Doublet 2 was installed in a Newport LP-2 carrier, and aligned to the other optics in the first two tube sections. The LP-2 adjustment screws were then uralened so that the alignment could be maintained during shipping. Because neither the flight polarizer nor Hollow Core Motor were available, they were simulated by a commercial polarizer and rotational mount, both from Oriel corporation. The Oriel rotational stage was not designed for vacuum use, but it was determined after consultation with the company, and lab testing, that the stage could be used in the moderate vacuum conditions at the NCAR/HAO facility. The shutter and focal plane assembly were simulated with the same camera used for the previous two breadboard tests. The focal plane mask was simulated with a plane of BK7 glass with a mask glued on, using the same procedure as for the Lyot spot on Doublet 1, and mounted in an adjustable LP-2 carrier. Two masks were made, one made to the precise specifications of the optical design, the

  6. Sinking Coastlines: Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River Delta, China, measured with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Tanaka, A.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land subsidence in river deltas is a global problem. It heightens storm surges, salinates groundwater, intensifies river flooding, destabilizes infrastructure and accelerates shoreline retreat. Measurements of delta subsidence typically rely on point measures such as GPS devices, tide gauges or extensometers, but spatial coverage is needed to fully assess risk across river deltas. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) is a satellite-based technique that can provide maps of ground deformation with mm to cm-scale vertical resolution. We apply D-InSAR to the coast of the Yellow River Delta in China, which is dominated by aquaculture facilities and has experienced severe coastal erosion in the last twenty years. We extract deformation patterns from dry land adjacent to aquaculture facilities along the coast, allowing the first measurements of subsidence at a non-urban delta shoreline. Results show classic cones-of-depression surrounding aquaculture facilities, likely due to groundwater pumping. Subsidence rates are as high as 250 mm/y at the largest facility on the delta. These rates exceed local and global average sea level rise by nearly two orders of magnitude. If these rates continue, large aquaculture facilities in the area could induce more than a meter of relative sea level rise every five years. Given the global explosion in fish farming in recent years, these results also suggest that similar subsidence and associated relative sea level rise may present a significant hazard for other Asian megadeltas. False-color MODIS image of the Yellow River delta in September 2012. Water appears dark blue, highlighting the abundance of aquaculture facilities along the coast. Green land is primarily agricultural; brown is urban. Red boxes indicate locations of aquaculture facilities examined in this study. Figure from Higgins, S., Overeem, I., Tanaka, A., & Syvitski, J.P.M., (2013), Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River

  7. Aerosol scattering and absorption during the EUCAARI-LONGREX flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146: can measurements and models agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Highwood, E. J.; Northway, M. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Liu, D.; Osborne, S.; Bower, K.; Coe, H.; Ryder, C.; Williams, P.

    2012-08-01

    Scattering and absorption by aerosol in anthropogenically perturbed air masses over Europe has been measured using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) on 14 flights during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign in May 2008. The geographical and temporal variations of the derived shortwave optical properties of aerosol are presented. Values of single scattering albedo of dry aerosol at 550 nm varied considerably from 0.86 to near unity, with a campaign average of 0.93 ± 0.03. Dry aerosol optical depths ranged from 0.030 ± 0.009 to 0.24 ± 0.07. An optical properties closure study comparing calculations from composition data and Mie scattering code with the measured properties is presented. Agreement to within measurement uncertainties of 30% can be achieved for both scattering and absorption, but the latter is shown to be sensitive to the refractive indices chosen for organic aerosols, and to a lesser extent black carbon, as well as being highly dependent on the accuracy of the absorption measurements. Agreement with the measured absorption can be achieved either if organic carbon is assumed to be weakly absorbing, or if the organic aerosol is purely scattering and the absorption measurement is an overestimate due to the presence of large amounts of organic carbon. Refractive indices could not be inferred conclusively due to this uncertainty, despite the enhancement in methodology compared to previous studies that derived from the use of the black carbon measurements. Hygroscopic growth curves derived from the wet nephelometer indicate moderate water uptake by the aerosol with a campaign mean f(RH) value (ratio in scattering) of 1.5 (range from 1.23 to 1.63) at 80% relative humidity. This value is qualitatively consistent with the major chemical components of the aerosol measured by the aerosol mass spectrometer, which are primarily mixed organics and

  8. Real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements on shocked crystals at a synchrotron facility.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y M; Turneaure, Stefan J; Perkins, K; Zimmerman, K; Arganbright, N; Shen, G; Chow, P

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was used to obtain real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements to determine the microscopic response of shock-compressed single crystals. Disk shaped samples were subjected to plane shock wave compression by impacting them with half-inch diameter, flat-faced projectiles. The projectiles were accelerated to velocities ranging between 300 and 1200 m/s using a compact powder gun designed specifically for use at a synchrotron facility. The experiments were designed to keep the sample probed volume under uniaxial strain and constant stress for a duration longer than the 153.4 ns spacing between x-ray bunches. X-rays from a single pulse (<100 ps duration) out of the periodic x-ray pulses emitted by the synchrotron were used for the diffraction measurements. A synchronization and x-ray detection technique was developed to ensure that the measured signal was obtained unambiguously from the desired x-ray pulse incident on the sample while the sample was in a constant uniaxial strain state. The synchronization and x-ray detection techniques described can be used for a variety of x-ray measurements on shock compressed solids and liquids at the APS. Detailed procedures for applying the Bragg-Brentano parafocusing approach to single crystals at the APS are presented. Analytic developments to determine the effects of crystal substructure and non-ideal geometry on the diffraction pattern position and shape are presented. Representative real-time x-ray diffraction data, indicating shock-induced microstructural changes, are presented for a shock-compressed Al(111) sample. The experimental developments presented here provided, in part, the impetus for the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) currently under development at the APS. Both the synchronization∕x-ray detection methods and the analysis equations for high-resolution single crystal x-ray diffraction can be used at the DCS.

  9. Real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements on shocked crystals at a synchrotron facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Y. M.; Turneaure, Stefan J.; Perkins, K.; Zimmerman, K.; Arganbright, N.; Shen, G.; Chow, P.

    2012-12-15

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was used to obtain real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements to determine the microscopic response of shock-compressed single crystals. Disk shaped samples were subjected to plane shock wave compression by impacting them with half-inch diameter, flat-faced projectiles. The projectiles were accelerated to velocities ranging between 300 and 1200 m/s using a compact powder gun designed specifically for use at a synchrotron facility. The experiments were designed to keep the sample probed volume under uniaxial strain and constant stress for a duration longer than the 153.4 ns spacing between x-ray bunches. X-rays from a single pulse (<100 ps duration) out of the periodic x-ray pulses emitted by the synchrotron were used for the diffraction measurements. A synchronization and x-ray detection technique was developed to ensure that the measured signal was obtained unambiguously from the desired x-ray pulse incident on the sample while the sample was in a constant uniaxial strain state. The synchronization and x-ray detection techniques described can be used for a variety of x-ray measurements on shock compressed solids and liquids at the APS. Detailed procedures for applying the Bragg-Brentano parafocusing approach to single crystals at the APS are presented. Analytic developments to determine the effects of crystal substructure and non-ideal geometry on the diffraction pattern position and shape are presented. Representative real-time x-ray diffraction data, indicating shock-induced microstructural changes, are presented for a shock-compressed Al(111) sample. The experimental developments presented here provided, in part, the impetus for the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) currently under development at the APS. Both the synchronization/x-ray detection methods and the analysis equations for high-resolution single crystal x-ray diffraction can be used at the DCS.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion alpha-heating signatures in prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Jennifer; Herrmann, Hans; Cerjan, Charlie; Sayre, Daniel; Carpenter, Arthur; Liebman, Judy; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Kim, Yongho

    2015-11-01

    Prompt gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) supply vital diagnostic information, such as the peak burn time, burn width, and total neutron yield, from prompt DT-fusion gamma-ray emission during high convergence implosion experiments. Additionally, the stagnated cold shell density distribution may be inferred from the time-integrated, calibrated 12C (n,n' γ) signal, thus providing estimates of remaining ablator carbon areal density. Furthermore, simulations suggest that alpha heating signatures might be accessible using more highly resolved temporal gamma-ray emission. Correlation of these signatures with time-dependent neutron emission will constrain the implosion dynamics immediately prior to thermonuclear burn. Measurement of these gamma-ray signatures will be discussed along with updates on our work toward inferred total DT yield and 12C areal density. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07-NA27344, LLNL-ABS-670282.

  11. Measurements of electromagnetic properties of LCT (Large Coil Task) coils in IFSMTF (International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.S.; Baylor, L.R.; Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Wilson, C.T.; Wintenberg, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Participants in the international Large Coil Task (LCT) have designed, built, and tested six different toroidal field coils. Each coil has a 2.5- by 3.5-m, D-shaped bore and a current between 10 and 18 kA and is designed to demonstrate stable operation at 8 T, with a superimposed averaged pulsed field of 0.14 T in 1.0 s and simulated nuclear heating. Testing of the full six-coil toroidal array began early in 1986 and was successfully completed on September 3, 1987, in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper summarizes electromagnetic properties of LCT coils measured in different modes of energization and fast dump. Effects of mutual coupling and induced eddy currents are analyzed and discussed. Measurements of the ac loss caused by the superimposed pulsed fields are summarized. Finally, the interpretation of the test results and their relevance to practical fusion are presented. 11 refs., 10 figs., 4 tab.

  12. Comparison of Stack Measurement Data from R&D Facilities to Regulatory Criteria. A Case Study from PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-10-30

    Chemical emissions from research and development (R&D) activities are difficult to estimate because of the large number of chemicals used and the potential for continual changes in processes. In this case study, stack measurements taken from R&D facilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were examined, including extreme worst-case emissions estimates and alternate analyses using a Monte Carlo method that takes into account the full distribution of sampling results. The results from these analyses were then compared to emissions estimated from chemical inventories. Results showed that downwind ambient air concentrations calculated from the stack measurement data were below acceptable source impact levels (ASILs) for almost all compounds, even under extreme worst-case analyses. However, for compounds with averaging periods of a year, the unrealistic but simplifying extreme worst-case analysis often resulted in exceedances of lower level regulatory criteria used to determine modeling requirements or to define trivial releases. Compounds with 24-hour averaging periods were nearly all several orders of magnitude below all, including the trivial release, criteria. The alternate analysis supplied a more realistic basis of comparison and an ability to explore effects under different operational modes.

  13. Real-air data reduction procedures based on flow parameters measured in the test section of supersonic and hypersonic facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    Data-reduction procedures for determining free stream and post-normal shock kinetic and thermodynamic quantities are derived. These procedures are applicable to imperfect real air flows in thermochemical equilibrium for temperatures to 15 000 K and a range of pressures from 0.25 N/sq m to 1 GN/sq m. Although derived primarily to meet the immediate needs of the 6-inch expansion tube, these procedures are applicable to any supersonic or hypersonic test facility where combinations of three of the following flow parameters are measured in the test section: (1) Stagnation pressure behind normal shock; (2) freestream static pressure; (3) stagnation point heat transfer rate; (4) free stream velocity; (5) stagnation density behind normal shock; and (6) free stream density. Limitations of the nine procedures and uncertainties in calculated flow quantities corresponding to uncertainties in measured input data are discussed. A listing of the computer program is presented, along with a description of the inputs required and a sample of the data printout.

  14. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution measurements of 235U and 238U at CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 238U and 235U are used as standards in the fast neutron region up to 200 MeV. A high accuracy of the standards is relevant to experimentally determine other neutron reaction cross sections. Therefore, the detection effciency should be corrected by using the angular distribution of the fission fragments (FFAD), which are barely known above 20 MeV. In addition, the angular distribution of the fragments produced in the fission of highly excited and deformed nuclei is an important observable to investigate the nuclear fission process. In order to measure the FFAD of neutron-induced reactions, a fission detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) has been developed and successfully used at the CERN-n_TOF facility. In this work, we present the preliminary results on the analysis of new 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) data in the extended energy range up to 200 MeV compared to the existing experimental data.

  15. Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes 11C, 13N, and 150. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly over-predict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of horizontal dispersion.

  16. Numerical Prediction of Radiation Measurements Taken in the X2 Facility for Mars and Titan Gas Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Prabhu, Dinesh; Brandis, Aaron; McIntyre, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemical relaxation behind a normal shock in Mars and Titan gas mixtures is simulated using a CFD solver, DPLR, for a hemisphere of 1 m radius; the thermochemical relaxation along the stagnation streamline is considered equivalent to the flow behind a normal shock. Flow simulations are performed for a Titan gas mixture (98% N2, 2% CH4 by volume) for shock speeds of 5.7 and 7.6 km/s and pressures ranging from 20 to 1000 Pa, and a Mars gas mixture (96% CO2, and 4% N2 by volume) for a shock speed of 8.6 km/s and freestream pressure of 13 Pa. For each case, the temperatures and number densities of chemical species obtained from the CFD flow predictions are used as an input to a line-by-line radiation code, NEQAIR. The NEQAIR code is then used to compute the spatial distribution of volumetric radiance starting from the shock front to the point where thermochemical equilibrium is nominally established. Computations of volumetric spectral radiance assume Boltzmann distributions over radiatively linked electronic states of atoms and molecules. The results of these simulations are compared against experimental data acquired in the X2 facility at the University of Queensland, Australia. The experimental measurements were taken over a spectral range of 310-450 nm where the dominant contributor to radiation is the CN violet band system. In almost all cases, the present approach of computing the spatial variation of post-shock volumetric radiance by applying NEQAIR along a stagnation line computed using a high-fidelity flow solver with good spatial resolution of the relaxation zone is shown to replicate trends in measured relaxation of radiance for both Mars and Titan gas mixtures.

  17. Measurement and simulation of lineal energy distribution at the CERN high energy facility with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Rollet, S; Autischer, M; Beck, P; Latocha, M

    2007-01-01

    The response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in a mixed radiation field with a neutron energy distribution similar to the radiation field at commercial flight altitudes has been studied. The measurements have been done at the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility where a well-characterised radiation field is available for intercomparison. The TEPC instrument used by the ARC Seibersdorf Research is filled with pure propane gas at low pressure and can be used to determine the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in a mass of gas equivalent to a 2 microm diameter volume of unit density tissue, of similar size to the nuclei of biological cells. The linearity of the detector response was checked both in term of dose and dose rate. The effect of dead-time has been corrected. The influence of the detector exposure location and orientation in the radiation field on the dose distribution was also studied as a function of the total dose. The microdosimetric distribution of the absorbed dose as a function of the lineal energy has been obtained and compared with the same distribution simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code. The dose equivalent was calculated by folding this distribution with the quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer. The comparison between the measured and simulated distributions show that they are in good agreement. As a result of this study the detector is well characterised, thanks also to the numerical simulations the instrument response is well understood, and it's currently being used onboard the aircrafts to evaluate the dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation.

  18. High-precision mass measurement of N = Z = 34 nuclides for RP-process simulations and developments for the LEBIT facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savory, Joshua J.

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) performs high precision mass measurements of rare isotopes. Within this work mass measurements in the N ≈ Z ≈ 34 region were performed by Penning trap mass spectrometry. Mass measurements of nuclei in this region are important for understanding the rp process, a driving mechanism behind type I x-ray bursts. The masses measured were 68Se, 70Se, 70mBr, and 71Br and experimental uncertainties ranging from 0.5 keV for 68Se to 15 keV for 70mBr were achieved. Using the LEBIT results along with theoretical Coulomb displacement energies [1] more reliable mass predictions were obtained for 70Kr and 71Kr. The new and improved data were used as input for rp process network calculations. An increase in the effective lifetime of the waiting point nucleus 685se was observed, thus confirming it as a large source of delay in the rp process. More precise information was also obtained on the luminosity during a type I x-ray burst and on the distribution of the final abundances after a burst. Beam manipulation and detection are an important part of the high precision mass measurement process performed at the LEBIT facility. Several upgrades to the LEBIT facility for improved beam quality, control, and observation are presented. The properties of ion pulses ejected from the facility's beam cooler and buncher were investigated and optimized for improved contaminant ion detection and removal. To increase the ion detection efficiency after the Penning trap a multichannel plate detector was implemented in a Daly detector configuration. These upgrades were instrumental in moving the LEBIT facility towards measurements of nuclei with lower yields and higher levels of contaminant.

  19. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, J. Trompier, F.; Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M.; Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C.; Trinkl, S.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P.; Kubancak, J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  20. Measurement of oxytetracycline and emamectin benzoate in freshwater sediments downstream of land based aquaculture facilities in the Atlantic Region of Canada.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Greenwood, Lyndsay

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of oxytetracycline (OTC) and emamectin benzoate (EB) in sediments located near the effluent outfall from four freshwater aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada. While two facilities had no detectable concentrations of EB or OTC, two facilities had detectable concentrations of one or both of these chemicals. Concentrations ranged from <0.05-18 mg/kg to <0.01-2.5 mg/kg for OTC and EB respectively. Although these values could not be compared with freshwater toxicant values, some of the concentrations of EB and OTC detected were higher than LC(50) values calculated for marine invertebrates. OTC concentrations measured in this study are also of a magnitude which has been known to produce resistant bacteria.

  1. Cross-sectional association of the number of neighborhood facilities assessed using postal code with objectively measured physical activity: the Saku cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Akitomo; Murakami, Haruka; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijyo; Aiba, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of neighborhood facilities that were assessed according to postal code and objectively measured physical activity by using an accelerometer in community-dwelling Japanese people.Methods The participants included 1,274 Japanese people aged 30-84 years from the Saku cohort study. As neighborhood facilities related to physical activity, we extracted information regarding train stations, supermarkets/convenience stores, postal offices/banks, hospitals/clinics, public offices/community centers, cultural facilities/public children's houses, parks, and sports facilities by using each participant's postal code from the online version of the iTownPages directory published by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) and the official homepage of the Saku City Government Office. We measured each participant's physical activity level using an accelerometer, and calculated the average daily step count and the average weekly period of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥3 metabolic equivalents of tasks [METs]) physical activity. The association between two selected physical activity-related variables and the numbers of eight types of neighborhood facilities were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis for people aged 30-64 years and for those aged over 65 years.Results On multivariate logistic regression analysis, meeting the 23 METs h/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was significantly and positively associated with the number of supermarkets/convenience stores in the neighborhood in both age groups. In addition, meeting the desired daily step count outlined in the Japanese National Health Promotion guidelines was positively related to the number of postal offices/banks for people aged over 65 years.Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a sufficient number of neighborhood facilities (i.e., stores, banks, and postal offices) is closely

  2. Cross-sectional association of the number of neighborhood facilities assessed using postal code with objectively measured physical activity: the Saku cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Akitomo; Murakami, Haruka; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijyo; Aiba, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of neighborhood facilities that were assessed according to postal code and objectively measured physical activity by using an accelerometer in community-dwelling Japanese people.Methods The participants included 1,274 Japanese people aged 30-84 years from the Saku cohort study. As neighborhood facilities related to physical activity, we extracted information regarding train stations, supermarkets/convenience stores, postal offices/banks, hospitals/clinics, public offices/community centers, cultural facilities/public children's houses, parks, and sports facilities by using each participant's postal code from the online version of the iTownPages directory published by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) and the official homepage of the Saku City Government Office. We measured each participant's physical activity level using an accelerometer, and calculated the average daily step count and the average weekly period of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥3 metabolic equivalents of tasks [METs]) physical activity. The association between two selected physical activity-related variables and the numbers of eight types of neighborhood facilities were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis for people aged 30-64 years and for those aged over 65 years.Results On multivariate logistic regression analysis, meeting the 23 METs h/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was significantly and positively associated with the number of supermarkets/convenience stores in the neighborhood in both age groups. In addition, meeting the desired daily step count outlined in the Japanese National Health Promotion guidelines was positively related to the number of postal offices/banks for people aged over 65 years.Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a sufficient number of neighborhood facilities (i.e., stores, banks, and postal offices) is closely

  3. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-04-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime.

  5. The ESA-Facility MATROSHKA: A human phantom for dose measurements occurring in men being exposed during an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, G.

    The Matroshka facility basically consists of the upper part of a body phantom, com- posed of various tissue substitutes simulating the human body with respect to size, shape, position, mass density and nuclear interactions. At the site of the organs of interest, spaces are provided at the surface and in different depths inside the phan- tom to accommodate active and passive dosimeter packages for measurements of any radiation type. The phantom is mounted on a base structure containing the facility electronics and surrounded by a Carbon Fiber container providing structural support and fixation of the phantom and providing shielding thickness comparable to the EVA suit. The container and the base structure build up a sealed compartment. The objective of the proposed facility is to determine the empirical relations between measurable absorbed doses and the required tissue absorbed doses in a realistic hu- man phantom exposed to the concrete radiation field to be monitored. The radiation field during extravehicular activities (EVA) is that of the free space environment mod- ified only by the space suit. Since EVAs will form a substantial fraction of the work- schedule in the space station scenario, such measurements have highest priority. Once the ratios for the tissue absorbed doses and surface absorbed doses are known for a given radiation field around the human body, these values may be used in future expo- sures to determine the required tissue absorbed doses from measurements of surface absorbed doses, only. This technical presentation will describe the design of the MATROSHKA facility which is expected to be launched late 2003.

  6. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Farrell, M. P.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoppe, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Reynolds, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Schoff, M. E.; Séguin, F. H.; Skulina, K.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. This paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ˜200 keV FWHM.

  7. Low energy highly charged ion beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre: Measurement of the plasma potential and ion energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sairam, T. Bhatt, Pragya; Safvan, C. P.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Herendra

    2015-11-15

    A deceleration lens coupled to one of the beam lines of the electron cyclotron resonance based low energy beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre is reported. This system is capable of delivering low energy (2.5 eV/q–1 keV/q) highly charged ion beams. The presence of plasma potential hinders the measurements of low energies (<50 eV), therefore, plasma potential measurements have been undertaken using a retarding plate analyzer in unison with the deceleration assembly. The distributions of the ion energies have been obtained and the effect of different source parameters on these distributions is studied.

  8. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Farrell, M. P.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoppe, M.; et al

    2016-08-09

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. Here, this paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ~200 keV FWHM.

  9. High aspect ratio hard x-ray (> 100 keV) imager to measure hot electron preheat for indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Burns, S; Izumi, N; Kline, J; LaCaille, G; McNaney, J; Prasad, R; Thomas, C A; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O; Author, A; Author, S G; Author, T

    2012-05-01

    We have fielded a multi-pinhole, hard x-ray (> 100 keV) imager to measure the spatially-resolved bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons slowing in a plastic ablator shell during indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These electrons are generated in laser plasma interactions, and are a source of preheat to the deuterium-tritium fuel that could limit the compressibility required for ignition and burn. Our hard x-ray imaging measurements allow to set an upper limit to the DT fuel preheat, which we find is acceptable in current capsule implosions on the NIF.

  10. The measurement of the ionospheric total content variations caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility on a network of GNSS-receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, I. A.; Kogogin, D. A.; Shindin, A. V.; Grach, S. M.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of the perturbations of total electron content (TEC) caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod) were carried out during several experimental campaigns from March of 2010 to March 2013. In this paper the data of experimental measurements of TEC-variations conducted on March, 15, 2010 and on March, 12, 2013, are presented. Parameters of TEC-variations were obtained by dual-frequency global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) diagnostics. Registration of signal parameters from GNSS-transmitters was performed at spatially separated sites along the geomagnetic latitude: Vasilsursk (56 °08‧ N, 46 °05‧ E), Zelenodolsk (55 °52‧ N, 48 °33‧ E) and Kazan (55 °48‧ N, 49 °08‧ E). In the experiments radio path from GNSS satellite to Vasilsursk passed over the disturbed region of ionosphere, but radio paths to Zelenodolsk and to Kazan did not. However, TEC-variations correlated with pumping of ionosphere by "Sura" facility were detected for all up to three ground measurements sites. Magnitudes of TEC-variations reached up to ∼ 0.6 - 0.7 TECU. The speculation that a sharp gradient of the electron density formed at the border of the main lobe of "Sura" facility may cause the generation of IGW is presented.

  11. Forced flow He vapor cooled critical current testing facility for measurements of superconductors in a wide temperature and magnetic field range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskys, Algirdas; Hopkins, Simon C.; Bader, Jakob; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2016-10-01

    As superconducting materials find their way into applications, there is increasing need to verify their performance at operating conditions. Testing of critical current with respect to temperature and magnetic field is of particular importance. However, testing facilities covering a range of temperatures and magnetic fields can be costly, especially when considering the cooling power required in the cryogenic system in the temperature range below 65 K (inaccessible for LN2). Critical currents in excess of 500 A are common for commercial samples, making the testing of such samples difficult in setups cooled via a cryocooler, moreover it often does not represent the actual cooling conditions that the sample will experience in service. This work reports the design and operation of a low-cost critical current testing facility, capable of testing samples in a temperature range of 10-65 K, with magnetic field up to 1.6 T and measuring critical currents up to 900 A with variable cooling power.

  12. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gatu Johnson, M. Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Khater, H. Y.; Sayre, D. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-11-15

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4–20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80–140 mg/cm{sup 2} and CH-ablator ρR's of 400–680 mg/cm{sup 2} are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions.

  13. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Bionta, R M; Casey, D T; Caggiano, J A; Hatarik, R; Khater, H Y; Sayre, D B; Knauer, J P; Sangster, T C; Herrmann, H W; Kilkenny, J D

    2014-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80-140 mg/cm(2) and CH-ablator ρR's of 400-680 mg/cm(2) are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions. PMID:25430283

  14. X-ray rocking curve measurements of bent crystals. [used in High Resolution Spectrometer in Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, M. B.; Muney, W. S.; Fowler, W. B.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    A three-crystal laboratory X-ray spectrometer is used to measure the Bragg reflection from concave cylindrically curved crystals to be used in the high-resolution X-ray spectrometer of the NASA Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The first two crystals, in the dispersive (1.1) arrangement, select a narrow collimated monochromatic beam in the Cu K-alpha(1) line at 1.5 A (8.1 keV), which illuminates the test crystal. The angular centroids of rocking curves measured along the surface provide a measure of the conformity of the crystal to the desired radius of curvature. Individual and combined rocking-curve widths and areas provide a measure of the resolution and efficiency at 1.54 A. The crystals analyzed included LiF(200), PET, and acid phthalates such as TAP.

  15. Facilities maintenance handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for facilities maintenance managers. Its objective is to set minimum facilities maintenance standards. It also provides recommendations on how to meet the standards to ensure that NASA maintains its facilities in a manner that protects and preserves its investment in the facilities in a cost-effective manner while safely and efficiently performing its mission. This handbook implements NMI 8831.1, which states NASA facilities maintenance policy and assigns organizational responsibilities for the management of facilities maintenance activities on all properties under NASA jurisdiction. It is a reference for facilities maintenance managers, not a step-by-step procedural manual. Because of the differences in NASA Field Installation organizations, this handbook does not assume or recommend a typical facilities maintenance organization. Instead, it uses a systems approach to describe the functions that should be included in any facilities maintenance management system, regardless of its organizational structure. For documents referenced in the handbook, the most recent version of the documents is applicable. This handbook is divided into three parts: Part 1 specifies common definitions and facilities maintenance requirements and amplifies the policy requirements contained in NMI 8831. 1; Part 2 provides guidance on how to meet the requirements of Part 1, containing recommendations only; Part 3 contains general facilities maintenance information. One objective of this handbook is to fix commonality of facilities maintenance definitions among the Centers. This will permit the application of uniform measures of facilities conditions, of the relationship between current replacement value and maintenance resources required, and of the backlog of deferred facilities maintenance. The utilization of facilities maintenance system functions will allow the Centers to quantitatively define maintenance objectives in common terms, prepare work plans, and

  16. The development of methods for predicting and measuring distribution patterns of aerial sprays. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Bragg, M. B.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    A set of relationships used to scale small sized dispersion studies to full size results are experimentally verified and, with some qualifications, basic deposition patterns are presented. In the process of validating these scaling laws, the basic experimental techniques used in conducting such studies both with and without an operational propeller were developed. The procedures that evolved are outlined in some detail. The envelope of test conditions that can be accommodated in the Langley Vortex Research Facility, which were developed theoretically, are verified using a series of vortex trajectory experiments that help to define the limitations due to wall interference effects for models of different sizes.

  17. Broadband Interferometer for Measuring Transmitted Wavefronts of Optical Bandpass Filters for HST (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucarut, R. A.; Leviton, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The transmitted wavefronts of optical filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) are characterized using the Wildly and Openly Modified Broadband Achromatic Twyman Green (WOMBAT) Interferometer developed in the NASA/GSFC Optics Branch's Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF). Because only four of thirty-three of ACS's optical bandpass filters transmit the 633 nm light of most commercial interferometers, a broadband interferometer is required to verify specified transmitted wavefront of ACS filters. WOMBAT's design is a hybrid of the BAT interferometer developed by JPL used for HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) filters and a WYKO 400 phase shifting interferometer. It includes a broadband light source, monochromator, off-axis, parabolic collimating and camera mirrors, an aluminum-coated fused silica beam splitter, flat retroreflecting mirrors for the test and reference arms, and a LTV-sensitive CCD camera. An outboarded, piezo-electric phase shifter holds the flat mirror in the interferometer's reference arm. The interferometer is calibrated through interaction between the WYKO system's software and WONMAT hardware for the test wavelength of light entering the beam splitter. Phase-shifted interferograms of the filter mounted in the test arm are analyzed using WYKO's Vision' software. Filters as large as 90 mm in diameter have been measured over a wavelength range from 200 to 1100 nm with a sensitivity of lambda/200 rms at lambda = 633 nm. Results of transmitted wavefront measurements are shown for ACS fixed band pass and spatially-variable bandpass filters for a variety of wavelengths.

  18. HEU Measurements of Holdup and Recovered Residue in the Deactivation and Decommissioning Activities of the 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEWBERRY, RAYMOND; SALAYMEH, SALEEM R.; CASELLA, VITO R.; MOORE, FRANK S.

    2005-03-11

    This paper contains a summary of the holdup and material control and accountability (MC&A) assays conducted for the determination of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 321-M at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The 321-M facility was the Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at SRS and was used to fabricate HEU fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the SRS production reactors. The facility operated for more than 35 years. During this time thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) production reactor fuel tubes were produced. After the facility ceased operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The bulk of this residue was located in the equipment that generated and handled small U-Al particles and in the exhaust systems for this equipment (e.g., Chip compactor, casting furnaces, log saw, lathes A & B, cyclone separator, Freon{trademark} cart, riser crusher, ...etc). The D&D project is likely to represent an important example for D&D activities across SRS and across the Department of Energy weapons complex. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked to conduct holdup assays to quantify the amount of HEU on all components removed from the facility prior to placing in solid waste containers. The U-235 holdup in any single component of process equipment must not exceed 50 g in order to meet the container limit. This limit was imposed to meet criticality requirements of the low level solid waste storage vaults. Thus the holdup measurements were used as guidance to determine if further decontamination of equipment was needed to ensure that the quantity of U-235 did not exceed the 50 g limit and to ensure that the waste met the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the solid waste storage vaults. Since HEU is an accountable nuclear material, the holdup assays and assays of recovered

  19. Development and Validation of an Index to Measure the Quality of Facility-Based Labor and Delivery Care Processes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Vandana; Stanton, Cynthia; Strobino, Donna; Bartlett, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality care is crucial in ensuring that women and newborns receive interventions that may prevent and treat birth-related complications. As facility deliveries increase in developing countries, there are concerns about service quality. Observation is the gold standard for clinical quality assessment, but existing observation-based measures of obstetric quality of care are lengthy and difficult to administer. There is a lack of consensus on quality indicators for routine intrapartum and immediate postpartum care, including essential newborn care. This study identified key dimensions of the quality of the process of intrapartum and immediate postpartum care (QoPIIPC) in facility deliveries and developed a quality assessment measure representing these dimensions. Methods and Findings Global maternal and neonatal care experts identified key dimensions of QoPIIPC through a modified Delphi process. Experts also rated indicators of these dimensions from a comprehensive delivery observation checklist used in quality surveys in sub-Saharan African countries. Potential QoPIIPC indices were developed from combinations of highly-rated indicators. Face, content, and criterion validation of these indices was conducted using data from observations of 1,145 deliveries in Kenya, Madagascar, and Tanzania (including Zanzibar). A best-performing index was selected, composed of 20 indicators of intrapartum/immediate postpartum care, including essential newborn care. This index represented most dimensions of QoPIIPC and effectively discriminated between poorly and well-performed deliveries. Conclusions As facility deliveries increase and the global community pays greater attention to the role of care quality in achieving further maternal and newborn mortality reduction, the QoPIIPC index may be a valuable measure. This index complements and addresses gaps in currently used quality assessment tools. Further evaluation of index usability and reliability is needed. The

  20. Aeroacoustic Measurements of a Wing/Slat Model. [Research conducted at the Quiet Flow Facility of the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Jeff M.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Aeroacoustic evaluations of high-lift devices have been carried out in the Quiet Flow Facility of the NASA Langley Research Center. The present paper deals with detailed flow and acoustic measurements that have been made to understand, and to possibly predict and reduce, the noise from a wing leading edge slat configuration. The acoustic database is obtained by a moveable Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones designed to electronically steer to different portions of models under study. The slat is shown to be a uniform distributed noise source. The data was processed such that spectra and directivity were determined with respect to a one-foot span of slat. The spectra are normalized in various fashions to demonstrate slat noise character. In order to equate portions of the spectra to different slat noise components, trailing edge noise predictions using measured slat boundary layer parameters as inputs are compared to the measured slat noise spectra.

  1. Measurement of ion species in high current ECR H⁺/D⁺ ion source for IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility).

    PubMed

    Shinto, K; Senée, F; Ayala, J-M; Bolzon, B; Chauvin, N; Gobin, R; Ichimiya, R; Ihara, A; Ikeda, Y; Kasugai, A; Kitano, T; Kondo, K; Marqueta, A; Okumura, Y; Takahashi, H; Valette, M

    2016-02-01

    Ion species ratio of high current positive hydrogen/deuterium ion beams extracted from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator was measured by the Doppler shift Balmer-α line spectroscopy. The proton (H(+)) ratio at the middle of the low energy beam transport reached 80% at the hydrogen ion beam extraction of 100 keV/160 mA and the deuteron (D(+)) ratio reached 75% at the deuterium ion beam extraction of 100 keV/113 mA. It is found that the H(+) ratio measured by the spectroscopy gives lower than that derived from the phase-space diagram measured by an Allison scanner type emittance monitor. The H(+)/D(+) ratio estimated by the emittance monitor was more than 90% at those extraction currents.

  2. Recent re-measurement of neutron and gamma-ray spectra 1080 meters from the APRD (Army Pulse Radiation Division) critical facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, H. A.; Hoffarth, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Previously reported measurements of long-range air-transported neutron and gamma-ray spectra from the fast-critical facility at the US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground have been supplemented recently at the 1080-meter position. The results of these determinations are presented herein and compared to several recent calculations from other research establishments. In addition, a summary of all dosimetric measurements obtained in the period 1979-1982 are appended, as are new determinations of APRD soil composition. Integral quantities such as neutron and gamma-ray kermas are very well predicted by the latest calculations, however there still exist significant spectral differences. At short ranges calculated neutron spectra are somewhat softer than experimental measurements, but at the farthest range of 1080 meters agreement is surprisingly good. Gamma-ray spectra remain well-calculated at all ranges.

  3. Prevention of combat-related infections: antimicrobial therapy in battlefield and barrier measures in French military medical treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Mérens, Audrey; Rapp, Christophe; Delaune, Deborah; Danis, Julien; Berger, Franck; Michel, Remy

    2014-01-01

    Infection is a major complication associated with combat-related injuries. Beside immobilization, wound irrigation, surgical debridement and delayed coverage, post-injury antimicrobials contribute to reduce combat-related infections, particularly those caused by bacteria of the early contamination flora. In modern warfare, bacteria involved in combat-related infections are mainly Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the late contamination flora. These bacteria are frequently resistant or multiresistant to antibiotics and spread through the deployed chain of care. This article exposes the principles of war wounds antimicrobial prophylaxis recommended in the French Armed Forces and highlights the need for high compliance to hygiene standard precautions, adapted contact precautions and judicious use of antibiotics in French deployed military medical treatment facilities (MTF).

  4. Comparison of calculated and altitude-facility-measured thrust and airflow of two prototype F100 turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtenbach, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison is made of the facility performance data for the two engines with an engine performance model, and it provides corrections that can be applied to the model so that it represents the test engines accurately over the flight envelope. Test conditions ranged from Mach numbers of 0.80 to 2.00 and altitudes from 4020 meters to 15,240 meters. Two distortion screens were used to determine the effect of distortion on airflow. Reynolds number effects were also determined. Engine hysteresis is documented, as is an attempt to determine engine degradation. The calibrated engine model had a twice standard deviation accuracy of approximately 1.24 percent for corrected airflow and 2.38 percent for gross thrust.

  5. Design for a ground-based spectrometric facility for measuring the terrestrial dayglow from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, D.G.; Feng, C.; Swift, W.; Zukic, M.

    1994-12-31

    In a companion paper (Swift and Torr), the authors demonstrate a capability to observe thermospheric dayglow emissions from the ground using a novel photometric approach. In this paper they incorporate the principles of the technique into the design of a spectrometric facility capable of measuring the dayglow spectrum over the wavelength range 300 to 880 nm at < 0.5 nm resolution with photometric like sensitivity, namely 50 counts/R at 300 nm and {approximately} 200 counts/R at 600 nm. The design is an all refractive f/1.4 distortion correctable grating spectrograph capable of operating over a full diurnal cycle with high sensitivity. The field of view is 14{degree}. The instrument has a dynamic range of 10{sup 8}, no moving parts except shutters, and a noise equivalent detection threshold of {approximately} 15R in the daytime and 0.01 to 0.1 R at night. The design comprises four spectrometric modules which provide simultaneous measurements of emissions in the 300--900 nm range. A 1024 x 1024 CCD is used for the detector. The facility should provide simultaneous measurements from the ground of the rich spectral content of the daytime mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere.

  6. Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: a comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility.

    PubMed

    Black, R R; Meyer, C P; Touati, A; Gullett, B K; Fiedler, H; Mueller, J F

    2011-05-01

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.5 μg TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) to >100 μg TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor. A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) μg TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EF(Air) of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) μg TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  7. SD46 Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The displays for the Materials Conference presents some of the facilities and capabilities in SD46 that can be useful to a prospective researcher from University, Academia or other government labs. Several of these already have associated personnel as principal and co-investigators on NASA peer reviewed science investigations. 1. SCN purification facility 2. ESL facility 3. Static and Dynamic magnetic field facility 4. Microanalysis facility 5. MSG Investigation - PFMI 6. Thermo physical Properties Measurement Capabilities.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of thermocouple measurements used in normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments at Sandia's Radiant Heat Facility and Lurance Canyon Burn Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2004-04-01

    It would not be possible to confidently qualify weapon systems performance or validate computer codes without knowing the uncertainty of the experimental data used. This report provides uncertainty estimates associated with thermocouple data for temperature measurements from two of Sandia's large-scale thermal facilities. These two facilities (the Radiant Heat Facility (RHF) and the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS)) routinely gather data from normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments. They are managed by Fire Science & Technology Department 09132. Uncertainty analyses were performed for several thermocouple (TC) data acquisition systems (DASs) used at the RHF and LCBS. These analyses apply to Type K, chromel-alumel thermocouples of various types: fiberglass sheathed TC wire, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed (MIMS) TC assemblies, and are easily extended to other TC materials (e.g., copper-constantan). Several DASs were analyzed: (1) A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3852A system, and (2) several National Instrument (NI) systems. The uncertainty analyses were performed on the entire system from the TC to the DAS output file. Uncertainty sources include TC mounting errors, ANSI standard calibration uncertainty for Type K TC wire, potential errors due to temperature gradients inside connectors, extension wire uncertainty, DAS hardware uncertainties including noise, common mode rejection ratio, digital voltmeter accuracy, mV to temperature conversion, analog to digital conversion, and other possible sources. Typical results for 'normal' environments (e.g., maximum of 300-400 K) showed the total uncertainty to be about {+-}1% of the reading in absolute temperature. In high temperature or high heat flux ('abnormal') thermal environments, total uncertainties range up to {+-}2-3% of the reading (maximum of 1300 K). The higher uncertainties in abnormal thermal environments are caused by increased errors due to the effects of imperfect TC attachment to the test item. 'Best

  9. Measuring THz QCL feedback using an integrated monolithic transceiver.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement

    2010-08-01

    THz quantum cascade lasers are of interest for use as solid-state local-oscillators in THz heterodyne receiver systems, especially for frequencies exceeding 2 THz and for use with non-cryogenic mixers which require mW power levels. Among other criteria, to be a good local oscillator, the laser must have a narrow linewidth and excellent frequency stability. Recent phase locking measurements of THz QCLs to high harmonics of microwave frequency reference sources as high as 2.7 THz demonstrate that the linewidth and frequency stability of QCLs can be more than adequate. Most reported THz receivers employing QCLs have used discrete source and detector components coupled via mechanically aligned free-space quasioptics. Unfortunately, retroreflections of the laser off of the detecting element can lead to deleterious feedback effects. Using a monolithically integrated transceiver with a Schottky diode monolithically integrated into a THz QCL, we have begun to explore the sensitivity of the laser performance to feedback due to retroreflections of the THz laser radiation. The transceiver allows us to monitor the beat frequency between internal Fabry-Perot modes of the QCL or between a QCL mode and external radiation incident on the transceiver. When some of the power from a free running Fabry-Perot type QCL is retroreflected with quasi-static optics we observe frequency pulling, mode splitting and chaos. Given the lack of calibrated frequency sources with sufficient stability and power to phase lock a QCL above a couple THz, attempts have been made to lock the absolute laser frequency by locking the beat frequency of a multimoded laser. We have phase locked the beat frequency between Fabry-Perot modes to an {approx}13 GHz microwave reference source with a linewidth less than 1 Hz, but did not see any improvment in stability of the absolute frequency of the laser. In this case, when some laser power is retroreflected back into the laser, the absolute frequency can be pulled

  10. Large Surface Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Mark; Breidenthal, Robert S.

    1983-09-01

    A new surface measuring concept developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems has been previously reported by Allen Greenleaf. The method uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to determine the posi-tions of a retroreflecting target at various locations on the surface being measured. A small wooden breadboard had been built and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of the concept. This paper reports the building of a scaled-up prototype surface measuring machine to allow the measurement of large aspheric surfaces. A major advantage of the device is that, unlike conventional interferometry, it provides surface measurement in absolute coordinates, thus allowing direct determination of radius of curvature. In addition, the device is self-calibrating. Measurements of a 24-inch mirror have been made with the new machine, giving repeatability of 4 µ m peak sag in the curvature and accuracy of 0.7 μm rms in the surface figure at best focus. The device is currently being used in the production grinding of large aspheric mirrors at Itek. The device is potentially scalable to other industries where highly accurate measurement of unusual surfaces is required.

  11. The Irradiation Characteristics of the Kur Heavy Water Facility (ii) - Neutron and Gamma-Ray Dose Measurements with a Twin-Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2003-06-01

    The Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Reactor can supply neutron energy spectra from almost pure thermal to mainly epi-thermal, using a spectrum shifter and thermal neutron filters. We will report about the measurement of the neutron and gamma-ray doses using a twin-chamber. The used twin-chamber is the combination of a tissue-equivalent ionization-chamber and a graphite ionization chamber, with detecting volumes of 80 cc. From the comparisons between the chamber-measured dose rates and the nominal values, it was confirmed that the relative dependencies of the neutron and gamma-ray doses on the heavy water thickness, were almost the same, excepting the smaller heavy-water-thickness mode, such as CB-0000-F.

  12. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B.; Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M.; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S.

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  13. Evaluation of the cone-shaped pickup performance for low charge sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements at free electron laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Kuntzsch, Michael; Czwalinna, Marie Kristin; Penirschke, Andreas; Hansli, Matthias; Sydlo, Cezary; Arsov, Vladimir; Hunziker, Stephan; Schlarb, Holger; Gensch, Michael; Schlott, Volker; Weiland, Thomas; Jakoby, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation of the cone-shaped pickup performance as a part of the high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) for a low charge sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements is presented. Three sets of pickups are installed at the free electron laser FLASH at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, the quasi-cw SRF accelerator ELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the SwissFEL injector test facility at Paul Scherrer Institute. Measurements and simulations are in good agreement and the pickups fulfill the design specifications. Utilizing the high bandwidth BAM with the cone-shaped pickups, an improvement of the signal slope by a factor of 10 is demonstrated at ELBE compared to the BAM with a low bandwidth.

  14. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented. PMID:23126955

  15. Facile synthesis of titania nanowires via a hot filament method and conductometric measurement of their response to hydrogen sulfide gas.

    PubMed

    Munz, Martin; Langridge, Mark T; Devarepally, Kishore K; Cox, David C; Patel, Pravin; Martin, Nicholas A; Vargha, Gergely; Stolojan, Vlad; White, Sam; Curry, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Titania nanostructures are of increasing interest for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, water splitting, and chemical sensing. Because of the photocatalytical properties of TiO₂, chemical processes that occur at its surface can be exploited for highly efficient nanodevices. A facile and fast synthesis route has been explored that is free of catalysts or templates. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) system was employed to grow titania nanowires (NWs) in a water vapor atmosphere (∼1 mbar) and to monitor the growth in situ. In addition, the growth process was also demonstrated using a simple vacuum chamber. In both processes, a titanium filament was heated via the Joule effect and NWs were found to grow on its surface, as a result of thermal oxidation processes. A variety of nanostructures were observed across the filament, with morphologies changing with the wire temperature from the center to the end points. The longest NWs were obtained for temperatures between ∼730 °C and 810 °C. Typically, they have an approximate thickness of ∼300 nm and lengths of up to a few micrometers. Cross sections prepared by focused-ion-beam milling revealed the presence of a porous layer beneath the NW clusters. This indicates that the growth of NWs is driven by oxidation-induced stresses in the subsurface region of the Ti filament and by enhanced diffusion along grain boundaries. To demonstrate the potential of titania NWs grown via the hot filament method, single NW devices were fabricated and used for conductometric sensing of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) gas. The NW electric resistance was found to decrease in the presence of H₂S. Its variation can be explained in terms of the surface depletion model. PMID:23327919

  16. Velocity surveys in a turbine stator annular-cascade facility using laser Doppler techniques. [flow measurement and flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Seasholtz, R. G.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to determine the flow conditions downstream of an annular cascade of stator blades operating at an exit critical velocity ratio of 0.87. Two modes of LDV operation (continuous scan and discrete point) were investigated. Conventional pressure probe measurements were also made for comparison with the LDV results. Biasing errors that occur in the LDV measurement of velocity components were also studied. In addition, the effect of pressure probe blockage on the flow conditions was determined with the LDV. Photographs and descriptions of the test equipment used are given.

  17. "Measuring Operational Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library (IIL) and the Impact of Critical Facilities Inclusion in the Process."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodell, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) professionals use the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) process to better manage their business operations, measure performance, improve reliability and lower costs. This study examined the operational results of those data centers using ITIL against those that do not, and whether the results change…

  18. The first measurements of soft x-ray flux from ignition scale Hohlraums at the national ignition facility using DANTE

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, John L; Glenzer, S H; Olson, Rick; Suter, Larry J; Widmann, K; Callahan, D A; Dixit, S N; Thomas, C A; Hinkel, D E; Williams, E A; Moore, A; Celeste, J; Dewald, E; Hsing, W W; Warrick, A; Atherton, J; Azevedo, S; Beeler, R; Berger, R; Conder, A; Divol, L; Haynam, C A; Kalantar, D H; Kauffman, R; Kilkenny, J; Liebman, J; Larson, D; Meezan, N B; Michel, P; Moody, J; Rosen, M D; Schneider, M B; Van Wontergheman, B; Wallace, R J; Young, B K; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Berzins, L; Tran, Vu; Torres, P., III

    2010-01-01

    The first 96 and 192 beam vacuum hohlraum have been fielded at the National Ignition Facility demonstrating radiation temperatures up to 340 eV and fluxes of 20 TW/sr representing a 20 times flux increase over NOVA/Omega scale hohlraums. The vacuum hohlraums were irradiated with 2 ns square pulses with energies between 150 - 635 kJ. They produced nearly Planckian spectra with about 30 {+-} 10% more flux than predicted by the current radiation hydrodynamic simulations after careful verification of all component calibrations (which included an {approx} 10% downward correction to Center X-Ray Optics opacities just below the Cu L edge at 50-750 eV), cable deconvolution, and analysis software routines. To corroborate these results, first a half hohlraum experiment was conducted using a single 2 ns-long axial quad with an irradiance of {approx} 1-2 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} for comparison with NIF Early Light experiments completed in 2004. Second, we completed a conversion efficiency test using a 128-beam nearly uniformly illuminated gold sphere with intensities kept low (at 1 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} over 5 ns) to avoid sensitivity to modeling uncertainties for non-local heat conduction and non-linear absorption mechanisms, to compare with similar intensity, 3 ns OMEGA sphere results. The 2004 and 2009 NIF half-hohlraums agreed to 10% in flux, but more importantly, the 2006 OMEGA Au Sphere, the 2009 NIF Au sphere and the calculated Au conversion efficiency agree to {+-}5% in flux, which is estimated to be the absolute calibration accuracy of the DANTEs. Hence we concluded the 30 {+-} 10% higher than expected radiation fluxes from the 96 and 192 beam vacuum hohlraums are attributable to differences in physics when we transitioned to large hot hohlraums. Specifically, using variants in the atomic physics models and electron heat conduction, newer simulations show that nonlocalization of energy deposition leads to less energy being stored in the coronal plasma leading to

  19. Facile Determination of Molecular Structure Trends in Amphiphilic Core Corona Star Polymer Synthesis via Dielectric Property Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hild, Frederic; Nguyen, Nam T; Deng, Eileen; Katrib, Juliano; Dimitrakis, Georgios; Lau, Phei-Li; Irvine, Derek J

    2016-08-01

    The use of dielectric property measurements to define specific trends in the molecular structures of poly(caprolactone) containing star polymers and/or the interbatch repeatability of the synthetic procedures used to generate them is demonstrated. The magnitude of the dielectric property value is shown to accurately reflect: (a) the number of functional groups within a series of materials with similar molecular size when no additional intermolecular order is present in the medium, (b) the polymer molecular size for a series of materials containing a fixed core material and so functional group number, and/or (c) the batch to batch repeatability of the synthesis method. The dielectric measurements are validated by comparison to spectroscopic/chromatographic data. PMID:27315130

  20. Facile Determination of Molecular Structure Trends in Amphiphilic Core Corona Star Polymer Synthesis via Dielectric Property Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hild, Frederic; Nguyen, Nam T; Deng, Eileen; Katrib, Juliano; Dimitrakis, Georgios; Lau, Phei-Li; Irvine, Derek J

    2016-08-01

    The use of dielectric property measurements to define specific trends in the molecular structures of poly(caprolactone) containing star polymers and/or the interbatch repeatability of the synthetic procedures used to generate them is demonstrated. The magnitude of the dielectric property value is shown to accurately reflect: (a) the number of functional groups within a series of materials with similar molecular size when no additional intermolecular order is present in the medium, (b) the polymer molecular size for a series of materials containing a fixed core material and so functional group number, and/or (c) the batch to batch repeatability of the synthesis method. The dielectric measurements are validated by comparison to spectroscopic/chromatographic data.