Science.gov

Sample records for retroreflection measurement facility

  1. Diode laser-based standoff absorption measurement of water film thickness in retro-reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Brocksieper, C.; Jeffries, J. B.; Dreier, T.; Schulz, C.

    2016-09-01

    A dual-wavelength diode laser-based absorption sensor for standoff point measurements of water film thickness on an opaque surface is presented. The sensor consists of a diode laser source, a foil as backscattering target, and off-axis paraboloids for collecting the fraction of the laser radiation transmitted through the liquid layer via retro-reflection. Laser wavelengths in the near infrared at 1412 and 1353 nm are used where the temperature dependence of the liquid water absorption cross section is known. The lasers are fiber coupled and the detection of the retro-reflected light was accomplished through a multimode fiber and a single photodiode using time-division multiplexing. The water film thickness at a given temperature was determined from measured transmittance ratios at the two laser wavelengths. The sensor concept was first validated with measurement using a temperature-controlled calibration cell providing liquid layers of variable and known thickness between 100 and 1000 µm. Subsequently, the sensor was demonstrated successfully during recording the time-varying thickness of evaporating water films at fixed temperatures. The film thickness was recorded as a function of time at three temperatures down to 50 µm.

  2. Retroreflection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Robert B.; Lu, Xiao Jing

    2004-12-01

    An overview is presented of the history of retroreflection including biological and man made retroreflection and the evolution of the technology of the latter. Emphasis is on the optical characteristics of retroreflecting devices with the strongest emphasis on corner cube retroreflectors. A comparison of various corner cube and spherical retroreflector designs is given. Optical characteristics include return beam intensity, beam shape, beam polarization, effects from aperture sizes, materials and source properties such as coherent and incoherent light sources. The performance of retroreflectors having macroscopic vs. nanoscopic (wavelength scale) configurations and designed in error is discussed. Emphasis is on the performance properties of solid, open, full and partial corner cube retroreflectors made with various materials and coatings. An over view of a few applications for use of retroreflectors in today's counter terrorism and crime fighting world are discussed.

  3. Real time measurement for deformation of large expansion frame based on retro-reflective technique and vision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei; Jiang, Kai; Zhao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    Large frames made of compound material are widely used in many areas such as industry and aerospace. To ensure the frames working properly, monitor of its deformation after expansion is of great importance. A real time measurement system based on retro-reflective technique and vision method is proposed. Several round retro-reflective marks are placed on some defined positions of the frame as mark points which can precisely describe the shape of the frame. The marks are illuminated by laser beams and the image of the marks is captured by a camera. The positions of the marks on the camera are determined by designed image process program. Experimental results show that the whole process can be finished within 0.1 second. The designed system can measure the deformation of up to 50mm and the accuracy of the measurement is better than 0.02 mm.

  4. A novel velocity measuring system for fragments based on retroreflective laser screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Donge; Zhou, Hanchang

    2011-06-01

    The flying velocity of fragment is a key parameter to evaluate the damage power of warhead. Due to small volume, large amount, irregular shape, high velocity, arbitrary flying direction, wide distribution and serious measuring environment, it's very difficult to measuring the velocity of fragment. We adopt two fan-shaped laser screens combining with retroreflective cooperation objects to construct detect module, and break through the laser screen transmitting-receiving integration optoelectronic detection technique. The signals of the fragment flying through the screens are collected, saved and processed by software. The system can realize a real-time, non-contact, reproducible, all-weather optoelectronic measurement for fragment velocity during warhead explosion. Using the developed prototype, we successfully acquired the analog signals when five fragments flying through two laser screens for certain an explosion warhead, and obtained their velocities which can be regarded as instantaneous velocities at the midpoint between two screens. The result validates the accuracy of the method and its feasibility of engineering application.

  5. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  6. Automatic gonio-spectrophotometer for the absolute measurement of the spectral BRDF at in- and out-of-plane and retroreflection geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabal, A. M.; Ferrero, A.; Campos, J.; Fontecha, J. L.; Pons, A.; Rubiño, A. M.; Corróns, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the description and the characterization of the gonio-spectrophotometer GEFE (the acronym for 'Gonio-EspectroFotómetro Español'). This device has been designed and built for the low-uncertainty absolute measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). It comprises a fixed, collimated and uniform light source, a six-axis robot-arm to rotate the sample and a spectroradiometer that may revolve around the sample to be able to vary the source-to-detector angular separation. This gonio-spectrophotometer makes it possible to perform spectral measurements in the visible range, both inside and outside the incidence plane, as well as measurements in retroreflection conditions. This fully automated system is able to measure autonomously a sample's complete spectral BRDF (comprising around 1000 different angular configurations) in less than 4 h.

  7. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapor concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially scanning direct tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapor concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m x 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv . m (Hz)-0.5 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered as a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  8. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapour concentration field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, A.; Wagner, S.; Dreizler, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a fast, spatially direct scanning tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS) that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapour concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m × 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv · m · √Hz-1 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  9. Feasibility of retroreflective transdermal optical wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Gil, Yotam; Rotter, Nadav; Arnon, Shlomi

    2012-06-20

    There is an increasing demand for transdermal high-data-rate communication for use with in-body devices, such as pacemakers, smart prostheses, neural signals processors at the brain interface, and cameras acting as artificial eyes as well as for collecting signals generated within the human body. Prominent requirements of these communication systems include (1) wireless modality, (2) noise immunity and (3) ultra-low-power consumption for the in-body device. Today, the common wireless methods for transdermal communication are based on communication at radio frequencies, electrical induction, or acoustic waves. In this paper, we will explore another alternative to these methods--optical wireless communication (OWC)--for which modulated light carries the information. The main advantages of OWC in transdermal communication, by comparison to the other methods, are the high data rates and immunity to external interference availed, which combine to make it a promising technology for next-generation systems. In this paper, we present a mathematical model and experimental results of measurements from direct link and retroreflection link configurations with Gallus gallus domesticus derma as the transdermal channel. The main conclusion from this work is that an OWC link is an attractive communication solution in medical applications. For a modulating retroreflective link to become a competitive solution in comparison with a direct link, low-energy-consumption modulating retroreflectors should be developed.

  10. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-fluorescent retroreflective materials may be measured in accordance with ASTM Test Method E1349, “Standard... of retroreflective materials. The geometric conditions to be used in both test methods are 0/45 or 45/0 circumferential illumination or viewing. Uniplanar geometry is not recommended for material...

  11. Retroreflective systems for remote readout

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Colwell, F.S.; Ricks, K.L.

    1998-10-13

    A sensing device is described for sensing an environmental factor. The device includes a retroreflective layer disposed in a parallel, facing relationship with a sensing layer. The sensing layer has an initial optical absorption capacity for (1) sensing a presence of an environmental factor, (2) experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor, and (3) transmitting and attenuating light. A first portion of the sensing layer is sealed off from exposure to the environment while a second portion remains exposed to the environment such that, when the environmental factor is present, the first portion of the sensing layer is prevented from experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor. Well-collimated light beams are passed through the sensing layer and are reflected back from the retroreflective layer for processing. When the environmental factor is present, the beams which pass through the second portion are attenuated responsive to an increase in optical absorption capacity and are compared with the non-attenuated beams passing through the first portion to calculate the presence and quantity of the environmental factor. 7 figs.

  12. Retroreflective systems for remote readout

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Ricks, Kirk L.

    1998-01-01

    A sensing device for sensing an environmental factor. The device includes a retroreflective layer disposed in a parallel, facing relationship with a sensing layer. The sensing layer has an initial optical absorption capacity for (i) sensing a presence of an environmental factor, (ii) experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor, and (iii) transmitting and attenuating light. A first portion of the sensing layer is sealed off from exposure to the environment while a second portion remains exposed to the environment such that, when the environmental factor is present, the first portion of the sensing layer is prevented from experiencing a change in optical absorption capacity responsive to said environmental factor. Well-collimated light beams are passed through the sensing layer and are reflected back from the retroreflective layer for processing. When the environmental factor is present, the beams which pass through the second portion are attenuated responsive to an increase in optical absorption capacity and are compared with the non-attenuated beams passing through the first portion to calculate the presence and quantity of the environmental factor.

  13. Inspection of float glass using a novel retroreflective laser scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jonathan D.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1988, Image Automation has marketed a float glass inspection system using a novel retro-reflective laser scanning system. The (patented) instrument scans a laser beam by use of a polygon through the glass onto a retro-reflective screen, and collects the retro-reflected light off the polygon, such that a stationary image of the moving spot on the screen is produced. The spot image is then analyzed for optical effects introduced by defects within the glass, which typically distort and attenuate the scanned laser beam, by use of suitable detectors. The inspection system processing provides output of defect size, shape and severity, to the factory network for use in rejection or sorting of glass plates to the end customer. This paper briefly describes the principles of operation, the system architecture, and limitations to sensitivity and measurement repeatability. New instruments based on the retro-reflective scanning method have recently been developed. The principles and implementation are described. They include: (1) Simultaneous detection of defects within the glass and defects in a mirror coating on the glass surface using polarized light. (2) A novel distortion detector for very dark glass. (3) Measurement of optical quality (flatness/refractive homogeneity) of the glass using a position sensitive detector.

  14. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  15. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... 12 inches square. (c) To mark bridge piers or channel sides on bridges not required to have...

  16. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retroreflective panels on bridge... SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.100 Retroreflective panels on bridge piers. The... panels when the District Commander finds it necessary: (a) To better identify a hazardous pier. (b)...

  17. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.; Mitchell, Kenneth B.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  18. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  19. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... District Commander may require or authorize the display of high intensity red or green retroreflective... provide a backup for red pier lights, red channel margin lights, and green mid channel lights, which...

  20. 33 CFR 118.100 - Retroreflective panels on bridge piers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... District Commander may require or authorize the display of high intensity red or green retroreflective... provide a backup for red pier lights, red channel margin lights, and green mid channel lights, which...

  1. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Facility Measurement Uncertainty Analysis at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Julia; Hubbard, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides and overview of the measurement uncertainty analysis currently being implemented in various facilities at NASA GRC. This presentation includes examples pertinent to the turbine engine community (mass flow and fan efficiency calculation uncertainties.

  3. Enhanced optical discrimination system based on switchable retroreflective films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Phillip; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Reported herein is the design, characterization, and demonstration of a laser interrogation and response optical discrimination system based on large-area corner-cube retroreflective films. The switchable retroreflective films use light-scattering liquid crystal to modulate retroreflected intensity. The system can operate with multiple wavelengths (visible to infrared) and includes variable divergence optics for irradiance adjustments and ease of system alignment. The electronic receiver and switchable retroreflector offer low-power operation (<4 mW standby) on coin cell batteries with rapid interrogation to retroreflected signal reception response times (<15 ms). The entire switchable retroreflector film is <1 mm thick and is flexible for optimal placement and increased angular response. The system was demonstrated in high ambient lighting conditions (daylight, 18k lux) with a visible 10-mW output 635-nm source out to a distance of 400 m (naked eye detection). Nighttime demonstrations were performed using a 1.5-mW, 850-nm infrared laser diode out to a distance of 400 m using a night vision camera. This system could have tagging and conspicuity applications in commercial or military settings.

  4. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., retroreflective sheeting need not be applied over existing or required car stencils and markings. If necessary to avoid appurtenances, discontinuous surfaces, or existing or required car markings or stencils, 4x18 and... side of the appurtenance, discontinuous surface, or car markings or stencils, as practicable....

  5. Design, fabrication and characterization of transparent retro-reflective screen.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Shoaib R; Urey, Hakan

    2016-10-17

    A transparent retro-reflective screen, which can be used as head-up-display (HUD) or a see-through screen for head mounted projection displays (HMPD) is proposed. The high optical gain of screen enables the use of low power projectors to produce very bright content. The screen assembly is based on retro-reflective microspheres, patterned on an optically clear substrate using steel stencil as a shadow mask. The incident light is retro-reflected as a narrow angular cone to create an eyebox for the viewer. The optical gain and transparency of screen is varied by changing the fill factor of the mask. The optical design and fabrication of the screen is presented. The retro-reflective and transmission characteristics of screen are evaluated. The impact of fill factor on screen luminance and transparency is studied. The screen provides high luminance (up to 280cd/m2 with 50% transparency) from about 40cm to >3m when used with a low power (15 lumen) mobile projector. Unlike regular diffusers, luminance remains nearly constant with projection distance. Furthermore, the screen offers prominent see-through capability with small degradation in modulation transfer function for transmitted light. For a particular camera and imaging configuration, MTF10 (10% cutoff) for 50% transparent screen is reduced from 37 cyc/deg to 30 cyc/deg when screen is inserted at an intermediate distance.

  6. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., retroreflective sheeting need not be applied over existing or required car stencils and markings. If necessary to avoid appurtenances, discontinuous surfaces, or existing or required car markings or stencils, 4x18 and... side of the appurtenance, discontinuous surface, or car markings or stencils, as practicable....

  7. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded in... pursuant to this part shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-04, for Type V Sheeting if metalized or Type VII Sheeting if non-metalized, except for the initial minimum values of the coefficient...

  8. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded in... pursuant to this part shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-04, for Type V Sheeting if metalized or Type VII Sheeting if non-metalized, except for the initial minimum values of the coefficient...

  9. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded in... pursuant to this part shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-04, for Type V Sheeting if metalized or Type VII Sheeting if non-metalized, except for the initial minimum values of the coefficient...

  10. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded in... pursuant to this part shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-04, for Type V Sheeting if metalized or Type VII Sheeting if non-metalized, except for the initial minimum values of the coefficient...

  11. 49 CFR 224.103 - Characteristics of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with microprismatic retroreflective elements embedded in... pursuant to this part shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-04, for Type V Sheeting if metalized or Type VII Sheeting if non-metalized, except for the initial minimum values of the coefficient...

  12. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Railroad freight cars. The retroreflective sheeting shall be applied along the length of each railroad freight car side in the manner provided by a uniform industry standard accepted by the Associate Administrator that provides for distribution of material along the length of each car and as close...

  13. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Railroad freight cars. The retroreflective sheeting shall be applied along the length of each railroad freight car side in the manner provided by a uniform industry standard accepted by the Associate Administrator that provides for distribution of material along the length of each car and as close...

  14. 49 CFR 224.106 - Location of retroreflective sheeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Railroad freight cars. The retroreflective sheeting shall be applied along the length of each railroad freight car side in the manner provided by a uniform industry standard accepted by the Associate Administrator that provides for distribution of material along the length of each car and as close...

  15. [Study on influence of source spectra on retro-reflection coefficient].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Xu; Zhu, Chuan-Zheng; Zhu, Li-Wei; Sun, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Based on emission spectra of light sources and reflectivity curve of retroreflective materials, relative relations and changing trend of retroreflection coefficient of materials in different light sources was researched through data fitting. The tests were carried on the standard A light source test system. One kind of test results are emission spectra of halogen light source, xenon light source and white LED with different color temperature. And another kind of results are reflectivity curve of retroreflective materials with five different colors such as red, yellow, white, green and blue. Then the correction factors of retroreflection coefficient in different light sources were obtained by test results and data fitting. It shows that the change inlight source spectra has no effect on retroreflection coefficient of white material, which has continuous reflectivity curve in the range of visible light, but has some effect on retroreflection coefficient of the other color materials. Compared with halogen light source, white LED and xenon light source can increase retroreflection coefficient of red and yellow materials, and the increase in the color temperature of light source will decrease retroreflection coefficient of red and yellow materials by the maximum of 47.7% and 4.9%. Conversely, retroreflection coefficient of green and blue materials will increase by the maximum of 16.5% and 28.9%.

  16. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December 1...-towaway operation, must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting or an array of reflex reflectors...

  17. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December 1...-towaway operation, must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting or an array of reflex reflectors...

  18. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December 1...-towaway operation, must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting or an array of reflex reflectors...

  19. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December 1...-towaway operation, must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting or an array of reflex reflectors...

  20. 49 CFR 393.13 - Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors... sheeting and reflex reflectors, requirements for semitrailers and trailers manufactured before December 1...-towaway operation, must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting or an array of reflex reflectors...

  1. Electro-optical detection probability of optical devices determined by bidirectional laser retro-reflection cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Christnacher, Frank; Matwyschuk, Alexis; Schertzer, Stephane; Hengy, Sebastien

    2015-05-01

    A good measure for the probability to detect a sniper telescopic sight is the effective bi-directional laser retro-reflection cross section. This angular (bi-directional) property of an optical device can be measured and can be used for a fist estimation of its probability to be detected by an active imaging. In the present paper, the authors give examples for resolved and non-resolved sensing of a telescopic sight under mono-static and bi-static conditions. As a result of these measurements, the resolved sensing under mono-static conditions shows the highest signal response in a wide angular range.

  2. Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.

  3. Investigation of a 3D head-mounted projection display using retro-reflective screen.

    PubMed

    Héricz, Dalma; Sarkadi, Tamás; Lucza, Viktor; Kovács, Viktor; Koppa, Pál

    2014-07-28

    We propose a compact head-worn 3D display which provides glasses-free full motion parallax. Two picoprojectors placed on the viewer's head project images on a retro-reflective screen that reflects left and right images to the appropriate eyes of the viewer. The properties of different retro-reflective screen materials have been investigated, and the key parameters of the projection - brightness and cross-talk - have been calculated. A demonstration system comprising two projectors, a screen tracking system and a commercial retro-reflective screen has been developed to test the visual quality of the proposed approach.

  4. Beta fields and measurement practices at DOE facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinth, K. L.; Rathbun, L. A.; Brackenbush, L. W.

    1985-09-01

    As part of a larger program, the beta measurement problem at DOE facilities was assessed through the use of a questionnaire and field visits to selected facilities. At 35% the facilities beta-emitting radionuclides can contribute enough to the radiation exposures that they must be considered in establishing protection requirements. Measurements were made in several facilities using scintillators, a surface barrier detector plus various dosimeters and survey instruments. Beta dose rates of several hundred mrad/hr were not unusual and beta:gamma ratios of greater than 30:1 were frequently observed. The agreement between the various measurement techniques was frequently unacceptable.

  5. Rayleigh Scattering for Measuring Flow in a Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Carlos R.; Panda, Jayanta

    2006-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-engine-component test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust. A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-enginecomponent test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust

  6. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-10-02

    This Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter covers the following topics: The Raman lidar at the SGP central facility is receiving upgrades to its environmental controls; The instrument tower at Okmulgee State Park is receiving upgrades to prevent Turkey Vultures from roosting on the booms.

  7. Design methodology of an automated scattering measurement facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, D. G.

    1985-12-01

    This thesis addresses the design methodology surrounding an automated scattering measurement facility. A brief historical survey of radar cross-section (RCS) measurements is presented. The electromagnetic theory associated with a continuous wave (CW) background cancellation technique for measuring RCS is discussed as background. In addition, problems associated with interfacing test equipment, data storage and output are addressed. The facility used as a model for this thesis is located at the Air Force Institute of Technology, WPARB, OH. The design methodology applies to any automated scattering measurement facility. A software package incorporating features that enhance the operation of AFIT's facility by students is presented. Finally, sample output from the software package illustrate formats for displaying RCS data.

  8. Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack."

  9. Biosecurity Measures in 48 Isolation Facilities Managing Highly Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Puro, Vincenzo; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C.; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an “insider attack.” PMID:22571373

  10. [Supply services at health facilities: measuring performance].

    PubMed

    Dacosta Claro, I

    2001-01-01

    Performance measurement, in their different meanings--either balance scorecard or outputs measurement--have become an essential tool in today's organizations (World-Class organizations) to improve service quality and reduce costs. This paper presents a performance measurement system for the hospital supply chain. The system is organized in different levels and groups of indicators in order to show a hierarchical, coherent and integrated vision of the processes. Thus, supply services performance is measured according to (1) financial aspects, (2) customers satisfaction aspects and (3) internal aspects of the processes performed. Since the informational needs of the managers vary within the administrative structure, the performance measurement system is defined in three hierarchical levels. Firstly, the whole supply chain, with the different interrelation of activities. Secondly, the three main processes of the chain--physical management of products, purchasing and negotiation processes and the local storage units. And finally, the performance measurement of each activity involved. The system and the indicators have been evaluated with the participation of 17 health services of Quebec (Canada), however, and due to the similarities of the operation, could be equally implemented in Spanish hospitals.

  11. 49 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting (Minimum Photometric Performance Requirements..., Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 224—Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in...

  12. 49 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting (Minimum Photometric Performance Requirements..., Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 224—Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in...

  13. Anomalous retroreflection from nanoporous materials as backscattering by ‘dark’ and ‘bright’ modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergentu, V. V.; Prislopski, S. Ya; Monaico, E. V.; Ursaki, V. V.; Gaponenko, S. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the mechanisms of previously experimentally observed anomalous retroreflection in a strongly absorbing nanostructured medium are explained by using ‘dark’ and ‘bright’ modes. The observed regularities are analyzed for both s-polarized and p-polarized incident radiation with respect to the contribution from ‘dark’ and ‘bright’ modes and the influence of the absorption on the scattering indicatrix. The theoretical consideration provides explanation not only for the retroreflection itself but explains also correlations with absorption and differences for retroreflection efficiency for s- and p-polarized radiation. The possibilities of using ‘dark modes’ for processing and transmission of energy are discussed.

  14. Theoretical evaluation of scattering effect on retroreflective free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongwei; Lan, Tianpeng; Zhang, Hailiang; Jia, Honghui; Chang, Shengli; Yang, Juncai

    2012-12-01

    Retroreflective free-space optical (RFSO) communication is a new concept of optical communication; it consists of an optical transceiver and a retromodulator and has advantages such as light weight, small volume, and low power consumption. The power captured by the receiver consists of two parts: retroreflective and scattering. The retroreflective characteristics are obtained using an analytical formula, the scattering characteristics using a Monte Carlo model. Results show that the scattering power plays an important role in a RFSO communication link, especially when the communication range is long or the meteorological range is short. Some rules are also obtained for the sake of system design, which include increasing the range from the transmitter and the receiver properly, increasing the area of the retromodulator, limiting the field of view of the receiver, and limiting the beam divergence of the transmitter.

  15. Chroma key without color restrictions based on asynchronous amplitude modulation of background illumination on retroreflective screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Borja; Lafuente, Juan A.

    2016-03-01

    A simple technique to avoid color limitations in image capture systems based on chroma key video composition using retroreflective screens and light-emitting diodes (LED) rings is proposed and demonstrated. The combination of an asynchronous temporal modulation onto the background illumination and simple image processing removes the usual restrictions on foreground colors in the scene. The technique removes technical constraints in stage composition, allowing its design to be purely based on artistic grounds. Since it only requires adding a very simple electronic circuit to widely used chroma keying hardware based on retroreflective screens, the technique is easily applicable to TV and filming studios.

  16. Control System Upgrade for a Mass Property Measurement Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, William; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Mass Property Measurement Facility (MPMF) at the Goddard Space Flight Center has undergone modifications to ensure the safety of Flight Payloads and the measurement facility. The MPMF has been technically updated to improve reliability and increase the accuracy of the measurements. Modifications include the replacement of outdated electronics with a computer based software control system, the addition of a secondary gas supply in case of a catastrophic failure to the gas supply and a motor controlled emergency stopping feature instead of a hard stop.

  17. Flow Disturbance Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility to assess the test-section unsteady flow environment. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the facility to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition-sensitive testing at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range. The facility can operate in two modes, warm and cryogenic test conditions for testing full and semispan-scaled models. Data were acquired for Mach and unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.95 and 3.3 × 10(exp 6) less than Re/m less than 220×10(exp 6) collectively at air and cryogenic conditions. Measurements were made in the test section using a survey rake that was populated with 19 probes. Roll polar data at selected conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. This paper focuses primarily on the unsteady pressure and hot-wire results. Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the facility may be a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  18. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Joseph M.; Reina-Torres, Ester; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Rowe, Barnaby; Overby, Darryl R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied in vivo to mice, as

  19. Quality assessment in nursing home facilities: measuring customer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mostyn, M M; Race, K E; Seibert, J H; Johnson, M

    2000-01-01

    A national study designed to assess the reliability and validity of a nursing home customer satisfaction survey is summarized. One hundred fifty-nine facilities participated, each responsible for the distribution and collection of 200 questionnaires randomly sent to the home of the resident's responsible party. A total of 9053 completed questionnaires were returned, for an average adjusted response rate of 53%. The factor analysis identified 4 scales: Comfort and Cleanliness, Nursing, Food Services, and Facility Care and Services, each with high reliability. Based on a multiple regression analysis, the scales were shown to have good criterion-related validity, accounting for 64% of the variance in overall quality ratings. Comparisons based on select characteristics indicated significantly different satisfaction ratings among facilities. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the construct validity of a multidimensional customer satisfaction scale with measured reliability and criterion-related validity. Moreover, the scale can be used to differentiate satisfaction levels among facilities.

  20. 46 CFR 25.25-15 - Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices. 25.25-15 Section 25.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... flotation devices. (a) Each life preserver, each marine buoyant device intended to be worn, and each...

  1. 46 CFR 25.25-15 - Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices. 25.25-15 Section 25.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... flotation devices. (a) Each life preserver, each marine buoyant device intended to be worn, and each...

  2. 46 CFR 25.25-15 - Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices. 25.25-15 Section 25.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... flotation devices. (a) Each life preserver, each marine buoyant device intended to be worn, and each...

  3. 46 CFR 25.25-15 - Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices. 25.25-15 Section 25.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... flotation devices. (a) Each life preserver, each marine buoyant device intended to be worn, and each...

  4. 46 CFR 25.25-15 - Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retroreflective material for personal flotation devices. 25.25-15 Section 25.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS... flotation devices. (a) Each life preserver, each marine buoyant device intended to be worn, and each...

  5. Geometrical optics analysis of the structural imperfection of retroreflection corner cubes with a nonlinear conjugate gradient method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2008-12-01

    Geometrical optics analysis of the structural imperfection of retroreflection corner cubes is described. In the analysis, a geometrical optics model of six-beam reflection patterns generated by an imperfect retroreflection corner cube is developed, and its structural error extraction is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is employed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem, and its detailed implementation is described. The proposed method of analysis is a mathematical basis for the nondestructive optical inspection of imperfectly fabricated retroreflection corner cubes.

  6. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR IS FUELED AS AN ETR MOCK-UP. LIGHTS DANGLE BELOW WATER LEVEL. CONTROL RODS AND OTHER APPARATUS DESCEND FROM ABOVE WATER LEVEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-900. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT OF MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WOOD PLANKS REST ON CANAL WALL OBSERVABLE IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11745. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Joint Integration Test Facility (JITF) Engineering II Performance Measurement Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Technology Management Reform Act of 1966 (also known as the Clinger-Cohen Act) and the Government Performance and Results Act of 1997, which requires...This report contains the performance measurement plan for the Joint Integration Test Facility. This is an initial plan to comply with the Information

  9. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement results.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Austin L; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Martinez, David M; Vaughn, Timothy L; Williams, Laurie L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Floerchinger, Cody; Omara, Mark; Subramanian, R; Zimmerle, Daniel; Marchese, Anthony J; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Facility-level methane emissions were measured at 114 gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in the United States natural gas system. At gathering facilities, the measured methane emission rates ranged from 0.7 to 700 kg per hour (kg/h) (0.6 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm)). Normalized emissions (as a % of total methane throughput) were less than 1% for 85 gathering facilities and 19 had normalized emissions less than 0.1%. The range of methane emissions rates for processing plants was 3 to 600 kg/h (3 to 524 scfm), corresponding to normalized methane emissions rates <1% in all cases. The distributions of methane emissions, particularly for gathering facilities, are skewed. For example, 30% of gathering facilities contribute 80% of the total emissions. Normalized emissions rates are negatively correlated with facility throughput. The variation in methane emissions also appears driven by differences between inlet and outlet pressure, as well as venting and leaking equipment. Substantial venting from liquids storage tanks was observed at 20% of gathering facilities. Emissions rates at these facilities were, on average, around four times the rates observed at similar facilities without substantial venting.

  10. Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic Levitation Facility EML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillo, Jurgen; Fritze, Holger; Lohofer, Georg; Schulz, Michal; Stenzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two advanced measurement devices for the microgravity electromagnetic levitation facility (EML), which is currently under construction for the use onboard the "International Space Station (ISS)": the "Sample Coupling Electronics (SCE)" and the "Oxygen Sensing and Control Unit (OSC)". The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented.

  11. Measurement Capabilities of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Kluzek, C. D.; Chand, D.; Pekour, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites in three important climatic regimes that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties. ARM also operates mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months) to investigate understudied climate regimes around the globe. Finally, airborne observations by ARM's Aerial Facility (AAF) enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval algorithm development, and model evaluation that is not possible using ground-based techniques. AAF started out in 2007 as a "virtual hangar" with no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments owned by ARM. In this mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, the Battelle owned G-1 aircraft was included in the ARM facility. The G-1 is a large twin turboprop aircraft, capable of measurements up to altitudes of 7.5 km and a range of 2,800 kilometers. Furthermore the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of seventeen new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also heavily engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments. In the presentation we will showcase science applications based on measurements from recent field campaigns such as CARES, CALWATER and TCAP.

  12. Vibrational measurement for commissioning SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Leibfritz, J.; Martinez, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The commissioning of two cryomodule components is underway at Fermilab's Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facility. The research at this facility supports the next generation high intensity linear accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), a new high intensity injector (Project X) and other future machines. These components, Cryomodule No.1 (CM1) and Capture Cavity II (CC2), which contain 1.3 GHz cavities are connected in series in the beamline and through cryogenic plumbing. Studies regarding characterization of ground motion, technical and cultural noise continue. Mechanical transfer functions between the foundation and critical beamline components have been measured and overall system displacement characterized. Baseline motion measurements given initial operation of cryogenic, vacuum systems and other utilities are considered.

  13. Filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements in supersonic/hypersonic facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Richard B.; Forkey, Joseph N.; Lempert, Walter R.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary measurements are presented of flow field properties in Mach 3 and Mach 5 flows using filtered Rayleigh scattering. Filter properties have been characterized by high resolution spectroscopy in order to optimize the selection of laser frequency and filter operating conditions, as well as for the development of an accurate filter modeling program. An optimized filter is used the background suppression feature of this technique to image the boundary layer structure in a Mach 3 high Reynolds number facility and the shock structure in a Mach 5 overexpanded jet. This had been achieved using a visible laser source. By frequency scanning the laser, time-averaged velocity measurements in the Mach 3 and Mach 5 flows are made. Data acquisition at 10 torr and below indicates that this approach can be extrapolated for use in hypersonic flow facilities and is applicable as an in-flight optical air data device for hypersonic vehicles.

  14. Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tyler J.; Lang, Amy W.; Wheelus, Jennifer N.; Westcott, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value.

  15. Electron retroreflection and spin beam splitting in a twisted graphene bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yafang; Jin, Guojun

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the various reflection processes in a twisted graphene bilayer-based normal conductor/superconductor junction. It is found that the special spinor wave functions in strongly doped superconductor region lead the Andreev reflection to be suppressed completely. For the 100% electron → electron reflection, except the traditional specular reflection, electrons can undergo retroreflection, which is sensitive to the band contour and can be used to confirm the van Hove singularities in the twisted graphene bilayer. By depositing a ferromagnetic insulator on the N region, we further find that electrons can be spatially separated with spin-down electrons specular reflected and spin-up electrons retroreflected, or vice versa. It provides a new mechanism to realize a spin beam splitter.

  16. New Facility For Micro-Vibration Measurements ESA Reaction Wheel Characterisation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decobert, Francois; Wagner, Mark; Airey, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    A micro-vibration measurement table has been developed by ESA and SEREME for the measurement of micro forces at high frequencies. The motivation for the Research and Development of this new equipment was the characterisation of reaction wheel dynamic behavior which may influence the pointing stability of observation satellites. There was the need to have an improved test equipment being able to quantify very low level forces and moments in 6 degrees of freedom. The measured data can be used as input to numerical analysis and simulation to derive a prediction of the dynamic disturbances induced by the operation of a reaction wheel. The new facility combines higher frequency capability i.e. first bare table resonance modes higher than 1250 Hz with high measurement sensitivity and low force threshold (20mN respectively 2mNm).

  17. Theory and applications of a surface inspection technique using double-pass retroreflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Rodger; Karpaia, Frank; Claarke, Donald A.; Hageniers, Omer L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the D SIGHT surface inspection technique from conception (purely optical visual enhancement method) to mature technology (computer-based image acquisition system for surface analysis). The experimental process leading to the discovery of the phenomenon, the optics, and hardware configuration are described along with the factors that affect the performance of the system. Results from imaging several surfaces, using double-pass retroreflection are given.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  19. Full-scale high-speed ``Edgerton'' retroreflective shadowgraphy of gunshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary

    2005-11-01

    Almost 1/2 century ago, H. E. ``Doc'' Edgerton demonstrated a simple and elegant direct-shadowgraph technique for imaging large-scale events like explosions and gunshots. Only a retroreflective screen, flashlamp illumination, and an ordinary view camera were required. Retroreflective shadowgraphy has seen occasional use since then, but its unique combination of large scale, simplicity and portability has barely been tapped. It functions well in environments hostile to most optical diagnostics, such as full-scale outdoor daylight ballistics and explosives testing. Here, shadowgrams cast upon a 2.4 m square retroreflective screen are imaged by a Photron Fastcam APX-RS digital camera that is capable of megapixel image resolution at 3000 frames/sec up to 250,000 frames/sec at lower resolution. Microsecond frame exposures are used to examine the external ballistics of several firearms, including a high-powered rifle, an AK-47 submachine gun, and several pistols and revolvers. Muzzle blast phenomena and the mechanism of gunpowder residue deposition on the shooter's hands are clearly visualized. In particular, observing the firing of a pistol with and without a silencer (suppressor) suggests that some of the muzzle blast energy is converted by the silencer into supersonic jet noise.

  20. Position estimation for fiducial marks based on high intensity retroreflective tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkina, Anna; Serikova, Mariya; Pantyushin, Anton

    2016-04-01

    3D position estimation of an object usually involve computer vision techniques, which require fiducial markers attached to the objects surface. Modern technology provides a high intensity retroreflective material in the form of a tape which is easy to mount to the object and can be used as a base for fiducial marks. But inevitable drawback of the tapes with the highest retroreflective intensity is the presence of technological pattern which affects spatial distribution of retroreflected light and deforms border of any print on tape's surface. In this work we compare various shapes of metrological pattern and examine Fourier descriptors based image processing to obtain estimation of accuracy of mark image position. To verify results we developed a setup consisting of a camera based on Sony ICX274 CCD, 25 mm lens, 800 nm LED lightning and high intensity microprismatic tape. The experiment showed that there is no significant difference between proposed mark shapes as well as between direct and indirect contrast when proposed image processing is used. The experiments confirmed that the image processing implemented without elimination of non-reflective netting pattern can only provide an accuracy of coordinates extraction close to 1 pix.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  2. Measuring and monitoring KIPT Neutron Source Facility Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yan; Gohar, Yousry; Zhong, Zhaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on developing and constructing a neutron source facility at Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven subcritical system. The accelerator has a 100 kW electron beam using 100 MeV electrons. The subcritical assembly has keff less than 0.98. To ensure the safe operation of this neutron source facility, the reactivity of the subcritical core has to be accurately determined and continuously monitored. A technique which combines the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method is purposed to determine the reactivity of the KIPT subcritical assembly at various conditions. In particular, the area-ratio method can determine the absolute reactivity of the subcritical assembly in units of dollars by performing pulsed-neutron experiments. It provides reference reactivities for the flux-to-current ratio method to track and monitor the reactivity deviations from the reference state while the facility is at other operation modes. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to simulate both methods using the numerical model of the KIPT subcritical assembly. It is found that the reactivities obtained from both the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method are spatially dependent on the neutron detector locations and types. Numerical simulations also suggest optimal neutron detector locations to minimize the spatial effects in the flux-to-current ratio method. The spatial correction factors are calculated using Monte Carlo methods for both measuring methods at the selected neutron detector locations. Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the flux-to-current ratio method in monitoring the reactivity swing during a fuel burnup cycle.

  3. Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  4. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  5. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Martinez, Derwin; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  6. Measurement of Total Cross Sections at Pohang Neutron Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Guinyun; Meaze, A.K.M.M.H.; Ahmed, Hossain; Son, Dongchul; Lee, Young Seok; Kang, Hengsik; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Ko, In Soo; Namkung, Won; Ro, Tae-Ik.; Chung, Won-Chung; Kim, Young Ae; Yoo, Kun Joong; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-05-24

    The Pohang Neutron Facility, which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target with a water moderator, and a time-of-flight path with an 11 m length has been operated since 2000. We report the status activities on the neutron total cross-section measurements in the neutron energy region from 0.01 eV to 100 eV by the neutron time-of-flight method at Pohang Neutron Facility. A 6Li-ZnS(Ag) scintillator with a diameter of 12.5 cm and a thickness of 1.5 cm has been used as a neutron detector. The background level has been determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from Bremsstrahlung and that from neutron capture, we have employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shape. The present measurements for Ag, Hf, and Ta samples are compared with the previous ones and the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. The resonance parameters for Ag and Hf samples have been extracted from the transmission data by using the SAMMY code.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  8. MEASURE: An integrated data-analysis and model identification facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jaidip; Iyer, Ravi K.

    1990-01-01

    The first phase of the development of MEASURE, an integrated data analysis and model identification facility is described. The facility takes system activity data as input and produces as output representative behavioral models of the system in near real time. In addition a wide range of statistical characteristics of the measured system are also available. The usage of the system is illustrated on data collected via software instrumentation of a network of SUN workstations at the University of Illinois. Initially, statistical clustering is used to identify high density regions of resource-usage in a given environment. The identified regions form the states for building a state-transition model to evaluate system and program performance in real time. The model is then solved to obtain useful parameters such as the response-time distribution and the mean waiting time in each state. A graphical interface which displays the identified models and their characteristics (with real time updates) was also developed. The results provide an understanding of the resource-usage in the system under various workload conditions. This work is targeted for a testbed of UNIX workstations with the initial phase ported to SUN workstations on the NASA, Ames Research Center Advanced Automation Testbed.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-29

    Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period--The Diffuse Shortwave IOP ran from September 23 to October 12, 2001. During this IOP, Joe Michalsky (The State University of New York-Albany) and Tom Stoffel (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) deployed approximately 15 radiometers of various designs and manufacturers on the SGP Radiometer Calibration Facility. The purpose was to compare the accuracy of the radiometers for diffuse shortwave measurements. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Yankee Environmental Systems also participated in the IOP. SuomiNet Installations Completed--The installation of all SuomiNet equipment has been completed at 15 extended facility locations. Six of these stations are currently online and providing data to the SuomiNet project. SuomiNet is a university-based, real-time national global positioning system (GPS) network for atmospheric research and education. (See June 2000 issue of the ARM SGP Newsletter.) The network uses GPS to measure atmospheric moisture. To view real-time data from ARM sites, please visit this web site: http://www.gst.ucar.edu/gpsrg/realtime.html.

  10. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  11. Emittance Measurements of the SSRL Gun Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Michael; Clendenin, James; Fisher, Alan; Miller, Roger; Palmer, Dennis; Park, Sam; Schmerge, John; Weaver, Jim; Wiedemann, Helmut; Winick, Herman; Yeremian, Dian; Meyerhofer, David; Reis, David; /Rochester U.

    2011-09-01

    A photocathode RF gun test stand is under construction in the injector vault of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The goal of this facility is to produce an electron beam with a normalized emittance of 1-3[mm-mr], a longitudinal bunch duration of the order of 10[ps] FWHM and approximately 1[nC] of charge per bunch. The beam will be generated from a laser driven copper photocathode RF gun developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL and UCLA. The 3-5[MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section. The emittance of the electron beam will be measured through the use of quadrupole scans with phosphor screens and also a wire scanner. The details of the experimental setup will be discussed, and first measurements will be presented and compared with results from PARMELA simulations.

  12. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission, and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual-tracer flux measurements and on-site observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with on-site tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  13. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  14. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... owner shall take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Cars to be... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224...—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A)...

  15. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  16. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  17. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... owner shall take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Cars to be... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224...—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A)...

  18. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  19. 49 CFR Table 1 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting (Minimum Photometric Performance Requirements... ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 of Subpart B to Part 224—Minimum Coefficient...

  20. Measurement Requirements for Improved Modeling of Arcjet Facility Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Douglas G.

    2000-01-01

    Current efforts to develop new reusable launch vehicles and to pursue low-cost robotic planetary missions have led to a renewed interest in understanding arc-jet flows. Part of this renewed interest is concerned with improving the understanding of arc-jet test results and the potential use of available computational-fluid- dynamic (CFD) codes to aid in this effort. These CFD codes have been extensively developed and tested for application to nonequilibrium, hypersonic flow modeling. It is envisioned, perhaps naively, that the application of these CFD codes to the simulation of arc-jet flows would serve two purposes: first. the codes would help to characterize the nonequilibrium nature of the arc-jet flows; and second. arc-jet experiments could potentially be used to validate the flow models. These two objectives are, to some extent, mutually exclusive. However, the purpose of the present discussion is to address what role CFD codes can play in the current arc-jet flow characterization effort, and whether or not the simulation of arc-jet facility tests can be used to eva1uate some of the modeling that is used to formu1ate these codes. This presentation is organized into several sections. In the introductory section, the development of large-scale, constricted-arc test facilities within NASA is reviewed, and the current state of flow diagnostics using conventional instrumentation is summarized. The motivation for using CFD to simulate arc-jet flows is addressed in the next section, and the basic requirements for CFD models that would be used for these simulations are briefly discussed. This section is followed by a more detailed description of experimental measurements that are needed to initiate credible simulations and to evaluate their fidelity in the different flow regions of an arc-jet facility. Observations from a recent combined computational and experiment.al investigation of shock-layer flows in a large-scale arc-jet facility are then used to illustrate the

  1. "Measurement Monday": one facility's approach to standardizing skin impairment documentation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Suzanne; Bennett, Sally; Blokzyl, Angela; Bowman, Winnie; Butcher, Ida; Chapman, Kelly; Koop, Kelly; Lebo, Barb; Siebecker, Diane; Signs, Heidi; Streeter, Jane; Russo, Catherine; Wenzel, Susan

    2009-12-01

    Accurate, timely wound assessment and documentation is fundamental to nursing practice. A 2005 retrospective chart audit (N = 54) at a rural, 238-bed tertiary care facility in Northeastern Pennsylvania (average daily census 175 to 180) found that complete wound assessment documentation (including measurements) was lacking in 59% of patient charts. The purpose of this quality improvement initiative, led by the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurse (WOCN), was to evaluate and improve nursing assessment and documentation of impaired skin (pressure ulcers, skin tears, open surgical wounds, diabetic ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers). A review of the literature confirmed the importance of consistency, which led to the hospital-wide implementation of education programs and "Measurement Monday." Using AHCPR guidelines of care for pressure ulcers and beginning in January 2006 all wounds were assessed and measured every Monday and the proportion of incomplete charts declined to 38%. Following addition of a wound documentation tool in 2007, the proportion of incomplete records was 14.8%. This quality improvement initiative improved the quality and consistency of wound assessment/measurement and documentation.

  2. Experimental uncertainty and drag measurements in the national transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study which was conducted in order to establish a framework for the quantitative description of the uncertainty in measurements conducted in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The importance of uncertainty analysis in both experiment planning and reporting results has grown significantly in the past few years. Various methodologies have been proposed and the engineering community appears to be 'converging' on certain accepted practices. The practical application of these methods to the complex wind tunnel testing environment at the NASA Langley Research Center was based upon terminology and methods established in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards. The report overviews this methodology.

  3. Wing Twist Measurements at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Wahls, Richard A.; Goad, William K.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for measuring wing twist currently in use at the National Transonic Facility is described. The technique is based upon a single camera photogrammetric determination of two dimensional coordinates with a fixed (and known) third dimensional coordinate. The wing twist is found from a conformal transformation between wind-on and wind-off 2-D coordinates in the plane of rotation. The advantages and limitations of the technique as well as the rationale for selection of this particular technique are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate run-to-run and test-to-test repeatability of the technique in air mode. Examples of wing twist in cryogenic nitrogen mode are also presented.

  4. Compact tunable microwave filter using retroreflective acousto-optic filtering and delay controls.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Ghauri, Farzan N

    2007-03-01

    Programmable broadband rf filters are demonstrated using a compact retroreflective optical design with an acousto-optic tunable filter and a chirped fiber Bragg grating. This design enables fast 34 micros domain analog-mode control of rf filter time delays and weights. Two proof-of-concept filters are demonstrated including a two-tap notch filter with >35 dB notch depth and a four-tap bandpass filter. Both filters have 2-8 GHz tunability and a 34 micros reset time.

  5. Optical binding of particle pairs in retro-reflected beam geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damková, Jana; Chvátal, Lukáš; Brzobohatý, Oto; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Optical binding of polystyrene microparticle pairs in retro-reflected wide Gaussian beam, called "tractor beam", is studied experimentally and the results are compared with the numerical calculations based on the multiple-particle Mie scattering theory. To investigate the dynamics of optically bound particle pairs in three dimensions we employ holographic video microscopy technique. We show that the particle pair motion is strongly dependent on the relative distances of the particles and the switching between applying pushing and pulling force on particle pairs can be achieved only by changing their configuration even though the "tractor-beam" parameters remain unchanged.

  6. Experimental demonstration of population inversion driven by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Klein, Jens; Oberst, Martin; Halfmann, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    We present experimental data to demonstrate coherently driven population inversion by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage in metastable helium atoms. Complete and robust population transfer from an initial to a target state is induced by coherent interaction of the atoms in a supersonic beam with two counterpropagating and temporally delayed laser pulses of different intensities. The radiation fields intersect the atomic beam slightly tilted away from normal incidence, thereby inducing Doppler shifts of the atomic resonance between the initial and the target state. Thus the laser pulses produce a bichromatic field in the rest frame of each atom, which induces complete coherent population transfer by an adiabatic passage process.

  7. Radioactive effluent measurements at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed measurements of the radioactive effluents emitted by the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF). These measurements were performed by collecting the cooling air that passed by the APRF reactor as it operated, passing the air through filters to collect the particulates and iodines, and collecting samples of the air to be analyzed for noble gases. The reactor operated for four test runs, including two pulses and two steady state runs. After each reactor run, the filters were counted using gamma spectrometry to identify the nuclides and to determine the activity of nuclides deposited on the filters. The study provided radionuclide release fraction data that can be used to estimate the airborne emissions resulting from APRF operations. The release fraction for particulate fission products and radioiodines, as derived from these measurements, was found to be 8.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for reactor pulses and 4.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for steady state operation. These values compare to a theoretical value of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}.

  8. In-line retro-reflective polarizing contrast scope for translucent objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2012-11-01

    We propose a very-low-cost fixed interferential polarizing phase contrast scope suitable for the study of translucent objects. Our key design approach is relied on the arrangement of a circular polarizer sheet, a mirror, and a digital camera in a retro-reflective optical structure. The linear polarizer embedded in the circular polarizer sheet acts as both a polarization beam splitter and a polarization beam combiner. Meanwhile the quarter waveplate inside the circular polarizer sheet functions as a fixed phase plate but without narrowing the field of view of the digital camera. The retroreflective configuration amplifies the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarized optical beams twice, thus automatically creating an initial dark background. Experimental demonstration using an off-the-shelf digital microscope with built-in white light emitting diodes and a specified 400x maximum magnification, a circular polarizer sheet, and a mirror shows that onion cells and Steinernema Thailandense nematodes can be clearly observed with striking color, high contrast, and three-dimensional appearance.

  9. Activities on Nuclear Data Measurements at Pohang Neutron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Guinyun

    2009-03-01

    We report the activities of the Pohang Neutron Facility which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target, and a 12-m time-of-flight path. It has been equipped with a four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time of flight spectra from 4 different detectors. It can be possible to measure the neutron total cross-sections in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to few hundreds eV by using the neutron time-of-flight method. A 6LiZnS(Ag) glass scintillator was used as a neutron detector. The neutron flight path from the water-cooled Ta target to the neutron detector was 12.1 m. The background level was determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, Ta, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung and those from neutron capture, we employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shapes. The present measurements of several samples (Ta, Mo) are in general agreement with the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. We measured the thermal neutron capture cross-sections and the resonance integrals of the 186W(n,γ)187W reaction and the 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo reaction by the activation method using the 197Au(n,γ)198Au monitor reaction as a single comparator. We also report the isomeric yield ratios for the 44 m, gSc isomeric pairs produced from four different photonuclear reactions 45Sc(γ,n)44m,gSc, natTi(γ,xn1p)44m,gSc, natFe(γ,xn5p)52m,gMn, and 103Rh(γ,4n)99m,gRh by using the activation method.

  10. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Development and applications of retro-reflective surfaces for ultrasound in LBE

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is in the process of developing MYRRHA - a fast flux research reactor to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is conceptualized as an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic mixture (LBE). As LBE is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are employed as the main technology to provide feedback to submerged operations when needed. Conceptually, MYRRHA is a pool type reactor divided in a cold lower plenum and hot upper plenum separated by a diaphragm that forces the main flow through the core. The main flow is cooled by four heat exchangers and driven by two liquid metal pumps. One of the tasks tackled using ultrasound is locating a potentially lost fuel assembly to assist a recovery operation. As all fuel manipulations in MYRRHA are performed in the lower plenum, a potentially lost fuel assembly is located in the lower plenum. Buoyancy will force the lost fuel assembly to float against the diaphragm unless it is still partially inserted in the core. Because of the latter situation, an ultrasonic scan localizing the fuel assembly should be performed from a large distance to avoid a collision with such a partially inserted fuel assembly. Unfortunately, standard machined stainless steel objects, such as a fuel assembly, reflect an ultrasonic pulse in a specular way which induces stringent requirements on the alignment of the ultrasonic sensor with respect to the fuel assembly as we cannot rely on diffuse reflections and/or scattering of the ultrasonic pulse. Moreover, increasing the distance also increases geometric spreading and absorption of the pulse weakening the signal amplitude even faster to noise levels when deviating from perfect alignment. An alternative approach consists in relying on reflections from the known surroundings: a lost fuel assembly will block the line-of-sight to the diaphragm resulting in an anomaly in the reflection - either a shorter than expected time-of-flight of the

  13. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M. J.; Nathan, B. R.; Nikroo, A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rygg, J. R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Simanovskaia, N.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Widmann, K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hsing, W. W.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Edwards, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% ± 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel ρR on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell thickness

  14. 75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Requirements for Measurement Facilities... measurement equipment at gas plants and other processing facilities. SUMMARY: This notice provides information... measurement of Federal production at gas processing plants when royalty is reported and paid on processed...

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, March 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-04-18

    sparsely spaced, costly weather balloon releases. IHOP-2002 will give researchers an active platform for testing and evaluating the capabilities and limitations of several water vapor measurement instruments. For example, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory will be bringing a mini-DIAL (differential absorption lidar) to the SGP central facility for comparison with the SGP Raman lidar. Lidars send beams of laser light skyward and measure scattered light not absorbed by water molecules. The collection of IHOP-2002 instruments includes 2 fixed radars, 6 mobile radars, 2 airborne radars, 8 lidars (6 of which can sample water vapor), 1 advanced wind profiler, 2 sodars, 3 interferometers, 18 special surface stations, 800 radiosondes, 400 dropsondes, 1 tethersonde system, 52 global positioning system receivers, 3 profiling radiometers, 1 mobile profiling radiometer and wind profiler, and 5 water vapor radiometers. Six research aircraft will be deployed during the course of the field campaign. The aircraft will occasionally fly low-level tracks and will deploy dropsondes. A dropsonde resembles a radiosonde, an instrument package attached to a helium-filled balloon that rises into the atmosphere, but the dropsonde is released from an airplane and collects data on its way down to the ground. Finders of dropsondes are asked to follow the instructions on the package for returning the device to the researcher. Funding for IHOP-2002 is from many sources, including NOAA, the National Science Foundation, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and the U.S. Department of Energy. Participation is worldwide, including researchers from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

  16. EMFR HRA of the Newport Antenna Measurement Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-15

    to verify safe exposure levels of electromagnetic frequency radiation (EMFR) at this Air Force (AF) facility. At the request of the Air Force...6 May 2015, was requested to verify safe exposure levels of electromagnetic frequency radiation (EMFR) at this Air Force (AF) facility. b...AFI) 48- 109, Electromagnetic Field Radiation (EMFR) Occupational and Environmental Health Program, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-11-04

    Aerosol Observing System Upgraded--The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the SGP central facility recently received maintenance and was upgraded to improve its performance. The AOS measures the properties of the aerosol particles around it. Several AOS components were removed, repaired, and calibrated to operate within specifications. The system continuously gathers information about the way minute aerosol particles interact with solar radiation. A better understanding of these interactions will help climate change researchers integrate aerosol effects more accurately into global climate computer models. Polar Bears Make Work Dangerous at ARM North Slope of Alaska Site--The late development of seasonal sea ice has increased polar bear sitings at ARM's Barrow site. The bears were recently seen next to the ARM instrument towers at Barrow, making the normal work day a bit more tricky for the technicians who are at the site year-round. Polar bears are not afraid of people and will attack and kill. The bears usually spend most of their time on off-shore ice floes hunting seals. This season, a large storm pushed the floes out to sea while the bears were ashore at Barrow, leaving them to forage for food on land until the sea ice reforms with the onset of colder weather. The hungry bears have made working at the Barrow CART site a dangerous proposition. ARM workers carry shotguns with them at all times for protection. On a recent journey to the site, ARM instrument mentor Michael Ritsche encountered the animals. ''You become much more aware of your surroundings,'' said Ritsche after returning safely to Argonne. Barrow residents protect themselves by shooting warning shells to scare the bears away from developed areas. Hearing the firing in the early mornings and late evenings at Barrow reminded Ritsche that he was in a more dangerous world.

  18. Physical Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Measurements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boussommier-Calleja, Alexandra; Li, Guorong; Wilson, Amanda; Ziskind, Tal; Scinteie, Oana Elena; Ashpole, Nicole E.; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Farsiu, Sina; Challa, Pratap; Gonzalez, Pedro; Downs, J. Crawford; Ethier, C. Ross; Stamer, W. Daniel; Overby, Darryl R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mice are commonly used to study conventional outflow physiology. This study examined how physical factors (hydration, temperature, and anterior chamber [AC] deepening) influence ocular perfusion measurements in mice. Methods Outflow facility (C) and pressure-independent outflow (Fu) were assessed by multilevel constant pressure perfusion of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6 mice. To examine the effect of hydration, seven eyes were perfused at room temperature, either immersed to the limbus in saline and covered with wet tissue paper or exposed to room air. Temperature effects were examined in 12 eyes immersed in saline at 20°C or 35°C. Anterior chamber deepening was examined in 10 eyes with the cannula tip placed in the anterior versus posterior chamber (PC). Posterior bowing of the iris (AC deepening) was visualized by three-dimensional histology in perfusion-fixed C57BL/6 eyes and by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in living CD1 mice. Results Exposure to room air did not significantly affect C, but led to a nonzero Fu that was significantly reduced upon immersion in saline. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 35°C increased C by 2.5-fold, more than could be explained by viscosity changes alone (1.4-fold). Perfusion via the AC, but not the PC, led to posterior iris bowing and increased outflow. Conclusions Insufficient hydration contributes to the appearance of pressure-independent outflow in enucleated mouse eyes. Despite the large lens, AC deepening may artifactually increase outflow in mice. Temperature-dependent metabolic processes appear to influence conventional outflow regulation. Physical factors should be carefully controlled in any outflow studies involving mice. PMID:26720486

  19. Algorithm for the evaluation of imperfections in auto bodywork using profiles from a retroreflective image.

    PubMed

    Barber, Ramon; Zwilling, Valerie; Salichs, Miguel A

    2014-02-05

    Nowadays the automobile industry is becoming more and more demanding as far as quality is concerned. Within the wide variety of processes in which this quality must be ensured, those regarding the squeezing of the auto bodywork are especially important due to the fact that the quality of the resulting product is tested manually by experts, leading to inaccuracies of all types. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for the automated evaluation of the imperfections in the sheets of the bodywork after the squeezing process. The algorithm processes the profile signals from a retroreflective image and characterizes an imperfection. It is based on a convergence criterion that follows the line of the maximum gradient of the imperfection and gives its geometrical characteristics as a result: maximum gradient, length, width, and area.

  20. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  1. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Pt. 105, App. A Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  2. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025) A Appendix A to Part 105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Appendix A to Part 105—Facility Vulnerability and Security Measures Summary (Form CG-6025)...

  3. Noise measurements in a free-jet, flight simulation facility - Shear layer refraction and facility-to-flight corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfey, C. L.; Tester, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of free-jet facility into equivalent flyover results is discussed. The essential problem is to 'calibrate out' the acoustic influence of the outer free-jet shear layer on the measurement, since this is absent in the flight case. Results are presented which illustrate the differences between current simplified models (vortex-sheet and geometric acoustics), and a more complete model based on the Lilley equation. Finally, the use of geometric acoustics for facility-to-flight data conversion is discussed.

  4. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  5. Air-bearing spin facility for measuring energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The air-bearing spin facility was developed to determine experimentally the effect of energy dissipation upon the motion of spinning spacecraft. The facility consists of an air-bearing spin table, a telemetry system, a command system, and a ground control station. The air-bearing spin table was designed to operate in a vacuum chamber. Tests were run on spacecraft components such as fuel tanks, nutation dampers, reaction wheels, and active nutation damper systems. Each of these items affected the attitude of a spinning spacecraft. An experimental approach to determine these effects was required because the dissipation of these components could not be adequately analyzed. The results of these experiments have been used, with excellent results, to predict spacecraft motion.

  6. Angle-resolved retroreflection: what can it tell us about optical properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Sergei G.

    2016-04-01

    The retroreflection spectroscopy have been developed with the aim to investigate the spectra of light scattered at intrinsic defects of photonic crystals. Self-assembled 3-dimensional colloidal crystals, opals, have been investigated. Compared to conventional spectroscopies of reflected and transmitted light, which evaluate the rejected by photonic crystal light, the retroreflectance is designed to visualize the propagating eigenmodes of photonic crystals. The principal advantages of this method are the direct experimental evaluation of the stop-bandwidth and the quantitative estimate of defect concentration by the slope of the angle diagram of the scattered light intensity. The added value of this method is the independent evaluation of the periodicity and the effective refractive index of photonic crystals under interrogation by simultaneous observation of the angle dispersions of volume and surface resonances of the photonic crystal lattice.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-03-08

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled--The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded--New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''--Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog--Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated

  8. Manganese-56 coincidence-counting facility precisely measures neutron-source strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Volpi, A.; Larsen, R. N.; Porges, K. G. A.

    1969-01-01

    Precise measurement of neutron-source strength is provided by a manganese 56 coincidence-counting facility using the manganese-bath technique. This facility combines nuclear instrumentation with coincidence-counting techniques to handle a wide variety of radioisotope-counting requirements.

  9. Miniature On-Board Angle of Attack Measurement System for Hypersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Rhode, Matthew N.

    2006-01-01

    The most prevalent method of establishing model angle of attack (AoA) in hypersonic wind tunnel facilities is using an encoder in the model support system then calculating sting/balance deflections based on balance output. This method has been shown to be less accurate than on-board methods in subsonic and transonic facilities and preliminary indications, as compared to optical methods, show large discrepancies in a hypersonic facility as well. With improvements in Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer technology more accurate onboard AoA measurement systems are now available for the small models usually found in hypersonic research facilities.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, May 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-06-03

    Eight eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement systems are now deployed throughout the ARM SGP CART site. These systems are used to determine the flux (flow) of sensible heat, the flux of latent heat, and air momentum just above cropland a few hundred feet upwind of the ECOR locations. Sensible heat is energy we feel as warmth. Latent heat is the energy that evaporated water vapor measured in the atmosphere. The ECOR systems actually measure wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, water vapor, and barometric pressure. The surface flux values for sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are calculated from these measurements.

  11. Low-Cost Security Measures for School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a variety of school safety and security measures that may be implemented at little or no cost and without the use of complex technology. Measures are presented according to these categories: (1) General; (2) Outside the Building; and (3) Inside the Building.

  12. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements in a turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) developed for mapping the flow velocity downstream from a 32-inch diameter annular cascade of turbine stator vanes in described. The LDV measurements were taken in a plane located approximately 0.5 inch downstream of the trailing edges of the vanes. Two components of the mean velocity (axial and circumferential) were measured. The flow velocities were in the high subsonic range. The LDV optics are of the dual scatter type with off-axis collection of the scattered light. The electronics system is based on the measurement of the time interval corresponding to eight periods of the Doppler signal and has a range of 10 to 80 MHz. The LDV measurements are compared with previous measurements made with a pressure probe.

  13. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements in a turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) developed for mapping the flow velocity downstream from a 32-inch diameter annular cascade of turbine stator vanes is described. The LDV measurements were taken in a plane located approximately 0.5 inch downstream of the trailing edges of the vanes. Two components of the mean velocity (axial and circumferential) were measured. The flow velocities were in the high subsonic range. The LDV optics are of the dual scatter type with off-axis collection of the scattered light. The electronics system is based on the measurement of the time interval corresponding to eight periods of the Doppler signal and has a range of 10 to 80 MHz. The LDV measurements are compared with previous measurements made with a pressure probe.

  14. Trim angle measurements in free-flight facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1991-01-01

    The aerodynamic cofficients and trim angle for an aerobrake at Mach 9.2 and 11.8 were found using a combination of experiment and computation. Free-flight tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center's Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility, and the forebody pressure distribution was calculated using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with an effective specific heat ratio. Using the computed drag, lift, and moments to prescribe the number of terms in the aerodynamic coefficient expansions and to specify the values of the higher order terms, the experimental aerodynamic coefficients and trim angle were found using a six-degree-of-freedom, weighted, least-squares analysis. The experimental and computed aerodynamic coefficients and trim angles are in good agreement. The trim angle obtained from the free-flight tests, 14.7 deg, differs from the design trim angle, 17 deg, and from the Langley wind tunnel results, 12 deg in air and 17 deg in CF4. These differences are attributable to real-gas effects.

  15. Retroreflective Background Oriented Schlieren Imaging Results from the NASA Plume/Shock Interaction Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nathanial T.; Durston, Donald A.; Heineck, James T.

    2017-01-01

    In support of NASA's Commercial Supersonics Technology (CST) project, a test was conducted in the 9-by-7 ft. supersonic section of the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The tests were designed to study the interaction of shocks with a supersonic jet characteristic of those that may occur on a commercial supersonic aircraft. Multiple shock generating geometries were tested to examine the interaction dynamics as they pertain to sonic boom mitigation. An integral part of the analyses of these interactions are the interpretation of the data generated from the retroreflective Background Oriented Schlieren (RBOS) imaging technique employed for this test. The regularization- based optical flow methodology used to generate these data is described. Sample results are compared to those using normalized cross-correlation. The reduced noise, additional feature detail, and fewer false artifacts provided by the optical flow technique produced clearer time-averaged images, allowing for better interpretation of the underlying flow phenomena. These images, coupled with pressure signatures in the near field, are used to provide an overview of the detailed interaction flowfields.

  16. Crew Quarters (CQ) and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Measurement Facility Combined Impedance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents an investigation into observed failures associated with conducted susceptibility testing of Crew Quarters (CQ) hardware in the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Measurement Facility, and the work accomplished to identify the source of the observed behavior. Investigation led to the conclusion that the hardware power input impedance was interacting with the facility power impedance leading to instability at the observed frequencies of susceptibility. Testing performed in other facilities did not show this same behavior, pointing back to the EMI Measurement Facility power as the potential root cause. A LISN emulating the Station power bus impedance was inserted into the power circuit, and the susceptibility was eliminated from the measurements.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-07-23

    Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-09-19

    This is the third water vapor IOP and it will focus on the lower portions of the atmosphere. Again, scientists will work to achieve absolute calibrations of water vapor instrumentation. For this purpose, several instruments will be deployed, and measurements will be compared. Instruments to be used include radiosondes, Raman lidar, chilled-mirror hygrometers, surface meteorological observation station (SMOS) towers, a variety of microwave radiometers, and global positioning systems (GPS). The current experiment has two goals. The first is to characterize the accuracy of the water vapor measurements, especially the daily operational observations being made around the clock in the lower levels of the atmosphere at the CART site. The second goal is to develop techniques for improving the accuracy of these observations in order to obtain the best possible water vapor measurements under a wide range of atmospheric conditions.

  19. CARS Temperature Measurements in Turbulent and Supersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Antcliff, R. R.; Smith, M. W.; Cutler, A. D.; Diskin, G. S.; Northam, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center ( LaRC) Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) systems for measurements of temperature in a turbulent subsonic or supersonic reacting hydrogen-air environment. Spectra data provides temperature data when compared to a precalculated library of nitrogen CARS spectra. Library validity was confirmed by comparing CARS temperatures derived through the library with three different techniques for determination of the temperature in hydrogen-air combustion and an electrically heated furnace. The CARS system has been used to survey temperature profiles in the simulated flow of a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) model. Measurement results will be discussed.

  20. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-07-03

    ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite--Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and

  1. Measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility in Support of Global Security Mission Space

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Mayo, Douglas R.; Herrera, Gary D.; McLaughlin, Anastasia D.; Montoya, Charles M.; Quihuis, Becky A.; Trujillo, Julio B.; Van Pelt, Craig E.; Wenz, Tracy R.

    2012-07-13

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55 is one of a few nuclear facilities in the United States where Research & Development measurements can be performed on Safeguards Category-I (CAT-I) quantities of nuclear material. This capability allows us to incorporate measurements of CAT-IV through CAT-I materials as a component of detector characterization campaigns and training courses conducted at Los Alamos. A wider range of measurements can be supported. We will present an overview of recent measurements conducted in support of nuclear emergency response, nuclear counterterrorism, and international and domestic safeguards. This work was supported by the NNSA Office of Counterterrorism.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-02-16

    The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

  3. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  4. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  6. Online measurement of dose and dose distribution at bremsstrahlung facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, V. L.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Bukin, A. D.; Voronin, L. A.; Lukin, A. N.; Sidorov, A. V.

    2004-09-01

    A real-time measurement system of the spatial dose distribution is developed and realized for monitoring the bremsstrahlung flow generated on X-ray target by 5 MeV 50 kW electron accelerator. The sensors of the system consist of semiconductor diodes. The beam target and electron accelerator (ILU-10) are briefly described. The practice of using the system in the experimental and start-up procedure is included.

  7. Technical note: A facility for respiration measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Machado, F S; Tomich, T R; Ferreira, A L; Cavalcanti, L F L; Campos, M M; Paiva, C A V; Ribas, M N; Pereira, L G R

    2016-06-01

    A respiration system consisting of 4 climate-controlled chambers and 1 set of flowmeters and analyzers was constructed and validated. Each chamber had volume of 21.10m(3) (3.68×2.56×2.24m) and was made from steel with double-glazed windows on either side enabling visual contact between animals. The chambers are independently climate-controlled and can maintain temperature and relative humidity in a range from 5 to 45°C and 30 to 80%, respectively. A flow generator and mass flowmeter continuously pull air from each chamber and a slight negative pressure inside the chamber is ensured. Air from all chambers and ambient air share a common gas analysis and data acquisition system for monitoring O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations over the measurement period, with the cycle time set to 20min. Analyzers are regularly calibrated and the chambers have mean recoveries of 99.0 and 98.0% for CO2 and CH4, respectively. The chambers are equipped with infrared cameras and electronic feed and water bins for intake measurements, as well as sensors for monitoring animal position and heart rate. Data acquisition and analysis software is used to calculate the rate of consumption of O2 and production of CO2 and CH4. The dynamic respiration measurements are integrated with feed intake data and other sensors. The daily gas exchanges are estimated by integration to determine methane emission and heat production. We conducted a trial with 12 lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gyr crossbred dairy cows (6 multiparous and 6 primiparous) under 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum or restricted) to validate the system. Two 22-h respiration measurements were obtained from each cow. Restricted-fed cows showed lower values for milk yield, methane emission, and heat production compared with ad libitum-fed animals. We found no difference between groups for CH4 produced per kilogram of dry matter intake. Repeatability for CH4 emission and heat production was high (0.97 and 0.92, respectively). The respiration

  8. Beam dynamics simulations and measurements at the Project X Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Scarpine, V.E.; Webber, R.C.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X, under study at Fermilab, is a multitask high-power superconducting RF proton beam facility, aiming to provide high intensity protons for rare processes experiments and nuclear physics at low energy, and simultaneously for the production of neutrinos, as well as muon beams in the long term. A beam test facility - former known as High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) - is under commissioning for testing critical components of the project, e.g. dynamics and diagnostics at low beam energies, broadband beam chopping, RF power generation and distribution. In this paper we describe the layout of the test facility and present beam dynamics simulations and measurements.

  9. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  10. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  11. Measurement of suction and discharge pressure pulsations in waterflood facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wurzbach, W.M.; Happel, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    Recent mechanical problems with reciprocating water injection pumps prompted a study of suction and discharge pressure conditions in the Red River Bull Bayou Unit, Red River Parish, Louisiana. Frequent failures in plunger pump components and discharge lines were occurring at several injection sites within the unit. Electronic surveillance equipment consisting of an oscilloscope and pressure transducers was utilized to locate and identify large suction and discharge pressure pulses. The severity of these pulses could not be identified with standard pressure gauges. The data obtained with the electronic equipment indicated that cavitation was occurring on the suction side of the pumps due to insufficient net positive suction head. The large pressure pulsations caused by this cavitation problem were carried through the pump and amplified on the discharge side. This resulted in excessive vibration and equipment overload. Subsequent changes in the suction and discharge piping design eliminated cavitation and effectively reduced the peak pressure pulses. These piping changes were done systematically to measure the effect of each change individually. The resulting measurements gave better insight to future piping design for both suction and discharge installations.

  12. CARS temperature measurements in a hypersonic propulsion test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. B.; Cutler, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Static-temperature measurements performed in a reacting vitiated air-hydrogen Mach-2 flow in a duct in Test Cell 2 at NASA LaRC by using a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system are discussed. The hypersonic propulsion Test Cell 2 hardware is outlined with emphasis on optical access ports and safety features in the design of the Test Cell. Such design considerations as vibration, noise, contamination from flow field or atmospheric-borne dust, unwanted laser- and electrically-induced combustion, and movement of the sampling volume in the flow are presented. The CARS system is described, and focus is placed on the principle and components of system-to-monochromator signal coupling. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting-flow region are presented for three stations, and it is noted that the measurements reveal such features in the flow as maximum temperature near the model wall in the region of the injector footprint.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Performance measures in dialysis facilities: what is the goal?

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Fredric O

    2015-01-07

    As the care of patients gets more focused and directed by predetermined standards of care, physicians must not lose sight of the primary focus of their treatment goal-maximizing the quality of life of each patient. Physicians must recognize the uniqueness of each individual's experience and make every effort to understand the domains that are of concern to each patient. In addition, physicians must make sure that this focus is not obscured by the setting of arbitrary standards and targets that lend themselves to easy assessments and reporting by simple laboratory measures or computer-generated data. Finally, physicians must focus on modifying and tailoring treatment to maximize each patient's health-related quality of life.

  15. Performance Measures in Dialysis Facilities: What Is the Goal?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As the care of patients gets more focused and directed by predetermined standards of care, physicians must not lose sight of the primary focus of their treatment goal—maximizing the quality of life of each patient. Physicians must recognize the uniqueness of each individual’s experience and make every effort to understand the domains that are of concern to each patient. In addition, physicians must make sure that this focus is not obscured by the setting of arbitrary standards and targets that lend themselves to easy assessments and reporting by simple laboratory measures or computer-generated data. Finally, physicians must focus on modifying and tailoring treatment to maximize each patient’s health-related quality of life. PMID:25189927

  16. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-10

    Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-04-29

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently announced the development of El Nino conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean near the South American coastline. Scientists detected a 4 F increase in the sea-surface temperatures during February. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, NOAA administrator and Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, indicated that this warming is a sign that the Pacific Ocean is heading toward an El Nino condition. Although it is too early to predict how strong the El Nino will become or the conditions it will bring to the United States, Lautenbacher said that the country is likely to feel the effects as soon as midsummer (Figure 1). During the last El Nino in 1997-1998, the United States experienced strong weather impacts. Even though researchers don't understand what causes the onset of El Nino, they do recognize what to expect once development has begun. Scientists can monitor the development of El Nino through NOAA's advanced global climate monitoring system of polar-orbiting satellites and 72 ocean buoys moored across the equator in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting measurements of surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperatures are made available to scientists on a real-time basis, allowing for timely monitoring and predictions. This complex monitoring array enabled NOAA to predict the 1997-1998 El Nino six months in advance.

  18. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, Olin, Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. Burt; Cutler, A. D.; Capriotti, D. P.; Taylor, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Nonintrusive diagnostic measurements were performed in the supersonic reacting flow of the Hypersonic Propulsion Test Cell 2 at NASA-Langley. A Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) system was assembled specifically for the test cell environment. System design considerations were: (1) test cell noise and vibration; (2) contamination from flow field or atmospheric borne dust; (3) unwanted laser or electrically induced combustion (inside or outside the duct); (4) efficient signal collection; (5) signal splitting to span the wide dynamic range present throughout the flow field; (6) movement of the sampling volume in the flow; and (7) modification of the scramjet model duct to permit optical access to the reacting flow with the CARS system. The flow in the duct was a nominal Mach 2 flow with static pressure near one atmosphere. A single perpendicular injector introduced hydrogen into the flow behind a rearward facing step. CARS data was obtained in three planes downstream of the injection region. At least 20 CARS data points were collected at each of the regularly spaced sampling locations in each data plane. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting flow region are presented.

  19. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-09-03

    With the end of summer drawing near, the fall songbird migration season will soon begin. Scientists with the ARM Program will be able to observe the onset of the migration season as interference in the radar wind profiler (RWP) data. An RWP measures vertical profiles of wind and temperature directly above the radar from approximately 300 feet to 3 miles above the ground. The RWP accomplishes this by sending a pulse of electromagnetic energy skyward. Under normal conditions, the energy is scattered by targets in the atmosphere. Targets generally consist of atmospheric irregularities such as variations in temperature, humidity, and pressure over relatively short distances. During the spring and fall bird migration seasons, RWP beam signals are susceptible to overflying birds. The radar beams do not harm the birds, but the birds' presence hampers data collection by providing false targets to reflect the RWP beam, introducing errors into the data. Because of the wavelength of the molar beam, the number of individuals, and the small size of songbirds' bodies (compared to the larger geese or hawks), songbirds are quite likely to be sampled by the radar. Migrating birds usually fly with the prevailing wind, making their travel easier. As a result, winds from the south are ''enhanced'' or overestimated in the spring as the migrating birds travel northward, and winds from the north are overestimated in the fall as birds make their way south. This fact is easily confirmed by comparison of RWP wind data to wind data gathered by weather balloons, which are not affected by birds.

  20. New opacity measurement principle for LMJ-PETAL laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pennec, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Ducret, J.-E.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar seismology reveals some interior properties of thousands of solar-type stars but the solar seismic sound speed stays puzzling since a decade as it disagrees with the Standard Solar Model (SSM) prediction. One of the explanations of this disagreement may be found in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. As the same framework is used for other stars, it is important to check precisely the reliability of the interacting cross sections of photons with each species in order to ensure the energy transport for temperature T > 2-106 K and density ρ > 0.2 g/cm3. In this paper, we propose a new technique to reach the domain of temperature and density found in the solar radiative interior. This technique called the Double Ablation Front (DAF) is based on a high conversion of the laser energy into X-rays thanks to moderated Z material irradiated by laser intensity between 1.5 × 1015 W/cm2 and 4 × 1015 W/cm2. This high conversion creates, in addition to the electronic front a second ablation front in the moderated Z material. Between the two fronts there is a plateau of density and temperature that we exploit to heat a sample of iron or of oxide. The first simulations realized with the hydrodynamic code CHIC show that this technique allows to reach conditions equivalent to half the radiative zone of the Sun with high stability both in time and space. We examine the possibility to measure both iron and oxygen absorption spectra.

  1. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schietinger, T.; Pedrozzi, M.; Aiba, M.; Arsov, V.; Bettoni, S.; Beutner, B.; Calvi, M.; Craievich, P.; Dehler, M.; Frei, F.; Ganter, R.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Janousch, M.; Kaiser, M.; Keil, B.; Löhl, F.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ozkan Loch, C.; Peier, P.; Prat, E.; Raguin, J.-Y.; Reiche, S.; Schilcher, T.; Wiegand, P.; Zimoch, E.; Anicic, D.; Armstrong, D.; Baldinger, M.; Baldinger, R.; Bertrand, A.; Bitterli, K.; Bopp, M.; Brands, H.; Braun, H. H.; Brönnimann, M.; Brunnenkant, I.; Chevtsov, P.; Chrin, J.; Citterio, A.; Csatari Divall, M.; Dach, M.; Dax, A.; Ditter, R.; Divall, E.; Falone, A.; Fitze, H.; Geiselhart, C.; Guetg, M. W.; Hämmerli, F.; Hauff, A.; Heiniger, M.; Higgs, C.; Hugentobler, W.; Hunziker, S.; Janser, G.; Kalantari, B.; Kalt, R.; Kim, Y.; Koprek, W.; Korhonen, T.; Krempaska, R.; Laznovsky, M.; Lehner, S.; Le Pimpec, F.; Lippuner, T.; Lutz, H.; Mair, S.; Marcellini, F.; Marinkovic, G.; Menzel, R.; Milas, N.; Pal, T.; Pollet, P.; Portmann, W.; Rezaeizadeh, A.; Ritt, S.; Rohrer, M.; Schär, M.; Schebacher, L.; Scherrer, St.; Schlott, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schulz, L.; Smit, B.; Stadler, M.; Steffen, B.; Stingelin, L.; Sturzenegger, W.; Treyer, D. M.; Trisorio, A.; Tron, W.; Vicario, C.; Zennaro, R.; Zimoch, D.

    2016-10-01

    The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free-Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including a transverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunches of up to 200 pC charge and up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of an FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measurements performed during the operation of the test facility, including the results of the test of an in-vacuum undulator prototype generating radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet and optical range.

  2. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.,ed.

    2001-09-04

    Summer 2001 Heat Wave--This summer has proved to be downright hot in the Southern Great Plains states. The temperatures soared to record-setting levels. The state of Oklahoma saw its fourth hottest July since 1895, while Kansas experienced its seventh warmest. The average temperature throughout most of Oklahoma for the month of July was 2.5-5.5 F above normal. The highest temperature recorded in the region during July was 107 F in Oklahoma City. Wichita, Kansas, had 17 July days with recorded temperatures of 100 F or above, while Medicine Lodge, Kansas, had 21. In addition, Oklahoma suffered its ninth driest July, with precipitation levels much below normal. Kansas fared better, receiving above-normal precipitation amounts. Nevertheless, regional July rainfall averaged 1.5-3.0 inches below normal. Not only is a summer heat wave uncomfortable, but it can also be dangerous. The National Weather Service (NWS) has increased efforts to alert the public to the hazards of heat waves. Prolonged excessive heat and humidity stress the human body and can, in some cases, cause death. The NWS has devised a heat index that is a measure of the heat we perceive as a function of air temperature and humidity. A heat index chart displays different zones from caution to extreme danger, much like a wind chill index chart used in the winter. The values represent conditions of light winds and shade. Thus, in full sunshine heat index values can increase by 15 F. Exposure to winds in hot, dry weather can be equally dangerous. The NWS sends out alerts when the heat index is expected to reach values with significant potential impact. The danger of heat-related illness increases with the number of consecutive days with high heat and humidity levels. Heat and humidity take their toll faster on the elderly, small children, and those with respiratory health problems. Heat-related illnesses come in several forms with different symptoms. From common sunburns to heat stroke, these heat disorders

  3. Does Nursing Facility Use of Habilitation Therapy Improve Performance on Quality Measures?

    PubMed

    Fitzler, Sandra; Raia, Paul; Buckley, Fredrick O; Wang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the project, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Innovation study, was to evaluate the impact on 12 quality measures including 10 Minimum Data Set (MDS) publicly reported measures and 2 nursing home process measures using habilitation therapy techniques and a behavior team to manage dementia-related behaviors. A prospective design was used to assess the changes in the measures. A total of 30 Massachusetts nursing homes participated in the project over a 12-month period. Project participation required the creation of an interdisciplinary behavior team, habilitation therapy training, facility visit by the program coordinator, attendance at bimonthly support and sharing calls, and monthly collection of process measure data. Participating facilities showed improvement in 9 of the 12 reported measures. Findings indicate potential quality improvement in having nursing homes learn habilitation therapy techniques and know how to use the interdisciplinary team to manage problem behaviors.

  4. National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, R A; Glebov, V Y; Moran, M J; McNaney, J M; Kilkenny, J D; Eckart, M; Zacharias, R A; Haslam, J J; Clancy, T J; Yeoman, M F; Warwas, D P; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C; Knauer, J; Horsfield, C J

    2010-05-13

    The first three of eighteen neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) channels have been installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The role of these detectors includes yield, temperature, and bang time measurements. This article focuses on nTOF data analysis and quality of results obtained for the first set of experiments to use all 192 NIF beams. Targets produced up to 2 x 10{sup 10} 2.45-MeV neutrons for initial testing of the nTOF detectors. Differences in neutron scattering at the OMEGA laser facility where the detectors were calibrated and at NIF result in different response functions at the two facilities. Monte Carlo modeling shows this difference. The nTOF performance on these early experiments indicates the nTOF system with its full complement of detectors should perform well in future measurements of yield, temperature, and bang time.

  5. Development of a High Accuracy Angular Measurement System for Langley Research Center Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Brett; Yu, Si-bok; Rhew, Ray D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Modern experimental and test activities demand innovative and adaptable procedures to maximize data content and quality while working within severely constrained budgetary and facility resource environments. This report describes development of a high accuracy angular measurement capability for NASA Langley Research Center hypersonic wind tunnel facilities to overcome these deficiencies. Specifically, utilization of micro-electro-mechanical sensors including accelerometers and gyros, coupled with software driven data acquisition hardware, integrated within a prototype measurement system, is considered. Development methodology addresses basic design requirements formulated from wind tunnel facility constraints and current operating procedures, as well as engineering and scientific test objectives. Description of the analytical framework governing relationships between time dependent multi-axis acceleration and angular rate sensor data and the desired three dimensional Eulerian angular state of the test model is given. Calibration procedures for identifying and estimating critical parameters in the sensor hardware is also addressed.

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.310 - What measures must Federal agencies take to improve the utilization of parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What measures...

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.310 - What measures must Federal agencies take to improve the utilization of parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What measures...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.310 - What measures must Federal agencies take to improve the utilization of parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What measures...

  9. Simultaneous Spectral Albedo Measurements Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) Central Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph J.; Min, Qilong; Barnard, James C.; Marchand, Roger T.; Pilewskie, Peter

    2003-04-30

    In this study, a data analysis is performed to determine the area-averaged, spectral albedo at ARM's SGP central facility site. The spectral albedo is then fed into radiation transfer models to show that the diffuse discrepancy is diminished when the spectral albedo is used (as opposed to using the broadband albedo).

  10. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  11. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  12. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  13. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  14. ADVANCED REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, TRA660, INTERIOR. REACTOR INSIDE TANK. METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADVANCED REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, TRA-660, INTERIOR. REACTOR INSIDE TANK. METAL WORK PLATFORM ABOVE. THE REACTOR WAS IN A SMALL WATER-FILLED POOL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 66-6373. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1966 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. Temperature and pressure measurement techniques for an advanced turbine test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, F. G.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    A high pressure, high-temperature turbine test facility constructed for use in turbine cooling research is described. Several recently developed temperature and pressure measuring techniques are used in this facility. The measurement techniques, their status, previous applications and some results are discussed. Noncontact surface temperature measurements are made by optical methods. Radiation pyrometry principles combined with photoelectric scanning are used for rotating components and infrared photography for stationary components. Contact (direct) temperature and pressure measurements on rotating components are expected to be handled with an 80 channel rotary data package which mounts on and rotates with the turbine shaft at speeds up to 17,500 rpm. The data channels are time-division multiplexed and converted to digital words in the data package. A rotary transformer couples power and digital data to and from the shaft.

  17. Upgrade of the Goddard Space Flight Center's Mass Properties Measuring Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brian P.; McLeod, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has a Mass Properties Measuring Facility (MPMF), which is used to measure weight, center of gravity, moment of inertia, and product of inertia of satellites and space flight hardware. The system was originally purchased more than 30 years ago. While the MPMF was still in good mechanical condition, the measurement and control subsystem had begun to experience more frequent component failures. Many of the outdated, discrete components in the system are no longer available for replacement. A decision was made to upgrade the measurement and control subsystem of the MPMF to improve its reliability and reduce the chance of component failures leading to extended facility outages. This paper will describe details of the upgraded subsystems and summarize the new performance capabilities of the system.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  20. Hot electron measurements in ignition relevant Hohlraums on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Dewald, E L; Thomas, C; Hunter, S; Divol, L; Meezan, N; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Bond, E; Kline, J L; Celeste, J; Bradley, D; Bell, P; Kauffman, R L; Kilkenny, J; Landen, O L

    2010-10-01

    On the National Ignition Facility (NIF), hot electrons generated in laser heated Hohlraums are inferred from the >20 keV bremsstrahlung emission measured with the time integrated FFLEX broadband spectrometer. New high energy (>200 keV) time resolved channels were added to infer the generated >170 keV hot electrons that can cause ignition capsule preheat. First hot electron measurements in near ignition scaled Hohlraums heated by 96-192 NIF laser beams are presented.

  1. Lidar based emissions measurement at the whole facility scale: Method and error analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Gail E.; Marchant, Christian C.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Ahlstrom, Douglas J.; Moore, Kori D.; Jones, Derek S.; Wilkerson, Thomas; Hipps, Larry E.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Prueger, John H.; Pfeiffer, Richard L.

    2009-02-01

    Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regional, well-mixed aerosols are challenged by changing wind directions, disrupted flow fields caused by structures, varied surface temperatures, and the episodic nature of the sources found at these facilities. We describe a three-wavelength lidar-based method, which, when added to a standard point sampler array, provides unambiguous measurement and characterization of the particulate emissions from agricultural production operations in near real time. Point-sampled data are used to provide the aerosol characterization needed for the particle concentration and size fraction calibration, while the lidar provides 3D mapping of particulate concentrations entering, around, and leaving the facility. Differences between downwind and upwind measurements provide an integrated aerosol concentration profile, which, when multiplied by the wind speed profile, produces the facility source flux. This approach assumes only conservation of mass, eliminating reliance on boundary layer theory. We describe the method, examine measurement error, and demonstrate the approach using data collected over a range of agricultural operations, including a swine grow-finish operation, an almond harvest, and a cotton gin emission study.

  2. 49 CFR Table 1 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) 1 Table 1 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA)...

  3. 49 CFR Table 1 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA) (in Candela/Lux/Meter2) Requirement for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) 1 Table 1 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection (RA)...

  4. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  5. Beta particle measurement and dosimetry Requirements at NRC-licensed facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Endres, G.W.R.; Fox, R.A.; Roberson, P.L.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1984-08-01

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest Laboratroy (PNL) have conducted beta radiation measurements under laboratory and field conditions to assess the degree of the measurement problem and offer suggestions for possible remedies. The primary measurement systems selected for use in this study were the silicon (Si) surface barrier spectrometer system and the multielement beta dosimeter. Three boiling water reactors (BWRs), two pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and one fuel fabrication facility were visited during the course of the study. Although beta fields from cobalt-60 were the most common type found at commercial reactor facilities, higher energy beta fields were found at locations associated with spent fuel handling, liquid radioactive waste, and BWR turbine components. Commercially-available dosimeters and survey instruments were used to measure the same laboratory and licensee facility beta fields characterized with PNL's active and passive spectrometers. A prototype spectrometer was also used in the laboratory measurements. The commercial instruments and dosimeters used in this study typically responded low to the beta fields measured, especially where maximum beta energies were less than approximately 500 keV.

  6. The CERN n_TOF facility: a unique tool for nuclear data measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia-Rios, A. A.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Gonzàlez, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Göbel, K.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-06-01

    The study of the resonant structures in neutron-nucleus cross-sections, and therefore of the compound-nucleus reaction mechanism, requires spectroscopic measurements to determine with high accuracy the energy of the neutron interacting with the material under study. To this purpose, the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF has been operating since 2001 at CERN. Its characteristics, such as the high intensity instantaneous neutron flux, the wide energy range from thermal to few GeV, and the very good energy resolution, are perfectly suited to perform high-quality measurements of neutron-induced reaction cross sections. The precise and accurate knowledge of these cross sections plays a fundamental role in nuclear technologies, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear physics. Two different measuring stations are available at the n_TOF facility, called EAR1 and EAR2, with different characteristics of intensity of the neutron flux and energy resolution. These experimental areas, combined with advanced detection systems lead to a great flexibility in performing challenging measurement of high precision and accuracy, and allow the investigation isotopes with very low cross sections, or available only in small quantities, or with very high specific activity. The characteristics and performances of the two experimental areas of the n_TOF facility will be presented, together with the most important measurements performed to date and their physics case. In addition, the significant upcoming measurements will be introduced.

  7. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J; Chandler, G A; Hahn, K D; Nelson, A J; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M; McWatters, B R; Bleuel, D L; Yeamans, C B; Knittel, K M; Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Petrasso, R D; Styron, J D

    2012-10-01

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β(+)) and (65)Cu(n,2n)( 64) Cu(β(+)), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI γ-γ coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel ρR to uncertainties as low as 5%.

  8. Setting up a Rayleigh Scattering Based Flow Measuring System in a Large Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Gomez, Carlos R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering based air density measurement system has been built in a large nozzle testing facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The technique depends on the light scattering by gas molecules present in air; no artificial seeding is required. Light from a single mode, continuous wave laser was transmitted to the nozzle facility by optical fiber, and light scattered by gas molecules, at various points along the laser beam, is collected and measured by photon-counting electronics. By placing the laser beam and collection optics on synchronized traversing units, the point measurement technique is made effective for surveying density variation over a cross-section of the nozzle plume. Various difficulties associated with dust particles, stray light, high noise level and vibration are discussed. Finally, a limited amount of data from an underexpanded jet are presented and compared with expected variations to validate the technique.

  9. Analysis of Fluctuating Static Pressure Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igoe, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were taken with flush-mounted, high-frequency response pressure transducers at 11 locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) across the complete operating range of this wind tunnel. Measurements were taken at test-section Mach numbers from 0.1 to 1.2, at pressures from 1 to 8.6 atm, and at temperatures from ambient to -250 F, which resulted in dynamic flow disturbance measurements at the highest Reynolds numbers available in a transonic ground test facility. Tests were also made by independent variation of the Mach number, the Reynolds number, or the fan drive power while the other two parameters were held constant, which for the first time resulted in a distinct separation of the effects of these three important parameters.

  10. A facile electron microscopy method for measuring precipitate volume fractions in AlCuMg alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.Q.; Shi, M.J.; Chen, J.H. Wang, S.B.; Liu, C.H.; Wu, C.L.

    2012-07-15

    Precipitate volume fraction is an important parameter to estimate the strength of precipitation-hardened metals. In this study, a facile method was applied to measure the precipitate volume fractions in an age-hardened AlCuMg alloy. In this method, the precipitate volume fraction values can be obtained by multiplying the volume precipitate number densities with the averaged precipitate volumes, which can be easily measured in scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Compared with the conventional method, in which the specimen thickness has to be measured in transmission electron microscopy, the method proposed in this study is more facile to perform. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have proposed a facile method to measure precipitate volume fractions for precipitation-hardened metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique works well for the square-shaped {theta} Prime -phase nano-precipitates in 2xxx aluminum alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interesting is that the proposed method is easy for materials scientists and engineers to perform.

  11. Groundwater flow velocity measurements in a sinkhole at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Facility, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, S.; Gibson, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1992, a sinkhole was discovered above a Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana. The oil is stored in an old salt mine located within a salt dome. In order to assess the hydrologic significance of the sink hole, an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor was deployed within a sand-filled conduit in the salt dome directly beneath the sinkhole. The flow sensor is a recently developed instrument which uses a thermal perturbation technique to measure the magnitude and direction of the full 3-dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in saturated, permeable materials. The flow sensor measured substantial groundwater flow directed vertically downward into the salt dome. The data obtained with the flow sensor provided critical evidence which was instrumental in assessing the significance of the sinkhole in terms of the integrity of the oil storage facility.

  12. Passive and Active Radiation Measurements Capability at the INL Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Neibert; John Zabriskie; Collin Knight; James L. Jones

    2010-12-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility is a Department of Energy facility located in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex. It contains various nuclear and non-nuclear materials that are available to support many radiation measurement assessments. User-selected, single material, nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be readily utilized with ZPPR clamshell containers with almost no criticality concerns. If custom, multi-material configurations are desired, the ZPPR clamshell or an approved aluminum Inspection Object (IO) Box container may be utilized, yet each specific material configuration will require a criticality assessment. As an example of the specialized material configurations possible, the National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of Nuclear Verification (NNSA/NA 243) has sponsored the assembly of six material configurations. These are shown in the Appendixes and have been designated for semi-permanent storage that can be available to support various radiation measurement applications.

  13. Neutron dose rate at the SwissFEL injector test facility: first measurements.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, E; Frey, N; Fuchs, A; Harm, C; Hödlmoser, H; Lüscher, R; Mayer, S; Morath, O; Philipp, R; Rehmann, A; Schietinger, T

    2014-10-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the new SwissFEL Free Electron Laser facility is currently in the design phase. It is foreseen to accelerate electrons up to a maximum energy of 7 GeV with a pulsed time structure. An injector test facility is operated at a maximum energy of 300 MeV and serves as the principal test and demonstration plant for the SwissFEL project. Secondary radiation is created in unavoidable interactions of the primary beam with beamline components. The resulting ambient dose-equivalent rate due to neutrons was measured along the beamline with different commercially available survey instruments. The present study compares the readings of these neutron detectors (one of them is specifically designed for measurements in pulsed fields). The experiments were carried out in both, a normal and a diagnostic mode of operation of the injector.

  14. Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 1: Test facility and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.; Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    A special test facility was developed to characterize frost growing on heat exchanger fins where the cold surfaces and the air supply conditions were similar to those experienced in freezers, i.e., cold surface temperatures ranging from {minus}35 C to {minus}40 C, air supply temperatures from {minus}10 C to {minus}20 C, and 80% to 100% relative humidity (RH). This test facility included a test section with removable fins to measure the frost height and mass concentration. Frost height on heat exchanger fins was measured using a new automated laser scanning system to measure the height of frost and its distribution on selected fins. The increase in air pressure loss resulting from frost growth on the fins was measured directly in the test loop. The frost mass accumulation distribution was measured for each test using special pre-etched fins that could be easily subdivided and weighed. The total heat rate was measured using a heat flux meter. These frost-measuring instruments were calibrated and the uncertainty of each is stated.

  15. Fabrication of corner cube array retro-reflective structure with DLP-based 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the fabrication of a corner cube array retro-reflective structure is presented by using DLP-based 3D printing technology. In this additive manufacturing technology a pattern of a cube corner array is designed in a computer and sliced with specific software. The image of each slice is then projected from the bottom side of a reservoir, containing UV cure resin, utilizing a DLP video projector. The projected area is cured and attached to a base plate. This process is repeated until the entire part is made. The best orientation of the printing process and the effect of layer thicknesses on the surface finish of the cube has been investigated. The thermal reflow surface finishing and replication with soft molding has also been presented in this article.

  16. Temperature Measurement in PV Facilities on a Per-Panel Scale

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Andújar, José M.; Enrique, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

  17. Position measurements for the isotope production facility and the switchyard kicker upgrade projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Barr, D. S.; O'Hara, J. F.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M. W.; Martinez, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is installing two beam lines to both improve operational tuning and provide new capabilities within the facility. The Isotope Production Facility (IPF) will provide isotopes for medical purposes by using the H' beam spur at 100 MeV and the Switchyard Kicker Upgrade (SYK) will allow the LANSCE 800-MeV H beam to be rapidly switched between various beam lines within the facility. The beam position measurements for both of these beam lines uses a standard micro-stripline beam position monitor (BPM) with both a 50-mm and 75-mm radius. The cable plant is unique in that it unambiguously provides a method of verifying the operation of the complete position measurement. The processing electronics module uses a log ratio technique with error corrections such that it has a dynamic range of -12 dBm to -85 dBm with errors less than 0.15 dB within this range. This paper will describe the primary components of these measurement systems and provide initial data of their operation.

  18. A Neutron Source Facility for Neutron Cross-Section Measurements on Radioactive Targets at RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E; Bernstein, L; Rusnak, B; Berio, R

    2003-05-20

    The stockpile stewardship program is interested in neutron cross-section measurements on nuclei that are a few nucleons away from stability. Since neutron targets do not exist, radioactive targets are the only way to directly perform these measurements. This requires a facility that can provide high production rates for these short-lived nuclei as well as a source of neutrons. The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) promises theses high production rates. Thus, adding a co-located neutron source facility to the RIA project baseline would allow these neutron cross-section measurements to be made. A conceptual design for such a neutron source has been developed, which would use two accelerators, a Dynamitron and a linac, to create the neutrons through a variety of reactions (d-d, d-t, deuteron break-up, p-Li). This range of reactions is needed in order to provide the desired energy range from 10's of keV to 20 MeV. The facility would also have hot cells to perform chemistry on the radioactive material both before and after neutron irradiation. The present status of this design and direction of future work will be discussed.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operation quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2010-10-26

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to

  20. Magnetic probe measurements of the current sheath on the PF-3 facility

    SciTech Connect

    Krauz, V. I.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Myalton, V. V.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Koidan, V. S.; Mokeev, A. N.

    2010-11-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the dynamics of the current sheath (CS) on the PF-3 plasma focus facility. The parameters of the sheath, including the current distribution in it, were measured using absolutely calibrated magnetic probes installed at different positions with respect to the facility axis and the anode surface. The CS dynamics in discharges operating in argon and neon was investigated, and the skin depth in different stages of the discharge was determined. One of the probes was installed at a distance of {approx}2 cm from the facility axis, which made it possible to estimate the efficiency of current transfer to the region of pinch formation. Operating modes were obtained in which the current dynamics detected by magnetic probes at different distances from the axis agreed well with the dynamics of the total discharge current until the instant of singularity in the current time derivative. It is shown that shunting breakdowns can lead to the formation of closed current loops. The shunting of the discharge current by the residual plasma is directly related to the efficiency of snowplowing of the working gas by the CS as it propagates from the insulator toward the facility axis.

  1. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-11-13

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas.

  2. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  3. Design and Development of a Real-Time Model Attitude Measurement System for Hypersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.

    2004-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and applies photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw variables. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, development, and testing process, including lighting, vibration, operational range and optical access is included. Initial measurement results from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.

  4. Design and Development of a Real-Time Model Attitude Measurement System for Hypersonic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and applies photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw variables. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, development, and testing process, including lighting, vibration, operational range and optical access is included. Initial measurement results from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.

  5. Calibration of stack monitors for measurement of noble gases in nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Petr; Dryak, Pavel; Suran, Jiri; Gudelis, Arunas

    2012-09-01

    In nuclear facilities stack monitors are used for the measurement of the volumetric activity of noble gases. Spectrometric measurement is needed because the content of stack effluents is always a mixture of radionuclides. In some nuclear power plants new types of monitors were installed based on HPGe detectors. For efficiency calibration a standard with the radionuclide Xe-127 was developed and calibration curve constructed in the energy range 81 keV-1293 keV. Experiental efficiencies were checked using an MC model.

  6. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  7. Multisphere neutron spectroscopy measurements at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hajnal, F.

    1993-06-01

    Multisphere neutron spectroscopy methods are applied to measure representative working fields within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility. This facility hosts dynamic processes, which include the fabrication of {sup 238}Pu heat sources for radioisotope generators used to power space equipment and a variety of plutonium research programs that involve recovery, hydrofluorination, and metal production. Neutron fluence per unit lethargy, as a function of neutron energy measured for locations throughout this facility, are described. Dosimeter/remmeter response functions [e.g., determined for a 22.8-cm-diameter neutron rem detector (NRD), an Anderson/Braun-type neutron ``Snoopy`` monitor, track-etch CR-39, BDI-100 bubble detectors, and Kodak type A nuclear track emulsion film, (NTA)] are folded into these spectra to calculate absolute response values of counts, tracks, or bubbles per unit-dose equivalent. The relative response values per unit- dose equivalent for bare and albedo {sup 6}LiF-based thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are also calculated to estimate response scenarios encountered with use of the LANL-TLD. These results are further compared to more conventional methods of estimating neutron spectral energies such as the ``9-to-3 ratio`` method.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 – March 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - October 1 - December 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2009-01-15

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-01-08

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - January 1 - March 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-06-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-03-17

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - July 1 - September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-07-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2006-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-04-13

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2012-01-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-10-10

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility.

    PubMed

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  4. Density fluctuation measurements on the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) using a two-frequency reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anabitarte, E. . Inst. de Energias Renovables); Hanson, G.R.; Harris, J.H.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bell, J.D.; Dunlap, J.L.; Hidalgo, C.; Thomas, C.E.; Uckan, T. )

    1990-01-01

    A microwave reflectometer system has been installed and operated on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) to measure density fluctuations. This system consists of two individual reflectometers that use the same antenna system and operate in the 30- to 40-GHz band. This arrangement allows operation at two frequencies along the same radial chord so that radial coherence measurements are possible. During the initial operating period of the reflectometer, a correlation was observed between a change in the edge density fluctuation spectrum and a transition to improved confinement. Recently, local measurements of the density fluctuation spectra in electron-cyclotron-heated (ECH) plasmas has been shown to agree with Langmuir probe measurements at the edge. Furthermore, structure in the spectra has been observed in some ECH plasmas. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The effect of sensor sheltering and averaging techniques on wind measurements at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents results of a field study of the effect of sheltering of wind sensors by nearby foliage on the validity of wind measurements at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Standard measurements are made at one second intervals from 30-feet (9.1-m) towers located 500 feet (152 m) from the SLF centerline. The centerline winds are not exactly the same as those measured by the towers. A companion study, Merceret (1995), quantifies the differences as a function of statistics of the observed winds and distance between the measurements and points of interest. This work examines the effect of nearby foliage on the accuracy of the measurements made by any one sensor, and the effects of averaging on interpretation of the measurements. The field program used logarithmically spaced portable wind towers to measure wind speed and direction over a range of conditions as a function of distance from the obstructing foliage. Appropriate statistics were computed. The results suggest that accurate measurements require foliage be cut back to OFCM standards. Analysis of averaging techniques showed that there is no significant difference between vector and scalar averages. Longer averaging periods reduce measurement error but do not otherwise change the measurement in reasonably steady flow regimes. In rapidly changing conditions, shorter averaging periods may be required to capture trends.

  6. Measuring the quality of child health care at first-level facilities.

    PubMed

    Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Pariyo, George; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Amaral, João; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Sound policy and program decisions require timely information based on valid and relevant measures. Recent findings suggest that despite the availability of effective and affordable guidelines for the management of sick children in first-level health facilities in developing countries, the quality and coverage of these services remains low. We report on the development and evaluation of a set of summary indices reflecting the quality of care received by sick children in first-level facilities. The indices were first developed through a consultative process to achieve face validity by involving technical experts and policymakers. The definition of evaluation measures for many public health programs stops at this point. We added a second phase in which standard statistical techniques were used to evaluate the content and construct validity of the indices and their reliability, drawing on data sets from the multi-country evaluation of integrated management of childhood illness (MCE) in Brazil, Tanzania and Uganda. The statistical evaluation identified important conceptual errors in the indices arising from the theory-driven expert review. The experts had combined items into inappropriate indicators resulting in summary indices that were difficult to interpret and had limited validity for program decision making. We propose a revised set of summary indices for the measurement of child health care in developing countries that is supported by both expert and statistical reviews and that led to similar programmatic insights across the three countries. We advocate increased cross-disciplinary research within public health to improve measurement approaches. Child survival policymakers, program planners and implementers can use these tools to improve their monitoring and so increase the health impact of investments in health facility care.

  7. Microdosimetric measurements in the thermal neutron irradiation facility of LENA reactor.

    PubMed

    Colautti, P; Moro, D; Chiriotti, S; Conte, V; Evangelista, L; Altieri, S; Bortolussi, S; Protti, N; Postuma, I

    2014-06-01

    A twin TEPC with electric-field guard tubes has been constructed to be used to characterize the BNCT field of the irradiation facility of LENA reactor. One of the two mini TEPC was doped with 50ppm of (10)B in order to simulate the BNC events occurring in BNCT. By properly processing the two microdosimetric spectra, the gamma, neutron and BNC spectral components can be derived with good precision (~6%). However, direct measurements of (10)B in some doped plastic samples, which were used for constructing the cathode walls, point out the scarce accuracy of the nominal (10)B concentration value. The influence of the Boral(®) door, which closes the irradiation channel, has been measured. The gamma dose increases significantly (+51%) when the Boral(®) door is closed. The crypt-cell-regeneration weighting function has been used to measure the quality, namely the RBEµ value, of the radiation field in different conditions. The measured RBEµ values are only partially consistent with the RBE values of other BNCT facilities.

  8. Emission Spectroscopy and Radiometric Measurements in the NASA Ames IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael W.; Raiche, George A.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma diagnostic measurement campaigns in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) have been conducted over the last several years with a view towards characterizing the flow in the arc jet facility by providing data necessary for modeling and simulation. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used in the plenum and in the free jet of the nozzle. Radiation incident over a probe surface has also been measured using radiometry. Plenum measurements have shown distinct radial profiles of temperature over a range of operating conditions. For cases where large amounts of cold air are added radially to the main arc-heated stream, the temperature profiles are higher by as much as 1500 K than the profiles assumed in flow simulations. Optical measurements perpendicular to the flow direction in the free jet showed significant contributions to the molecule emission through inverse pre-dissociation, thus allowing determination of atom number densities from molecular emission. This has been preliminarily demonstrated with the N2 1st Positive System. Despite the use of older rate coefficients, the resulting atom densities are reasonable and surprisingly close to flow predictions.

  9. Preliminary Measurements From A New Flat Plate Facility For Aerodynamic Research

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; D. W. Nigg; E. J. Walsh; D. Hernon; M.R.D. Davies

    2005-03-01

    This paper details the design and preliminary measurements used in the characterisation of a new flat plate research facility. The facility is designed specifically to aid in the understanding of entropy generation throughout the boundary layer with special attention given to non-equilibrium flows. Hot-wire measurements were obtained downstream of two turbulence generating grids. The turbulence intensity, integral and dissipation length scale ranges measured are 1.6%-7%, 5mm-17mm and 0.7mm-7mm, respectively. These values compared well to existing correlations. The flow downstream of both grids was found to be homogenous and isotropic. Flow visualisation is employed to determine aerodynamic parameters such as flow 2-dimensionality and the effect of the flap angle on preventing separation at the leading edge. The flow was found to be 2-dimensional over all measurement planes. The non-dimensional pressure distribution of a modern turbine blade suction surface is simulated on the flat plate through the use of a variable upper wall. The Reynolds number range based on wetted plate length and inlet velocity is 70,000-4,000,000.

  10. Gadolinium-148 and other spallation production cross section measurements for accelerator target facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen Corzine

    At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center accelerator complex, protons are accelerated to 800 MeV and directed to two tungsten targets, Target 4 at the Weapons Neutron Research facility and the 1L target at the Lujan Center. The Department of Energy requires hazard classification analyses to be performed on these targets and places limits on certain radionuclide inventories in the targets to avoid characterizing the facilities as "nuclear facilities." Gadolinium-148 is a radionuclide created from the spallation of tungsten. Allowed isotopic inventories are particularly low for this isotope because it is an alpha-particle emitter with a 75-year half-life. The activity level of Gadolinium-148 is low, but it encompasses almost two-thirds of the total dose burden for the two tungsten targets based on present yield estimates. From a hazard classification standpoint, this severely limits the lifetime of these tungsten targets. The cross section is not well-established experimentally and this is the motivation for measuring the Gadolinium-148 production cross section from tungsten. In a series of experiments at the Weapons Neutron Research facility, Gadolinium-148 production was measured for 600- and 800-MeV protons on tungsten, tantalum, and gold. These experiments used 3 mum thin tungsten, tantalum, and gold foils and 10 mum thin aluminum activation foils. In addition, spallation yields were determined for many short-lived and long-lived spallation products with these foils using gamma and alpha spectroscopy and compared with predictions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory codes CEM2k+GEM2 and MCNPX. The cumulative Gadolinium-148 production cross section measured from tantalum, tungsten, and gold for incident 600-MeV protons were 15.2 +/- 4.0, 8.31 +/- 0.92, and 0.591 +/- 0.155, respectively. The average production cross sections measured at 800 MeV were 28.6 +/- 3.5, 19.4 +/- 1.8, and 3.69 +/- 0.50 for tantalum, tungsten, and gold, respectively. These cumulative

  11. Strategy for Improving Measurement Uncertainty and Data Quality Information for Observations at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, J. M.; Sisterson, D.; Kehoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Quantified uncertainty estimates on measured quantities are required for providing prior information for cloud property retrieval algorithms and constraining model parameterizations and simulations. Methodologies for determining uncertainty can be complex and can include instrument accuracy and precision estimates, and random and systematic errors. Measurement uncertainty is also impacted by environmental and field factors that can be introduced when operating instruments outside the laboratory setting, which impacts both uncertainty and data quality. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program operates over 100 unique instruments at fixed, mobile, and aerial facilities in diverse climatic regimes around the world. The ARM program is in the process of standardizing how it currently reports measurement uncertainty and developing a new strategy for improving the determination of measurement uncertainty and communicating both the uncertainty and data quality information to users. We will present ARMs plan to standardize the method of reporting measurement uncertainty, as well as share ARMs overall strategies to standardize uncertainty assessment across instrument classes, improving calibration approaches, and providing more consistent data quality assessments to specifically address measurement bias corrections. Our goal is to provide an open forum for discussing the necessary and sufficient elements needed to meet the requirements for retrieval algorithm and model simulation development activities.

  12. Advanced Distributed Measurements and Data Processing at the Vibro-Acoustic Test Facility, GRC Space Power Facility, Sandusky, Ohio - an Architecture and an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.; Evans, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale, distributed, high-speed data acquisition system (HSDAS) is currently being installed at the Space Power Facility (SPF) at NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, OH. This installation is being done as part of a facility construction project to add Vibro-acoustic Test Capabilities (VTC) to the current thermal-vacuum testing capability of SPF in support of the Orion Project s requirement for Space Environments Testing (SET). The HSDAS architecture is a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enables the system to support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and a very large system channel count. The architecture of the system is presented along with details on system scalability and measurement verification. In addition, the ability of the system to automate many of its processes such as measurement verification and measurement system analysis is also discussed.

  13. Characterization of the hot electron population with bremsstrahlung and backscatter measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Felicie; Hohenberger, Matthias; Michel, Pierre; Divol, Laurent; Doeppner, Tilo; Dewald, Edward; Bachmann, Benjamin; Ralph, Joseph; Turnbull, David; Goyon, Clement; Thomas, Cliff; Landen, Otto; Moody, John

    2016-10-01

    In indirect-drive ignition experiments, the hot electron population, produced by laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by the interaction of the hot electrons with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the upgraded filter-fluorescer x-ray diagnostic (FFLEX), a 10-channel, time-resolved hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20- to 500-keV range, provides measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum. It typically shows a two-temperature distribution of the hot electron population inside the hohlraum. In SRS, where the laser is coupled to an electron plasma wave, the backscattered spectrum, measured with the NIF full-aperture backscatter system (FABS), is used to infer the plasma wave phase velocity. We will present FFLEX time-integrated and time-resolved measurements of the hot electron population low-temperature component. We will correlate them with electron plasma wave phase velocities inferred from FABS spectra for a range of recent shots performed at the National Ignition Facility. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    PubMed

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  15. Pitfalls and Security Measures for the Mobile EMR System in Medical Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Kiho; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Hwang, Hee; Baek, Rong Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this paper is to examine the security measures that should be reviewed by medical facilities that are trying to implement mobile Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems designed for hospitals. Methods The study of the security requirements for a mobile EMR system is divided into legal considerations and sectional security investigations. Legal considerations were examined with regard to remote medical services, patients' personal information and EMR, medical devices, the establishment of mobile systems, and mobile applications. For the 4 sectional security investigations, the mobile security level SL-3 from the Smartphone Security Standards of the National Intelligence Service (NIS) was used. Results From a compliance perspective, legal considerations for various laws and guidelines of mobile EMR were executed according to the model of the legal considerations. To correspond to the SL-3, separation of DMZ and wireless network is needed. Mobile access servers must be located in only the smartphone DMZ. Furthermore, security measures like 24-hour security control, WIPS, VPN, MDM, and ISMS for each section are needed to establish a secure mobile EMR system. Conclusions This paper suggested a direction for applying regulatory measures to strengthen the security of a mobile EMR system in accordance with the standard security requirements presented by the Smartphone Security Guideline of the NIS. A future study on the materialization of these suggestions after their application at actual medical facilities can be used as an illustrative case to determine the degree to which theory and reality correspond with one another. PMID:22844648

  16. Evaluation of Emissions from R&D Facilities Using Stack Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    Research and development (R&D) facilities may be required to estimate air chemical emissions to demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations, or to manage emissions to avoid nuisance impacts from their operations. These emissions are difficult to estimate because R&D facilities typically use a large number of chemicals in small quantities and engage in numerous and diverse activities which can change over time. Although not required for compliance, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sampled air chemical emissions from facility stacks during 1998--2008. The purpose of the sampling was to provide data to compare estimated release fractions to those used for emissions estimates and to verify that methods used to determine compliance with air regulations and permits conservatively predict actual emissions. This unique data set was analyzed to compare emissions with regulatory criteria; determine relationships with chemical inventories, use quantities, and properties; and identify signatures of sources contributing to the emissions. For comparison with regulatory data, stack measurements were used as a basis to calculate 24-hr and annual average emissions and ambient air concentrations. The study included an extreme worst-case analysis maximizing emissions and alternate more realistic analyses using a Monte Carlo method that takes into account the full distribution of sampling results. The results from these analyses were then compared to emissions estimated from chemical inventories. Ambient air concentrations calculated from the measurement data were below acceptable source impact levels for almost all cases even under extreme worst-case assumptions. More realistic scenarios reduced the estimate significantly depending on the chemical and the mode of operation. Release fractions were calculated by dividing emission estimates obtained using a Monte Carlo technique on the measured data by a building chemical inventory quantity. Release

  17. Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M.; Nicholls, A.K.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.

  18. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Motley, William R., III; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) sun sensors has allowed a confirmation of the attitude of LDEF during its first year in orbit. Eight observations of the yaw angle at specific times were made and are tabulated in this paper. These values range from 4.3 to 12.4 deg with maximum uncertainty of plus or minus 2.0 deg and an average of 7.9 deg. No specific measurements of pitch or roll were made but the data indicates that LDEF had an average pitch down attitude of less than 0.7 deg.

  19. Study of 234U(n,f) Resonances Measured at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Praena, J.; Berthier, B.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; Trubert, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gonçalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2014-05-01

    We present the analysis of the resolved resonance region for the 234U(n,f) cross section data measured at the CERN n_TOF facility. The resonance parameters in the energy range from 1 eV to 1500 eV have been obtained with the SAMMY code by using as initial parameters for the fit the resonance parameters of the JENDL-3.3 evaluation. In addition, the statistical analysis has been accomplished, partly with the SAMDIST code, in order to study the level spacing and the Mehta-Dyson correlation.

  20. MAGNETIC MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE NSLS SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATOR VERTICAL TEST FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    HARDER, D.; CHOUHAN, S.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.; TANABE, T.

    2005-05-16

    One of the challenges of small-gap superconducting undulators is measurement of magnetic fields within the cold bore to characterize the device performance and to determine magnetic field errors for correction or shimming, as is done for room-temperature undulators. Both detailed field maps and integrated field measurements are required. This paper describes a 6-element, cryogenic Hall probe field mapper for the NSLS superconducting undulator Vertical Test Facility (VTF) [1]. The probe is designed to work in an aperture only 3 mm high. A pulsed-wire insert is also being developed, for visualization of the trajectory, for locating steering errors and for determining integrated multi-pole errors. The pulsed-wire insert will be interchangeable with the Hall probe mapper. The VTF and the magnetic measurement systems can accommodate undulators up to 0.4 m in length.

  1. Laser absorption measurements of OH concentration and temperature in pulsed facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Newfield, Mark E.; Loomis, Mark P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser absorption flow diagnostic application has been developed at the NASA Ames 16-inch Shock Tunnel for purposes of measuring the thermochemical state of OH in flow environments of interest. Research objectives include the investigation of high temperature, low pressure chemistry pertinent to scramjet combustors and high altitude flight. The system can be operated in either the fixed frequency mode or in the rapid wavelength scanning mode to measure species mole fraction and temperature. Emission diagnostics have been employed to determine shock tunnel flow quality and assist in the proper application of the diagnostic and its data interpretation. Rotational lines in the OH system were probed in the expanding facility nozzle flow, and time-resolved measurements of temperature and mole fraction are provided.

  2. First Results from the CARIBU Facility: Mass Measurements on the r-Process Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Bertone, P. F.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Morgan, G. E.; Orford, R.; Segel, R. E.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer has made mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich nuclides provided by the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The studied region includes the Sn132 double shell closure and ranges in Z from In to Cs, with Sn isotopes measured out to A=135, and the typical measurement precision is at the 100 ppb level or better. The region encompasses a possible major waiting point of the astrophysical r process, and the impact of the masses on the r process is shown through a series of simulations. These first-ever simulations with direct mass information on this waiting point show significant increases in waiting time at Sn and Sb in comparison with commonly used mass models, demonstrating the inadequacy of existing models for accurate r-process calculations.

  3. HOLDUP MEASUREMENTS FOR THREE VISUAL EXAMINATION AND TRU REMEDIATION GLOVEBOX FACILITIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-04

    Visual Examination (VE) gloveboxes are used to remediate transuranic waste (TRU) drums at three separate facilities at the Savannah River Site. Noncompliant items are removed before the drums undergo further characterization in preparation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Maintaining the flow of drums through the remediation process is critical to the program's seven-days-per-week operation. Conservative assumptions are used to ensure that glovebox contamination from this continual operation is below acceptable limits. Holdup measurements using cooled HPGe spectrometers are performed in order to confirm that these assumptions are conservative. {sup 239}Pu is the main nuclide of interest; however, {sup 241}Pu, equilibrium {sup 237}Np/{sup 233}Pa and {sup 238}Pu (if detected) are typically assayed. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) facility {sup 243,244,245}Cm are also generally observed and are always reported at either finite levels or at limits of detection. A complete assay at each of the three facilities includes a measure of TRU content in the gloveboxes and HEPA filters in the glovebox exhaust. This paper includes a description of the {gamma}-PHA acquisitions, of the modeling, and of the calculations of nuclide content. Because each of the remediation facilities is unique and ergonomically unfavorable to {gamma}-ray acquisitions, we have constructed custom detector support devices specific to each set of acquisitions. This paper includes a description and photographs of these custom devices. The description of modeling and calculations include determination and application of container and matrix photon energy dependent absorption factors and also determination and application of geometry factors relative to our detector calibration geometry. The paper also includes a discussion of our measurements accuracy using off-line assays of two SRNL HEPA filters. The comparison includes assay of the filters inside of 55-gallon

  4. The effect of sensor spacing on wind measurements at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents results of a field study of the effect of sensor spacing on the validity of wind measurements at the Space Shuttle landing Facility (SLF). Standard measurements are made at one second intervals from 30 foot (9.1m) towers located 500 feet (152m) from the SLF centerline. The centerline winds are not exactly the same as those measured by the towers. This study quantifies the differences as a function of statistics of the observed winds and distance between the measurements and points of interest. The field program used logarithmically spaced portable wind towers to measure wind speed and direction over a range of conditions. Correlations, spectra, moments, and structure functions were computed. A universal normalization for structure functions was devised. The normalized structure functions increase as the 2/3 power of separation distance until an asymptotic value is approached. This occurs at spacings of several hundred feet (about 100m). At larger spacings, the structure functions are bounded by the asymptote. This enables quantitative estimates of the expected differences between the winds at the measurement point and the points of interest to be made from the measured wind statistics. A procedure is provided for making these estimates.

  5. The Am-243 Neutron Capture Measurement at the n_TOF Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; García-Ríos, A.; González-Romero, E.; Martínez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Kadi, Y.; Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Meaze, M. H.; Tagliente, G.; Terlizzi, R.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Andriamonje, S.; Calviani, M.; Vlachoudis, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Patronis, N.; Audouin, L.; David, S.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Pigni, M. T.; Poch, A.; Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Lukic, S.; Rudolf, G.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Calvino, F.; Capote, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Mengoni, A.; Lozano, M.; Quesada, J. M.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Tavora, L.; Marques, L.; Salgado, J.; Vaz, P.; Cennini, P.; Dahlfors, M.; Ferrari, A.; Gramegna, F.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Mastinu, P.; Praena, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Wendler, H.; Chepel, V.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Goncalves, I.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Neves, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Aerts, G.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A.; Cortes, G.; Pretel, C.; Couture, A. J.; Cox, J.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Dillman, I.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Dolfini, R.; Rubbia, C.; Domingo Pardo, C.; Tain, J. L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Lampoudis, C.; Savvidis, I.; Furman, W.; Konovalov, V.; Goverdovski, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Álvarez, H.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Reifarth, R.; Igashira, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Oshima, M.; Papadopoulos, C.; Vlastou, R.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Plompen, A.; Rullhusen, P.; Rauscher, T.; Rosetti, M.; Ventura, A.

    2013-03-01

    The 243Am neutron capture cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility1 in the 0.7 eV-2 keV energy range. The n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter2 (TAC) composed by 40 BaF2 crystals has been used in the measurement for detecting the electromagnetic cascades produced in the 243Am(n, γ) reactions. All current evaluations in the resolved resonance region are based essentially in fission measurements and in only one transmission measurement.3 The analysis of the measurement has been finished recently, and it is ready for its distribution to the EXFOR nuclear database. In addition, the data obtained with the TAC provide valuable information on the level density in the compound nucleus 244Am and on its electromagnetic de-excitation scheme. In particular, the 243Am data will be combined with data from previous measurements of 241Am, 240Pu, 237Np and 233,234,236U and with future measurements of 235,238U for a systematic investigation of the photon strength functions in actinides.

  6. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-02-24

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of Hanford's transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization (Reference 1). Various programs exist to ensure the validity of waste characterization data; all of these cite the need for clearly defined knowledge of uncertainty, associated with any measurements taken. All measurements have an inherent uncertainty associated with them. The combined effect of all uncertainties associated with a measurement is referred to as the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). The NDA measurement uncertainties can be numerous and complex. In addition to system-induced measurement uncertainty, other factors contribute to the TMU, each associated with a particular measurement. The NDA measurements at WRAP are based on processes (radioactive decay and induced fission) which are statistical in nature. As a result, the proper statistical summation of the various uncertainty components is essential. This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary. This report also includes the data flow paths for the analytical process in the radiometric determinations.

  7. Design studies related to an in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for measuring total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatos, I E; Chettle, D R; Green, S; Scott, M C

    1992-08-01

    Design studies relating to an in vivo prompt capture neutron activation analysis facility measuring total body nitrogen are presented. The basis of the design is a beryllium-graphite neutron collimator and reflector configuration for (alpha, n) type radionuclide neutron sources (238PuBe or 241AmBe), so as to reflect leaking, or out-scattered, neutrons towards the subject. This improves the ratio of thermal neutron flux to dose and the spatial distribution of thermal flux achieved with these sources, whilst retaining their advantage of long half-lives as compared to 252Cf based systems. The common problem of high count-rate at the detector, and therefore high nitrogen region of interest background due to pile-up, is decreased by using a set of smaller (5.1 cm diameter x 10.2 cm long) NaI(Tl) detectors instead of large ones. The facility described presents a relative error of nitrogen measurement of 3.6% and a nitrogen to background ratio of 2.3 for 0.45 mSv skin dose (assuming ten 5.1 cm x 10.2 cm NaI(Tl) detectors).

  8. Flow Property Measurement Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Porter, Barry J.; Carballo, Julio Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic diagnostic technique of two photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) of atomic species has been applied to single-point measurements of velocity and static temperature in the NASA Ames Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet. Excitation spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen were recorded while scanning a tunable dye laser over the absorption feature. Thirty excitation spectra were acquired during 8 arc jet runs at two facility operating conditions; the number of scans per run varied between 2 and 6. Curve fits to the spectra were analyzed to recover their Doppler shifts and widths, from which the flow velocities and static temperatures, respectively, were determined. An increase in the number of independent flow property pairs from each as-measured scan was obtained by extracting multiple lower-resolution scans. The larger population sample size enabled the mean property values and their uncertainties for each run to be characterized with greater confidence. The average plus or minus 2 sigma uncertainties in the mean velocities and temperatures for all 8 runs were plus or minus 1.4% and plus or minus 11%, respectively.

  9. Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II

    2016-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Â F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Â F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.

  10. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry Development for In-situ Measurement in High-Temperature Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Test Facility, HTTF, at Oregon State University (OSU) is an integral-effect test facility designed to model the behavior of a Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) during a Depressurized Conduction Cooldown (DCC) event. It also has the ability to conduct limited investigations into the progression of a Pressurized Conduction Cooldown (PCC) event in addition to phenomena occurring during normal operations. Both of these phenomena will be studied with in-situ velocity field measurements. Experimental measurements of velocity are critical to provide proper boundary conditions to validate CFD codes, as well as developing correlations for system level codes, such as RELAP5 (http://www4vip.inl.gov/relap5/). Such data will be the first acquired in the HTTF and will introduce a diagnostic with numerous other applications to the field of nuclear thermal hydraulics. A laser-based optical diagnostic under development at The George Washington University (GWU) is presented; the technique is demonstrated with velocity data obtained in ambient temperature air, and adaptation to high-pressure, high-temperature flow is discussed.

  11. An automated research facility for measuring thermoluminescence emission spectra using an optical multichannel analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, T. M.; Meulemans, W. H.; Bos, A. J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A facility for research into the mechanism of thermoluminescence (TL) is described. The facility comprises three units: an annealing oven, an irradiator, and a TL-emission spectrometer. Crystals or hot-pressed chips can be moved from and to the mentioned units by an automated sample changer. All units operate automatically and are controlled by a personal computer program. The spectrometer is based on a dispersive grating and an intensified diode array (512 active elements) and covers the 200-800-nm wavelength range. The wavelength resolution of the spectrometer is 6 nm when a 25-μm-wide entrance slit is used and 29 nm when a 1-mm-wide entrance slit is used. The sensitive spectrometer could measure emission spectra of CaSO4:Dy (TLD-200) irradiated at an absorbed dose as low as 3 mGy at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1 for LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) this ratio was obtained at 75 mGy. A detailed description is given how measured data can be related to spectra predicted by a model, taking into account all system aberrations. Spectra of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) irradiated to an absorbed dose of 5 Gy are analyzed according to the Franck-Condon model for light emission. Two emission bands with peak energies of 3.01 and 2.60 eV at 463 K have been found.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-03-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 through December 31, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. For all fixed sites, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2007. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a Central Facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the current deployment in Niamey, Niger, Africa. PYE represents the AMF statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be

  13. Radon Measurements at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility from August 1997 through April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-04-01

    From August 1997 through April 1998, radon and radon progeny measurements were collected at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the baseline concentrations of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and their progeny in the air at selected points with emphasis on the characterization of 220Rn and its daughter products in the high bay area. The daughter product concentrations ranged from the equivalent of approximately 0.001 times the derived air concentration (DAC) of the isotope mixture up to 0.09 DAC, with the highest measurements occurring inside the pit above the equipment drain tank cell. Direct radon measurements in this area indicated a relatively constant 222Rn concentration with an average value of 1.4 pCi/L and a 220Rn concentration that fluctuated from <1 pCi/L up to about 30 pCi/L. Measurements were also collected inside the vent house adjacent to building 7503. The progeny concentrations inside the room ranged from an equivalent of about 0.002 DAC up to 0.01 DAC. The direct radon measurements in the vent house indicated a relatively constant 222Rn concentration with an average value of 0.7 pCi/L while the 220Rn concentration varied appreciably and ranged from <0.5 pCi/L up to almost 200 pCi/L with an average concentration of 18 pCi/L.

  14. Neutron measurements from beam-target reactions at the ELISE neutral beam test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Xufei, X. Fan, T.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Bonomo, F.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Grünauer, F.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-11-15

    Measurements of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from beam-target reactions performed at the ELISE neutral beam test facility are presented in this paper. The measurements are used to study the penetration of a deuterium beam in a copper dump, based on the observation of the time evolution of the neutron counting rate from beam-target reactions with a liquid scintillation detector. A calculation based on a local mixing model of deuterium deposition in the target up to a concentration of 20% at saturation is used to evaluate the expected neutron yield for comparison with data. The results are of relevance to understand neutron emission associated to beam penetration in a solid target, with applications to diagnostic systems for the SPIDER and MITICA Neutral Beam Injection prototypes.

  15. Measurement control program for new special recovery. [Plutonium scrap recovery facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January-March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2006-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-09-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2008 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 × 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 × 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent

  19. Ranking of Chemicals Measured in Emissions from R&D Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.

    2011-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of multidisciplinary laboratory research facilities for the U. S. Department of Energy and has sampled air chemical emissions from some of these facilities since 1998. The primary purpose of this sampling is to obtain data to compare estimated release fractions to those used for emissions estimates, verifying that methods used to determine compliance with air regulations and permits conservatively predict actual emissions. Sampling also identifies and quantifies emissions of air toxics to compare with compliance limits established by regulatory agencies. Hundreds of samples have been taken from four different buildings (325, 329, 331, and EMSL) over a 10-year time period. Results from initial sampling campaigns were evaluated and reported by Woodruff, Benar, and McCarthy (2000) who summarized the compliance approach used by PNNL and described sampling and analytical measurements for the first sampling campaigns. Conclusions reported in this paper were that none of the measurements of the target compounds exceeded an acceptable source impact level (ASIL) (Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-460) even using significant overestimation factors, and that an average release fraction calculated from the data provided reasonable validation of the factor used in compliance assessments. Subsequent analysis compared chemical signatures from the buildings (Ballinger, Duchsherer, and Metoyer 2008). Results from this analysis showed that stack emissions from three of the four buildings had relatively similar chemical signatures but the fourth building differed from the other three significantly using the developed metric. This paper presents additional analyses of the measured air chemical emissions to 1) rank the chemical compounds that present the greatest risk to a potential downstream receptor and 2) determine whether the sampling parameters and detection limits provided sufficient resolution to

  20. Muon flux Measurements at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility with the Majorana Demonstrator Veto System

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2017-02-16

    Here, we report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MajoranaDemonstratormuon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31±0.17)×10–9μ/s/cm2.

  1. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  2. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  3. Flow measurement by pulsed-neutron activation techniques at the PKL facility at Erlangen (Germany). [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, P.

    1982-03-01

    Flow velocities in the downcomer at the PKL facility (in Erlangen, Germany) were measured by the Pulsed-Neutron Activation (PNA) techniques. This was the first time that a fully automated PNA system, incorporating a dedicated computer for on-line data reduction, was used for flow measurements. A prototype of a portable, pulsed, high-output neutron source, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was also successfully demonstrated during this test. The PNA system was the primary flow-measuring device used at the PKL, covering the whole range of velocities of interest. In this test series, the PKL simulated small-break accidents similar to the one that occurred at TMI. The flow velocities in the downcomer were, therefore, very low, ranging between 0.03 and 0.35 m/sec. Two additional flow-measuring methods were used over a smaller range of velocities. Wherever comparison was possible, the PNA-derived velocity values agreed well with the measurements performed by the two more conventional methods.

  4. Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.

  5. Characteristics of beta detection and dose measurement at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvehill, J.M.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1987-02-01

    This report considers the current state of the art of beta dosimetry practices and beta detection methods used by health physicists at US Department of Energy facilities. This information is based on a survey of DOE facilities. Beta measurements are technically difficult and innovative efforts must be expended to improve their accuracy. Perhaps the most pronounced problem is that beta dosimetry and instrumentation in use are highly energy and angular dependent. Many believe that beta exposures are adequately controlled because beta to photon ratios are assumed to be low. This assumption is not always valid as demonstrated by the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI). Significant beta doses exist where personnel are exposed to mixed fission products; for example, chemical reprocessing plants, reactor accidents, or where uranium metals are processed. This report is part of an effort to increase the DOE response to this technically difficult area of health protection. Problem areas are addressed and methods recommended to improve beta dosimetry through a cooperative effort among the various DOE contractors. 34 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Reaction Rate Measurement at the Californium User Facility (CUF) for unfolding the neutron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, Mohammad; Ortega, Ruben

    2011-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine Reaction Rate measurement of several activation detectors at the ORNL Californium User Facility (CUF). The irradiations were performed with 34 mg Cf 252 neutron source strength.. Ten source capsules > 34 mgwerepositionedconcentricallyaroundasamplecavity . Wehavedeterminedabsoluteactivityperatomof 9 detectors : Au 197 (n , γ) Au 198 , Al 27 (n , α) Na 24 , Al 27 (n , p) Mg 27 , Fe 56 (n , p) Mn 5 , Fe 54 (n , p) Mn 54 , In 115 (n , γ) In 116 , Ti 46 (n , p) Sc 46 , Ni 60 (n , p) Co 60 , Fe 58 (n , γ) Fe 59 . Theerrorsarewithin 1.5 - 8 60 and Fe 58 have errors of 46% and 32 %. These high errors may be attributed to the counting statistics. These reaction rate values will be used to unfold the neutron spectrum of the CUF using the MAXED 2000, a computer code for the de convolution of multi sphere neutron spectrometer data and the results are discussed. The authors acknowledge help, advise, and using facility at ORNL-CUF to Dr. Rodger martin and Mr. David C. Galsgow.

  7. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-02-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100 mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20 GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [ http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  8. Estimates of radioxenon released from Southern Hemisphere medical isotope production facilities using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Lowrey, Justin D; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Schrom, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and (133)Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of (133)Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 × 10(14) Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 × 10(16) to 2.4 × 10(16) Bq, estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 × 10(13) to 3.7 × 10(14) Bq and estimates for the facility in Argentina range from 4.5 × 10(12) to 9.5 × 10(12) Bq.

  9. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  10. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example 106Cd and 156Dy) and rare β decays (96Zr, 180mTa , etc ) are under study.

  11. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1985 from LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Chen, Ili; Van Etten, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) continued to measure external radiation levels during 1985 caused by radionuclides emitted from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during this study. A more complex finite model, which takes into account the contribution of radiation at a receptor from different locations of the passing plume, was also tested. Monitoring results indicate that, as in 1984, a persistent wind up the Rio Grande Valley during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest external radiation levels to occur to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. However, because of increased turbulent mixing during the day, external radiation levels are generally much less during the day than at night. External radiation levels during 1985 show approximately a 75% reduction over 1984 levels. This resulted from a similar percentage reduction in LAMPF emissions caused by newly implemented emission controls. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer time periods. Comparison of predicted and measured hourly values indicates that the model generally tends to overpredict during the day and underpredict at night. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, E.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Hahn, I. S.; Kim, G. W.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-17

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example {sup 106}Cd and {sup 156}Dy) and rare β decays ({sup 96}Zr, {sup 180m}Ta , etc ) are under study.

  13. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Cooper, G. W.; Drury, O. B.; Hagmann, C. A.; Knittel, K. M.; Leeper, R. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ˜20-200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM), 25-50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n') reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n) reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  14. BENCHMARK EVALUATION OF THE INITIAL ISOTHERMAL PHYSICS MEASUREMENTS AT THE FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    John Darrell Bess

    2010-05-01

    The benchmark evaluation of the initial isothermal physics tests performed at the Fast Flux Test Facility, in support of Fuel Cycle Research and Development and Generation-IV activities at the Idaho National Laboratory, has been completed. The evaluation was performed using MCNP5 with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries and according to guidelines provided for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project Handbook. Results provided include evaluation of the initial fully-loaded core critical, two neutron spectra measurements near the axial core center, 32 reactivity effects measurements (21 control rod worths, two control rod bank worths, six differential control rod worths, two shutdown margins, and one excess reactivity), isothermal temperature coefficient, and low-energy electron and gamma spectra measurements at the core center. All measurements were performed at 400 ºF. There was good agreement between the calculated and benchmark values for the fully-loaded core critical eigenvalue, reactivity effects measurements, and isothermal temperature coefficient. General agreement between benchmark experiment measurements and calculated spectra for neutrons and low-energy gammas at the core midplane exists, but calculations of the neutron spectra below the core and the low-energy gamma spectra at core midplane did not agree well. Homogenization of core components may have had a significant impact upon computational assessment of these effects. Future work includes development of a fully-heterogeneous model for comprehensive evaluation. The reactor physics measurement data can be used in nuclear data adjustment and validation of computational methods for advanced fuel cycle and nuclear reactor systems using Liquid Metal Fast Reactor technology.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It

  16. Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system at RIBRAS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2013-05-06

    Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  17. [Nurses in leading positions and measures to prevent occupational exposure: facilities and barriers].

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Silmara Elaine; Hayashida, Miyeko; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Gir, Elucir

    2008-09-01

    This descriptive study aimed to assess the facilities and barriers that nurses in leading positions endure with respect to the nursing team's compliance to measures for preventing occupational exposure involving biological materials, based on Rosenstock's Health Belief Model. The study was carried out with 87 nurses of a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2006. Data were collected through a semistructured form with open and closed questions and analyzed through Content Analysis. Individual protection equipment was mentioned as the greatest form for preventing accidents, but lack of compliance to usage and incorrect use were indicated as barriers to accident prevention and as the main reasons for their occurrence. It is important for these nurses to be prepared to develop individualized and motivating strategies focused on compliance to the use of individual protection equipment in their work sectors.

  18. Measurement system support at the JAERI-CRT Facility: pressure transducers. [Containment Research Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, W.M. Jr.; McCauley, E.W.

    1981-11-01

    As part of a continuing liaison between the US NRC and foreigh full scale containment research programs, measurements assistance in the form of the loan of 30 flush diaphram pressure transducers has been provided to the JAERI-CRT MK II research program at Tokai-Mura, Japan. Procedures developed earlier at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under similar research work sponsored by the US NRC were used by LLNL to successfully complete final installation and in-situ end-to-end calibration of the transducers in the CRT facility. The results from this calibration showed a very close agreement between sensitivities and linearities calculated at LLNL and the ones calculated at JAERI and indicate the transducers should give valid data during future testing.

  19. Long Duration Exposure Facility post-flight data as it influences the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, Sharon A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is an earth observing satellite that will be in a low earth orbit (350 kilometers) during the next period of maximum solar activity. The TRMM observatory is expected to experience an atomic oxygen fluence of 8.9 x 10(exp 22) atoms per square centimeter. This fluence is ten times higher than the atomic oxygen impingement incident to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Other environmental concerns on TRMM include: spacecraft glow, silicon oxide contaminant build-up, severe spacecraft material degradation, and contamination deposition resulting from molecular interactions with the dense ambient atmosphere. Because of TRMM's predicted harsh environment, TRMM faces many unique material concerns and subsystem design issues. The LDEF data has influenced the design of TRMM and the TRMM material selection process.

  20. Laboratory Facilities and Measurement Techniques for Beamed-Energy-Propulsion Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Chanes Júnior, José Brosler; Cordeiro Marcos, Thiago Victor; Pinto, David Romanelli; Santos Vilela, Renan Guilherme; Barros Galvão, Victor Alves; Mantovani, Arthur Freire; da Costa, Felipe Jean; dos Santos Assenção, José Adeildo; dos Santos, Alberto Monteiro; de Paula Toro, Paulo Gilberto; Sala Minucci, Marco Antonio; da Silveira Rêgo, Israel; Salvador, Israel Irone; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2011-11-01

    Laser propulsion is an innovative concept of accessing the space easier and cheaper where the propulsive energy is beamed to the aerospace vehicle in flight from ground—or even satellite-based high-power laser sources. In order to be realistic about laser propulsion, the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Brazilian Air Force in cooperation with the United States Air Force and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute are seriously investigating its basic physics mechanisms and engineering aspects at the Henry T. Hamamatsu Laboratory of Hypersonic and Aerothermodynamics in São José dos Campos, Brazil. This paper describes in details the existing facilities and measuring systems such as high-power laser devices, pulsed-hypersonic wind tunnels and high-speed flow visualization system currently utilized in the laboratory for experimentation on laser propulsion.

  1. Raman distributed temperature measurement at CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Signorini, Alessandro; Guillermain, Elisa; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Brugger, Markus; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present a validation of distributed Raman temperature sensing (RDTS) at the CERN high energy accelerator mixed field radiation test facility (CHARM), newly developed in order to qualify electronics for the challenging radiation environment of accelerators and connected high energy physics experiments. By investigating the effect of wavelength dependent radiation induced absorption (RIA) on the Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes light components in radiation tolerant Ge-doped multi-mode (MM) graded-index optical fibers, we demonstrate that Raman DTS used in loop configuration is robust to harsh environments in which the fiber is exposed to a mixed radiation field. The temperature profiles measured on commercial Ge-doped optical fibers is fully reliable and therefore, can be used to correct the RIA temperature dependence in distributed radiation sensing systems based on P-doped optical fibers.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  3. A Unique Test Facility to Measure Liner Performance with a Summary of Initial Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A very ambitious study was initiated to obtain detailed acoustic and flow data with and without a liner in a duct containing a mean flow so that available theoretical models of duct liners can be validated. A unique flow-duct facility equipped with a sound source, liner box, flush-walled microphones, traversable microphones and traversable pressure and temperature probes was built. A unique set of instrumentation boxes equipped with computer controlled traverses were designed and built that allowed measurements of Mach number, temperature, SPLs and phases in two planes upstream of a liner section and two planes downstream at a large number of measurement points. Each pair of planes provided acoustic pressure gradients for use in estimating the particle velocities. Specially-built microphone probes were employed to make measurements in the presence of the flow. A microphone traverse was also designed to measure the distribution of SPLs and phases from the beginning of the liner to its end along the duct axis. All measurements were made with the help of cross-correlation techniques to reject flow noise and/or other obtrusive noise, if any. The facility was designed for future use at temperatures as high as 1500 F. In order to validate 2-D models in the presence of mean flow, the flow duct was equipped with a device to modify boundary layer flow on the smaller sides of a rectangular duct to simulate 2-D flow. A massive amount of data was acquired for use in validating duct liner models and will be provided to NASA in an electronic form. It was found that the sound in the plane-wave regime is well behaved within the duct and the results are repeatable from one run to another. At the higher frequencies corresponding to the higher-order modes, the SPLs within a duct are not repeatable from run to run. In fact, when two or more modes have the same frequency (i.e., for the degenerate modes), the SPLs in the duct varied between 2 dB to 12 dB from run to run. This made the

  4. 129I measurements on the 1MV AMS facility at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Holm, E

    2012-01-01

    The AMS system at CNA has been the first 1MV compact AMS system designed and manufactured by HVE. In this paper we present the experimental set-up for (129)I measurements in this facility. Charge state +3 has been selected at high-energy side and an optimum stripper pressure of 6×10(-3)mbar of argon (mass thickness of about 0.15μgcm(-2)) has been reached to obtain lowest blank values ((129)I/(127)I≅3×10(-13)). The measurements of the reference materials provided by the IAEA have demonstrated the viability of this facility to make routine measurements of (129)I at environmental levels. This blank value obtained is enough for the measurement of most environmental samples and comparable with other reported backgrounds obtained in facilities working at higher energies and higher charge states.

  5. A facility for measurements of nuclear cross sections for fast neutron cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangtip, S.; Ataç, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Carlsson, G. A.; Söderberg, J.; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Brun, C. L.; Lecolley, F.-R.; Lecolley, J.-F.; Varignon, C.; Eudes, P.; Haddad, F.; Kerveno, M.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.

    2000-10-01

    A facility for measurements of neutron-induced double-differential light-ion production cross-sections, for application within, e.g., fast neutron cancer therapy, is described. The central detection elements are three-detector telescopes consisting of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Use of /ΔE-ΔE-E techniques allows good particle identification for p, d, t, 3He and alpha particles over an energy range from a few MeV up to 100 MeV. Active plastic scintillator collimators are used to define the telescope solid angle. Measurements can be performed using up to eight telescopes at /20° intervals simultaneously, thus covering a wide angular range. The performance of the equipment is illustrated using experimental data taken with a carbon target at En=95 MeV. Distortions of the measured charged-particle spectra due to energy and particle losses in the target are corrected using a newly developed computer code. Results from such correction calculations are presented.

  6. Fast neutron measurements at the nELBE time-of-flight facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghansa, A. R.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Kögler, T.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2015-05-01

    The compact neutron-time-of-flight facility nELBE at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf has been rebuilt. A new enlarged experimental hall with a flight path of up to 10 m is available for neutron time-of-flight experiments in the fast energy range from about 50 keV to 10 MeV. nELBE is intended to deliver nuclear data of fast neutron nuclear interactions e.g. for the transmutation of nuclear waste and improvement of neutron physical simulations of innovative nuclear systems. The experimental programme consists of transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section measurements, and neutron induced fission cross sections. The inelastic scattering to the first few excited states in 56Fe was investigated by measuring the gamma production cross section with an HPGe detector. The neutron induced fission of 242Pu was studied using fast ionisation chambers with large homogeneous actinide deposits.

  7. First Measurement of Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A.; Becker, J.; Bleuel, D.; Bionta, R.; Fortner, D.; Henry, E.; Khater, H.; Shaughnessy, D.; Schnider, D.; Stoeffl, W.; Yeamans, C.; Boswell, M.; Bredeweg, T.; Grim, G.; Jungman, G.; Fowler, M.; Hayes, A.; Obst, A.; Rundberg, R.; Schulz, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tornow, W.; Bhike, M.; Howell, C.; Gooden, M.; LLNL/LANL/TUNL Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The first measurement of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons, also known as tertiary neutrons, has been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using an activation technique. Thulium foils positioned at 50 cm from the burning deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule have been exposed to the characteristic DT neutron spectrum. The high-energy part of these neutrons with energies above 15.0 MeV can produce 167Tm via the 169Tm(n,3n) reaction. The 208-keV γ-ray, emitted from the decay of 167Tm with a half-life of 9.2 days, has been measured using two clover detectors. The first preliminary result implies that the ratio of RIF neutrons (En > 15.0 MeV) versus the total neutrons is 1 × 10 -4 +/- 3 × 10 -5. The important implication of these measurements on our knowledge of the charged-particle stopping power in strongly coupled quantum-degenerate plasma will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. First Measurement of Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Cerjan, C.; Fortner, D.; Henry, E.; Shaughnessy, D.; Schnieder, D.; Stoeffl, W.; Stoyer, M.; Yeamans, C.; Boswell, M.; Bredeweg, T.; Grim, G.; Jungman, G.; Fowler, M.; Hayes, A.; Obst, A.; Rundberg, R.; Schulz, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Wilde, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M.; Howell, C.; Toenow, W.; LLNL/LANL/TUNL Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The first measurement of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons, also known as tertiary neutrons, has been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using an activation technique. Thulium foils positioned at 50 cm from the burning deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule have been exposed to the characteristic DT neutron spectrum. The high-energy part of these neutrons with energies above 15.0 MeV can produce 167Tm via the 169Tm(n,3n) reaction. The 208-keV γ-ray, emitted from the decay of 167Tm with a half-life of 9.2 days, has been measured using two clover detectors. The first preliminary result implies that the ratio of RIF neutrons (En>15.0 MeV) versus the total neutrons is 1x10-4 +/- 3x10-5. The important implication of these measurements on our knowledge of the charged-particle stopping power in strongly coupled quantum-degenerate plasma will be presented.

  9. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Phase B: Data capture facility definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Aerospace Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) initiated the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to obtain more accurate measurements of tropical rainfall then ever before. The measurements are to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms effecting the intra-annual and interannual variability of the Earth's climate. The TRMM is largely dependent upon the handling and processing of the data by the TRMM Ground System supporting the mission. The objective of the TRMM is to obtain three years of climatological determinations of rainfall in the tropics, culminating in data sets of 30-day average rainfall over 5-degree square areas, and associated estimates of vertical distribution of latent heat release. The scope of this study is limited to the functions performed by TRMM Data Capture Facility (TDCF). These functions include capturing the TRMM spacecraft return link data stream; processing the data in the real-time, quick-look, and routine production modes, as appropriate; and distributing real time, quick-look, and production data products to users. The following topics are addressed: (1) TRMM end-to-end system description; (2) TRMM mission operations concept; (3) baseline requirements; (4) assumptions related to mission requirements; (5) external interface; (6) TDCF architecture and design options; (7) critical issues and tradeoffs; and (8) recommendation for the final TDCF selection process.

  10. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AROUND A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gasses around an integrated industrial swine production facility in eastern North Carolina. Several single-path measurements were made ove...

  11. Radiation levels in cyclotron-radiochemistry facility measured by a novel comprehensive computerized monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishani, E.; Lifshits, N.; Osavistky, A.; Kaufman, J.; Ankry, N.; Tal, N.; Chisin, R.

    1999-04-01

    Radiation levels in a cyclotron-radiochemistry facility were measured during the production of commonly used PET radiopharmaceuticals by a comprehensive computerized monitoring system. The system consists of three major components: on-line radiation monitoring channels, an area control unit, and a gas waste management unit. During production the radiation levels were measured in the cyclotron vault, inside automatic chemistry production and research shielded cells, in the radiochemistry room, in the gas waste decay tank, in the chimney filters, and at the top of the cells chimney. Each detector was calibrated in a known radiation field, and a special detector dead time correction was performed in order to achieve detected signal-to-radiation linearity for the Geiger tubes located in the radiochemistry production and research cells. During production of C-11 and O-15 PET radiopharmaceuticals, high radiation levels were measured in the gas waste decay tank (240 and 80 mR/h, respectively). In contrast, the radiation levels at the chimney filters and at the top of the cells chimney did not exceed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Drive Air Concentration (DAC) recommended for C-11 or O-15. During production of FDG, high radiation levels were measured at the chimney filters, however the radiation level at the top of the chimney (3.7 μCi/m 3) did not exceed the F-18 DAC recommendation (27 μCi/m 3). Low radiation levels of approximately 0.5-1 mR/h were measured in the radiochemistry room during production of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In the cyclotron vault, 2 min after bombardment the radiation levels at 2 m from the cyclotron decreased to 1-2 mR/h. The addition of a gas waste decay system to computerized monitoring channels located near each strategic point of the site allows for a comprehensive survey of the radiochemical processes.

  12. An Enhanced Variable Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Residential Care Facilities in Nanjing

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianhua; Wang, Jinyin; Rui, Yikang; Qian, Tianlu; Wang, Jiechen

    2015-01-01

    Civil administration departments require reliable measures of accessibility so that residential care facility shortage areas can be accurately identified. Building on previous research, this paper proposes an enhanced variable two-step floating catchment area (EV2SFCA) method that determines facility catchment sizes by dynamically summing the population around the facility until the facility-to-population ratio (FPR) is less than the FPR threshold (FPRT). To minimize the errors from the supply and demand catchments being mismatched, this paper proposes that the facility and population catchment areas must both contain the other location in calculating accessibility. A case study evaluating spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing demonstrates that the proposed method is effective in accurately determining catchment sizes and identifying details in the variation of spatial accessibility. The proposed method can be easily applied to assess other public healthcare facilities, and can provide guidance to government departments on issues of spatial planning and identification of shortage and excess areas. PMID:26580637

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facilities quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-07-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter); for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale it is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale it is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 1390.80 hours (0.95 x 1464). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data

  14. Analysis of Ozone And CO2 Profiles Measured At A Diary Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Hasson, A. S.; Ashkan, S.; Steele, J.; Shelton, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone and carbon dioxide are both greenhouse gasses in the planetary boundary layer. Ozone is a harmful secondary pollutant in the troposphere produced mostly during the day when there is a photochemical reaction in which primary pollutant precursors such as nitrous oxide (NOx) or volatile organic compounds (VOC's) mix with sunlight. As with most pollutants in the lower troposphere, both ozone and carbon dioxide vary in spatial and temporal scale depending on sources of pollution, environmental conditions and the boundary layer dynamics. Among the several factors that influence ozone variation, the seasonal changes in meteorological parameters and availability of ozone precursors are crucial because they control ozone formation and decay. Understanding how the difference in emission sources affect vertical transport of ozone and carbon dioxide is considered crucial to the improvement of their regional inventory sources. The purpose of this study is to characterize vertical transport of ozone and carbon at a diary facility. The study was conducted in the summer of 2011 and 2012 at a commercial dairy facility in Central California and involved profile measurements of ozone and CO2 using electrochemical ozonesondes, meteorological sondes and CO2 probe tethered to a 9 cubic meters helium balloon. On each day of the data collection, multiple balloon launches were made over a period representing different stages of the boundary layer development. The results show ozone and CO2 profiles display different characteristics. Regardless of the time of the day, the CO2 concentration decreases with height with a sharp gradient near the surface that is strengthened by a stable atmospheric condition, a feature suggesting the surface as the source. On the other hand, ozone profiles show greater link to the evolution of the lower boundary layer. Ozone profiles display unique features indicating ozone destruction near the surface. This unusual near the surface, observed even in the

  15. Measured phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected near a wood preserving facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.K.; Allen, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Phenol concentrations were determined in air and rain water samples collected downwind from a coal tar creosote wood preserving facility in Terre Haute, IN. Coal tar creosote is known to contain a large number of constituents and is composed chiefly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenols, and N-, S-, and O-heterocycles. Phenol was chosen as a marker compound for coal tar creosote emissions because it is present at a large mole fraction in coal tar creosote. Phenol was determined by HPLC with UV-Visible detection. Phenol in collected rain water samples was determined directly by HPLC after acidification and filtration. Phenol concentrations in collected air samples ranged from 4.1 to 15.7 {micro}g/m3 while rain water concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 28.2 {micro}g/L. Using a value for the thermodynamic Henry`s law constant of K{sub H} = 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} L atm/mole at 20 C for phenol and measured gas-phase phenol concentrations, even higher rain water concentrations would be expected if equilibrium was established. This indicates that the amount of phenol present in the air parcels sampled exceeded the amount that could be scavenged by rain drops under the conditions prevailing at the time of sampling. The values for phenol concentrations reported here are roughly two orders of magnitude higher than results from previous studies where phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected in urban areas were reported. It is likely that other more toxic constituents of coal tar creosote are also present at high concentrations in air parcels that receive emissions from wood treatment facilities.

  16. Velocity Measurements at Six Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Summer 1988 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C. Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.; Lusty, E. William

    1989-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) are funding the construction and evaluation of fish passage facilities and fish protection facilities at irrigation and hydroelectric diversions in the Yakima River Basin, Washington State. The program provides offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric development throughout the Columbia River Basin, and addresses natural propagation of salmon to help mitigate the impact of irrigation in the Yakima River Basin. This report evaluates the flow characteristics of the screening facilities. Studies consisted of velocity measurements taken in front of the rotary drum screens and within the fish bypass systems during peak flows. Measurements of approach velocity and sweep velocity were emphasized in these studies; however, vertical velocity was also measured. 5 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Emission Spectroscopic Measurements with an Optical Probe in the NASA Ames IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Raiche, George A.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Hui, Frank C. L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical probe was designed to measure radiation (from inside the arc heater) incident on a test sample immersed in the arc-heated stream. Currently, only crude estimates are available for this incident radiation. Unlike efforts of the past, where the probe line of sight was inclined to the nozzle centerline, the present development focuses on having the probe line of sight coincide with the nozzle centerline. A fiber-coupled spectrometer was used to measure the spectral distribution of incident radiation in the wavelength range of 225 to 900 nm. The radiation heat flux in this wavelength range was determined by integration of measured emission spectral intensity calibrated to incident irradiance from an integrating sphere. Two arc-heater conditions, corresponding to stream bulk enthalpy levels of 12 and 22 MJ/kg, were investigated in the 13-inch diameter nozzle of the Interaction Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. With the probe placed at a distance of 10 inches from the nozzle exit plane, total radiative heat fluxes were measured to be 3.3 and 8.4 W/sq cm for the 12 and 22 MJ/kg conditions, respectively. About 17% of these radiative fluxes were due to bound-bound radiation from atoms and molecules, while the remaining 83% could be attributed to continua (bound-free and/or free-free). A comparison with spectral simulation based on CFD solutions for the arc-heater flow field and with spectroscopic measurements in the plenum region indicates that more than 95% of the measured radiation is generated in the arc region. The total radiative heat flux from the line radiation could increase by a factor of two through contributions from wavelengths outside the measured range, i.e., from the vacuum ultraviolet (wavelengths less than 225 nm) and the infrared (wavelengths greater than 900 nm). An extrapolation of the continuum radiation to these two wavelength regions was not attempted. In the tested configuration, the measured radiative heat flux accounts for

  18. ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector for Gamma Ray Measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). A new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide ~ 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from ~ 100 to ~ 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The first phase is to insert the existing coaxial GCD-3 detector into a reentrant well on the NIF chamber which will put it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by ~ 10x relative to current PMT technology. GCD-3 has been thoroughly tested at the OMEGA Laser Facility and characterized at the High Intensity Gamma Ray Source (HIgS).

  19. Lineshape measurements of He-β spectra on the ORION laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Shepherd, R.; Allan, P.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.; Chung, H. K.; Hill, E.

    2016-10-01

    We have utilized a newly developed high-resolution X-ray spectrometer to measure the shapes of spectral lines produced from laser-irradiated targets on the Orion laser facility in the United Kingdom. We present measurements of the He-β spectra of chlorine and chromium from targets irradiated by either a long-pulse or a short-pulse laser beam. The experimental conditions provide a spread in plasma density ranging from about 1019 to about 1024 cm-3. We present spectral calculations that show that the relative intensities of the Li-like satellite lines can be used to infer the density in the lower range, especially if the lithiumlike satellite lines are well resolved. In addition, we use the Stark-broadened width of the He-β line to infer densities above about 1022 cm-3. In the case of a short-pulse irradiated chromium foil, we find that the He-like chromium is produced at a density of almost 8 g/cm3, i.e., solid density. In addition, we can infer the electron temperature from the observation of dielectronic recombination satellite lines.

  20. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yang; Yang Jiamin; Zhang Jiyan; Liu Jinsong; Yuan Xiao; Jin Fengtao

    2009-04-15

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  1. A seal test facility for the measurement of isotropic and anisotropic linear rotordynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Yang, T.; Pace, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    A new seal test facility for measuring high-pressure seal rotor-dynamic characteristics has recently been made operational at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). This work is being sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The fundamental concept embodied in this test apparatus is a double-spool-shaft spindle which permits independent control over the spin speed and the frequency of an adjustable circular vibration orbit for both forward and backward whirl. Also, the static eccentricity between the rotating and non-rotating test seal parts is easily adjustable to desired values. By accurately measuring both dynamic radial displacement and dynamic radial force signals, over a wide range of circular orbit frequency, one is able to solve for the full linear-anisotropic model's 12 coefficients rather than the 6 coefficients of the more restrictive isotropic linear model. Of course, one may also impose the isotropic assumption in reducing test data, thereby providing a valid qualification of which seal configurations are well represented by the isotropic model and which are not. In fact, as argued in reference (1), the requirement for maintaining a symmetric total system mass matrix means that the resulting isotropic model needs 5 coefficients and the anisotropic model needs 11 coefficients.

  2. Measurements and simulations of wakefields at the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snuverink, J.; Ainsworth, R.; Boogert, S. T.; Cullinan, F. J.; Lyapin, A.; Kim, Y. I.; Kubo, K.; Kuroda, S.; Okugi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; White, G. R.

    2016-09-01

    Wakefields are an important factor in accelerator design, and are a real concern when preserving the low beam emittance in modern machines. Charge dependent beam size growth has been observed at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF2), a test accelerator for future linear collider beam delivery systems. Part of the explanation of this beam size growth is wakefields. In this paper we present numerical calculations of the wakefields produced by several types of geometrical discontinuities in the beam line as well as tracking simulations to estimate the induced effects. We also discuss precision beam kick measurements performed with the ATF2 cavity beam position monitor system for a test wakefield source in a movable section of the vacuum chamber. Using an improved model independent method we measured a wakefield kick for this movable section of about 0.49 V /pC /mm , which, compared to the calculated value from electromagnetic simulations of 0.41 V /pC /mm , is within the systematic error.

  3. Experimental measurement and Monte Carlo assessment of Argon-41 production in a PET cyclotron facility.

    PubMed

    Infantino, Angelo; Valtieri, Lorenzo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Pancaldi, Davide; Mostacci, Domiziano; Marengo, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In a medical cyclotron facility, (41)Ar (t1/2 = 109.34 m) is produced by the activation of air due to the neutron flux during irradiation, according to the (40)Ar(n,γ)(41)Ar reaction; this is particularly relevant in widely diffused high beam current cyclotrons for the production of PET radionuclides. While theoretical estimations of the (41)Ar production have been published, no data are available on direct experimental measurements for a biomedical cyclotron. In this work, we describe a sampling methodology and report the results of an extensive measurement campaign. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with the FLUKA code. To measure (41)Ar activity, air samples were taken inside the cyclotron bunker in sealed Marinelli beakers, during the routine production of (18)F with a 16.5 MeV GE-PETtrace cyclotron; this sampling thus reproduces a situation of absence of air changes. Samples analysis was performed in a gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with HPGe detector. Monte Carlo assessment of the (41)Ar saturation yield was performed directly using the standard FLUKA score RESNUCLE, and off-line by the convolution of neutron fluence with cross section data. The average (41)Ar saturation yield per one liter of air of (41)Ar, measured in gamma-ray spectrometry, resulted to be 3.0 ± 0.6 Bq/µA*dm(3) while simulations gave a result of 6.9 ± 0.3 Bq/µA*dm(3) in the direct assessment and 6.92 ± 0.22 Bq/µA*dm(3) by the convolution neutron fluence-to-cross section.

  4. Emission Spectroscopic Measurements in the Plenum Region of the NASA IHF Arc Jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Michael W.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    A newly designed segment with optical access was installed in the plenum chamber of the 60 MW Interaction Heating arcjet Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. This special segment has ports located off axis, and the optical fibers can be inserted into these ports. The special segment allows for optical examination of the arc-heated flow as it enters the plenum, and thus assists in determining estimates of the thermodynamic state of the inflow to the convergent section of the nozzle. In the present work, optical emission measurements have been made in VIS-NIR region (wavelengths between 500 nm to 900 nm) for two settings of the arc heater - a 6000 A condition (high condition) with the minimum amount of radial injection of cold air in the plenum, and a 3300 A condition (low condition) with significant amount of cold air injection to reduce the enthalpy of the arc-heated stream. The results presented here were obtained using an Acton SP300i spectrometer coupled to a Princeton Instruments PI-max intensified camera. In addition to the optical emission measurements, computations were performed for the flow in the plenum and radiation along lines of sight corresponding to the optical ports. Along the centerline, i.e., the longest line of sight across the plenum cross-section, there is good agreement between computations and measurements for the high enthalpy condition, although the off-axis radial profiles show some differences. For the low enthalpy condition, there are significant differences between computations and measurements. The current working hypothesis is that the computational model does not capture details of the mixing process in the plenum.

  5. Measurements and modeling of emissions, dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia from swine facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep Singh

    Ammonia has recently gained importance for its increasing atmospheric concentrations and its role in the formation of aerosols. Studies have shown increasing atmospheric concentration levels of NH3 and NH 4+, especially in the regions of concentrated animal feeding operations. Atmospheric inputs of reduced nitrogen as ammonia and ammonium by dry and wet deposition may represent a substantial contribution to the acidification of semi natural ecosystems and could also affect sensitive coastal ecosystems and estuaries. The anaerobic lagoon and spray method, commonly used for waste storage and disposal in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO), is a significant source of ammonia emissions. An accurate emission model for ammonia from aqueous surfaces can help in the development of emission factors. Study of dispersion and dry deposition patterns of ammonia downwind of a hog farm will help us to understand how much ammonia gets dry deposited near the farm, and how remaining ammonia gets transported farther away. An experimental and modeling study is conducted of emissions, dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia taking one swine farm as a unit. Measurements of ammonia flux were made at 11 swine facilities in North Carolina using dynamic flow-through chamber system over the anaerobic waste treatment lagoons. Continuous measurements of ammonia flux, meteorological and lagoon parameters were made for 8-10 days at each farm during each of the warm and cold seasons. Ammonia concentrations were continuously measured in the chamber placed over the lagoon using a Thermo Environmental Instrument Incorporated (TECO) Model 17c chemiluminescnce ammonia analyzer. A similar ammonia analyzer was used to measure ammonia concentrations at selected locations on the farm. Barn emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. A 10 m meteorological tower was erected at each site to measure wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity

  6. Measurement, analysis, and modeling of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a swine facility in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden, Jessica

    Annual global source contributions of sulfur compounds to the natural atmospheric environment are estimated to be 142 x 106 tons. Although not quantified, volatilization from animal wastes may be an important source of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas emitted during decomposition of hog manure that produces an offensive "rotten egg" odor. Once released into the atmosphere, H 2S is oxidized and the eventual byproduct, sulfuric acid, may combine with other atmospheric constituents to form aerosol products such as ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate. In recent years, confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have increased in size, resulting in more geographically concentrated areas of animals and, subsequently, animal waste. In North Carolina and across the southeastern United States anaerobic waste treatment lagoons are traditionally used to store and treat hog excreta at commercial hog farms. Currently, no state regulations exist for H2S gaseous emissions from animal production facilities in North Carolina and the amount of H2S being emitted into the atmosphere from these potential sources is widely unknown. In response to the need for data, this research initiative has been undertaken in an effort to quantify emissions of H2S from swine CAFOs. An experimental study was conducted at a commercial swine farm in eastern North Carolina to measure hydrogen sulfide emissions from a hog housing unit utilizing a mechanical fan ventilation system and from an on-site waste storage treatment lagoon. A dynamic flow-through chamber system was employed to make lagoon flux measurements. Semi-continuous measurements were made over a one-year period (2004-2005) for a few days during each of the four predominant seasons in order to assess diurnal and temporal variability in emissions. Fan rpm from the barn was continuously measured and flow rates were calculated in order to accurately assess gaseous emissions from the system

  7. Measuring School Facility Conditions: An Illustration of the Importance of Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lance W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that taking the educational purposes of schools into account is central to understanding the place and importance of facilities to learning outcomes. The paper begins by observing that the research literature connecting facility conditions to student outcomes is mixed. A closer examination of this…

  8. A Framework for Measuring Student and Staff Satisfaction with University Campus Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kärnä, Sami; Julin, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and discuss the extent of the satisfaction as perceived by the students and staff towards university facilities and services in two campuses in Finland. The aim is to analyse which facility-related factors have the greatest impacts on students' and staff's overall satisfaction.…

  9. ON-ROAD FACILITY TO MEASURE AND CHARACTERIZE EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to lingering concerns about the utility of dynamometer data for mobile source emissions modeling, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has constructed an on-road test facility to characterize the real-world emissions of heavy-duty trucks. The facility was de...

  10. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  11. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  12. Measurement of reaction-in-flight neutrons using thulium activation at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, G. P.; Rundberg, R.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Jungman, G.; Boswell, M.; Klein, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tonchev, A.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2014-09-01

    We report on the first observation of tertiary reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons produced in compressed deuterium and tritium filled capsules using the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. RIF neutrons are produced by third-order, out of equilibrium ("in-flight") fusion reactions, initiated by primary fusion products. The rate of RIF reactions is dependent upon the range of the elastically scattered fuel ions and therefore a diagnostic of Coulomb physics within the plasma. At plasma temperatures of ˜5 keV, the presence of neutrons with kinetic energies greater than 15 MeV is a unique signature for RIF neutron production. The reaction 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm has a threshold of 15.0 MeV, and a unique decay scheme making it a suitable diagnostic for observing RIF neutrons. RIF neutron production is quantified by the ratio of 167Tm/168Tm observed in a 169Tm foil, where the reaction 169Tm(n,2n)168Tm samples the primary neutron fluence. Averaged over 4 implosions1-4 at the NIF, the 167Tm/168Tm ratio is measured to be 1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10-5, leading to an average ratio of RIF to primary neutron ratio of 1.0 +/- 0.2 x 10-4. These ratios are consistent with the predictions for charged particle stopping in a quantum degenerate plasma.

  13. A new and facile method for measurement of apparent density of monodisperse polymer beads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Li, Yuanpeng; Jing, Ying; Xing, Chengguo; Chang, Jin; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2010-03-15

    The apparent density, an intrinsic physical property of polymer beads, plays an important role in the application of beads in micro-total analysis systems and separation. Here we have developed a new, facile and milligram-scale method to describe the motion of beads in aqueous solution and further detect the apparent density of beads. The motion of beads in solutions is determined by the viscosity of solutions and the density difference between beads and solutions. In this study, using various glycerol aqueous solutions with certain viscosities and densities, the motion time (i.e. floating or sedimentation time) of hybrid polymer beads was experimentally measured and theoretically deduced, and consequently, the apparent density of monodisperse beads can be quickly and easily calculated. The results indicated that the present method provided a more precise way to predict the movement of hybrid beads in aqueous solution compared with the approach for commercial use. This new method can be potentially employed in flow cytometry, suspension stability, and particle analysis systems.

  14. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  15. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  16. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  17. Measurement of depth distributions of (3)H and (14)C induced in concrete shielding of an electron accelerator facility.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akira; Harada, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Katsuya; Kikuchi, Masamitsu

    2004-06-01

    The estimation of radioactivity induced in concrete shielding is important for the decommissioning of accelerator facilities. Concentrations of (3)H and (14)C in the concrete shielding of an electron linear accelerator were measured, and the depth distributions of (3)H and (14)C and gamma-ray emitters were discussed in relation to their formation reactions.

  18. An evaluation of analog and numerical techniques for unsteady heat transfer measurement with thin-film gauges in transient facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, William K.; Rae, William J.; Woodward, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The importance of frequency response considerations in the use of thin-film gages for unsteady heat transfer measurements in transient facilities is considered, and methods for evaluating it are proposed. A departure frequency response function is introduced and illustrated by an existing analog circuit. A Fresnel integral temperature which possesses the essential features of the film temperature in transient facilities is introduced and is used to evaluate two numerical algorithms. Finally, criteria are proposed for the use of finite-difference algorithms for the calculation of the unsteady heat flux from a sampled temperature signal.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-10-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-07-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. The Effect of Group Counseling in a Rehabilitation Facility as Measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, James C.; Lawlis, G. Frank

    1973-01-01

    A study of eight clients of Goodwill Industries of Lubbock, Texas concludes that the use of group counseling in a rehabilitative facility can assist clients in enhancing their self-concept and improving their work satisfactoriness. (EA)

  2. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) attitude measurements of the interplanetary dust experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassel, Philip C., Jr.; Singer, S. Fred; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Weinberg, Jerry L.; Cooke, William J.; Wortman, Jim J.; Motley, William R., III

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) was unique in providing a time history of impacts of micron-sized particles on six orthogonal faces of LDEF during the first year in orbit. The value of this time resolved data depended on and was enhanced by the proper operation of some basic LDEF systems. Thus, the value of the data is greatly enhanced when the location and orientation of LDEF is known for each time of impact. The location and velocity of LDEF as a function of time can be calculated from the 'two-line elements' published by GSFC during the first year of the LDEF mission. The attitude of LDEF was passively stabilized in a gravity-gradient mode and a magnetically anchored viscous damper was used to dissipate roll, pitch, and yaw motions. Finally, the IDE used a standard LDEF Experiment Power and Data System (EPDS) to collect and store data and also to provide a crystal derived clock pulse (1 count every 13.1072 seconds) for all IDE time measurements. All that remained for the IDE was to provide a system to calibrate the clock, eliminating accumulative errors, and also verify the attitude of LDEF. The IDE used solar cells on six orthogonal faces to observe the LDEF sunrise and provide data about the LDEF attitude. The data was recorded by the EPDS about 10 times per day for the first 345 days of the LDEF mission. This data consist of the number of IDE counts since the last LDEF sunrise and the status of the six solar cells (light or dark) at the time of the last IDE count. The EPDS determined the time that data was recorded and includes, with each record, the master EPDS clock counter (1 count every 1.6384 seconds) that provided the range and resolution for time measurements. The IDE solar cells provided data for an excellent clock calibration, meeting their primary purpose, and the time resolved LDEF attitude measurements that can be gleaned from this data are presented.

  3. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  4. Electrochemical Technology for Oxygen Removal and Measurement in the CELSS Test Facility, Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, Michael E.; Covington, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Life Support Flight Program is evaluating regenerative technologies, including those that utilize higher plants, as a means to reduce resupply over long duration space missions. Constructed to assist in the evaluation process is the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit (CTF-EDU) an environmentally closed (less than 1% mass and thermal leakage) technology test bed. This ground based fully functional prototype is currently configured to support crop growth, utilizing the power, volume and mass resources allocated for two space station racks. Sub-system technologies were selected considering their impact on available resources, their ability to minimize integration issues, and their degree of modularity. Gas specific mass handling is a key sub-system technology for both biological and physical/chemical life support technologies. The CTF-EDU requires such a system to accommodate non-linear oxygen production from crops, by enabling the control system to change and sustain partial pressure set points in the growth volume. Electrochemical cells are one of the technologies that were examined for oxygen handling in the CTF-EDU. They have been additionally considered to meet other regenerative life support functions, such as oxygen generation, the production of potable water from composite waste streams, and for having the potential to integrate life support functions with those of propulsion and energy storage. An oxygen removal system based on an electrochemical cell was chosen for the EDU due to it's low power, volume and mass requirements (10W, 0.000027 cu m, 4.5 kg) and because of the minimal number of integration considerations. Unlike it's competitors, the system doesn't require post treatments of its byproducts, or heat and power intensive regenerations, that also mandate system redundancy or cycling. The EDUs oxygen removal system only requires two resources, which are already essential to controlled plant growth: electricity and water. Additionally

  5. Comparative Measurements of Earth and Martian Entry Environments in the NASA Langley HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Bey, Kim S.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Arc-jet facilities play a major role in the development of heat shield materials for entry vehicles because they are capable of producing representative high-enthalpy flow environments. Arc-jet test data is used to certify material performance for a particular mission and to validate or calibrate models of material response during atmospheric entry. Materials used on missions entering Earth s atmosphere are certified in an arc-jet using a simulated air entry environment. Materials used on missions entering the Martian atmosphere should be certified in an arc-jet using a simulated Martian atmosphere entry environment, which requires the use of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has not been used as a test gas in a United States arc-jet facility since the early 1970 s during the certification of materials for the Viking Missions. Materials certified for the Viking missions have been used on every entry mission to Mars since that time. The use of carbon dioxide as a test gas in an arc-jet is again of interest to the thermal protection system community for certification of new heat shield materials that can increase the landed mass capability for Mars bound missions beyond that of Viking and Pathfinder. This paper describes the modification, operation, and performance of the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-jet facility with carbon dioxide as a test gas. A basic comparison of heat fluxes, various bulk properties, and performance characteristics for various Earth and Martian entry environments in HYMETS is provided. The Earth and Martian entry environments consist of a standard Earth atmosphere, an oxygen-rich Earth atmosphere, and a simulated Martian atmosphere. Finally, a preliminary comparison of the HYMETS arc-jet facility to several European plasma facilities is made to place the HYMETS facility in a more global context of arc-jet testing capability.

  6. Design of the opacity spectrometer for opacity measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Ahmed, M. F.; Dodd, E.; Huffman, E. J.; Liedahl, D. A.; King, J. A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Schneider, M. B.; Perry, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratory Z facility have called into question models used in calculating opacity, of importance for modeling stellar interiors. An effort is being made to reproduce these results at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments require a new X-ray opacity spectrometer (OpSpec) spanning 540 eV-2100 eV with a resolving power E/ΔE > 700. The design of the OpSpec is presented. Photometric calculations based on expected opacity data are also presented. First use on NIF is expected in September 2016.

  7. Hawaii PTTI test bed. [characteristics and operation on time measurement facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and installation of a test bed for a Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI). A prime goal in the effort is to develop a repertoire of techniques and equipment that will permit communications facilities to be served most effectively by their ties to a common time reference. The test bed provides guidance for the implementation of precise time and frequency discipline at other facilities. One product of the test-bed problem is an assessment of the accuracy of the time-discipline chain from the observatory to each level of use.

  8. Design of the opacity spectrometer for opacity measurements at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Ross, P W; Heeter, R F; Ahmed, M F; Dodd, E; Huffman, E J; Liedahl, D A; King, J A; Opachich, Y P; Schneider, M B; Perry, T S

    2016-11-01

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratory Z facility have called into question models used in calculating opacity, of importance for modeling stellar interiors. An effort is being made to reproduce these results at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments require a new X-ray opacity spectrometer (OpSpec) spanning 540 eV-2100 eV with a resolving power E/ΔE > 700. The design of the OpSpec is presented. Photometric calculations based on expected opacity data are also presented. First use on NIF is expected in September 2016.

  9. Thermal Distortion Measurements of a Dual Gridded Antenna Reflector with Laser Radar System Integrated to a Thermal Vacuum Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Peter Jens; Doring, Daniel; Ihle, Alexander; Reichmann, Olaf; Maeyaert, Michiel

    2014-06-01

    A dual gridded reflector for Ku-Band applications (KuDGR) with two actually gridded shells made of single and individually shaped CFRP-rods (single carbon fibre reinforced plastic) has been developed by HPS. Due to the fact that these shells are made of CFRP-rods conventional methods for coordinate and thermal-distortion (TD) measuring could not be used. Therefore, the Laser Radar system (LR) was identified as best suitable measurement method for this application.The LR was chosen during the KaDGR study performed by HPS due to its capability to measure points contactless without targets and with high precision and a great number of measurement points in a short time. Furthermore, due to the gridded structure measurement systems using interferometric patterns (ESPI, Shearography) or structured light projection could not be applied.The performance of the Laser Radar system was tested during preliminary measurements on the KuDGR bread- board model. For the first environmental tests on the engineering model, the test methods at IABG were specifically adapted and qualified in order to verify that the Laser Radar system can handle the constrains set by a thermal-vacuum (TV) test facility. During the verification test run the objectives were to verify the compatibility of the LR with the positioning with respect to the chamber, the visibility, the test facilities viewport and setup inside the chamber as well as the achievable measurement accuracy. The general compatibility could be shown and optimisations regarding test setup and better accuracy were identified. Since the active surfaces of the reflector contains a multitude of single rods all with different shapes and lengths the vibration influences of the individual facility systems onto the reflector were investigated.The LR system is widely used in industrial applications but references regarding measuring thermo-elastic distortions in a TV test facility using this method are still rare. IABG has developed and

  10. Atmospheric Stability Measurements at a Swine Facility and an Adjacent Corn Field in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric stability conditions at the surface layer can determine direction and momentum transport of air contaminants. Near confined animal facilities, these transport processes can significantly impact air quality as these sites typically act as net source of pollutants; however, little informat...

  11. Measurement of gas and particulate amines at agricultural facilities using an ambient ion monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural facilities are the source of particles and gases that can exhibit an influence on air quality. Particle mass concentration influences from agricultural sources can include both primary emissions and secondary particle formation through the emission of gaseous precursors. Reports showing...

  12. Evaluation of Gas-filled Ionization Chamber Method for Radon Measurement at Two Reference Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Miyahara, Nobuyuki

    2008-08-07

    For quality assurance, gas-filled ionization chamber method was tested at two reference facilities for radon calibration: EML (USA) and PTB (Germany). Consequently, the radon concentrations estimated by the ionization chamber method were in good agreement with the reference radon concentrations provided by EML as well as PTB.

  13. Measurements of reactor-relevant electromagnetic effects with the FELIX facility

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Hua, T.Q.; Knott, M.J.; Lee, S.Y.; McGhee, D.G.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1986-11-01

    Recent experiments with the FELIX (Fusion Electromagnetic Induction eXperiment) facility at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) suggest that the expected electromagnetic forces and torques in a tokamak first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) system can be modelled by a single eddy current mode, with a simple characterization.

  14. Lidar Based Emissions Measurement at the Whole Facility Scale: Method and Error Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regiona...

  15. Operation and Performance Measurement on Engines in Sea Level Test Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    operations which may ho performed in order to imorove a % signal ci, change its existing form into another one for the purpose of electrical comnatibility ...facility that allows realistic gas turbine core engine cyclic testing with fully instrumented components. This corporate funded Low Cycle Fatigue

  16. Neutron-induced fission cross section of U234 measured at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Ioannidis, K.; Demetriou, P.; Diakaki, M.; Vlachoudis, V.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Konovalov, V.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dorochenko, A.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fuji, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gallino, R.; Cennini, P.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Kolokolov, D.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Sedysheva, M.; Stamoulis, K.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Tsinganis, A.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; n TOF Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of U234 has been measured at the CERN n_TOF facility relative to the standard fission cross section of U235 from 20 keV to 1.4 MeV and of U238 from 1.4 to 200 MeV. A fast ionization chamber (FIC) was used as a fission fragment detector with a detection efficiency of no less than 97%. The high instantaneous flux and the low background characterizing the n_TOF facility resulted in wide-energy-range data (0.02 to 200 MeV), with high energy resolution, high statistics, and systematic uncertainties bellow 3%. Previous investigations around the energy of the fission threshold revealed structures attributed to β-vibrational levels, which have been confirmed by the present measurements. Theoretical calculations have been performed, employing the talys code with model parameters tuned to fairly reproduce the experimental data.

  17. Index and Bulk Parameters for Frequency-Direction Spectra Measured at CERC Field Research Facility, September 1991 to August 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Index and Bulk Parameters for Frequency- Direction Spectra Measured at CERC Field Research Facility, September 1991 to August 1992 Accion For by...Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Civil Works Research Work Unit 32484 M US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways...that affect coastal engineering pro- jects. This effort was authorized by Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps o.’ Engi- neers (HQUSACE), under Civil Works

  18. Real-Time Measurements of Ethane for Source Attribution of Methane Plumes from Oil and Gas Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Iglesias, G.; Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Lab has conducted several recent studies of the methane emissions from Oil and Gas facilities at varying stages of production: well-heads; processing facilities; and compressor stations. Accurate quantification of methane emission rates are can be complicated by other local sources, notably livestock and microbial production. Methane emissions from oil and gas facilities are always accompanied by small amounts of ethane, while biogenic plumes contain no ethane. A prototype ethane spectrometer based on the Aerodyne-Mini chassis, has been deployed to oil and gas facilities in the Veracruz region of Mexico, as part of the 2013 Short-Lived Climate-Forcing project, and during ground-based measurements in the Barnett Shale in Texas as part of the Barnett Oil and Gas Observation Study. These results suggest a source-dependence in the ethane-to-methane ratio in oil and gas emissions. The results will be contrasted with 13CH4 methane isotope ratios determined using Aerodyne's Methane-Dual instrument. The limits and advantages of ethane-methane ratios and methane isotopes will be discussed. In the current instrumentation, the precision of determined ethane-to-methane ratios in a single plume encounter exceeds the analogous carbon isotope quantification.

  19. Measurements of plasma conditions in precursor plasmas at the 1-MA Zebra facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouart, N. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Osborne, G. C.; Deeney, C.

    2007-11-01

    Precursor plasmas, both the early time precursor flow of mass and the accumulation of this material on axis, were observed on many z-pinch experiments at various facilities, including low current (< 1MA) and high current (>15 MA, Z) facilities. The impact of these precursors on stagnated plasmas, and targets such as those used for ICF experiments, is still under evaluation. Experiments were performed at the UNR 1-MA, 100ns Zebra facility to study these precursor plasmas with Cu wire arrays. Significant precursor radiation at photon energies > 1 keV was observed on filtered PCDs. Te and ne of the precursor radiation were obtained from modeling of time-resolved spectroscopy of the Cu L-shell emissions for 6 wires on 12mm diameter loads. The precursor plasma temperatures are consistently >250eV. Time resolved pinhole images were also collected, which show bright spots of radiation along the axial length of the pinch. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Work was also supported by the DOE/NNSA Coop. agr. DE-FC52-06NA27616, 06NA27588, 06NA27586, and by fellowship from the NPSC with SNL.

  20. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  1. Inferring dust physical properties through light scattering measurements with the ICAPS facility on board the International space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2003-04-01

    Numerous low-density clouds of dust particles and aggregates are formed in the solar system (e.g. cometary comae and tails, interplanetary dust cloud). The physical properties of the dust (i.e. morphology, size distribution, albedo, porosity), seldom revealed by in-situ measurements, may be obtained by remote observations. The phase angle dependence and the wavelength dependence of the scattered light brightness and polarization (which does not depend upon the distance nor upon the concentration) actually provide drastic constraints for these properties. Our present understanding of the properties of these irregular dust particles will first be presented, with emphasis on the need for laboratory measurements (avoiding sedimentation and multiple scattering on gravity packed layers) to interpret the observations. The feasibility of light scattering measurements on dust clouds and on the aggregates they form under micro-gravity conditions, as demonstrated by the PROGRA2 experiment during parabolic flight campaigns and by the CODAG-LSU experiment during a rocket flight, will be summarized. The opportunity offered by the ICAPS facility (now in phase B at ESA) to deduce without any ambiguity the physical properties of cosmic dust particles from their optical properties, as well as their evolution when they break-off or aggregate, will be presented. New possibilities will be discussed, including measurements on ices condensing on micron-sized dust particles/aggregates, and the significance of light scattering measurements on submicron-sized particles with the IMPF facility (to be integrated with ICAPS in a common rack facility on board the ISS). Finally the latest developments of the ICAPS-Sounding Rocket Experiment, to be flown in 2004 on board the ESA MASER 10 rocket, will be presented.

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J. A.; Stewart, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Schneider, M. B.; Miles, A. R.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Hsing, W. W.

    2012-10-15

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-{alpha} at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma.

  3. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 151Sm at the CERN neutron time of flight facility (n_TOF).

    PubMed

    Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Benlliure, J; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Cortina, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Koelbl, H; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gallino, R; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez-Val, J; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perlado, J M; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Soares, J C; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2004-10-15

    The151Sm(n,gamma)152Sm cross section has been measured at the spallation neutron facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The new facility combines excellent resolution in neutron time-of-flight, low repetition rates, and an unsurpassed instantaneous luminosity, resulting in rather favorable signal/background ratios. The 151Sm cross section is of importance for characterizing neutron capture nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars. At a thermal energy of kT=30 keV the Maxwellian averaged cross section of this unstable isotope (t(1/2)=93 yr) was determined to be 3100+/-160 mb, significantly larger than theoretical predictions.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2010-01-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. The 234U Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurement at the n_TOF Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lampoudis, C.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Collaboration, n_TOF

    2008-01-01

    The neutron capture cross-section of {sup 234}U has been measured for energies from thermal up to the keV region in the neutron time-of-flight facility n{_}TOF, based on a spallation source located at CERN. A 4n BaF{sub 2} array composed of 40 crystals, placed at a distance of 184.9 m from the neutron source, was employed as a total absorption calorimeter (TAC) for detection of the prompt {gamma}-ray cascade from capture events in the sample. This text describes the experimental setup, all necessary steps followed during the data analysis procedure. Results are presented in the form of R-matrix resonance parameters from fits with the SAMMY code and compared to the evaluated data of ENDF in the relevant energy region, indicating the good performance of the n{_}TOF facility and the TAC.

  8. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for three component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, R. G.; Goldman, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  9. Combined fringe and Fabry-Perot laser anemometer for 3 component velocity measurements in turbine stator cascade facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.; Goldman, Louis J.

    1986-01-01

    A laser anemometer is described that was developed for use in a 508 mm diameter annular turbine stator cascade facility. All three velocity components are measured through a single restricted optical port, both within the stator vane row and downstream of the vanes. The measurements are made through a cylindrical window in the casing that matches the tip radius of the cascade. The stator tested has a contoured hub endwall that results in a large radial flow near the hub. The anemometer uses a standard fringe configuration (LFA) with a fluorescent aerosol seed to measure the axial and circumferential velocity components. The radial component is measured with a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The two configurations are combined in a single optical system and can operate simultaneously. Data are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  10. Recent Progress in Entry Radiation Measurements in the NASA Ames Electric ARC Shock Tube Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    The Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) at NASA Ames Research Center is NASA's only working shock tube capable of obtaining conditions representative of entry in a multitude of planetary atmospheres. The facility is capable of mapping spectroscopic signatures of a wide range of planetary entries from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Mid-Wave Infrared (120-5500 nm). This paper summarizes the tests performed in EAST for Earth, Mars and Venus entries since 2008, then focuses on a specific test case for CO2/N2 mixtures. In particular, the paper will focus on providing information for the proper interpretation of the EAST data.

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.310 - What measures must Federal agencies take to improve the utilization of parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities... employment of parking management contractors and concessionaires, where appropriate. Smoking...

  12. Transmittance Measurement of a Heliostat Facility used in the Preflight Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  13. Global characterisation of the GELINA facility for high-resolution neutron time-of-flight measurements by Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ene, D.; Borcea, C.; Kopecky, S.; Mondelaers, W.; Negret, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.

    2010-06-01

    A comprehensive set of Monte Carlo simulations was performed with the MCNP5 code to provide a generic characterisation of the neutron and photon fluxes for time-of-flight measurements at all flight paths of the GELINA facility. Simulations were performed for the direct flux configuration (DFC, 10 keV-20 MeV) and the moderated flux configuration (MFC, 10 meV-1 MeV). Fluxes and flux energy spectra were obtained for both neutrons and photons. For neutrons, additionally, detailed resolution functions and figures of merit were obtained. The validity of the approach for the photon spectra is shown by comparison with a dedicated measurement. Also, a verification is presented of the validity of the neutron resolution function by comparison with measured capture and transmission data for 103Rh and 56Fe in the incident neutron energy range from 70 eV to 50 keV. This comprehensive overview will facilitate the planning and analysis of measurements at the GELINA facility with an improved knowledge of its physical characteristics.

  14. AGLITE: a multi-wavelength lidar for measuring emitted aerosol concentrations and fluxes and air motion from agricultural facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Bingham, Gail E.; Zavyalov, Vladimir V.; Swasey, Jason A.; Hancock, Jed J.; Crowther, Blake G.; Cornelsen, Scott S.; Marchant, Christian; Cutts, James N.; Huish, David C.; Earl, Curtis L.; Andersen, Jan M.; Cox, McLain L.

    2006-12-01

    AGLITE is a multi-wavelength lidar developed for the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its program on particle emissions from animal production facilities. The lidar transmitter is a 10 kHz pulsed NdYAG laser at 355, 532 and 1064 nm. We analyze lidar backscatter and extinction to extract aerosol physical properties. All-reflective optics and dichroic and interferometric filters permit all wavelengths to be measured simultaneously, day or night, using photon counting by MTs, an APD, and fast data acquisition. The lidar housing is a transportable trailer suitable for all-weather operation at any accessible site. We direct the laser and telescope FOVs to targets of interest in both azimuth and elevation. The lidar has been applied in atmospheric studies at a swine production farm in Iowa and a dairy in Utah. Prominent aerosol plumes emitted from the swine facility were measured as functions of temperature, turbulence, stability and the animal feed cycle. Particle samplers and turbulence detectors were used by colleagues specializing in those fields. Lidar measurements also focused on air motion as seen by scans of the farm volume. The value of multi-wavelength, eye-safe lidars for agricultural aerosol measurements has been confirmed by the successful operation of AGLITE.

  15. Transmittance measurement of a heliostat facility used in the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-08-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  16. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  17. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  18. Measurement of outdoor noise levels adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.W.

    1981-08-27

    In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance levels. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the noise environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound level in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed.

  19. Absolute Beam Energy Measurement using Elastic ep Scattering at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre

    1999-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab beam energy measurement in Hall A using the elastic ep scattering will be described. This new, non-magnetic, energy measurement method allows a ( triangle E/E=10-4 ) precision. First-order corrections are canceled by the measurements of the electron and proton scattering angles for two symmetric kinematics. The measurement principle will be presented as well as the device and measurement results. Comparison with independent magnetic energy measurements of the same accuracy will be shown. This project is the result of a collaboration between the LPC: université Blaise Pascal/in2p3), Saclay and Jefferson Lab.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  1. Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-01

    This document provides specific guidance to agencies on the implementation and follow-up of energy and water efficiency measures identified and undertaken per Section 432 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) (42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(4) and (5)) This guidance also provides context for how these activities fit into the comprehensive approach to facility energy and water management outlined by the statute and incorporates by reference previous DOE guidance released for Section 432 of EISA and other related documents. 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(7)(A) specifies that facility energy managers shall certify compliance for each covered facility with the 42 U.S.C. 8253(f)(2)-(5) requirements via a web-based tracking system and make it publicly available. This document also describes the role of the tracking system that has been developed for the collection and reporting of data needed for the demonstration of compliance and progress toward meeting all energy and water efficiency requirements outlined in the statute.

  2. Design and Realization of the Control and Measurement System of the Long Pulsed High Magnetic Field Facility Supplied by Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J. F.; Xiong, Y. D.; Han, X. T.; Ding, T. H.; Shi, J. T.; Li, L.

    2013-03-01

    A Control and Measurement System (CMS) is designed to ensure the reliable operation in the long pulsed high magnetic field facility supplied by lead-acid batteries. The CMS is mainly composed of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), a fault monitor and protection circuit, a signal processing and data acquisition unit, a local triggering sequence generator and the main control program. The system architecture and kernel parts of the CMS are analyzed and described in detail. The results prove that the designed CMS could perform efficiently and reliably.

  3. Measurement of transmission loss characteristics using acoustic intensity techniques at the KU-FRL Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    The transmission loss characteristics of panels using the acoustic intensity technique is presented. The theoretical formulation, installation of hardware, modifications to the test facility, and development of computer programs and test procedures are described. A listing of all the programs is also provided. The initial test results indicate that the acoustic intensity technique is easily adapted to measure transmission loss characteristics of panels. Use of this method will give average transmission loss values. The fixtures developed to position the microphones along the grid points are very useful in plotting the intensity maps of vibrating panels.

  4. Automated, non-metallic measurement facility for testing and development of electromagnetic induction sensors for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Gregg D.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    For development of electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors for landmine detection, a testing facility has been established for automated measurements of typical targets with both individual sensors and arrays of sensors. A six-degree of freedom positioner has been built with five automated axes (three translational stages and two rotational stages) and one manual axis for target characterizations with no metal within the measurement volume. Translational stages utilize commercially-available linear positioner hardware. Rotational stages have been customized using nonmetallic components to position the targets within the measurement volume. EMI sensors are held fixed in one location while the positioner orients the targets and moves them along a prescribed path through the region surrounding the sensor. The automated movement is computer-controlled and data are acquired continuously. Data are presented from three-dimensional scans of targets at various orientations. Typical targets include shell casings, wire loops, ball bearings, and landmines.

  5. Opacity spectrometer design for opacity measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P. W.; Ahmed, M. F.; Bailey, J. E.; Dunham, G. S.; Emig, J. A.; Heeter, R. F.; Huffman, E. J.; Perry, T. S.; Opachich, Y. P.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M.; Stone, G. F.

    2015-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Opacity Spectrometer (OpSpec) is a modular spectrometer designed initially for opacity experiments on NIF. The design of the OpSpec is presented in light of the requirements and constraints. Potential dispersing elements and detector configurations are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are discussed. The full OpSpec design covers the energy range from approximately 550 eV to 2 keV. The energy resolution of the OpSpec is E/ΔE > 500. Applications of the OpSpec are discussed, including relevant astrophysical applications for NIF experiments, and will compliment recently published work on the Z machine. (Bailey, et al., Nature 517, 56-59 (2015).) This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Measurements of reactor-relevant electromagnetic effects with the FELIX facility

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Hua, T.Q.; Knott, M.J.; Lee, S.Y.; McGhee, D.G.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    In predicting the electromagnetic consequences of a plasma disruption in a tokamak reactor design, a two-dimensional electromagnetic model of the first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) system is typically used. The response to a decaying plasma current is then found to be dominated by a single eddy-current mode, with a single L/R time. Recent experiments with the Fusion ELectromagnetic Induction eXperiment (FELIX) facility at Argonne National Laboratory suggest that such modeling can be used to design against electromagnetic forces and torques, but only if a range of values is used for both tau, the plasma decay time, and tau/sub 0/, the L/R time of the FWBS system.

  7. Mach-Zehnder fiber-optic links for reaction history measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. Kirk; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2010-08-01

    We present the details of the analog fiber-optic data link that will be used in the chamber-mounted Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California. The system is based on Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators integrated into the diagnostic, with the source lasers and bias control electronics located remotely to protect the active electronics. A complete recording system for a single GRH channel comprises two MZ modulators, with the fiber signals split onto four channels on a single digitizer. By carefully selecting the attenuation, the photoreceiver, and the digitizer settings, the dynamic range achievable is greater than 1000:1 at the full system bandwidth of greater than 10 GHz. The system is designed to minimize electrical reflections and mitigate the effects of transient radiation darkening on the fibers.

  8. Linking household and facility data for better coverage measures in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health care: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Do, Mai; Micah, Angela; Brondi, Luciana; Campbell, Harry; Marchant, Tanya; Eisele, Thomas; Munos, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently many measures of intervention coverage obtained from household surveys do not measure actual health intervention/service delivery, resulting in a need for linking reports of care–seeking with assessments of the service environment in order to improve measurements. This systematic review aims to identify evidence of different methods used to link household surveys and service provision assessments, with a focus on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care, in low– and middle–income countries. Methods Using pre–defined search terms, articles published in peer–reviewed journals and the grey literature after 1990 were identified, their reference lists scanned and linking methods synthesized. Findings A total of 59 articles and conference presentations were carefully reviewed and categorized into two groups based on the linking method used: 1) indirect/ecological linking that included studies in which health care–seeking behavior was linked to all or the nearest facilities or providers of certain types within a geographical area, and 2) direct linking/exact matching where individuals were linked with the exact provider or facility where they sought care. The former approach was employed in 51 of 59 included studies, and was particularly common among studies that were based on independent sources of household and facility data that were nationally representative. Only eight of the 59 reviewed studies employed direct linking methods, which were typically done at the sub–national level (eg, district level) and often in rural areas, where the number of providers was more limited compared to urban areas. Conclusions Different linking methods have been reported in the literature, each category has its own set of advantages and limitations, in terms of both methodology and practicality for scale–up. Future studies that link household and provider/facility data should also take into account factors such as sources of data, the

  9. Spaced sensor measurements of artificial airglow emission at 630 nm of ionosphere caused by ``Sura'' facility radiation in November 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, Igor; Grach, Savely; Gumerov, Rustam; Shindin, Alexey; Kogogin, Denis; Dementiev, Vladislav

    Some first results on simultaneous observation artificial airglow emission at 630 nm during HF pumping of the ionosphere by “Sura” facility from two spatial situated experimental sites are reported. The measurements of artificial airglow are usually conducted in red and green lines of atomic oxygen (the radiation of levels O((1) D) and O((1) S) under their excitation by electronic impact) with wave lengths of 630 and 557.7 nm and excitation energy of 1.96 and 4.17 eV accordingly. An enhancement of airglow intensity in the red line is related at present to the electron heating by powerful radio waves. The idea of the experiment was to estimate the heated volume three-dimensional structure and drift motion one. The experiment was carried out in November 2013 at the “Sura” radio facility, situated near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (geographical coordinates 56.13(o) N, 46.10(o) E, geomagnetic field declination and inclination are ˜ 10.0(o) east and ˜ 71.5(o) , respectively). Conditions of ionosphere were checked by means of "Cady" ionosonde during “Sura” runs. According to the ionospheric conditions, on the 7(th) of November the “Sura” facility operated at frequency 4.540 MHz. At this frequency the effective radiated power was about 120MW. The HF beam width at the “Sura” facility is ˜ 12(o) . A square wave pump modulation of 5 min on, 5 min off, was used. Measurements were carried out in the period from 14:40 to 17:30 UTC. Optical imaging was performed on two spatial experimental sites: “Vasilsursk” (situated about 500 m from antenna system of “Sura” facility); “Raifa” (situated about 170 km from “Sura” facility at the Magnetic Observatory of Kazan Federal University, geographical coordinates 55.93(o) N, 48.75(o) E). They both were fitted out Peltier-cooled front-illuminated bare CCD cameras with 16-bit slow-scan read-out (S1C3). On “Vasilsursk” site the images were binned down to 256× 256 pixels in addition to cooling, in order

  10. Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05

    The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL

  11. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    1999-09-20

    This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  12. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    1999-12-06

    This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary.

  13. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-01-06

    This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available and WRAP gains in operational experience this report will be reviewed semi annually and updated as necessary.

  14. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  15. Au Foil Activation Measurement and Simulation of the Concrete Neutron Shielding Ability for the Proposed New SANRAD Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebe, M. J.; Korochinsky, S.; Strydom, W. J.; De Beer, F. C.

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effective neutron shielding characteristics of the new shielding material designed and manufactured to be used for the construction of the new SANRAD facility at Necsa, South Africa, through Au foil activation as well as MCNP simulations. The shielding capability of the high density shielding material was investigated in the worst case region (the neutron beam axis) of the experimental chamber for two operational modes. The everyday operational mode includes the 15 cm thick poly crystalline Bismuth filter at room temperature (assumed) to filter gamma-rays and some neutron spectrum energies. The second mode, dynamic imaging, will be conducted without the Bi-filter. The objective was achieved through a foil activation measurement at the current SANRAD facility and MCNP calculations. Several Au foilswere imbedded at different thicknesses(two at each position) of shielding material up to 80 cm thick to track the attenuation of the neutron beam over distance within the shielding material. The neutron flux and subsequently the associated dose rates were calculated from the activation levels of the Au foils. The concrete shielding material was found to provide adequate shielding for all energies of neutrons emerging from beam port no-2 of the SAFARI-1 research reactorwithin a thickness of 40 cm of concrete.

  16. Energetics measurements of silver halfraum targets at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; Dunlop, W. H.; Kane, J. O.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-06-01

    The energetics of novel silver halfraum targets are presented from laser experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Four beams from the NIF laser were used to heat the halfraum targets with ˜10 kJ of energy in a 1 ns square laser pulse. The silver halfraum targets were spheres 2 mm in diameter with an 800 μm laser entrance hole (LEH). Targets with different spherical wall thicknesses (8-16 μm) were characterized. The energetics and the laser coupling to the targets were determined using the NIF X-ray (i.e. Dante and FFLEX spectrometers) and optical backscatter diagnostics (NBI and FABS). The energy coupled into the targets was 0.85-0.88 of the total laser energy with a defocused laser spot of 400 μm in diameter and no spatial smoothing of the beams with phase plates. The coupling increased to 0.92 when 400 μm spot size phase plates were used to smooth each of the four lasers beams. The energy losses from the targets were through X-ray radiation and backscatter from laser plasma instabilities (SBS and SRS) from the LEH. As expected the different wall thickness had different levels of burn through emission. The thickest walled target (˜15.9 μm) had very low radiative losses through the target wall. The thinnest walled targets (˜8 μm) radiated about 0.2 of the input energy into X-ray emission.

  17. Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; Dunlop, W. H.; Kane, J. O.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Patterson, R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Guyton, R.; Giraldez, E.

    2013-10-01

    The energetics of silver halfraum targets are presented from laser plasma experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Four beams from the NIF laser were used to heat the halfraum targets with ~ 10 kJ of energy in a 1 ns square laser pulse. The silver halfraum targets were spheres 2 mm in diameter with an 800 μm laser entrance hole (LEH). Targets with different sphere wall thicknesses (8 to 16 μm) were characterized. The energetics and the laser coupling to the targets were determined to be 0.92 by using the NIF X-ray (Dante) and optical backscatter diagnostics (NBI and FABS). The energy losses from the targets were through X-ray radiation and backscatter from laser plasma instabilities (SRS and SBS) from the LEH. As expected the different wall thickness had different levels of burn through emission. The thickest walled target (~ 15.9 μm) had very low radiative losses through the target wall. The thinnest walled targets (~ 8 μm) radiated about 0.2 of the input energy into the X-ray region. This work was done under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. First Measurements of Fuel-Ablator Interface Instability Growth in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, C. R.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Bunn, T. L.; Carlson, L. C.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H. F.; Sater, J. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Direct measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are reported for the first time. These experiments investigate one of the degradation mechanisms behind the lower-than-expected performance of early ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Face-on x-ray radiography is used to measure instability growth occurring between the deuterium-tritium fuel and the plastic ablator from well-characterized perturbations. This growth starts in two ways through separate experiments—either from a preimposed interface modulation or from ablation front feedthrough. These experiments are consistent with analytic modeling and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which say that a moderately unstable Atwood number and convergence effects are causing in-flight perturbation growth at the interface. The analysis suggests that feedthrough from outersurface perturbations dominates the interface perturbation growth at mode 60.

  19. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, C; Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Grant, P M; Gharibyan, N; Gostic, J M; Wooddy, P T; Torretto, P C; Bandong, B B; Bionta, R; Cerjan, C J; Bernstein, L A; Caggiano, J A; Herrmann, H W; Knauer, J P; Sayre, D B; Schneider, D H; Henry, E A; Fortner, R J

    2015-07-01

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the (198)Au/(196)Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  20. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, C. Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.

    2015-07-15

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the {sup 198}Au/{sup 196}Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  1. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the 198Au/196Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  2. Measurements of an ablator-gas atomic mix in indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Smalyuk, V A; Tipton, R E; Pino, J E; Casey, D T; Grim, G P; Remington, B A; Rowley, D P; Weber, S V; Barrios, M; Benedetti, L R; Bleuel, D L; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J A; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hatarik, R; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J; Knauer, J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; McNaney, J M; Mintz, M; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Pak, A; Parham, T; Petrasso, R; Sayre, D B; Schneider, M B; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Widmann, K; Wilson, D C; Yeamans, C B

    2014-01-17

    We present the first results from an experimental campaign to measure the atomic ablator-gas mix in the deceleration phase of gas-filled capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic capsules containing CD layers were filled with tritium gas; as the reactants are initially separated, DT fusion yield provides a direct measure of the atomic mix of ablator into the hot spot gas. Capsules were imploded with x rays generated in hohlraums with peak radiation temperatures of ∼294  eV. While the TT fusion reaction probes conditions in the central part (core) of the implosion hot spot, the DT reaction probes a mixed region on the outer part of the hot spot near the ablator-hot-spot interface. Experimental data were used to develop and validate the atomic-mix model used in two-dimensional simulations.

  3. Facilities for the performance of Fano measurements as a probe of electron correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.G.; Yu, S.W.; Komesu, T.; Chung, B.W.; Morton, S.A.; Waddill, G.D.

    2008-10-30

    Fano Effect measurements are the key to direct observation of the Kondo or spin shielding intrinsic to models of electron correlation. The Fano Effect is the observation of spin polarized photoelectron emission from NONMAGNETIC materials, under chirally selective excitation, such as circularly polarized photons. Below are described three spectrometers, with which Fano Effects measurements have been made. The key measurements are based upon spin-resolving and photon-dichroic photoelectron spectroscopy. True spin-resolution is achieved by the use of a Mini-Mott detection scheme. The photon-dichroic measurements include the variants x-ray magnetic circular and linear dichroism angular distributions (XMCDAD and XMLDAD). Both a multichannel, energy dispersive collection scheme as well as the spin-detecting Mini-Mott apparatus are used in data collection.

  4. Test of horizontal field measurements using two-axis Hall probes at the APS Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Vasserman, I.

    1998-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will use a 400-MeV particle beam from the APS linac with RMS beam transverse size of 100 micrometers and requires very high performance of the insertion devices in order to achieve high intensity radiation. Averaged over period, the trajectory must deviate from the ideal on-axis trajectory by not more than 10% of the RMS beam size. Meaning that the second field integral should be straight within {+-}1,300 G-cm{sup 2} over the length of the device for both horizontal and vertical directions for the 400-MeV particle beam. Under such conditions, special attention should be given to the measurement technique and tuning. Two types of probes were tested to examine the possibility to measure small horizontal field in presence of strong (up to 1 T) vertical magnetic field without the distortion associated with planar Hall probe effect. They are a two-axis Sentron analog Hall transducer and a two-axis Bell probe. The Sentron probe is a new type of Hall probe, a so-called vertical Hall device, which is sensitive to the magnetic field parallel to the chip plan. The Bell probe is a conventional-type probe sensitive to the magnetic field perpendicular to the chip plane. A flipping coil and an 81-mm-long moving coil were used to make the reference measurements. Insertion device Undulator A {number_sign}3 was used for these measurements with a gap of 11 mm and a peak field of about 0.85 T.

  5. Transonic PIV (Particle Image Velocity) measurements made in the stator trailing-edge and rotor region of the ILPF (Isentropic Light Piston Facility) at Pyestock Farnborough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.; Burnett, Mark; Lee, Wing K. A.; Udrea, Doina D.; Chana, Kamaljit S.; Anderson, S. J.

    1997-11-01

    A series of measurement have been made using PIV in the trailing edge region of the stator row and rotor in the annular transonic cascade at RAe Farnborough. The measurements provide an instantaneous quantitative whole field visualization of an unsteady transonic flow interaction region. This work is the first such measurement to be made in a rotating transonic facility.

  6. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be ˜0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however.

  7. Costs of measures to control tuberculosis/HIV in public primary care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Hausler, Harry Peter; Sinanovic, Edina; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Naidoo, Pren; Schoeman, Hennie; Karpakis, Barbara; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the costs and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ProTEST package of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) interventions in primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We collected annual cost data retrospectively using ingredients-based costing in three primary care facilities and estimated the cost per HIV infection averted and the cost per TB case prevented. FINDINGS: The range of costs per person for the ProTEST interventions in the three facilities were: US$ 7-11 for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), US$ 81-166 for detecting a TB case, US$ 92-183 for completing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and US$ 20-44 for completing six months of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. The estimated cost per HIV infection averted by VCT was US$ 67-112. The cost per TB case prevented by VCT (through preventing HIV) was US$ 129-215, by intensified case finding was US$ 323-664 and by IPT was US$ 486-962. Sensitivity analysis showed that the use of chest X-rays for IPT screening decreases the cost-effectiveness of IPT in preventing TB cases by 36%. IPT screening with or without tuberculin purified protein derivative screening was almost equally cost-effective. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the ProTEST package is cost saving. Despite moderate adherence, linking prevention and care interventions for TB and HIV resulted in the estimated costs of preventing TB being less than previous estimates of costs of treating it. VCT was less expensive than previously reported in Africa. PMID:16878226

  8. Electron temperature measurements inside the ablating plasma of gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brown, G. V.; Regan, S. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Jaquez, J.; Huang, H.; Hansen, S. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    The first measurement of the electron temperature (Te) inside a National Ignition Facility hohlraum is obtained using temporally resolved K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of a mid-Z tracer dot. Both isoelectronic- and interstage-line ratios are used to calculate the local Te via the collisional-radiative atomic physics code SCRAM [Hansen et al., High Energy Density Phys 3, 109 (2007)]. The trajectory of the mid-Z dot as it is ablated from the capsule surface and moves toward the laser entrance hole (LEH) is measured using side-on x-ray imaging, characterizing the plasma flow of the ablating capsule. Data show that the measured dot location is farther away from the LEH in comparison to the radiation-hydrodynamics simulation prediction using HYDRA [Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)]. To account for this discrepancy, the predicted simulation Te is evaluated at the measured dot trajectory. The peak Te, measured to be 4.2 keV ± 0.2 keV, is ˜0.5 keV hotter than the simulation prediction.

  9. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  10. Development and testing of a work measurement tool to assess caregivers' activities in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Munyisia, Esther; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computerized information systems into health care practices may cause changes to the way healthcare workers conduct their routine work activities, such as work flow and the time spend on each activity. To date the available work measurement tools are confined to activities in hospitals and do not cover residential aged care facilities (RACFs). There is little evidence about the effects of technology on caregivers' work practices, including the distribution of time on activities in a RACF. This requires the measurement of caregivers' activities using a valid and reliable measurement tool. The contribution of this research is to develop and test such a tool. The tool was developed based on literature research and validation in two RACFs. The final instrument contains 48 activities that are grouped into seven categories. They include direct care, indirect care, communication, documentation, personal activities, in-transit and others. This measurement tool can be used to measure the changes in caregivers' work activities associated with the introduction of computerized information systems in RACFs, including the efficiency gains of such systems.

  11. Developing mass spectrometric techniques for boundary layer measurement in hypersonic high enthalpy test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. M., Jr.; Lewis, B. W.; Nowak, R. J.; Eide, D. G.; Paulin, P. A.; Upchurch, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    Thermodynamic flow properties of gases in the boundary layer or the flowfield have been mainly deduced from pressures and temperatures measured on a model. However, further progress with respect to an understanding of these properties requires a more complete characterization of the layer including determination of the gas composition and chemistry. Most attempts to measure boundary layer chemistry involve the employment of a mass spectrometer and an associated gas sampling system. The three major limiting factors which must be addressed for species measurement in aerothermodynamic investigations on models at reentry stream velocities, are gas sampling effects, instrument limitations, and problems with data acquisition. The present investigation is concerned with a concentrated effort to quantitatively identify and correct for instrument and sampling system effects, and to develop a miniaturized high performance mass spectrometer for on-model real-time analysis of the boundary layer and its associated atmosphere.

  12. Measurements of the Temperature-Dependent Total Hemispherical Emissivity Using an Electrostatic Levitation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kelton, K. F.

    2017-01-01

    Among the three fundamental processes of heat transfer (conduction, convection, and radiation), radiation is the most dominant at high temperatures. The total hemispherical emissivity is an important property that determines the amount of heat loss by radiation. Unfortunately, the emissivity, especially its temperature dependence (ɛ (T)), is unknown for most materials. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of measuring ɛ (T) using an electrostatic levitation (ESL) technique that allows such measurements to be made on levitated solid and liquid samples in a contamination-free, high-vacuum environment. The ɛ (T) for solid Ni and liquid Zr_{60}Al_{10}Cu_{18}Ni9Co3 from these measurements is consistent with the existing literature data.

  13. PICARD SOL mission, a ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Corbard, T.; Morand, F.; Thuillier, G.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ikhlef, R.; Rouze, M.; Renaud, C.; Djafer, D.; Abbaki, S.; Assus, P.; Chauvineau, B.; Cissé, E. M.; Dalaudier, F.; D'Almeida, Eric; Fodil, M.; Laclare, F.; Lesueur, P.; Lin, M.; Marcovici, J. P.; Poiet, G.

    2012-09-01

    For the last thirty years, ground time series of the solar radius have shown different variations according to different instruments. The origin of these variations may be found in the observer, the instrument, the atmosphere and the Sun. These time series show inconsistencies and conflicting results, which likely originate from instrumental effects and/or atmospheric effects. A survey of the solar radius was initiated in 1975 by F. Laclare, at the Calern site of the Observatoire de la Cˆote d'Azur (OCA). PICARD is an investigation dedicated to the simultaneous measurements of the absolute total and spectral solar irradiance, the solar radius and solar shape, and to the Sun's interior probing by the helioseismology method. The PICARD mission aims to the study of the origin of the solar variability and to the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate by using modeling. These studies will be based on measurements carried out from orbit and from the ground. PICARD SOL is the ground segment of the PICARD mission to allow a comparison of the solar radius measured in space and on ground. PICARD SOL will enable to understand the influence of the atmosphere on the measured solar radius. The PICARD Sol instrumentation consists of: SODISM II, a replica of SODISM (SOlar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper), a high resolution imaging telescope, and MISOLFA (Moniteur d'Images SOLaires Franco-Alǵerien), a seeing monitor. Additional instrumentation consists in a Sun photometer, which measures atmospheric aerosol properties, a pyranometer to measure the solar irradiance, a visible camera, and a weather station. PICARD SOL is operating since March 2011. First results from the PICARD SOL mission are briefly reported in this paper.

  14. The 7BM beamline at the APS: a facility for time-resolved fluid dynamics measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Christopher F.; Arms, Dohn; Dufresne, Eric M.; Gibson, Harold; Wang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray radiography has been used to probe the internal structure of dense sprays with microsecond time resolution and a spatial resolution of 15 µm even in high-pressure environments. Recently, the 7BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been commissioned to focus on the needs of X-ray spray radiography measurements. The spatial resolution and X-ray intensity at this beamline represent a significant improvement over previous time-resolved X-ray radiography measurements at the APS. PMID:22713903

  15. Silicon detectors for the neutron flux and beam profile measurements of the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumarra, Agatino; Cosentino, Luigi; Barbagallo, Massimo; Colonna, Nicola; Damone, Lucia; Pappalardo, Alfio; Piscopo, Massimo; Finocchiaro, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The demand of new and high precision cross section data for neutron-induced reactions is continuously growing, driven by the requirements from several fields of fundamental physics, as well as from nuclear technology, medicine, etc. Several neutron facilities are operational worldwide, and new ones are being built. In the coming years, neutron beam intensities never reached up to now will be available, thus opening new scientific and technological frontiers. Among existing facilities, n_TOF at CERN provides a high intensity pulsed neutron beam in a wide energy range (thermal to GeV) and with an extremely competitive energy resolution that also allows spectroscopy studies. In order to ensure high quality measurements, the neutron beams must be fully characterized as a function of the neutron energy, in particular by measuring the neutron flux and the beam transverse profile with high accuracy. In 2014 a new experimental area (EAR2), with a much higher neutron flux, has been completed and commissioned at n_TOF. In order to characterize the neutron beam in the newly built experimental area at n_TOF, two suitable diagnostics devices have been built by the INFN-LNS group. Both are based on silicon detectors coupled with 6Li converter foils, in particular Single Pad for the flux measurement and Position Sensitive (strips and others) for the beam profile. The devices have been completely characterized with radioactive sources and with the n_TOF neutron beam, fulfilling all the specifications and hence becoming immediately operational. The performances of these devices and their high versatility, in terms of neutron beam intensity, make them suitable to be used in both n_TOF experimental areas. A description of the devices and the main results obtained so far will be presented.

  16. OTR Measurements and Modeling of the Electron Beam Optics at the E-Cooling Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, A.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Kazakevich, G.; Nagaitsev, S.; Prost, L.; Sutherland, M.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-03-01

    Optics of the electron beam accelerated in the Pelletron, intended for the electron cooling of 8.9 GeV antiprotons in the Fermilab recycler storage ring, has been studied. The beam profile parameters were measured under the accelerating section using Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) monitor. The monitor employs a highly-reflective 2 inch-diameter aluminum OTR-screen with a thickness of 5 μm and a digital CCD camera. The measurements were done in a pulse-signal mode in the beam current range of 0.03-0.8 A and at pulse durations ranging from 1 μs to 4 μs. Differential profiles measured in pulsed mode are compared with results obtained by modeling of the DC beam dynamics from the Pelletron cathode to the OTR monitor. The modeling was done with SAM, ULTRASAM and BEAM programs. An adjustment of the magnetic fields in the lenses of the accelerating section was done in the simulations. The simulated electron beam optics downstream of the accelerating section was in good agreement with the measurements made with pulsed beam.

  17. Risk-based process safety assessment and control measures design for offshore process facilities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal I; Sadiq, Rehan; Husain, Tahir

    2002-09-02

    Process operation is the most hazardous activity next to the transportation and drilling operation on an offshore oil and gas (OOG) platform. Past experiences of onshore and offshore oil and gas activities have revealed that a small mis-happening in the process operation might escalate to a catastrophe. This is of especial concern in the OOG platform due to the limited space and compact geometry of the process area, less ventilation, and difficult escape routes. On an OOG platform, each extra control measure, which is implemented, not only occupies space on the platform and increases congestion but also adds extra load to the platform. Eventualities in the OOG platform process operation can be avoided through incorporating the appropriate control measures at the early design stage. In this paper, the authors describe a methodology for risk-based process safety decision making for OOG activities. The methodology is applied to various offshore process units, that is, the compressor, separators, flash drum and driers of an OOG platform. Based on the risk potential, appropriate safety measures are designed for each unit. This paper also illustrates that implementation of the designed safety measures reduces the high Fatal accident rate (FAR) values to an acceptable level.

  18. Development of Security Measures: Implementation Instructions for MIL-STD on Physical Security for DCS Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Closed circuit television. e. Comunication cables. f. Fuel storage. g. Fuel lines. h. Air conditioning. The primary benefits of security measures...site charged with alarm assessment and response force dispatch. Once a intrusion is verified, the response force shall be dispatched and a verbal

  19. Neutron science facility for neutron time-of-flight and fission cross-section measurements at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Cheon; Kim, Gi Dong; Son, Jae Bum; Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young-Ouk

    2015-02-01

    In the middle of 2018, a heavy-ion accelerator complex that will be built in South Korea plans to provide the first primary beams into the neutron science facility (NSF) for producing fast neutrons. Deuteron with a maximum energy of 53 MeV and protons with a maximum energy of 88 MeV accelerated by superconducting driver linac (SCL1) will be delivered into the target hall at the NSF. A pulsed neutron beam will be provided for neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron-induced reaction cross-section measurements. At the NSF, white and mono-energetic fast neutrons will be produced when either a deuteron or a proton beam bombards a light nuclei target such as C and Li. Preliminary thermal calculations have been performed with a rotating C (graphite) target and its maximum temperature was about 530 °C, much less than its melting point. For neutron TOF measurements, two flight paths of 5 m and 20 m are considered for high-flux and low-energy neutron beams, respectively. Basically, 0° and 30° neutron collimators will be considered to obtain various neutron energies for the neutron TOF measurements. A clearing magnet is used to deflect the proton beam to a beam dump when it crosses a thin target. In addition, the neutron beam dump will be designed to generate a background due to back-scattered neutrons and photons that should be as low as possible in the TOF area. Fission cross-section measurements with a few percent uncertainties are set to be a short-term ultimate goal after building the neutron TOF facility at the NSF. In order to achieve few-percent fission cross-section measurements at the NSF, we plan to employ a time projection chamber (TPC). It can measure charged particle trajectories in the active volume in three dimensions, as well as the energy deposition, and it can significantly improve the accuracies of the fission cross-section measurements.

  20. Gamma ray facilities at the University of Maryland cyclotron. [data acquisition and radiation measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornyak, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A special beam line was set up in a separate shielded experimental room to provide a low background station for gamma-ray measurements at the University of Maryland cyclotron. The transmitted beam leaving the target is gathered in by a magnetic quadrupole lens located 1.8 m further downstream and focused on a Faraday cup located on the far side of the 2.5 m thick concrete shielding wall of the experimental room. A software computer program permits timing information ot be obtained using the cyclotron beam fine structure as a time reference for the observed gamma-ray events. Measurements indicate a beam fine structure width of less than 1.2 nanoseconds repeated, for example, in the case of 140 MeV alpha particles every 90 nanoseconds. Twelve contiguous time channels of adjustable width may be set as desired with reference to the RF signal. This allows the creation of 12 separate 8192 channel analyzers.

  1. Measurement of cosmogenic radioisotope production on water at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askins, Morgan

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of large water detectors, such as the kiloton-scale Water Cherenkov Monitor for Antineutrinos (WATCHMAN) and the megaton-scale Japanese Hyper-K project, aim to pursue a diverse physics program including low energy antineutrino physics. Muogenic backgrounds in water have been measured by the Superkamiokande collaboration, but for reactor and other low energy antineutrinos these backgrounds are only weakly constrained and may prove important for large water-based reactor-antineutrino detectors. The WATCHMAN collaboration has deployed a water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of long-lived β- n radioisotopes - 8He, 9Li, 11Li - produced by cosmic ray interactions in water. Our emphasis is on measuring those β- n decay isotopes which mimic the positron-neutron signal from inverse beta decay of antineutrinos on protons. Our detector is a 2 ton cylindrical target of pure water doped with gadolinium for neutron identification, surrounded by a 1.4-meter thick pure water muon veto and neutron/gamma shield. Presented here are the preliminary results of data taken beginning July 2013 at the KURF mine in Virginia at a depth of approximately 300 meters water equivalent with intermittent periods of detector off time.

  2. A Facile Method for Simultaneously Measuring Neuronal Cell Viability and Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    K. Hancock, Michael; Kopp, Leisha; Kaur, Navjot; Hanson, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is an important morphological phenotype of neuronal cells that correlates with their function and cell health, yet there are limited methods available for measuring this phenomenon. Current approaches to measuring neurite outgrowth are laborious and time-consuming, relying largely upon immunocytochemical staining of neuronal markers (e.g., beta-III tubulin or MAP2) followed by manual or automated microscopy for image acquisition and analysis. Here we report the development of a quick and simple dual-color fluorescent dye-based staining method that allows for the simultaneous measurement of neuronal cell health and relative neurite outgrowth from the same sample. An orangered fluorescent dye that stains cell membrane surfaces is used as an indirect reporter of changes in relative neurite outgrowth due to alterations in the number or length of membrane projections emanating from neuronal cell bodies. Cell viability is assessed simultaneously via the use of a cell-permeant dye that is converted by intracellular esterase activity from a non-fluorescent substrate to a green-fluorescent product. Using Neuroscreen-1 cells (a PC-12 subclone), primary rat cortex neurons, and human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons, we demonstrate that this multiplex assay allows for rapid visualization and unbiased, quantitative plate reader analysis of neuronal cell health and neurite outgrowth. PMID:25853055

  3. Gas Cherenkov Detectors For Gamma Ray Measurements At The National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Carpenter, A.; Khater, H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2016-10-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate diagnostic capability improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). Relative to GRH-6m, a new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from 100 to 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV. Initially, the existing GCD-3 will be placed into a reentrant well, putting it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT (PD-PMT) which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by 10x relative to current PMT technology. Initial measurements of both GCD-3 on NIF and a PD-PMT prototype on ORION will be discussed.

  4. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  5. An in situ trap capacitance measurement and ion-trapping detection scheme for a Penning ion trap facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Ashif; Banerjee, Kumardeb; Das, Parnika; Ray, Kalyankumar; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar; Dam, Bivas

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an in situ measurement setup for the capacitance of a five electrode Penning ion trap (PIT) facility at room temperature. For implementing a high Q resonant circuit for the detection of trapped electrons/ions in a PIT, the value of the capacitance of the trap assembly is of prime importance. A tunable Colpitts oscillator followed by a unity gain buffer and a low pass filter is designed and successfully implemented for a two-fold purpose: in situ measurement of the trap capacitance when the electric and magnetic fields are turned off and also providing RF power at the desired frequency to the PIT for exciting the trapped ions and subsequent detection. The setup is tested for the in situ measurement of trap capacitance at room temperature and the results are found to comply with those obtained from measurements using a high Q parallel resonant circuit setup driven by a standard RF signal generator. The Colpitts oscillator is also tested successfully for supplying RF power to the high Q resonant circuit, which is required for the detection of trapped electrons/ions.

  6. [Preventive measures of food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly--current status and problems in food poisoning by noroviruses].

    PubMed

    Ezoe, Kumiko; Nagatomi, Hideki; Imaizumi, Iwao

    2012-08-01

    Food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly has been breaking out approximately ten cases per year nationwide from 2001 to 2010. Especially, it reflected the characteristics of food poisoning caused by noroviruses at a high rate. Usually we have been preventing from food poisoning by noroviruses working on existing measures such as temperature control of food materials, sanitary handlings of cooking tools and table wares, and so on. Additionally, the most effective measures to avoid secondary pollution at care facilities for the elderly is that all members at these facilities have to have a sense of crisis about food poisoning by noroviruses and managers at these facilities must take care of health control for all staff.

  7. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wink, C. W.; Bell, P.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-11-01

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ˜20 ps and energy resolution of ˜100 keV for total neutron yields above ˜1016. At lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ˜20 ps.

  8. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    PubMed

    Frenje, J A; Hilsabeck, T J; Wink, C W; Bell, P; Bionta, R; Cerjan, C; Gatu Johnson, M; Kilkenny, J D; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2016-11-01

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ∼20 ps and energy resolution of ∼100 keV for total neutron yields above ∼10(16). At lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ∼20 ps.

  9. A comparison of two photogrammetric algorithms for the measurement of model deformation in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monteith, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made of two photogrammetric measurement techniques which can be used for the determination of the spatial loctions of targets. One technique is known as the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT), and the other is referred to as the Bundle method. Each technique utilizes triangulation of image data from two or more cameras, but they differ in their method of determining camera parameters. While the study was performed with simulated data, the geometries, image data accuracies and other parameters were set to simulate conditions for a two-camera, photogrammetric system which will be used at the National Transonic Facility at the NASA's Langley Research Center. For the conditions studied the Bundle technique was found to have smaller errors. Both methods were sensitive to the spatial distribution of control-point targets, but this effected the accuracy of the Bundle algorithm less than that of the DLT algorithm.

  10. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    DOE PAGES

    Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wink, C. W.; ...

    2016-08-02

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with amore » time resolution of ~20 ps and energy resolution of ~100 keV for total neutron yields above ~1016. Lastly, at lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ~20 ps.« less

  11. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wink, C. W.; Bell, P.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-08-02

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (Ti), yield (Yn), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ~20 ps and energy resolution of ~100 keV for total neutron yields above ~1016. Lastly, at lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ~20 ps.

  12. Measurement of resolved resonances of 232Th(n,γ) at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunsing, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Aerts, G.; Abbondanno, U.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2012-06-01

    The yield of the neutron capture reaction 232Th(n,γ) has been measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The reduction of the acquired data to the capture yield for resolved resonances from 1 eV to 4 keV is described and compared to a recent evaluated data set. The resonance parameters were used to assign an orbital momentum to each resonance. A missing level estimator was used to extract the s-wave level spacing of D0=17.2±0.9 eV.

  13. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Distribution of radionuclides in an iron calibration standard for a free release measurement facility.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Stroh, Heiko; Marissens, Gerd; Tzika, Faidra; Lutter, Guillaume; Šurán, Jiri; Kovar, Petr; Skala, Lukas; Sud, Jaromír

    2016-03-01

    A Europallet-sized calibration standard composed of 12 grey cast iron tubes contaminated with (60)Co and (110m)Ag with a mass of 246kg was developed. As the tubes were produced through centrifugal casting it was of particular concern to study the distribution of radionuclides in the radial direction of the tubes. This was done by removing 72 small samples (swarf) of ~0.3g each on both the inside and outside of the tubes. All of the samples were measured in the underground laboratory HADES.

  15. 96Zr(n,γ) measurement at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliente, G.; Milazzo, P. M.; Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2011-11-01

    The (n,γ) cross section of 96Zr has been investigated at the CERN n_TOF spallation neutron source. High-resolution time-of-flight measurements using an enriched ZrO2 sample allowed us to analyze 15 resonances below 40 keV with improved accuracy. On average, the capture widths were found to be 25% smaller than reported in earlier experiments. If complemented with the contribution by direct radiative capture, the derived Maxwellian averaged cross sections are consistent with activation data at kT=25 keV. The present results confirm the astrophysical implications for the s-process branching at 95Zr.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Cumulative Quarterly Report October 1, 2003 - September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  17. Spent fuel and residue measurement instrumentation at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, A.S.; Clark, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Sellafield reprocessing plant receives and reprocesses several thousand tonnes of spent light water reactor (LWR), advanced gas cooled reactor (AGR) and natural uranium magnesium alloy clad (Magnox) fuels each year. The safety and cost effectiveness of these operations has been supported by the development and installation, at key points in the process, of a range of special purpose radiometric instrumentation. Systems in routine operational use verify the cooling time, burn-tip and initial and final U-235 equivalent enrichment of fuel assemblies in the storage and handling ponds. Other systems determine the radionuclide inventories of fuel residues in intermediate level waste arising from plant operations. The measurement techniques employed include high resolution gamma spectrometry, passive neutron counting and neutron interrogation by the use of a Cf-252 source and deuterium-tritium (D-T) pulsed neutron generators. Details of the instruments including mechanical installation arrangements and measurement data are presented in the paper along with a discussion of possible future uses of similar instruments for burn-up credit associated with fuel and residue storage, transportation and disposal.

  18. Repeatability Modeling for Wind-Tunnel Measurements: Results for Three Langley Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Houlden, Heather P.

    2014-01-01

    Data from extensive check standard tests of seven measurement processes in three NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels are statistically analyzed to test a simple model previously presented in 2000 for characterizing short-term, within-test and across-test repeatability. The analysis is intended to support process improvement and development of uncertainty models for the measurements. The analysis suggests that the repeatability can be estimated adequately as a function of only the test section dynamic pressure over a two-orders- of-magnitude dynamic pressure range. As expected for low instrument loading, short-term coefficient repeatability is determined by the resolution of the instrument alone (air off). However, as previously pointed out, for the highest dynamic pressure range the coefficient repeatability appears to be independent of dynamic pressure, thus presenting a lower floor for the standard deviation for all three time frames. The simple repeatability model is shown to be adequate for all of the cases presented and for all three time frames.

  19. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  20. Measurement of 230Pa and 186Re Production Cross Sections Induced by Deuterons at Arronax Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchemin, Charlotte; Guertin, Arnaud; Metivier, Vincent; Haddad, Ferid; Michel, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    A dedicated program has been launched on production of innovative radionuclides for PET imaging and for β- and α targeted radiotherapy using proton or α particles at the ARRONAX cyclotron. Since the accelerator is also able to deliver deuteron beams up to 35 MeV, we have reconsidered the possibility of using them to produce medical isotopes. Two isotopes dedicated to targeted therapy have been considered: 226Th, a decay product of 230Pa, and 186Re. The production cross sections of 230Pa and 186Re, as well as those of the contaminants created during the irradiation, have been determined by the stacked-foil technique using deuteron beams. Experimental values have been quantified using a referenced cross section. The measured cross sections have been used to determine expected production yields and compared with the calculated values obtained using the Talys code with default parameters.

  1. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  2. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these

  3. Inference of total DT fusion neutron yield from prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Sayre, D.

    2014-10-01

    Prompt D-T fusion gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) have been used recently to infer the total DT fusion neutron yield of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. DT fusion produces energetic gamma-rays (16.75 MeV) with a small branching ratio of approximately (4.2 +/- 2.0)e-5 γ/n. While the large error bar precludes use of the branching ratio for an accurate yield determination, the gamma-rays themselves provide the most unperturbed measure of fusion burn and can be used for such a purpose. A cross-calibration for the DT fusion gamma-ray to neutron signal is obtained via low areal density exploding pusher implosions which have mostly unperturbed neutron and gamma-ray signals. The calibration is then used to infer total DT neutron yield from gamma-ray measurements on high areal-density, cryogenically layered implosions in which neutrons are heavily down-scattered (up to 30%). Furthermore, the difference between the gamma-ray inferred total DT yield and the primary neutron yield (unscattered neutrons) can be used to estimate the total down-scatter fraction. Error analysis and comparison of yield values will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-657694.

  4. Measurement and analysis of the Am243 neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Balibrea, J.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lo Meo, S.; Lopes, I.; Lossito, R.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; n TOF Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Background: The design of new nuclear reactors and transmutation devices requires to reduce the present neutron cross section uncertainties of minor actinides. Purpose: Improvement of the Am243(n,γ) cross section uncertainty. Method: The Am243(n,γ) cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN with a BaF2 total absorption calorimeter, in the energy range between 0.7 eV and 2.5 keV. Results: The Am243(n ,γ) cross section has been successfully measured in the mentioned energy range. The resolved resonance region has been extended from 250 eV up to 400 eV. In the unresolved resonance region our results are compatible with one of the two incompatible capture data sets available below 2.5 keV. The data available in EXFOR and in the literature have been used to perform a simple analysis above 2.5 keV. Conclusions: The results of this measurement contribute to reduce the Am243(n,γ) cross section uncertainty and suggest that this cross section is underestimated up to 25% in the neutron energy range between 50 eV and a few keV in the present evaluated data libraries.

  5. Measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth in beryllium capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Olson, R. E.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Macphee, A. G.; Casey, D. T.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-11-01

    Beryllium is an ablator material that is predicted to improve resilience to capsule hydro-instability growth in ICF implosions. Beryllium creates a higher ablation velocity at NIF-relevant radiation temperatures, due to its lower opacity. As a result, beryllium capsules are predicted to have enhanced ablative stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Thus, beryllium capsule implosions are expected to suffer less performance degradation due to capsule hydro-instabilities. A hydro-growth radiography (HGR) experiment is planned for September 2015 to test this hypothesis. The HGR experiment will measure the ablation front instability growth of a beryllium capsule using backlit radiography. Here, we present an analysis of the capsule stability properties for the first beryllium target recently fielded on NIF, and compare to the results of the HGR experiment. This work was possible due to the efforts of the target fabrication teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and General Atomics. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  6. Sinking Coastlines: Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River Delta, China, measured with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, S.; Overeem, I.; Tanaka, A.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land subsidence in river deltas is a global problem. It heightens storm surges, salinates groundwater, intensifies river flooding, destabilizes infrastructure and accelerates shoreline retreat. Measurements of delta subsidence typically rely on point measures such as GPS devices, tide gauges or extensometers, but spatial coverage is needed to fully assess risk across river deltas. Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) is a satellite-based technique that can provide maps of ground deformation with mm to cm-scale vertical resolution. We apply D-InSAR to the coast of the Yellow River Delta in China, which is dominated by aquaculture facilities and has experienced severe coastal erosion in the last twenty years. We extract deformation patterns from dry land adjacent to aquaculture facilities along the coast, allowing the first measurements of subsidence at a non-urban delta shoreline. Results show classic cones-of-depression surrounding aquaculture facilities, likely due to groundwater pumping. Subsidence rates are as high as 250 mm/y at the largest facility on the delta. These rates exceed local and global average sea level rise by nearly two orders of magnitude. If these rates continue, large aquaculture facilities in the area could induce more than a meter of relative sea level rise every five years. Given the global explosion in fish farming in recent years, these results also suggest that similar subsidence and associated relative sea level rise may present a significant hazard for other Asian megadeltas. False-color MODIS image of the Yellow River delta in September 2012. Water appears dark blue, highlighting the abundance of aquaculture facilities along the coast. Green land is primarily agricultural; brown is urban. Red boxes indicate locations of aquaculture facilities examined in this study. Figure from Higgins, S., Overeem, I., Tanaka, A., & Syvitski, J.P.M., (2013), Land Subsidence at Aquaculture Facilities in the Yellow River

  7. Identifying Hydrocarbon Source Region Emission Signatures for Oil and Gas Facilities and Beyond Using Ambient Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, B.; Lary, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) has fourteen stations in the Barnett Shale that take ambient concentration measurements of forty-six non-methane hydrocarbons. We gathered all measurements for the period of October 16-31, 2013, and applied Lagrangian trajectories to each air parcel that was measured, to achieve a domain filling of the Barnett region. Regular grids of concentration values for each VOC at each hour were constructed, then implemented into an unsupervised machine learning classification. This self-organizing map assigned classification numbers to each grid cell in each hourly grid, where a class number essentially corresponded with a signature of representative concentration values for all forty-six hydrocarbons. Two hundred was determined to be an appropriate number of classes for this classification. Similarly, we applied a self-organizing map to the wind speed and resultant direction measurements recorded at each station. This classification grouped together the hours in our time frame into six distinct wind regimes. Concentration class numbers were analyzed for different wind regimes, and for the whole time period. A grouping of classes with numbers in the middle-to-upper forties was discovered near and downwind of oil and gas facilities. The validity and accuracy of this method was confirmed by performing a site-by-site comparison against an independent study which analyzed the VOC concentrations at three TCEQ stations. This opened the door to expand the dataset to include other ground-based measurements of both non-methane VOC and methane concentrations, to further trace back emission sources.

  8. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility, October-November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William

    2002-01-01

    The Engineering Test Unit (ETU) of COR1 was made in two configurations. The first configuration, ETU-1, was for vibration testing, while the second, ETU-2, was for optical testing. This is a report on the optical testing performed on ETU-2 at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility during the months of October and November, 2002. This was the same facility used to test the two previous breadboard models. In both configurations, the first two tube sections were complete, with all optical elements aligned. The vibration model ETU-1 had the remaining tube sections attached, with mass models for the remaining optics, for the various mechanisms, and for the focal plane assembly. It was then converted into the optical model ETU-2 by removing tube sections 3 to 5, and mounting the remaining optics on commercial mounts. (The bandpass filter was also installed into tube 2, which had been replaced in ETU-1 by a mass model, so that pre- and post-vibration optical measurements could be made.) Doublet 2 was installed in a Newport LP-2 carrier, and aligned to the other optics in the first two tube sections. The LP-2 adjustment screws were then uralened so that the alignment could be maintained during shipping. Because neither the flight polarizer nor Hollow Core Motor were available, they were simulated by a commercial polarizer and rotational mount, both from Oriel corporation. The Oriel rotational stage was not designed for vacuum use, but it was determined after consultation with the company, and lab testing, that the stage could be used in the moderate vacuum conditions at the NCAR/HAO facility. The shutter and focal plane assembly were simulated with the same camera used for the previous two breadboard tests. The focal plane mask was simulated with a plane of BK7 glass with a mask glued on, using the same procedure as for the Lyot spot on Doublet 1, and mounted in an adjustable LP-2 carrier. Two masks were made, one made to the precise specifications of the optical design, the

  9. Facility Focus: Science Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design and architectural features of two new science facilities at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida, and a new graduate research tower the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Notes the important convenience associated with interior windows in these facilities, which allow researchers, faculty, and students to see…

  10. Measurements of electromagnetic properties of LCT (Large Coil Task) coils in IFSMTF (International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.S.; Baylor, L.R.; Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Wilson, C.T.; Wintenberg, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Participants in the international Large Coil Task (LCT) have designed, built, and tested six different toroidal field coils. Each coil has a 2.5- by 3.5-m, D-shaped bore and a current between 10 and 18 kA and is designed to demonstrate stable operation at 8 T, with a superimposed averaged pulsed field of 0.14 T in 1.0 s and simulated nuclear heating. Testing of the full six-coil toroidal array began early in 1986 and was successfully completed on September 3, 1987, in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper summarizes electromagnetic properties of LCT coils measured in different modes of energization and fast dump. Effects of mutual coupling and induced eddy currents are analyzed and discussed. Measurements of the ac loss caused by the superimposed pulsed fields are summarized. Finally, the interpretation of the test results and their relevance to practical fusion are presented. 11 refs., 10 figs., 4 tab.

  11. Comparison of Stack Measurement Data from R&D Facilities to Regulatory Criteria. A Case Study from PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-10-30

    Chemical emissions from research and development (R&D) activities are difficult to estimate because of the large number of chemicals used and the potential for continual changes in processes. In this case study, stack measurements taken from R&D facilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were examined, including extreme worst-case emissions estimates and alternate analyses using a Monte Carlo method that takes into account the full distribution of sampling results. The results from these analyses were then compared to emissions estimated from chemical inventories. Results showed that downwind ambient air concentrations calculated from the stack measurement data were below acceptable source impact levels (ASILs) for almost all compounds, even under extreme worst-case analyses. However, for compounds with averaging periods of a year, the unrealistic but simplifying extreme worst-case analysis often resulted in exceedances of lower level regulatory criteria used to determine modeling requirements or to define trivial releases. Compounds with 24-hour averaging periods were nearly all several orders of magnitude below all, including the trivial release, criteria. The alternate analysis supplied a more realistic basis of comparison and an ability to explore effects under different operational modes.

  12. Real-air data reduction procedures based on flow parameters measured in the test section of supersonic and hypersonic facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    Data-reduction procedures for determining free stream and post-normal shock kinetic and thermodynamic quantities are derived. These procedures are applicable to imperfect real air flows in thermochemical equilibrium for temperatures to 15 000 K and a range of pressures from 0.25 N/sq m to 1 GN/sq m. Although derived primarily to meet the immediate needs of the 6-inch expansion tube, these procedures are applicable to any supersonic or hypersonic test facility where combinations of three of the following flow parameters are measured in the test section: (1) Stagnation pressure behind normal shock; (2) freestream static pressure; (3) stagnation point heat transfer rate; (4) free stream velocity; (5) stagnation density behind normal shock; and (6) free stream density. Limitations of the nine procedures and uncertainties in calculated flow quantities corresponding to uncertainties in measured input data are discussed. A listing of the computer program is presented, along with a description of the inputs required and a sample of the data printout.

  13. Inertial Confinement Fusion alpha-heating signatures in prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Jennifer; Herrmann, Hans; Cerjan, Charlie; Sayre, Daniel; Carpenter, Arthur; Liebman, Judy; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Kim, Yongho

    2015-11-01

    Prompt gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) supply vital diagnostic information, such as the peak burn time, burn width, and total neutron yield, from prompt DT-fusion gamma-ray emission during high convergence implosion experiments. Additionally, the stagnated cold shell density distribution may be inferred from the time-integrated, calibrated 12C (n,n' γ) signal, thus providing estimates of remaining ablator carbon areal density. Furthermore, simulations suggest that alpha heating signatures might be accessible using more highly resolved temporal gamma-ray emission. Correlation of these signatures with time-dependent neutron emission will constrain the implosion dynamics immediately prior to thermonuclear burn. Measurement of these gamma-ray signatures will be discussed along with updates on our work toward inferred total DT yield and 12C areal density. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07-NA27344, LLNL-ABS-670282.

  14. Real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements on shocked crystals at a synchrotron facility.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y M; Turneaure, Stefan J; Perkins, K; Zimmerman, K; Arganbright, N; Shen, G; Chow, P

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was used to obtain real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements to determine the microscopic response of shock-compressed single crystals. Disk shaped samples were subjected to plane shock wave compression by impacting them with half-inch diameter, flat-faced projectiles. The projectiles were accelerated to velocities ranging between 300 and 1200 m/s using a compact powder gun designed specifically for use at a synchrotron facility. The experiments were designed to keep the sample probed volume under uniaxial strain and constant stress for a duration longer than the 153.4 ns spacing between x-ray bunches. X-rays from a single pulse (<100 ps duration) out of the periodic x-ray pulses emitted by the synchrotron were used for the diffraction measurements. A synchronization and x-ray detection technique was developed to ensure that the measured signal was obtained unambiguously from the desired x-ray pulse incident on the sample while the sample was in a constant uniaxial strain state. The synchronization and x-ray detection techniques described can be used for a variety of x-ray measurements on shock compressed solids and liquids at the APS. Detailed procedures for applying the Bragg-Brentano parafocusing approach to single crystals at the APS are presented. Analytic developments to determine the effects of crystal substructure and non-ideal geometry on the diffraction pattern position and shape are presented. Representative real-time x-ray diffraction data, indicating shock-induced microstructural changes, are presented for a shock-compressed Al(111) sample. The experimental developments presented here provided, in part, the impetus for the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) currently under development at the APS. Both the synchronization∕x-ray detection methods and the analysis equations for high-resolution single crystal x-ray diffraction can be used at the DCS.

  15. Real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements on shocked crystals at a synchrotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Y. M.; Turneaure, Stefan J.; Perkins, K.; Zimmerman, K.; Arganbright, N.; Shen, G.; Chow, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was used to obtain real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements to determine the microscopic response of shock-compressed single crystals. Disk shaped samples were subjected to plane shock wave compression by impacting them with half-inch diameter, flat-faced projectiles. The projectiles were accelerated to velocities ranging between 300 and 1200 m/s using a compact powder gun designed specifically for use at a synchrotron facility. The experiments were designed to keep the sample probed volume under uniaxial strain and constant stress for a duration longer than the 153.4 ns spacing between x-ray bunches. X-rays from a single pulse (<100 ps duration) out of the periodic x-ray pulses emitted by the synchrotron were used for the diffraction measurements. A synchronization and x-ray detection technique was developed to ensure that the measured signal was obtained unambiguously from the desired x-ray pulse incident on the sample while the sample was in a constant uniaxial strain state. The synchronization and x-ray detection techniques described can be used for a variety of x-ray measurements on shock compressed solids and liquids at the APS. Detailed procedures for applying the Bragg-Brentano parafocusing approach to single crystals at the APS are presented. Analytic developments to determine the effects of crystal substructure and non-ideal geometry on the diffraction pattern position and shape are presented. Representative real-time x-ray diffraction data, indicating shock-induced microstructural changes, are presented for a shock-compressed Al(111) sample. The experimental developments presented here provided, in part, the impetus for the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) currently under development at the APS. Both the synchronization/x-ray detection methods and the analysis equations for high-resolution single crystal x-ray diffraction can be used at the DCS.

  16. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  17. Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes 11C, 13N, and 150. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly over-predict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of horizontal dispersion.

  18. Facilities Engineering in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagluiso, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    An overview of NASA facilities is given outlining some of the more interesting and unique aspects of engineering and facilities associated with the space program. Outlined are some of the policies under which the Office of Facilities conducts its business. Included are environmental quality control measures.

  19. Fission Fragment Angular Distribution measurements of 235U and 238U at CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 238U and 235U are used as standards in the fast neutron region up to 200 MeV. A high accuracy of the standards is relevant to experimentally determine other neutron reaction cross sections. Therefore, the detection effciency should be corrected by using the angular distribution of the fission fragments (FFAD), which are barely known above 20 MeV. In addition, the angular distribution of the fragments produced in the fission of highly excited and deformed nuclei is an important observable to investigate the nuclear fission process. In order to measure the FFAD of neutron-induced reactions, a fission detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) has been developed and successfully used at the CERN-n_TOF facility. In this work, we present the preliminary results on the analysis of new 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) data in the extended energy range up to 200 MeV compared to the existing experimental data.

  20. Measurement and simulation of lineal energy distribution at the CERN high energy facility with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Rollet, S; Autischer, M; Beck, P; Latocha, M

    2007-01-01

    The response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in a mixed radiation field with a neutron energy distribution similar to the radiation field at commercial flight altitudes has been studied. The measurements have been done at the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility where a well-characterised radiation field is available for intercomparison. The TEPC instrument used by the ARC Seibersdorf Research is filled with pure propane gas at low pressure and can be used to determine the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in a mass of gas equivalent to a 2 microm diameter volume of unit density tissue, of similar size to the nuclei of biological cells. The linearity of the detector response was checked both in term of dose and dose rate. The effect of dead-time has been corrected. The influence of the detector exposure location and orientation in the radiation field on the dose distribution was also studied as a function of the total dose. The microdosimetric distribution of the absorbed dose as a function of the lineal energy has been obtained and compared with the same distribution simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code. The dose equivalent was calculated by folding this distribution with the quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer. The comparison between the measured and simulated distributions show that they are in good agreement. As a result of this study the detector is well characterised, thanks also to the numerical simulations the instrument response is well understood, and it's currently being used onboard the aircrafts to evaluate the dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation.

  1. Measurements of Sensitivity of Implosion-Phase Mixing to Low-Mode Symmetry at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, S. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Casey, D. T.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a non-igniting indirect-drive target designed to produce a near 1D-like implosion for hydro-code validation. This is accomplished with a sub-scale (675 µm radius) capsule in a nominal (2.875 mm radius) near-vacuum hohlraum, providing a case-to-capsule ratio 63% larger that that of a standard ignition target. Additionally, the low aspect ratio (3.9) of the capsule shell combined with the temperature of the foot pulse essentially eliminates ablation front instability growth. The result is a platform that is well suited to the study of mixing at the gas-ablator interface without these complicating factors. A layer of CD plastic on the inner 3.2 µm of the CH capsule shell filled with a mixture of hydrogen and tritium allows us to infer the mixture of ablator material into the gas through the ratio of DT to TT neutron production. In 2015, we used the 2-Shock platform to measure the sensitivity of ablator-gas mixing to inner surface roughness and implosion convergence ratio. This year we developed the capability to deliberately adjust the low-mode in-flight symmetry of the implosion in both the prolate and oblate directions. We present the initial results of mix measurements from deliberately low-mode asymmetric implosions aimed at determining the relationship between this type of asymmetry and mix. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Numerical Prediction of Radiation Measurements Taken in the X2 Facility for Mars and Titan Gas Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Prabhu, Dinesh; Brandis, Aaron; McIntyre, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemical relaxation behind a normal shock in Mars and Titan gas mixtures is simulated using a CFD solver, DPLR, for a hemisphere of 1 m radius; the thermochemical relaxation along the stagnation streamline is considered equivalent to the flow behind a normal shock. Flow simulations are performed for a Titan gas mixture (98% N2, 2% CH4 by volume) for shock speeds of 5.7 and 7.6 km/s and pressures ranging from 20 to 1000 Pa, and a Mars gas mixture (96% CO2, and 4% N2 by volume) for a shock speed of 8.6 km/s and freestream pressure of 13 Pa. For each case, the temperatures and number densities of chemical species obtained from the CFD flow predictions are used as an input to a line-by-line radiation code, NEQAIR. The NEQAIR code is then used to compute the spatial distribution of volumetric radiance starting from the shock front to the point where thermochemical equilibrium is nominally established. Computations of volumetric spectral radiance assume Boltzmann distributions over radiatively linked electronic states of atoms and molecules. The results of these simulations are compared against experimental data acquired in the X2 facility at the University of Queensland, Australia. The experimental measurements were taken over a spectral range of 310-450 nm where the dominant contributor to radiation is the CN violet band system. In almost all cases, the present approach of computing the spatial variation of post-shock volumetric radiance by applying NEQAIR along a stagnation line computed using a high-fidelity flow solver with good spatial resolution of the relaxation zone is shown to replicate trends in measured relaxation of radiance for both Mars and Titan gas mixtures.

  3. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, J. Trompier, F.; Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M.; Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C.; Trinkl, S.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P.; Kubancak, J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  4. Extinction measurement of dense media by an optical coherence tomography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ago, Tomoki; Iwai, Toshiaki; Yokota, Ryoko

    2016-10-01

    The optical coherence tomography will make progress as the next stage toward a spectroscopic analysis technique. The spectroscopic analysis is based on the Beer-Lambert law. The absorption and scattering coefficients even for the dense medium can be measured by the Beer-Lambert law because the OCT can detect only the light keeping the coherency which propagated rectilinearly and retro-reflected from scatters. This study is concerned with the quantitative verification of Beer-Lambert law in the OCT imaging.

  5. Cross-sectional association of the number of neighborhood facilities assessed using postal code with objectively measured physical activity: the Saku cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Akitomo; Murakami, Haruka; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijyo; Aiba, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of neighborhood facilities that were assessed according to postal code and objectively measured physical activity by using an accelerometer in community-dwelling Japanese people.Methods The participants included 1,274 Japanese people aged 30-84 years from the Saku cohort study. As neighborhood facilities related to physical activity, we extracted information regarding train stations, supermarkets/convenience stores, postal offices/banks, hospitals/clinics, public offices/community centers, cultural facilities/public children's houses, parks, and sports facilities by using each participant's postal code from the online version of the iTownPages directory published by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) and the official homepage of the Saku City Government Office. We measured each participant's physical activity level using an accelerometer, and calculated the average daily step count and the average weekly period of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥3 metabolic equivalents of tasks [METs]) physical activity. The association between two selected physical activity-related variables and the numbers of eight types of neighborhood facilities were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis for people aged 30-64 years and for those aged over 65 years.Results On multivariate logistic regression analysis, meeting the 23 METs h/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was significantly and positively associated with the number of supermarkets/convenience stores in the neighborhood in both age groups. In addition, meeting the desired daily step count outlined in the Japanese National Health Promotion guidelines was positively related to the number of postal offices/banks for people aged over 65 years.Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a sufficient number of neighborhood facilities (i.e., stores, banks, and postal offices) is closely

  6. Single-source bidirectional free-space optical communications using reflective SOA-based amplified modulating retro-reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Feng, Xianglian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tianshu; Gao, Shiming

    2017-03-01

    A novel amplified modulating retro-reflector (AMRR) based on a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed and a bidirectional free-space optical communication (FSO) system including both downstream and upstream links is experimentally demonstrated with only a single light source using this AMRR. The RSOA-based AMRR can provide a net gain more than 4 dB and support the modulation bit rate up to 1.25 Gbit/s. The bidirectional FSO transmission performance is evaluated by observing eye diagrams and measuring bit error rate (BER) results of both 10-Gbit/s DPSK downstream and 1.25-Gbit/s OOK upstream signals. The factors that limit the modulation bit rate and transmission quality are analyzed. The power penalties of both links are less than 0.69 dB in the bidirectional FSO system at the BER of 1×10-3.

  7. Infrared Cloud Imager Development for Atmospheric Optical Communication Characterization, and Measurements at the JPL Table Mountain Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, P. W.; Shaw, J. A.; Piazzolla, S.

    2013-02-01

    The continuous demand for high data return in deep space and near-Earth satellite missions has led NASA and international institutions to consider alternative technologies for high-data-rate communications. One solution is the establishment of wide-bandwidth Earth-space optical communication links, which require (among other things) a nearly obstruction-free atmospheric path. Considering the atmospheric channel, the most common and most apparent impairments on Earth-space optical communication paths arise from clouds. Therefore, the characterization of the statistical behavior of cloud coverage for optical communication ground station candidate sites is of vital importance. In this article, we describe the development and deployment of a ground-based, long-wavelength infrared cloud imaging system able to monitor and characterize the cloud coverage. This system is based on a commercially available camera with a 62-deg diagonal field of view. A novel internal-shutter-based calibration technique allows radiometric calibration of the camera, which operates without a thermoelectric cooler. This cloud imaging system provides continuous day-night cloud detection with constant sensitivity. The cloud imaging system also includes data-processing algorithms that calculate and remove atmospheric emission to isolate cloud signatures, and enable classification of clouds according to their optical attenuation. Measurements of long-wavelength infrared cloud radiance are used to retrieve the optical attenuation (cloud optical depth due to absorption and scattering) in the wavelength range of interest from visible to near-infrared, where the cloud attenuation is quite constant. This article addresses the specifics of the operation, calibration, and data processing of the imaging system that was deployed at the NASA/JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Data are reported from July 2008 to July 2010. These data describe seasonal variability in cloud cover at the TMF site

  8. Facilities maintenance handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for facilities maintenance managers. Its objective is to set minimum facilities maintenance standards. It also provides recommendations on how to meet the standards to ensure that NASA maintains its facilities in a manner that protects and preserves its investment in the facilities in a cost-effective manner while safely and efficiently performing its mission. This handbook implements NMI 8831.1, which states NASA facilities maintenance policy and assigns organizational responsibilities for the management of facilities maintenance activities on all properties under NASA jurisdiction. It is a reference for facilities maintenance managers, not a step-by-step procedural manual. Because of the differences in NASA Field Installation organizations, this handbook does not assume or recommend a typical facilities maintenance organization. Instead, it uses a systems approach to describe the functions that should be included in any facilities maintenance management system, regardless of its organizational structure. For documents referenced in the handbook, the most recent version of the documents is applicable. This handbook is divided into three parts: Part 1 specifies common definitions and facilities maintenance requirements and amplifies the policy requirements contained in NMI 8831. 1; Part 2 provides guidance on how to meet the requirements of Part 1, containing recommendations only; Part 3 contains general facilities maintenance information. One objective of this handbook is to fix commonality of facilities maintenance definitions among the Centers. This will permit the application of uniform measures of facilities conditions, of the relationship between current replacement value and maintenance resources required, and of the backlog of deferred facilities maintenance. The utilization of facilities maintenance system functions will allow the Centers to quantitatively define maintenance objectives in common terms, prepare work plans, and

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for Construction of a Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory Facility on Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Facility EA, Chapter 4: Environmental Consequences, and Chapter 5: Plans , Permits, and Management Actions. Finding of No Significant Impact Based on my...Resources...........................................................4-13 5. PLANS , PERMITS, AND MANAGEMENT ACTIONS...Reduction Agency EA Environmental Assessment EO Executive Order EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know ERP

  10. Alternative measures of spatial distribution and availability of health facilities for the delivery of emergency obstetric services in island communities.

    PubMed

    Oyerinde, Koyejo; Baravilala, Wame

    2014-12-01

    International guidelines and recommendations for availability and spatial distribution of emergency obstetric care services do not adequately address the challenges of providing emergency health services in island communities. The isolation and small population sizes that are typical of islands and remote populations limit the applicability of international guidelines in such communities. Universal access to emergency obstetric care services, when pregnant women encounter complications, is one of the three key strategies for reducing maternal and newborn mortality; the other two being family planning and skilled care during labor. The performance of selected lifesaving clinical interventions (signal functions) over a 3-month period is commonly used to assess and assign performance categories to health facilities but island communities might not have a large enough population to generate demand for all the signal functions over a 3-month period. Similarly, availability and spatial distribution recommendations are typically based on the size of catchment populations, but the populations of island communities tend to be sparsely distributed. With illustrations from six South Pacific Island states, we argue that the recommendation for availability of health facilities, that there should be at least five emergency obstetric care facilities (including at least one comprehensive facility) for every 500,000 population, and the recommendation for equitable distribution of health facilities, that all subnational areas meet the availability recommendation, can be substituted with a focus on access to blood transfusion and obstetric surgical care within 2 hours for all pregnant residents of islands. Island communities could replace the performance of signal functions over a 3-month period with a demonstrated capacity to perform signal functions if the need arises.

  11. Facility Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  12. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Retroreflective Material for... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military...

  13. 46 CFR 164.018-5 - Specifications and standards incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Retroreflective Material for... Standard 141a (September 1, 1965), entitled “Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of... Photometric Measurements of Retroreflective Materials and Retroreflective Devices.” (7) Military...

  14. Study of electrical power facilities and measures for planned outages in Japanese hemodialysis clinics after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kai; Sawa, Manami; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Hirose, Minoru; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 caused major damage in northeastern Japan. The Kanto region experienced a massive electrical power shortage in the summer of 2011. A questionnaire was submitted to 354 hemodialysis clinics in Kanagawa prefecture and the Tokyo metropolitan area, excluding isolated islands, and 176 responses were analyzed (49.7%). The questions included evaluation of the availability of a private electricity generator, countermeasures in case of a planned outage, awareness of saving electricity, and improvement of safety of medical devices or electrical facilities after the earthquake. Only 12% of the clinics had private electricity generators and many clinics had no plans to introduce this facility. However, 96% of the clinics had established countermeasures to deal with a planned outage. Many clinics planned to provide dialysis on a different day or at a different time. All clinics had tried hard to establish procedures to save electricity in the summer of 2011, and 84% of the clinics had reconsidered and improved the safety of medical devices or electricity facilities after the earthquake. These results show that the awareness of crisis management was greatly improved in the wake of the earthquake.

  15. Low energy highly charged ion beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre: Measurement of the plasma potential and ion energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sairam, T. Bhatt, Pragya; Safvan, C. P.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Herendra

    2015-11-15

    A deceleration lens coupled to one of the beam lines of the electron cyclotron resonance based low energy beam facility at Inter University Accelerator Centre is reported. This system is capable of delivering low energy (2.5 eV/q–1 keV/q) highly charged ion beams. The presence of plasma potential hinders the measurements of low energies (<50 eV), therefore, plasma potential measurements have been undertaken using a retarding plate analyzer in unison with the deceleration assembly. The distributions of the ion energies have been obtained and the effect of different source parameters on these distributions is studied.

  16. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Bionta, R. M.; ...

    2016-08-09

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. Here, this paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ~200 keV FWHM.

  17. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Farrell, M. P.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoppe, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Reynolds, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Schoff, M. E.; Séguin, F. H.; Skulina, K.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. This paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ˜200 keV FWHM.

  18. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Bionta, R M; Casey, D T; Eckart, M J; Farrell, M P; Grim, G P; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Hoppe, M; Kilkenny, J D; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Reynolds, H G; Sayre, D B; Schoff, M E; Séguin, F H; Skulina, K; Yeamans, C B

    2016-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. This paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ∼200 keV FWHM.

  19. High aspect ratio hard x-ray (> 100 keV) imager to measure hot electron preheat for indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Burns, S; Izumi, N; Kline, J; LaCaille, G; McNaney, J; Prasad, R; Thomas, C A; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O; Author, A; Author, S G; Author, T

    2012-05-01

    We have fielded a multi-pinhole, hard x-ray (> 100 keV) imager to measure the spatially-resolved bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons slowing in a plastic ablator shell during indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These electrons are generated in laser plasma interactions, and are a source of preheat to the deuterium-tritium fuel that could limit the compressibility required for ignition and burn. Our hard x-ray imaging measurements allow to set an upper limit to the DT fuel preheat, which we find is acceptable in current capsule implosions on the NIF.

  20. Neutron-induced fission cross section of U234 and Np237 measured at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Duran, I.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; Tarrío, D.; Trubert, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-09-01

    A high-resolution measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross section of U234 and Np237 has been performed at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight facility. The cross sections have been determined in a wide energy range from 1 eV to 1 GeV using the evaluated U235 cross section as reference. In these measurements the energy determination for the U234 resonances could be improved, whereas previous discrepancies for the Np237 resonances were confirmed. New cross-section data are provided for high neutron energies that go beyond the limits of prior evaluations, obtaining important differences in the case of Np237.

  1. An Open-path Laser Transmissometer for Atmospheric Extinction Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, P. M. Satheesh; Krishnakumar, C. P.; Yuen, Wangki; Rood, Mark J.; Varma, Ravi

    2011-10-01

    A transmissometer is an optical instrument which measures transmitted intensity of monochromatic light over a fixed pathlength. Prototype of a simple laser transmissometer has been developed for transmission (or extinction) measurements through suspended absorbers and scatterers in the atmosphere over tens of meters. Instrument consists of a continuous green diode pumped solid state laser, transmission optics, photodiode detectors and A/D data acquisition components. A modulated laser beam is transmitted and subsequently reflected and returned to the unit by a retroreflecting mirror assembly placed several tens of meters away. Results from an open-path field measurement of the instrument are described.

  2. The measurement of the ionospheric total content variations caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility on a network of GNSS-receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, I. A.; Kogogin, D. A.; Shindin, A. V.; Grach, S. M.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of the perturbations of total electron content (TEC) caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod) were carried out during several experimental campaigns from March of 2010 to March 2013. In this paper the data of experimental measurements of TEC-variations conducted on March, 15, 2010 and on March, 12, 2013, are presented. Parameters of TEC-variations were obtained by dual-frequency global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) diagnostics. Registration of signal parameters from GNSS-transmitters was performed at spatially separated sites along the geomagnetic latitude: Vasilsursk (56 °08‧ N, 46 °05‧ E), Zelenodolsk (55 °52‧ N, 48 °33‧ E) and Kazan (55 °48‧ N, 49 °08‧ E). In the experiments radio path from GNSS satellite to Vasilsursk passed over the disturbed region of ionosphere, but radio paths to Zelenodolsk and to Kazan did not. However, TEC-variations correlated with pumping of ionosphere by "Sura" facility were detected for all up to three ground measurements sites. Magnitudes of TEC-variations reached up to ∼ 0.6 - 0.7 TECU. The speculation that a sharp gradient of the electron density formed at the border of the main lobe of "Sura" facility may cause the generation of IGW is presented.

  3. Rendezvous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gehani, N.H.; Roome, W.D.

    1988-11-01

    The concurrent programming facilities in both Concurrent C and the Ada language are based on the rendezvous concept. Although these facilities are similar, there are substantial differences. Facilities in Concurrent C were designed keeping in perspective the concurrent programming facilities in the Ada language and their limitations. Concurrent C facilities have also been modified as a result of experience with its initial implementations. In this paper, the authors compare the concurrent programming facilities in Concurrent C and Ada, and show that it is easier to write a variety of concurrent programs in Concurrent C than in Ada.

  4. Forced flow He vapor cooled critical current testing facility for measurements of superconductors in a wide temperature and magnetic field range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskys, Algirdas; Hopkins, Simon C.; Bader, Jakob; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2016-10-01

    As superconducting materials find their way into applications, there is increasing need to verify their performance at operating conditions. Testing of critical current with respect to temperature and magnetic field is of particular importance. However, testing facilities covering a range of temperatures and magnetic fields can be costly, especially when considering the cooling power required in the cryogenic system in the temperature range below 65 K (inaccessible for LN2). Critical currents in excess of 500 A are common for commercial samples, making the testing of such samples difficult in setups cooled via a cryocooler, moreover it often does not represent the actual cooling conditions that the sample will experience in service. This work reports the design and operation of a low-cost critical current testing facility, capable of testing samples in a temperature range of 10-65 K, with magnetic field up to 1.6 T and measuring critical currents up to 900 A with variable cooling power.

  5. Measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 241Am at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, F.; Calviani, M.; Colonna, N.; Mastinu, P.; Milazzo, P. M.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Meaze, M. H.; Mengoni, A.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross-section of 241Am has been measured relative to the standard fission cross-section of 235U between 0.5 and 20MeV. The experiment was performed at the CERN n_TOF facility. Fission fragments were detected by a fast ionization chamber by discriminating against the α-particles from the high radioactivity of the samples. The high instantaneous neutron flux and the low background of the n_TOF facility enabled us to obtain uncertainties of ≈ 5%. With the present results it was possible to resolve discrepancies between previous data sets and to confirm current evaluations, thus providing important information for design studies of future reactors with improved fuel burn-up.

  6. Fission Cross-section Measurements of (233)U, (245)Cm and (241,243)Am at CERN n_TOF Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Calviani, M.; Koehler, Paul Edward; N_TOF collaboration,

    2011-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of minor actinides have been measured using the n-TOF white neutron source at CERN, Geneva, as part of a large experimental program aiming at collecting new data relevant for nuclear astrophysics and for the design of advanced reactor systems. The measurements at n-TOF take advantage of the innovative features of the n-TOF facility, namely the wide energy range, high instantaneous neutron flux and good energy resolution. Final results on the fission cross-section of {sup 233}U, {sup 245}Cm and {sup 243}Am from thermal to 20 MeV are here reported, together with preliminary results for {sup 241}Am. The measurement have been performed with a dedicated Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), a fission fragment detector with a very high efficiency, relative to the very well known cross-section of {sup 235}U, measured simultaneously with the same detector.

  7. X-ray rocking curve measurements of bent crystals. [used in High Resolution Spectrometer in Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, M. B.; Muney, W. S.; Fowler, W. B.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    A three-crystal laboratory X-ray spectrometer is used to measure the Bragg reflection from concave cylindrically curved crystals to be used in the high-resolution X-ray spectrometer of the NASA Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The first two crystals, in the dispersive (1.1) arrangement, select a narrow collimated monochromatic beam in the Cu K-alpha(1) line at 1.5 A (8.1 keV), which illuminates the test crystal. The angular centroids of rocking curves measured along the surface provide a measure of the conformity of the crystal to the desired radius of curvature. Individual and combined rocking-curve widths and areas provide a measure of the resolution and efficiency at 1.54 A. The crystals analyzed included LiF(200), PET, and acid phthalates such as TAP.

  8. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Bionta, R M; Casey, D T; Caggiano, J A; Hatarik, R; Khater, H Y; Sayre, D B; Knauer, J P; Sangster, T C; Herrmann, H W; Kilkenny, J D

    2014-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80-140 mg/cm(2) and CH-ablator ρR's of 400-680 mg/cm(2) are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions.

  9. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Khater, H. Y.; Sayre, D. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4-20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80-140 mg/cm2 and CH-ablator ρR's of 400-680 mg/cm2 are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions.

  10. Measurements of fuel and ablator ρR in Symmetry-Capsule implosions with the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gatu Johnson, M. Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Hatarik, R.; Khater, H. Y.; Sayre, D. B.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-11-15

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) measures the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 4–20 MeV. This paper describes MRS measurements of DT-fuel and CH-ablator ρR in DT gas-filled symmetry-capsule implosions at the NIF. DT-fuel ρR's of 80–140 mg/cm{sup 2} and CH-ablator ρR's of 400–680 mg/cm{sup 2} are inferred from MRS data. The measurements were facilitated by an improved correction of neutron-induced background in the low-energy part of the MRS spectrum. This work demonstrates the accurate utilization of the complete MRS-measured neutron spectrum for diagnosing NIF DT implosions.

  11. The development of methods for predicting and measuring distribution patterns of aerial sprays. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Bragg, M. B.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    A set of relationships used to scale small sized dispersion studies to full size results are experimentally verified and, with some qualifications, basic deposition patterns are presented. In the process of validating these scaling laws, the basic experimental techniques used in conducting such studies both with and without an operational propeller were developed. The procedures that evolved are outlined in some detail. The envelope of test conditions that can be accommodated in the Langley Vortex Research Facility, which were developed theoretically, are verified using a series of vortex trajectory experiments that help to define the limitations due to wall interference effects for models of different sizes.

  12. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  13. HEU Measurements of Holdup and Recovered Residue in the Deactivation and Decommissioning Activities of the 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEWBERRY, RAYMOND; SALAYMEH, SALEEM R.; CASELLA, VITO R.; MOORE, FRANK S.

    2005-03-11

    This paper contains a summary of the holdup and material control and accountability (MC&A) assays conducted for the determination of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 321-M at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The 321-M facility was the Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at SRS and was used to fabricate HEU fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the SRS production reactors. The facility operated for more than 35 years. During this time thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) production reactor fuel tubes were produced. After the facility ceased operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The bulk of this residue was located in the equipment that generated and handled small U-Al particles and in the exhaust systems for this equipment (e.g., Chip compactor, casting furnaces, log saw, lathes A & B, cyclone separator, Freon{trademark} cart, riser crusher, ...etc). The D&D project is likely to represent an important example for D&D activities across SRS and across the Department of Energy weapons complex. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked to conduct holdup assays to quantify the amount of HEU on all components removed from the facility prior to placing in solid waste containers. The U-235 holdup in any single component of process equipment must not exceed 50 g in order to meet the container limit. This limit was imposed to meet criticality requirements of the low level solid waste storage vaults. Thus the holdup measurements were used as guidance to determine if further decontamination of equipment was needed to ensure that the quantity of U-235 did not exceed the 50 g limit and to ensure that the waste met the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the solid waste storage vaults. Since HEU is an accountable nuclear material, the holdup assays and assays of recovered

  14. Comparison of Stereo-PIV and Plenoptic-PIV Measurements on the Wake of a Cylinder in NASA Ground Test Facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Thurow, Brian S.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Bartram, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    A series of comparison experiments have been performed using a single-camera plenoptic PIV measurement system to ascertain the systems performance capabilities in terms of suitability for use in NASA ground test facilities. A proof-of-concept demonstration was performed in the Langley Advanced Measurements and Data Systems Branch 13-inch (33- cm) Subsonic Tunnel to examine the wake of a series of cylinders at a Reynolds number of 2500. Accompanying the plenoptic-PIV measurements were an ensemble of complementary stereo-PIV measurements. The stereo-PIV measurements were used as a truth measurement to assess the ability of the plenoptic-PIV system to capture relevant 3D/3C flow field features in the cylinder wake. Six individual tests were conducted as part of the test campaign using three different cylinder diameters mounted in two orientations in the tunnel test section. This work presents a comparison of measurements with the cylinders mounted horizontally (generating a 2D flow field in the x-y plane). Results show that in general the plenoptic-PIV measurements match those produced by the stereo-PIV system. However, discrepancies were observed in extracted pro les of the fuctuating velocity components. It is speculated that spatial smoothing of the vector fields in the stereo-PIV system could account for the observed differences. Nevertheless, the plenoptic-PIV system performed extremely well at capturing the flow field features of interest and can be considered a viable alternative to traditional PIV systems in smaller NASA ground test facilities with limited optical access.

  15. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  16. Development and Validation of an Index to Measure the Quality of Facility-Based Labor and Delivery Care Processes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Vandana; Stanton, Cynthia; Strobino, Donna; Bartlett, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background High quality care is crucial in ensuring that women and newborns receive interventions that may prevent and treat birth-related complications. As facility deliveries increase in developing countries, there are concerns about service quality. Observation is the gold standard for clinical quality assessment, but existing observation-based measures of obstetric quality of care are lengthy and difficult to administer. There is a lack of consensus on quality indicators for routine intrapartum and immediate postpartum care, including essential newborn care. This study identified key dimensions of the quality of the process of intrapartum and immediate postpartum care (QoPIIPC) in facility deliveries and developed a quality assessment measure representing these dimensions. Methods and Findings Global maternal and neonatal care experts identified key dimensions of QoPIIPC through a modified Delphi process. Experts also rated indicators of these dimensions from a comprehensive delivery observation checklist used in quality surveys in sub-Saharan African countries. Potential QoPIIPC indices were developed from combinations of highly-rated indicators. Face, content, and criterion validation of these indices was conducted using data from observations of 1,145 deliveries in Kenya, Madagascar, and Tanzania (including Zanzibar). A best-performing index was selected, composed of 20 indicators of intrapartum/immediate postpartum care, including essential newborn care. This index represented most dimensions of QoPIIPC and effectively discriminated between poorly and well-performed deliveries. Conclusions As facility deliveries increase and the global community pays greater attention to the role of care quality in achieving further maternal and newborn mortality reduction, the QoPIIPC index may be a valuable measure. This index complements and addresses gaps in currently used quality assessment tools. Further evaluation of index usability and reliability is needed. The

  17. Irradiation campaign in the EOLE critical facility of fiber optic Bragg gratings dedicated to the online temperature measurement in zero power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mellier, Frederic; Cheymol, Guy; Destouches, Christophe; Di Salvo, Jacques; Laffont, Guillaume; Morana, Adriana; Girard, Sylvain; Marin, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    The control of temperature during operation of zero power research reactors participates to the overall control of experimentation conditions and reveals itself of a major importance more especially when measuring small multiplication factor variations. Within the framework of the refurbishment of the MASURCA facility, the development of a new temperature measurement system based on the optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology is under consideration. In a first step, a series of FBGs is irradiated in the EOLE critical facility with the aim to select the most appropriate. Online temperature measurements are performed during a set of irradiations that should allow reaching a fast neutron fluence of some 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}. The results obtained, more especially the Bragg wavelength shifts during the irradiation campaign, are discussed in this paper and compared to data from standard PT100 temperature sensors to highlight possible radiation effects on sensor performances. Work to be conducted during the second step of the project, aiming to a feasibility demonstration using a MASURCA assembly, is also presented. (authors)

  18. Aeroacoustic Measurements of a Wing/Slat Model. [Research conducted at the Quiet Flow Facility of the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Jeff M.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Aeroacoustic evaluations of high-lift devices have been carried out in the Quiet Flow Facility of the NASA Langley Research Center. The present paper deals with detailed flow and acoustic measurements that have been made to understand, and to possibly predict and reduce, the noise from a wing leading edge slat configuration. The acoustic database is obtained by a moveable Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones designed to electronically steer to different portions of models under study. The slat is shown to be a uniform distributed noise source. The data was processed such that spectra and directivity were determined with respect to a one-foot span of slat. The spectra are normalized in various fashions to demonstrate slat noise character. In order to equate portions of the spectra to different slat noise components, trailing edge noise predictions using measured slat boundary layer parameters as inputs are compared to the measured slat noise spectra.

  19. Measurement of ion species in high current ECR H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source for IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Shinto, K. Ichimiya, R.; Ihara, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kasugai, A.; Kitano, T.; Kondo, K.; Takahashi, H.; Senée, F.; Bolzon, B.; Chauvin, N.; Gobin, R.; Valette, M.

    2016-02-15

    Ion species ratio of high current positive hydrogen/deuterium ion beams extracted from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator was measured by the Doppler shift Balmer-α line spectroscopy. The proton (H{sup +}) ratio at the middle of the low energy beam transport reached 80% at the hydrogen ion beam extraction of 100 keV/160 mA and the deuteron (D{sup +}) ratio reached 75% at the deuterium ion beam extraction of 100 keV/113 mA. It is found that the H{sup +} ratio measured by the spectroscopy gives lower than that derived from the phase-space diagram measured by an Allison scanner type emittance monitor. The H{sup +}/D{sup +} ratio estimated by the emittance monitor was more than 90% at those extraction currents.

  20. Prevention of combat-related infections: antimicrobial therapy in battlefield and barrier measures in French military medical treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Mérens, Audrey; Rapp, Christophe; Delaune, Deborah; Danis, Julien; Berger, Franck; Michel, Remy

    2014-01-01

    Infection is a major complication associated with combat-related injuries. Beside immobilization, wound irrigation, surgical debridement and delayed coverage, post-injury antimicrobials contribute to reduce combat-related infections, particularly those caused by bacteria of the early contamination flora. In modern warfare, bacteria involved in combat-related infections are mainly Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the late contamination flora. These bacteria are frequently resistant or multiresistant to antibiotics and spread through the deployed chain of care. This article exposes the principles of war wounds antimicrobial prophylaxis recommended in the French Armed Forces and highlights the need for high compliance to hygiene standard precautions, adapted contact precautions and judicious use of antibiotics in French deployed military medical treatment facilities (MTF).

  1. Study of a stereo electro-optical tracker system for the measurement of model deformations at the national transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertel, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An electro-optical method to measure the aeroelastic deformations of wind tunnel models is examined. The multitarget tracking performance of one of the two electronic cameras comprising the stereo pair is modeled and measured. The properties of the targets at the model, the camera optics, target illumination, number of targets, acquisition time, target velocities, and tracker performance are considered. The electronic camera system is shown to be capable of locating, measuring, and following the positions of 5 to 50 targets attached to the model at measuring rates up to 5000 targets per second.

  2. Uncertainty analysis of thermocouple measurements used in normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments at Sandia's Radiant Heat Facility and Lurance Canyon Burn Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2004-04-01

    It would not be possible to confidently qualify weapon systems performance or validate computer codes without knowing the uncertainty of the experimental data used. This report provides uncertainty estimates associated with thermocouple data for temperature measurements from two of Sandia's large-scale thermal facilities. These two facilities (the Radiant Heat Facility (RHF) and the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS)) routinely gather data from normal and abnormal thermal environment experiments. They are managed by Fire Science & Technology Department 09132. Uncertainty analyses were performed for several thermocouple (TC) data acquisition systems (DASs) used at the RHF and LCBS. These analyses apply to Type K, chromel-alumel thermocouples of various types: fiberglass sheathed TC wire, mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed (MIMS) TC assemblies, and are easily extended to other TC materials (e.g., copper-constantan). Several DASs were analyzed: (1) A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3852A system, and (2) several National Instrument (NI) systems. The uncertainty analyses were performed on the entire system from the TC to the DAS output file. Uncertainty sources include TC mounting errors, ANSI standard calibration uncertainty for Type K TC wire, potential errors due to temperature gradients inside connectors, extension wire uncertainty, DAS hardware uncertainties including noise, common mode rejection ratio, digital voltmeter accuracy, mV to temperature conversion, analog to digital conversion, and other possible sources. Typical results for 'normal' environments (e.g., maximum of 300-400 K) showed the total uncertainty to be about {+-}1% of the reading in absolute temperature. In high temperature or high heat flux ('abnormal') thermal environments, total uncertainties range up to {+-}2-3% of the reading (maximum of 1300 K). The higher uncertainties in abnormal thermal environments are caused by increased errors due to the effects of imperfect TC attachment to the test item. 'Best

  3. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems.

  4. Broadband Interferometer for Measuring Transmitted Wavefronts of Optical Bandpass Filters for HST (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucarut, R. A.; Leviton, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The transmitted wavefronts of optical filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) are characterized using the Wildly and Openly Modified Broadband Achromatic Twyman Green (WOMBAT) Interferometer developed in the NASA/GSFC Optics Branch's Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF). Because only four of thirty-three of ACS's optical bandpass filters transmit the 633 nm light of most commercial interferometers, a broadband interferometer is required to verify specified transmitted wavefront of ACS filters. WOMBAT's design is a hybrid of the BAT interferometer developed by JPL used for HST Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) filters and a WYKO 400 phase shifting interferometer. It includes a broadband light source, monochromator, off-axis, parabolic collimating and camera mirrors, an aluminum-coated fused silica beam splitter, flat retroreflecting mirrors for the test and reference arms, and a LTV-sensitive CCD camera. An outboarded, piezo-electric phase shifter holds the flat mirror in the interferometer's reference arm. The interferometer is calibrated through interaction between the WYKO system's software and WONMAT hardware for the test wavelength of light entering the beam splitter. Phase-shifted interferograms of the filter mounted in the test arm are analyzed using WYKO's Vision' software. Filters as large as 90 mm in diameter have been measured over a wavelength range from 200 to 1100 nm with a sensitivity of lambda/200 rms at lambda = 633 nm. Results of transmitted wavefront measurements are shown for ACS fixed band pass and spatially-variable bandpass filters for a variety of wavelengths.

  5. Facile synthesis of titania nanowires via a hot filament method and conductometric measurement of their response to hydrogen sulfide gas.

    PubMed

    Munz, Martin; Langridge, Mark T; Devarepally, Kishore K; Cox, David C; Patel, Pravin; Martin, Nicholas A; Vargha, Gergely; Stolojan, Vlad; White, Sam; Curry, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Titania nanostructures are of increasing interest for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, water splitting, and chemical sensing. Because of the photocatalytical properties of TiO₂, chemical processes that occur at its surface can be exploited for highly efficient nanodevices. A facile and fast synthesis route has been explored that is free of catalysts or templates. An environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) system was employed to grow titania nanowires (NWs) in a water vapor atmosphere (∼1 mbar) and to monitor the growth in situ. In addition, the growth process was also demonstrated using a simple vacuum chamber. In both processes, a titanium filament was heated via the Joule effect and NWs were found to grow on its surface, as a result of thermal oxidation processes. A variety of nanostructures were observed across the filament, with morphologies changing with the wire temperature from the center to the end points. The longest NWs were obtained for temperatures between ∼730 °C and 810 °C. Typically, they have an approximate thickness of ∼300 nm and lengths of up to a few micrometers. Cross sections prepared by focused-ion-beam milling revealed the presence of a porous layer beneath the NW clusters. This indicates that the growth of NWs is driven by oxidation-induced stresses in the subsurface region of the Ti filament and by enhanced diffusion along grain boundaries. To demonstrate the potential of titania NWs grown via the hot filament method, single NW devices were fabricated and used for conductometric sensing of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) gas. The NW electric resistance was found to decrease in the presence of H₂S. Its variation can be explained in terms of the surface depletion model.

  6. The Francium facility at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Chen, G.; Collister, R.; Flambaum, V. V.; Gomez, E.; Gwinner, G.; Jackson, K. P.; Melconian, D.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Ruiz, M. C.; Sheng, D.; Shin, Y. H.; Sprouse, G. D.; Tandecki, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We present the current status of the Francium Trapping Facility at ISAC at TRIUMF. The facility will enable future experiments on the weak interaction with measurements of atomic parity non-conservation laser-cooled samples of artificially produced francium. These experiments require a precisely controlled environment, which the facility is designed to provide. The facility has been constructed and is being prepared for a series of commissioning runs.

  7. Analysis and recent advances in gamma heating measurements in MINERVE facility by using TLD and OSLD techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Di Salvo, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Roche, A.; Masson-Fauchier, M.; Bosq, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop nuclear heating measurement methods in Zero Power experimental reactors. This paper presents the analysis of Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) and Optically Stimulated Luminescent Detectors (OSLD) experiments in the UO{sub 2} core of the MINERVE research reactor at the CEA Cadarache. The experimental sources of uncertainties on the gamma dose have been reduced by improving the conditions, as well as the repeatability, of the calibration step for each individual TLD. The interpretation of these measurements needs to take into account calculation of cavity correction factors, related to calibration and irradiation configurations, as well as neutron corrections calculations. These calculations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport coupled particles. TLD and OSLD are positioned inside aluminum pillboxes. The comparison between calculated and measured integral gamma-ray absorbed doses using TLD, shows that calculation slightly overestimates the measurement with a C/E value equal to 1.05 {+-} 5.3 % (k = 2). By using OSLD, the calculation slightly underestimates the measurement with a C/E value equal to 0.96 {+-} 7.0% (k = 2. (authors)

  8. PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Corbard, T.; Irbah, A.; Morand, F.; Ikhlef, R.; Renaud, C.; Hauchecorne, A.; Assus, P.; Chauvineau, B.; Crepel, M.; Dalaudier, F.; Djafer, D.; Fodil, M.; Laclare, F.; Lesueur, P.; Lin, M.; Poiet, G.

    2013-06-01

    PICARD SOL is the ground component of the PICARD mission and is operational since March 2011. A set of instruments including the replica of the space instrument and several atmospheric monitors was set up at Calern observatory in order to compare solar radius measured in space and on ground and to better understand and calibrate atmospheric effects on ground based measurements. SODISMII provides full disk images of the chromosphere and photosphere of the Sun in five narrow pass bands ranging from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared. Our preliminary results show a very good instrumental stability. After plate scale calibration using star doublet observations and corrections for atmospheric refraction, first estimates of the mean solar radius at the five wavelengths (393.37, 535.7, 607.1, 782.2, and 1025.0nm) are deduced from measurements recorded between May 2011 and December 2012.

  9. Velocity surveys in a turbine stator annular-cascade facility using laser Doppler techniques. [flow measurement and flow characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Seasholtz, R. G.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to determine the flow conditions downstream of an annular cascade of stator blades operating at an exit critical velocity ratio of 0.87. Two modes of LDV operation (continuous scan and discrete point) were investigated. Conventional pressure probe measurements were also made for comparison with the LDV results. Biasing errors that occur in the LDV measurement of velocity components were also studied. In addition, the effect of pressure probe blockage on the flow conditions was determined with the LDV. Photographs and descriptions of the test equipment used are given.

  10. The first measurements of soft x-ray flux from ignition scale Hohlraums at the national ignition facility using DANTE

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, John L; Glenzer, S H; Olson, Rick; Suter, Larry J; Widmann, K; Callahan, D A; Dixit, S N; Thomas, C A; Hinkel, D E; Williams, E A; Moore, A; Celeste, J; Dewald, E; Hsing, W W; Warrick, A; Atherton, J; Azevedo, S; Beeler, R; Berger, R; Conder, A; Divol, L; Haynam, C A; Kalantar, D H; Kauffman, R; Kilkenny, J; Liebman, J; Larson, D; Meezan, N B; Michel, P; Moody, J; Rosen, M D; Schneider, M B; Van Wontergheman, B; Wallace, R J; Young, B K; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Berzins, L; Tran, Vu; Torres, P., III

    2010-01-01

    The first 96 and 192 beam vacuum hohlraum have been fielded at the National Ignition Facility demonstrating radiation temperatures up to 340 eV and fluxes of 20 TW/sr representing a 20 times flux increase over NOVA/Omega scale hohlraums. The vacuum hohlraums were irradiated with 2 ns square pulses with energies between 150 - 635 kJ. They produced nearly Planckian spectra with about 30 {+-} 10% more flux than predicted by the current radiation hydrodynamic simulations after careful verification of all component calibrations (which included an {approx} 10% downward correction to Center X-Ray Optics opacities just below the Cu L edge at 50-750 eV), cable deconvolution, and analysis software routines. To corroborate these results, first a half hohlraum experiment was conducted using a single 2 ns-long axial quad with an irradiance of {approx} 1-2 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} for comparison with NIF Early Light experiments completed in 2004. Second, we completed a conversion efficiency test using a 128-beam nearly uniformly illuminated gold sphere with intensities kept low (at 1 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} over 5 ns) to avoid sensitivity to modeling uncertainties for non-local heat conduction and non-linear absorption mechanisms, to compare with similar intensity, 3 ns OMEGA sphere results. The 2004 and 2009 NIF half-hohlraums agreed to 10% in flux, but more importantly, the 2006 OMEGA Au Sphere, the 2009 NIF Au sphere and the calculated Au conversion efficiency agree to {+-}5% in flux, which is estimated to be the absolute calibration accuracy of the DANTEs. Hence we concluded the 30 {+-} 10% higher than expected radiation fluxes from the 96 and 192 beam vacuum hohlraums are attributable to differences in physics when we transitioned to large hot hohlraums. Specifically, using variants in the atomic physics models and electron heat conduction, newer simulations show that nonlocalization of energy deposition leads to less energy being stored in the coronal plasma leading to

  11. The International Soil Moisture Network - A data hosting facility for in situ soil moisture measurements in support of SMOS cal/val

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Hahn, Sebastian; Hohensinn, Roland; Paulik, Christoph; Wagner, Wolfgang; Drusch, Matthias; van Oevelen, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In situ soil moisture observations are crucial for validating SMOS and other satellite based soil moisture products. In order to support valid conclusions about the accuracy of such products the in situ soil moisture observations used need to be available for many locations worldwide and have to be intercomparable. So far, the latter requirement is usually not met as the different locally and regionally operating networks apply neither a standard measurement technique nor a standard protocol. The need for international cooperation in constructing centralized and homogenized global soil moisture data sets has been recognized by the international community. To support the validation of satellite soil moisture products the International Soil Moisture Working Group (ISMWG) has suggested constructing a standardized global data base of in-situ soil moisture measurements. Further, the creation of multi-source soil moisture datasets, including in situ observations, was included in the GEO 2009-2011 Work Plan under sub-task WA-08-01a led by GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) and ESA (European Space Agency). As fruit of this initiative and in support of SMOS calibration and validation activities, ESA decided to support the development of the International Soil Moisture Network. The International Soil Moisture Network is a web based data hosting facility for collecting and redistributing in situ soil moisture measurements from existing soil moisture networks. Incoming data are carefully checked for their quality and homogenized before being stored in the database. A web interface allows the user to easily query and download the data. Special care has been taken to make downloads compliant with international data and metadata standards such as GEWEX CEOP, ISO 19115, and INPIRE of the European Commission. This presentation provides insight in the design considerations, implementation, functionalities and outputs of the data hosting facility. The International Soil

  12. "Measuring Operational Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library (IIL) and the Impact of Critical Facilities Inclusion in the Process."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodell, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) professionals use the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) process to better manage their business operations, measure performance, improve reliability and lower costs. This study examined the operational results of those data centers using ITIL against those that do not, and whether the results change…

  13. A cryogenic test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, Ian

    The next generation, space-borne instruments for far infrared spectroscopy will utilize large diameter, cryogenically cooled telescopes in order to achieve unprecedented sensitivities. Low background, ground-based cryogenic facilities are required for the cryogenic testing of materials, components and subsystems. The Test Facility Cryostat (TFC) at the University of Lethbridge is a large volume, closed cycle, 4K cryogenic facility, developed for this purpose. This thesis discusses the design and performance of the facility and associated external instrumentation. An apparatus for measuring the thermal properties of materials is presented, and measurements of the thermal expansion and conductivity of carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) at cryogenic temperatures are reported. Finally, I discuss the progress towards the design and fabrication of a demonstrator cryogenic, far infrared Fourier transform spectrometer.

  14. J-edited pure shift NMR for the facile measurement of (n)J(HH) for specific protons.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Sachin Rama; Suryaprakash, N

    2015-04-07

    We report a novel 1D J-edited pure shift NMR experiment (J-PSHIFT) that was constructed from a pseudo 2D experiment for the direct measurement of proton-proton scalar couplings. The experiment gives homonuclear broad-band (1)H-decoupled (1)H NMR spectra, which provide a single peak for chemically distinct protons, and only retain the homonuclear-scalar-coupled doublet pattern at the chemical-shift positions of the protons in the coupled network of a specific proton. This permits the direct and unambiguous measurement of the magnitudes of the couplings. The incorporation of a 1D selective correlation spectroscopy (COSY)/ total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) block in lieu of the initial selective pulse, results in the exclusive detection of the correlated spectrum of a specific proton.

  15. Isomeric ratio measurements for the radiative neutron capture 176Lu(n ,γ ) at the LANL DANCE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Romain, P.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    The isomeric ratios for the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) to the Jπ=5 /2- , 761.7 keV, T1 /2=32.8 ns and the Jπ=15 /2+ , 1356.9 keV, T1 /2=11.1 ns levels of 177Lu have been measured for the first time. The experiment was carried out with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measured isomeric ratios are compared with talys calculations using different models for photon strength functions, level densities, and optical potentials. In order to reproduce the experimental γ -ray spectra, a low-energy resonance must be added in the photon strength function used in our Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  16. Stereo electro-optical tracker study for the measurement of model deformations at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertel, R. J.; Hoilman, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of model vibration, camera and window nonlinearities, and aerodynamic disturbances in the optical path on the measurement of target position is examined. Window distortion, temperature and pressure changes, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, shock waves, target intensity and, target vibration are also studied. A general computer program was developed to trace optical rays through these disturbances. The use of a charge injection device camera as an alternative to the image dissector camera was examined.

  17. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Certification for Static and Dynamic RCS Measurement Facilities. Volume 2: DOD RCS Demonstration Program Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Electronics Engineers ISAR inverse synthetic aperature radar ISO International Standards Organization J/S jammer-skin Mil Spec military...for Doppler signatures, down-range profiles, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images, as well as whole-body RCS data. ADAMS is also used to...DOCUMENT 804-01 VOLUME II (REVISED AUGUST 2001) Signature Measurement Standards Group RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) CERTIFICATION

  18. In vacuum diamond sensor scanner for beam halo measurements in the beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Bogard, F.; Cornebise, P.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster-Martínez, N.; Griesmayer, E.; Guler, H.; Kubytskyi, V.; Sylvia, C.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Bambade, P.

    2016-10-01

    The investigation of beam halo transverse distributions is important for the understanding of beam losses and the control of backgrounds in Future Linear Colliders (FLC). A novel in vacuum diamond sensor (DSv) scanner with four strips has been designed and developed for the investigation of the beam halo transverse distributions and also for the diagnostics of Compton recoil electrons after the interaction point (IP) of ATF2, a low energy (1.3 GeV) prototype of the final focus system for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects. Using the DSv, a dynamic range of ∼106 has been successfully demonstrated and confirmed for the first time in simultaneous beam core (∼109 electrons) and beam halo (∼103 electrons) measurements at ATF2. This report presents the characterization, performance studies and tests of diamond sensors using an α source, as well as using the electron beams at PHIL, a low energy < 5 MeV photo-injector at LAL, and at ATF2. First beam halo measurement results using the DSv at ATF2 with different beam intensities and vacuum levels are also presented. Such measurements not only allow one to evaluate the different sources of beam halo generation but also to define the requirements for a suitable collimation system to be installed at ATF2, as well as to optimize its performance during future operation.

  19. a Measurement of the Photon-Structure Function with Probing Q(2) = 20 GEV(2) Using the Two-Gamma Detector Facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey Samuel

    The TPC/Two-Gamma detector facility has been used to measure the photon structure function F_sp {2}{gamma}(x,Q^2) for the hadronic process e^- e^+ to e^- e^+ X in the range 8 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 55 GeV^2. The analysis used 322 multihadron events obtained from a luminosity of 69 pb ^{-1}. The data have been corrected for detector effects by two methods. Event-by-event corrections to the visible two-photon mass are made based on physical constraints. Then, an unfolding procedure is used to globally correct for detector smearing effects. The structure function is compared with two theoretical models. The Regularized QCD Model yields a fitted value for Lambda _{overline{rm MS}} = 585 + 186 - 154 MeV. The P_{t} cutoff model as prescribed by Field et al. fits the measured structure function very well using the recommended cutoff parameter t_0 = 1.5 GeV. The results of this measurement are shown to be consistent with other world measurements.

  20. 7Be(n, α and 7Be(n,p) cross-section measurement for the Cosmological Lithium Problem at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, M.

    2016-03-01

    The 7Be(n, α reaction cross-section has been measured for the first time in a wide neutron energy range, in order to investigate its role in the destruction of 7Be during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, as a possible solution to the Cosmological Lithium problem (CLiP). The measurement has been performed at the new vertical beam line of the neutron Time-of-Flight facility (n_TOF) at CERN, taking advantage of the extremely high instantaneous neutron flux which allows to obtain the useful signal-to-background ratio particularly suited for challenging measurements on short-lived radioisotopes, such as 7Be ( t1/2 ≃ 53.2 days) . The two alfa particles emitted back-to-back in the reaction have been detected by mean of sandwiches of silicon detectors and exploiting the coincidence technique. In order to complete the n_TOF program on CLiP, the 7Be(n,p) cross-section will be measured during the next n_TOF experimental campaign, using an high-purity sample and a silicon telescope device.