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Sample records for retrospective analysis study

  1. Causal Inference in Retrospective Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Rubin, Donald B.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of drawing causal inferences from retrospective case-controlled studies is considered. A model for causal inference in prospective studies is applied to retrospective studies. Limitations of case-controlled studies are formulated concerning relevant parameters that can be estimated in such studies. A coffee-drinking/myocardial…

  2. Prognostic factors of palatal mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a retrospective analysis based on a double-center study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenguang; Wang, Yufeng; Qi, Xiaofeng; Xie, Junqi; Wei, Zheng; Yin, Xiteng; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Jian; Han, Wei

    2017-03-06

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the palate is a common malignancy of minor salivary glands. This study was designed to identify the prognostic factors for MEC of the palate. The medical records of patients diagnosed with MEC of the palate who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Nanjing Stomatological Hospital and the Department of Stomatology at Central Hospital of Xuzhou were retrospectively studied. The prognostic factors were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers CD44, CD133, Nanog and Sox2 were detected in neoplastic samples of these patients by immunohistochemistry. As a result, both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis proved a high histological grade and an advanced tumor stage as negative prognostic factors for overall survival. By immunohistochemistry staining and survival analysis, a combination of CD44/CD133/SOX2 was found to have the strongest prognostic value for palatal MEC patients. In conclusion, the proposed nomogram which include histological grade and tumor stage along with cancer stem cell markers provides a more accurate long-term prediction for palatal MEC patients.

  3. Prognostic factors of palatal mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a retrospective analysis based on a double-center study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenguang; Wang, Yufeng; Qi, Xiaofeng; Xie, Junqi; Wei, Zheng; Yin, Xiteng; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Jian; Han, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the palate is a common malignancy of minor salivary glands. This study was designed to identify the prognostic factors for MEC of the palate. The medical records of patients diagnosed with MEC of the palate who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Nanjing Stomatological Hospital and the Department of Stomatology at Central Hospital of Xuzhou were retrospectively studied. The prognostic factors were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Furthermore, the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers CD44, CD133, Nanog and Sox2 were detected in neoplastic samples of these patients by immunohistochemistry. As a result, both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis proved a high histological grade and an advanced tumor stage as negative prognostic factors for overall survival. By immunohistochemistry staining and survival analysis, a combination of CD44/CD133/SOX2 was found to have the strongest prognostic value for palatal MEC patients. In conclusion, the proposed nomogram which include histological grade and tumor stage along with cancer stem cell markers provides a more accurate long-term prediction for palatal MEC patients. PMID:28262804

  4. CGM Retrospective Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has increased in popularity as a daily management tool for people with diabetes and a diagnostic instrument for their healthcare providers. Achieving better clinical outcomes hinges on appropriate analysis and interpretation of data collected by CGM systems. This includes device downloading, qualification of data, and generation of applicable reports. An objectives-based analysis of the reports can yield valuable insight for fine-tuning treatment in several areas, including postprandial glucose patterns, overnight/basal stability, duration of bolus insulin action, timing of (and response to) hypoglycemic episodes, the efficacy of meal and correction insulin doses, and the impact of a variety of lifestyle activities. PMID:26784125

  5. Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    The program to land an American on the Moon and return safely to Earth in the 1960s has been called by some observers a defining event of the twentieth century. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., even suggested that when Americans two centuries hence study the twentieth century, they will view the Apollo lunar landing as the critical event of the century. While that conclusion might be premature, there can be little doubt but that the flight of Apollo 11 in particular and the overall Apollo program in general was a high point in humanity s quest to explore the universe beyond Earth. Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

  6. Apollo: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

  7. [A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

    2010-06-01

    Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene.

  8. Trend Analysis of Malaria Occurrence in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Legesse, Deresse; Haji, Yusuf; Abreha, Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years' trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years' laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 105,755 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported, with total slide positivity rate of 33.27% and mean annual occurrence of 21,151 cases. Malaria occurred with a fluctuating trend in the study area, with its peak occurring at the year 2011/12. Overall, no remarkable decline in the total laboratory confirmed malaria was observed in the last five years. P. falciparum was the predominantly reported species, accounting for 75,929 (71.80%) of cases. The highest slide positivity rate was observed in the age group of 5–14 years (40.5%) followed by 1–4 years (35.5%). Two malaria peak seasons occurred: one from September to December and the other from April to June. Conclusion. No remarkable decline in laboratory confirmed malaria in the last five years was observed. PMID:26770866

  9. Analysis of Mtwo rotary instrument separation during endodontic therapy: a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan-Nan; Ge, Jiu-Yu; Xie, Si-Jing; Chen, Ge; Zhu, Min

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the incidence of instrument separation (IS) and the factors influencing it, when associated with Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany) during endodontic therapy. A retrospective study involving a total of 24,108 root canals (11,036 endodontic treated teeth) was conducted at Nanjing Stomatology Hospital between January 2011 and March 2013. The information included were tooth type, root canal curvature, number of fractured instruments, length of the separated fragments, and the distance from broken tip to apex. The incidence of IS was observed to be 2.2 % according to the number of teeth and 1.0 % according to the number of root canals. Many of the separated fragments were 2-4 mm in length and the mean length was 3.07 ± 1.46 mm, and 78.4 % of fractures occurred in the apex. The mean length of separated fragments in severely curved canals was maximum, while ultra-severe curved canals was observed to be minimum. Mtwo instruments demonstrated an extremely low fracture rate during endodontic therapy. Molar teeth (especially lower molars) and the degree of canal curvature had a significant effect on the incidence of IS.

  10. A retrospective clinicopathological study on oral lichen planus and malignant transformation: Analysis of 518 cases

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zheng Y.; Zhu, Lai K.; Feng, Jin Q.; Tang, Guo Y.; Zhou, Zeng T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a relatively large cohort of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) from eastern China. Study design: A total of 518 patients with histologically confirmed OLP in a long-term follow-up period (6 months-21.5 years) were retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Results: Of the 518 patients, 353 females and 165 males were identified. The average age at diagnosis was 46.3 years (range 9-81 years) with the buccal mucosa being the most common site (87.8%). At initial presentation, white lichen and red lichen was seen in 52.3% and 47.7% patients, respectively. Of these, 5 (0.96%) patients previously diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as OLP developed oral cancer. All of them were the females with no a history of smoking or alcohol use. Conclusions: Clinical features of eastern Chinese OLP patients were elucidated. Notably, approximately 1% of OLP developed into cancer, which provides further evidence of potentially malignant nature of OLP. Key words:Oral lichen planus, clinical features, malignant transformation, oral cancer. PMID:22549677

  11. Analysis of 1,545 Fractures of Facial Region—A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaddipati, Rajasekhar; Ramisetti, Sudhir; Vura, Nandagopal; Reddy, K. Rajiv; Nalamolu, Bhargav

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and etiology of facial fractures vary from region to region due to various constituents. This study was carried to evaluate the patterns and distribution of fractures in the facial region among different age groups of patients in both males and females caused due to various etiologies. This is a retrospective epidemiological study, which was performed on patients with fractures in the maxillofacial region during a period of 2005 to 2013 at Mamata Dental College and Hospital, Khammam, India. A total of 1,015 patients with 1,545 fractures were referred for treatment to department of oral and maxillofacial injuries surgery, of Mamata Dental College and Hospital, with a mean age of 31.19. The ratio of males (859):females (156) is 5.5:1. Injuries caused by motorbike injuries (34.9%) are highest. The highest frequency of fractures caused by various reasons is seen more in third decade (39%). Mandible (43.81%) is the most common fracture site in the face. Among soft tissue injuries most commonly seen are lacerations (43%). This study differentiates the etiological factors causing facial trauma in several age groups. Results of this study suggest outcomes indicate that more reliance on individual transport on motor vehicles has increased the frequency of facial bone fractures. Regardless of age, motor vehicle accidents were high in all age groups except the first decade of life and above 60 years of age when traffic accidents dominated. Thus effectiveness of current preventive measures is to be assessed, followed by instituting new guidelines for prevention and inflexible traffic rules shall be levied. More epidemiological surveys can, if encouraged to measure the frequency of fractures, better the world. PMID:26576235

  12. Epidemiology and microbiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections: analysis of 482 cases from a retrospective surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-nong; Gan, Tie-er; Zhu, Yue-xian; Cao, Jun-min; Ji, Cong-hua; Wu, Yi-hua; Lv, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals, most patients are elderly with chronic diseases. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective surveillance study was performed to examine the epidemiology and microbiology of nBSIs in a TCM hospital from 2009 to 2011. A total of 482 patients with nBSIs were included in the study period. The incidence rate was 5.7/1000 admissions. Escherichia coli (25.5%) was the most common Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) (14.1%) was the most common Gram-positive organism isolated. One-third of the E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the nBSIs were the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant. Half of the Acinetobacter species isolates were resistant to imipenem. Of all the CoNS isolates, 90.7% were resistant to methicillin. Carbapenems and glycopeptide were the most frequently used for nBSI therapy. Only about one-third of patients (157/482) received appropriate empirical therapy. Septic shock, hemodialysis, Pitt bacteremia score >4, urinary tract infection, and appropriate empirical therapy were most strongly associated with 28-d mortality. The incidence of nBSIs was low in the TCM hospital but the proportion of nBSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms was high. A high Pitt bacteremia score was one of the most important risk factors for mortality in nBSIs. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate empirical therapy is crucial to improve the clinical outcome of nBSIs.

  13. Corticosteroids in IgA Nephropathy: A Retrospective Analysis from the VALIGA Study

    PubMed Central

    Tesar, Vladimir; Troyanov, Stéphan; Bellur, Shubha; Verhave, Jacobien C.; Cook, H. Terence; Feehally, John; Roberts, Ian S.D.; Cattran, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines suggest treatment with corticosteroids (CS) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) when proteinuria is persistently ≥1 g/d despite 3–6 months of supportive care and when eGFR is >50 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Whether the benefits of this treatment extend to patients with an eGFR≤50 ml/min per 1.73 m2, other levels of proteinuria, or different renal pathologic lesions remains unknown. We retrospectively studied 1147 patients with IgAN from the European Validation Study of the Oxford Classification of IgAN (VALIGA) cohort classified according to the Oxford-MEST classification and medication used, with details of duration but not dosing. Overall, 46% of patients received immunosuppression, of which 98% received CS. Treated individuals presented with greater clinical and pathologic risk factors of progression. They also received more antihypertensive medication, and a greater proportion received renin angiotensin system blockade (RASB) compared with individuals without immunosuppressive therapy. Immunosuppression was associated with a significant reduction in proteinuria, a slower rate of renal function decline, and greater renal survival. Using a propensity score, we matched 184 subjects who received CS and RASB to 184 patients with a similar risk profile of progression who received only RASB. Within this group, CS reduced proteinuria and the rate of renal function decline and increased renal survival. These benefits extended to those with an eGFR≤50 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and the benefits increased proportionally with the level of proteinuria. Thus, CS reduced the risk of progression regardless of initial eGFR and in direct proportion to the extent of proteinuria in this cohort. PMID:25677392

  14. "Studies in Higher Education" 1976-2013: A Retrospective Using Citation Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito; Davies, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a citation network analysis of the publications in "Studies in Higher Education" from 1976 to 2013 inclusive. This represents the entire history of the journal to date. It analyses the most published authors, most cited authors and most discussed topics using keywords. 1056 articles were taken from Web of…

  15. A qualitative retrospective analysis of positive control data in developmental neurotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Crofton, K M; Makris, S L; Sette, W F; Mendez, E; Raffaele, K C

    2004-01-01

    Testing for neurodevelopmental effects commonly involves both functional and neuropathological assessments in offspring during and following maternal exposure. The use of positive controls in neurotoxicity screening has been advocated by numerous expert groups. Evaluation of positive control data allows evaluation of laboratory proficiency in detecting changes in the structure and function of the developing nervous system and comparison of the sensitivity of assessments in different studies and laboratories. This project surveyed approaches taken in contract and industrial laboratories in generating and providing these data. Positive control data submitted in support of 34 developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies from 16 different laboratories were summarized by test method for information on the following: age relevance of test subjects, the presence of a dose-response relationship, gender, group size, statistics, report quality, quality assurance, and the year the study was conducted. Endpoints included the following: developmental landmarks, clinical observations (CO), motor activity, startle response, learning and memory, qualitative neuropathology, and quantitative brain morphometry (linear measurements of selected brain regions). Results ranged from no positive control data for three laboratories, to one laboratory that submitted 17 separate positive control reports. The qualitative range was similarly broad, from excellent to poor. Various problems were identified, including the following: inappropriate report structure (e.g., copies of poster presentations), lack of individual data, inadequate methodological details, submission of very old data (>10 years) or data from completely different laboratories, use of inappropriate positive control chemicals or doses that were without effect, lack of statistical analysis, use of only one sex, and use of incompatibly aged animals. Analyses revealed that there were only 3 out of 16 laboratories that had submitted

  16. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  17. Retrospective analysis of pathologic nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wu, D; Fan, Z-M

    2015-02-13

    The cause of pathologic nipple discharge is mainly benign lesions, but there is still a possibility of malignancy. Pathologic nipple discharge may be the only or the first symptom of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with lesions in patients with pathologic nipple discharge using a retrospective analysis of clinical data in 207 cases. The univariate analysis showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, or breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Discharge characteristics, duration of disease, and identification of lesions had no clear clinical significance (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis also showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, and breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Age, breast lumps, and breast calcifications had important clinical significance in identification of benign and malignant nipple discharge.

  18. A QUALITATIVE RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF POSITIVE CONTROL DATA IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY STUDIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript reviews positive control data submitted by registrants in support of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) guideline studies. Adequate positive control data are needed to evaluate laboratory proficiency in detecting changes in the structure and function of the developin...

  19. Dexamethasone immunosuppression results in turkey clostridial dermatitis: A retrospective analysis of 7 studies, 1998 - 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been studying the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 20 years and have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have often been associated with suscep...

  20. Linear Odontometric Analysis of Permanent Dentition as A Forensic Aid: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sunil Sukumaran; Gopakumar, Devi; Kurian, Nisha; Parameswar, Arjun; Baby, Tibin Kaithappillil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sex determination in forensic anthropology is an essential step for medico-legal purposes and crucial for identification as the number of possible matches is reduced to 50%. Teeth are an excellent material for anthropological, genetic, odontological and forensic investigations as they are known to resist a variety of ante-mortem and post-mortem insults. Sexual dimorphism in tooth size and the accuracy of odontometric sex prediction is found to vary in different population and therefore it is necessary to determine specific population values in order to make identification possible. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of sexual dimorphism in South Kerala population. Aim To evaluate and estimate the degree of odontometric sexual dimorphism in all permanent teeth except third molars and the variations in odontometric dimensions between the left and right side teeth of the maxillary and mandibular arches in male and female groups. Materials and Methods The MesioDistal (MD) and BuccoLingual (BL) measurements of 28 teeth were estimated from the preorthodontic casts of 132 subjects; male group (66 males) and female group (66 females) of age range 15-25 years using digital Verniers’ Caliper. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS version 17 and the Students’ t-test for two independent samples. Results The MesioDistal (MD) and BuccoLingual (BL) parameters of all permanent teeth in the study group showed sexual dimorphism. Over 39% of the tooth variables showed reverse dimorphism. The comparison of mean values of MD and BL diameters of the maxillary and mandibular, right and left side teeth in male and female groups showed statistical significance in males whereas females show non-significant values in both MD and BL diameters. Conclusion The study showed a varied percentage of sexual dimorphism and variation in the mean values of MD and BL dimensions in males, but not in females between right and left side teeth of the

  1. Analysis of diagnostic criteria in adamantiades-behçet disease: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    di Meo, Nicola; Bergamo, S; Vidimari, P; Bonin, S; Trevisan, G

    2013-07-01

    Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is a chronic-relapsing, inflammatory and multi-systemic disease. Any organ or system may be involved: ABD presents a great variety of cutaneous and mucosal lesions, ocular manifestations, central and peripheral nervous system abnormalities, joint as well as gastrointestinal involvement. Since clear pathognomonic clinical features and laboratory tests are lacking, the diagnosis of ABD mainly relies on the characteristic clinical features. Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been used. The International Study Group for Behçet Disease (ISGBD) in 1990 formulated a set of criteria to warrant uniformity of both diagnosis and classification. Therefore, in 2006, a new set was proposed by the International Team for the Revision of the International Criteria for Behçet's Disease (ITR-ICBD) not only to uniform the previous criteria but also to establish best accuracy, along with an optimum sensivity and specificity. The aims of this study are both to analyze the clinical features of ABD patients and to validate the ISGBD and ITR-ICDB criteria for the diagnosis of ABD in our cohort.

  2. Dexamethasone immunosuppression resulting in turkey clostridial dermatitis: a retrospective analysis of seven studies, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 20 yr and have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. Although immunosuppressive viruses have often been associated with susceptibility to gangrenous dermatitis (cellulitis), we hypothesize that production stressors alone can also undermine resistance to opportunistic pathogens by both increasing bacterial translocation from the intestine and disrupting the skin's antimicrobial barrier, resulting in subcutaneous lesions referred to as cellulitis and recently named turkey clostridial dermatitis (CD). Some common characteristics between TOC and CD are that they are both caused by opportunistic bacterial species that are prevalent in the environment and are both most common in adolescent male birds. In both diseases the affected birds are often large, healthy, and from the best-performing flocks. Our TOC studies using dexamethasone immunosuppression result in a high incidence of cellulitis lesions in dead turkeys that were given either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus respiratory challenges. The natural presence of Clostridium spp. in the poultry intestine and environment suggests that they may also have been concomitant pathogens. We suggest that a useful and repeatable model for CD can be developed by focusing on the ability of stress to increase diuresis and wet litter conditions and undermine both intestinal and cutaneous bacterial resistance in fast-growing male turkeys.

  3. Occupational exposure to ketamine detected by hair analysis: a retrospective and prospective toxicological study.

    PubMed

    Favretto, D; Vogliardi, S; Tucci, M; Simoncello, I; El Mazloum, R; Snenghi, R

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine (KT) is used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia in combination with sedative drugs in human and animals. Because of its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, KT has become a recreational drug in a variety of social settings and may be included in the panel of drugs of abuse that are controlled in driving under the influence (DUI) ascertainment. In a local driving license re-granting protocol, a case where a veterinary physician was found positive to KT and nor-ketamine (NK) in hair suggested the possibility of a professional exposure in a veterinary setting and prompted an experimental study. Male (7) and female (4) veterinary physicians were recruited on a voluntary base. Detailed information was collected on their habits, use of drugs, professional practice, frequency and mode of using KT injections. Hands and skin were examined. Head hair and pubic hair were collected. Two naïve subjects, starting their professional practice at a local veterinary clinic, were recruited and their hair (head, pubic, axillary, thoracic hair, and beard) and urine were collected before and after usual clinic activity. Hair were cut according to their length, washed, pulverized and 25mg were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high accuracy, high resolution mass spectrometry. All the hair samples from the veterinary physicians turned to be positive for KT, at a concentration varying from 0.010 to 0.840ng/mg in head hair and from 0.040 to 2.04ng/mg in pubic hair; NK ranged from not detected to 0.080ng/mg in head hair, from not detected to 0.100 in pubic hair; when KT was ≥0.100, NK was always detected. For the two naïve subjects, hair from different body sites were negative before they started their activity, and positive one month later; some urine samples resulted positive and confirmed systemic exposure to KT. The possibility of unaware exposure to KT was demonstrated. The site of absorption is skin, independently from the presence of

  4. Comparative analysis of kinesiotherapy rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy, quantified by harris and vail hip scores: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Melissa; Moraga, Ricardo; Diaz, Patricia; Camacho, Daniel; Mardones, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background It has been proven that femoroacetabular impingement cases improve following arthroscopic surgery. However, rehabilitation has a major role in the patient’s recovery. The protocol used by our institution consists of an evidence-based guideline for the different phases of rehabilitation. Objective Describe and determine the effectiveness of our institution’s kinesiotherapy rehabilitation program during 2011–2016, comparing Harris and Vail Hip Scores scales (HHS and VHS, respectively) at the beginning of each treatment phase. Materials and methods This is an observational, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study which, from a total of 684 subjects who underwent surgery, and 103 subjects who followed our institution’s rehabilitation program, ultimately uses a sample of 48 subjects for analysis; these subjects were included because they completed the scales on the three occasions determined. Results Significant exact differences were found in: multivariate contrasts HHS (F=147.420; p=0.000); VHS (F=82,160; p=0,000). Mauchly’s sphericity test: HHS (W=0.722; p=0.001); VHS (W=0.830; p=0.014). The within-subject effect showed significant exact differences in: HHS (F=169.451; p=0.000); VHS (F=115.387; p=0.000). Conclusion Results showed significant exact differences p=0.00. In spite of its limitations, this study provides a guideline for a patient’s safe return to daily life activities. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066749

  5. Gram stains: a resource for retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Usha; Ponnaluri, Sreelatha; Villareal, Lisa; Gillespie, Brenda; Wen, Ai; Miles, Arianna; Bucholz, Brigette; Marrs, Carl F; Iyer, Ram K; Misra, Dawn; Foxman, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR on DNA extracted from vaginal Gram stain slides to estimate the presence and relative abundance of specific bacterial pathogens. We first tested Gram stained slides spiked with a mix of 10(8) cfu/ml of Escherichia coli and 10(5) cfu/ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Primers were designed for amplification of total and species-specific bacterial DNA based on 16S ribosomal gene regions. Sample DNA was pre-amplified with nearly full length 16S rDNA ribosomal gene fragment, followed by quantitative PCR with genera and species-specific 16S rDNA primers. Pre-amplification PCR increased the bacterial amounts; relative proportions of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus recovered from spiked slides remained unchanged. We applied this method to forty two archived Gram stained slides available from a clinical trial of cerclage in pregnant women at high risk of preterm birth. We found a high correlation between Nugent scores based on bacterial morphology of Lactobacillus, Gardenerella and Mobiluncus and amounts of quantitative PCR estimated genus specific DNA (rrn copies) from Gram stained slides. Testing of a convenience sample of eight paired vaginal swabs and Gram stains freshly collected from healthy women found similar qPCR generated estimates of Lactobacillus proportions from Gram stained slides and vaginal swabs. Archived Gram stained slides collected from large scale epidemiologic and clinical studies represent a valuable, untapped resource for research on the composition of bacterial communities that colonize human mucosal surfaces.

  6. Long-Term Prognostic Analysis after Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Olfactory Neuroblastoma: A Retrospective Study of 13 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luyao; Zhu, Kang; Xia, Cui; Yan, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Wei, Junrong; Duan, Maoli; Zheng, Guoxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the characteristics and long–term outcomes of olfactory neuroblastoma through the analysis of 13 cases in single institution, with the assessment of treatment modality, prognostic factors. Method A retrospective study of thirteen cases diagnosed as olfactory neuroblastoma and underwent combined treatments during the period 2000–2010. Statistical analysis was performed to search for prognostic factors and compared different treatment modalities. Results 13 patients were enrolled in this study, including 8 male and 5 female, ranging from 15 to 69 (median 43) years old. One patient at stage A was only treated with endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES). Seven patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and EES, two with EES and postoperative radiotherapy, and the other three with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The range of follow-up time varied from 23 to 116 months (median 65 months). The 5-year overall survival rate was 46.2% (6/13). To date, these thirteen patients have not suffered local recurrences while two patients had lymph node recurrences and one had distant metastasis in the bone marrow. In 13 patients, 61.5% were diagnosed as late T stage (T3/4), 69.2% late Kadish stage (C/D) and 53.8% were high Hyams grade (I/ II), which indicated poor prognosis. Related prognostic factors were the TNM stage (T stage P = 0.028, N stage P = 0.000, M stage P = 0.007), Kadish stage (P = 0.025) and treatment modality (P = 0.015). Conclusion Late stage of TNM and Kadish staging system indicated a poor prognosis. Combined treatment modality, including endoscopic endonasal surgery, achieved a better outcome than non-surgical approach. PMID:27806104

  7. Treatment of osteolytic solitary painful osseous metastases with radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation: A retrospective study by propensity analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZUGARO, LUIGI; DI STASO, MARIO; GRAVINA, GIOVANNI LUCA; BONFILI, PIERLUIGI; GREGORI, LORENZO; FRANZESE, PIETRO; MARAMPON, FRANCESCO; TOMBOLINI, VINCENZO; DI CESARE, ERNESTO; MASCIOCCHI, CARLO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure the improvement in pain relief and quality of life in patients with osteolytic solitary painful bone metastasis treated by cryoablation (CA) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Fifty patients with solitary osteolytic painful bone metastases were retrospectively studied and selected by propensity analysis. Twenty-five patients underwent CA and the remaining twenty-five underwent RFA. Pain relief, in terms of complete response (CR), the number of patients requiring analgesia and the changes in self-rated quality of life (QoL) were measured following the two treatments. Thirty-two percent of patients treated by CA experienced a CR at 12 weeks versus 20% of patients treated by RFA. The rate of CR increased significantly with respect to baseline only in the group treated by CA. In both groups there was a significant change in the partial response with respect to baseline (36% in the CA group vs. 44% in the RFA group). The recurrence rate in the CA and RFA groups was 12% and 8%, respectively. The reduction in narcotic medication requirements with respect to baseline was only significant in the group treated by CA. A significant improvement in self-rated QoL was observed in both groups. The present study seems to suggest that CA only significantly improves the rate of CR and decreases the requirement of narcotic medications. Both CA and RFA led to an improvement in the self-rated QoL of patients after the treatments. However, the results of the present study should be considered as preliminary and to serve as a framework around which future trials may be designed. PMID:26998106

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst

    Prompted by an awareness of nostalgic trends during the 1960s and 1970s in movies, television programing, fashion, interior design, and architecture, a study compared such trends in graphic design in both magazine articles and magazine advertisements. Specifically, it noted the frequency of occurrence of nostalgia in the two graphic design areas…

  9. A retrospective study of the chemical analysis cost for the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.

    1998-06-01

    A retrospective study of the remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee was completed. The study was conducted by reviewing the public Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act record documents associated with the remediation of LEFPC and through discussions with the project staff involved or familiar with the project. The remediation took place in two phases. The first phase involved the excavation of about 5,560 yd{sup 3} of soil at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) locations in 1996. The second phase involved the excavation of 39,200 yd{sup 3} at another NOAA location and at the Bruner location in 1997. For the entire project (remedial investigation through cleanup), a total of 7,708 samples (1 sample for each 5.8 yd{sup 3} of soil remediated) were analyzed for mercury. The project obtained special regulatory approval to use two methods for the determination of mercury in soils that are not part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SW-846 methods manual. The mercury analysis cost was $678,000, which represents 9.6% of the cleanup cost. During the cleanup phase of the project, an on-site laboratory was used. The estimated cost savings that the on-site laboratory provided fall into two categories: direct reduction of costs associated with chemical analysis and sample shipment totaling approximately $38,000, which represents a 5.3% savings relative to the estimated cost of using an off-site laboratory, and savings in the amount of $890,000 (12.5% of the $7.1 M cleanup cost), associated with expediting execution of the cleanup work by providing rapid (< 3 hours) sample result turnaround time. The manner in which the analytical services were procured for the LEFPC project suggest that the development of new chemical analysis technology must address deployment, performance, regulatory, robustness, reliability, and business appropriateness factors if the technology is to be

  10. Retrospective study of human cystic echinococcosis in Italy based on the analysis of hospital discharge records between 2001 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Brundu, Diego; Piseddu, Toni; Stegel, Giovanni; Masu, Gabriella; Ledda, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna

    2014-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic parasitic infection. The European Centre for Disease Control highlights that Italy lacks a surveillance system for CE. Due to the lack of official data, we analysed the Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs) drawn from the National Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to analyse data from the HDRs with CE-related diagnoses in Italy from 2001 to 2012 to assess the current status and trend of disease epidemiology. A total of 16,550 HDRs related to the admission of 10,682 Italian patients were examined. The HDRs were analysed according to the patient's region and province code to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of each case, together with the annual incidence rates of hospital cases (AIh) in administrative divisions in rural and urban areas. Lesions occurred frequently in the liver (83.6%) and lungs (8.4%). Patients ranged in age from 1 to 100 years (mean 59.8), and 57% were over 60 years old. The highest average AIh was registered in the Islands with 4.6/10(5) inhabitants (6.9/10(5) in Sardinia and 4.3/10(5) in Sicily), followed by the South with an average AIh of 1.9/10(5) inhabitants (5.4/10(5) inhabitants) and the Centre with an average AIh of 1.07/10(5) inhabitants (there was an AIh of 1.65/10(5) in Latium). The analysis for trend showed a statistically significant decrease in the AIh throughout the study period (e.g., in the Islands r(2)=0.98, p<0.001). An AIh over 2/10(5) inhabitants was observed in 31/110 provinces. Rural areas with comprehensive development problems had a relative risk of CE of 5.7 (95% CI, 5.3 to 6.9) compared to urban areas. The relative risk increased between areas where sheep breeding is widespread compared to those where it is less prevalent. This study shows a detailed picture of the geographic distribution and the epidemiological situation of CE in Italy, indicating that CE continues to be a significant public health problem in Italy. The retrospective study

  11. Clinical Analysis of Ectopic Pregnancies in a Tertiary Care Centre in Southern India: A Six-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mary; Solomon, Preethy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) is a life-threatening emergency commonly encountered by medical practitioners where diagnosis can often be missed. Any woman in the reproductive age group, presenting with lower abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding must raise the suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy to prevent mortality and morbidity. Aim To review all cases of EP and determine the incidence of EP. To study the high risk factors and know the types of clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, outcome and complications. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective cohort study, conducted at a tertiary care medical teaching hospital in Pondicherry, India. Medical records of all women with an EP between 2009 and 2015 were retrieved. Demographic data, parity, risk factors, clinical features, mode of management and need for blood transfusion was noted. Main outcome measures studied were the incidence of EP, risk factors, mortality and morbidity in these women. Statistical Analysis Data was entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analysed using SPSS software version 19.0. For categorical variables, data was compiled as frequency and percent. For continuous variables, data was calculated as mean ± SD. Results Seventy-two EP were diagnosed during the six-year period with an incidence of 9.1/1000 pregnancies. Majority of women were aged 21-30years (51.39%), 27.8% women were nulliparous. The most common risk factors were previous abortion (36.1%) and pelvic surgery (37.50%). Fifteen cases (20.8%) were diagnosed in women who had tubectomy. The classic triad of lower abdominal pain, amenorrhoea and vaginal bleeding was seen in 29(40.3%) cases. Ultrasonography was required to arrive at a diagnosis in 28(38.9%) cases. Urine pregnancy test was positive in 100% of cases. Majority (94.4%) were tubal ectopic pregnancies. Medical management with methotrexate alone benefitted 10(13.89%) of patients while another four required surgery for failed medical management. More than half

  12. Analysis of the invasive edge in primary and secondary oral squamous cell carcinoma: An independent prognostic marker: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Afreen; Bavle, Radhika M; Soumya, M; D'mello, Sarah; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Govindan, Sindhu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common head and neck carcinomas and corresponds to 95% of all oral cancers with an increasing morbidity and mortality. Its prognosis is affected by several clinicopathologic factors, one of which is pattern of invasion (POI). The histological features of OSCC may differ widely, but there is general agreement that the most useful prognostic information can be deduced from the invasive front of the tumor. In this retrospective study, our aim was to compare the POI, the status of connective tissue and the status of inflammation at the tumor–host interface in primary and recurrent (secondary) OSCC and test the validity of POI, to serve as a potential marker to assess the prognosis of the patient. Materials and Methods: Differentiation of tumors, POI, status of connective tissue and inflammation was assessed in 168 cases of primary and recurrent cases of OSCC. Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact test was used to determine the statistical significance and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Our study showed that majority of the primary and secondary tumors were well differentiated, 117 [95.9%] and 34 [73.9%], respectively. Predominant POI in the primary and secondary tumor group was Pattern II and least was Pattern V. Worst pattern in primary tumor and highest distribution was seen for Pattern III (53.3%), and least for Pattern V (0.00%). In secondary tumors, the predominant worst pattern was Pattern IV (50.0%) and least distribution was seen for Pattern I (0.00%). Connective tissue status for both primary and secondary tumors showed the predominance of loose type (85.2% and 79.2%) and least was variable type (0.8% and 0.6%), respectively. Status of inflammation in the primary tumor group showed a predominance of moderate grade of inflammation (50.0%) and very mild grade of inflammation (6.6%) was the least type. In the secondary tumor group, moderate grade

  13. 77 FR 47572 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... COMMISSION 19 CFR Chapter II Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: International Trade Commission... July 11, 2011, the Commission recently adopted its Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules... submitted in connection with the Commission's Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing...

  14. Analysis of seasonal changes in residual refraction 1-year after corneal laser refractive surgery: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Luger, Michiel H.A.; Ewering, Tobias; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the effect of seasonal changes in residual refraction 1-year after corneal refractive surgery using the SCHWIND AMARIS laser system. Methods 5740 consecutive treatments have been retrospectively reviewed. For all eyes, aspheric treatments were planned with the Custom Ablation Manager software and the ablations were performed with the SCHWIND AMARIS system (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions). Seasonal outcomes were evaluated in terms of residual refraction stratified per treatment month, as well as stratified per year season. Student's T test comparing stratified values with global ones was used for the statistical analysis. Results Treatments performed in April, June, August, September, and October showed relative undercorrections of the spherical equivalent (SE) (−0.09D), whereas treatments performed in January, February, and March showed relative overcorrections of the SE (+0.13D). Similarly, treatments performed in spring and summer showed relative undercorrections of the SE (−0.04D), whereas treatments performed in winter showed relative overcorrections of the SE (+0.10D). Conclusions Seasonal differences in refractive outcomes were observed among a large scale population. The effect of these environmental variables on refractive outcomes warrants further evaluation. PMID:25000869

  15. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  16. Retrospective qualitative analysis of ecological networks under environmental perturbation: a copper-polluted intertidal community as a case study.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Garay-Narváez, Leslie; Medina, Matías H

    2012-01-01

    The coast of Chañaral Bay in northern Chile has been affected by copper mine wastes for decades. This sustained perturbation has disrupted the intertidal community in several ways, but the mechanisms behind the observed shifts in local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Our main goal was to identify the species (lumped into trophic groups) belonging to the Chañaral intertidal community that, being directly affected by copper pollution, contributed primarily to the generation of the observed changes in community structure. These groups of species were called initiators. We applied a qualitative modelling approach based only on the sign and direction of effects among species, and present a formula for predicting changes in equilibrium abundances considering stress on multiple variables simultaneously. We then applied this technique retrospectively to identify the most likely set of initiators. Our analyses allowed identification of a unique set of four initiators in the studied intertidal system (a group of algae, sessile invertebrates, a group of herbivores and starfish), which were hypothesized to be the primary drivers of the observed changes in community structure. In addition, a hypothesis was derived about how the perturbation affected these initiators. The hypothesis is that pollution affected negatively the population growth rate of both algae and sessile invertebrates and suppressed the interaction between herbivores and starfish. Our analytic approach, focused on identifying initiators, constitutes an advance towards understanding the mechanisms underlying human-driven ecosystem disruption and permits identifying species that may serve as a focal point for community management and restoration.

  17. Comparative analysis of premature mortality among urban immigrants in Bremen, Germany: a retrospective register-based linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Nataliya; Brand, Tilman; Brünings-Kuppe, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Luttmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study was to explore differences in mortality patterns among two large immigrant groups in Germany: one from Turkey and the other from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To this end, we investigated indicators of premature mortality. Design This study was conducted as a retrospective population-based study based on mortality register linkage. Using mortality data for the period 2004–2010, we calculated age-standardised death rates (SDR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for premature deaths (study, we made use of the unique possibilities of register-based research in relation to migration and health. Analyses were performed in three population groups in the federal state of Bremen, Germany: immigrants from Turkey, those from the FSU and the general population. Results The SDRs for premature deaths of the two immigrant groups were lower compared to those of the general population. The SMRs remained under 1. Using the indicator of YPLL, we observed higher age-standardised YPLL rates among immigrant populations, particularly among males from the FSU compared to females and population groups 4238/100 000, 95% CI (4119 to 4358). Regarding main causes of premature death, we found larger contributions of infant mortality and diseases of the respiratory system among Turkish immigrants, and of injuries and poisonings, and mental and behavioural disorders among immigrants from the FSU. Conclusions While the overall trends favour the immigrant populations, the indicator of YPLL and cause-specific results indicate areas where the healthcare systems responsiveness may need to be improved, including preventive services. Further work with broader databases providing a similar level of differentiation is necessary to substantiate these findings. PMID:27000782

  18. Open Surgical versus Minimal Invasive Necrosectomy of the Pancreas—A Retrospective Multicenter Analysis of the German Pancreatitis Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Sebastian; Phillip, Veit; Reichel, Stephanie; Rau, Bettina; Zapf, Christian; Rosendahl, Jonas; Halm, Ulrich; Zachäus, Markus; Müller, Martin; Kleger, Alexander; Neesse, Albrecht; Hampe, Jochen; Ellrichmann, Mark; Rückert, Felix; Strauß, Peter; Algül, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Background Necrotising pancreatitis, and particularly infected necrosis, are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Since 2011, a step-up approach with lower morbidity rates compared to initial open necrosectomy has been established. However, mortality and complication rates of this complex treatment are hardly studied thereafter. Methods The German Pancreatitis Study Group performed a multicenter, retrospective study including 220 patients with necrotising pancreatitis requiring intervention, treated at 10 hospitals in Germany between January 2008 and June 2014. Data were analysed for the primary endpoints "severe complications" and "mortality" as well as secondary endpoints including "length of hospital stay", "follow up", and predisposing or prognostic factors. Results Of all patients 13.6% were treated primarily with surgery and 86.4% underwent a step-up approach. More men (71.8%) required intervention for necrotising pancreatitis. The most frequent etiology was biliary (41.4%) followed by alcohol (29.1%). Compared to open necrosectomy, the step-up approach was associated with a lower number of severe complications (primary composite endpoint including sepsis, persistent multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and erosion bleeding: 44.7% vs. 73.3%), lower mortality (10.5% vs. 33.3%) and lower rates of diabetes mellitus type 3c (4.7% vs. 33.3%). Low hematocrit and low blood urea nitrogen at admission as well as a history of acute pancreatitis were prognostic for less complications in necrotising pancreatitis. A combination of drainage with endoscopic necrosectomy resulted in the lowest rate of severe complications. Conclusion A step-up approach starting with minimal invasive drainage techniques and endoscopic necrosectomy results in a significant reduction of morbidity and mortality in necrotising pancreatitis compared to a primarily surgical intervention. PMID:27668746

  19. Four-year analysis of cataract surgery rates in Shanghai, China: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cataract surgery rate (CSR) is a critical index used to show that cataract blindness is being eliminated. It is considered to be tightly connected to social economic development; however, it is still extremely low in developing countries such as China. Although Shanghai is the most economically developed city in China, its CSR and the obstacles for increasing its CSR have not been previously evaluated. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. By analyzing the data in the “Shanghai Cataract Operations Database” from 2006 to 2009, the CSR in Shanghai was calculated. The numbers of cataract surgeries between urban and suburban districts as well as among various medical institutions were compared. Results The CSR in Shanghai increased from 1741 in 2006 to 2210 in 2009, reflecting a 26.94% improvement. Phacoemulsification was the most frequent surgical choice for cataract removal, accounting for 94.93% of total cataract surgeries by 2009. In addition, by 2009, the CSR in urban districts had reached 5468, but only 532 in the suburbs. During 2009, cataract surgery records in 68 district hospitals, 23 medical centers, and 6 private hospitals comprised 32.05%, 52.33%, and 15.62%, respectively, of the total. There was a nearly 3.3-fold increase in the number of surgeries performed in private hospitals in the past four years. Furthermore, the average number of cataract surgeries per doctor that took place in private hospitals per year reached 207, which exceeded the average of 145 that took place in medical centers. Conclusions Until 2009, the CSR in Shanghai remained below the rates of social development and fell short of targets suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, increasing the CSR in the suburbs as well as in district hospitals is an important issue that needs to be addressed. PMID:24410915

  20. Clinical outcomes of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Latin America: analysis from the LATINA retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Angriman, Federico; Belloso, Waldo H; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismerio; Kovalevski, Leandro O; Orellana, Liliana C; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; La Rosa, Alberto; Losso, Marcelo H

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 2 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Latin America. However, information regarding population-scale outcomes from a regional perspective is scarce. We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of newly-treated individuals with HIV infection in Latin America. A Retrospective cohort study was undertaken. The primary explanatory variable was combination antiretroviral therapy based on either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The main outcome was defined as the composite of all-cause mortality and the occurrence of an AIDS-defining clinical event or a serious non-AIDS-defining event during the first year of therapy. The secondary outcomes included the time to a change in treatment strategy. All analyses were performed according to the intention to treat principle. A total of 937 treatment-naive patients from four participating countries were included (228 patients with PI therapy and 709 with NNRTI-based treatment). At the time of treatment initiation, the patients had a mean age of 37 (SD: 10) years and a median CD4 + T-cell count of 133 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range: 47.5-216.0). Patients receiving PI-based regimens had a significantly lower CD4 + count, a higher AIDS prevalence at baseline and a shorter time from HIV diagnosis until the initiation of treatment. There was no difference in the hazard ratio for the primary outcome between groups. The only covariates associated with the latter were CD4 + cell count at baseline, study site and age. The estimated hazard ratio for the time to a change in treatment (NNRTI vs PI) was 0.61 (95% CI 0.47-0.80, p < 0.01). This study concluded that patients living with HIV in Latin America present with similar clinical outcomes regardless of the choice of initial therapy. Patients treated with PIs are more likely to require a treatment change during the first year of follow up.

  1. Analysis of In-hospital Neonatal Death in the Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in China: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Hong; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Hong; Ding, Guo-Fang; Yi, Bin; Pan, Xin-Nian; Zhong, Dan-Ni; Liu, Ling; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Xia, Shi-Wen; Wang, Hong-Yun; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Shan, Ruo-Bing; Mu, De-Zhi; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Guo, Jing; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Globally, the proportion of child deaths that occur in the neonatal period remains a high level of 37–41%. Differences of cause in neonate death exist in different regions as well as in different economic development countries. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the causes, characteristics, and differences of death in neonates during hospitalization in the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of China. Methods: All the dead neonates admitted to 26 NICUs were included between January l, 2011, and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a designed questionnaire. Data collected from each NICU were delivered to the leading institution where the results were analyzed. Results: A total of 744 newborns died during the 1-year survey, accounting for 1.2% of all the neonates admitted to 26 NICUs and 37.6% of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age in these hospitals. Preterm neonate death accounted for 59.3% of all the death. The leading causes of death in preterm and term infants were pulmonary disease and infection, respectively. In early neonate period, pulmonary diseases (56.5%) occupied the largest proportion of preterm deaths while infection (27%) and neurologic diseases (22%) were the two main causes of term deaths. In late neonate period, infection was the leading cause of both preterm and term neonate deaths. About two-thirds of neonate death occurred after medical care withdrawal. Of the cases who might survive if receiving continuing treatment, parents’ concern about the long-term outcomes was the main reason of medical care withdrawal. Conclusions: Neonate death still accounts for a high proportion of all the deaths in children under 5 years of age. Our study showed the majority of neonate death occurred in preterm infants. Cause of death varied with the age of death and gestational age. Accurate and prompt evaluation of the long-term outcomes should be carried out to

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Women with Only Mastalgia

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Mehmet; Küçükerdem, Halime Seda; Can, Hüseyin; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mastalgia is the most common symptom in women, who has gone under breast imaging. 70% of women face with mastalgia at least once in their lifetime. In our study, we aimed to investigate the examinations and the results of the females referred to our outpatient clinics with mastalgia and to determine the frequency of malignancy. Materials and Methods Files of all women patients referred to General Surgery Outpatient Clinics between 01.06.2014–31.05.2015 has been investigated retrospectively. Cases only with breast pain complaint (n=789) out of 2798 women has been included in the study. Women with lump in breast, nipple discharge, redness, breast retraction and pregnant and lactating women were excluded. Breast examination findings, ultrasonography (USG), mammography results, whether biopsies are done or not and diagnoses have been investigated retrospectively. Results Mean age was 42.97±12.36 (16–74) years. 59.7% (n=471) of the women had bilateral mastalgia and 91.1% (n=719) of the breast examinations were found to be normal. USG was required from 664 (84.2%) women and mammography was required from 448 (56.8%) women. Considering diagnoses; fibrocystic changes in 32.3% (n=201), ductal ectasia in 8.8% (n=55), fibroadenomas in 6.1% (n=38), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in 1.1% (n=7) was observed. Only 1 (0.2%) woman was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion According to researches, 0.5% of the women with mastalgia were diagnosed with breast cancer. In our study this rate was found as 0.2%. Women with only mastalgia without any abnormality in physical examination should be informed about dealing with pain. PMID:28331753

  3. Retrospective analysis of seven breast tuberculosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Çakar, Beyhan; Çiledağ, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the demographic data, diagnostic methods, therapeutic regimens and duration of therapy in 7 breast tuberculosis (BTB) cases. The data of BTB cases treated between January 2006 and December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated, with a total of 648 tuberculosis (TB) cases recorded during the 8-year period. Among these cases, 296 patients (50%) suffered from pulmonary TB, 278 (43%) from non-pulmonary TB and 45 (7%) from PTB plus NPTB. In total, 7 BTB were diagnosed, which constituted 1.08% (7/648) of all TB cases and 2.51% (7/278) of all NPTB cases. The mean age of patients was 34±9.46 years, with no pregnant or lactating women. Bilateral breast involvement was detected in only 1 case, while all cases had a BCG scar, and obtained a mean tuberculin skin test (TST) result of 14.28±6.79 mm (range, 7–26 mm). The symptoms included presence of a mass, tenderness, pain, swelling and fluctuation in the breast, with or without discharging sinuses. In 1 case, history of contact with TB was found. All patients were newly-diagnosed BTB cases, with no other organ involvement. Upon histopathological examination of breast tissue, granulomatous inflammation with typical caseous necrosis was observed in 1 case, non-caseous necrosis inflammation was detected in 2 cases, granulomatous inflammation was observed in 3 cases, and mastitis and fat necrosis inflammation was observed in 1 case. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining was positive in only 2 cases, and all patient were treated with anti-TB drugs with a successful outcome and no recurrence. In conclusion, BTB is a rare form of TB and the present retrospective study reported 7 cases of BTB along with the results of histopathological examination, microbiological examination and treatment. TB must be considered when there is presence of breast masses presenting with tenderness, pain, swelling and fluctuation, with or without discharging sinuses. PMID:27882115

  4. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  5. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels Before and After 70-Day Bed Rest: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Impairments include decreased near visual acuity, posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, optic disc edema and cotton wool spots. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal blood vessels that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated by NASAs innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software for two studies: (1) head-down tilt in human subjects before and after 70 days of bed rest, and (2) U.S. crew members before and after ISS missions. VESGEN analysis in previous research supported by the US National Institutes of Health identified surprising new opportunities to regenerate retinal vessels during early-stage, potentially reversible progression of the visually impairing and blinding disease, diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Paroxysmal hemicrania: a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 22 patients and a critical analysis of the diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) is a probably underreported primary headache disorder. It is characterized by repeated attacks of severe, strictly unilateral pain lasting 2 to 30 minutes localized to orbital, supraorbital, and temporal areas accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic features. The hallmark of PH is the absolute cessation of the headache with indomethacin. However, these all features may not be present in all cases and a few cases may remain unclassified according to the 2nd Edition of The International classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) criteria for PH. Methods Twenty-two patients were included in this retrospective observation. Results We describe 17 patients, observed over six years, who fulfilled the ICHD-II criteria for PH. In parallel, we identified five more patients in whom one of the features of the diagnostic criteria for PH was missing. Two patients did not show any evidence of cranial autonomic feature during the attacks of headache. Another two patients did not fulfill the criteria for PH as the maximum attack frequency was less than five. One patient had an incomplete response to indomethacin. Conclusion A subset of patients may not have all the defined features of PH and there is a need for refinement of the existing diagnostic criteria. PMID:23566235

  7. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of a Large Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis Outbreak in London: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Casali, Nicola; Broda, Agnieszka; Harris, Simon R.; Brown, Timothy; Drobniewski, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Background A large isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis outbreak centred on London, United Kingdom, has been ongoing since 1995. The aim of this study was to investigate the power and value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to resolve the transmission network compared to current molecular strain typing approaches, including analysis of intra-host diversity within a specimen, across body sites, and over time, with identification of genetic factors underlying the epidemiological success of this cluster. Methods and Findings We sequenced 344 outbreak isolates from individual patients collected over 14 y (2 February 1998–22 June 2012). This demonstrated that 96 (27.9%) were indistinguishable, and only one differed from this major clone by more than five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The maximum number of SNPs between any pair of isolates was nine SNPs, and the modal distance between isolates was two SNPs. WGS was able to reveal the direction of transmission of tuberculosis in 16 cases within the outbreak (4.7%), including within a multidrug-resistant cluster that carried a rare rpoB mutation associated with rifampicin resistance. Eleven longitudinal pairs of patient pulmonary isolates collected up to 48 mo apart differed from each other by between zero and four SNPs. Extrapulmonary dissemination resulted in acquisition of a SNP in two of five cases. WGS analysis of 27 individual colonies cultured from a single patient specimen revealed ten loci differed amongst them, with a maximum distance between any pair of six SNPs. A limitation of this study, as in previous studies, is that indels and SNPs in repetitive regions were not assessed due to the difficulty in reliably determining this variation. Conclusions Our study suggests that (1) certain paradigms need to be revised, such as the 12 SNP distance as the gold standard upper threshold to identify plausible transmissions; (2) WGS technology is helpful to rule out the possibility of direct transmission when

  8. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  9. Diabetes and burns: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Beth; Wasif, Nabil; Rabbitts, Angela; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Yurt, Roger W; Schwartz, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Burn injuries are often associated with multisystemic complications, even in otherwise healthy individuals. It is therefore intuitive that for the diabetic patient, the underlying pathophysiologic alterations in vascular supply, peripheral neuropathy, and immune function could have a profoundly devastating impact on patient outcome. The effects of diabetes on morbidity and mortality of the burn-injured patient have not been examined in great detail. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients. We reviewed the charts of 181 diabetic (DM) and 190 nondiabetic (nDM) patients admitted with burns between January 1996 and May 2000, matched by sex and date of admission. Burn cause and size, time to presentation, clinical course, and outcomes were evaluated. Because age was a factor, the analysis was done by three age groups: younger than 18 years, 18 to 65 years, and older than 65 years. Of patients 18 to 65 years, 51% (98/191) were diabetic, whereas 84% (81/96) of those older than 65 and only 4% (3/85) of patients younger than 18 were diabetic. Because of the disproportion in numbers of diabetics compared with nondiabetics in the younger than 18 and older than 65 years-old groups, these patients will not be discussed. Diabetics were more likely to incur scald injury from tub or shower water rather than hot fluid spills (33% DM vs 15% nDM; P < or = 0.01), and have a delayed presentation (45 vs 23%; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in total burn size in all groups. Diabetics in the 18 to 65 years group had a higher rate of full-thickness burns (51 vs 31%; P = 0.025), skin grafts (50 vs 28%; P = 0.01) and burn-related procedures (57 vs 32%; P = 0.001), infections (65 vs 51%; P = 0.05), and longer lengths of stay (23 vs 12 days; P = 0.0001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in incidence of specific infections, the rates of cellulitis, wound infection, urinary tract

  10. Retrospective analysis of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics (SES) in 70 patients with suspected central nervous system infections: A single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Rama Krishnan Tiruppur Chinnappan; Chakraborty, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infections present a grave health care challenge due to high morbidity and mortality. Clinical findings and conventional laboratory assessments are not sufficiently distinct for specific etiologic diagnosis. Identification of pathogens is a key to appropriate therapy. Aim: In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical utility of syndrome evaluation system (SES) for diagnosing clinically suspected CNS infections. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis included inpatients in our tertiary level neurointensive care unit (NICU) and ward from February 2010 to December 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 70 patients, clinically suspected of having CNS infections, were subjected to routine laboratory tests, culture, imaging, and SES. We analyzed the efficacy of SES in the diagnosis of CNS infections and its utility in therapeutic decision-making. Results: SES had a clinical sensitivity of 57.4% and clinical specificity of 95.6%. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the top two bacterial pathogens, whereas Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was the most common viral pathogen. Polymicrobial infections were detected in 32.14% of SES-positive cases. SES elicited a change in the management in 30% of the patients from initial empiric therapy. At discharge, 51 patients recovered fully while 11 patients had partial recovery. Three-month follow-up showed only six patients to have neurological deficits. Conclusion: In a tertiary care center, etiological microbial diagnosis is central to appropriate therapy and outcomes. Sensitive and accurate multiplex molecular diagnostics play a critical role in not only identifying the causative pathogen but also in helping clinicians to institute appropriate therapy, reduce overuse of antimicrobials, and ensure superior clinical outcomes. PMID:27994358

  11. A prospective transmission electron microscopic study of muscle status in oral submucous fibrosis along with retrospective analysis of 80 cases of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sumathi, MK; Balaji, Narayanan; Malathi, Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The present study is undertaken to study the ultra structural features of muscle tissue in moderate and advanced stages of oral submucous fibrosis along with retrospective analysis of 80 cases of oral submucous fibrosis ( osmf) 0 during the period of year 2002 to 2005. Materials and Methods: Five patients with moderate and advanced stages of osmf0 were screened from outpatients department of oral diagnosis, sri Ramachandra dental college and hospital. After a detailed case history, they were subjected to incisional biopsy from an area of buccal mucosa with maximum palpable fibrotic bands.the specimens were cut into two halves, one half was fixed in 10% formalin for routine processing. Second half was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic examination. Results: Prospective study of muscle fibres from moderate and advanced stages of osmf0 revealed varying changes in high proportion of muscle fibres which includes, irregularity of surface of fibre,sarcolemmal foldings, reduplicated basement membrane, loss and alterations in the myofilaments, hypercontraction of myofibrils, Z line abnormalities, internal nucleus, autophagic vacuoles. These features are suggestive of muscle atrophy and necrosis. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the ultra structural features In moderate and advanced stages of osmf0 were best studied. These muscle changes can be manifestation of disease, atrophy being secondary to the limited functional activity of the muscles which is brought about by fibrosis or it could be essential part of the disease process itself. PMID:23248458

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of the retained products of conception after missed abortion following blastocyst transfer: a retrospective, large-scale, single-centre study.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Tomoya; Kuroda, Tomoko; Kato, Keiichi; Kuroda, Masako; Omi, Kenji; Miyauchi, Osamu; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisao; Teramoto, Shokichi

    2017-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the retained products of conception (POC) is the most effective test for identifying miscarriage causes. However, there has been no large-scale study limited to blastocyst transfer. This study retrospectively reports the findings of 1030 cases in which POC analysis was performed after missed abortion following single blastocyst transfer performed at the Shinbashi Yume Clinic. We identified 19.4% as normal karyotypes and 80.6% as aneuploid. These cases broke down into: 62.3% trisomy; 7.8% double trisomy; 0.5% triple or quadruple trisomy; 1.3% monosomy 21; 3.2% monosomy X; 0.1% 47,XXY; 1.0% polyploidy; 1.0% mixed; 1.1% embryonic mosaicism; and 2.4% structural anomalies. In samples with normal karyotypes, 49.5% were female while 50.5% were male. The occurrence of trisomy and double trisomy were both significantly more frequent in the ≥38 years group than in the ≤37 years group (P < 0.01). Trisomy was significantly more frequently associated with fetal heartbeat (P < 0.01); double trisomy, polyploidy and normal karyotype were significantly more frequent with no fetal heartbeat (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities between the number of miscarriages or blastocyst quality. Thus, POC cytogenetic testing is highly valuable for ascertaining the cause of miscarriage.

  13. Designing validation studies more efficiently according to the modular approach: retrospective analysis of the EPISKIN test for skin corrosion.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    It is claimed that the modular approach to validation, which involves seven independent modules, will make the assessment of test validity more flexible and more efficient. In particular, the aspects of between-laboratory variability and predictive capacity are formally separated. Here, the main advantage of the approach is to offer the opportunity for reduced labour, and thus to allow study designs to be more time efficient and cost effective. The impact of this separation was analysed by taking the ECVAM validation study on in vitro methods for skin corrosivity as an example of a successful validation study - two of its methods triggered new OECD test guidelines. Lean study designs, which reduced the number of tests required by up to 60%, were simulated with the original validation data for the EPISKIN model. By using resampling techniques, we were able to demonstrate the effects of the lean designs on three between-laboratory variability measures and on the predictive capacity in terms of sensitivity and specificity, in comparison with the original study. Overall, the study results, especially the levels of confidence, were only slightly affected by the lean designs that were modelled. It is concluded that the separation of the two modules is a promising way to speed-up prospective validation studies and to substantially reduce costs, without compromising study quality.

  14. Use of fuzzy edge single-photon emission computed tomography analysis in definite Alzheimer's disease - a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires neuropathological confirmation. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may enhance diagnostic accuracy, but due to restricted sensitivity and specificity, the role of SPECT is largely limited with regard to this purpose. Methods We propose a new method of SPECT data analysis. The method is based on a combination of parietal lobe selection (as regions-of-interest (ROI)), 3D fuzzy edge detection, and 3D watershed transformation. We applied the algorithm to three-dimensional SPECT images of human brains and compared the number of watershed regions inside the ROI between AD patients and controls. The Student's two-sample t-test was used for testing domain number equity in both groups. Results AD patients had a significantly reduced number of watershed regions compared to controls (p < 0.01). A sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 80% was obtained with a threshold value of 57.11 for the watershed domain number. The narrowing of the SPECT analysis to parietal regions leads to a substantial increase in both sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our non-invasive, relatively low-cost, and easy method can contribute to a more precise diagnosis of AD. PMID:20809946

  15. Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuchong; Gao, Peng; Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Shi, Jinxin; Zhao, Junhua; Sun, Jingxu; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-09-06

    The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were "41-45-58" (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (-325.76 vs. -310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses.

  16. Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Shi, Jinxin; Zhao, Junhua; Sun, Jingxu; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were “41-45-58” (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (−325.76 vs. −310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses. PMID:27344182

  17. The Cost of Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Greece: A Retrospective Analysis of 10-Year Patient Level Data "The HERCULES Study".

    PubMed

    Migdalis, Ilias; Rombopoulos, Grigorios; Hatzikou, Magdalini; Manes, Christos; Kypraios, Nikolaos; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to estimate the mean annual cost of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) including complications and comorbidities in Greece. Design. A noninterventional retrospective study was based on patient level data analysis (bottom-up approach) from medical records, with at least 10-year-follow-up data. Results. The total annual cost per patient for managing diabetes in Greece was estimated at € 7,111 and was, statistically significantly, higher for patients with inadequate glycemic control (Hba1c > 7%) versus patients with adequate control (Hba1c = 7%) (€ 7,783 versus € 6,366, resp.; P = 0.017). This was mainly attributed to difference in CV hospitalizations between groups 14/111 versus 4/100, respectively, OR = 3.46 (95% CI: 1.10-10.9) for inadequately controlled patients. The largest component of cost was management of comorbidities, accounting for 48% of costs, and pharmaceutical treatment at 35.9% while only 14.9% was attributed to diabetes treatment per se. Obese men and patients with poor education are the groups with higher treatment costs. Conclusions. This is the first study to capture all cost components and the real burden of diabetes in Greece. Comorbidities were found to account for almost half of total cost, significantly higher in nonoptimally controlled diabetes patients.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of palatal rugae patterns in Gujarati population: A retrospective, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jayasankar; Banker, Alka; Bhattacharya, Amit; Gandhi, Radha; Patel, Nupur; Parikh, Sarthak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as “Rugoscopy” or “Palatoscopy”, and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative parameters of palatal rugae using pre-orthodontic study models of Gujarati samples. Objectives: (1) To identify the predominant palatal arch forms in the study samples. (2) To evaluate and correlate the rugae count in both male and female samples with the different palatal arch forms. (3) To assess the symmetry and/or asymmetry in rugae count between the right and left side. (4) To analyze and correlate the qualitative characters such as size, shape, direction, and unification in male and female study samples. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-orthodontic maxillary dental stone casts of patients with an age range of 17–25 years were selected. The outlines of the rugae were traced using microtip graphite pencil and examined using magnifying glass for different patterns. The quantity and quality of rugae patterns were recorded according to Thomas et al. classification and the data were statistically analyzed by the statistician using SPSS program. Results: Overall, 962 rugae were observed in the study sample. The mean rugae count was 9.86 in males and 9.38 in females. The left side rugae count was more than the right side in both the sexes and it was not statistically significant. Fifty-six percent of the samples showed asymmetry in rugae

  19. Exploratory Analysis of TP53 Mutations in Circulating Tumour DNA as Biomarkers of Treatment Response for Patients with Relapsed High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Piskorz, Anna M.; Biggs, Heather; Addley, Helen; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penelope; Sala, Evis; Sayal, Karen; Hosking, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Earl, Helena M.; Rosenfeld, Nitzan; Brenton, James D.

    2016-01-01

    chemotherapy was seen earlier with ctDNA, with a median time to nadir of 37 d (IQR 28–54) compared with a median time to nadir of 84 d (IQR 42–116) for CA-125. In 32 relapsed treatment courses evaluable for response after one cycle of chemotherapy, a decrease in TP53MAF of >60% was an independent predictor of TTP in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.07–0.67, p = 0.008). Conversely, a decrease in TP53MAF of ≤60% was associated with poor response and identified cases with TTP < 6 mo with 71% sensitivity (95% CI 42%–92%) and 88% specificity (95% CI 64%–99%). Specificity was improved when patients with recent drainage of ascites were excluded. Ascites drainage led to a reduction of TP53MAF concentration. The limitations of this study include retrospective design, small sample size, and heterogeneity of treatment within the cohort. Conclusions In this retrospective study, we demonstrated that ctDNA is correlated with volume of disease at the start of treatment in women with HGSOC and that a decrease of ≤60% in TP53MAF after one cycle of chemotherapy was associated with shorter TTP. These results provide evidence that ctDNA has the potential to be a highly specific early molecular response marker in HGSOC and warrants further investigation in larger cohorts receiving uniform treatment. PMID:27997533

  20. Wandering spleen in children: multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fiquet-Francois, Caroline; Belouadah, Mohamed; Ludot, Hugues; Defauw, Benoit; Mcheik, Jiad Noel; Bonnet, Jean Paul; Kanmegne, Charly Udozen; Weil, Dominique; Coupry, Lionel; Fremont, Benjamin; Becmeur, Francois; Lacreuse, Isabelle; Montupet, Philippe; Rahal, Eliane; Botto, Nathalie; Cheikhelard, Alaa; Sarnacki, Sabine; Petit, Thierry; Poli Merol, Marie Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Wandering spleen in children is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult, and any delay can cause splenic ischemia. An epidemiologic, semiological, and surgical diagnosis questionnaire on incidence of wandering spleen in children was sent to several French surgical teams. We report the results of this multicenter retrospective study. Fourteen cases (6 girls, 8 boys) were reported between 1984 and 2009; the age range varies between 1-day-old and 15 years; 86% were seen in the emergency department. Ninety-three percent had diffuse abdominal pain. For 57% of the cases, it was their first symptomatic episode of this type. No diagnosis was established based on the clinical results alone. All patients had presurgical imaging diagnosis. Open surgery was performed on 64% cases. Forty-three had splenectomy for splenic ischemia. Thirty-six percent had splenopexy, 14% had laparoscopic gastropexy, and 7% had spleen repositioning and regeneration. Complications were noted in 60% of the cases resulting in postsplenopexy splenic ischemia. Early diagnosis and surgery are the best guarantee for spleen preservation. Even if the choice of one technique, splenopexy or gastropexy, can be argued, gastropexy has the advantage of avoiding splenic manipulation and restoring proper physiologic anatomy. When there is no history of abdominal surgery, laparoscopy surgery seems the best procedure.

  1. Raton Basin, Colorado Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in the Raton Basin of Colorado to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred.

  2. A long-term evaluation of treated Class II division 2 malocclusions: a retrospective study model analysis.

    PubMed

    Canut, J A; Arias, S

    1999-08-01

    Pre-treatment, end of treatment, and post-retention study models of 30 subjects with a Class II division 2 malocclusion were assessed, after a period of at least 3 years, in order to evaluate the long-term changes in occlusion, alignment, and arch dimensions. Molar relationship correction was found to be stable after retention. There were no variables which could be used to establish a prognosis of vertical stability. Over-correction of overbite was seen to relapse. Ten per cent of the cases showed unacceptable anterior maxillary irregularities after retention. Mandibular arch width and length usually showed a decrease after retention. An increase in lower intercanine width and arch length achieved by orthodontic treatment always relapsed. This relapse was associated with post-retention mandibular irregularity and crowding. Nine cases (30 per cent) showed an unacceptable degree of mandibular irregularity after retention. Pre-treatment crowding in the mandible showed a relationship with post-retention lower irregularity and crowding. There was a correlation between the number of years which had elapsed after retention, overbite relapse and post-retention mandibular irregularity.

  3. A retrospective study on hypothyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Kelly, D; Morrison, E Y

    1991-03-01

    A retrospective study of 58 hypothyroid patients attending the Endocrine Clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, between July and August 1989, was undertaken. The age range at initial presentation varied from one month to eighty-four years. The majority of cases (51 or 87.9%) were between 21 and 70 years. There were 50 females (86.2%) and 8 males (13.8%). The underlying causes were idiopathic hypothyroidism (35 or 60.3%), posthyroidectomy (13 or 22.4%), post I131 therapy (6 or 10.4%), panhypopituitarism (3 or 5.2%), hypophysectomy (1 or 1.7%). Biochemical parameters used in diagnosis were serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Forty-six patients (79.2%) had elevated TSH, indicative of a high correlation of elevated TSH with hypothyroidism. Duration of symptomatology prior to diagnosis was one year in 27 patients (46.5%), 2-10 years in 23 (39.6%) and 10 years in 4 cases (6.9%). The major presenting signs and symptoms were lethargy (20 or 34.5%), anaemia (mixed normochromic, microcytic (16 or 27.6%), slow relaxation of tendon reflexes (16 or 27.6%), coarsening of skin (15 or 25.9%), weight gain 10 or 17.2%), hoarseness (9 or 15.5%) and psychiatric symptoms (7 or 12%). The known association of primary hypothyroidism with other autoimmune disorders was not borne out in this study. The time-lapse in diagnosis from symptomatology emphasized the need for clinicians to be more alert to the subtle and varied presentation of hypothyroidism.

  4. Retrospective Analysis Of CO2 Laser Myringotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, Sidney P.; Guelcher, Robert T.

    1988-06-01

    A retrospective review of the author's series of 91 carbon dioxide (CO2) laser myringotomy cases performed between 1983 and 1986 is presented. Patients with chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) were selected on the basis of possible benefit from shorter ventilation time than tympanostomy tube insertion. The proceedings were performed on an outpatient basis with topical iontophoretic anesthesia, which offers significant cost savings and a lack of possible complications. The CO2 laser gives clean precise 0.8mm perforations which remain open for 2-4 weeks, this shorter ventilation time minimizing the period of water precautions and other side effects. The laser perforations heal well. With a success rate of 52 % reported, which could be increased with careful patient selection, we feel that the advantages of carbon dioxide laser myringotomy over myringotomy plus intubation outweight the risk of recurrent otitis media with effusion formation in those patients to whom this procedure is applicable.

  5. Understanding repeated non-attendance in health services: a pilot analysis of administrative data and full study protocol for a national retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Andrea E; Ellis, David A; Wilson, Philip; McQueenie, Ross; McConnachie, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the causes of low engagement in healthcare is a pre-requisite for improving health services’ contribution to tackling health inequalities. Low engagement includes missing healthcare appointments. Serially (having a pattern of) missing general practice (GP) appointments may provide a risk marker for vulnerability and poorer health outcomes. Methods and analysis A proof of concept pilot using GP appointment data and a focus group with GPs informed the development of missed appointment categories: patients can be classified based on the number of appointments missed each year. The full study, using a retrospective cohort design, will link routine health service and education data to determine the relationship between GP appointment attendance, health outcomes, healthcare usage, preventive health activity and social circumstances taking a life course approach and using data from the whole journey in the National Health Service (NHS) healthcare. 172 practices will be recruited (∼900 000 patients) across Scotland. The statistical analysis will focus on 2 key areas: factors that predict patients who serially miss appointments, and serial missed appointments as a predictor of future patient outcomes. Regression models will help understand how missed appointment patterns are associated with patient and practice characteristics. We shall identify key factors associated with serial missed appointments and potential interactions that might predict them. Ethics and dissemination The results of the project will inform debates concerning how best to reduce non-attendance and increase patient engagement within healthcare systems. Significant non-academic beneficiaries include governments, policymakers and medical practitioners. Results will be disseminated via a combination of academic outputs (papers, conferences), social media and through collaborative public health/policy fora. PMID:28196951

  6. Analysis of Prevalence and Clinical Features of Ameloblastoma and its Histopathological Subtypes in Southeast Myanmar and Lower Northern Thailand Populations: A 13-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of ameloblastomas has been established worldwide but collective data of ameloblastoma in Southeast Asian countries has not been well analyzed. Aim Aim of this study was to report analysis and comparison of the prevalence and demographic data of clinical features of ameloblastoma and its histopathological variants in Southeast Myanmar and lower Northern Thailand populations. Materials and Methods A retrospective study on ameloblastoma was performed based on the availability of oral biopsy specimens in Faculty of Dentistry, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, between January 2002 and August 2015. The collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses with the SPSS version 17.0 statistical software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Pearson’s chi square (χ2) test and t-test were employed. The critical level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results Total of 616 cases were reviewed, 30 cases (5%) were diagnosed as ameloblastoma with male:female ratio of 1.14:1. The mean age of the patients was 31.3±15.6 years. The predominance anatomical distribution was observed in the mandible (86.7%). Posterior body-ramus-angle region was the most common site. Almost all cases were asyptomatic and most common clinical manifestation was swelling of affected region. Multilocular radiolucency was observed in 70% of cases, whereas 30% were unilocular. Three subtypes of ameloblastomas were diagnosed: unicystic ameloblastoma (20%), conventional solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (70%), and desmoplastic ameloblastoma (10%). The most common histologic pattern was the plexiform type (57.2%) followed by follicular type (23.8%). Conclusion Prevalence of ameloblastoma in Southeast Myanmar and lower Northern Thailand populations correspond with data from other geographic areas of Thailand and other Asian countries. However, some demographic and histopathological profiles are different, with plexiform ameloblastoma being the most common subtype in

  7. Enhancing risk stratification for use in integrated care: a cluster analysis of high-risk patients in a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vuik, Sabine I; Mayer, Erik; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To show how segmentation can enhance risk stratification tools for integrated care, by providing insight into different care usage patterns within the high-risk population. Design A retrospective cohort study. A risk score was calculated for each person using a logistic regression, which was then used to select the top 5% high-risk individuals. This population was segmented based on the usage of different care settings using a k-means cluster analysis. Data from 2008 to 2011 were used to create the risk score and segments, while 2012 data were used to understand the predictive abilities of the models. Setting and participants Data were collected from administrative data sets covering primary and secondary care for a random sample of 300 000 English patients. Main measures The high-risk population was segmented based on their usage of 4 different care settings: emergency acute care, elective acute care, outpatient care and GP care. Results While the risk strata predicted care usage at a high level, within the high-risk population, usage varied significantly. 4 different groups of high-risk patients could be identified. These 4 segments had distinct usage patterns across care settings, reflecting different levels and types of care needs. The 2008–2011 usage patterns of the 4 segments were consistent with the 2012 patterns. Discussion Cluster analyses revealed that the high-risk population is not homogeneous, as there exist 4 groups of patients with different needs across the care continuum. Since the patterns were predictive of future care use, they can be used to develop integrated care programmes tailored to these different groups. Conclusions Usage-based segmentation augments risk stratification by identifying patient groups with different care needs, around which integrated care programmes can be designed. PMID:27993905

  8. Longitudinal Assessment of Morbidity and Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Retrospective Analysis of a Multicenter Phase III Study

    PubMed Central

    Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Leisenring, Wendy; Martin, Paul J.; Furlong, Terry; Schoch, Gary; Anasetti, Claudio; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Storb, Rainer; McDonald, George B.; Nash, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Since morbidity early after HCT results in large part from the development of acute GVHD, we previously proposed that a longitudinal assessment of morbidity involving the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal tract might provide a more complete, objective approach for comparing two arms of open-label randomized clinical trials for acute GVHD prevention. In the current study, we determined both morbidity-across-time and GVHD-across-time in a retrospective analysis of a database from an open-label randomized clinical trial comparing tacrolimus/methotrexate versus cyclosporine/methotrexate after myeloablative conditioning and marrow transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors. The results confirmed differences in overall morbidity across time among patients with peak grades II-IV GVHD as compared to those with grades 0-I GVHD, but no significant differences were found between morbidity associated with grade II GVHD as compared to grades 0-I GVHD. We observed less skin and a trend towards less liver morbidity across time in the tacrolimus group (p=0.04; p= 0.09, respectively) but not for gastrointestinal or overall morbidity, despite significantly decreased skin and liver stages and overall grades of GVHD-across-time in the tacrolimus arm. In conclusion, an objective assessment of differences in morbidity (regardless of cause) as a measure of acute GVHD in a randomized clinical tria of acute GVHD prevention had limited utility. The difficulty of demonstrating clinical benefits from objective parameters such as survival and morbidity and the subjectivity of grading acute GVHD emphasize that blinded assessments are required in clinical trials of GVHD prevention. PMID:19450760

  9. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugurluer, Gamze; Miller, Robert C.; Li, Yexiong; Thariat, Juliette; Ghadjar, Pirus; Schick, Ulrike; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare malignancy. We aimed to assess the clinical profile, outcome and prognostic factors in PHL through the Rare Cancer Network (RCN). A retrospective analysis of 41 patients was performed. Median age was 62 years (range, 23-86 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1.0. Abdominal pain or discomfort was the most common presenting symptom. Regarding B-symptoms, 19.5% of patients had fever, 17.1% weight loss, and 9.8% night sweats. The most common radiological presentation was multiple lesions. Liver function tests were elevated in 56.1% of patients. The most common histopathological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (65.9%). Most of the patients received Chop-like (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimens; 4 patients received radiotherapy (dose range, 30.6-40.0 Gy). Median survival was 163 months, and 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year disease-free and lymphoma-specific survival rates were 69, 56, 87 and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fever, weight loss, and normal hemoglobin level were the independent factors influencing the outcome. In this retrospective multicenter RCN study, patients with PHL had a relatively better prognosis than that reported elsewhere. Multicenter prospective studies are still warranted to establish treatment guidelines, outcome, and prognostic factors. PMID:27746888

  10. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity.

  11. Brazilian nursing and professionalization at technical level: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Alves, Elioenai Dornelles; de Sena, Roseni Rosangela

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective analysis of the Brazilian Nursing concerning the professionalization of workers at technical level. It also provides some indication about the trends of professional education. There is a clear indication of increased intellectual and conceptual accumulation in the four decades the professional education in nursing at technical level has been part of the public policy agenda. This experience serves as reference for the formulation of new actions directed to other professionals of technical level who deliver direct care to the population. The study shows that there was reformulation of the nursing professional qualification issue, including in the discussion the need to improve the quality of educational processes and extensive supply of continuous education to workers already inserted in the process, in order to keep the constant changes in the Brazilian Health system.

  12. [Fauna attacks in French Guiana: retrospective 4-year analysis].

    PubMed

    Mimeau, E; Chesneau, P

    2006-02-01

    The rich, diversified fauna of French Guiana has an infamous reputation for its aggressiveness. A retrospective analysis of the records the SAMU emergency service in Guiana showed that less than 1% of phone calls received between 1998 and 2001 involved fauna attacks. Most of these calls involved flying hymenoptera (36.9%), snakes (15.6 %), dogs (13.8%), and scorpions (9.8%). In 69 of 666 cases, the attack was severe enough to warrant dispatching a SMUR intensive mobile care unit. These cases involved poisonous snake bites (n=35), flying hymenoptera stings (n=24) and scorpion stings (n=5). Although this study presents numerous confounding factors, its findings indicate that the risk of fauna attacks in French Guiana may be overestimated.

  13. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSION Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them. PMID:28101450

  14. Trazodone and alcohol relapse: a retrospective study following residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Schneekloth, Terry D; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A; Mansukhani, Meghna P; Hall-Flavin, Daniel K; Karpyak, Victor M; Loukianova, Larissa L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Mrazek, David

    2011-01-01

    Trazodone is one of the most commonly prescribed hypnotic medications in patients with sleep disturbances in alcohol recovery. A recent study concluded that treating insomnia with trazodone in patients with alcohol dependence might impede improvements in alcohol consumption and lead to increased drinking when trazodone is stopped. We set out to investigate the relationship between trazodone use during alcoholism treatment and relapse rates in patients who were discharged from a residential alcohol treatment program. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a residential addiction treatment center from 2005 to 2008 and analyzed the association of trazodone use at discharge and alcohol relapse at 6 months. We also assessed the association between trazodone use and relapse at 6 months adjusting for sex, drug dependence, nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnoses, patient self-report of difficulties with sleep, and anti-dipsotropic medication use at discharge and evaluated pair-wise interactions of trazodone use with the adjustment variables. Of 283 patients eligible for inclusion, 85 (30%) were taking trazodone at discharge. Older age, self-reported sleep problems, and having a nonsubstance use Axis I psychiatric diagnosis were associated with trazodone use. After discharge, 170 (60%) subjects responded to follow-up efforts. Neither intent to treat nor responder only analysis revealed any association between trazodone use and relapse. Our retrospective study of a complex patient population discharged from a residential treatment setting did not find an association between trazodone use at discharge and relapse rates at 6 months.

  15. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  16. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  17. Delayed Recompression for Decompression Sickness: Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, Amir; Fishlev, Gregori; Bechor, Yair; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Maliar, Amit; Efrati, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS) occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols. Methods From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (≥48h) for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute. Results There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07) compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation. Conclusions Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6. PMID

  18. Survival analysis of platinum-refractory patients with advanced esophageal cancer treated with docetaxel or best supportive care alone: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, T; Kajiwara, T; Matsumoto, T; Suzuki, H; Hiroshima, Y; Matsuda, K; Hirai, S; Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, T; Sugaya, A; Kobayashi, M; Endo, S; Ishige, K; Nishina, T; Hyodo, I

    2014-01-01

    The survival benefit of second-line chemotherapy with docetaxel in platinum-refractory patients with advanced esophageal cancer (AEC) remains unclear. A retrospective analysis of AEC patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS)≤2 was performed, and major organ functions were preserved, who determined to receive docetaxel or best supportive care (BSC) alone after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. The post-progression survival (PPS), defined as survival time after disease progression following platinum-based chemotherapy, was analyzed by multivariate Cox regression analysis using factors identified as significant in univariate analysis of various 20 characteristics (age, sex, PS, primary tumor location, etc) including Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), which is a well-known prognostic factor in many malignant tumors. Sixty-six and 45 patients were determined to receive docetaxel and BSC between January 2007 and December 2011, respectively. The median PPS was 5.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.8-6.0) in the docetaxel group and 3.3 months (95% CI 2.5-4.0) in the BSC group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.84, P=0.005). Univariate analysis revealed six significant factors: treatment, PS, GPS, number of metastatic organs, liver metastasis, and bone metastasis. Multivariate analysis including these significant factors revealed three independent prognostic factors: docetaxel treatment (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99, P=0.043), better GPS (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46-0.81, P=0.001), and no bone metastasis (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.68, P=0.003). There was a trend for PPS in favor of the docetaxel group compared with patients who refused docetaxel treatment in the BSC group (adjusted HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29-1.29, P=0.20). Docetaxel treatment may have prolonged survival in platinum-refractory patients with AEC.

  19. Retrospective Analysis of a Home Care Hospice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, Frank J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents a retrospective study of patients who died in a hospice home care program to examine quality of care and differences between patients who died at home and in the hospital. No prediction could be made of which patients could remain at home until death. (JAC)

  20. Key elements on team achievement: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Alvaro D

    2008-07-01

    This study is a historical reconstruction and in-depth scrutiny of one very successful team initiative within a Quality Improvement (QI) program in a municipal government organization. The identification of the essential concepts that contributed to the team's success and their integration into a local explanatory theory of team achievement is the final purpose of the study. The focus of this retrospective study is on the team process, with primary attention given to team members' perspectives and reflections on the project development. Data collection and analysis were conducted with methods drawn from the qualitative research tradition and from Quality Management. Main findings point to the importance of consistent management support, correct team composition with an emphasis on the team leader choice and demeanor, and to the central role of training in the group conduct. The negotiated approach to decision-making employed by the team, which reflected its organizational context, and the effort and mechanisms that allowed the group to reach equilibrium between internal and external interests proved critical for its ultimate achievement.

  1. Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a. completing the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JPA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  2. Clinical analysis of moderate-to-deep-sedation by nonmedical sedation practitioners in 597 patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vaessen, Hermanus; Bruens, Elisabeth; Knape, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether moderate-to-deep sedation with propofol and alfentanil can be administered safely by nonmedical sedation practitioners, and the outcomes of this practice in the Netherlands. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of sedation-related complications in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Patients and methods: In this study, 597 adult patients consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The health status of the patients was screened according to a standardized protocol, and the patients were sedated by trained nonmedical sedation practitioners. Their vital signs were continuously monitored and recorded. All patients received oxygen, and the depth of sedation was continuously assessed and recorded. Mild and severe complications were recorded and analyzed. Results: All patients recovered uneventfully, and no mortality occurred. Overall, of the 597 sedated patients, 85 had mild and 4 had severe complications. Hypoxemia and upper airway obstruction, which were easily managed by trained nonmedical sedation practitioners, were the most common events. Hypotension was rare. No signs or symptoms suggestive of aspiration were reported. Conclusion: Moderate-to-deep sedation has been and continues to be a risky medical procedure. Serious complications of propofol/opioid-based sedation, especially respiratory and cardiovascular adverse events, may occur. These complications need to be recognized rapidly and appropriately managed. Our study shows that well-trained nonmedical sedation practitioners can be entrusted to take responsibility for the safe administration of moderate-to-deep sedation. PMID:27227116

  3. Therapy with low-dose azacitidine for MDS in children and young adults: a retrospective analysis of the EWOG-MDS study group.

    PubMed

    Cseh, Annamaria M; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Yoshimi, Ayami; Catala, Albert; Frühwald, Michael C; Hasle, Henrik; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Mary M; Lauten, Melchior; De Moerloose, Barbara; Smith, Owen P; Bernig, Toralf; Gruhn, Bernd; Kulozik, Andreas E; Metzler, Markus; Olcay, Lale; Suttorp, Meinolf; Furlan, Ingrid; Strahm, Brigitte; Flotho, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Low-dose azacitidine is efficient and safe in the therapy of malignant myeloid disorders in adults but data in children are lacking. We present a retrospective analysis of 24 children and young adults with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received azacitidine at the time of first diagnosis or relapse after allotransplant (2 children were treated with azacitidine both initially and for relapse). Diagnoses were refractory cytopenia of childhood (N = 4), advanced primary MDS (N = 9) and secondary MDS (N = 11). The median duration of treatment was four cycles. Azacitidine was well tolerated, but cytopenias led to dose reduction in five cases. Treatment was discontinued in one child because of impaired renal function. Sixteen MDS patients were treated with azacitidine at first diagnosis. One complete clinical remission was observed and one child showed complete marrow remission; six children experienced stable disease with haematological improvement. Ten children received azacitidine for relapsed MDS after transplant: of these, seven experienced stable disease for 2-30 cycles (median 3), including one patient with haematological improvement for seven cycles. In summary, azacitidine is effective in some children with MDS and appears to be a non-toxic option in palliative situations to prolong survival.

  4. Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This study site was chosen at the request of the state to specifically examine any water resource impacts from a well blowout in September 2010 that resulted in an uncontrolled release of hydraulic fracturing fluids and formation fluids.

  5. Improving diagnostic criteria for Propionibacterium acnes osteomyelitis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Asseray, Nathalie; Papin, Christophe; Touchais, Sophie; Bemer, Pascale; Lambert, Chantal; Boutoille, David; Tequi, Brigitte; Gouin, François; Raffi, François; Passuti, Norbert; Potel, Gilles

    2010-07-01

    The identification of Propionibacterium acnes in cultures of bone and joint samples is always difficult to interpret because of the ubiquity of this microorganism. The aim of this study was to propose a diagnostic strategy to distinguish infections from contaminations. This was a retrospective analysis of all patient charts of those patients with >or=1 deep samples culture-positive for P. acnes. Every criterion was tested for sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio, and then the diagnostic probability of combinations of criteria was calculated. Among 65 patients, 52 (80%) were considered truly infected with P. acnes, a diagnosis based on a multidisciplinary process. The most valuable diagnostic criteria were: >or=2 positive deep samples, peri-operative findings (necrosis, hardware loosening, etc.), and >or=2 surgical procedures. However, no single criterion was sufficient to ascertain the diagnosis. The following combinations of criteria had a diagnostic probability of >90%: >or=2 positive cultures + 1 criterion among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous operations, orthopaedic devices; 1 positive culture + 3 criteria among: peri-operative findings, local signs of infection, >or=2 previous surgical operations, orthopaedic devices, inflammatory syndrome. The diagnosis of P. acnes osteomyelitis was greatly improved by combining different criteria, allowing differentiation between infection and contamination.

  6. Military parachute mishap fatalities: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mellen, P F; Sohn, S S

    1990-12-01

    Military parachuting is relatively safe. Most injuries involve vertebral bodies or the lower extremity, and fatalities are rare. We studied 49 military parachute accident facilities occurring during 1964-1989. Causes of the accidents included accidental deployment of reserve parachute in aircraft, static line failures and entanglements, equipment (canopy) failures, in-air collisions, landing injuries, drowning, and dragging. Rarely, preexisting illness such as coronary artery disease caused or contributed to an accident. Pathologic findings revealed a high proportion of deceleration and blunt force injuries: cardiac, aortic and liver laceration, and skull, pelvic and extremity fractures. Isolated head injury, strangulation, and post traumatic pulmonary embolus were occasionally noted. Toxicological examination demonstrated contributing factors such as alcohol intoxication or antihistamine use in a small number of cases. Background investigations, scene inspections, autopsy and toxicology studies all yielded important data or pertinent negatives during investigations. We propose an investigation protocol.

  7. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  8. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  9. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  10. Clinical and mycological analysis of twenty-one cases of tinea incognita in the Aegean region of Turkey: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Turk, Bengu Gerceker; Taskin, Banu; Karaca, Nezih; Sezgin, Aycan Ozden; Aytimur, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophyte infection with atypical clinical features modified by the improper use of corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and microbiological features of patients with tinea incognita. A total of 6326 patients referred to mycology laboratory between January 2008 and January 2011 for mycological examination with a diagnosis of tinea incognita were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-one patients, 13 (61.9%) women and 8 (38.1%) men, mean age 42.2±36.8, were included in the study. Of them, lesions were localized in 15 (71.4%) patients and widespread in six (28.6%) patients. The mean duration of the disease was 9.5 (range 1-120) months. All patients had a history of treatment with steroids. Before admission, most of them had been misdiagnosed as eczema or psoriasis. Microscopic examination revealed hyphae and spores in most of the cases (n=17, 80.95%). Mycological cultures were positive in 19 (90.5%) patients. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (n=14, 66.7%). This case series revealed Trichophyton rubrum as the most frequent agent of tinea incognita. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest case series from Turkey describing clinical features and mycological agents of tinea incognita.

  11. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatment--retrospective statistic study].

    PubMed

    Ispas, Dana Catrinel; Eftene, Oana Alexandra; Temelcea, Anca; Pădure, Hariclea

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment as a help is the teeth movement made in order to facilitate the odontal,prosthetic and periodontal proceedures which are needed in the dentomaxilar and/or facial reabilitation. The aim of the study was to follow for 5 years which is the percentage of patients who asked for orthodontic treatment in the Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedie Clinic from UMF 'Carol Davila'. We also followed the frequency related to the etiology of the loss of some teeth and also the relationship between the loss of the teeth and periodontal disease. In our country, the number of patients who ask for preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is lower comparing with Western and Northtern Europe, but the percentage is increasing due to the dentists calification. We can conclude by saying that the frequency of losing teeth by cavities is increased by age because all patients from the study group aged 35 and above lost their teeth from cavity etiology and the patients aged 18 and lower had genetic etiology in losing their teeth.

  12. The Retrospective Iterated Analysis Scheme for Nonlinear Chaotic Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is the name scientists give to the techniques of blending atmospheric observations with atmospheric model results to obtain an accurate idea of what the atmosphere looks like at any given time. Because two pieces of information are used, observations and model results, the outcomes of data assimilation procedure should be better than what one would get by using one of these two pieces of information alone. There is a number of different mathematical techniques that fall under the data assimilation jargon. In theory most these techniques accomplish about the same thing. In practice, however, slight differences in the approaches amount to faster algorithms in some cases, more economical algorithms in other cases, and even give better overall results in yet some other cases because of practical uncertainties not accounted for by theory. Therefore, the key is to find the most adequate data assimilation procedure for the problem in hand. In our Data Assimilation group we have been doing extensive research to try and find just such data assimilation procedure. One promising possibility is what we call retrospective iterated analysis (RIA) scheme. This procedure has recently been implemented and studied in the context of a very large data assimilation system built to help predict and study weather and climate. Although the results from that study suggest that the RIA scheme produces quite reasonable results, a complete evaluation of the scheme is very difficult due to the complexity of that problem. The present work steps back a little bit and studies the behavior of the RIA scheme in the context of a small problem. The problem is small enough to allow full assessment of the quality of the RIA scheme, but it still has some of the complexity found in nature, namely, its chaotic-type behavior. We find that the RIA performs very well for this small but still complex problem which is a result that seconds the results of our early studies.

  13. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  14. Vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Othon N; Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos I; Georgiou, Panagis N; Frangoulis, Marios B; Zapantis-Fragos, Menelaos K; Champsas, Grigorios G

    2005-01-01

    From 1986 to 2001, 17 patients (aged 26-77 years) were treated using the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap. A two-stage procedure was used in 7 and a single-stage island flap in 10. The donor site was closed directly in all patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 16 days (range 12-25). There was no operative mortality. Complications were one partial flap necrosis and two seromas of the donor site, complicated by infection. With a minimum follow-up of more than two years, our study confirms the usefulness of the vertical trapezius musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. It is a reliable, thin flap of uniform thickness, which carries hairless skin. The length and thickness of its pedicle allows excellent mobility. The main disadvantage of the flap is the complete sacrifice of the muscle necessary for total mobilisation of the flap, and the intraoperative repositioning of the patient.

  15. Feline urate urolithiasis: a retrospective study of 159 cases.

    PubMed

    Dear, Jonathan D; Shiraki, Ryojj; Ruby, Annette L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the signalment, clinicopathologic data, and diagnostic imaging of cats with urate urolithiasis, as well as the salts of uric acid present in the uroliths. A retrospective analysis of feline urate uroliths submitted to the GV Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory between 2000 and 2008 was included. From these data, records were assimilated from referring veterinarians (143); furthermore, all recorded cases from within the William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (16) were included. Median values for the complete blood count and chemistry panels available were within the reference intervals, when provided, with only a few outliers present. Of all cases evaluated, seven had a portosystemic shunt (PSS). Cats with urate uroliths and a PSS were younger than cats without a PSS (2 years vs 7 years). The pathogenesis of urate uroliths in cats is poorly understood. Most cats were not completely evaluated for a PSS, however, clinicopathologic parameters indicating hepatic dysfunction were seldom noted; more sensitive diagnostics such as serum bile acids were rarely performed to confirm or negate the presence of a shunt. Studies are warranted to evaluate pathogenesis of urate uroliths to tailor proper management and breeding strategies.

  16. Academic Resilience: A Retrospective Study of Adults With Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John G.; Stoch, Shari A.; Chan, Janet S. N.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports qualitative analyses of two sets of retrospective interviews with adults with learning difficulties. The purpose of the study was to examine the high school experiences of these adults from a holistic perspective to understand possible factors that contributed to one group staying in school and the other group leaving school…

  17. Analysis of perioperative pain management in vascular surgery indicates that practice does not adhere with guidelines: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Boric, Krste; Boric, Matija; Boric, Teo; Puljak, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Background Inadequate treatment of pain related to surgery may be associated with complications and prolonged recovery time and increased morbidity and mortality rates. We investigated perioperative pain management in vascular surgery and compared it with the relevant guidelines for the treatment of perioperative pain. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on 501 patients who underwent vascular surgery at the University Hospital Split, Croatia. We collected the following data from patients’ charts: age, gender, premedication, preoperative patient’s physical status, type of surgery, duration of surgery and anesthesia, type of anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and need for intensive care. We examined departmental procedures to assess adherence to guidelines for perioperative pain management. Results None of the 501 patients’ charts recorded information about perioperative pain intensity, 28% of patients did not receive any medication the night before their elective surgical procedures, and 17% of patients did not receive premedication immediately before the procedure. Most patients (66%) did not receive any pain medication in the operating room after surgery. Following surgery, 36% of patients were monitored in the intensive care units, while the rest were released to the ward. Some patients (17%) did not receive any analgesia after surgery. Procedures at the department did not adhere to the current recommendations for perioperative pain management. Conclusion The study indicates that management of surgery-related pain in complex vascular procedures at this hospital did not follow guidelines for the management of acute perioperative pain. Our finding that most patients did not receive appropriate analgesia after vascular surgery leads to the conclusion that the institution would benefit from developing guidelines for the management of acute perioperative pain, which should be applied in all cases. PMID:28176903

  18. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pai Jakribettu, Ramakrishna; Boloor, Rekha; Thaliath, Andrew; Yesudasan George, Sharanya; George, Thomas; Ponadka Rai, Manoj; Rafique Sheikh, Umran; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P < 0.05 to 0.0001). Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients), required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay. PMID:26819620

  19. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545

  20. Retrospective study of 289 odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Marianna-Sampaio; Tenório, Jefferson-da-Rocha; do Nascimento, George-João-Ferreira; de Souza-Andrade, Emanuel-Sávio; Veras-Sobral, Ana-Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are considered important among oral lesions because of their clinicopathological heterogeneity, and variable biological behavior. This paper aims to determine the frequency and distribution of OTs, over a period of 10 years, at a public university in Northeastern Brazil and compare this data with previous reports. Material and Methods We reviewed all cases of OTs from oral pathology laboratory of University of Pernambuco (UPE), from 2004 to 2014. Diagnoses were re-evaluated and the tumors were classified according to the latest (2005) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. In addition, we searched in the English-language literature retrospective studies on OTs that used the same classification. Results Data was obtained allowing the analysis of the tissue hemodynamics. We were able to map the vascularization of the face and it was possible to access three arteries of small diameter (0,60mm angular artery; 0,55mm greater palatine artery; 0,45mm infraorbital artery). Conclusions OTs are uncommon neoplasms with geographic variation. Our clinicopathological features are according to literature. In the present study, KCOT was the most frequent one, showing that the new classification of OTs altered the distribution of these lesions and possibly made KCOT the most common OT observed in diagnostic services worldwide. Key words:Odontogenic tumors, jaw neoplasms, epidemiology, oral pathology. PMID:26827068

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Cognitive and Affective Responses in Intercultural and Intracultural Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that uses retrospective analysis to understand the relationships between American and Chinese participants' utterances during a conversation and the moment-by-moment feelings and reactions they subsequently described. Intercultural and intracultural pairs of Chinese and American participants talked about a fictional crime story…

  2. TRUS Biopsy Yield in Indian Population: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prakash Wamanrao; Sawant, Ajit Somaji; Patil, Akshay Vijay; Narwade, Sayalee Suryabhan; Mundhe, Shankar Tanaji; Savalia, Abhishek Jaysukhbhai; Tamhankar, Ashwin Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The reported cancer detection rate of Trans-Rectal Ultrasonography (TRUS) biopsies (TRUS biopsy yield) has been around 30 percent in western countries. However it is much lower in Asian countries, including India. Hence a larger proportion of patients in India undergo unnecessary biopsies. Aims To find out the cancer detection rate of TRUS biopsy (TRUS biopsy yield) in contemporary Indian population. Also, to study the positive predictive values at different serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)/PSA Density (PSAD) cut off levels and suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) findings. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care institute. All symptomatic patients who underwent TRUS guided biopsy for indication of raised serum PSA level (>4 ng/ml) or suspicious DRE findings (nodule, irregularity, hard consistency, immobile rectal mucosa) from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. For serum PSA range (4-10) ng/ml, TRUS guided biopsy was done in patients with percent free/total PSA < 25. Statistical analysis used were Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Out of the 235 patients included, 60 patients had malignancy (overall cancer detection rate= 25.53%). The cancer detection rate for PSA ranges of (4-10) and (10-20) ng/ml was as low as 5.95% and 13.16% respectively. Patients with malignant disease had significantly smaller prostate gland size than patients with benign disease (53.89 vs 63.06; p-value <0.05). On the other hand, cancer detection rate was 100% for PSA greater than 50ng/ml. The cancer detection rates were only upto 10% for PSA density ranges upto 0.25 ng/ml/cm3. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for PSA and PSAD was 0.876 and 0.884 respectively. Only one patient (0.43%) had post-biopsy complication (acute bacterial prostatitis) requiring hospital admission. Conclusion The current serum PSA and PSAD cut

  3. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  4. Endoscopic Septoplasty: A Retrospective Analysis of 415 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shreeya V; Kulkarni, Vinay P; Burse, Kiran; Bharath, Manu; Bharadwaj, Chaitanya; Sancheti, Vandana

    2015-09-01

    Nasal obstruction is the most common complaint in nasal and sinus disease. Deviated nasal septum is a very frequently encountered and common cause. Surgical correction of a deviated septum- nasal septoplasty- is the definite treatment for septal deviation. Over the last 2 decades, the applications for endoscopy in the field of rhinology have evolved beyond functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Septoplasty which is among the three most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology is particularly well suited to endoscopic application. Endoscopic septoplasty as a minimally invasive technique can limit the dissection and minimize trauma to the nasal septal flap under excellent visualization whose primary advantage is to decrease morbidity and post operative swelling in isolated septal deviation by limiting the excision to the area of deviation. This was a retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary care medical college hospital over a period of 5 years. The study group comprised 415 patients in and around Nashik District; who visited our tertiary health centre and were subjected to endoscopic septoplasty. Complete data records from 415 patients were available for statistical analysis. Maximum numbers of patients were in age group 20-39. The youngest patient was 7 years old and oldest was 75 years. Mean age was 32 years. The 7 years old was operated for DCR for congenital NLD block and septoplasty was adjunct procedure. Even the 75 years was operated for DCR. In the present study out of 415 cases, 256 (67.5 %) cases were male and 115 (32.5 %) cases were female. There is a male preponderance in the overall distribution of cases. In the present study of 415 patients, the most common operative procedure done was septoplasty in 260 (62.6 %), FESS with septoplasty in 38 (9.2 %) cases, septorhinopolasty in 41 (9.9 %) cases and DCR with septoplasty in 78 (18.3 %) cases. Endoscopic septoplasty facilitates good access to accomplish endoscopic DCR, FESS, and

  5. Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Our Experience from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Lazovic, Ranko; Popovic, Natasa; Magdelinic, Milorad; Bulajic, Milutin; Radunovic, Lenka; Vukovic, Marko; Radunovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as the frequency of conversions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 740 patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed retrospectively. We evaluated patients for the presence of potential risk factors that could predict the development of complications such as age, gender, body mass index, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP), gallbladder ultrasonographic findings, and pathohistological analysis of removed gallbladders. The correlation between these risk factors was also analysed. RESULTS: There were 97 (13.1%) intraoperative complications (IOC). Iatrogenic perforations of a gallbladder were the most common complication - 39 patients (5.27%). Among the postoperative complications (POC), the most common ones were bleeding from abdominal cavity 27 (3.64%), biliary duct leaks 14 (1.89%), and infection of the surgical wound 7 patients (0.94%). There were 29 conversions (3.91%). The presence of more than one complication was more common in males (OR = 2.95, CI 95%, 1.42-4.23, p < 0.001). An especially high incidence of complications was noted in patients with elevated white blood cell count (OR = 3.98, CI 95% 1.68-16.92, p < 0.01), and CRP (OR = 2.42, CI 95% 1.23-12.54, p < 0.01). The increased incidence of complications was noted in patients with ultrasonographic finding of gallbladder empyema and increased thickness of the gallbladder wall > 3 mm (OR = 4.63, CI 95% 1.56-17.33, p < 0.001), as well as in patients with acute cholecystitis that was confirmed by pathohistological analysis (OR = 1.75, CI 95% 2.39-16.46, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adopting laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technique for treatment of cholelithiasis, introduced a new spectrum of complications. Major biliary and vascular complications are life threatening, while minor complications cause patient discomfort and prolongation of

  6. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  7. A single-center retrospective study of pediatric hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Weiling; Tang, Suoqin; Chen, Liping; Yi, You; Zhang, Pinwei; Liu, Aiping; Zhi, Tian; Huang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is a malignant liver tumor generally diagnosed in infants and children <3 years old. The current retrospective study aimed to investigate the associations of tumor stage, pathological type, metastasis and chemotherapy with clinical outcomes. In the current study, a total of 102 patients with hepatoblastoma were enrolled between September 2006 and June 2014. Clinical records and follow-up information for each of patient were obtained to conduct a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. The median age of the subjects was 1.5 years, and 98 patients had stage III or IV hepatoblastoma. Complete or partial remittance occurred in 72 subjects, and 91 underwent surgical operation. The survival rate differed significantly among patients with different tumor stages (P=0.015, χ2=8.359). The mortality rate of stage IV subjects with intrahepatic metastasis was significantly higher than that of those without (P=0.004). Among the 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma, the mortality rate was higher in the subjects that abandoned chemotherapy than in patients who continued regular chemotherapy. In total, 27 of 45 subjects with relapsed hepatoblastoma succumbed to the disease; 20 of them abandoned chemotherapy treatment; and the remaining 7 patients underwent regular chemotherapy and succumbed to the disease by the end of follow-up. The present study indicates that the increased mortality rate was associated with postoperative residual-induced intrahepatic metastasis and relapsed hepatoblastoma; and that regular chemotherapy is necessary for patient to achieve complete or partial remission following surgical operation. PMID:27895749

  8. OSL studies of local bricks for retrospective dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescence properties of quartz extracted from bricks has been reported worldwide for its use in dose estimation in case of nuclear or radiological accident. Accordingly, in this study the feasibility of utilizing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) emission of quartz extracted from red bricks collected from three different locations in and around Mumbai, India for retrospective dosimetry was explored. Thermoluminescence and OSL characterization of the samples were carried out. The growth curve, thermal stability and equivalent dose plateau of the OSL signal suggested the signals to be well behaving. Subsequently, the dose recovery tests carried for different administered doses, using single aliquot regenerative protocol, demonstrated the feasibility of the OSL emissions of these samples for dose evaluation in retrospective dosimetry.

  9. Liposomal cytarabine in the prophylaxis and treatment of CNS lymphoma: toxicity analysis in a retrospective case series study conducted at Polish Lymphoma Research Group Centers.

    PubMed

    Jurczak, Wojciech; Kroll-Balcerzak, Renata; Giebel, Sebastian; Machaczka, Maciej; Giza, Agnieszka; Ogórka, Tomasz; Fornagiel, Szymon; Rybka, Justyna; Wróbel, Tomasz; Kumiega, Beata; Skotnicki, Aleksander B; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2015-04-01

    Lymphomas with primary or secondary involvement of central nervous system (CNS) have poor prognosis despite specific treatment protocols which include whole brain radiotherapy and high-dose systemic and/or intrathecal chemotherapy. Toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine-based regimens collected between November 2006 and January 2012 was assessed retrospectively. Data from 120 adult lymphoma patients with, or at high risk of CNS involvement who received intrathecal liposomal cytarabine-based regimens at six Polish Lymphoma Research Group centres between November 2006 and January 2012 were assessed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three cohorts: A (high risk of CNS disease, n = 88), B (cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis without neurological symptoms or pathological imaging findings, n = 7), and C (CNS disease/neurological involvement; n = 25). In all examined groups, toxicity of treatment was found to be acceptable (including the prophylactic setting). None of the patients in cohorts A or B who took intrathecal liposomal cytarabine 50 mg, repeated every 2-4 weeks (mean 3.8 doses) had experienced a CNS relapse at a median follow-up time of 3 years. Patients in cohort C had a 76 % overall neurological response rate (including a 40 % complete response rate) and median overall survival of 4.8 years. Regimens incorporating liposomal cytarabine seem to be safe and effective treatments for lymphomas with CNS involvement.

  10. Retrospective study of prognostic factors in pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chun-Chih; Chang, Hung-Yang; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Chang, Lung; Lei, Wei-Te

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei. The hospitalized pediatric patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia, arthritis, infectious endocarditis, meningitis or sepsis were recruited. Among them, 50 patients were pneumococcal infections proved by positive culture results or antigen tests. Clinical manifestations, laboratory data and hospitalization courses were analyzed. The median age was 3.5-year-old and there were 30 male patients (60%). Eight patients (16%) had underlying disease such as leukemia or congenital heart disease. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in ten patients and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed in three patients. Leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and AST level were noted in most of the patients. The overall mortality rate was 10%. We found that leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high CRP level were significant predictors for mortality. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae remains an important health threat worldwide and IPD is life-threatening with high mortality rate. We found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high CRP levels to be associated with mortality in pediatric IPD, and these factors are worthy of special attention at admission. Although we failed to identify a statistically significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis due to relatively small sample size, we suggest an aggressive antibiotic treatment in patients with these factors at admission

  11. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  12. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  13. Postperfusion Syndrome in Cadaveric Liver Transplantations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Aydınlı, Bahar; Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yıldırım; Kazancı, Dilek; Koçulu, Rabia; Haytural, Candan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Zorlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affects the postperfusion syndrome in cadaveric liver transplantations and the effect of the postperfusion syndrome on discharge from the hospital. Methods Patients who underwent cadaveric liver transplantations between 2007 and 2013 were scanned retrospectively. Intraoperative anaesthesia records, intensive care unit follow-up forms and discharge reports were examined from patient files. Overall, 43 patients having complete data were included in the study. The postperfusion syndrome is defined as asystoli or a decrease in mean arterial pressure of more than 30%, which occurred in the first 5 min of reperfusion and continued for 1 min. Patients were divided into two groups: those who had the postperfusion syndrome and those who did not. Results The number of patients who had the postperfusion syndrome was 25 of 43 (58.1%). The MELD score of patients without the postperfusion syndrome was calculated as 16.9±3.2 and that of patients with the postperfusion syndrome was 19.7±3.6. A statistically significant relationship was detected between the postperfusion syndrome occurrence and a high MELD score (p=0.013). The diastolic blood pressure just before reperfusion was statistically lower in the group with the postperfusion syndrome than in the other group (p=0.023, 50±8 vs. 58±11). According to the logistic regression analysis, the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion were defined as independent predictive factors. Conclusion According to the study, the ratio for having the postperfusion syndrome was found to be 58.1%. The independent predictor factors affecting the postperfusion syndrome were detected as the MELD score and the decrease in diastolic blood pressure before reperfusion. The postperfusion syndrome during orthotropic liver transplantation is an important issue for anaesthesiologists. The awareness of the related factors with the postperfusion syndrome may help in the development

  14. Retrospective Study of a Series of Choanal Atresia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054

  15. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: retrospective descriptive study on clinical features and management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Ann-Sophie; Bell, Robert Z; Bezzaoucha, Sarah; Földes, Eva; Lamarche, Caroline; Vallée, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of inflammatory and fibrous retroperitoneal tissue that often encases the ureters or abdominal organs. This study describes the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatments and their effects on renal function. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RPF at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. Results We identified 17 patients with RPF between 1998 and 2013. Eight patients were females (47%), and the mean age was 62±18 years. Eleven patients were idiopathic. Back pain was the most common symptom. All diagnoses were made based on the finding of a retroperitoneal mass on the computed tomography scan. Three patients had histological diagnosis of RPF and seven patients had unspecific changes on their biopsy. Twelve patients needed double-J stents, three patients had a temporary percutaneous nephrostomy, two patients had to have a nephrectomy for refractory ureteral obstruction, and one patient required hemodialysis. Ten patients with idiopathic RPF received medical treatment. In the treated group, only two patients had complete remission of the disease and five patients had improvement of their lesions. There were no deteriorations and only one relapse. Seven patients did not receive any treatment; two of them achieved complete remission, one of them deteriorated, and two of them had no changes. Conclusion Most of our cases of RPF were idiopathic. Almost all treated patients received prednisone and seemed to respond, at least partially. There was a lot of heterogeneity in patient management, which makes it difficult to compare treatment effects. However, treated patients seemed to have more favorable outcomes than those who were not. PMID:27822461

  16. Sickle cell anemia from central India: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipty; Italia, Khushnooma; Sarathi, Vijaya; Ghoshand, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2012-11-01

    Although sickle cell anemia in India is believed to have a mild clinical presentation, few studies report severe disease in many patients from central India. Hence, we have retrospectively studied 316 children with SCA who were followed up for a period of 5.8±5.7 years. There were 55.4 blood transfusions, 43.3 episodes of vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization, and 108.9 hospitalizations per 100 person years. Ninety six (30%) patients had severe disease whereas 74 patients also fulfilled the criteria for hydroxyurea therapy. Significant proportion of children with sickle cell anemia from central India present with severe clinical presentation and require regular medical attention.

  17. Neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Valero, J; Gallart, J; González, D; Agustín, L; Marquina, R; Deus, J; Lahoz, M

    2012-08-01

    This retrospective study was carried out over 83 surgical cases at the distal portion of the fifth metatarsal, compromising the treatment of tailor's bunion, fifth metatarsal overload and the concomitant presence of both pathologies in some cases. Neuromas were founded under the fifth metatarsal head in 18 of the cases studied (21.7%). The results look at whether if there is an association between different fifth metatarsal pathologies and the presence of neuromas and found a significant association between the appearance of neuromas in patients with the same metatarsal overload, especially if it is accompanied by a tailor's bunion pathology.

  18. Preventing Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and sepsis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus colonization of intravascular catheters: a retrospective multicenter study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hetem, David J; de Ruiter, Susanne C; Buiting, Anton G M; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Thijsen, Steven F; Vlaminckx, Bart J M; Wintermans, Robert G F; Bonten, Marc J M; Ekkelenkamp, Miquel B

    2011-07-01

    Two previous studies in tertiary care hospitals identified Staphylococcus aureus colonization of intravascular (IV) catheters as a strong predictor of subsequent S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), even in the absence of clinical signs of systemic infection. Bacteremia was effectively prevented by timely antibiotic therapy. We conducted this study to corroborate the validity of these findings in non-university hospitals.Using the laboratory information management systems of the clinical microbiology departments in 6 Dutch hospitals, we identified patients who had IV catheters from which S. aureus was cultured between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008. Patients with demonstrated SAB between 7 days before catheter removal and 24 hours after catheter removal were excluded. We extracted clinical and demographic patient data from the patients' medical records. The primary risk factor was initiation of anti-staphylococcal antibiotic therapy within 24 hours, and the primary endpoint was SAB >24 hours after IV catheter removal. Subsequently, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational studies evaluating the effect of antibiotic therapy for S. aureus IV catheter tip colonization.In the current study, 18 of the 192 included patients developed subsequent SAB, which was associated with not receiving antibiotic therapy within 24 hours (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-15.6) and with documented exit-site infection (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-9.3). When we combined these results with results of a previous study in a university hospital, a third risk factor was also associated with subsequent SAB, namely corticosteroid therapy (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3). We identified 3 other studies, in addition to the present study, in a systematic review. In the meta-analysis of these studies, antibiotic therapy yielded an absolute risk reduction of 13.6% for subsequent SAB. The number needed to treat to prevent 1 episode of SAB was 7.4.We conclude that

  19. 77 FR 65645 - Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules: Notice of Staff Memorandum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... revisions to the Commission's Natural Gas Pipeline regulations that may be appropriate to remove reporting..., which requested independent regulatory agencies issue plans for periodic retrospective analysis of...

  20. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  1. Retrospective analysis of phone queries to an epilepsy clinic hotline.

    PubMed

    Laforme, Anny; Jubinville, Suzie; Gravel, Micheline; Cossette, Patrick; Nguyen, Dang K

    2014-01-01

    We undertook a retrospective study of 5,189 telephone calls made between January 2004 and June 2011 through our adult epilepsy clinic hotline to a single epileptologist initially and two epileptologists from June 2010 onwards. The majority of calls were made by patients themselves (72%), followed by family members (16%) and health care providers (11%). Half of the calls originated from outside the city limits. Most were related to medication (25%), notification of seizures (23%), appointments or tests (12%), and side effects (9%). Half of the workload was generated by 10% of patients. The hotline service appears to respond to needs, with most calls requiring rapid intervention. It is desirable to develop novel approaches to address the needs of high-frequency callers.

  2. Pemphigus vulgaris and infections: a retrospective study on 155 patients.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hossein; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  3. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Nafiseh; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended. PMID:23844280

  4. Spinal cord gliomas: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Wahab, May . E-mail: mwahab@med.miami.edu; Etuk, Blessing; Palermo, James; Shirato, Hiroki; Kresl, John; Yapicier, Ozlem; Walker, Gail; Shaw, Edward; Lee, Charles; Curran, Walter; Thomas, Terry; Markoe, Arnold

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (POXRT) on outcome in spinal cord gliomas. Patients and Methods: Data from 242 patients were collected retrospectively from six institutions using a standardized data sheet. Pathology specimens, when available, were centrally reviewed. Results: A total of 183 patients were analyzed: 82 received surgery alone as initial treatment, whereas 101 had surgery and POXRT. Demographic, diagnostic, and treatment factors were analyzed for impact on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PFS in ependymoma patients was 74%, 60%, and 35% at 5, 10, 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by treatment type, race, age, tumor grade, and type of surgery on univariate analysis, with age being the only significant factor on multivariate analysis (MVA) (p = 0.01). OS of ependymoma patients was 91%, 84%, and 75% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by both complete resection (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.03) on MVA. In astrocytomas, PFS was 42%, 29%, and 15% at 5, 10, and 15 years, and was significantly influenced by POXRT in low- and intermediate-grade tumors on MVA (p = 0.02). OS at 5, 10, and 15 years was 59%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by grade on MVA (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Postoperative radiation therapy reduced disease progression in low- and moderate-grade astrocytomas. In ependymomas, complete resection significantly influenced OS.

  5. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R; Schneider, R

    1976-09-01

    Using files of the Animal Neoplasm Registry (ANR) in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the degree of inbreeding in the ancestry of purebred dogs with mammary and other cancers, and of those without tumors. Wright's coefficients of inbreeding, calculated for all animals in the three groups, ranged from 0.000 to 0.535. The median inbreeding coefficients of the mammary cancer and comparison groups (consisting of other cancers) were approximately twice that of the nonneoplastic group, but neither difference was statistically significant. Dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma and mixed mammary cancer had similar degrees of inbreeding.

  6. Onychomycosis in the Denver pediatrics population, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay S; Arbuckle, Harvey A; Morelli, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis (OM) is a common nail disorder in adults but has been rare in children. Recent international studies have demonstrated a rise in the prevalence of OM in children and adolescents, with Trichophyton rubrum being the most common pathogen. This 5-year retrospective chart review of children (aged <18) found that 66 of 141 patients (46.8%) presenting to Children's Hospital Colorado or Denver Health Medical Center Dermatology clinics with nail complaints had OM, with the highest prevalence in those aged 6 to 10 and a slight male predominance. Toenails were more commonly affected, and Trichophyton rubrum was the most common pathogen.

  7. Cardiac device implantation in Fabry disease: A retrospective monocentric study.

    PubMed

    Sené, Thomas; Lidove, Olivier; Sebbah, Joel; Darondel, Jean-Marc; Picard, Hervé; Aaron, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Zenone, Thierry; Joly, Dominique; Charron, Philippe; Ziza, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and predictive factors of arrhythmias and/or conduction abnormalities (ACAs) requiring cardiac device (CD) implantation are poorly characterized in Fabry disease (FD). The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with ACA requiring CD implantation in a monocentric cohort of patients with confirmed FD who were followed up in a department of internal medicine and reference center for FD.Forty-nine patients (20M, 29F) were included. Nine patients (4M, 5F; 18%) had at least one episode of ACA leading to device therapy. Six patients (4M/2F) required a pacemaker (PM) for sinus node dysfunction (n = 4) or atrioventricular disease (n = 2). One female patient required an internal cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden cardiac death because of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (nSVT). One female patient required PM-ICD for sinus node dysfunction and nSVT. One patient underwent CD implantation before the diagnosis of FD. The annual rate of CD implantation was estimated at 1.90 per 100 person years. On univariate analysis at the end of the follow-up period, the factors associated with ACAs requiring CD implantation were as follows: delayed diagnosis of FD, delayed initiation of enzyme replacement therapy, age at the last follow-up visit, and severe multiorgan phenotype (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, and/or sensorineural hearing loss). On multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis of FD and age at the last follow-up visit were independently associated with an increased risk of ACAs requiring CD (P < 0.05).Considering the high frequency of ACAs requiring CD implantation and the risk of sudden death in patients with FD, regular monitoring is mandatory, especially in patients with a late diagnosis of FD and/or with a severe phenotype. Regular Holter ECGs, therapeutic education of patients, and deliverance of an emergency card including a phenotype summary are

  8. Lynch Syndrome from a surgeon perspective: retrospective study of clinical impact of mismatch repair protein expression analysis in colorectal cancer patients less than 50 years old

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In clinical practice, unexpected diagnosis of colorectal cancer in young patients requires prompt surgery, thus genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome is frequently missed, and clinical management may result incorrect. Methods Patients younger than 50 years old undergoing colorectal resection for cancer in the period 1994-2007 were identified (Group A, 49 cases), and compared to a group of randomly selected patients more than 50 (Group B, 85 cases). In 31 group A patients, immunohistochemical expression analysis of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 was performed; personal and familial history of patients with defective MMR proteins expression was further investigated, searching for synchronous and metachronous tumors in probands and their families. Results Fifty-one percent of patients did not express one or more MMR proteins (MMR-) and should be considered Lynch Syndrome carriers (16 patients, group A1); while only 31.2% of them were positive for Amsterdam criteria, 50% had almost another tumor, 37.5% had another colorectal tumor and 68% had relatives with colorectal tumor. This group of patients, compared with A2 group (< 50 years old, MMR+) and B group, showed typical characteristics of HNPCC, such as proximal location, mucinous histotype, poor differentiation, high stage and shorter survival. Conclusions The present study confirms that preoperative knowledge of MMR proteins expression in colorectal cancer patients would allow correct staging, more extended colonic resection, specific follow-up and familial screening. PMID:24533633

  9. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  10. How bad was unmodified electroconvulsive therapy! A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anindya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    “Unmodified”-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) being considered unethical remained away from the scientific literature, but continued in practice in many parts of the world. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2011, proposed for its banning in India. The aim of this study is to retrospectively observe “how bad was unmodified-ECT” to the patients in a naturalistic setting. The study was done at the Central Institute of Psychiatry, India. Files of patients receiving unmodified ECT during 1990–1995 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was evaluated in terms of desired effectiveness and the side effects as noted in the files by the treating team. Six hundred and thirty-seven patients (6.94% of total admission) received ECT with meticulous standard-of-care except provision of anesthesia. Satisfactory improvement was noted in 95.45% patients with no noticeable/reported complication in 89.05%. Premature termination of ECT for complications occurred in 2.19% patients. “Unmodified”-ECT, though unethical, still could ensure favorable outcome with proper case selection and meticulous standard-of-care. PMID:27385857

  11. Pesticide poisoning trend analysis of 13 years: a retrospective study based on telephone calls at the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Halder, Nabanita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The study was designed to analyze the incidence and pattern of pesticide poisoning calls reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC), AIIMS, New Delhi and highlight the common classes of pesticides involved in poisoning. The telephone calls received by the Centre during the thirteen year period (1999-2012) were entered into a preset proforma and then into a retrievable database. A total of 4929 calls of pesticide poisoning were recorded. The data was analyzed with respect to age, gender, mode and type of poisoning. The age ranged from 1 to 65 years with the preponderance of males (M = 62.19%, F = 37.80%). The age group mainly involved in poisoning was 18-35 years. While 59.38% calls pertained to household pesticides, 40.61% calls related to agricultural pesticides. The common mode of poisoning was intentional (64.60%) followed by accidental (34.40%) and unknown (1%). Amongst the household pesticides, the highest number of calls were due to pyrethroids (26.23%) followed by rodenticides (17.06%), organophosphates (6.26%), carbamates (4.95%) and others (4.86%). In agricultural pesticides group, the organophosphates (9.79%) ranked the first followed by, aluminium phosphide (9.65%), organochlorines (9.31%), pyrethroids (3.87%), herbicides, weedicides and fungicides (3.20%), ethylene dibromide (2.82%), and others (1.70%). The data analysis shows a high incidence of poisoning due to household pesticides as compared to agricultural pesticides, clearly emphasizing the need for creating awareness and education about proper use and implementation of prevention programmes.

  12. Platelet profile in patients with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046

  13. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  14. A retrospective study of six patients with mandibular metastatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CAI, ZHEN; ZHU, CHAO; WANG, LIZHEN; ZHU, LING; ZHANG, ZHIYUAN; ZHU, HANGUANG; WANG, YAN'AN

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular metastatic carcinoma is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of all oral malignancies. To provide greater experience in this field, the present study was conducted in which 6 cases of mandibular metastatic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The origin of the lesions was the prostate in 2 cases, the lungs in 2 cases, the breast in 1 case and the thyroid gland in 1 case. The clinical and computed tomography features, surgical management and follow-up outcomes were investigated. The study indicated that surgeons should include the suspicion of metastasis in the differential diagnosis for mandibular tumor, particularly in patients who have a history of malignancy. A poor prognosis was associated with the examined patients. To extend the survival time as long as possible, a treatment strategy using multiple therapies, including segmental mandibulectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is recommended. PMID:27284368

  15. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  16. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients’ sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). CONCLUSION: This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27350735

  17. Retained fetal membranes in the mare: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Real; Threlfall, Walter R.; Murdick, Phillip W.; Wearly, W. Keith

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of 3456 deliveries was conducted from the records of four Standardbred broodmare farms where mares were bred by artificial insemination and maintained under close veterinary supervision. Retained fetal membranes (RFM) were observed in 10.6% of the deliveries. Retained fetal membranes occurred more frequently (p < 0.05) after dystocia and in mares which had RFM the previous year. Retained fetal membranes after normal foaling had no significant effect on the reproductive performance (pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss rate, or foaling rate), nor on the general health of the mares, regardless of the duration of RFM (3 to 144 hours). Postfoaling laminitis was not observed. Oxytocin therapy of mares with RFM starting at two hours postpartum significantly reduced the incidence of RFM ≥ 8 hours. Mares with RFM which had received intrauterine antimicrobials between foaling and first breeding had a foaling rate similar to mares with RFM which had not received intrauterine therapy. PMID:17423164

  18. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  19. Combined retrospective analysis of 498 rat multi-generation reproductive toxicity studies: on the impact of parameters related to F1 mating and F2 offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multi-generation reproductive toxicity study (OECD TG 416 and USEPA 870.3800) has been extensively used internationally to assess the adverse effects of substances on reproduction. Recently the necessity of producing a second generation to assess the potential for human healt...

  20. The Impact of an Online Crowdsourcing Diagnostic Tool on Health Care Utilization: A Case Study Using a Novel Approach to Retrospective Claims Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quisel, Thomas R; Foschini, Luca; Ladapo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with difficult medical cases often remain undiagnosed despite visiting multiple physicians. A new online platform, CrowdMed, uses crowdsourcing to quickly and efficiently reach an accurate diagnosis for these patients. Objective This study sought to evaluate whether CrowdMed decreased health care utilization for patients who have used the service. Methods Novel, electronic methods of patient recruitment and data collection were utilized. Patients who completed cases on CrowdMed’s platform between July 2014 and April 2015 were recruited for the study via email and screened via an online survey. After providing eConsent, participants provided identifying information used to access their medical claims data, which was retrieved through a third-party web application program interface (API). Utilization metrics including frequency of provider visits and medical charges were compared pre- and post-case resolution to assess the impact of resolving a case on CrowdMed. Results Of 45 CrowdMed users who completed the study survey, comprehensive claims data was available via API for 13 participants, who made up the final enrolled sample. There were a total of 221 health care provider visits collected for the study participants, with service dates ranging from September 2013 to July 2015. Frequency of provider visits was significantly lower after resolution of a case on CrowdMed (mean of 1.07 visits per month pre-resolution vs. 0.65 visits per month post-resolution, P=.01). Medical charges were also significantly lower after case resolution (mean of US $719.70 per month pre-resolution vs. US $516.79 per month post-resolution, P=.03). There was no significant relationship between study results and disease onset date, and there was no evidence of regression to the mean influencing results. Conclusions This study employed technology-enabled methods to demonstrate that patients who used CrowdMed had lower health care utilization after case resolution. However

  1. Analysis of the bereavement effect after the death of a spouse in the Amish: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Seifter, Ari; Singh, Sarabdeep; McArdle, Patrick F; Ryan, Kathleen A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Schäffer, Alejandro A

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the association between bereavement and the mortality of a surviving spouse among Amish couples. We hypothesised that the bereavement effect would be relatively small in the Amish due to the unusually cohesive social structure of the Amish that might attenuate the loss of spousal support. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting The USA. Participants 10 892 Amish couples born during 1725–1900 located in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana. All the participants are deceased. Outcome measures The survival time is ‘age’; event is ‘death’. Hazard ratios (HRs) of widowed individuals with respect to gender, age at widowhood, remarriage, the number of surviving children and time since bereavement. Results We observed HRs for widowhood ranging from 1.06 to 1.26 over the study period (nearly all differences significant at p<0.05). Mortality risks tended to be higher in men than in women and in younger compared with older bereaved spouses. There were significantly increased mortality risks in widows and widowers who did not remarry. We observed a higher number of surviving children to be associated with increased mortality in men and women. Mortality risk following bereavement was higher in the first 6 months among men and women. Conclusions We conclude that bereavement effects remain apparent even in this socially cohesive Amish community. Remarriage is associated with a significant decrease in the mortality risk among Amish individuals. Contrary to results from previous studies, an increase in the number of surviving children was associated with decreased survival rate. PMID:24435888

  2. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  3. Retrospective analysis of vocal cord-to-suprasternal notch distance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerim; Chang, Jee-Eun; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Jung, Haesun; Min, Seong-Won; Lee, Jung-Man; Hwang, Jin-Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endotracheal tube (ETT) positioning using the cuff ballottement test, which confirms that the inflated cuff is positioned at the suprasternal notch with squeezing or inflating a pilot balloon, has been reported to be a simple and reliable method of preventing endobronchial intubation. However, in patients with a short vocal cord-to-suprasternal notch, ETT placement using the cuff ballottement test can cause vocal cord injury. In the present study, we assessed the distance from a point 15 mm below the vocal cord to the suprasternal notch (VSD-15), the safe position for ETT cuff placement above the suprasternal notch, and investigated variables for predicting VSD-15. We retrospectively examined neck computed tomography in 427 adult patients and measured VSD-15 and the distance from the thyroid notch to the suprasternal notch (TSD). Patient height, weight, sex, and age were also recorded. In total, 47 patients (11.0%) showed a VSD-15 shorter than 45 mm. VSD-15 significantly correlated with TSD (r = 0.778, P < 0.001) and height (r = 0.312, P < 0.001), and inversely correlated with age (r = −0.321, P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression models, a formula was obtained for VSD-15 (VSD-15 [mm] = −6.220 + 0.744 × TSD [mm] + 0.092 × height [cm] − 0.065 × age [years], R2 = 0.621). The cuff ballottement test should be used cautiously in patients with a predicted short VSD-15. VSD-15 can be predicted from TSD, height, and age. PMID:28207550

  4. Tuberculosis of hip in children: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Myung-Sang; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sung-Rak; Moon, Young-Wan; Moon, Jeong-Lim; Moon, Seog-In

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of hip constitutes nearly 15% of all cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis. We report a retrospective study carried out on 43 children with hip TB. Materials and Methods: Forty-three children of TB hip treated between 1971 and 2000 were analysed. Twenty-four children of the early series were treated with streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H) and PAS (Pa) for 18 months (3HPaS, 15 HPa), while 19 children in the later series were treated with isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) or pyrazinamide (Z) for 12 months [(12 RHE(Z)]. Five out of 18 children with radiologically normal appearing type hip TB were treated with chemotherapy alone and 38 children were subjected to surgery; simple synovectomy alone in 31 hips, joint debridement in six hips, and proximal femoral varisation osteotomy in one. After surgery hips were immobilized in cast for one to three months according to the severity of the disease and patients pain tolerance, and then were mobilized under leg traction in bed gradually till pain subsided completely. Results: TB of hip healed with minimum sequelae in all children. In 18 Type one hip TB, normal hip (synovial form) anatomy was maintained, and in 25 patients with advanced lesions some defect in the femoral head and acetabulum was noticed, though painless good hip motion was maintained. Excellent to good results were obtained in 31 children (73.1%), fair in eight (18.6%), and poor in four (9.3%). In four patients with poor results, there was some residual morphological defect in the hip. None developed ankylosis of hip. Conclusion: We achieved good outcome with minimum sequelae in this series. The management goal should be aimed not only to heal the disease but also to maintain a painless mobile hip and anatomical cephalocotyloid relationship until maturity, and retard the development of secondary osteoarthritis. PMID:22448058

  5. Analysis of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration to clinical investigators, institutional review boards and sponsors: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Yashashri C; Saiyed, Aafreen A

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues warning letters to all research stakeholders if unacceptable deficiencies are found during site visits. Warning letters issued by the FDA between January 2011 and December 2012 to clinical investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) were reviewed for various violation themes and compared to similar studies in the past. Warning letters issued to sponsors between January 2005 and December 2012 were analysed for the first time for a specific set of violations using descriptive statistics. Failure to protect subject safety and to report adverse events to IRBs was found to be significant compared to prior studies for clinical investigators, while failure to follow standard operating procedures and maintain documentation was noted as significant in warning letters to IRBs. Failure to maintain minutes of meeting and to follow written procedures for continuing review were new substantial violations in warning letters issued to IRBs. Forty-six warning letters were issued to sponsors, the most common violations being failure to follow a monitoring schedule (58.69%), failure to obtain investigator agreement (34.78%), failure to secure investigators' compliance (30.43%), and failure to maintain data records and ship documents to investigators (30.43%). Appropriate methods for handling clinical trial procedural violations should be developed and implemented worldwide.

  6. A 40-year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Ameloblastoma in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Salehinejad, Jahanshah; Ghazi, Narges; Shirdel, Mohammad; Razi, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. It may show locally invasive behavior resulting in recurrence and malignancy. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of this tumor is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics of ameloblastomas in an Iranian population. We present a 40-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed from 1971 to 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. Information gathered from patient records included age, gender, tumor location and histologic type. The frequency of odontogenic tumors among all lesions was 2.08% and ameloblastoma with 88 samples demonstrated the greatest prevalence (41.5%). Regarding gender, 60% of samples occurred in males. The mean age of studied patients was 33.02± 15.74 years with a peak of occurrence in the third decade of life. The most frequent location of tumor was the mandibles (93.2%). Eighty five (96.6%) tumors were recorded as benign and 3 (3.4%) as malignant. Of benign tumors, 62 (72.9%), 20 (23.5%) and 3 (3.6%) cases were of conventional, unicyctic and peripheral types, respectively. In contrast to most previous studies, the most common histologic subtype in the present study was plexiform. Knowledge of the incidence of ameloblastoma and its clinicopathologic features including most common location, gender and age distribution in different ethnogeographic backgrounds is necessary for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

  7. Surgeon specialization and operative mortality in United States: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Maurice; Cutler, David M; Birkmeyer, John D; Chandra, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between a surgeon’s degree of specialization in a specific procedure and patient mortality. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare data. Setting US patients aged 66 or older enrolled in traditional fee for service Medicare. Participants 25 152 US surgeons who performed one of eight procedures (carotid endarterectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, lung resection, cystectomy, pancreatic resection, or esophagectomy) on 695 987 patients in 2008-13. Main outcome measure Relative risk reduction in risk adjusted and volume adjusted 30 day operative mortality between surgeons in the bottom quarter and top quarter of surgeon specialization (defined as the number of times the surgeon performed the specific procedure divided by his/her total operative volume across all procedures). Results For all four cardiovascular procedures and two out of four cancer resections, a surgeon’s degree of specialization was a significant predictor of operative mortality independent of the number of times he or she performed that procedure: carotid endarterectomy (relative risk reduction between bottom and top quarter of surgeons 28%, 95% confidence interval 0% to 48%); coronary artery bypass grafting (15%, 4% to 25%); valve replacement (46%, 37% to 53%); abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (42%, 29% to 53%); lung resection (28%, 5% to 46%); and cystectomy (41%, 8% to 63%). In five procedures (carotid endarterectomy, valve replacement, lung resection, cystectomy, and esophagectomy), the relative risk reduction from surgeon specialization was greater than that from surgeon volume for that specific procedure. Furthermore, surgeon specialization accounted for 9% (coronary artery bypass grafting) to 100% (cystectomy) of the relative risk reduction otherwise attributable to volume in that specific procedure. Conclusion For several common procedures, surgeon specialization was an important predictor

  8. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva-dos-Santos, Amilcar; Talina, Miguel Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years), consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI) were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI) and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification). No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age. PMID:27257547

  9. Retrospective mortality study of cadmium workers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Thun, M.J.; Schnorr, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-02-06

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a group of workers exposed to cadmium (7440439), to determine specific causes of death among these workers. The report reviewed the findings of the study and presented additional findings concerning exposures to other hazards at the facility. The study examined the causes of death for 292 cadmium workers who worked at least 2 years at a small facility that recovered cadmium from bag house dust. Exposures included dusts of cadmium-oxide (1306190) and cadmium-sulfide (1306236) and to fumes of cadmium itself. Over a two fold excess of deaths from respiratory cancer was noted among these workers when compared with the general population and over a three fold excess of deaths from prostatic cancer among the men. A follow up of the study cohort revealed that all cause mortality was slightly below that of the United States male population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for circulatory disease was 65. Deaths due to respiratory cancer were 65% above the number expected. All of the 20 deaths from respiratory cancer were due to cancer of the lung, trachea and bronchus. Deaths due to genitourinary cancer were 35% above expected levels.

  10. Acetazolamide in vestibular migraine prophylaxis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Çelebisoy, Neşe; Gökçay, Figen; Karahan, Ceyda; Bilgen, Cem; Kirazlı, Tayfun; Karapolat, Hale; Köse, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to check the efficacy of acetazolamide in the prophylaxis of vestibular migraine (VM). Treatment options in VM are mainly based on migraine guidelines. We tried to assess the efficacy of acetazolamide in these patients depending on clinical similarities with episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine responding to the drug. This is a retrospective cohort study. Among 50 patients with VM and prescribed acetazolamide 500 mg/day, 39 patients were studied as five had been lost on follow-up and six had stopped taking the drug due to side effects. Vertigo and headache frequency determined by number of attacks per month, and the severity determined by visual analog scales measured in centimeters from 0 to 10 were collected from the records. Initial reported figures for frequency and severity were compared with the results gathered after 3 months of treatment. The results were compared. Acetazolamide was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of vertigo and headache attacks and this effect was more prominent for vertigo frequency and severity.

  11. Bilateral Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas and its Outcome: a Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Deepa; Sharma, Mukesh; Patil, Deepak Bhanudas; Shende, Neeraj; Chauhan, Richa Singh

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the age distribution, mode of injury, type of hematomas, and their surgical outcome in patients with bilateral traumatic head injuries. The present study included 669 cases of traumatic head injury who presented at the neurosurgery emergency out of which 94 cases had bilateral head injuries from the period of August 2009 to April 2014. The data from the hospital computerized database were retrospectively analysed. Cases of bilateral traumatic head injury included 94 patients out of which 88.29 % (n = 83) were males and 11.70 % (n = 11) were females. Commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident in 56.38 % (n = 53) followed by fall from height in 29.78 % (n = 28). In our study, 25.53 % patients had epidural hematoma (EDH) with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) or contusion (n = 24), followed by EDH with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 18.08 % (n = 17). At the time of discharge, all those patients managed conservatively had good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) while with surgical intervention 58 % patients had good GOS, 19 % had moderate disability, and 9 % remained with severe disability. In cases of bilateral hematomas, EDH is most common and should be managed in neurosurgical emergency. Other combinations of bilateral intracranial hematomas should be managed according to the surgical indication and serial CT imaging.

  12. Retrospective study of ameloblastoma: the possibility of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takumi; Imai, Yusuke; Takeda, Daisuke; Yasuoka, Daisuke; Ri, Shinshou; Shigeta, Takashi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Komori, Takahide

    2013-11-09

    At our institutions, most cases of the solid or multicystic type were treated as conservatively as possible in order to avoid disadvantages of radical treatment. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyze the ameloblastoma cases diagnosed at our two institutions, to classify them according to the criteria of the 2005 WHO classification, and to evaluate the possibility of using a conservative approach for the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma. Maxillary cases, unicystic cases, peripheral cases and resection-treated cases were excluded from this study. In 23 tumors of mandibular solid or multicystic ameloblastoma, a patient's age, gender, location, clinical signs, duration, radiographic appearance, preoperative diagnosis, ameloblastoma subtypes, treatment, and recurrence were investigated. The recurrence rate (48.7%) in this study was lower than the reported recurrence rate after conservative treatment for solid or multicystic ameloblastoma and was higher than the reported recurrence rate of ameloblastoma, inclusive of other types. However, all patients who were diagnosed with recurrences have maintained their quality of life and were satisfied for at least several years after the conservative treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated one possibility that a conservative approach might be employed in the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma (even of the solid or multicystic type).

  13. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  14. Radiographic evaluation of mandibular ramus for gender estimation: Retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Damera, Ajit; Mohanalakhsmi, Jonnala; Yellarthi, Pavan Kumar; Rezwana, Begum Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Gender estimation is a very important part of a study in the field of anthropology and forensic sciences. In the skeleton, gender estimation is the first step of the identification process as subsequent methods for age and stature estimation are sex-dependent. Skeletal components such as the pelvis and skull are investigated for gender estimation and the mandible is a practical element to analyze sexual dimorphism in fragmented bones. The aim of the present study is to measure, compare, and evaluate various measurements of the mandibular ramus, observed in digital orthopantomographs and also to assess the usefulness of the mandibular ramus as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: A radiographic retrospective study was conducted using 80 digital orthopantomographs to measure, compare, and evaluate the measurements of the mandibular ramus such as maximum ramus breadth, maximum ramus height, and coronoid heightusing Planmeca ProMax® digital machine to assess the usefulness of mandibular measurements in gender estimation. Results: Descriptive statistics of various measurements and associated univariate F ratios for both the sexes were determined. Four variables were significant predictor in classifying a given sample (P < 0.001). The F-statistic values indicated that measurements expressing the greatest sexual dimorphism were noticed in the maximum ramus height. Conclusion: Mandibular ramus can be considered as a valuable tool in gender estimation and the most reliable measurements were obtained of linear objects in the horizontal plane by digital panoramic imaging. PMID:27555722

  15. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772

  16. Alopecia Areata in the Elderly: A 10-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyung Hea; Kim, Sang Lim; Lim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Seok-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease that typically occurs in young adults. AA in the elderly is relatively rare, thus little data have been reported. Objective This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of AA in the elderly. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective study of AA in the elderly who visited our dermatologic clinic from January 2002 to December 2011. A clinical review of medical records and telephone interviews were performed by two dermatologists. Results Among 1,761 patients with newly diagnosed AA, 61 (3.5%) were older than 60 years at the first visit. Among those who completed a telephone interview, 74.3% (26/35) had less than 50% of scalp-localized hair loss. There was no association between the extent of AA and hair graying (p=0.679). Favorable therapeutic response was observed in 62.9% (22/35) of cases. Conclusion AA in the elderly shows mild disease severity and favorable treatment response. There is no association between graying and the extent of AA. However, the influence of aging on the pathogenesis of AA in the elderly deserves further investigation. PMID:26273157

  17. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Demitrost, Laloo; Ranabir, Salam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8%) are euthyroid, 33 (16.3%) have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females), 23 (11.4%) have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females), 4 (2%) have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5%) are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016). Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25. PMID:23565418

  18. Infantile acne: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.

  19. Influence of cholesterol on survival after stroke: retrospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dyker, A. G.; Weir, C. J.; Lees, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum cholesterol concentration and cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Acute stroke unit of inner city general hospital. SUBJECTS: 977 patients with acute stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total cholesterol concentration, type of stroke investigated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, three month outcome (good (alive at home) or bad (dead or in care)), long term mortality. RESULTS: After adjustment for known prognostic factors, higher serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with reduced long term mortality after stroke (relative hazard 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.98) per mmol/l increase in cholesterol) independently of stroke type, vascular territory and extent, age, and hyperglycaemia. Three month outcome was also influenced independently by serum cholesterol (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest an association between poor stroke outcome and lower serum cholesterol concentration. Until a prospective controlled study has confirmed the benefits of lowering cholesterol concentration in elderly subjects, the application of cholesterol lowering guidelines cannot be justified as secondary prevention of acute stroke. PMID:9169402

  20. Relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients’ treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients’ folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important. PMID:25202219

  1. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  2. Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin.

    PubMed

    Tang, A T; Björkman, L; Lindbäck, K F; Andlin-Sobocki, A; Ekstrand, J

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used to bond full arch fixed appliances onto patients' upper teeth. Patients' appliances, which were bonded with Phase II composite and liquid resin, were used as the control group (n = 37). The duration of the appliance survival, from the date of appliance bonding to the date of first accidental bracket loss, was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product limit method and log-rank test. Our data suggested that supragingival orthodontic metal brackets seemed to bond on healthy enamel surfaces and to work equally well either with or without the use of liquid resin. The total percentages of bond failure, roughly 6%, were similar in both test and control groups. Approximately 73% of all patients in the test group and 57% of the patients in the control group experienced no bond failure at all throughout the entire course of treatment.

  3. A clinical analysis of brain metastasis in gynecologic cancer: a retrospective multi-institute analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Zoon; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lim, Soyi

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the clinical characteristics of the brain metastasis (BM) of gynecologic cancer based on the type of cancer. In addition, the study examines the factors influencing the survival. Total 61 BM patients of gynecologic cancer were analyzed retrospectively from January 2000 to December 2012 in terms of clinical and radiological characteristics by using medical and radiological records from three university hospitals. There were 19 (31.1%) uterine cancers, 32 (52.5%) ovarian cancers, and 10 (16.4%) cervical cancers. The mean interval to BM was 25.4 months (21.6 months in ovarian cancer, 27.8 months in uterine cancer, and 33.1 months in cervical cancer). The mean survival from BM was 16.7 months (14.1 months in ovarian cancer, 23.3 months in uterine cancer, and 8.8 months in cervical cancer). According to a multivariate analysis of factors influencing survival, type of primary cancer, Karnofsky performance score, status of primary cancer, recursive partitioning analysis class, and treatment modality, particularly combined therapies, were significantly related to the overall survival. These results suggest that, in addition to traditional prognostic factors in BM, multiple treatment methods such as neurosurgery and combined chemoradiotherapy may play an important role in prolonging the survival for BM patients of gynecologic cancer.

  4. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  5. Total thyroidectomy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Russo, G; Sgueglia, M; Blasi, S; Tortorelli, G; Tromba, L; Krizzuk, D; Merola, R

    2014-01-01

    In the English literature there is no single definition that identifies elderly patients. In our retrospective study, we divided total thyroidectomized patients operated on from 2000 to 2010 in the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, in two groups: group 1 consists of 448 patients over 65 years and group 2 consists of 1275 patients under 65 years. We compared both groups in terms of indications for surgery, histological diagnoses, postoperative complications (laryngeal nerv palsy, hypocalcemia, bleeding and seroma) and mortality. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the type of surgical indication, the type of comorbidities, the incidence of postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. The only data discordant with those in the international literature was the incidence of neoplastic disease that is found to be slightly greater in group 2. In conclusion, total thyroidectomy in patients over 65 years is a safe procedure and is not burdened with a higher percentage of postoperative complications, even if requires a careful preoperative assessment of risk factors related to comorbidity.

  6. Somatization in Post-Concussion Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibaldi, James C

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of concussion patient data conducted to analyze the prevalence of somatization in patients presenting with post-concussion symptoms. Patient records from June 2010 to December 2015 were examined for concussion history, psychosocial history, neuropsychological test results, validity scores, and a symptom severity scale. Records meeting inclusion criteria from 33 males and 27 females were located. The sample had an age range of 11–78 years with a mean age of 33.40 (SD +/- 7.5 years). A clinically significant number of patients (55%) were found to be somaticizing their symptoms and a significant majority (78%) of somaticizing patients reported no loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia, or post-traumatic amnesia but their symptom validity scales were significantly exaggerated. Caution should be exercised by clinicians to ensure that the obtained results of neuropsychological testing are reliable and valid. It is very important for the clinician to take into account the entire patient history, including psychosocial factors (such as pre-existing psychological traits or conditions) and social influences (such as stressors in family dynamics or work/school activities that may be affecting the patient's complaints). PMID:27766190

  7. Results after wisdom tooth transplantation. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Silvio; Beck, Isabelle; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom tooth transplants offer youth the possibility of biologically fixed tooth replacement in cases of premolar agenesis or premature loss of a molar. In the present study, 57 transplants of third molars were reviewed and evaluated retrospectively on preoperative findings (root growth stages, extraction sites, indication for transplantation), on postoperative clinical findings (local gingivitis, periodontal probing values, tooth mobility, percussion sound and percussion pain) and on radiological findings (tertiary build-up of dentin, osseous periradicular conditions, progress of root growth). Only the transplants which healed with a vital pulp and in a periodontally healthy state were considered successful. Upper and lower wisdom teeth having 50% to 75% root growth progression were transplanted. The postoperative follow-up observation period averaged 26.4 months. The success of a wisdom tooth transplantation was not influenced by the root growth stage (p = 1), the extraction location of wisdom teeth (p = 0.45), or the feasibility for a transplantation (p = 0.56). Three teeth showed pulpal necrosis with apical periodontitis and were counted as failures. The success rate was rather high with 54 out of 57 transplants (94.7%), therefore wisdom tooth transplantations, with careful selection of a suitable graft and its gentle removal, can be described as a good predictable treatment.

  8. Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).

  9. Laryngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samantha S; Harvey, Andrea M; Barr, Frances J; Moore, Alasdair H; Day, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review the medical records of cats referred to the University of Bristol for investigation of laryngeal disease (n=35). Cases were categorised into one of four groups: cats with laryngeal paralysis (LP, n=14), laryngeal neoplasia (n=10), laryngeal inflammation (n=6), or miscellaneous laryngeal diseases (n=5). Laryngoscopy and echolaryngography were useful diagnostic techniques but histology was required for diagnosis of diseases other than LP. Two cats with lymphoma received chemotherapy achieving survival times of 60 and 1440 days. Four cats with LP were treated surgically, with a median survival time of 300 days (range 10-360 days) and six were treated conservatively with a median survival time of 780 days (range 300-2520 days). Three cats with inflammatory disease were treated medically and one by excision of the lesion. Two cats achieved survival times of 120 and 2800 days. Cats with LP, laryngeal lymphoma or laryngitis had excellent long-term survival following appropriate treatment.

  10. Inherited bleeding disorders: a 14-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Suhair S; Kamal, Nazmi R; Shubeilat, Taisir S; Wael, Abu-Ghoush Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Congenital bleeding disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that reflect abnormalities of blood vessels, coagulation proteins, and platelets. A 14-year retrospective study (1991-2005) was conducted for patients referred to the coagulation section of the Hematology Department (King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan), who had suffered from bleeding tendencies to assess the prevalence of bleeding disorders among Jordanians and to describe their clinical manifestations. Four hundred and three patients matched our criteria. All patients were screened with routine coagulation assays and a complete blood cell count; a factor assay was performed if indicated by the results of the screening assays. A total of 168 patients (41.6%) were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder caused by a factor deficiency, of which 17.1% were described as hemophilia A (n=69), 6.2% were described as vWD (n=25), and 4.2% were described as hemophilia B (n=17). A subset of the total patient population comprising 14.1% of the patients were diagnosed with a Rare Inherited Coagulation Deficiency (RICD), where 4.0% were FX deficient (n=16), 3.7% were FVII deficient (n=15), 3.7% were FV deficient (n=15), 2.5% were FXI deficient (n=10), and 0.2% were diagnosed with afibrinogenemia (n=1).

  11. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  12. Ankylosis of impacted canines: a retrospective post-surgical study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alain

    2013-12-01

    Ankylosis is generally discovered following resistance to orthodontic displacement of an impacted canine. This retrospective study, drawing on direct perioperative observation of impacted teeth and of their sites, is intended, among other things, to analyze the causes of resistance to orthodontic movement and to report on the therapeutic interest of the surgical tooth displacement technique in this type of clinical situation. We demonstrate that primary coronal ankylosis can be detected by the orthodontic practitioner using radiographic records, that cervical ankylosis consequent to operative trauma during release is necessarily unpredictable and that it should be suspected when the tooth resists traction for more than 3 months in the absence of any other obvious cause of resistance. Hence, the risk of ankylosis linked to the level of surgical difficulty increases with the depth of coronal submergence within the bone. Moreover, the immediate placement of traction following release reduces the risk of ankylosis. In addition, temporarily suspending traction is a risk factor for secondary apical ankylosis. Finally, surgical positioning should be borne in mind as the final effective option when faced with any form of dental retention.

  13. Demodex dermatitis: a retrospective analysis of clinical diagnosis and successful treatment with topical crotamiton.

    PubMed

    Bikowski, Joseph B; Del Rosso, James Q

    2009-01-01

    Given the reported common occurrence of Demodex dermatitis in the general population, Demodex dermatitis-considered as a separate condition from rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis-was evaluated in a retrospective case analysis.

  14. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  15. Comorbidities Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Ribeiro, Davi Knoll; Cavallini, Andre Freitas da Silva; Duarte, Caue; Freitas, Gabriel Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiac and encephalic alterations, behavioral, among others, resulting in a significant source of public health care by generating a high financial and social impact. The importance of this assessment proves to be useful, because the incidence of patients with comorbidities associated with AOS has been increasing consistently and presents significant influence in natural disease history. Objective The objective of this study is to assess major comorbidities associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prevalence in a group of patients diagnosed clinically and polysomnographically with OSA. Methods This is a retrospective study of 100 charts from patients previously diagnosed with OSA in our service between October 2010 and January 2013. Results We evaluated 100 patients with OSA (84 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50.05 years (range 19–75 years). The prevalence of comorbidities were hypertension (39%), obesity (34%), depression (19%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (18%), diabetes mellitus (15%), hypercholesterolemia (10%), asthma (4%), and no comorbidities (33%). Comorbidities occurred in 56.2% patients diagnosed with mild OSA, 67.6% with moderate OSA, and 70% of patients with severe OSA. Conclusion According to the current literature data and the values obtained in our paper, we can correlate through expressive values obesity with OSA and their apnea hypopnea index (AHI) values. However, despite significant prevalence of OSA with other comorbidities, our study could not render expressive significance values able to justify their correlations. PMID:27096019

  16. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  17. Retrospective Questions or a Diary Method? A Two-Level Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop J.; Kleiboer, Annet M.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a comparison between retrospective questions and daily diaries inquiring about positive and negative support in spousal interactions. The design was a multitrait-multimethod matrix with trait factors of positive and negative support, and method factors of retrospective questions and daily asked questions. Five questions were…

  18. Bilateral carpal tunnel surgery in one operation: Retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Herisson, O; Dury, M; Rapp, E; Marin-Braun, F

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment syndrome. The incidence of a bilateral condition varies between 22% and 87%. The aim of our study was to assess the level of satisfaction and the clinical outcomes in a group of patients operated on through a bilateral neurolysis on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, in one operating session. This is a retrospective study involving patients with an electromyographic and clinical diagnosis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients were treated on an outpatient basis and the bilateral neurolysis was performed by endoscopy. The postoperative data was collected during consultation by a senior surgeon or during telephone interviews. Patients were asked to respond to a satisfaction questionnaire and the functional outcome was assessed through the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) questionnaire. Twenty-nine patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were operated on in single operating sessions between January 2009 and January 2014. The average follow-up was 46 months. The average age at the time of the intervention was 45 years. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 27 were able to be assessed. In relation to the clinical and functional outcomes, the average Quick-DASH score was 6.78 (ranges: 0-43.2). Twenty-five patients (92.5%) were satisfied with this simultaneous treatment and 26 patients (96%) would choose the same technique again. One-stage surgery in cases of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome appears to constitute a benefit for the patient, the surgeon and the anaesthetist, but it is reserved for patients who request it and who are motivated by this type of intervention.

  19. Neurological Complications after Renal Transplantation: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    CENGİZ, Nilgün; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; YAKUPOĞLU, Yarkın Kamil; TÜRKER, Hande

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and types of neurological complications (NCs) and associated factors in renal transplantation (RT) patients. Methods Three hundred and forty-four patients who had RT performed at our institution between January 2005 and July 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Results File records of the patients revealed 19 who experienced a total of 22 episodes of NCs, of whom three had more than one episode. The mean age of 19 patients included in the study, of whom eight were female, was 37.52±13.08 (range, 18–65) years. NCs were classified into central or peripheral depending on the location of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). CNS involvement was found in 16 (84.2%) of the 19 patients. Tremor (36.8%) was the most common CNS complication in these patients. Encephalopathy, generalized tonic–clonic seizures, and status epilepticus were observed in two patients (10.5%). Delirium and dementia were observed in one patient (5.2%). Headache was experienced by one patient, and agitated depression was observed in one patient. Six patients (26.3%) had the peripheral nervous system involvement. One patient had the numbness of hands with normal electromyography findings, and four patients had polyneuropathy. In one patient, lumbar plexopathy was observed. Seventeen of the 22 NCs were considered to be caused by immunosuppressive agents. Each incidence of amyloidosis, infection, septic emboli, and hypoglycemia caused a neurological episode. The etiology of one episode was unknown. Conclusion Different neurological disorders can be seen after RT, and most of them are caused by immunosuppressive drugs. NCs seen after RT can be treated by decreasing the dose or changing the immunosuppressive drug.

  20. Caval filters in intensive care: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, F; Di Gennaro, TL; Torino, A; Petruzzi, J; d’Elia, A; Fusco, P; Marfella, R; Lettieri, B

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a caval vein filter (CVF) peri-implant monitoring protocol in order to reduce pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality and CVF-related morbidity. Background The reduction in mortality from PE associated with the use of CVF is affected by the risk of increase in morbidity. Therefore, CVF implant is a challenging prophylactic or therapeutic option. Nowadays, we have many different devices whose rational use, by applying a strict peri-implant monitoring protocol, could be safe and effective. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied 62 patients of a general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) scheduled for definitive, temporary, or optional bedside CVF implant. A peri-implant monitoring protocol including a phlebocavography, an echo-Doppler examination, and coagulation tests was adopted. Results In our study, no thromboembolic recurrence was registered. We implanted 48 retrievable and only 20 definitive CVFs. Endothelial adhesion (18%), residual clot (5%), cranial or caudal migration (6%), microbial colonization of the filter in the absence of clinical signs of infection (1%), caval thrombosis (1%), and pneumothorax (1%) were reported. Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) was reported (8%) as early complication. All patients with DVT had a temporary or optional filter implanted. However, in our cohort, definitive CVFs were reserved only to 32% of patients and they were not associated with DVT as complication. Conclusion CVF significantly reduces iatrogenic PE without affecting mortality. Generally, ICU patients have a transitory thromboembolic risk, and so the temporary CVF has been proved to be a first-line option to our cohort. A careful monitoring may contribute to a satisfactory outcome in order to promote CVF implant as a safe prophylaxis option. PMID:25395837

  1. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  2. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  3. Determining the utility of veterinary tissue archives for retrospective DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Firas M.

    2016-01-01

    Histopathology tissue archives can be an important source of specimens for retrospective studies, as these include samples covering a large number of diseases. In veterinary medicine, archives also contain samples from a large variety of species and may represent naturally-occurring models of human disease. The formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues comprising these archives are rich resources for retrospective molecular biology studies and pilot studies for biomarkers, as evidenced by a number of recent publications highlighting FFPE tissues as a resource for analysis of specific diseases. However, DNA extracted from FFPE specimens are modified and fragmented, making utilization challenging. The current study examines the utility of FFPE tissue samples from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory archive in five year intervals from 1977 to 2013, with 2015 as a control year, to determine how standard processing and storage conditions has affected their utility for future studies. There was a significant difference in our ability to obtain large amplicons from samples from 2015 than from the remaining years, as well as an inverse correlation between the age of the samples and product size obtainable. However, usable DNA samples were obtained in at least some of the samples from all years tested, despite variable storage, fixation, and processing conditions. This study will help make veterinary diagnostic laboratory archives more useful in future studies of human and veterinary disease. PMID:27168995

  4. Be alert to tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Yuan, Q; Feng, J; Yao, L; Fan, Q; Ma, J; Wang, L

    2012-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causing glomerulonephritis is a rare disorder. This retrospective study analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis-mediated glomerulonephritis (TB-GN) between 2002 and 2009, as well as the diagnostic tools used. These findings were then compared with those of patients with primary glomerulonephritis (P-GN). The records of all patients were reviewed. The diagnosis of TB-GN was based on renal hematuria and/or proteinuria and cure after antituberculosis therapy alone plus urine culture positive for M. tuberculosis, demonstration of typical tubercle granulomas on renal biopsy specimens, or the detection of M. tuberculosis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on renal specimens. Forty-six patients with TB-GN and 49 patients with P-GN were included. Compared with patients in the P-GN group, most (76%) patients with TB-GN had a history of TB. Systemic symptoms were much more frequent in patients with TB-GN than local genitourinary symptoms. Serological testing showed a statistical difference between the two groups. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy was found in the majority (72%) of patients with TB-GN. M. tuberculosis DNA detection was positive in 39 (84.8%) patients, a much higher positive rate of diagnosis than that with urine culture for M. tuberculosis. The manifestation of TB-GN is atypical and nonspecific. It warrants a high index of suspicion when patients with renal hematuria and proteinuria fail to respond to standard treatments for P-GN. Clinicians should pay close attention to the medical history and results of special laboratory tests. M. tuberculosis DNA detection on renal biopsy specimens should be considered in order to confirm the diagnosis of TB-GN.

  5. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. Material and Methods A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. Results The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Conclusions Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Key words:Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy

  6. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  7. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  8. Acute Surgical Pulmonary Embolectomy: A 9-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Alan R.; Manetta, Frank; Lessen, Ronald; Kozikowski, Andrzej; Jahn, Lynda; Akerman, Meredith; Lesser, Martin L.; Glassman, Lawrence R.; Graver, Michael; Scheinerman, Jacob S.; Kalimi, Robert; Palazzo, Robert; Vatsia, Sheel; Pogo, Gustave; Hall, Michael; Yu, Pey-Jen; Singh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is a substantial cause of morbidity and death. Although the American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend surgical pulmonary embolectomy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism associated with hypotension, there are few reports of 30-day mortality rates. We performed a retrospective review of acute pulmonary embolectomy procedures performed in 96 consecutive patients who had severe, globally hypokinetic right ventricular dysfunction as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Data on patients who were treated from January 2003 through December 2011 were derived from health system databases of the New York State Cardiac Surgery Reporting System and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The data represent procedures performed at 3 tertiary care facilities within a large health system operating in the New York City metropolitan area. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 4.2%. Most patients (68 [73.9%]) were discharged home or to rehabilitation facilities (23 [25%]). Hemodynamically stable patients with severe, globally hypokinetic right ventricular dysfunction had a 30-day mortality rate of 1.4%, with a postoperative mean length of stay of 9.1 days. Comparable findings for hemodynamically unstable patients were 12.5% and 13.4 days, respectively. Acute pulmonary embolectomy can be a viable procedure for patients with severe, globally hypokinetic right ventricular dysfunction, with or without hemodynamic compromise; however, caution is warranted. Our outcomes might be dependent upon institutional capability, experience, surgical ability, and careful patient selection. PMID:25873794

  9. Risk factors associated with postcraniotomy meningitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hua; Chang, Chih-Yen; Lin, Li-Jhen; Chen, Wei Liang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Yen, Hua-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postcraniotomy meningitis (PCM) is a major challenge in neurosurgery, and changing patterns of infectious agents in PCM have been noted. The limited epidemiological data and urgent clinical needs motivated this research. We conducted this study to determine a risk assessment for PCM and the current pattern of infectious agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study of significant cases of postcraniotomy meningitis in the Changhua Christian Hospital System between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Postcraniotomy meningitis was diagnosed in 22 out of 4392 surgical patients; this data was reviewed for risk assessment. This study assessed the risk factors for postcraniotomy meningitis and found that it was more frequently seen in patients who were elderly (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–2.98, P = 0.013), underwent emergency procedures (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.50–14.53, P = 0.008), had leak of cerebrospinal fluid (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = 2.03–10.50, P = 0.012), had external ventricular drainage (OR = 4.68, 95% CI = 2.46–8.87, P = 0.006), were admitted to the intensive care unit (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.53–8.08, P = 0.012), had used drain placement >72 hours (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.04–4.29, P = 0.007), had surgery >4.5 hours (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.39–4.05, P = 0.005), had repeat operations (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.31–5.73, P = 0.018), endured trauma (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 1.57–17.61, P = 0.007), or had 30-days mortality (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.20–11.48, P = 0.001). The predominant pathogens isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were Staphylococcus aureus in 8 patients (36.7%) and Acinetobacter baumannii in 7 patients (31.8%). In our study, the mortality rate was 5.1% among all postcraniotomy patients. Accurate risk assessment, early diagnosis, and choice of appropriate antibiotics in accordance with epidemiologic information are

  10. Trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and impacts of infection control practices including universal MRSA admission screening in a hospital in Scotland, 2006–2010: retrospective cohort study and time-series intervention analysis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Becky; López-Lozano, José-Maria; Gould, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe secular trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and to assess the impacts of infection control practices, including universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) admission screening on associated clinical burdens. Design Retrospective cohort study and multivariate time-series analysis linking microbiology, patient management and health intelligence databases. Setting Teaching hospital in North East Scotland. Participants All patients admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010: n=420 452 admissions and 1 430 052 acute occupied bed days (AOBDs). Intervention Universal admission screening programme for MRSA (August 2008) incorporating isolation and decolonisation. Primary and secondary measures Hospital-wide prevalence density, hospital-associated incidence density and death within 30 days of MRSA or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia. Results Between 2006 and 2010, prevalence density of all SAB declined by 41%, from 0.73 to 0.50 cases/1000 AOBDs (p=0.002 for trend), and 30-day mortality from 26% to 14% (p=0.013). Significant reductions were observed in MRSA bacteraemia only. Overnight admissions screened for MRSA rose from 43% during selective screening to >90% within 4 months of universal screening. In multivariate time-series analysis (R2 0.45 to 0.68), universal screening was associated with a 19% reduction in prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia (−0.035, 95% CI −0.049 to −0.021/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001), a 29% fall in hospital-associated incidence density (−0.029, 95% CI −0.035 to −0.023/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001) and a 46% reduction in 30-day mortality (−15.6, 95% CI −24.1% to −7.1%; p<0.001). Positive associations with fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin use suggested that antibiotic stewardship reduced prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia by 0.027 (95% CI 0.015 to 0.039)/1000 AOBDs. Rates of MSSA bacteraemia were not

  11. Retrospective analysis of "new" flame retardants in the global atmosphere under the GAPS Network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sum Chi; Sverko, Ed; Harner, Tom; Pozo, Karla; Barresi, Enzo; Schachtschneider, JoAnne; Zaruk, Donna; DeJong, Maryl; Narayan, Julie

    2016-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on air samples that were collected in 2005 under the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network around the time period when the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants came into force. Results are presented for several new flame retardants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which was recently listed under the Convention (2013). These results represent the first global-scale distributions in air for these compounds. The targeted compounds are shown to have unique global distributions in air, which highlights the challenges in understanding the sources and environmental fate of each chemical, and ultimately in their assessments as persistent organic pollutants. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of using the PUF disk passive air sampler to study these new flame retardants in air, many of which exist entirely in the particle-phase as demonstrated in this study using a KOA-based partitioning model.

  12. The importance of drug-induced sedation endoscopy (D.I.S.E.) techniques in surgical decision making: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques-a prospective randomized controlled study and a retrospective surgical outcomes analysis.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Zani, Gianluca; Corso, Ruggero Massimo; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Firinu, Elisabetta; Marchi, Chiara; Hsu, Ying-Shuo; Maitan, Stefano; Vicini, Claudio

    2017-02-17

    Drug-Induced Sedation Endoscopy (DISE) consists of the direct observation of the upper airways during sedative-induced sleep, allowing the identification of the sites of pharyngeal collapse, which is the main pathological event in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The Authors have compared Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) sedation endoscopy (TCI-DISE) technique to conventional DISE (CDISE), performed by a manual bolus injection of sedative agent, to recreate accurately and safely snoring and apnea patterns comparable to natural sleep. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, long-term study and a retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes. The apnea-event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plan of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to January 2011, OSA patients were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the TCI-DISE group. Third endpoint is to compare the surgical outcomes enrolling OSA patients from January 2009 to June 2015. We recorded the complete apnea-event at oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 15/50 pts in conventional DISE group (30%) and in 99/123 pts in TCI-DISE group (81%) (p < 0.0001). Four pts needed oxygen in conventional DISE group because a severe desaturation occurred during the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (p = 0.4872 ns). We recorded instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients of conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient of the TCI-DISE group (5%) (p = 0.0001). In 37 TCI-DISE group surgical patients we reported a significant reduction of postoperative AHI (from 42.7 ± 20.2 to 11.4 ± 10.3) in comparison with postoperative AHI in 15 C-DISE group surgical patients (from 41.3 ± 23.4 to 20.4 ± 15.5) (p = 0.05). Our results suggest the DISE-TCI technique as first choice in performing sleep

  13. Mutational Profile of Metastatic Breast Cancers: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pedrero, Marion; Campone, Mario; Soria, Jean-Charles; Massard, Christophe; Lévy, Christelle; Arnedos, Monica; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Garrabey, Julie; Boursin, Yannick; Deloger, Marc; Commo, Frédéric; Scott, Véronique; Kamal, Maud; Diéras, Véronique; Gonçalves, Anthony; Romieu, Gilles; Vanlemmens, Laurence; Mouret Reynier, Marie-Ange; Théry, Jean-Christophe; Le Du, Fanny; Guiu, Séverine; Dalenc, Florence; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Jimenez, Marta; Le Tourneau, Christophe; André, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of early breast cancer (eBC) genomic profiles. Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is associated with poor outcomes, yet limited information is available on the genomic profile of this disease. This study aims to decipher mutational profiles of mBC using next-generation sequencing. Methods and Findings Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 216 tumor–blood pairs from mBC patients who underwent a biopsy in the context of the SAFIR01, SAFIR02, SHIVA, or Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment Optimization (MOSCATO) prospective trials. Mutational profiles from 772 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as a reference for comparing primary and mBC mutational profiles. Twelve genes (TP53, PIK3CA, GATA3, ESR1, MAP3K1, CDH1, AKT1, MAP2K4, RB1, PTEN, CBFB, and CDKN2A) were identified as significantly mutated in mBC (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.1). Eight genes (ESR1, FSIP2, FRAS1, OSBPL3, EDC4, PALB2, IGFN1, and AGRN) were more frequently mutated in mBC as compared to eBC (FDR < 0.01). ESR1 was identified both as a driver and as a metastatic gene (n = 22, odds ratio = 29, 95% CI [9–155], p = 1.2e-12) and also presented with focal amplification (n = 9) for a total of 31 mBCs with either ESR1 mutation or amplification, including 27 hormone receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 negative (HER2−) mBCs (19%). HR+/HER2− mBC presented a high prevalence of mutations on genes located on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (TSC1 and TSC2) as compared to HR+/HER2− eBC (respectively 6% and 0.7%, p = 0.0004). Other actionable genes were more frequently mutated in HR+ mBC, including ERBB4 (n = 8), NOTCH3 (n = 7), and ALK (n = 7). Analysis of mutational signatures revealed a significant increase in APOBEC-mediated mutagenesis in HR+/HER2− metastatic tumors as compared to primary TCGA samples (p < 2e-16). The main limitations of this study include the absence of bone

  14. Infectious sacroiliitis: a retrospective, multicentre study of 39 adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-brucellar and non-tuberculous infectious sacroiliitis (ISI) is a rare disease, with misleading clinical signs that delay diagnosis. Most observations are based on isolated case reports or small case series. Our aim was to describe the clinical, bacteriological, and radiological characteristics of ISI, as well as the evolution of these arthritis cases under treatment. Methods This retrospective study included all ISI cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 in eight French rheumatology departments. ISI was diagnosed if sacroiliitis was confirmed bacteriologically or, in the absence of pathogenic agents, if clinical, biological, and radiological data was compatible with this diagnosis and evolution was favourable under antibiotic therapy. Results Overall, 39 cases of ISI were identified in adults, comprising 23 women and 16 men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 39.7 ± 18.1 years. The left sacroiliac joint (SI) was affected in 59% of cases, with five cases occurring during the post-partum period. Lumbogluteal pain was the most common symptom (36/39). Manipulations of the SI joint were performed in seven patients and were always painful. Mean score for pain using the visual analogue score was 7.3/10 at admission, while 16 patients were febrile at diagnosis. No risk factor was found for 30.7% of patients. A diagnosis of ISI was only suspected in five cases at admission. The mean time to diagnosis was long, being 43.3 ± 69.1 days on average. Mean C-reactive protein was 149.7 ± 115.3 mg/l, and leukocytosis (leukocytes ≥ 10 G/l) was uncommon (n = 15) (mean level of leukocytes 10.4 ± 3.5 G/l). Radiographs (n = 33) were abnormal in 20 cases, revealing lesions of SI, while an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan (n = 27) was abnormal in 21 cases, suggesting arthritis of the SI joints in 13 cases (48.1%) and a psoas abscess in eight. Bone scans (n = 14) showed hyperfixation of the SI in 13 cases. Magnetic

  15. A retrospective analysis of recommendations for workplace accommodations for persons with mobility and sensory limitations.

    PubMed

    Sabata, Dory; Williams, Michael D; Milchus, Karen; Baker, Paul M A; Sanford, Jon A

    2008-01-01

    Many studies of workplace accommodations have primarily focused on a particular disability or functional limitation. The need exists for a broad-based study of the types and frequency of accommodations recommended for a variety of functional limitations, including multiple limitations. The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of 266 persons who received vocational rehabilitation assessment to determine the frequency and types of recommended workplace accommodations. Computer systems/components and special tools/furnishings were the most frequently reported types of recommendations, regardless of functional limitation, whereas adaptive strategies were least likely to be suggested. In general, most job accommodation recommendations targeted the individual work space and were intended to assist in the completion of specific job tasks. Findings indicate that recommendations for workplace accommodations were surprisingly similar across all functional limitation groups.

  16. Thrombophilia diagnosis: a retrospective analysis of a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Spychalska-Zwolińska, Marta; Zwoliński, Tomasz; Mieczkowski, Artur; Budzyński, Jacek

    2015-09-01

    It is estimated that 30-50% of patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) could be diagnosed with congenital or acquired thrombophilia. Its diagnosis, however, rarely changes the clinical management, but is associated with significant costs and negative psychological and social aspects. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the causes and clinical consequences of diagnostics for thrombophilia. A retrospective review of the medical records of 5600 patients was performed, 62 of whom had, at the time, been diagnosed for thrombophilia because of a thromboembolic event. A review of the current literature on the validity of diagnostic tests for hypercoagulability in certain clinical conditions was also performed. The most common reason for thrombophilia testing was episodes of lower limb DVT (56%). The most frequently diagnosed abnormalities were the heterozygous form of the V Leiden gene (18%), protein S deficiency (11%), and the anti cardiolipin antibody IgG (11%). In 45% of the patients, laboratory results did not confirm the presence of any congenital thrombophilia. After receiving the results, 11% of the respondents completed oral anticoagulation therapy after 3 months, and 28% of patients qualified for indefinite use of oral anticoagulant therapy. In most of the cases examined, the diagnosis of thrombophilia did not significantly affect the treatment. A common aberration identified in patients with a history of thromboembolic incidents was the coexistence of risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  17. Suicidal hanging in Kuwait: retrospective analysis of cases from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elwahab Hassan, Dalia; Ghaleb, Sherein S; Kotb, Heba; Agamy, Mervat; Kharoshah, Magdy

    2013-11-01

    Suicide is an important health hazard worldwide. We retrospectively analyzed the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine between 2010 and 2012 to document the characteristics of fatalities resulting from hanging in Kuwait. Upon analysis of death scene investigation and autopsy reports together with the information gathered from the police, the cases of hanging fatalities of suicidal origin were selected. A retrospective study was carried out on 118 suicidal hanging cases autopsied at Forensic Medicine Center in Kuwait (from 2010 to 2012). Of these cases, 86 (73%) were males and 32 females (27%). There was an increasing trend of hanging among ages between 21 and 50 years (87.3%) and the third decade had the highest number of victims (about 43%) between all age groups. Local Kuwaiti nationals comprised a small proportion of cases (7 persons, 5.9%), while the others were foreigners working in Kuwait with an Indian precedence (54 persons, 54.8%), followed by other 12 different nationalities representing 39.3% of the cases. In conclusion, there was a decreasing trend of suicide by hanging in Kuwait from 44 cases in 2010 to 25 cases in 2012.

  18. The phenotypic spectrum of progressive supranuclear palsy: a retrospective multicenter study of 100 definite cases.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Kurz, Carolin; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alexander; Chiu, Wan Zheng; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Al Sarraj, Safa; Gelpi, Ellen; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Giese, Armin; Roeber, Sigrun; Arzberger, Thomas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Höglinger, Günter U

    2014-12-01

    The phenotypic variability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may account for its frequent misdiagnosis, in particular in early stages of the disease. However, large multicenter studies to define the frequency and natural history of PSP phenotypes are missing. In a cohort of 100 autopsy-confirmed patients we studied the phenotypic spectrum of PSP by retrospective chart review. Patients were derived from five brain banks with expertise in neurodegenerative disorders with referrals from multiple academic hospitals. The clinical characteristics of the 100 cases showed remarkable heterogeneity. Most strikingly, only 24% of cases presented as Richardson's Syndrome (RS), and more than half of the cases either showed overlapping features of several predescribed phenotypes, or features not fitting proposed classification criteria for PSP phenotypes. Classification of patients according to predominant clinical features in the first 2 years of the disease course allowed a more comprehensive description of the phenotypic spectrum. These predominance types differed significantly with regard to survival time and frequency of cognitive deficits. In summary, the phenotypic spectrum of PSP may be broader and more variable than previously described in single-center studies. Thus, too strict clinical criteria defining distinct phenotypes may not reflect this variability. A more pragmatic clinical approach using predominance types could potentially be more helpful in the early recognition of and for making prognostic predictions for these patients. Given the limitations arising from the retrospective nature of this analysis, a systematic validation in a prospective cohort study is imperative.

  19. Retrospective Biodosimetry of an Occupational Overexposure-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, L A; Barr, T; Ainsbury, E A; Wilkins, R C

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, Health Canada was approached by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to conduct biodosimetry for a possible overexposure 4 y prior to assessment. Dose estimates were determined by means of two cytogenetic assays, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and translocations as measured by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). As dicentrics are considered to be unstable over time, the results of the DCA were adjusted to account for the time elapsed between the suspected exposure and sampling. The frequency of damage was then compared to Health Canada's calibration curves, respectively, to calculate dose. In addition, the translocation data were corrected for age-related increases in background. With a half-life of 36 months for dicentric chromosomes taken into consideration, the dose estimates from both assays were in agreement. Due to the uncertainty in the half-life of dicentrics, the FISH assay is considered to be more reliable as a technique for retrospective biodosimetry.

  20. [Acupuncture for aphasia: a retrospective analysis of clinical literature].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Hong; Han, Guodong; Ai, Kun; Deng, Shifeng

    2016-04-01

    With the Meta-analysis method, the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was evaluated, and the acupoints selection for aphasia was explored. The acupuncture literature of clinical randomized control trials for aphasia published in CNKI, WANFANG, VIP and CBM database was searched; the statistical analysis of clinical efficacy of acupuncture and other regular methods for aphasia was performed by using software Revman 5. 2 provided by Cochrane library. A file of Microsoft Excel was established to perform the analysis of acupoints selection based on frequency analysis method, so as to summarize the characteristics and rules. Totally 385 articles were searched, and 37 articles those met the inclusive criteria was included, involving 1,260 patients in the acupuncture group and 1 238 patients in the control group. The Meta-analysis results showed OR = 3.82, 95% Cl [3.01, 4.85]; rhombus was located on the right side and the funnel plot was nearly symmetry, indicating the treatment effect of the acupuncture group for aphasia was superior to the control group (Z = 11.04, P < 0.000 01). The frequency-analysis results showed that the frequency of acupoints from top to bottom was Lian-quan (CV 23), Tongli (HT 5), Yamen (GV 15), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), Yuye (EX-HN 13), Baihui (GV 20), Yuyan II, Yuyan I and Yuyan III. The frequency of meridians from top to bottom was the governor vessel, extra channels, conception vessel, heart meridian and large intestine meridian. It is concluded that the clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment for aphasia is superior to that of speech rehabilitation training and medication treatment alone. The clinical treatment for aphasia focuses on its local effect; the main acupoints are in the head and face, and the meridians are governor vessel, extra channels and conception vessel.

  1. Predictive Factors of In-Stent Restenosis in Renal Artery Stenting: A Retrospective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vignali, Claudio Bargellini, Irene; Lazzereschi, Michele; Cioni, Roberto; Petruzzi, Pasquale; Caramella, Davide; Pinto, Stefania; Napoli, Vinicio; Zampa, Virna; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the role of clinical and procedural factors in predicting in-stent restenosis in patients with renovascular disease treated by renal artery stenting. Methods. From 1995 to 2002, 147 patients underwent renal artery stenting for the treatment of significant ostial atherosclerotic stenosis. Patients underwent strict clinical and color-coded duplex ultrasound follow-up. Ninety-nine patients (111 stents), with over 6 months of continuous follow-up (mean 22{+-}12 months, range 6-60 months), were selected and classified according to the presence (group A, 30 patients, 32 lesions) or absence (group B, 69 patients, 79 lesions) of significant in-stent restenosis. A statistical analysis was performed to identify possible preprocedural and procedural predictors of restenosis considering the following data: sex, age, smoking habit, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, renal artery stenosis grade, and stent type, length and diameter. Results. Comparing group A and B patients ({chi}{sup 2} test), a statistically significant relation was demonstrated between stent diameter and length and restenosis: the risk of in-stent restenosis decreased when the stent was {>=}6 mm in diameter and between 15 and 20 mm in length. This finding was confirmed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Stent diameter and length were proved to be significantly related to in-stent restenosis also when evaluating only patients treated by Palmaz stent (71 stents). Conclusion. Although it is based on a retrospective analysis, the present study confirms the importance of correct stent selection in increasing long-term patency, using stents of at least 6 mm in diameter and with a length of approximately 15-20 mm.

  2. Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Ontario and Quebec: A retrospective study of 332 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffie, P.; Feld, R.; Minkin, S.; Cormier, Y.; Boutan-Laroze, A.; Ginsberg, R.; Ayoub, J.; Shepherd, F.A.; Evans, W.K.; Figueredo, A. )

    1989-08-01

    Three-hundred thirty-two cases of pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) seen at large centers in Ontario and Quebec from 1965 to 1984 were reviewed retrospectively. Previous asbestos exposure was found in 44% of patients. Diagnosis was most often made by exploratory thoracotomy; pleural biopsy or cytology were rarely contributory. The delay in diagnosis was often long (median time, 3.5 months) and thrombocytosis (platelets greater than or equal to 400,000/microL) was common (41% of cases). The median survival (MS) was only 9 months. Eleven clinical variables were analyzed for prognostic significance. The three most important prognostic factors using a univariate analysis were stage, weight loss, and histologic type. For 118 patients with complete data, multivariate analysis showed that the stage of disease, high platelet count, and asbestos exposure were the most important prognostic factors. There was no cure of DMM, and we did not find any drastic differences in survival among groups of patients subjected to the different therapeutic measures. Radical surgery and radiotherapy were ineffective and we confirmed the low response rate to chemotherapeutic agents. This large retrospective trial can serve as a baseline for future studies in this field. In particular, it provides the basis for appropriate stratification variables to be used in future therapeutic trials.

  3. Factors influencing the stability of miniscrews. A retrospective study on 300 miniscrews.

    PubMed

    Manni, Antonio; Cozzani, Mauro; Tamborrino, Fabio; De Rinaldis, Sergio; Menini, Anna

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, over a period of approximately 3 years, the reactions to orthodontic loading of a type V titanium miniscrew. In this retrospective study, conducted in a private practice, the records of 300 miniscrews inserted in 132 consecutive patients (80 females, 60.6 percent) by the same surgeon were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 23.2 years. Three types of miniscrews (type A: diameter 1.5 mm, length 9 mm; type B: diameter 1.5 mm, length 11 mm; and type C: diameter 1.3 mm, length 11 mm) were used. The clinical variables evaluated included the loading time and location of the miniscrew in relation to the gingiva and root. The success rates with different variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact test where appropriate. A cumulative survival rate of 81 percent (243/300) was found using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with an optimum success rate for the 1.3 mm wide miniscrew inserted in the attached gingiva, with immediate loading applied. Cox proportional hazard regression showed significant differences between success rate and the following parameters: gender, loading time, gingival or bone localization, and diameter of the miniscrews. Considering the clinically controllable parameters, and within the limits of this retrospective study, 1.3 mm diameter miniscrews inserted in attached gingiva and immediately loaded had the most favourable prognosis.

  4. Forensic age estimation of living individuals: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Valeria; De Donno, Antonio; Marrone, Maricla; Campobasso, Carlo Pietro; Introna, Francesco

    2009-12-15

    In recent years, skeletal age determination has become increasingly important in criminal investigations for determining the age of living individuals. To increase diagnostic accuracy, a physical examination, an X-ray examination of the left hand, as well as a dental examination including the determination of the dental status and an X-ray of the dentition should always be performed. In this work, the authors analyze a sample of 52 illegal immigrants who came under their observation in the period from May 1989 to September 2007. A statistical analysis of the results of dental and skeletal age estimations was performed as well as an analysis between the reported and assessed ages. The results showed a significant difference between reported age and assessed biological age (p<0.001); however, no statistical difference was shown between skeletal and assessed dental age (p=0.431).

  5. Dysnatremias and Survival in Adult Burn Patients: A Retrospective Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-11

    hyponatre- mia occurred in 6.8% (n = 134) with mortality rates of 33.5 and 13.8%, respectively. Patients without a dysnatremia had Received: July 14...A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to ana - lyze the relationship between independent variables of age, gen- der, %TBSA, %FT...15] . Of the 194 patients with hypernatre- mia , only 6 had concurrent head trauma for which an elevated sodium level was recommended by neurosur

  6. Mortality of iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Pan, Guowei; Tanaka, Chieko; Feng, Yiping; Yu, Lianzheng; Liu, Tiefu; Liu, Liming; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Foundry workers have increased mortality and morbidity risks from numerous causes, including various cancers. A retrospective Chinese iron-steel cohort study was conducted to examine the mortality effects of exposure to foundry work. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated to evaluate mortality risks among male workers with exposure to 15 hazardous factors, adjusting for confounders. During 14 years of follow-up, 13,363 of 121,846 male workers died. SMR analysis showed a healthy-worker effect in comparison with the general population. SRR analysis showed increased risks for all causes, all neoplasms, and others among the exposed workers compared with non-exposed blue-collar workers. Combined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two or more dusts increased the risks of lung cancer (SRR = 654; 95% CI: 113-3,780) and other malignancies. Foundry work has adverse health effects, including carcinogenic risks.

  7. Diagnosing the dead: the retrospective analysis of genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rushton, A R

    2013-01-01

    The suspected presence of hereditary disease in important historical and political figures has interested researchers for many decades. Whether Abraham Lincoln suffered from Marfan syndrome, if George III became 'mad' because he inherited variegate porphyria, and if the Romanov dynasty collapsed because the heir Alexei inherited haemophilia are important questions; physical illness can adversely affect the ability of leaders to function within the social and political realm of their day. This article will outline an approach to such a medical-historical analysis including assessment of hereditary predisposition, family history and the use of DNA technology to confirm or deny the clinical suspicions of the investigator.

  8. Breast cancer in moroccan young women: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and induces more aggressive biologic characteristics. Survival in young women has been widely studied in developed countries. Less favorable prognosis and low survival were found. In Morocco, this study is the first investigation of clinical features, treatment and prognosis associated with breast cancer in young women. Findings Four hundred and nine women aged 35 years or less were included in this study. All these women were diagnosed as having breast cancer at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco between 2003 and 2007. The relation between clinical and therapeutic characteristics and event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression analysis. The median age of the patients was 32 years. Fifty three patients (13%) have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 356 patients (87%) had localised disease. In 57.9% of the cases, the estrogen receptors status was positive. The median follow-up was 32.2 months. After 3 years the survival rate was 80.6%. In the case of localised disease, OS and EFS at 3 years were 83.2% and 62.5%, respectively. OS and EFS at 3 years was higher in patients with stage I than patients with stage II and stage III (p = 0.001). Positive estrogen receptors was significantly associated to OS and EFS at 3 years compared to negative estrogen receptors (p = 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant hormone therapy were associated with net benefit in OS and EFS at 3 years. Cox regression analysis showed that negative ER was significantly associated with poorer OS (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.25 - 4.66, p < 0.009) and poorer EFS (HR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.05 - 2.86, p = 0.03). Stage III disease were associated to poorer EFS (HR = 5.35, 95%CI = 1.60 -17.84, p = 0.006). Conclusions In Morocco, young women with breast cancer had less favorable prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that negative hormone receptor status was associated with lower

  9. A retrospective study of the value of indirect CT venography: a British perspective

    PubMed Central

    Slater, S; Oswal, D; Bhartia, B

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the value of indirect CT venography (CTV) in clinical practice within the UK. Methods 804 combined CT pulmonary angiogram and CTV studies were retrospectively reviewed. CTV was performed 180 s after the injection of contrast using an incremental technique with a 5-mm collimation and a 5-cm interspace between images extending from the iliac crests to the tibial plateaus. Results 12.9% of studies had isolated pulmonary emboli (PE), 3.0% had both a PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and 1.1% had an isolated DVT. The proportion of positive cases diagnosed by CTV alone was 6.6%. Conclusion In a UK-based practice, the incidence and the proportion of isolated DVT diagnosed by CTV are lower than expected from published data. An analysis of possible causes for this is made within the paper. PMID:21896661

  10. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M O O; Carestiato, F N; Perdigão, P H; Xavier, M P P T; Silva, Kc; Botelho, M O; Oliveira, L H S; Cavalcanti, S M B

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA) and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788), ranging from 25% (NORMAL) to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  11. Anaesthesia for foetoscopic Laser ablation- a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, Vaishali; Radhika, M; Gundappa, Parameswara; Simha, Jayashree; Radhakrishnan, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Twin pregnancy with monochorionic placenta may be associated with arteriovenous vascular anastomosis of the placental vessels resulting in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAP). Foetoscopic LASER ablation (FLA) is the treatment of choice in reducing foetal mortality related to this. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of 41 FLA procedures for TTTS and TRAP were analysed for anaesthetic management. Thirty-four patients received subarachnoid block, three combined spinal-epidural block, three general anaesthesia and one local anaesthesia with sedation. Nitroglycerine 5 mg patch was used for tocolysis 1 h before the procedure and continued for 24–48 h postoperatively. Results: Bupivacaine was used in 34 patients, and ropivacaine in three patients. Mean dose of bupivacaine 0.5% was 2.43 ± 0.32 ml and ropivacaine 0.75% was 2.85 ± 0.19 ml. The mean duration of surgery was 117.07 ± 28 min. Mild hypotension occurred in all patients under spinal anaesthesia and was treated with vasopressors. The foetal outcome among all 41 patients were 13 delivered live twins, 15 had a single live baby with intrauterine death of other twin baby. In 12 patients, both babies were intrauterine death. One patient was lost for follow-up. Conclusion: Foetoscopic procedures can be done under central neuraxial block, however occasionally general anaesthesia may be required. PMID:28003695

  12. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  13. A retrospective study of patient outcomes and satisfaction following pinnaplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775

  14. 76 FR 39796 - Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Intellectual Property and Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office. BILLING CODE 3510-16-P ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Chapter I Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for...

  15. Airway Management in Patients with Tracheal Compression Undergoing Thyroidectomy: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Binu; Rekha, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Airway management in large and retrosternal goiters with tracheal compression is often fraught with challenges and is a source of apprehension among anesthesiologists globally. Aims: In this study we attempt to delineate the preferred techniques of airway management of such cases in our institution and also to assess whether airway management was unnecessarily complicated. Setting and Design: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of thyroidectomies performed in our institution over a three year period from January 2013. Clinical, radiological, pathological, anesthetic and surgical data were obtained from hospital case records. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data is represented as frequencies and percentages and quantitative data as mean and standard deviation. Results: Of 1861 thyroidectomies tracheal compression were present in 50 patients with minimum tracheal diameter ranging from 4-12mm (mean 7.84); with majority(95%) having a benign pathology. Critical tracheal compression (≤5 mm) was observed in four patients. Conventional intravenous induction and intubation under muscle relaxant was performed in majority (64%) of these patients. The rest of the cases (n=18) were intubated while preserving spontaneous ventilation after induction. Primary technique of airway management was reported successful in all cases with no instances of difficult ventilation or intubation. Postoperative morbidity in few cases resulted from hematoma (n=1), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (n=1), tracheomalacia (n=1) and pulmonary complications (n=2). Conclusion: Airway management in patients with tracheal compression due to benign goiter is quite straightforward and can be managed in the conventional manner with little or no complications. PMID:28298767

  16. Methods for retrospective geocoding in population studies: the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer C; Wyatt, Sharon B; Hickson, DeMarc; Gwinn, Danielle; Faruque, Fazlay; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel; Taylor, Herman A

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of geographic information systems (GIS) in epidemiological population studies requires careful attention to the methods employed in accomplishing geocoding and creating a GIS. Studies have provided limited details,hampering the ability to assess validity of spatial data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiphase geocoding methods used to retrospectively create a GIS in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We used baseline data from 5,302 participants enrolled in the JHS between 2000 and 2004 in a multiphase process to accomplish geocoding2 years after participant enrollment. After initial deletion of ungeocodable addresses(n=52), 96% were geocoded using ArcGIS. An interactive method using data abstraction from participant records, use of additional maps and street reference files,and verification of existence of address, yielded successful geocoding of all but 13 addresses. Overall, nearly 99% (n=5,237) of the JHS cohort was geocoded retrospectively using the multiple strategies for improving and locating geocodable addresses. Geocoding validation procedures revealed highly accurate and reliable geographic data. Using the methods and protocol developed provided a reliable spatial database that can be used for further investigation of spatial epidemiology. Baseline results were used to describe participants by select geographic indicators, including residence in urban or rural areas, as well as to validate the effectiveness of the study's sampling plan. Further, our results indicate that retrospectively developing a reliable GIS for a large, epidemiological study is feasible. This paper describes some of the challenges in retrospectively creating a GIS and provides practical tips that enhanced the success.

  17. Wilms' tumor: single centre retrospective study from South India.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, B; Rohan, B; Kavitha, S; Madhumathi, D S; Lokanath, D; Appaji, L

    2013-09-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in paediatric age group, and is classically managed by multimodal treatment which involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The last few decades have seen a dramatic change in the prognosis of this disease, which once was a uniformly lethal malignancy. While there is plenty of data in world literature on the outcome of Wilms' tumor, there is paucity of data from India. Hence, we conducted the present study to analyze the outcome of Wilms' tumor at our institute. To study the clinicopathologic profile and outcome of Wilms' tumor with NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study Group) IV protocol. Sixty-one patients with histopathological proven diagnosis of Wilms' tumor and had received treatment at our institute from Jan 2003 through Dec 2010 were included for analysis. Patients received treatment based on NWTS IV protocol. Patients were analysed for overall survival and event free survival and these outcomes were correlated with age, sex, stage at presentation and histology. Favourable histology which included focal anaplasia was found in 80.3 % while unfavourable histology was elicited in 19.7 % of the cases. The estimated 5 year event-free survival was 83.3 % and overall survival was 85.2 %. Tumour histology was the single most important factor predicting the survival. Patients with childhood Wilms' still present very late in our setting, this poses management challenges as large tumor are technically difficult to deliver at surgery. Histology has a crucial role in outcome of this disease. With multidisciplinary approach, similar survival rates to National Wilms' Tumor Study Group seems to be achievable even in Indian scenario.

  18. Retrospective analysis of outcomes from two intensive comprehensive aphasia programs.

    PubMed

    Persad, Carol; Wozniak, Linda; Kostopoulos, Ellina

    2013-01-01

    Positive outcomes from intensive therapy for individuals with aphasia have been reported in the literature. Little is known about the characteristics of individuals who attend intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and what factors may predict who makes clinically significant changes when attending such programs. Demographic data on participants from 6 ICAPs showed that individuals who attend these programs spanned the entire age range (from adolescence to late adulthood), but they generally tended to be middle-aged and predominantly male. Analysis of outcome data from 2 of these ICAPs found that age and gender were not significant predictors of improved outcome on measures of language ability or functional communication. However, time post onset was related to clinical improvement in functional communication as measured by the Communication Activities of Daily Living, second edition (CADL-2). In addition, for one sample, initial severity of aphasia was related to outcome on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised, such that individuals with more severe aphasia tended to show greater recovery compared to those with mild aphasia. Initial severity of aphasia also was highly correlated with changes in CADL-2 scores. These results suggest that adults of all ages with aphasia in either the acute or chronic phase of recovery can continue to show positive improvements in language ability and functional communication with intensive treatment.

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Technology Forecasting: In-Scope Extension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-13

    were the means used to collect and verify forecasts, as well as the use of deep web research and broad sourcing. The study methodology is summarized in...include: • Searching the “ deep web ” to find forecast documents that are not indexed by standard search engines and therefore cannot be retrieved...used books and published reports that contain technological forecasts To search the deep web , we contracted with Bright Planet, which used proprietary

  20. Electrical burns: a retrospective analysis across a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Luz, D P; Millan, L S; Alessi, M S; Uguetto, W F; Paggiaro, A; Gomez, D S; Ferreira, M C

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to review the experience, at an institution, with patients who suffered electrical burns and study the peculiar characteristics of this type of burn as well as its complications and epidemiological aspects. The study includes medical records of patients with electrical burns who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Hospital das Clínicas in São Paulo, Brazil, from November 2001 to October 2006. They were classified into four categories: high voltage (> or =1000 V), low voltage (<1000 V), 'flash burn' (in which there is no electrical current flow through the body of the patient) and burns caused by lightning. The complications were more severe and common in the high-voltage group, while longer hospital stays and more complex surgical procedures due to the greater depth of burns were also observed in this group. High-voltage burns are mainly labour-/occupation-related. The majority of the patients were young men at the beginning of their professional lives. This factor generates an important socio-economic impact due to the high incidence of sequelae, resulting in amputations, rendering them unable to maintain their occupations.

  1. Science Engagement and Literacy: A retrospective analysis for students in Canada and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Colette Oliver, Mary; McConney, Andrew; Schibeci, Renato; Maor, Dorit

    2014-07-01

    Given international concerns about students' pursuit (or more correctly, non-pursuit) of courses and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, this study is about achieving a better understanding of factors related to high school students' engagement in science. The study builds on previous secondary analyses of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) datasets for New Zealand and Australia. For the current study, we compared patterns of science engagement and science literacy for male and female students in Canada and Australia. The study's secondary analysis revealed that for all PISA measures included under the conceptual umbrella of engagement in science (i.e. interest, enjoyment, valuing, self-efficacy, self-concept and motivation), 15-year-old students in Australia lagged their Canadian counterparts to varying, albeit modest, degrees. Our retrospective analysis further shows, however, that gender equity in science engagement and science literacy is evident in both Canadian and Australian contexts. Additionally, and consistent with our previous findings for indigenous and non-indigenous students in New Zealand and Australia, we found that for male and female students in both countries, the factor most strongly associated with variations in engagement in science was the extent to which students participate in science activities outside of school. In contrast, and again for both Canadian and Australian students, the factors most strongly associated with science literacy were students' socioeconomic backgrounds, and the amount of formal time spent doing science. The implications of these results for science educators and researchers are discussed.

  2. [Complications in bland struma surgery. A retrospective study based on 2,035 personal cases].

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, R; Tovar, J L; Rosell, J; Guerero, J A; Ruiz, M; Salvi, M; Morales, O I; Vara-Thorbeck, C

    1989-01-01

    In the present retrospective study we examine the complications arising from simple goiter operations based on the analysis of 2,035 cases. The mortality rate is extremely low (0.3%). The most typical intraoperative complications - such as unilateral vocal cord paralysis (1.6%) and permanent parathyroprival hypocalcemia (0.4%) were observed to occur much more frequently in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy than in those of partial resection. - As a result of the introduction of synthetic reabsorbent sewing materials, healing problems have been drastically reduced (0.4%). Hypothyreosis and goiter recurrence can be avoided in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy by life-long and individually adjusted administration of thyroid hormones (rate of incidence in our study 3.1%). - In our view a subtotal thyroidectomy is indicate in cases where malignity is suspected (one or more cold nodules).

  3. Prevalence and phenomenology of neonaticide in Switzerland 1980-2010: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Paula

    2015-01-01

    For a child, the likelihood of being murdered is highest during the first year of life, and many such cases are neonaticides. Although several recent studies have examined neonaticide in different countries and cultures, there has been no in-depth analysis of Swiss cases, even though this country has special neonaticide legislation and four "baby hatches" have been opened to prevent such killings. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the prevalence and phenomenon of neonaticide in Switzerland. Using data from judicial files, 11 cases were identified in 15 German-speaking cantons between 1980 and 2010. The sample included two uncommon cases of nonmaternal neonaticide. The discussion addresses possible prevention strategies.

  4. Treatment results and prognostic factors of pediatric neuroblastoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate treatment results and prognostic factors of pediatric neuroblastoma patients. Methods This retrospective study was carried out analyzing the medical records of patients with the pathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma seen at South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University during the period from January 2001 and January 2010. After induction chemotherapy, response according to international neuoblastoma response criteria was assessed. Radiotherapy to patients with residual primary tumor was applied. Overall and event free survival (OAS and EFS) rates were estimated using Graphed prism program. The Log-rank test was used to examine differences in OAS and EFS rates. Cox-regression multivariate analysis was done to determine the independent prognostic factors affecting survival rates. Results Fifty three cases were analyzed. The median follow-up duration was 32 months and ranged from 2 to 84 months. The 3-year OAS and EFS rates were 39.4% and 29.3% respectively. Poor prognostic factors included age >1 year of age, N-MYC amplification, and high risk group. The majority of patients (68%) presented in high risk group, where treatment outcome was poor, as only 21% of patients survived for 3 year. Conclusion Multivariate analysis confirmed only the association between survival and risk group. However, in univariate analysis, local radiation therapy resulted in significant survival improvement. Therefore, radiotherapy should be given to patients with residual tumor evident after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Future attempts to improve OAS in high risk group patients with aggressive chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation should be considered. PMID:21182799

  5. Anaesthesia Techniques for Caesarean Operations: Retrospective Analysis of Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Mehmet; Aksoy, Ayşe Nur; Dostbil, Ayşenur; Çelik, Mine Gürsaç; Ahıskalıoğlu, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective The technique of anaesthesia in caesarean sections is selected according to the patient’s clinical presentation, experience of the anaesthesist and the patient’s wishes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaesthesia methods employed in our clinic in the last decade (2003–2012). Methods Records of caesarean operations performed between 2003–2012 in the Anaesthesia department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty and stored in the hospital computer system were examined. The annual distribution of methods of anaesthesia in operations was analysed. Results During 2003–2012, 9049 caesarean operations were performed in our clinic. General anaesthesia was used in 45% of operations and regional anaesthesia in 54%. Whereas the rate of regional anaesthesia in 2003 was 34%, this increased to 69% in 2012. The most commonly used method of regional anaesthesia was spinal anaesthesia (34%) in 2003, and spinal anaesthesia (41%) and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia (27%) in 2012. Conclusion The most commonly used anaesthesia technique for caesarean operations in our clinic between 2003–2012 was spinal anaesthesia. The most widely used regional anaesthetic method in our clinic was spinal anaesthesia. A significant increase in the use of the combined spinal-epidural anaesthetic technique occurred in the last two years of the study period. PMID:27366406

  6. PDT-induced apoptosis in brain tissue in vivo: a retrospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar D.; Portnoy, Michelle; Wilson, Brian C.

    1999-07-01

    The apoptotic response of normal brain and intracranial VX2 tumor following photodynamic therapy mediated by five different photodynamic drugs, Photofrin, ALA, AlClPc, SnET2 and mTHPC, was evaluated in a preliminary retrospective analysis. Rabbit brain, with or without tumor, was treated by PDT with interstitial light delivery. Histological sections at 24 h post PDT were assessed by the TUNEL assay. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the total apoptotic cell count and the spatial distribution of apoptotic bodies within the tissue. The data were confirmed qualitatively by light microscopy on adjacent H&E-stained sections. Light-only and drug-only controls produced background levels. The highest apoptotic count was seen with Photofrin. The counts in AlClPc-treated animals were not above the background level, while the other 3 photosensitizers gave intermediate levels. With some, but not all, drugs the spatial distribution of apoptotic bodies correlated well with the light fluence distribution. Apoptosis was seen outside the zone of frank coagulative necrosis. There was not apparent drug-dose dependency at the relatively high doses used here. The retrospective nature of this study did not allow optimization of the treatment parameters. Nevertheless, the findings have potentially significant implications, both for understanding the mechanisms of apoptosis in brain tissue and for improving the clinical use of PDT for treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors.

  7. Survival after squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin: A retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Rees, Judy R; Zens, M Scot; Celaya, Maria O; Riddle, Bruce L; Karagas, Margaret R; Peacock, Janet L

    2015-08-15

    A retrospective cohort analysis of survival after keratinocyte cancer (KC) was conducted using data from a large, population-based case-control study of KC in New Hampshire. The original study collected detailed information during personal interviews between 1993 and 2002 from individuals with squamous (SCC) and basal (BCC) cell carcinoma, and controls identified through the Department of Transportation, frequency-matched on age and sex. Participants without a history of non-skin cancer at enrolment were followed as a retrospective cohort to assess survival after either SCC or BCC, or a reference date for controls. Through 2009, cancers were identified from the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry and self-report; death information was obtained from state death certificate files and the National Death Index. There were significant differences in survival between those with SCC, BCC and controls (p = 0.040), with significantly greater risk of mortality after SCC compared to controls (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.54). Mortality after BCC was not significantly altered (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.77-1.19). The excess mortality after SCC persisted after adjustment for numerous personal risk factors including time-varying non-skin cancer occurrence, age, sex and smoking. Survival from the date of the intervening cancer, however, did not vary (HR for SCC 0.98; 95% CI 0.70-1.38). Mortality also remained elevated when individuals with subsequent melanoma were excluded (HR for SCC 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61). Increased mortality after SCC cannot be explained by the occurrence of intervening cancers, but may reflect a more general predisposition to life threatening illness that merits further investigation.

  8. Natural history of untreatable hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Maida, Marcello; Genco, Chiara; Parisi, Pietro; Peralta, Marco; Antonucci, Michela; Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Cammà, Calogero; Craxì, Antonio; Di Marco, Vito

    2012-01-01

    visit. The overall median survival was 6.8 mo, and the 1-year survival was 32%. The 1-year survival according to BCLC classes was 100%, 79%, 12% and 0%, for BCLC A, B, C and D, respectively. There was a significant difference in survival between each BCLC class. The median survival of patients of BCLC stages A, B, C and D was 33, 17.4, 6.9, and 1.8 mo, respectively (P < 0.05 for comparison between stages). The median survival of Child-Pugh A, B and C classes were 9.8 mo (range 6.4-13), 6.1 (range 4.9-7.3), and 3.7 (range 1.5-6), respectively (P < 0.05 for comparison between stages). By univariate analysis, the variables significantly associated to an increased liklihood of mortality were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS), presence of ascites, low level of albumin, elevated level of bilirubin, international normalized ratio (INR) and Log-[(α fetoprotein (AFP)]. At multivariate analysis, mortality was independently predicted by bad PS (P < 0.0001), high INR values (P = 0.0001) and elevated Log-(AFP) levels (P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the heterogeneous behavior of untreated HCC. BCLC staging remains an important prognostic guide and may be important in decision-making for palliative treatment. PMID:23060970

  9. Retrospective analysis of treatment modalities in diabetic muscle infarction

    PubMed Central

    Onyenemezu, Ikenna; Capitle, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a spontaneous necrosis of skeletal muscle of unknown etiology. The major risk factor is longstanding uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM). Optimal treatment for DMI is not known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of surgical treatment, physiotherapy, and bed rest in DMI. Methods We searched Medline from its inception to April 2013. We selected cases that provided sufficient data on recovery duration, recurrences, and non-recurrences. Baseline characteristics, including age, sex, microvascular complications, lesion size estimated on magnetic resonance imaging, type of diabetes, and duration of diabetes were assessed. The primary outcome was mean time to recovery from initial treatment and secondary outcomes were mean time to recurrence and recurrence rate. Results Mean time to recovery was 149 (95% confidence interval [CI] 113–186), 71 (95% CI 47–96), and 43 (95% CI 30–57) days for surgery, physiotherapy and bed rest, respectively. These figures were statistically significant only for surgery versus physiotherapy and surgery versus bed rest (P<0.01). Mean time to recurrence was 30, 107, and 297 days for surgery, physiotherapy, and bed rest, respectively. The recurrence rate was 57%, 44%, and 24% for surgery, physiotherapy, and bed rest, respectively. Conclusion Our results show a similar outcome for physiotherapy as compared with bed rest. It also confirms nonsurgical treatment as a better therapeutic option compared with surgical treatment. PMID:27790029

  10. Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) Efficacy in Glomerulonephritis (GN), a Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huraib, Sameer O; Qureshi, Junaid I; Quadri, Khaja Hm; Al Flaiw, Ahmed; Al Ghamdi, Ghormullah; Jumani, Abdulqadir; Al Hejaili, Fayez; Raza, Hammad; Al Johani, Abdulaziz; Al-Katheri, Abdulmalik; Al-Khader, Abdullah A

    2005-01-01

    Mycophenolate Mofetil MMF has been widely used in post-transplant immunosuppression. Its role is emerging in GN. MMF demonstrated promising results compared with cyclosphosphamide in stage IV lupus nephritis, in a recently published trial. It has been found to have a wide safety profile, with mostly gastroinetestinal side effects, which can be avoided through titration. Its action is through inhibition of the enzyme IMDPH (ionosine monophosphate dehydrogenase), leading to purine antagonism and inhibition of lymphocytes. We were aiming to demonstrate the efficacy of MMF in our GN population. In this study, we reviewed 17 patients who received MMF (dose - 1 gm po bid) for the past year. They were only included if it was given for the management of resistant primary glomerulonephritis. Complete remission has been defined as proteinuria of less than 0.5 g/day and partial remission as a reduction of proteinuria 50% of starting MMF therapy; all 17 MMF therapy patients uniformly achieved good BP ((29%) achieved complete remission and this group consisted of 1 membranous GN, 2 lupus GN (type IV and membranous), one FSGS and one with MPGN. Four of 17 (23%) were non-responders to therapy. This group articles.aspx? id=41 to side effects. We conclude that the MMF appears to be an effective alternate treatment modality in resistant membranous GN, lupus nephritis (type IV and V) and possibly MPGN, and to a lesser extent in resistant FSGS. Further prospective data may demonstrate the efficacy of MMF in GN.

  11. A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries

    PubMed Central

    Taunton, J; Ryan, M; Clement, D; McKenzie, D; Lloyd-Smith, D; Zumbo, B

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors. Methods: Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner. Results: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m2 were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome. Conclusions: Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results. PMID:11916889

  12. Outcome after severe multiple trauma: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aim of this study was to evaluate prognosis of severely injured patients. Methods All severely injured patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 50 were identified in a 6-year-period between 2000 and 2005 in German Level 1 Trauma Center Murnau. Data was evaluated from German Trauma Registry and Polytrauma Outcome Chart of the German Society for Trauma Surgery and a personal interview to assess working ability and disability and are presented as average. Results 88 out of 1435 evaluated patients after severe polytrauma demonstrated an ISS ≥ 50 (6.5%), among them 23% women and 77% men. 66 patients (75%) had an ISS of 50-60, 14 (16%) 61-70, and 8 (9%) ≥ 70. In 27% of patients trauma was caused by motor bike accidents. 3.6 body regions were involved. Patients had to be operated 5.3 times and were treated 23 days in the ICU and stayed 73 days in hospital. Mortality rate was 36% and rate of multi-organ failure 28%. 15% of patients demonstrated severe senso-motoric dysfunction as well as residues of severe head injury. 25% recovered well or at least moderately. 29 out of 56 survivors answered the POLO-chart. A personal interview was performed with 13 patients. The state of health was at least moderate in 72% of patients. In 48% interpersonal problems and in 41% severe pain was observed. In 57% of patients problems with working ability regarding duration, as well as quantitative and qualitative performance were observed. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder were found in 41%. The more distal the lesions were located (foot/ankle) the more functional disability affected daily life. In only 15%, working ability was not impaired. 8 out of 13 interviewed patients demonstrated complete work disability. Conclusions Even severely injured patients after multiple trauma have a good prognosis. The ISS is an established tool to assess severity and prognosis of trauma, whereas prediction of clinical outcome cannot be deducted from this score. PMID:23675931

  13. [Retrospective analysis of 117 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Lan, C Q; Weng, H; Li, H Y; Chen, L; Lin, Q H; Liu, J F; Huang, J B

    2016-11-12

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis(PC). Methods: A total of 117 cases of PC, confirmed by pathological examinations at Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from January 2009 to December 2013, were studied. Results: The patients consisted of 75 males and 42 females, with a mean age of (44.1±13.7) years (range, 16 to 76 years). Thirty-eight cases were immunocompromised hosts (ICH) and 79 cases were non-immunocompromised hosts (NICH). The clinical symptoms of most patients were mild and the main clinical manifestations were cough and sputum production. The chest CT manifestations were as follows: nodular or mass-like shadows in 66, patchy infiltrates or consolidation in 34, and mixed lesions in 17 cases. There were a variety of CT signs accompanied, with halo sign (78 cases) and proximal air bronchogram (63 cases) being the most common. These two signs were more common in NICH than ICH (77.2%, 44.7%, P=0.001; 60.8%, 39.5%, P=0.047). They were also more likely to be seen in the patchy infiltrates or consolidation and mixed patterns than in nodular or mass-like type of PC(82.4%, 82.4% and 54.5%, P=0.007; 76.5%, 82.4% and 33.3%, P=0.000), while lobulation sign, spicule sign and pleural indentation were more likely to be seen in the latter(0%, 5.9% and 30.3%, P=0.000; 0%, 5.9% and 27.3%, P=0.000; 0%, 5.9% and 19.7%, P=0.005). The lesions of PC were mainly found in the right lung and lower lobes. The lesions in NICH were more commonly seen in multiple lobes than ICH. Enhanced CT scanning was performed in 38 patients, and 24 cases showed uniform enhancement and 27 moderate enhancement. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by pathological findings. A hundred and one cases were treated and carefully followed in our hospital except 16 cases who were lost for follow-up. Seventy-one were cured and 30 were improved. Conclusions: The clinical symptoms of PC were diverse and nonspecific. Halo sign and proximal air bronchogram are helpful

  14. The impact of increased age on outcome from a strategy of early invasive management and revascularisation in patients with acute coronary syndromes: retrospective analysis study from the ACACIA registry

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Roshan; Chew, Derek P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of increased age on outcome from a strategy of early invasive management and revascularisation in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Design Retrospective analysis of a national Acute Coronary Syndrome registry (ACACIA). Setting Multiple Australian (n=39) centres; 25% rural, 52% with onsite cardiac surgery. Patients Unselected consecutive patients admitted with confirmed ACS, total n=2559, median 99 per centre. Interventions Management was at the discretion of the treating physician. Analysis of outcome based on age >75 years was compared using Cox proportional hazard with a propensity model to adjust for baseline covariates. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were bleeding and a composite of any vascular event or unplanned readmission. Results Elderly patients were more likely to present with high-risk features yet were less likely to receive evidence-based medical therapies or receive diagnostic coronary angiography (75% vs 49%, p<0.0001) and early revascularisation (50% vs 30%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis found early revascularisation in the elderly cohort to be associated with lower 12-month mortality hazard (0.4 (0.2–0.7)) and composite outcome (0.6 (0.5–0.8)). Propensity model suggested a greater absolute benefit in elderly patients compared to others. Conclusions Following presentation with ACS, elderly patients are less likely to receive evidence-based medical therapies, to be considered for an early invasive strategy and be revascularised. Increasing age is a significant barrier to physicians when considering early revascularisation. An early invasive strategy with revascularisation when performed was associated with substantial benefit and the absolute accrued benefit appears to be higher in elderly patients. PMID:22344538

  15. Retrospective Analysis of Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Etiology of Febrile Respiratory Illness Among US Military Basic Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-05

    Naval Health Research Center Retrospective Analysis of Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Etiology of Febrile Respiratory Illness...1471-2334/14/576RESEARCH ARTICLE Open AccessRetrospective analysis of demographic and clinical factors associated with etiology of febrile respiratory ...Patrick Blair1Abstract Background: Basic trainees in the US military have historically been vulnerable to respiratory infections. Adenovirus and

  16. Home telehealth and hospital readmissions: a retrospective OASIS-C data analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Tanna R; Hawkins, Shelley Y; Perkins, Katherine E; Hamilton, Elissa; Nelson, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds potential to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. The use of remote patient monitoring, or telehealth (TH), has been widely adopted by many home care agencies to facilitate early identification of disease exacerbation, particularly for patients with chronic diseases such as heart failure. TH has been successfully used to improve symptom detection and potentially reduce rehospitalization rates. Quantifying program effectiveness through data analysis is a critical step for program improvement, resource allocation, and future strategic planning. Using the Outcome and Assessment Information Set-C database, a retrospective analysis was conducted examining 22 months of heart failure patient data from one home care agency in southern California. Seventy patients receiving TH were compared to patients who received usual home care nursing services. No major differences in baseline socio-demographics were found between the 2 groups. While receiving home healthcare services, the non-TH patients had a 21% all-cause hospital readmission rate, compared to the home TH patients with a 10% all-cause readmission rate. Statistical differences were found between groups on the variables of fall risk, vision, smoking, shortness of breath, the ability to bathe and take oral meds, along with having been discharged from a skilled nursing facility in the last 2 weeks. These results indicate that aggregate data analysis is useful in providing insight into program effectiveness. This study suggests TH programs have the potential to reduce the burden associated with rehospitalizations in the heart failure population.

  17. Survival time of endodontically treated teeth: a 7-year retrospective clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldea, Bogdan; Canjau, Silvana; Popescu, Dragos; Tudor, Anca; Todea, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to examine the survival time of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and the factors that may influence the failure risk, over a period of up to 7 years. The files of 67 patients that received metal free post and core restorations using a standardized technique were analyzed. The survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Log Rank (Matel-Cox). Cox regression was used to assess the risk of failure and to identify possible covariates. The average survival time of the ETT was 6.6 Years. The cumulative failure rate was 5.82% for all type of the restored endodontically treated teeth. The main failure type was encountered in the cervical area of the teeth, and due to the extensive hard tissue loss, the teeth were extracted.

  18. Bacterial infections in horses: a retrospective study at the University Equine Clinic of Bern.

    PubMed

    Panchaud, Y; Gerber, V; Rossano, A; Perreten, V

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial infections present a major challenge in equine medicine. Therapy should be based on bacteriological diagnosis to successfully minimize the increasing number of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. The present study is a retrospective analysis of bacteriological results from purulent infections in horses admitted at the University Equine Clinic of Bern from 2004 to 2008. From 378 samples analyzed, 557 isolates were identified, of which Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and coliforms were the most common. Special attention was paid to infections with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ST398 and a non-MRSA, multidrug-resistant S. aureus clone ST1 (BERN100). Screening of newly-admitted horses showed that 2.2 % were carriers of MRSA. Consequent hygiene measures taken at the Clinic helped to overcome a MRSA outbreak and decrease the number of MRSA infections.

  19. Arterial ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese children: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ling-Ling; Jiang, Li

    2014-02-01

    To study the characteristics of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in southwest of China, and analyze the etiology and risk factor. This study retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients in both department of neurology and department of neurosurgery in Children's hospital of Chongqing medical university from January 2003 to March 2011, and patients were eligible for analysis if they had been diagnosed with AIS or HS. And SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. The χ(2) test was used to exam relationships between stroke types and sex, age, and that between neuroradiological images and sex. 119 Boys (70.4%) and 50 girls (29.6%) were included. In these cases, HS accounted for the majority of the cases (n=109, 64.1%), and vitamin K deficiency was a major etiology in 65 out of 109 HS (59.6%), most of which occurred in breastfeeding infants (87.7%) and those who received no vitamin K after birth. AIS accounted for 35.3% of the cases, and minor head injury associated stroke (40.0%) was more common than vasculopathy associated stroke (16.6%) and other kinds of stroke. HS in children is more common than AIS. Vitamin K deficiency was a major etiology in these young infants who experienced HS, and many cases of AIS were associated with minor head injury.

  20. Evaluation of accuracy and applicability of protein models: retrospective analysis of biological and biomedical predictions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sofia; Vihinen, Mauno

    2009-01-01

    In order to study protein function and activity structural data is required. Since experimental structures are available for just a small fraction of all known protein sequences, computational methods such as protein modelling can provide useful information. Over the last few decades we have predicted, with homology modelling methods, the structures for numerous proteins. In this study we assess the structural quality and validity of the biological and medical interpretations and predictions made based on the models. All the models had correct scaffolding and were ranked at least as correct or good by numerical evaluators even though the sequence identity with the template was as low as 8%. The biological explanations made based on models were well in line with experimental structures and other experimental studies. Retrospective analysis of homology models indicates the power of protein modelling when made carefully from sequence alignment to model building and refinement. Modelling can be applied to studying and predicting different kinds of biological phenomena and according to our results it can be done so with success.

  1. Primary Care Screening of Depression and Treatment Engagement in a University Health Center: A Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Michael C.; Ciotoli, Carlo; Chung, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective study analyzed a primary care depression screening initiative in a large urban university health center. Depression detection, treatment status, and engagement data are presented. Participants: Participants were 3,713 graduate and undergraduate students who presented consecutively for primary care services between…

  2. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  3. Reproducibility of Brain Morphometry from Short-Term Repeat Clinical MRI Examinations: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Shan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Fang; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the inter session reproducibility of automatic segmented MRI-derived measures by FreeSurfer in a group of subjects with normal-appearing MR images. Materials and Methods After retrospectively reviewing a brain MRI database from our institute consisting of 14,758 adults, those subjects who had repeat scans and had no history of neurodegenerative disorders were selected for morphometry analysis using FreeSurfer. A total of 34 subjects were grouped by MRI scanner model. After automatic segmentation using FreeSurfer, label-wise comparison (involving area, thickness, and volume) was performed on all segmented results. An intraclass correlation coefficient was used to estimate the agreement between sessions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess the population mean rank differences across sessions. Mean-difference analysis was used to evaluate the difference intervals across scanners. Absolute percent difference was used to estimate the reproducibility errors across the MRI models. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the across-scanner effect. Results The agreement in segmentation results for area, volume, and thickness measurements of all segmented anatomical labels was generally higher in Signa Excite and Verio models when compared with Sonata and TrioTim models. There were significant rank differences found across sessions in some labels of different measures. Smaller difference intervals in global volume measurements were noted on images acquired by Signa Excite and Verio models. For some brain regions, significant MRI model effects were observed on certain segmentation results. Conclusions Short-term scan-rescan reliability of automatic brain MRI morphometry is feasible in the clinical setting. However, since repeatability of software performance is contingent on the reproducibility of the scanner performance, the scanner performance must be calibrated before conducting such studies or before using such software for retrospective

  4. Retrospective Analysis of the Blood Component Utilization in a University Hospital of Maximum Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Geißler, R. Georg; Franz, Dominik; Buddendick, Hubert; Krakowitzky, Petra; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Van Aken, Hugo; Kessler, Torsten; Berdel, Wolfgang; Sibrowski, Walter; Schlenke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Demographic data illustrate clearly that people in highly developed countries get older, and the elderly need more blood transfusions than younger patients. Additionally, special extensive therapies result in an increased consumption of blood components. Beyond that the aging of the population reduces the total number of preferably young and healthy blood donors. Therefore, Patient Blood Management will become more and more important in order to secure an increasing blood supply under fair-minded conditions. Methods At the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilization of all conventional blood components was performed including all medical and surgical disciplines. In parallel, a new medical reporting system was installed to provide a monthly analysis of the transfusional treatments in the whole infirmary, in every department, and in special blood-consuming cases of interest, as well. Results The study refers to all UKM in-patient cases from 2009 to 2011. It clearly demonstrates that older patients (>60 years, 35.2–35.7% of all cases, but 49.4–52.6% of all cases with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, 36.4–41. 6% of all cases with platelet (PTL, apheresis only) transfusions, 45.2–48.0% of all cases with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions) need more blood products than younger patients. Male patients (54.4–63.9% of all cases with transfusions) are more susceptible to blood transfusions than female patients (36.1–45.6% of all cases with transfusions). Most blood components are used in cardiac, visceral, and orthopedic surgery (49.3–55.9% of all RBC units, 45.8–61.0% of all FFP units). When regarding medical disciplines, most transfusions are administered to hematologic and oncologic patients (12.9–17.7% of all RBC units, 9.2–12.0% of all FFP units). The consumption of PTL in this special patient cohort (40.6–50.9% of all PTL units) is more pronounced than in all other surgical or

  5. Donor Deferral Characteristics for Plateletpheresis at a Tertiary Care Center in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pujani, Mukta; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Pahuja, Sangeeta; Pathak, Chintamani; Jain, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Background: The demand for plateletpheresis is increasing day by day due to its many merits over random donor platelets. However, in our country, there is a dearth of apheresis donors due to greater devotion and time required for the procedure and lack of awareness. Aim: The aim of the present study is to analyse the reasons for deferral of apheresis donors at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted to study the causes, frequency and the type of plateletpheresis donor deferral at regional blood transfusion center, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Shrimati Sucheta Kriplani Hospital and Kalawati Saran Childrens’ Hospital. The study was undertaken over a period of two years (from January 2010 to December 2011. Results: Out of a total of 343 donors screened, 87 donors were deferred, the overall deferral rate being 25.36%. The most frequent cause of deferral was a low platelet count accounting for 43.5% of all the causes followed by a low hemoglobin level (27.05%). Among the donors deferred for anaemia, 15 out of 23 (65.2%) had hemoglobin in the range of 11.5-12.4gm%, representing 17.2% of all deferrals. Conclusion: Based on these findings and the scarcity of apheresis donors in our country, we are of the opinion that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to accommodate more donors and reduce deferral rate without compromising on the health of the donors. PMID:25177566

  6. Reporting adverse transfusion reactions: A retrospective study from tertiary care hospital from New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Pahuja, Sangeeta; Puri, Vandana; Mahajan, Gunjan; Gupta, Prajwala; Jain, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Blood transfusion services have achieved newer heights in the last decade, with developments in cellular techniques, component separation, and integration of molecular methods. However, the system of recording and reporting of the adverse events related to blood transfusion is developing countries like India is grossly inadequate and voluntary in nature. AIMS: This study was undertaken to analyze the retrospective data on adverse events related to blood transfusions in our hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was done to examine all the transfusion related adverse events reported in a Regional Blood Bank Transfusion Centre of North India over a period of 9 years. Adverse transfusion events related to whole blood, red cell concentrates (RCCs), and all other components were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Average rate of transfusion reactions with the components was also assessed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was taken to indicate a significant difference. RESULTS: During this period, a total of 1,60,973 blood/blood component units were issued by our blood bank to various departments of the hospital and 314 immediate transfusion events were reported. The rate of immediate transfusion reactions during the study was 0.19%. Average transfusion reaction rate with RCC was 0.25% with febrile nonhemolytic reactions being the most common type of adverse event (37.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness should be increased among clinicians to correctly prevent, identify, and report transfusion-related adverse events. These measures should be implemented to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:28316433

  7. Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with azacitidine and donor lymphocyte infusions--a retrospective multicenter analysis from the German Cooperative Transplant Study Group.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Thomas; Rachlis, Elena; Bug, Gesine; Stelljes, Matthias; Klein, Stefan; Steckel, Nina Kristin; Wolf, Dominik; Ringhoffer, Mark; Czibere, Akos; Nachtkamp, Kathrin; Dienst, Ariane; Kondakci, Mustafa; Stadler, Michael; Platzbecker, Uwe; Uharek, Lutz; Luft, Thomas; Fenk, Roland; Germing, Ulrich; Bornhäuser, Martin; Kröger, Nicolaus; Beelen, Dietrich W; Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido

    2015-04-01

    To expand the current knowledge about azacitidine (Aza) and donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) as salvage therapy for relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and to identify predictors for response and survival, we retrospectively analyzed data of 154 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 124), myelodysplastic (MDS, n = 28), or myeloproliferative syndrome (n = 2). All patients received a median number of 4 courses of Aza (range, 4 to 14) and DLI were administered to 105 patients (68%; median number of DLI, 2; range, 1 to 7). Complete and partial remission rates were 27% and 6%, respectively, resulting in an overall response rate of 33%. Multivariate analysis identified molecular-only relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 9.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 43.5; P = .004) and diagnosis of MDS (HR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 12.2; P = .011) as predictors for complete remission. Overall survival (OS) at 2 years was 29% ± 4%. Molecular-only relapse (HR, .14; 95% CI, .03 to .59; P = .007), diagnosis of MDS (HR, .33; 95% CI, .16 to .67; P = .002), and bone marrow blasts <13% (HR, .54; 95% CI, .32 to .91; P = .021) were associated with better OS. Accordingly, 2-year OS rate was higher in MDS patients (66% ± 10%, P = .001) and correlated with disease burden in patients with AML. In summary, Aza and DLI is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with relapse after allo-HSCT, in particular those with MDS or AML and low disease burden. The latter finding emphasizes the importance of stringent disease monitoring and early intervention.

  8. [Hair Analysis for the Retrospective and Prospective Consume-Monitoring: Substance Abuse, Abstinence- and Compliance Control].

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2016-01-06

    The possibilities and applications of modern hair analytics have rapidly developed in recent years. The compounds that can be detected in hair comprise, next to a multitude of drugs, also medications, alcohol markers, and endogenous compound like the stress hormone cortisol. Hair analysis is suitable for both forensic and clinical applications because it enables a retrospective overview of the consumption behavior during an extended time interval.

  9. Daghemsvistelse I Retrospektivt Perspektiv: En teori- och metodprovande studie (Daycare in Retrospect).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torstenson-Ed, Tullie

    This Swedish language report describes a preliminary study to test a retrospective life-history-inspired approach to studying children's experiences in a day care center, and whether children's experiences vary in different educational contexts and in relation to the teachers' experiences. The theoretical part of the study dealt with theories of…

  10. Retrospective Case Study in the Raton Basin, Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Study site locations in Las Animas and Huerfano Counties were selected in response to ongoing complaints about changes in appearance, odor, and taste associated with drinking water in domestic wells. \

  11. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  12. Parathyroid autotransplantation during total thyroidectomy. Results of a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Francesco; Blasi, Sara; Giuliani, Alessandro; Merola, Raffaele; Livadoti, Giada; Krizzuk, Dimitri; Tortorelli, Giovanni; Tromba, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Authors analyze their experience of parathyroid autotransplantation during total thyroidectomy, with the purpose of seeing whether this practice influenced the rate of postoperative hypocalcemia and/or hypoparathyroidism. We identified three groups of patients: group A, consisting of 57 patients, underwent parathyroid autotransplantation during total thyroidectomy; group B consisting of 87 patients not submitted to intraoperative autotransplantation in whom, as an incidental finding, a parathyroid gland was detected in the surgical specimen; group C consisted of 100 patients who did not undergo autotransplantation and whose surgical specimens were not found to contain parathyroid glands. The three groups were compared for sex and age as well as for a series of clinical and laboratory parameters on the first three postoperative days and at six months after surgery. The rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism was 3.5% in Group A, 3.45% in Group B, and 1% in Group C. Multivariate analysis revealed that all three groups showed postoperative recovery of calcium levels, although the rate and extent of this recovery differed between them. The control group showed a more rapid and more complete recovery of serum calcium values compared with Groups A and B. Calcium recovery in Groups A and B was comparable, in terms of both rate and extent. The same pattern of results emerged for the iPTH values. The analysis of the data showed that there were no significant differences in the analyzed parameters between Groups A and B. This suggests that parathyroid autotransplantation does not influence the rate of postoperative hypocalcemia and/or hypoparathyroidism.

  13. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sarah J.; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective experience curves are a useful tool for understanding historic technology development, and can contribute to investment program analysis and future cost estimation efforts. This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years. In the results that follow, we find that that the learning rate has changed at least once from 1990-2007. We also explore if, and to what degree, public deployment programs may have contributed to an increased technology learning rate in North America. We observe correlations between the changes in the learning rate and the initiation of new policies, abrupt technological advances, including improvements to ballast technology, and economic and political events such as trade tariffs and electricity prices. Finally, we discuss how the findings of this work (1) support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective analysis and (2) may imply that investments in technological research and development have contributed to a change in market adoption and penetration.

  14. Prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Udhayakumar, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country, along with its pattern, etiology and management. Data for the present study were collected from the Department of Dentistry, ESIC Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chennai in India. Materials and Methods The medical records of patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between May 2014 and November 2015 were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed for prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma. SPSS software version 16.0 was used for the data analysis. Results Maxillofacial fractures accounts for 93.3% of total injuries. The mean and standard deviation for the age of the patients were 35.0±11.8 years and with a minimum age of 5 years and maximum age of 75 years. Adults from 20 to 40 years age groups were more commonly involved, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. There was a statistically significantly higher proportion of males more commonly involved in accident and injuries (P <0.001). Conclusion The most common etiology of maxillofacial injury was road traffic accidents (RTA) followed by falls and assaults, the sports injuries seem to be very less. In RTA, motorized two-wheelers (MTW) were the most common cause of incidents. The majority of victims of RTA were young adult males between the ages of 20 to 40 years. The malar bone and maxilla were the most common sites of fracture, followed by the mandible. The right side of the zygomatic complex was the predominant side of MTW injury. The majority of the zygomatic complex fractures were treated by conservative management. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed for indicated fracture patients. PMID:27595083

  15. Airway complications in traumatic lower cervical spinal cord injury: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Niedeggen, Andreas; Estel, Barbara; Seidl, Rainer O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for pneumonia in patients with traumatic lower cervical spinal cord injury. Design Observational study, retrospective study. Setting Spinal cord unit in a maximum care hospital. Methods Thirty-seven patients with acute isolated traumatic spinal cord injury at levels C4–C8 and complete motor function injury (AIS A, B) treated from 2004 to 2010 met the criteria for inclusion in our retrospective analysis. The following parameters were considered: ventilation-specific parameters, re-intubation, creation of a tracheostomy, pneumonia, antibiotic treatment, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and total hospitalization. Results Among the patients, 81% had primary invasive ventilation. In 78% of cases a tracheostomy was created; 3% of these cases were discharged with invasive ventilation and 28% with a tracheostomy without ventilation. Pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control criteria occurred in 51% of cases within 21 ± 32 days of injury, and in 3% at a later date. The number of pre-existing conditions was significantly associated with pneumonia. Length of ICU stay was 25 ± 34 days, and average total hospital duration was 230 ± 144 days. Significant factors affecting the duration of ventilation were the number of pre-existing conditions and tetraplegia-specific complications. Conclusions Our results confirm that patients with traumatic lower cervical spinal cord injuries defined by lesion level and AIS constitute a homogeneous group. This group is characterized by a high rate of pneumonia during the first 4 weeks after injury. The number of pre-existing general conditions and spinal injury-specific comorbidities are the only risk factors identified for the development of pneumonia and/or duration of ventilation. PMID:25117865

  16. Expectant management of vestibular schwannoma: a retrospective multivariate analysis of tumor growth and outcome.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark; Skilbeck, Christopher; Saeed, Shakeel; Bradford, Robert

    2011-09-01

    We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the consequences of conservative management of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Data were collected from tertiary neuro-otological referral units in United Kingdom. The study included 59 patients who were managed conservatively with radiological diagnosis of VS. The main outcome measures were growth rate and rate of failure of conservative management. Multivariate analysis sought correlation between tumor growth and (i) demographic features, (ii) tumor characteristics. The mean tumor growth was 0.66 mm/y. 11 patients (19%) required intervention. Mean time to intervention was 37 months with two notable late "failures" occurring at 75 and 84 months. Tumors extending into the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) grew significantly faster than intracanalicular tumors (p = 0.0045). No association was found between growth rate and age, sex, tumor laterality, facial nerve function, and grade of hearing loss. Conservative management is acceptable for a subset of patients. Tumors extending into the CPA at diagnosis grow significantly faster than intracanalicular tumors. No growth within 5 years of surveillance does not guarantee a continued indolent growth pattern; surveillance must therefore continue.

  17. The Reconceptualization of Curriculum Studies, 1987: A Personal Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Relates how historical developments initiated the curriculum reform movement, which caused curriculum studies to become vulnerable to reconceptualization. Traces the movement from Sputnik in 1957 through reconceptualists' opposition to the mainstream field in the 1970s. The opposition has now become the field itself, which is characterized by…

  18. Candidacy for Bilateral Hearing Aids: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boymans, Monique; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to find factors for refining candidacy criteria for bilateral hearing aid fittings. Clinical files of 1,000 consecutive hearing aid fittings were analyzed. Method: Case history, audiometric, and rehabilitation data were collected from clinical files, and an extensive questionnaire on long-term outcome measures…

  19. Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

  20. [Retrospective Analysis of Diabetics with Regard to Treatment Duration and Costs].

    PubMed

    Pscherer, S; Nüssler, A; Bahrs, C; Reumann, M; Ihle, C; Stöckle, U; Ehnert, S; Freude, T; Ochs, B G; Flesch, I; Ziegler, P

    2017-02-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is also reflected in the patient population of a trauma and orthopaedic centre. Diabetics also exhibit more comorbidities than non-diabetics. In addition to surgical problems in these patients, hospitalisation is often accompanied by complications, which can prolong treatment and increase costs. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse hospitalisation of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, as well as differences in treatment costs, depending on associated age and comorbidities. Patients/Material and Methods: 17,185 patients were treated at a transregional trauma and orthopaedic centre and were included in this retrospective analysis between 2012 and 2015. Comorbidities and hospitalisation of diabetics and non-diabetics were recorded. All costs charged by DRG were evaluated to calculate the cost per day and per patient, on the basis of the specific case rate. In this calculation, patient-related case rates were divided by the average residence time and the means of the calculated daily rates were calculated. Inclusion criteria were treatment within the various departments and a minimum hospitalisation of one day. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS program (version 22.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Results: In comparison to non-diabetics (ND), diabetics (D) exhibited significantly more comorbidities, including: obesity, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction (in the history), peripheral arterial disease, chronic kidney disease and hyperlipidaemia. Pneumonia in hospital was considerably commoner in diabetics (2.45 % [D] vs. 1.02 % [ND], p < 0.001). Time in hospital was significantly longer in diabetics (endoprosthetics 13.52 days [D] vs. 12.54 days [ND], p < 0.001; septic surgery 18.62 days [D] vs. 16.31 days [ND], p = 0.007; traumatology 9.82 days [D] vs. 7.07 days [ND], p < 0.001). For patients aged under 60 years, time in hospital was

  1. A Retrospective Clinical Study: Complications of Totally Implanted Central Venous Access Ports

    PubMed Central

    Seok, June Pill; Cho, Hyun Min; Ryu, Han Young; Hwang, Wan Jin; Sung, Tae Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background When managing patients who require repeated venous access, gaining a viable intravenous route has been problematic. To improve the situation, various studies on techniques for venous access have been conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of complications following totally implanted central venous access port (TICVAP) insertion. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 163 patients, from December 2008 to March 2013. The occurrence of complications was studied in three separate periods of catheter use: the intraoperative period, postoperative period, and period during the treatment. Results A total of 165 cases of TICVAP insertions involving 156 patients were included in the final analysis. There were 35 complications (21%) overall. Among these, 31 cases of complications (19%) occurred during the treatment period and the other 4 cases were intraoperative and postoperative complications (2%). There were no statistically significant differences in age and gender of the patients between the two groups to be risk factors (p=0.147, p=0.08). Past history of chemotherapy, initial laboratory findings, and the locations of TICVAP insertion also showed no statistical significance as risk factors (p>0.05). Conclusion Because the majority of complications occurred after port placement and during treatment, meticulous care and management and appropriate education are necessary when using TICVAPs. PMID:24570862

  2. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  3. Retrospective study of the prevalence of postanaesthetic hypothermia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Redondo, J I; Suesta, P; Serra, I; Soler, C; Soler, G; Gil, L; Gómez-Villamandos, R J

    2012-10-13

    The anaesthetic records of 1525 dogs were examined to determine the prevalence of postanaesthetic hypothermia, its clinical predictors and consequences. Temperature was recorded throughout the anaesthesia. At the end of the procedure, details coded in were: hyperthermia (>39.50°C), normothermia (38.50°C-39.50°C), slight (38.49°C-36.50°C), moderate (36.49°C-34.00°C) and severe hypothermia (<34.00°C). Statistical analysis consisted of multiple regression to identify the factors that are associated with the temperature at the end of the procedure. Before premedication, the temperature was 38.7 ± 0.6°C (mean ± sd). At 60, 120 and 180 minutes from induction, the temperature was 36.7 ± 1.3°C, 36.1 ± 1.4°C and 35.8 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The prevalence of hypothermia was: slight, 51.5 per cent (95 per cent CI 49.0 to 54.0 per cent); moderate, 29.3 per cent (27.1-31.7 per cent) and severe: 2.8% (2.0-3.7%). The variables that associated with a decrease in the temperature recorded at the end of the anaesthesia were: duration of the preanesthetic time, duration of the anaesthesia, physical condition (ASA III and ASA IV dogs showed lower temperatures than ASA I dogs), the reason for anaesthesia (anaesthesia for diagnostic procedures or thoracic surgery reduce the temperature when compared with minor procedures), and the recumbency during the procedure (sternal and dorsal recumbencies showed lower temperatures than lateral recumbency). The temperature before premedication and the body surface (BS) were associated with a higher temperature at the end of the anaesthesia, and would be considered as protective factors.

  4. A retrospective study of mushroom poisoning in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pajoumand, A; Shadnia, S; Efricheh, H; Mandegary, A; Hassanian-Moghadam, H; Abdollahi, M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to the Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center from 1992 to 2002. All patients > or = 12 years of age were included in the study. The frequency of mushroom poisoning with respect to age, sex, season, reason, place of residence, latent phase, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome of patients was investigated. Of the 72421 poisoning cases admitted to Loghman-Hakim Hospital Poison Center from 1992 to 2002, only 37 were poisoned by consumption of toxic mushrooms. As some of the patients' files were incomplete, only 25 files were included in the study. Of this number, 68% were male. The patients' age ranged between 12 and 65 years, with a mean of 31 years of age. All cases were accidental and mostly from Tehran (36%) and the northern provinces (rainy woodlands) of Iran (32%). Autumn was the most common season for poisoning with a frequency of 80%. The latent phase of poisonings was between 0.5 and 12 hours. The most frequently reported symptoms were vomiting (84%), nausea (60%), abdominal pain (60%) and diarrhea (40%). Jaundice was observed in 44% of cases, with a 50% rate of hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 66% of patients were discharged and the duration range of hospitalization was 1-12 days. In conclusion, people should be more informed of the dangers posed by wild mushrooms. Training of physicians and nurses in the accurate diagnosis and management of patients poisoned with poisonous mushrooms would improve the rate of survival.

  5. A retrospective pilot study: management of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ancheta, Irma B

    2006-01-01

    An epidemic disease - a major cause of chronic disability - congestive heart failure adversely affects the health of millions. Congestive heart failure is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular hospital admissions and shares a significant responsibility for the high cost of healthcare. Despite medical and technological advances, studies show that the treatment of heart failure is suboptimal. Physician knowledge and awareness of appropriate treatment may contribute to patient compliance and improve delivery of healthcare. The purpose of this article is to examine how patients with heart failure in a heart failure clinic are managed. Recommendations are proposed and the role of nurses and clinicians in heart failure management is discussed.

  6. [Emergency Psychiatric Service in general hospitals: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Fernando Sérgio Pereira; da Silva, Cezar Augusto Ferreira; Oliveira, Eliany Nazaré

    2010-09-01

    The Emergency Psychiatric Service in General Hospitals (SEPHG, acronym in Portuguese) is a service included in the psychiatric reform movement. The purpose of the present study was to characterize patients with psychological distress treated at the Dr. Estevam SEPHG, located in Sobral, Cear state. This exploratory study was performed using documental analyses with a quantitative approach, and involved 191 clients treated at the referred SEPHG from January to December 2007. Data collection was performed using a client register book, which contained information obtained from the patients' medical record. There was a predominance of male patients (70.15%), aged 30-49 years (48.71%) and single (74.86%). Most patients were from the city of Sobral (69.64%). In 42.40% of cases, the diagnosis was of alcohol use/abuse. Most clients (66.50%) sought the service voluntarily. After being evaluated at the SEPHG, 43.45% of patients were referred to the local Center for Psychosocial Care-Alcohol and other Drugs. The results emphasize the importance of mental health.

  7. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a Moroccan retrospective study of 30 cases

    PubMed Central

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare origin of stroke, the clinical presentation and etiologies vary. The prognosis is shown to be better than arterial thrombosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR Venograpgy (MRV) are currently important tools for the diagnosis. We studied 30 cases of CVT diagnosed in the department of neurology at the University Hospital of Fez (Morocco). Patients diagnosed with CVT signs between January 2003 and October 2007 were included in the study. Cerebral CT-scan was performed in 27 cases (90%) while the MRI examination was done in 18 patients (67%); and most patients (90%) received anticoagulant therapy. The mean age of our patients was of 29 years (age range between 18 days and 65 years). A female predominance was observed (70%). The clinical presentation of patients was dominated by: headache in 24 cases (80%), motor and sensory disability in 15 cases (50%), seizures in 10 cases (33%), consciousness disorder in 10 cases (33%). CVT was associated to post-partum in 10 cases (33%), infectious origin in 8 cases (26%), Behçet disease in 2 cases (7%), pulmonary carcinoma in 1 case, thrombocytemia in 1 case and idiopathic in 7 cases (23%). The evolution was good in 20 cases (67%), minor squelaes were observed in 6 patients (20%), while major squelaes were observed in 2 cases. Two cases of death were registered. The CVT is a pathology of good prognosis once the diagnosis is promptly established and early heparin treatment initiated. PMID:25317229

  8. Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment, Suicidality, and Bipolarity: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of current study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity or suicidality. Methods In total, 132 outpatients diagnosed with MDD between 2014 and 2015 on the medical records were included. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of childhood maltreatment (CM group) and no childhood maltreatment (NCM group). Depression severity and bipolarity were identified using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Korean version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) respectively on the medical records. In addition, the baseline loud dependence of auditory evoked potentials of 36 patients on medical records were analyzed. Results The mean total BDI, BDI item 9 (suicide ideation), and total K-MDQ score were significantly higher in the CM group than the NCM group. The number of subjects with bipolarity was significantly higher in the CM than in the NCM group. Furthermore two thirds subjects experienced the significant maltreatment during childhood. The central serotonergic activity of the CM group was also lower than that of the NCM group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity or suicidality in patients with MDD. PMID:28326110

  9. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Baneth, G; Aroch, I; Tal, N; Harrus, S

    1998-10-01

    Hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. Feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. In order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary Medicine was conducted. The study population comprised all the cats whose medical records included a complete blood count with a microscopical examination of a blood smear during this 7-year period (n=1229). Hepatozoon gametocytes were identified in seven cats (0.57%) ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. Infected cats were mostly males (6/7) of mixed breed (5/7) with a variety of complaints and clinical signs. The clinicopathological findings included increased activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (5/6) and creatine kinase (CK) (5/6). The elevated enzymes detected in cats with hepatozoonosis are suggestive of muscular damage. Sixty-seven percent (4/6) of the cats with hepatozoonosis which were tested for a retroviral disease were found infected either in FIV or FELV. In addition, 2/7 cats were co-infected with Hemobartonella felis. In conclusion, parasitemia with Hepatozoon sp. is a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection.

  10. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  11. Women's Reported Health Behaviours before and during Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Jenna; Jancey, Jonine M.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Zhao, Yun; Monteiro, Sarojini M. D. R.; Howat, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine women's reported health behaviours (physical activity, diet, weight management) before and during pregnancy, and to identify sources of health information. Design: Retrospective study incorporating quantitative (a self-completed survey) and qualitative (one-on-one interviews) methods. Methodology:…

  12. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  13. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: sinotomy versus excisional surgery, a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rabie, M Ezzedien; Al Refeidi, Abdullah A; Al Haizaee, Abdullah; Hilal, Saleh; Al Ajmi, Hassan; Al Amri, Abdul Aziz

    2007-03-01

    Pilonidal disease is a disease of relatively young people, the exact aetiology of which is unknown. Treatment options vary from simple incision to complex flap procedures. Each method has its advocates and they all have a variable recurrence rate. The multiplicity of procedures testifies to the lack of an optimal treatment method. The objective of this study is to compare sinotomy, that is, simply laying the sinus open with the more popular radical surgery, where the sinus-bearing tissues are excised. Patients who were admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia with a pilonidal sinus or abscess, in the period from April 1999 to January 2005, were identified. The medical records were reviewed and data related to the patient characteristics, disease process and the procedures carried out were noted. Identified patients were contacted by phone to check recurrence of the disease and their abidance to instructions regarding regular hair removal from the area. Eighty-one patients were included in the study. The median age was 24.2 years (range 16-60 years). There were 9 women and 72 men. All procedures were carried out under general anaesthesia except sinotomy, which was carried out under general or local anaesthesia. The surgical procedure was incision and drainage of abscess in 16 cases (19.8%), excision with primary closure in 29 cases (35.8%), excision by the open method in 15 cases (18.5%), sinotomy in 14 cases (17.3%) and rhomboid flap construction in 8 cases (9.9%). The overall recurrence rate was 26.9%, and the mean hospital stay was 4.1 days. Sinotomy had a low recurrence rate (12.5%) and a short hospital stay (2.8 days). Sinotomy has the advantages of simplicity, the possibility of operating under local anaesthesia, with an acceptable recurrence rate. We recommend sinotomy for pilonidal sinus and abscess alike, both in primary and recurrent cases.

  14. Outcome following physician supervised prehospital resuscitation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Krüger, Andreas J; Zwisler, Stine T; Brøchner, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prehospital care provided by specially trained, physician-based emergency services (P-EMS) is an integrated part of the emergency medical systems in many developed countries. To what extent P-EMS increases survival and favourable outcomes is still unclear. The aim of the study was thus to investigate ambulance runs initially assigned ‘life-saving missions’ with emphasis on long-term outcome in patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark Methods All MECU runs are registered in a database by the attending physician, stating, among other parameters, the treatment given, outcome of the treatment and the patient's diagnosis. Over a period of 80 months from May 1 2006 to December 31 2012, all missions in which the outcome of the treatment was registered as ‘life saving’ were scrutinised. Initial outcome, level of competence of the caretaker and diagnosis of each patient were manually established in each case in a combined audit of the prehospital database, the discharge summary of the MECU and the medical records from the hospital. Outcome parameters were final outcome, the aetiology of the life-threatening condition and the level of competences necessary to treat the patient. Results Of 25 647 patients treated by the MECU, 701 (2.7%) received prehospital ‘life saving treatment’. In 596 (2.3%) patients this treatment exceeded the competences of the attending emergency medical technician or paramedic. Of these patients, 225 (0.9%) were ultimately discharged to their own home. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that anaesthesiologist administrated prehospital therapy increases the level of treatment modalities leading to an increased survival in relation to a prehospital system consisting of emergency medical technicians and paramedics alone and thus supports the concept of applying specialists in anaesthesiology in the prehospital setting especially when treating patients with cardiac arrest, patients in

  15. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ≥18 years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (≥15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult

  16. Impact of Lanthanum Carbonate on Prognosis of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Kawashima Study).

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kenji; Nagai, Kojiro; Yokota, Narushi; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Shu

    2016-04-01

    In hemodialysis patients, mineral and bone disorder is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and subsequent death through the progression of vascular calcification. Serum phosphorus plays a major role in this process. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the effects of oral phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate (LC), on the mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among a total of 841 patients who underwent maintenance hemodialysis on 1 July 2010, patients who were treated with LC (LC group, N = 324) and those who were treated without LC (NLC group, N = 517) were compared with respect to their all-cause mortality for a long-term observation period of up to 36 months. The mortality rate was compared using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted by the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the LC group versus NLC group was 0.515 (95% confidence interval, 0.328-0.807), suggesting that the use of LC is associated with an almost 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The present retrospective study including all hemodialysis patients demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the use of LC and improved prognosis in hemodialysis patients. Randomized controlled trials should be done in the future to validate our present findings.

  17. High risk of urinary tract infections in post-operative gynaecology patients: a retrospective case analysis.

    PubMed

    Crosby-Nwaobi, R R; Faithfull, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the incidence and risk factors related to the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), post surgery, in women being treated for a gynaecological cancer. A retrospective case analysis of 215 women was conducted using data collected via case review with domains covering known risk factors for the occurrence of urinary infections. Bacteriuria was defined as greater than 10(5) colony-forming units per millilitre. A total of 30.7% of women had a UTI post-operatively. Among these, 75.7% infections were Escherichia coli. Having a catheter in situ for ≤3 days was found to be slightly significant in the formation of a UTI post-operatively (U= 3878, P < 0.05). Having a catheter in situ for ≥7 days was found to be highly significant (χ(2) (1) = 6.602, P < 0.01), with an odds ratio of 2.44. A positive correlation was found between the duration of the catheter in situ and type of UTI (τ= .251, P < 0.01). Although urinary catheterisation is known to be related to hospital-acquired infection, a shorter duration of catheterisation may reduce the risk of possible infection post surgery. Oncology teams need to be more aware of this risk, identify women more likely to be catheterised for longer and use preventative strategies for managing infection, such as silver nitrite-lined catheters.

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Survival in Advanced Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wesa, Kathleen M.; Segal, Neil H.; Cronin, Angel M.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Jacobs, Gria N.; Coleton, Marci I.; Fleisher, Martin; Dnistrian, Ann M.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. In this retrospective study of stage IV CRC patients, we evaluate whether 25(OH)D levels at diagnosis correlate with survival. Methods Stored sera from carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) measurements obtained between February 2005 and March 2006 were screened. The first 250 patients with CEA ±30 days of stage IV CRC diagnosis were included. Serum 25(OH)D levels were determined and categorized as adequate ≥30 ng/mL, or deficient <30 ng/mL. Multivariable Cox regression models controlling for albumin and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were used to investigate whether higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with prolonged survival. Results A total of 207 patients (83%) were vitamin D-deficient (median, 21 ng/mL), with deficiencies significantly more likely among non-Hispanic black patients (P=0.009). Higher levels were associated with prolonged survival in categorical variable analysis: adequate vs deficient, hazard ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.38–0.98, P=0.041. Conclusions A majority of newly diagnosed stage IV CRC patients are vitamin D-deficient. Our data suggest that higher 25(OH)D levels are associated with better overall survival. Clinical trials to determine whether aggressive vitamin D repletion would improve outcomes for vitamin D-deficient CRC patients are warranted. PMID:25646565

  19. Retrospective analysis of selected predictors of mortality within a veterinary intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kerry E; McCann, Theresa M; Bommer, Nicholas X; Pereira, Yolanda Martinez; Corston, Claire; Reed, Nicola; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2007-10-01

    The records of 204 cats entering the intensive care unit (ICU) at the University of Edinburgh Small Animal Hospital between December 2002 and October 2006 were retrospectively analysed. Of these, 37 cats over 12 months of age had a systolic blood pressure recorded on entry into the ICU, and this group comprised our study population. Of these 37 cats, 36 had both heart rate and respiratory rate recorded on entry into the ICU, whilst 24 of these cats also had body temperature recorded. The relationship between (i) survival to discharge and (ii) survival until 21 days after admission to the ICU was analysed using univariate generalised linear models with binomial errors. The robustness of any significant relationship was assessed using multivariate analysis methods. In addition, receiver operator curves (ROC) were generated for any of the significant predictors of mortality and from these curves the threshold values, optimal sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Using these values survival curves were generated for any significant prognostic indexes. A decreased blood pressure at the time of admission to the ICU was found to be a significant negative predictor of survival until discharge from the hospital. Overall, a systolic blood pressure of 124 mmHg or higher at the time of admission to the ICU has a sensitivity of 47.8% and a specificity of 85.7% for predicting that a cat will survive until discharge from the hospital.

  20. The use of oral cyclosporin to treat feline dermatoses: a retrospective analysis of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, A; Raviri, G; Cornegliani, L

    2006-06-01

    Limited information is available regarding the use of cyclosporin A (CsA) for the treatment of feline dermatoses. The aim of this retrospective study was therefore to describe the efficacy of CsA for the therapy of eosinophilic granuloma (EG), eosinophilic plaque, indolent ulcer, linear granulomas, idiopathic pruritus and stomatitis. A computer search for feline dermatological cases treated with CsA between 1999 and 2004 was performed. Based on history, clinical signs and laboratory diagnostic tests, it was then possible to divide cases into three groups and to select 23 cats. Seven cats had one or more of the following conditions: EG, eosinophilic plaque, indolent ulcer and/or linear granuloma (group A); eight cats had idiopathic pruritus (group B) and eight cats had plasmacytic stomatitis (group C). Doses ranged from 5.8 to 13.3 mg kg(-1) oral CsA. All cats were monitored, with complete serum blood analysis and physical examination, monthly for a minimum of 6 months. Response to therapy was scored (severity of lesions and pruritus) with a 0-10 visual analogue scale at each visit (day 0, day, 30, day 60, day 90). All cats in groups A and B were cured and were maintained on alternate day therapy. In group C, 4/8 patients went into remission, while remaining cats have a fair to good improvement. Routine haematological and biochemical examination failed to reveal abnormalities related to CsA administration.

  1. Morbidity after reversal of Hartmann operation: retrospective analysis of 56 patients

    PubMed Central

    Zarnescu (Vasiliu), EC; Zarnescu, NO; Costea, R; Rahau, L; Neagu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite patient selection, postoperative morbidity after reversal of Hartmann’s procedure remains significant. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with morbidity after conversion of Hartmann’s operation. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of 56 patients who underwent reversal procedures between January 2004 and May 2015 in a single center. We evaluated the following variables: demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, etiology for Hartmann operation, preoperative lab values, intraoperative surgical details and short-term outcomes (hospital stay, medical and surgical complications, mortality). Results: There were 37 men (66.1%) and the mean age was 57 years. The most frequent indications for Hartmann’s procedure were colorectal cancer in 25 patients (44.6%) and complicated diverticulitis in 10 patients (17.9%). The mean time to the reversal procedure was 9 months. Morbidity rate was 16.1% (9 patients) with an anastomotic leakage rate of 3.6% (2 patients) and mortality rate was 3.6% (2 patients). The most common medical complication was diarrhea (4 patients, 7.2%). Bivariate analysis demonstrated that the only factor significantly associated with postoperative complications was presence of multiple comorbidities. Conclusions: Multiple medical comorbidities is the only predictive factor for postoperative complications after Hartmann’s reversal and therefore patient selection for this type of surgery is critical. PMID:26664476

  2. Deterioration of marble. A retrospective analysis of tombstone measurements in the New York City area

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Patterson, D.E.; Baer, N.S.

    1985-03-01

    A data base of tombstone thickness and depth of emblem inscription at Veterans Administration cemeteries has been compiled by New York University. A subset of measurements for two cemeteries in the vicinity of New York City was selected for analysis in this study. For comparable meteorological conditions, different weathering rates of fine grain marble tombstones were observed for the two cemeteries. Tombstones in the Cypress Hills cemetery, which is located within an industrial area, were observed to have higher rates than similar stones in the semi-rural area of the Long Island cemetery. By using a retrospective air-quality model, which is described in another publication, to predict SO/sub 2/ concentrations in New York City from 1880 to 1980, concentration trends of SO/sub 2/ were estimated for both cemeteries. A linear relationship was found to exist between the weathering rates and estimated SO/sub 2/ concentrations. A value of 10 mm per century per ppm of SO/sub 2/ was derived as the best estimate for the weathering coefficient of fine grain marble for the New York City area.

  3. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  4. A retrospective analysis of the role of proton pump inhibitors in colorectal cancer disease survival

    PubMed Central

    Graham, C.; Orr, C.; Bricks, C.S.; Hopman, W.M.; Hammad, N.; Ramjeesingh, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Proton pump inhibitors (ppis) are a commonly used medication. A limited number of studies have identified a weak-to-moderate association between ppi use and colorectal cancer (crc) risk, but none to date have identified an effect of ppi use on crc survival. We therefore postulated that an association between ppi use and crc survival might potentially exist. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 1304 crc patients diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2011 and treated at the Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate overall survival (os). Results We identified 117 patients (9.0%) who were taking ppis at the time of oncology consult. Those taking a ppi were also more often taking asa or statins (or both) and had a statistically significantly increased rate of cardiac disease. No identifiable difference in tumour characteristics was evident in the two groups, including tumour location, differentiation, lymph node status, and stage. Univariate analysis identified a statistically nonsignificant difference in survival, with those taking a ppi experiencing lesser 1-year (82.1% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.161), 2-year (70.1% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.111), and 5-year os (55.2% vs. 62.9%, p = 0.165). When controlling for patient demographics and tumour characteristics, multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a statistically significant effect of ppi in our patient population (hazard ratio: 1.343; 95% confidence interval: 1.011 to 1.785; p = 0.042). Conclusions Our results suggest a potential adverse effect of ppi use on os in crc patients. These results need further evaluation in prospective analyses. PMID:28050148

  5. Treatment of Bone Defects in War Wounds: Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Milicevic, Snjezana; Grubor, Milan; Meccariello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Results of the treatment of open fractures primarily depend on the treatment of connected soft tissue injuries. Objective: The aim was to present the experience and methods gained during the treatment of diaphyseal bone defects as a consequence of gunshot fracture soft war trauma. Patients and Methods: The study consisted of 116 patients with the diaphyseal bone defect who were treated with the usage of primary and delayed autotransplantation of bones, transplants of the fibula and Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis. Results: The results of compensation of bone defect less than 4 cm and conducted by an early cortico-spongioplastics were as follows: good in 8 respondents (45%), satisfactory in 6 (34%) and poor in 4 respondents (21%). In cases of delayed cortico-spongioplastics, the above mentioned results were: good in 36 (41%) respondents, satisfactory in 24 (34%) and poor in 16 (25%) respondents. The results of compensation of bone defect greater than 4 cm with the usage of fibular transplant were as follows: good in 3 (38%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (38%) and poor in 2 (24%), and with the usage of using the Ilizarov method, the results were as follows: good in 8 (57%) respondents, satisfactory in 3 (21.5%) and poor in 3(21.5%) respondents. Conclusion: The results showed that, in cases of compensation of bone defects less than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the primary spongioplastics over the delayed one. In cases of compensation of bone defects greater than 4 cm, the advantage is given to the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis when compared to the fibular transplant. PMID:26543315

  6. Effect of Persistent Thrombocytopenia on Mortality in Surgical Critical Care Patients: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Anjum, Nadeem; Hu, Dong; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common among surgical critically ill patients. The relationship between the duration of thrombocytopenia and mortality is not well studied. This retrospective 12-month cohort study was designed to evaluate the association between persistent thrombocytopenia and mortality among surgical critically ill patients to determine the risk factors for persistent thrombocytopenia. The study included adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at our institution. Patients with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia were identified from a prospective critical care database. We defined patients with persistent thrombocytopenia as those with thrombocytopenia lasting more than 7 consecutive days. The primary outcome of this study was 28-day mortality and the secondary outcomes were lengths of SICU stay and hospital stay. Fifty-one patients experienced persistent thrombocytopenia and 71 experienced nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Among patients with persistent thrombocytopenia, mortality was significantly higher, and SICU and hospital stays were longer than those with nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Risk factor analysis failed to predict which patients with thrombocytopenia would develop into persistent thrombocytopenia. Persistent thrombocytopenia is a clinically significant disorder and is associated with poorer outcomes. Future studies are needed to further define this process.

  7. Paracoccidioidomycosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul: A retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Silvana Pereira; Jorge, Valéria Magalhães; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and is endemic to Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the PCM cases in the countryside south of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The files from four histopathology laboratories located in the city of Pelotas were obtained, and all of the epidemiological and clinical data from the PCM diagnosed cases were collected for analysis. A total of 123 PCM cases diagnosed between 1966 and 2009 were selected. Of these patients, 104 (84.5%) were male, and 17 were female. The patients ranged from 02 to 92 years of age. Fifty-two cases (41.9%) were obtained from the oral pathology laboratory, and the remaining 71 cases (58.1%) were obtained from the three general pathology laboratories. Of all of the patients studied, 65.2% lived in rural zones and worked in agriculture or other related fields. Data on the evolution of this disease was available for 43 cases, and the time frame ranged from 20 to 2920 days (mean = 572.3 days). An accurate diagnosis performed in less than 30 days only occurred in 21% of the cases. PCM is endemic to the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, it is recommended that PCM be included as a differential diagnosis, mainly for individuals between 30 and 60 years of age, living in rural zones and who have respiratory signs and associated-oropharyngeal lesions. PMID:24948940

  8. Analysis of the clinical effects of transforaminal endoscopic discectomy on lumbar disk herniation combined with common peroneal nerve paralysis: a 2-year follow-up retrospective study on 32 patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-peng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Ya-peng; An, Ji-long; Ding, Wen-yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background Very few studies have discussed transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (TED) in the treatment of common peroneal nerve paralysis induced by lumbar disk herniation (LDH). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TED in the treatment of LDH combined with common peroneal nerve paralysis. Materials and methods The clinical and follow-up data of 32 patients with common peroneal nerve paralysis induced by LDH undergoing TED from March 2011 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Follow-up was conducted immediately after the surgery, as well as 3, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. The parameters (including muscle strength recovery of the anterior tibial muscle, leg pain visual analog scale score, neurological function Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] score, MacNab scores in the last follow-up, and the intraoperative and postoperative complications) were recorded. Results Three patients (9.4%) had the anterior tibial muscle strength recovered to ≥ grade 4 immediately after the surgery. The anterior tibial muscle strength of patients recovered to basically stable form in the 6-month postoperative follow-up and that in the last follow-up were as follows: one case of grade 1, one case of grade 2, 28 cases of grade 4, and two cases of grade 5. The visual analog scale scores of leg pain were significantly reduced immediately after the surgery and also on 3, 12, and 24 months compared with preoperative period (all P<0.05). The postoperative JOA scores in the last follow-up were significantly higher than the preoperative JOA scores (P<0.05), and there were nine excellent cases (28.2%), 21 good cases (65.6%), one fair case (3.1%) and one poor case (3.1%) in the last follow-up, with an overall excellent and good rate of 93.8%. Conclusion TED, which can offer sufficient decompression of the nerve root, has excellent overall clinical effects in treating common peroneal nerve paralysis induced by LDH. PMID:28115870

  9. Retrospective analysis of changing characteristics of treatment-seeking smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M; Crew, Erin E; Bryson, Susan W; Lembke, Anna; Bailey, Steffani R; Prochaska, Judith J; Henriksen, Lisa; Fortmann, Stephen P; Killen, Joel D; Killen, Diana T; Hall, Sharon M; David, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to empirically compare successive cohorts of treatment-seeking smokers who enrolled in randomised clinical trials in a region of the USA characterised by strong tobacco control policies and low smoking prevalence, over the past three decades. Design Retrospective treatment cohort comparison. Setting Data were collected from 9 randomised clinical trials conducted at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, between 1990 and 2013. Participants Data from a total of 2083 participants were included (Stanford, n=1356; University of California San Francisco, n=727). Primary and secondary outcomes One-way analysis of variance and covariance, χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relations between nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics among study cohorts. Results Similar trends were observed at both settings. When compared to earlier trials, participants in more recent trials smoked fewer cigarettes, were less nicotine-dependent, reported more depressive symptoms, were more likely to be male and more likely to be from a minority ethnic/racial group, than those enrolled in initial trials (all p's<0.05). Analysis of covariances revealed that cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence and current depressive symptom scores were each significantly related to trial (all p's<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that more recent smoking cessation treatment-seeking cohorts in a low prevalence region were characterised by less smoking severity, more severe symptoms of depression and were more likely to be male and from a minority racial/ethnic group. PMID:27357195

  10. Angioleiomyomas in the head and neck: A retrospective clinical and immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YING; LI, BO; LI, LONGJIANG; LIU, YANBIN; WANG, CHENXING; ZHA, LAGABAIYILA

    2014-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a benign soft-tissue tumor originating from vascular smooth muscle, and is rare in the head and neck. The present study retrospectively examined a cohort of patients with head and neck angioleiomyoma treated at the West China Hospital of Stomatology, and also subjected archived tissues to modern immunohistochemical analysis. In total, 21 patients were treated for angioleiomyoma between 1978 and 2012 at the West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University (Chengdu, Sichuan, China). Medical records were examined and paraffin block sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome stain and Van Gieson stain, prior to being subjected to immunohistochemical analysis to re-evaluate and confirm the diagnoses. Angioleiomyomas were found to account for only 0.18% of the benign head and neck tumors in the patients presenting to the hospital over the past 34 years. The diagnosis was more common in males (male:female ratio, 1.625:1) and the mean age at diagnosis was 42.5 years. The most common sites were the buccal mucosa, parotid gland and palate. More than half of the tumors (61.9%) were >2 cm in diameter. Five tumors presented with pain and/or tenderness. The histological subtype was reported as solid in five cases, venous in six, cavernous in nine and venous-cavernous in one. Three tumors exhibited nerve neurofibrils. All tumors were excised with no subsequent recurrence. Cytological and imaging examinations were not useful for pre-operative diagnosis. Angioleiomyoma is a benign tumor that causes limited morbidity. Surgical excision is the only effective treatment and recurrence is rare. The present study revealed that nerves were present in a small proportion (14.3%) of tumors. It was hypothesized that the compression of nerves accompanying numerous blood vessels in the tumor may cause pain, particularly in venous- and cavernous-type angioleiomyomas. PMID:24959254

  11. Molluscum contagiosum and associations with atopic eczema in children: a retrospective longitudinal study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Piguet, Vincent; Gallacher, John; Francis, Nick A

    2016-01-01

    Background Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin condition in children. Consultation rates and current management in primary care, and how these have changed over time, are poorly described. An association between the presence of atopic eczema (AE) and MC has been shown, but the subsequent risk of developing MC in children with a diagnosis of AE is not known. Aim To describe the consultation rate and management of MC in general practice in the UK over time, and test the hypothesis that a history of AE increases the risk of developing MC in childhood. Design and setting Two studies are reported: a retrospective longitudinal study of MC cases and an age–sex matched case-cohort study of AE cases, both datasets being held in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2013. Method Data of all recorded MC and AE primary care consultations for children aged 0 to 14 years were collected and two main analyses were conducted using these data: a retrospective longitudinal analysis and an age–sex matched case-cohort analysis. Results The rate of MC consultations in primary care for children aged 0 to 14 years is 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI = 9.4 to 9.6). The greatest rate of consultations for both sexes is in children aged 1–4 years and 5–9 years (13.1 to 13.0 (males) and 13.0 to 13.9 (females) per 1000 respectively). Consultation rates for MC have declined by 50% from 2004 to 2013. Children were found to be more likely to have an MC consultation if they had previously consulted a GP with AE (OR 1.13; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.16; P<0.005). Conclusion Consultations for MC in primary care are common, especially in 1–9-year-olds, but they declined significantly during the decade under study. A primary care diagnosis of AE is associated with an increased risk of a subsequent primary care diagnosis of MC. PMID:26639950

  12. Therapy for treatment-refractory chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cindoruk, Mehmet; Karakan, Tarkan; Unal, Selahattin

    2005-01-01

    Background: The most effective current therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the combination of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). Objective: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to determine the rateof response to this therapy, and the factors affecting outcome, in patients with treatment-refractory chronic HCV genotype l b. Methods: The records of patients with chronic HCV infection and HCV geno-type1b who failed (nonresponse or relapse) previous treatment with standard interferon (IFN) + RSV were retrospectively analyzed for demographic data, virologic load, liver histology, biochemistry, treatment-related adverse effects (AEs), and the effects of dose reduction during treatment with peg-IFN + RBV for 48 weeks. Early virologic response (EVR) was defined as ≥2-log (copies/mL) decrease from baseline in serum HCV RNA concentration or the absence of detectable serum HCV RNA at treatment week 12. End-of-treatment response (ETR) was defined as the absence of detectable serum HCV RNA at treatment week 48. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as the absence of detectable serum HCV RNA 24 weeks after treatment was discontinued. Factors affecting treatment outcome were determined using correlation analyses. Results: Data from the files of 17 patients (12 men, 5 women; mean [SD] age, 48 [2] years) were analyzed. EVR was achieved in 7 patients; however, viral breakthrough occurred in 2 of these patients during the treatment period, and 5 of these patients discontinued treatment because of severe treatment-related AEs (depression [1 patient] and neutropenia [4]). Seven patients achieved ETR, but HCV infection relapsed during the follow-up period. Three (18%) patients achieved SVR. Data concerning previous patterns of response to IFN + RBV therapy were available in 10 patients. Of these, 3 of 6 patients who had experienced relapse with the previous treatment achieved SVR with peg-IFN + RBV; neither of the 2 patients with

  13. Retrospective study on the distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Bacsadi, Á; Papp, A; Szeredi, L; Tóth, G; Nemes, C; Imre, V; Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sréter, T

    2016-04-15

    Europe has experienced the spreading of vector-borne helminths including heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) from the Mediterranean countries towards the northern ones in the past decades. Recently, the establishment of D. immitis was confirmed in Hungary on the basis of period prevalence studies involving dogs, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus). The aim of our retrospective study was to describe the spatial distribution of the parasite and the time course of spreading of D. immitis in Hungary. Necropsy records of 2622 dogs received at our laboratories from 2001 to 2015 were reviewed for heartworm infections. The locality of origin of animals was recorded in a geographic information system database and compared to the results of the period prevalence study involving wild canids. Autochthonous heartworm infection was detected in 27 dogs. The time course analysis indicates that the parasite established in Hungary in 2007. As temperature is one of the most important determinants of the distribution of D. immitis, the climate of the Great Hungarian Plain is the most suitable region for the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary. Our studies revealed that the Great Hungarian Plain became a D. immitis endemic region for 2015. Nevertheless, sporadic cases in wild canids and dogs also occur in other regions of the country.

  14. Association of Alternative Approaches to Normalizing Peritoneal Dialysis Clearance with Mortality and Technique Failure: A Retrospective Analysis Using the United States Renal Data System-Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study, Wave 2.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Suzanne M; Li, Yimei; Wilson, F Perry; Glickman, Joel D; Feldman, Harold I

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Total body water (V) is an imprecise metric for normalization of dialytic urea clearance (Kt). This poses a risk of early mortality/technique failure (TF). We examined differences in the distribution of peritoneal Kt/V when V was calculated with actual weight (AW), ideal weight (IW), and adjusted weight (ADW). We also examined the associations of these Kt/V measurements, Kt/body surface area (BSA), and non-normalized Kt with mortality and TF. ♦ METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 534 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from the Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 2 linked with United States Renal Data System through 2010. Using Cox-proportional hazard models, we examined the relationship of several normalization strategies for peritoneal urea clearance, including Kt/VAW, Kt/VIW, Kt/VADW, Kt/BSA, and non-normalized Kt, with the outcomes of mortality and TF. Harrell's c-statistics were used to assess the relative predictive ability of clearance metrics for mortality and TF. The distributions of Kt/VAW, KT/VIW, and KT/VADW were compared within and between body mass index (BMI) strata. ♦ RESULTS: Median patient age: 59 (54% male; 72% white; 91% continuous ambulatory PD [CAPD]). Median 24-hour urine volume: 700 mL; median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at initiation: 7.15 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Technique failure and transplant-censored mortality at 5 years: 37%. Death and transplant-censored TF at 5 years: 60%. There were no significant differences in initial eGFR and 24-hour urine volume across BMI strata. There were statistically significant differences in each Kt/V calculation within the underweight, overweight, and obese strata. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in the hazard ratios (HRs) for TF/mortality for each clearance calculation. Harrell's c-statistics for mortality for each clearance calculation were 0.78, and for TF, 0.60 - 0.61. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal urea clearances are

  15. Classifying degenerative joint disease by the RDC/TMD and by panoramic imaging: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Winocur, E; Reiter, S; Krichmer, M; Kaffe, I

    2010-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to evaluate the utility of diagnosing degenerative joint disease (DJD) by the clinical finding of coarse crepitus alone, without supporting imaging studies, as defined by the RDC/TMD, and to evaluate the contribution of panoramic radiography as an aid in the diagnosis of DJD. A retrospective analysis of 372 consecutive patients with TMD was conducted. Their panoramic radiographs were evaluated for the extent of their contribution to the final diagnosis. Panoramic radiography was of no diagnostic value in 94.4% of the cases when the group was considered as a whole. When patients diagnosed with DJD were considered separately, panoramic radiography was completely sufficient for reaching the final diagnosis in 20.0% of the cases. In almost 90% of these patients, however, the clinical examination did not support the diagnosis of DJD (no coarse crepitus was found). This raises some doubts about the effectiveness of the clinical examination according to the RDC/TMD and about the utility of panoramic radiography in the definitive diagnosis of DJD, because both techniques have low accuracy (11.1% and 20%, respectively). The present study supports the current recommendations that panoramic radiography should not be ordered routinely to assess DJD, but still it is first choice when any dental problem is suspected. Further additional imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) should be considered only if there is reason to expect that the findings might affect diagnosis and management. This study adds to recent criticisms of the clinical validity of the RDC/TMD, with regard to DJD.

  16. Single-lung transplantation in emphysema: Retrospective study analyzing survival and waiting list mortality

    PubMed Central

    Borro, José M; Delgado, María; Coll, Elisabeth; Pita, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To performed remains a subject of debate and is the principal aim of the study. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 73 patients with emphysema (2000-2012). The outcomes of patients undergoing single-lung transplantation (SL) (n = 40) or double-lung transplant (DL) (n = 33) were compared in a Cox multivariate analysis to study the impact of the technique, postoperative complications and acute and chronic rejection on survival rates. Patients were selected for inclusion in the waiting list according to the International Society of Heart Lung Transplantation criteria. Pre and postoperative rehabilitation and prophylaxis, surgical technique and immunosuppressive treatment were similar in every patients. Lung transplantation waiting list information on a national level and retrospective data on emphysema patient survival transplanted in Spain during the study period, was obtained from the lung transplantation registry managed by the National Transplant Organization (ONT). RESULTS: Both groups were comparable in terms of gender and clinical characteristics. We found significant differences in the mean age between the groups, the DL patients being younger as expected from the inclusion criteria. Perioperative complications occurred in 27.6% SL vs 54% DL (P = 0.032). Excluding perioperative mortality, median survival was 65.3 mo for SL and 59.4 mo for DL (P = 0.96). Bronchiolitis obliterans and overall 5-year survival were similar in both groups. Bacterial respiratory infection, cytomegalovirus and fungal infection rates were higher but not significant in SL. No differences were found between type of transplant and survival (P = 0.48). To support our results, national data on all patients with emphysema in waiting list were obtained (n = 1001). Mortality on the waiting list was 2.4% for SL vs 6.2% for DL. There was no difference in 5 year survival between 235 SL and 430 DL patients transplanted (P = 0.875). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SL

  17. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  18. Retrospective Study of Lithium Use for Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langee, Harvey R.

    1990-01-01

    Severely and profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized residents (N=74) who received lithium carbonate for behavior disorders were followed in a 10-year retrospective study. Thirty-one subjects demonstrated a sustained major reduction or elimination of behavioral symptoms. Lithium responders were likely to be older and to present symptoms of…

  19. Reduced Requirements for Long-Term Institutional Care: Results of a Retrospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurewitsch, Eleanor Chestnut

    1984-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective study of 102 Swiss seniors to determine nonmedical factors affecting substantial care days required prior to death. Protected senior housing and an independent and helpful personality seemed to contribute significantly to compression of morbidity and to reduced need for long-term institutional care. (JAC)

  20. Retrospective Study of Quetiapine in Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Jou, Roger J.; Handen, Benjamin L.

    2005-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in a clinic specialized in treating individuals with developmental disabilities to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of quetiapine in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Ten consecutive outpatients (age = 12.0 [plus or minus] 5.1 years) treated with quetiapine (dose = 477…

  1. A retrospective study of etiological factors of abortion in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

    PubMed

    Rouse, R; Bronson, R T; Sehgal, P K

    1981-01-01

    Abortions in owl monkeys occurred in the late second and early third trimesters. Retrospective study of clinical records showed that handling, maternal anemia, karyotype, and season were unassociated with abortion. Most aborted infants had no gross lesions at necropsy. Some had renal tubular necorsis, probably a postmortem change.

  2. Predictors of Infections following Cranioplasty: A Retrospective Review of a Large Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Starke, Robert M.; Hann, Shannon; Bovenzi, Cory D.; Saigh, Mark P.; Schwartz, Eric W.; Kunkel, Emily S. I.; Efthimiadis-Budike, Alexandra S.; Jabbour, Pascal; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The variables that predispose to postcranioplasty infections are poorly described in the literature. We formulated a multivariate model that predicts the risk of infection in patients undergoing cranioplasty. Method. Retrospective review of all patients who underwent cranioplasty following craniectomy from January, 2000, to December, 2011. Tested predictors were age, sex, diabetic status, hypertensive status, reason for craniectomy, urgency status of craniectomy, location of cranioplasty, reoperation for hematoma, hydrocephalus postcranioplasty, and material type. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results. Three hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Infection rate was 26.43% (92/348). Of these cases with infection, 56.52% (52/92) were superficial (supragaleal), 43.48% (40/92) were deep (subgaleal), and 31.52% (29/92) were present in both the supragaleal and subgaleal spaces. The predominant pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30.43%) followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (22.83%) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (15.22%). Approximately 15.22% of all cultures were polymicrobial. Multivariate analysis revealed convex craniectomy, hemorrhagic stroke, and hydrocephalus to be associated with an increased risk of infection (OR = 14.41; P < 0.05, OR = 4.33; P < 0.05, OR = 1.90; P = 0.054, resp.). Conclusion. Many of the risk factors for infection after cranioplasty are modifiable. Recognition and prevention of the risk factors would help decrease the infection's rate. PMID:25401136

  3. Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q.

    2009-02-15

    In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

  4. Last line therapy with sorafenib in colorectal cancer: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martchenko, Ksenia; Schmidtmann, Irene; Thomaidis, Thomas; Thole, Verena; Galle, Peter R; Becker, Marc; Möhler, Markus; Wehler, Thomas C; Schimanski, Carl C

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the efficacy of last line sorafenib treatment in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: All patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer in the outpatient clinic of the University of Mainz since 2006 were retrospectively analyzed for last line sorafenib exposure. Charts of identified patients were analyzed for clinic-pathological parameters, like data on gender, age, date of initial diagnosis, UICC stage, number and kind of the pre-therapies, therapy start and end of sorafenib, sorafenib mediated treatment cessation, side effects, response rates, time to progression and overall survival. RESULTS: Ten patients with a median of 3.0 prior chemotherapy lines had received a last line sorafenib therapy either alone (10%) or in combination with 5-fluorouracil derivates (90%). All patients suffered from colorectal cancer stage UICC 4 and were routinely seen in 2-wk intervals in the oncology outpatient clinic. Median duration of treatment was 142.0 d. At 8 wk 80% of patients showed stable disease but we did not observe any remissions. Median time to progression was 140.5 d (4.7 mo), while median overall survival reached 176.5 d. One patient ceased treatment due to side effects. Reason for treatment stop was bleeding complication in one case and non-specified sorafenib intolerance in another case. Due to the retrospective approach we did not further quantify side effects. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis encourages further investigation of sorafenib in colorectal cancer last line therapy. PMID:27340356

  5. Factors Associated with Reevaluation of the Stepwise Excavation Procedure: An 8-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Verdugo, Paula; Guzmán-Armstrong, Sandra; Cobb, Deborah; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek; Kolker, Justine L; Hernández, Marcela; Warren, J J

    2016-01-01

    Although the stepwise excavation procedure (SWP) has been shown to be an effective caries treatment technique, studies reporting its application outside of controlled clinical trials are limited. We performed a retrospective study from patient record data to assess the proportion of patients who had an SWP reevaluated within 18 months at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry (UICOD) between 2004 and 2012, and evaluated the association between different variables and this outcome. A total of 1,985 SWPs were performed in 1,326 patients, with 518 patients having had reevaluation within 18 months. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression modeling revealed strong associations between explanatory variables such as provider type, tooth type, patient age, number of recalls and the calendar year in which the SWP was done and reevaluation status. There was also evidence of association with dental insurance status. Other characteristics such as gender, distance traveled to the UICOD, number of surfaces treated and tooth arch did not show any significant association. In general, patients were more likely to have reevaluation when seen by faculty members or residents, the procedure was performed in molars/pre-molars, they were older, they had more recalls and were seen earlier in the study period. These results suggest that decisions to use SWP should consider patient demographics and treatment characteristics such as provider level, tooth type, patient age and number of recalls. The impact of treatment year may reflect program heterogeneity or temporal changes in external societal factors.

  6. Retrospective analysis of etiology and comorbid diseases associated with Ludwig's Angina

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Andrew; Jacobs, Fred; Postma, Corne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ludwig's angina (LA) still presents regularly at our tertiary academic hospital. Various etiologies and comorbid diseases are documented worldwide, but the South African population has not been studied. Aim: To establish whether LA cases presenting to the department are different from international reports regarding etiology and comorbidities. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of patients presenting with LA to a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: 93 patients were included over a 5-year period. Archived files were analyzed for data including age, gender, comorbid diseases, etiology, airway management, and season on admission. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics with the inclusion of frequency distributions. Results: 93 patients were included; 65 (69.9%) male and 28 (30.1%) female; age - minimum 20 years, maximum 75 years, mean 40.366. Etiology: 68 (73.1%) odontogenic, 13 (14%) nonodontogenic, and 12 (12.9%) unknown cause. Comorbid diseases: 21 (22.6%) diabetes mellitus (DM), 19 (20.4%) hypertension, and 18 (19.4%) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Airway management: 61 (65.6%) tracheostomy and 32 (34.4%) nonsurgical. Complications: 11 (11.8%) deaths, 8 (8.60%) descending mediastinitis, and 7 (7.53%) necrotizing fasciitis. Seasonal occurrence: 30 (32.3%) spring, 24 (25.8%) winter, 22 (23.7%) summer, and 17 (18.3%) autumn. Conclusion: A 2.32:1 ratio male: female presentation mirrors previous statistics. DM patients had increased risks of complications, which resulted in multiple deaths. HIV patients showed increased risks for complications with more intense, longer hospital stays, but lower percentages of deaths compared to patients with DM and complications who died. There was no statistically significant finding regarding seasonal tendency. PMID:26981465

  7. NASA Life Sciences Data Repositories: Tools for Retrospective Analysis and Future Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.; Wear, M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Fitts, M.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle era into the next phase of space exploration, the need to ensure the capture, analysis, and application of its research and medical data is of greater urgency than at any other previous time. In this era of limited resources and challenging schedules, the Human Research Program (HRP) based at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) recognizes the need to extract the greatest possible amount of information from the data already captured, as well as focus current and future research funding on addressing the HRP goal to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. To this end, the Science Management Office and the Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch within the HRP and the Space Medicine Division have been working to make both research data and clinical data more accessible to the user community. The Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA), the research repository housing data and information regarding the physiologic effects of microgravity, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH-R), the clinical repository housing astronaut data, have joined forces to achieve this goal. The task of both repositories is to acquire, preserve, and distribute data and information both within the NASA community and to the science community at large. This is accomplished via the LSDA s public website (http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov), which allows access to experiment descriptions including hardware, datasets, key personnel, mission descriptions and a mechanism for researchers to request additional data, research and clinical, that is not accessible from the public website. This will result in making the work of NASA and its partners available to the wider sciences community, both domestic and international. The desired outcome is the use of these data for knowledge discovery, retrospective analysis, and planning of future

  8. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  9. A Retrospective Analysis of Dissemination Biases in the Brief Alcohol Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined dissemination and reporting biases in the brief alcohol intervention literature. We used retrospective data from 179 controlled trials included in a meta-analysis on brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults. We examined whether the magnitude and direction of effect sizes were associated with publication type, identification source, language, funding, time lag between intervention and publication, number of reports, journal impact factor, and subsequent citations. Results indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that had been funded (b = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.04, 0.23]), had a shorter time lag between intervention and publication (b = −0.03, 95% CI [−0.05, −.001]), and cited more frequently (b = 0.01, 95% CI [+0.00, 0.01]). Studies that were cited more frequently by other authors also had greater odds of reporting positive effects (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI [1.02, 1.18]). Results indicated that time lag bias has increased recently: larger and positive effect sizes were published more quickly in recent years. We found no evidence, however, that the magnitude or direction of effects was associated with location source, language, or journal impact factor. We conclude that dissemination biases may indeed occur in the social and behavioral science literature, as has been consistently documented in the medical literature. As such, primary researchers, journal reviewers, editors, systematic reviewers, and meta-analysts must be cognizant of the causes and consequences of these biases, and commit to engage in ethical research practices that attempt to minimize them. PMID:25134044

  10. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia: Clinical Features and Retrospective Analysis Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fei; Zhang, Guo-Xin; She, Dan-Yang; Liang, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Ren-Tao; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Liang-An; Cui, Jun-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is associated with drug-resistant pathogens and high mortality, and there is no clear evidence that this is due to inappropriate antibiotic therapy. This study was to elucidate the clinical features, pathogens, therapy, and outcomes of HCAP, and to clarify the risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens and prognosis. Methods: Retrospective observational study among hospitalized patients with HCAP over 10 years. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause hospital mortality after admission. Demographics (age, gender, clinical features, and comorbidities), dates of admission, discharge and/or death, hospitalization costs, microbiological results, chest imaging studies, and CURB-65 were analyzed. Antibiotics, admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation, and pneumonia prognosis were recorded. Patients were dichotomized based on CURB-65 (low- vs. high-risk). Results: Among 612 patients (mean age of 70.7 years), 88.4% had at least one comorbidity. Commonly detected pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Initial monotherapy with β-lactam antibiotics was the most common initial therapy (50%). Mean age, length of stay, hospitalization expenses, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation use, malignancies, and detection rate for P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were higher in the high-risk group compared with the low-risk group. CURB-65 ≥3, malignancies, and mechanical ventilation were associated with an increased mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed that cerebrovascular diseases and being bedridden were independent risk factors for HCAP. Conclusion: Initial treatment of HCAP with broad-spectrum antibiotics could be an appropriate approach. CURB-65 ≥3, malignancies, and mechanical ventilation may result in an increased mortality. PMID:26481734

  11. A retrospective analysis of endoscopic treatment outcomes in patients with postoperative bile leakage

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Suleyman; Olmez, Sehmus; Avcioglu, Ufuk; Tenlik, Ilyas; Saritas, Bunyamin; Ozdil, Kamil; Altiparmak, Emin; Ozaslan, Ersan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bile leakage, while rare, can be a complication seen after cholecystectomy. It may also occur after hepatic or biliary surgical procedures. Etiology may be underlying pathology or surgical complication. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can play major role in diagnosis and treatment of bile leakage. Present study was a retrospective analysis of outcomes of ERCP procedure in patients with bile leakage. METHODS: Patients who underwent ERCP for bile leakage after surgery between 2008 and 2012 were included in the study. Etiology, clinical and radiological characteristics, and endoscopic treatment outcomes were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Total of 31 patients (10 male, 21 female) were included in the study. ERCP was performed for bile leakage after cholecystectomy in 20 patients, after hydatid cyst operation in 10 patients, and after hepatic resection in 1 patient. Clinical signs and symptoms of bile leakage included abdominal pain, bile drainage from percutaneous drain, peritonitis, jaundice, and bilioma. Twelve (60%) patients were treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and nasobiliary drainage (NBD) catheter, 7 patients (35%) were treated with ES and biliary stent (BS), and 1 patient (5%) was treated with ES alone. Treatment efficiency was 100% in bile leakage cases after cholecystectomy. Ten (32%) cases of hydatid cyst surgery had subsequent cystobiliary fistula. Of these patients, 7 were treated with ES and NBD, 2 were treated with ES and BS, and 1 patient (8%) with ES alone. Treatment was successful in 90% of these cases. CONCLUSION: ERCP is an effective method to diagnose and treat bile leakage. Endoscopic treatment of postoperative bile leakage should be individualized based on etiological and other factors, such as accompanying fistula. PMID:28058396

  12. Retrospective and Prospective Decomposition Analysis of Chinese Manufacturing Energy Use, 1995-2020

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Lu, Hongyou; Ke, Jing

    2013-01-15

    In 2010, China was responsible for nearly 20 percent of global energy use and 25 percent of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Unlike most countries, China’s energy consumption pattern is unique because the industrial sector dominates the country’s total energy consumption, accounting for about 70 percent of energy use and 72 percent of CO2 emissions in 2010. For this reason, the development path of China’s industrial sector will greatly affect future energy demand and dynamics of not only China, but the entire world. A number of analyses of historical trends have been conducted, but careful projections of the key factors affecting China’s industry sector energy use over the next decade are scarce. This study analyzes industrial energy use and the economic structure of the Chinese manufacturing sector in detail. First, the study analyzes the energy use of and output from 18 industry sub-sectors. Then, retrospective (1995-2010) and prospective (2010-2020) decomposition analyses are conducted for these industrial sectors in order to show how different factors (production growth, structural change, and energy intensity change) influenced industrial energy use trends in China over the last 15 years and how they will do so over the next 10 years. The results of this study will allow policy makers to quantitatively compare the level of structural change in the past and in the years to come and adjust their policies if needed to move towards the target of less energy-intensive industries. The scenario analysis shows the structural change achieved through different paths and helps to understand the consequences of supporting or limiting the growth of certain manufacturing subsectors from the point of view of energy use and structural change. The results point out the industries that have the largest influence in such structural change

  13. Trabectedin in advanced synovial sarcomas: a multicenter retrospective study from four European institutions and the Italian Rare Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Roberta; Dileo, Palma; Blay, Jean-Yves; Constantinidou, Anastasia; Le Cesne, Axel; Benson, Charlotte; Vizzini, Laura; Contu, Marianna; Baldi, Giacomo G; Dei Tos, Angelo P; Casali, Paolo G

    2015-07-01

    Treatment options for patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma are limited. Over recent years, trabectedin has emerged as an effective agent for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas resistant to anthracyclines and ifosfamide. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to study the efficacy of trabectedin in the subgroup of synovial sarcomas. A retrospective analysis was carried out on patients with advanced synovial sarcoma treated with trabectedin at four European reference sarcoma centers and within the Italian Rare Cancer Network between 2000 and 2013. Radiological response, progression-free, and overall survival, as well as serious and unexpected adverse events were retrospectively assessed. Sixty-one patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma were identified. The median number of previous chemotherapy regimens was 2 (range 1-6). Nine patients had a partial response, in addition to two minor responses, and 19 patients had stable disease, for an overall response rate of 15% and a tumor control rate of 50%. The median progression-free survival was 3 months, with 23% of patients free from progression at 6 months. The median progression-free survival in responding patients was 7 months. Trabectedin is a therapeutic option for palliative treatment of a subset of patients with metastatic synovial sarcoma.

  14. Retrospective and prospective data collection compared in the Dutch End Of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc; Gutschow, Giselka; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-01-01

    Studying end of life in dementia patients is challenging because of ill-defined prognoses and frequent inability to self-report. We aim to quantify and compare (1) feasibility and (2) sampling issues between prospective and retrospective data collection specific to end-of-life research in long-term care settings. The observational Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (DEOLD; 2007 to 2011) used both prospective data collection (28 facilities; 17 nursing home organizations/physician teams; questionnaires between January 2007 and July 2010, survival until July 2011) and retrospective data collection (exclusively after death; 6 facilities; 2 teams, questionnaires between November 2007 and March 2010). Prospective collection extended from the time of admission to the time after death or conclusion of the study. Prospectively, we recruited 372 families: 218 residents died (59%) and 184 (49%) had complete physician and family after-death assessments. Retrospectively, 119 decedents were enrolled, with 64 (54%) complete assessments. Cumulative data collection over all homes lasted 80 and 8 years, respectively. Per complete after-death assessments in a year, the prospective data collection involved 37.9 beds, whereas this was 7.9 for the retrospective data collection. Although age at death, sex, and survival curves were similar, prospectively, decedents' length of stay was shorter (10.3 vs. 31.4 mo), and fewer residents had advanced dementia (39% vs. 54%). Regarding feasibility, we conclude that prospective data collection is many fold more intensive and complex per complete after-death assessment. Regarding sampling, if not all are followed until death, it results in right censoring and in different, nonrepresentative samples of decedents compared with retrospective data collection. Future work may adjust or stratify for dementia severity and length of stay as key issues to promote comparability between studies.

  15. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income.

  16. Outcomes for adult scoliosis patients receiving chiropractic rehabilitation: a 24-month retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to retrospectively report the results of patients who completed an exercise-based chiropractic program and its potential to alter the natural progression of adult scoliosis at 24 months after the clinic portion of treatment was concluded. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted at 2 spine clinics in Michigan, USA. Each clinic uses the same chiropractic rehabilitation program to treat patients with adult scoliosis. Multidimensional patient outcomes included radiographic, respiratory, disability, and pain parameters. Outcomes were measured at baseline, at end of active treatment, and at long-term follow-up. Results A total of 28 patients fit the inclusion criteria for the study. The average beginning primary Cobb angle was 44° ± 6°. Patients received the same chiropractic rehabilitation program for approximately 6 months. At the end of active treatment, improvements were recorded in Cobb angle, pain scores, spirometry, and disability rating. All radiographic findings were maintained at 24-month follow-up. Conclusion This report is among the first to demonstrate sustained radiographic, self-rated, and physiologic benefits after treatment ceased. After completion of a multimodal chiropractic rehabilitation treatment, a retrospective cohort of 28 adult scoliosis patients reported improvements in pain, Cobb angle, and disability immediately following the conclusion of treatment and 24 months later. PMID:22014907

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in couples with repeated fetal loss: An Indian retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Frenny J; Liehr, Thomas; Kumari, Pritti; Akinde, Ralph; Sheth, Harsh J; Sheth, Jayesh J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common occurrence and a matter of concern for couples planning the pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities, mainly balanced rearrangements, are common in couples with repeated miscarriages. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of chromosomal anomalies causing repeated spontaneous miscarriages and provide detailed characterization of a few structurally altered chromosomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cytogenetic study was carried out on 4859 individuals having a history of recurrent miscarriages. The cases were analyzed using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization wherever necessary. RESULTS: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 170 individuals (3.5%). Translocations were seen in 72 (42.35%) cases. Of these, reciprocal translocations constituted 42 (24.70%) cases while Robertsonian translocations were detected in 30 (17.64%) cases. 7 (4.11%) cases were mosaic, 8 (4.70%) had small supernumerary marker chromosomes and 1 (0.6%) had an interstitial microdeletion. Nearly, 78 (1.61%) cases with heteromorphic variants were seen of which inversion of Y chromosome (57.70%) and chromosome 9 pericentromeric variants (32.05%) were predominantly involved. CONCLUSIONS: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated miscarriages. Characterization of variants/marker chromosome enable calculation of a more precise recurrent risk in a subsequent pregnancy thereby facilitating genetic counseling and deciding further reproductive options. PMID:24497706

  18. Proteinuria as a Therapeutic Target in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: a Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hsu; Wu, Hon-Yen; Wang, Chieh-Li; Yang, Feng-Jung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hung, Szu-Chun; Kan, Wei-Chih; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence of proteinuria reduction as a surrogate target in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete due to lack of patient-pooled database. We retrospectively studied a multicenter cohort of 1891 patients who were enrolled in the nationwide multidisciplinary pre-end stage renal disease care program with a baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and followed longitudinally to investigate the effect of the change in proteinuria on renal death (defined as composite of dialysis and death occurring before initiation of dialysis). The group with a change in proteinuria ≤0.30 g/g (n = 1261) had lower cumulative probabilities of renal death (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model, a higher baseline proteinuria and a greater increase in proteinuria were associated with faster annual GFR decline. Cox’s analysis showed that every 1 unit increase in natural log(baseline proteinuria, 10 g/g) and every 0.1 g/g increase in the change in proteinuria resulted in 67% (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.46–1.91) and 1% (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01–1.01) greater risk of renal death respectively after adjusting for the effects of the other covariates. Our study provided a patient-based evidence to support proteinuria as a therapeutic target in advanced CKD. PMID:27198863

  19. Invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with connective tissue disease: a retrospective study from northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ge, H.F.; Liu, X.Q.; Zhu, Y.Q.; Chen, H.Q.; Chen, G.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI) is a potentially fatal complication in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). The current study aimed to uncover the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with IPFI-CTD. The files of 2186 CTD patients admitted to a single center in northern China between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 47 CTD patients with IPFI were enrolled into this study and assigned to the CTD-IPFI group, while 47 uninfected CTD patients were assigned to the control group. Clinical manifestations were recorded, and risk factors of IPFI were calculated by stepwise logistical regression analysis. Forty-seven (2.15%) CTD patients developed IPFI. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients were responsible for the highest proportion (36.17%) of cases with IPFI. Candida albicans (72.3%) accounted for the most common fungal species. CTD-IPFI patients had significantly elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and fasting glucose values compared to controls (P<0.05). Cough, sputum and blood in phlegm were the most common symptoms. Risk factors of IPFI in CTD included maximum prednisone dose ≥30 mg/day within 3 months prior to infection, anti-microbial drug therapy, and interstitial pneumonia. CTD patients who have underlying interstitial pneumonia, prior prednisone or multiple antibiotics, were more likely to develop IPFI. PMID:27683823

  20. [Retrospective study of 48 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Alessandro, Lucas; Pastor Rueda, José M; Villalonga, Juan F; Bruno, Verónica A; Carpani, Federico; Blaquier, Juan B; Tognarelli, Sofía; Varela, Francisco J; Muggeri, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84); with male predominance (2.1:1). Forty one cases (85%) were immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI findings showed parenchymal involvement in 45 cases (94%), 43% with frontal lobe and 35% basal ganglia, 4% had meningeal involvement and 2% had ophthalmic involvement at diagnosis. Fifty-five percent had restricted signal on diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement was found in 89%. Pyramidal syndrome was the main initial clinical manifestation (56%). There were abnormal findings in 62% of CSF samples, but in only 11.1% positive cytology results were detected. The most frequent type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (83%), being B-cell type the most common form between them (96%). In our series PCNSL was more frequent in immunocompetent elderly male subjects. At initial evaluation, clinical manifestations and MRI findings were variable. The initial suspicion of this entity would allow an early diagnosis, avoiding empirical treatments that may confuse or delay diagnosis.

  1. Retrospective Study of Etiologic Agents Associated with Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalitis in Stranded Cetaceans in the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  2. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hershko-Klement, A; Sukenik-Halevy, R; Biron Shental, T; Miller, N; Berkovitz, A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to study the birth defect rates in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) pregnancies. A cohort of couples presenting male factor infertility between January 2006 and January 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Discharge letters and a telephone interview were performed for assessing pregnancy outcome. All clinical data were reviewed by a board certified medical geneticist. Main outcomes were fetal/birth defect and chromosomal abnormality rates. Two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pregnancies were available for analysis, of them, 1669 (73.9%) resulting from ICSI and 2258 (26.1%) achieved by IMSI. Pregnancy outcome distribution did not show a significant difference. For the fresh embryo transfer cohort, fetal/birth defect rate was 4.5%, chromosomal aberration rate was 1.0%, and structural malformation rate was 3.5%. IMSI vs. ICSI pregnancies were less likely to involve a fetal/birth defect: 3.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively, but did not reach a statistical significance OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.39-1.22). Split by multiplicity, this trend existed only for singleton pregnancies; 1.4% structural malformations rate vs. 3.8%, respectively, OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.11-0.9). The frozen cohort demonstrated a significantly lower birth defect rate (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.58). We conclude that IMSI procedure does not involve an increased malformation rate and may offer a reduced anomaly incidence. Further studies are required.

  3. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: a retrospective analysis and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Youde; Chen, Chen; Liu, Lin; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shengchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NEBCs) are a rare type of breast carcinomas that lack comprehensive recognition, including the clinicopathological features, therapeutic strategies, and prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to present and analyze our own data of primary NEBCs. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records from 2005 to 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China to obtain a cohort of breast carcinoma patients who were confirmed to have primary NEBC by histopathology. The detailed clinical data along with histopathology, treatment, and follow-up aspects were gathered for analysis. Results This retrospective analysis included 19 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of primary NEBC from 2005 to 2015. Their mean age was 59.2 years (ranging from 17 to 82 years). The majority of patients (15/19) focused on stages I and II. Of the 15 patients, 14 were positive for estrogen receptor, and 11 were positive for progesterone receptor. For neuroendocrine markers, the expression rates were 8/19, 14/18, 12/14, and 2/6 for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56, respectively. All operable patients except the one stage M1 underwent a surgery and 4/18 had axillary lymph node metastasis. Chemotherapy was performed in 12/19, and endocrine therapy in 8/10. With a median follow-up of 59.2 months, only 2 cases progressed after postoperative systemic therapy. Conclusion The understanding of NEBC is limited due to its rarity. More evidence should be provided to enhance the understanding of NEBC, especially for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:28176908

  4. Where we used to live: validating retrospective measures of childhood neighborhood context for life course epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Kehm, Rebecca; Misra, Dawn P

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposures influence numerous social determinants of health, as distal causes or confounders of later health outcomes. Although a growing literature is documenting how early life socioeconomic position affects later life health, few epidemiologic studies have tested measures for operationalizing early life neighborhood context, or examined their effects on later life health. In the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study, a retrospective cohort study among Black women in Southfield, Michigan (71% response rate), we tested the validity and reliability of retrospectively-reported survey-based subjective measures of early life neighborhood context(N=693). We compared 3 subjective childhood neighborhood measures (disorder, informal social control, victimization), with 3 objective childhood neighborhood measures derived from 4 decades of historical census tract data 1970-2000, linked through geocoded residential histories (tract % poverty, tract % black, tract deprivation score derived from principal components analysis), as well as with 2 subjective neighborhood measures in adulthood. Our results documented that internal consistency reliability was high for the subjective childhood neighborhood scales (Cronbach's α =0.89, 0.93). Comparison of subjective with objective childhood neighborhood measures found moderate associations in hypothesized directions. Associations with objective variables were strongest for neighborhood disorder (rhos=.40), as opposed to with social control or victimization. Associations between subjective neighborhood context in childhood versus adulthood were moderate and stronger for residentially-stable populations. We lastly formally tested for, but found little evidence of, recall bias of the retrospective subjective reports of childhood context. These results provide evidence that retrospective reports of subjective neighborhood context may be a cost-effective, valid, and reliable method to operationalize early

  5. Leber's congenital amaurosis. A retrospective study of 33 cases and a histopathological study of one case.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Carr, R E

    1978-05-01

    This report is a retrospective study of 33 patients seen over a 16-year period in whom a diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis was made. The findings of an autosomal recessive heredity in 33%, connatal blindness (visual acuity less than 20/200) in 95%m nystagmus in 75%, and a markedly abnormal electroretinogram in 100% is in agreement with the findings of previously published large series. The difficulty in making the correct diagnosis initially was related to the wide variety of fundus findings and a high association (30%) of central nervous system disease. In the differential diagnosis of connatal blindness, only Leber's congenital amaurosis exhibits an absent or markedly diminished response on electroretinogram. The histopathologic findings in a 6-month-old infant with this disorder are compared with those of previously published reports.

  6. Incorporating Colour Information for Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Melanoma from Dermoscopy Images: A Retrospective Survey and Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening form of skin cancer. Although advanced melanoma is often considered as incurable, if detected and excised early, the prognosis is promising. Today, clinicians use computer vision in an increasing number of applications to aid early detection of melanoma through dermatological image analysis (dermoscopy images, in particular). Colour assessment is essential for the clinical diagnosis of skin cancers. Due to this diagnostic importance, many studies have either focused on or employed colour features as a constituent part of their skin lesion analysis systems. These studies range from using low-level colour features, such as simple statistical measures of colours occurring in the lesion, to availing themselves of high-level semantic features such as the presence of blue-white veil, globules, or colour variegation in the lesion. This paper provides a retrospective survey and critical analysis of contributions in this research direction. PMID:28096807

  7. Routine Histopathologic Examination of Appendectomy Specimens: Retrospective Analysis of 1255 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17–85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1–27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  8. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus horse antithymocyte globulin for treatment of acquired aplastic anemia: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Carlos; Montesinos, Pau; Polo, Marta; Cuevas, Beatriz; Morado, Marta; Rosell, Ana; Xicoy, Blanca; Díez, José L; Salamero, Olga; Cedillo, Ángel; Martínez, Pablo; Rayón, Consolación

    2015-06-01

    Studies comparing rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) and horse ATG (hATG) in patients with aplastic anemia (AA) have shown conflicting results. These studies included fewer than 60 subjects in the rATG arm with relatively short follow-up. A total of 169 patients treated with rATG and 62 treated with hATG were included in this retrospective analysis, across 33 centers. Patients were treated with rATG or hATG plus cyclosporine A. Over half were classified, as having severe AA (SAA) or very severe AA (VSAA), and the mean follow-up was 45 months. There was no significant difference detected in cumulative response to treatment or survival between the rATG and hATG groups. The response to treatment was 63 % in the rATG group versus 66 % in the hATG group at 3 months. By 12 months, this pattern had reversed, and 84 % of rATG patients had responded to treatment versus 76 % in the hATG group (n.s.). Early mortality due to infection tended to be higher with rATG compared to hATG (n.s). rATG and hATG would seem to be therapeutically equivalent in SAA and VSAA. However, patients treated with rATG may take longer to respond than those treated with hATG and may also require more active prevention of early infections.

  9. Retrospective Demographic Analysis of Patients Seeking Care at a Free University Chiropractic Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gerald; Campeanu, Michael; Sorrento, Andrew T.; Ryu, Jiwoon; Burke, Jeanmarie

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the demographics, presenting complaints, and health history of new patients seeking treatment at a free chiropractic clinic within a university health center. Methods A retrospective analysis of patient files from 2008 to 2009 was performed for a free student chiropractic clinic in the Buffalo, NY, area. Demographics, presenting complaints, and health history of new patients seeking treatment were recorded. Results There were 343 new chiropractic patient files. Most patients were between the ages of 18 and 30 years (n = 304, 88%) with an almost equal distribution of men (n = 163, 48%) and women (n = 180, 52%). The patients were mostly single (n = 300, 87%). Patients self-reported that their case histories excluded a current medical diagnosis (n = 261, 76%), previous history of disease (n = 216, 63%), allergies (n = 240, 70%), previous surgical procedures (n = 279, 81%), and medication use (n = 250, 73%). The frequencies of spinal complaints were as follows: lumbar spine, n = 176 (51%); cervical spine, n = 78 (23%); and thoracic spine, n = 44 (13%). Maintenance care, headaches, and spine-related upper and lower extremities complaints accounted for the other 13% of patients treated. Half were chronic (n = 172, 50%), and a third were acute (n=108, 31%). Patients averaged 6 chiropractic visits, with 88% having 11 visits or less. Conclusion This study found that new patients seeking care at a free student chiropractic clinic within a university health center in the Buffalo area mainly consisted of young single adults, with chronic lumbar spine complaints with few comorbidities. PMID:27069428

  10. Dural ossification associated with ossification of ligamentum flavum in the thoracic spine: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Qiu, Guixing; Guo, Shigong; Li, Wenjing; Li, Ye; Peng, Huiming; Wang, Chu; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the incidence, distribution and radiological characteristics of dural ossification (DO) associated with ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in the thoracic spine. Design A retrospective radiographical analysis. Setting This study was conducted at a single institution in China. Participants 53 patients with OLF who underwent posterior decompression surgery between January 2011 and July 2015 in a single institution were enrolled in this study. The decompression segments were grouped according to imaging evaluation and intraoperative evidences. Outcome measures The demographic distribution, radiological data and detailed surgical records were collected. First, preoperative CT images of decompressed segments were evaluated to identify imaging signs of DO. The ‘tram tack sign’ (TTS), ‘comma sign’ and ‘bridge sign’ were considered as characteristic imaging findings of DO in OLF. 4 kinds of confusing signs (false TTS) were identified and excluded. Then detailed surgical records were reviewed to finally identify segments with DO. Results The incidence of DO in patients with OLF was 43.4%. The incidence of DO in OLF segments was 21.5%. OLF was more common in the lower thoracic spine, and more than half (53.8%) of the DO was located in T9-T12. TTS was the most common sign, but it might be misdiagnosed. After excluding 4 kinds of false TTS, the sensitivity and specificity of imaging diagnosis were 94.23% and 94.21%, respectively. Conclusions DO was relatively common in thoracic OLF, especially in T9-T12. TTS might be misdiagnosed. After excluding 4 kinds of false TTS, the accuracy of imaging diagnosis was relatively high. PMID:27998902

  11. Predictive Factors for Second-Line Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanyi, Philipp; Hornig, Mareike; Grünwald, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Currently, about 50% of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) receive a second-line therapy. Therefore, the choice at each subsequent treatment line remains an important issue. In this retrospective study, we sought to identify pretreatment clinical parameters that could predict the likelihood of a patient receiving a second-line therapy. One hundred and sixty-one mRCC patients who received targeted therapy were evaluated. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan–Meier overall survival (OS), Cox regression, and binary logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Second-line therapy was given to 105 patients (65%). Patients with grade 1 tumor received second-line therapy more frequently than those with grade 2/3 tumors (P = 0.03). Only tumor grade was significantly different between patients receiving, or not receiving, second-line treatment. Median OS was significantly superior in patients receiving second-line therapy (32 versus 14 months; P = 0.007; hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; P = 0.008), patients with grade 1 tumors (130 versus 29 months in G2/3 tumors; HR, 3.85; P = 0.009), and in patients without early tumor progression (41 versus 11 months; HR, 5.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.06–8.31; P < 0.001). In binary logistic regression, we identified early progression to be significantly associated with a higher probability of not receiving a second-line therapy (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.01–6.21; P = 0.048). This study hypothesizes that pretreatment grade and early progression are predictive parameters for the selection of patients for second-line therapy.

  12. Seizure Outcomes and Predictors of Recurrent Post-Stroke Seizure: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Motoyama, Rie; Fukuma, Kazuki; Miyagi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Kazutaka; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Seizure is a common complication after stroke (termed “post-stroke seizure,” PSS). Although many studies have assessed outcomes and risk factors of PSS, no reliable predictors are currently available to determine PSS recurrence. We compared baseline clinical characteristics and post-stroke treatment regimens between recurrent and non-recurrent PSS patients to identify factors predictive of recurrence. Methods Consecutive PSS patients admitted to our stroke center between January 2011 and July 2013 were monitored until February 2014 (median 357 days; IQR, 160–552) and retrospectively evaluated for baseline clinical characteristics and PSS recurrence. Cumulative recurrence rates at 90, 180, and 360 days post-stroke were estimated by Kaplan—Meier analysis. Independent predictors of recurrent PSS were identified by Cox proportional-hazards analysis. Results A total of 104 patients (71 men; mean age, 72.1 ± 11.2 years) were analyzed. PSS recurred in 31 patients (30%) during the follow-up. Factors significantly associated with PSS recurrence by log-rank analysis included previous PSS, valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy, polytherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), frontal cortical lesion, and higher modified Rankin Scale score at discharge (all p < 0.05). Independent predictors of recurrent PSS were age <74 years (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.02–5.90), VPA monotherapy (HR 3.86, 95% CI 1.30–12.62), and convulsions on admission (HR 3.87, 95% CI 1.35–12.76). Conclusions Approximately one-third of PSS patients experienced seizure recurrence within one year. The predictors of recurrent PSS were younger age, presence of convulsions and VPA monotherapy. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously in countries where monotherapy with second-generation AEDs has been approved because this study was conducted while second-generation AEDs had not been officially approved for monotherapy in Japan. PMID:26309124

  13. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Glossopharyngeal Nerve Taste in Children with Recurrent Acute Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Courtney A; Dang, Suveera; Beach, Michael; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare glossopharyngeal taste between healthy children and those with recurrent acute tonsillitis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Pediatric clinics in a tertiary care medical center and satellite location. Subjects and Methods Smell and taste testing was administered to 80 well children and 64 children with recurrent acute tonsillitis (age range, 6-17 years). Smell testing was performed with the NIH Toolbox Odor Identification Test, with scores based on national averages for age and sex. Validated Taste Strips were placed on the midline of the tongue at the circumvallate papillae in random tastant order and in increasing concentrations to test sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Ordinal logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results The healthy and tonsillitis groups were similar, with mean ages of 11.3 and 10.8 years ( P = .34), respectively. The tonsillitis group had fewer boys (n = 18 vs 43, P = .002), higher mean body mass index (BMI) percentile (n = 72.2 vs 59.8, P = .01), and more subjects with public or no insurance (n = 24 vs 13, P = .004). Univariate analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in rate of normal overall taste (67.2% vs 60%, P = .39) and in sweet (79.7% vs 82.5%, P = .67), salty (85.9% vs 82.8%, P = .82), sour (64.1% vs 70%, P = .48), and bitter (90.6% vs 86.3%, P = .45). In multivariate analysis, smell ability, sex, BMI percentile, parent BMI, and insurance type did not affect overall taste or sweet, salty, sour, or bitter alone. Conclusion Despite controlling for potential intrinsic (sex, smell, BMI) and extrinsic (parent BMI, insurance type) confounders, there was no statistically significant difference in taste among children with recurrent acute tonsillitis as compared with healthy children.

  14. Method for Visually Integrating Multiple Data Acquisition Technologies for Real Time and Retrospective Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, Edward H. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for display on a single video display terminal of multiple physiological measurements is provided. A subject is monitored by a plurality of instruments which feed data to a computer programmed to receive data, calculate data products such as index of engagement and heart rate, and display the data in a graphical format simultaneously on a single video display terminal. In addition live video representing the view of the subject and the experimental setup may also be integrated into the single data display. The display may be recorded on a standard video tape recorder for retrospective analysis.

  15. High Incidence of Human Rabies Exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia: A Four-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Teklu, Gebreyohans Gebru; Hailu, Teweldemedhn Gebretinsae; Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease that has been known in Ethiopia for centuries in society as “Mad Dog Disease”. It is an important disease with veterinary and public health significance in the North western zone of Tigray where previous studies have not been conducted. Frequent occurrence of outbreaks in the area led the researchers to carry out a four year retrospective study to estimate the incidence of human rabies exposure in Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Methodology A referent study was conducted on human rabies exposure cases recorded from 2012 to 2015 at Suhul hospital, Shire Endaselase, Northwestern Tigray, Ethiopia. Exposure cases included in this research constituted victims bitten by unprovoked dogs and who received post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) at the hospital. Two thousand one hundred eighty human rabies exposure cases retrieved from the rabies case database were included in this study. Principal findings The majority of the exposed cases were males (1363/2180, 63%). Age wise, the most exposed age group was ≥15 years in all the study years: 166 (58%), 335 (65%), 492 (66%) and 394 (63%) in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Similarly, exposure cases for human rabies increased with age in both males and females across the study years. The incidence of human rabies exposure cases calculated per 100,000 populations was 35.8, 63.0, 89.8 and 73.1 in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that being male was a risk for human rabies exposure in all the study years. Conclusion The study discovered the highest annual human rabies exposure incidence in Ethiopia. This suggests an urgent need for synergistic efforts of human and animal health sectors to implement prevention and control strategies in this area. PMID:28060935

  16. ‘Omics’ biomarkers associated with chronic low back pain: protocol of a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Massimo; Klersy, Catherine; Wang, Wei; Sim, Moira; Gieger, Christian; Manz, Judith; Pemberton, Iain K; MacDougall, Jane; Williams, Frances MK; Van Zundert, Jan; Buyse, Klaas; Lauc, Gordan; Gudelj, Ivan; Primorac, Dragan; Skelin, Andrea; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Karssen, Lennart C; Kapural, Leonardo; Rauck, Richard; Fanelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic low back pain (CLBP) produces considerable direct costs as well as indirect burdens for society, industry and health systems. CLBP is characterised by heterogeneity, inclusion of several pain syndromes, different underlying molecular pathologies and interaction with psychosocial factors that leads to a range of clinical manifestations. There is still much to understand in the underlying pathological processes and the non-psychosocial factors which account for differences in outcomes. Biomarkers that may be objectively used for diagnosis and personalised, targeted and cost-effective treatment are still lacking. Therefore, any data that may be obtained at the ‘-omics’ level (glycomics, Activomics and genome-wide association studies—GWAS) may be helpful to use as dynamic biomarkers for elucidating CLBP pathogenesis and may ultimately provide prognostic information too. By means of a retrospective, observational, case-cohort, multicentre study, we aim to investigate new promising biomarkers potentially able to solve some of the issues related to CLBP. Methods and analysis The study follows a two-phase, 1:2 case–control model. A total of 12 000 individuals (4000 cases and 8000 controls) will be enrolled; clinical data will be registered, with particular attention to pain characteristics and outcomes of pain treatments. Blood samples will be collected to perform -omics studies. The primary objective is to recognise genetic variants associated with CLBP; secondary objectives are to study glycomics and Activomics profiles associated with CLBP. Ethics and dissemination The study is part of the PainOMICS project funded by European Community in the Seventh Framework Programme. The study has been approved from competent ethical bodies and copies of approvals were provided to the European Commission before starting the study. Results of the study will be reviewed by the Scientific Board and Ethical Committee of the PainOMICS Consortium. The

  17. A retrospective study to correlate breech presentation and enhanced risk of postspinal hypotension during cesarean delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Pandey, Shivali; Kumar, Roopesh; Sethi, Chavi; Sharma, Sanjya

    2015-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid blockade for cesarean section still poses a threat of profound hypotension and can result in unstable maternal and fetal hemodynamics. The correlation of fetal breech and vertex presentation with the occurrence of hypotension under spinal anesthesia is reviewed in this retrospective, double-blind study. Patients and methods The study was conducted on pregnant females scheduled for a lower segment cesarean section between January 2014 and December 2014. After applying inclusion criteria, 568 patients were recruited in the study out of which 363 had vertex and 184 patients had breech presentation. They were divided into two groups, Group I and Group II. The monitoring and therapeutic data (blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, and dose of vasopressor/atropine) recovered from automated data analysis were analyzed retrospectively for prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension with bradycardia and nausea ± vomiting. Results Among Group I, prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension together with bradycardia was 152 (41.83%) patients, eight (2.20%) patients, and seven (1.92%) patients, respectively. In Group II, the prevalence of hypotension, bradycardia, and hypotension with bradycardia was 93 (50.5%) patients, five (2.71%) patients, and six (3.2%) patients, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant for hypotension. For Group I, 152 patients (41.87%) experienced one, 23 patients (6.33%) experienced two, and three patients (0.82%) experienced three episodes of hypotension. In Group II, 93 (50.5%), 19 (7.89%), and two (1.08%) patients experienced such episodes. The difference was significant with respect of one and two episodes. The prevalence of intraoperative nausea was 11.01% (40 patients) in Group I, whereas 11.41% (21 patients) in Group II. Intraoperative vomiting occurred in 19 patients (5.23%) of Group I and 14 patients (7.60%) of Group II. The height of the

  18. Analysis of Sexual Assault Survivours in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Vaid, Neelam Bala; Behera, Sanjeeta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rape and abuse of women are common occurrences, which, many a times go unspoken due to social stigma or fear of retribution. Rape is a crime not against a single human being but against the entire humanity. For granting justice to the rape survivor it becomes necessary that such matters are properly presented before the Courts of Law. Healthcare workers play an important role in this regard because they are the first person who examine the rape victims. They prepare a documented record of medical condition of rape victim and do relevant sample collection. Aim: The objective of this study is to analyse demographic and event characteristics of rape victims who presented to the Emergency Department in tertiary care, Delhi after sexual assault. Materials and Methods: Data was retrospectively collected from the medico legal register of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between June 2010 to December 2013. Result: We noted a marked increase in the number of cases. Mean age of victims was 17 and most belonged to the lower socio-economic strata of the society. Use of sedatives and physical trauma was not common. Victims often knew the perpetrator of the event. Most (58%) of them reported within one day of the incident. Major degrees of perineal tears were seen in young victims. Conclusion: By understanding the demography of the sexual assault victims, we need to train our doctors for proper evidence collection not just in a government set up but also in private clinics, to help rape victims get justice and proper medical treatment. PMID:25386486

  19. Appropriateness of antibiotic treatment in intravenous drug users, a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Dominik; Viktorin, Nina; Wolbers, Marcel; Laifer, Gerd; Leimenstoll, Bernd; Fluckiger, Ursula; Battegay, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious disease is often the reason for intravenous drug users being seen in a clinical setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of treatment and outcomes for this patient population in a hospital setting. Methods Retrospective study of all intravenous drug users hospitalized for treatment of infectious diseases and seen by infectious diseases specialists 1/2001–12/2006 at a university hospital. Treatment was administered according to guidelines when possible or to alternative treatment program in case of patients for whom adherence to standard protocols was not possible. Outcomes were defined with respect to appropriateness of treatment, hospital readmission, relapse and mortality rates. For statistical analysis adjustment for multiple hospitalizations of individual patients was made by using a generalized estimating equation. Results The total number of hospitalizations for infectious diseases was 344 among 216 intravenous drug users. Skin and soft tissue infections (n = 129, 37.5% of hospitalizations), pneumonia (n = 75, 21.8%) and endocarditis (n = 54, 15.7%) were most prevalent. Multiple infections were present in 25%. Treatment was according to standard guidelines for 78.5%, according to an alternative recommended program for 11.3%, and not according to guidelines or by the infectious diseases specialist advice for 10.2% of hospitalizations. Psychiatric disorders had a significant negative impact on compliance (compliance problems in 19.8% of hospitalizations) in multiple logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.4, CI 1.1–5.1, p = 0.03). The overall readmission rate and relapse rate within 30 days was 13.7% and 3.8%, respectively. Both non-compliant patient behavior (OR = 3.7, CI 1.3–10.8, p = 0.02) and non-adherence to treatment guidelines (OR = 3.3, CI 1.1–9.7, p = 0.03) were associated with a significant increase in the relapse rate in univariate analysis. In 590 person-years of follow-up, 24.6% of the

  20. Varying postresection lactate dehydrogenase with overall survival of early stage pancreatic cancer patients: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Xie, Zhihui; Shao, Zhenyi; Chen, Wen; Xie, Hua; Qin, Guoyou; Zhao, Naiqing

    2017-03-01

    Several previously published studies revealed a hazardous role of pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in survival of advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. Nevertheless, in early stage PC patients who are eligible for curative resection, the prognostic role of postresection LDH has never been discussed. In this study, we aimed to explore the prognostic significance of varying postresection LDH among early stage PC patients. In total, 80 PC patients who received curative resection were retrospectively selected from a population-based electronic inpatients database which originated from Shanghai, China. A dynamic survival analysis method, counting process approach in combination with the multiple failure-time Cox model, was applied to evaluate the association between postresection LDH and OS. The multiple failure-time Cox model found that age, resection modality, and postresection LDH were significantly associated with OS: an elevated LDH (defined as > 250 U/L) was related to 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26-6.79) folds of death hazard. Further analysis disclosed an identifiable dose-response association between LDH and OS: compared with LDH≤155 U/L, the HRs for 155 U/L < LDH < 196 U/L, and LDH≥196 U/L were 2.07 (95% CI: 0.88-4.88) and 3.15 (95% CI: 1.30-7.59), respectively. Our study results suggest that postresection LDH is a prominent prognostic factor in this group of early stage PC patients. Maintaining normally ranged LDH after resection might bring about survival benefit in early stage PC patients.

  1. Risk indicators related to peri-implant disease: an observational retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the influence of potential risk indicators on the development of peri-implant disease. Methods Overall, 103 patients referred for implant treatment from 2000 to 2012 were randomly enrolled. The study sample consisted of 421 conventional-length (>6 mm) non-turned titanium implants that were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to pre-established clinical and patient-related parameters by a single investigator. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis rank test and a logistic regression model were used for the statistical analysis of the recorded data at the implant level. Results The diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis was made for 173 (41.1%) and 19 (4.5%) implants, respectively. Age (≥65 years), patient adherence (professional hygiene recalls <2/year) and the presence of plaque were associated with higher peri-implant probing-depth values and bleeding-on-probing scores. The logistic regression analysis indicated that age (P=0.001), patient adherence (P=0.03), the absence of keratinized tissue (P=0.03), implants placed in pristine bone (P=0.04), and the presence of peri-implant soft-tissue recession (P=0.000) were strongly associated with the event of peri-implantitis. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, patients aged ≥65 years and non-adherent subjects were more prone to develop peri-implant disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and a systematic maintenance-care program are essential for maintaining peri-implant tissue health, especially in older patients. PMID:27588216

  2. Cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; de Burgoa, Verónica Sanz; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This cohort retrospective study explored the cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular events (CVEs), in Spain. A total of 2,540 patients (68.1 years; 60.7% male; 8.4% smokers, 52.9% ex-smokers, and 38.7% never smokers) fulfilling the selection criteria and followed up throughout a period of 36 months after the event were considered eligible for analysis. Total costs were higher among current smokers in comparison with ex-smokers and never smokers (€7,981 versus [vs] €7,322 and €5,619, respectively) (P < 0.001). Both health care costs (€6,273 vs €5,673 and €4,823, respectively) (P < 001) and loss of productivity at work costs (€1,708 vs €1,650 and €796, respectively) (P < 001) accounted for such differences. There was also a difference in CVE recurrence rates (18.6% vs 16.5% and 9.6%, respectively) (P < 01). Smoking cessation in CVE outpatients was associated with lower cost and risk of CVE recurrence compared with smokers, and their health status was similar to that of never smokers, in routine clinical practice in Spain. PMID:23983479

  3. [A retrospective study of intoxications admitted to the university hospital/UFJF from 2000 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cícero da Silva; Barbosa, Nádia Rezende; Vieira, Rita de Cássia Padula Alves; Carvalho, Marcos Roberto de; Marangon, Paula Beatriz; Santos, Priscila Larcher Carneiro; Teixeira Júnior, Mário Lúcio

    2010-05-01

    Poisonings may have their consequences minimized by the acquisition of knowledge concerning its etiologies, evolutions and means of prevention. In Brazil, the progressive increase of toxic emergencies justifies the acquisition and analysis of regional and decentralized data concerning toxic emergencies. The aim of this retrospective and descriptive study was to evaluate data on the toxicology occurrence registered at the University Hospital/UFJF from 2000 to 2004. Data were collected using a structured instrument which comprised: age range, gender, profession, average hospitalization time, etiology and possible reasons for the intoxication, drug categories, where the patients live and the most important exposure route to the poisonous agent. The possible relationship among the data was also examined. The profile found for poisoning in the 50 cases analyzed, was that accidents are more common from 0 to 5 years old (24%) and male gender (68%), the majority of the cases happened in the city of Juiz de Fora (78%) and oral exposure. The most important poisonous agents were found to be the psychotropics (60%). Definition of a profile helps promoting educative activities and expands poisoning prevention campaigns by public health agencies. Therefore, these facts strengthen the importance of an Information Service net to prevent and reduce intoxications and the irrational use of drugs.

  4. STUDY OF THE SUITABILITY OF ISRAELI HOUSEHOLD SALT FOR RETROSPECTIVE DOSIMETRY.

    PubMed

    Datz, Hanan; Druzhyna, Sofia; Oster, Leonid; Orion, Itzhak; Horowitz, Yigal

    2016-09-01

    The first results of an in-depth evaluation of the practical potential of common household Israeli salt as a retrospective dosemeter in the event of a nuclear accident or terror attack are presented. Ten brands of salt were investigated with emphasis on four of the bestselling brands that constitute 76 % of the total consumer market. Eight of the ten brands show similar glow curves with two main glow peaks at maximum temperatures of ∼176°C and ∼225°C measured at a heating rate of 1°C s(-1) Chemical analysis of three major brands indicates substantial impurity levels of 200-500 ppm of Ca, K, Mg and S and significant differences of additional ppm trace impurities, which lead to an ∼50 % difference in the TL response of the three major brands. Fading in the dark is in significant but under room light is of the order of 35 % per day. The dose response is linear/supralinear with the threshold of supralinearity at ∼0.01 Gy reaching maximum value of ∼4 at 0.5-1 Gy for two of the major brands. The precision of repeated measurements is ∼10 % (1 SD), but the accuracy of dose assessment under field conditions requires further study.

  5. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH VASCULAR ACCESS INFECTIONS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    D’Amato-Palumbo, S; Kaplan, AA; Feinn, RS; Lalla, RV

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess microorganisms associated with vascular access-associated infections (VAIs) in hemodialysis patients, with respect to possible origin from the mouth. Study Design A retrospective and comparative analysis of the microbes associated with VAI in hemodialysis patients treated during a 10-year period was performed using the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD). Results Of 218 patient records identified, 65 patients collectively experienced 115 VAI episodes. The most common microorganisms involved were Staphylococcus aureus (49.6% of infections), Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.4%), Serratia marcescens (10.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), and Enterococcus faecalis / fecum (8.7%). None of these was found in 1% or more of HOMD clone libraries, indicating that they very rarely colonize the teeth or plaque. Conclusions Most VAIs were associated with microorganisms more likely to originate from other body sites than from the oral cavity. The risk of a VAI being caused by microorganisms originating from the oral cavity is very small. PMID:23217535

  6. Cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; de Burgoa, Verónica Sanz; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This cohort retrospective study explored the cost and clinical consequences of smoking cessation in outpatients after cardiovascular events (CVEs), in Spain. A total of 2,540 patients (68.1 years; 60.7% male; 8.4% smokers, 52.9% ex-smokers, and 38.7% never smokers) fulfilling the selection criteria and followed up throughout a period of 36 months after the event were considered eligible for analysis. Total costs were higher among current smokers in comparison with ex-smokers and never smokers (€7,981 versus [vs] €7,322 and €5,619, respectively) (P < 0.001). Both health care costs (€6,273 vs €5,673 and €4,823, respectively) (P < 001) and loss of productivity at work costs (€1,708 vs €1,650 and €796, respectively) (P < 001) accounted for such differences. There was also a difference in CVE recurrence rates (18.6% vs 16.5% and 9.6%, respectively) (P < 01). Smoking cessation in CVE outpatients was associated with lower cost and risk of CVE recurrence compared with smokers, and their health status was similar to that of never smokers, in routine clinical practice in Spain.

  7. Pesticide poisoning in domestic animals and livestock in Austria: a 6 years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingzi; Kruzik, Paul; Helsberg, Albert; Helsberg, Inge; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2007-07-04

    A 6 years retrospective study of pesticide poisonings in domestic animals and livestock from 1999 to 2004 submitted to the Institute for Medical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria was compiled and analysed. Totally 380 pesticide analysis requests were referred by veterinary practitioners, from the Institute for Pathology of the above university, by regional and central governments as well as local police departments and district administrations, animal protectionist groups, public health authorities and private clients. Among the total number of suspected samples for pesticides, 175 (46.1%) cases were found positive to contain pesticides of various kinds. Among the pesticides found, carbamate insecticides were most prominent, representing 50.3% of the total positive cases. These compounds were followed by rodenticides-anticoagulants with 18.9% of the positive results, by organophosphate insecticides 5.1%, and by the rodenticides-nonanticoagulant 3.4%, the other 22.3% included molluscicides, herbicides, etc. In totally 225 animals, 123 animals were found positive for pesticide intoxication, among them 47.2% were dogs, 34.1% were cats 9.8% of other species and 8.9% of unspecified animal samples. The pesticides were characterized by HPLC-techniques using commercially available standards. The aim of this Austrian survey was to determine the incidence and frequency of confirmed pesticide intoxications in animals in Austria and to emphasize its relevance in veterinary practice for livestock and domestic animals.

  8. Vincristine efficacy and safety in treating immune thrombocytopenia: a retrospective study of 35 patients.

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, Jérôme; Kaddouri, Najett; Khellaf, Medhi; Morin, Anne-Sophie; Prendki, Virginie; Michel, Marc; Mekinian, Arsène; Bierling, Philippe; Fenaux, Pierre; Godeau, Bertrand; Fain, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Although vincristine (VCR) is sometimes prescribed for newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), its efficacy in refractory ITP and sustained efficacy has yet to be demonstrated. We describe our clinical experience and recommend vincristine's correct place in ITP management. This retrospective study analysed data from 35 patients with newly diagnosed (ND), persistent (P) or chronic (C) ITP treated with VCR. The initial response rate, defined as >30 × 10(9) platelets/L, reached 86% after a median of 7 [interquartile range (IQR) 6-13] days. In ND and P ITP, even when previous therapies were inefficient, initial response was 87.5%, suggesting that this treatment could be used particularly in rescue. Median survival time, without failure or relapse, was 15 months (Kaplan-Meier curve). Predictive factors (univariate analysis) of an initial and long-term response were a small number of prior treatments received. However, at 2 yr, only seven patients had sustained response. Eight (23%) patients experienced adverse events: neuropathy for seven and bowel obstruction for one. Vincristine efficacy in ITP was confirmed, and it could be a good strategy for treating resistant ITP, especially in emergencies. In this era of new therapeutics, VCR deserves to remain on the list of ITP treatments because of its initial efficacy, safety and low cost.

  9. Risk Factors and Surgical Refinements of Postresective Mandibular Reconstruction: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Yokoo, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Komori, Takahide; Tahara, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Postresective mandibular reconstruction is common in cases of oral and mandibular tumors. However, complications such as infection, plate exposure, or plate fracture can occur. We identified several significant risk factors of complications after reconstructive surgery and compared the effectiveness of different surgical techniques for reducing the incidence of complications. Methods. This study is a retrospective analysis of 28 oromandibular cancer cases that required reconstructive surgery between January 1999 and December 2011 at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan. All cases were classified using Hashikawa's CAT and Eichner's classification methods. Then, we determined whether these classifications and different treatment or surgical methods were significantly related to complications. Results. Complications after mandibular reconstruction occurred in 10/28 patients (36%). Specifically, five patients had plate fractures, four had plate exposures, and one had an infection. Radiation therapy and closure without any flaps were significantly related to infection or plate exposure. The wrap-around technique of securing reconstruction plates was used in 14 cases, whereas the run-through technique was used in two cases. Conclusions. The success of mandibular reconstruction depends on both mechanical and biological factors, such as the location of defects, presence of occlusions, and the amount of vascularization of the flap. PMID:25228992

  10. Feasibility and Safety of Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Fabian; Wolfer, Anita; Mathevet, Patrice; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background. Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) has been introduced as a novel repeatable treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis. The available evidence from the pioneer center suggests good tolerance and high response rates, but independent confirmation is needed. A single-center cohort was analyzed one year after implementation for feasibility and safety. Methods. PIPAC was started in January 2015, and every patient was entered into a prospective database. This retrospective analysis included all consecutive patients operated until April 2016 with emphasis on surgical feasibility and early postoperative outcomes. Results. Forty-two patients (M : F = 8 : 34, median age 66 (59–73) years) with 91 PIPAC procedures in total (4×: 1,  3×: 17,  2×: 12, and  1×: 12) were analyzed. Abdominal accessibility rate was 95% (42/44); laparoscopic access was not feasible in 2 patients with previous HIPEC. Median initial peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) was 10 (IQR 5–17). Median operation time was 94 min (89–108) with no learning curve observed. One PIPAC application was postponed due to intraoperative intestinal lesion. Overall morbidity was 9% with 7 minor complications (Clavien I-II) and one PIPAC-unrelated postoperative mortality. Median postoperative hospital stay was 3 days (2-3). Conclusion. Repetitive PIPAC is feasible in most patients with refractory carcinomatosis of various origins. Intraoperative complications and postoperative morbidity rates were low. This encourages prospective studies assessing oncological efficacy. PMID:28331493

  11. Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Tee Wei; Muir-Green, Llorenia; Shapiro, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a very common problem in women. The underlying pathophysiology remains unclear, and there are no universally agreed treatment guidelines. Objective: We explored the clinical features, relevant medical and family history, laboratory evaluation, and treatment and compliance of 210 patients with FPHL. Methods: Data analysis from case notes was performed on 210 patients with a diagnosis of FPHL seen from January 2011 to December 2011. Results: The youngest individual was 8 years old and the oldest was 86 years old. Nearly, 85% of the patients had a family history of androgenetic alopecia. Hypothyroidism and hypertension are the most common medical problems. Telogen effluvium (TE) is the most common concurrent hair loss condition. Only 38% of the patients were found to have normal Vitamin D level, 71% had ferritin level above 30 μg/L, and 85% had normal zinc level at the first consultation. Fifty-nine percent of the patients failed to attend any follow-up appointments. Limitations: One of the limitations of this study is its retrospective nature. Moreover, the severity of FPHL in terms of Ludwig score was not routinely documented in the medical charts. Conclusion: History of TE, hypothyroidism and hypertension, and low serum Vitamin D is common in our patients with FPHL. PMID:27601857

  12. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2008-01-01

    The Modern. Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a completing. the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, includin g comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JRA25 and NCE P I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations)

  13. Risk of suicide during treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roskell, Neil; Tennis, Pat; Mines, Daniel; Weich, Scott; Andrews, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the risk of suicide in adults using the antidepressant venlafaxine compared with citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting UK General Practice Research Database. Participants 219 088 patients, aged 18-89 years, who were prescribed venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, or dothiepin from 1995 to 2005. Main outcome measures Completed suicide and attempted suicide. Results Venlafaxine users had a higher burden of risk factors for suicide, including previous suicide attempts and proxies for severe depression or depression that was difficult to treat. In the analysis for completed suicides, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios for venlafaxine compared with citalopram were 2.44 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 5.31) and 1.70 (0.76 to 3.80), for venlafaxine compared with fluoxetine were 2.85 (1.37 to 5.94) and 1.63 (0.74 to 3.59), and for venlafaxine compared with dothiepin were 2.54 (1.07 to 6.02) and 1.31 (0.53 to 3.25). Compared with other study drugs, venlafaxine was also associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide, but adjustment for measured confounders substantially reduced the hazard ratios. Conclusions Venlafaxine use was consistently associated with higher risk of suicide compared with citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin. Venlafaxine users had a higher burden of suicide risk factors, however, and adjustment for measured confounders substantially reduced the excess risks. Since the secondary data used in this analysis allowed only indirect and partial measurements of potential confounders, it is possible that residual confounding explains much, if not all, of the observed excess risk. PMID:17164297

  14. There is no age limit for methadone: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data from the US indicates that methadone-maintained populations are aging, with an increase of patients aged 50 or older. Data from European methadone populations is sparse. This retrospective cohort study sought to evaluate the age trends and related developments in the methadone population of Basel-City, Switzerland. Methods The study included methadone patients between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2003. Anonymized data was taken from the methadone register of Basel-City. For analysis of age distributions, patient samples were split into four age categories from '20-29 years' to '50 years and over'. Cross-sectional comparisons were performed using patient samples of 1996 and 2003. Results Analysis showed a significant increase in older patients between 1996 and 2003 (p < 0.001). During that period, the percentage of patients aged 50 and over rose almost tenfold, while the proportion of patients aged under 30 dropped significantly from 52.8% to 12.3%. The average methadone dose (p < 0.001) and the 1-year retention rate (p < 0.001) also increased significantly. Conclusions Findings point to clear trends in aging of methadone patients in Basel-City which are comparable, although less pronounced, to developments among US methadone populations. Many unanswered questions on medical, psychosocial and health economic consequences remain as the needs of older patients have not yet been evaluated extensively. However, older methadone patients, just as any other patients, should be accorded treatment appropriate to their medical condition and needs. Particular attention should be paid to adequate solutions for persons in need of care. PMID:21592331

  15. Photodynamic therapy with polyhematoporphyrin for malignant biliary obstruction: A nationwide retrospective study of 150 consecutive applications

    PubMed Central

    Schwaighofer, Hubert; Hellmich, Brigitte; Stadler, Bernhard; Spaun, Georg; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Hebenstreit, Arnold; Weber-Eibel, Jutta; Siebert, Franz; Emmanuel, Klaus; Knoflach, Peter; Gschwantler, Michael; Vogel, Wolfgang; Trauner, Michael; Püspök, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a palliative treatment for malignant biliary obstruction. Objective The objective of this article is to assess the feasibility and safety of this technique. Methods In this nationwide, retrospective study of prospectively collected clinical data, all patients treated with PDT using polyhematoporphyrin in Austria from March 2004 to May 2013 were included. Feasibility, adverse events, stent patency and mortality rates were investigated. Results Eighty-eight patients (54 male, 34 female, median age 69 years) underwent 150 PDT procedures at seven Austrian referral centers for biliary endoscopy. The predominant underlying disease was Klatskin tumor (79/88). All PDT procedures were feasible without technical issues. Cholangitis was the most frequent adverse event (21/88). Stent patency was 246 days (95% CI 203–289) median and was significantly longer for metal than for plastic stents (269 vs. 62 days, p < 0.01). The median survival was 12.4 months (95% CI 9.7–14.9 m) calculated from first PDT and 15.6 months (95% CI 12.3–18.7 m) calculated from initial diagnosis. In patients suffering from biliary tract cancer, Cox regression revealed the number of PDT treatment sessions as the only independent predictor of survival at a multivariate analysis (p = 0.048). Conclusion PDT using polyhematoporphyrin was feasible and safe in this nationwide analysis. Survival data suggest a benefit of PDT in this unselected real-life patient population. Prospective trials comparing PDT to other palliative treatments will help to define its role in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02504957.

  16. The cost of cancer: a retrospective analysis of the financial impact of cancer on young adults.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Michelle S; Watson, Samantha E; Macpherson, Catherine F; Novak, Katherine A; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2016-05-01

    Young adult cancer survivors (YAs) are confronted with immense financial challenges in the wake of their treatment. Medical bills and loss of savings may cause YAs to forgo recommended medications or follow-up appointments. Young survivors with financial concerns also report depression, stress and anxiety. The Samfund is a national nonprofit organization that provides financial support to YAs post-treatment. To quantify the financial burden of cancer in YAs, a retrospective analysis was performed of data collected from Samfund grant applications of 334 YA cancer survivors. Grants were awarded between 2007 and 2013 and grant recipients were consented electronically in 2014 for retrospective data analysis. Recipients ranged from 19 to 39 years of age at the time of their grant applications. Descriptive statistics were calculated and compared to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and U.S. census data on age-matched peers. Financial indicators of YA cancer survivors are worse in many domains than those of age-matched controls. Furthermore, YA survivors in their 30s report more perilous prefunding financial situations than younger grant recipients. Cancer has a devastating and age-specific impact on the finances of YAs. Philanthropic grants from the cancer support community, in conjunction with healthcare policy reforms, have the potential to break the cycle of financial need and help YAs move forward with their lives after cancer treatment.

  17. Poor mobilizer: a retrospective study on proven and predicted incidence according to GITMO criteria.

    PubMed

    Piccirillo, Nicola; Vacca, Michele; Lanti, Alessandro; Ipsevich, Francesco; Maresca, Maddalena; Fiorelli, Elena; Bianchi, Maria; Adorno, Gaspare; Pierelli, Luca; Majolino, Ignazio; Leone, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2012-10-01

    The Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, GITMO) recently formalized criteria for a shared definition of poor mobilizer in order to facilitate randomized clinical trials and study comparison focusing on the efficacy of current mobilizing regimens. The availability of a standardized tool for poor mobilizer definition suggested us to retrospectively test GITMO criteria feasibility and applicability. Therefore we analyzed medical and laboratory records of adult patients affected by myeloma (MM) or lymphoma undergoing mobilization for autologous peripheral blood HSC collection from January 2010 to June 2011, at Servizio di Emotrasfusione, Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Roma, UOC SIMT AO S. Camillo Forlanini Roma and SIMT Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata Roma. We collected data about 227 patients (134 male, 93 female) affected by MM (31.3%) NHL (58.6%) e HD (10.1%). Thirty-nine patients, 21 male and 18 female met proven poor mobilizer criteria definition resulting in a incidence of 17.2% (12.7% in MM, 21.8% in NHL and 4.3% in HD). Eleven patients, seven affected by lymphoma and four affected by myeloma, were defined predicted PM according to major criteria. Eight patients, seven affected by lymphoma and one affected by myeloma, were define predicted PM according to minor criteria. Sixteen out of 39 patients defined as poor mobilizer either according to major or minor criteria underwent collection procedures and eight (20.5%) achieved a cell dose ⩾2×10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells. GITMO criteria application was easy and resulted in poor mobilizer incidence comparable to current literature. Definitions of proven poor mobilizer and predicted poor mobilizer according to major criteria were very effective while minor criteria were less predictive. These results came from a retrospective analysis and therefore should be validated in future prospective trial. On the other hand these data could be

  18. Retrospective and prospective analysis of policy incentives for wind power in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Cabra, Ivonne A.

    been decommissioned despite being in operation for more than 20 years, favoring from new, detailed and hard-to-follow agreements in the legislation. All wind parks that are currently in operation have received feed-in tariffs since they connected to the grid, and are expected to keep receiving them at least until December 2019, and up to December 2036 - depending on year of connection and agreement under the most recent legislation (Diario da Republica 2013). The 2020 renewable energy goals in Portugal include having 6.8 GW of installed wind capacity, which implies the connection of 2 GW in the next years. If no further grid investments are made and wind capacity increases up to 100 MW to the connection point that we analyze, total annual electricity spill is likely to range the 20% to 40%. If the connection grid policy is designed to allow for wind spill, already 'occupied' connection points will be available to new entrants, lowering the total investment costs for new wind parks and increasing their profitability. This thesis is divided in three main parts: a first introductory section, a retrospective study of wind power in Portugal and a prospective analysis of the Portuguese wind power sector. The introductory section is a brief overview of the global renewable status, described in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 compile a retrospective study of wind power and the policies that have incentivized wind diffusion. We include in the discussion some references to the future wind power goals, but the results and policy recommendations are directed towards the existing connected wind power capacity. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  19. Role of students’ context in predicting academic performance at a medical school: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) registered on the full-time Medicine and Surgery programme, who successfully completed their medical degree. Main outcome measures Final average at year 4 of the medical programme (represented as a percentage). Results Entry grades were positively associated with final attainment (p<0.001). Students from high-performing schools entered university with higher qualifications than students from low-performing schools (p<0.001), though these differences did not persist at university. Comprehensive school students entered university with higher grades than independent school students (p<0.01), and attained higher averages at university, though differences were not significant after controlling for multiple effects. Associations between school type and achievement differed between sexes. Females attained higher averages than males at university. Significant academic differences were observed between ethnic groups at entry level and university. Neither of the postcode-based measures of disadvantage predicted significant differences in attainment at school or university. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that educational attainment at school is a good, albeit imperfect, predictor of academic attainment at medical school. Most attainment differences observed between students either decreased or disappeared during university. Unlike previous studies, independent school students did not enter university with the highest grades, but achieved the lowest attainment at university

  20. A retrospective study and predictive modelling of Newcastle Disease trends among rural poultry of eastern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2016-10-01

    Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014. The study found that Newcastle Disease cases in eastern Zambia followed a seasonal and cyclic pattern with peaks in the hot dry season (Overall Seasonal Index 1.1) as well as cycles every three years with an estimated provincial incidence range of 0.16 to 1.7% per year. Annual trends were compared with major intervention policies implemented by the Zambian government, which often received donor support from the international community during the study period. Aid delivered through government programmes appeared to have no major impact on ND trends between 1989 and 2014 and reasons for this are discussed. There were apparent spatial shifts in districts with outbreaks over time which could be as a result of veterinary interventions chasing outbreaks rather than implementing uniform control. Data was also fitted to a predictive time series model for ND which could be used to plan for future ND control. Time series modelling showed an increasing trend in ND annual incidence over 25 years if existing interventions continue. A different approach to controlling the disease is needed if this trend is to be halted. Conversely, the positive trend may be a function of improved reporting by farmers as a result of more awareness of the disease.

  1. Retrospective Study of Incidence and Prognostic Significance of Eosinophilia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Influence of Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Wataru; Ogusa, Eriko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Maruta, Atsuo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The clinical significance of eosinophilia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is controversial. This study aimed to retrospectively study the impact of eosinophilia on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by taking into account the influence of corticosteroid therapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied 204 patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from January 2001 to December 2010. Results: The median age was 43 years (minimum-maximum: 17-65 years). Myeloablative conditioning was used in 153 patients and reduced intensity conditioning was employed in 51 patients. Donor cells were from bone marrow in 132 patients, peripheral blood in 34, and cord blood in 38. Eosinophilia was detected in 71 patients and there was no significant predictor of eosinophilia by multivariate analysis. There was no relationship between occurrence of eosinophilia and the incidence or grade of acute graft-versus-host disease when the patients were stratified according to corticosteroid treatment. Although eosinophilia was a prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival by univariate analysis, it was not a significant indicator by multivariate analysis. Conclusion: These results suggest that the clinical significance of eosinophilia in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be assessed with consideration of systemic corticosteroid administration. PMID:27094383

  2. Trade Policy and Health: Adding Retrospective Studies to the Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Prospective studies of the potential health consequences of trade and investment treaties, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, are critical. These studies can make visible to trade policy-makers the potential negative impacts associated to such treaties and can influence the outcomes of such negotiations. However, few researchers have examined retrospectively the consequences of trade agreements. With more than 400 trade agreements and more than 2000 investment treaties currently in force, researchers have a large corpus of agreements to analyse in order to assess not only their potential impacts on health system and population health, but also their actual impacts. This comment suggests some research questions that would benefit from retrospective inquiry.

  3. A half century retrospective study of homicide-suicide in Geneva--Switzerland: 1956-2005.

    PubMed

    Shiferaw, Kebede; Burkhardt, Sandra; Lardi, Christelle; Mangin, Patrice; La Harpe, Romano

    2010-02-01

    This study provides a retrospective review from the forensic files of the University Centre of Legal Medicine in Western Switzerland in Geneva, from January 1956 to December 2005. The studied homicide-suicide cases cover a period of half a century (50 years). As a rule, all police-ordered forensic examinations of violent death cases in the Canton of Geneva are conducted by the University Centre of Legal Medicine. All of the data necessary for an exhaustive retrospective study are thus readily available. During the period covered in this work, 228 homicides were perpetrated in Geneva. In 23 cases, the homicide was followed by the suicide of the aggressor. The 34 victims of these homicides (18 women, 1 man and 15 children) had either an intimate or filial relationship with the perpetrator. Most of the suicidal perpetrators were men that killed their spouses or intimate partners, with children as additional victims in some cases. Shooting was the most common means to kill, followed by stabbing. The majority of the victims and perpetrators were Swiss nationals. This retrospective study shows that in the last 50 years, homicide-suicide cases in the Canton of Geneva have been a rare and an episodic phenomena with a very variable frequency from 1 year to another.

  4. Oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 633 patients from Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Parlatescu, Ioanina; Gheorghe, Carmen; Tovaru, Mihaela; Costache, Mariana; Sardella, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this retrospective study, patients’ medical records were reviewed to investigate the profiles of 633 OLP cases in a group of Romania. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the following clinical data were obtained from the medical charts of patients: gender, age, clinical presentation of OLP, site affected, presence of symptoms, extraoral manifestations of lichen planus, presence of systemic diseases, and history of medications. Results: Most (78.67%) OLP patients were female and the mean age at presentation was 52 years. The white type of the disease (reticular/papular/plaque lesions) was the main form encountered in this sample (48.97%). Among patients with available hepatitis C virus test results, 9.6% were serum-positive. OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (i.e. cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Six patients (0.95%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at a site with confirmed OLP lesions. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, no similar study has been conducted in a Romanian population. The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged white women and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of the buccal mucosa with reticular white lesions. Anti-HCV circulating antibodies were more common in patients with OLP than in the general population and, notably, OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, oral mucosal diseases, retrospective study. PMID:23229244

  5. Middle third fractures of facial skeleton at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nor, G M; Lian, C B

    1988-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of 80 patients with major central and lateral middle third fractures of facial skeleton treated at University Hospital from 1981 to 1985. The most common was the fractures of zygomatic complex. The peak incidence was in the 20-29 year age group and males were involved more than females (ratio 9: 1). Road traffic accidents were to be blamed for most of the fractures which was 82.25%.

  6. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  7. Glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in patients with diabetes in pregnancy: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Buhary, Badurudeen Mahmood; Almohareb, Ohoud; Aljohani, Naji; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Elkaissi, Samer; Sherbeeni, Suphia; Almaghamsi, Abdulrahman; Almalki, Mussa

    2016-01-01

    Context: Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) is either pregestational or gestational. Aims: To determine the relationship between glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of DIP patients. Settings and Design: In this 12-month retrospective study, a total of 325 Saudi women with DIP who attended the outpatient clinics at a tertiary center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included. Subjects and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups, those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) above 6.5%. The two groups were compared for differences in maternal and fetal outcomes. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent Student's t-test and analysis of variance were performed for comparison of continuous variables and Chi-square test for frequencies. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Patients with higher HbA1c were older (P = 0.0077), had significantly higher blood pressure, proteinuria (P < 0.0001), and were multiparous (P = 0.0269). They had significantly shorter gestational periods (P = 0.0002), more preterm labor (P < 0.0001), more perineal tears (P = 0.0406), more miscarriages (P < 0.0001), and more operative deliveries (P < 0.0001). Their babies were significantly of greater weight, had more Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions, hypoglycemia, and macrosomia. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes (shortened gestational period, greater risk of miscarriage, increased likelihood of operative delivery, hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and increased NICU admission). Especially at risk are those with preexisting diabetes, who would benefit from earlier diabetes consultation and tighter glycemic control before conception. PMID:27366714

  8. Survival Predictors for Severe ARDS Patients Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Retrospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yonghao; Zhang, Rong; Huang, Yongbo; He, Weiqun; Sang, Ling; Chen, Sibei; Nong, Lingbo; Li, Xi; Mao, Pu

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being applied as life support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. However, the outcomes of this procedure have not yet been characterized in severe ARDS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of severe ARDS patients supported with ECMO and to identify potential predictors of mortality in these patients. A total of 38 severe ARDS patients (aged 51.39±13.27 years, 32 males) who were treated with ECMO in the specialized medical intensive care unit of Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases from July 2009 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical data of the patients on the day before ECMO initiation, on the first day of ECMO treatment and on the day of ECMO removal were collected and analyzed. All patients were treated with veno-venous ECMO after a median mechanical ventilation duration of 6.4±7.6 days. Among the 20 patients (52.6%) who were successfully weaned from ECMO, 16 patients (42.1%) survived to hospital discharge. Of the identified pre-ECMO factors, advanced age, a long duration of ventilation before ECMO, a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, underlying lung disease, and pulmonary barotrauma prior to ECMO were associated with unsuccessful weaning from ECMO. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that both barotrauma pre-ECMO and underlying lung disease were independent predictors of hospital mortality. In conclusion, for severe ARDS patients treated with ECMO, barotrauma prior to ECMO and underlying lung disease may be major predictors of ARDS prognosis based on multivariate analysis. PMID:27336170

  9. Retrospective study of the associations between hepatitis C virus infection and metabolic factors

    PubMed Central

    Yair-Sabag, Shira; Nussinson, Elchanan; Ben-Assuli, Ofir; Shibli, Fahmi; Shahbari, Azmi; Zelber-Sagi, Shira

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the bidirectional association between metabolic syndrome (MS) components and antiviral treatment response for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS This retrospective cohort study included 119 HCV + patients treated with pegylated-interferon-α and ribavirin. Metabolic characteristics and laboratory data were collected from medical records. Differences in baseline clinical and demographic risk factors between responders and non-responders were assessed using independent samples t-tests or χ2 tests. The effects of sustained viral response (SVR) to antiviral treatment on de novo impairments in MS components, including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), were assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis, while the effect of MS components on SVR was assessed using univariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Of the 119 patients, 80 (67%) developed SVR over the average 54 ± 13 mo follow-up. The cumulative risks for de novo T2DM and IFG were 5.07- (95%CI: 1.261-20.4, P = 0.022) and 3.87-fold higher (95%CI: 1.484-10.15, P = 0.006), respectively for non-responders than responders, when adjusted for the baseline risk factors age, sex, HCV genotype, high viral load, and steatosis. Post-treatment triglyceride levels were significantly lower in non-responders than in responders (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.069-0.962, P = 0.044). Age and HCV genotype 3 were significantly different between responders and non-responders, and MS components were not significantly associated with SVR. Steatosis tended to attenuate SVR (OR = 0.596; 95%CI: 0.331-1.073, P = 0.08). CONCLUSION SVR was associated with lower de novo T2DM and IFG incidence and higher triglyceride levels. Patients infected with HCV should undergo T2DM screening and antidiabetic treatment. PMID:27843537

  10. Evaluation of vaginal agenesis treated with the modified McIndoe technique: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Karapınar, Oya Soylu; Özkan, Mustafa; Okyay, Ayşe Güler; Şahin, Hanifi; Dolapçıoğlu, Kenan Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Retrospective analysis of cases that have undergone neovagina operation because of congenital vaginal agenesis was objected. Material and Methods Seven cases applying with the complaints of primary amenorrhea or inability to have sexual intercourse were in the study. The cases were diagnosed with congenital vaginal agenesis and operated at Mustafa Kemal University Training and Research Hospital between 2011 and 2014. Vaginoplasty by the modified McIndoe method was performed in all cases. The main complaint, chromosomal analysis, duration of operation, preoperative and postoperative vaginal length, complications, postoperative treatment, and satisfaction from the sexual intercourse were all evaluated. Results Average age of our patients was 28.14±8.61 (19–39) years. One patient was 46XX-45X0 mosaic Turner syndrome), 1 patient was 46XY (testicular feminization), and other 5 patients were 46XX. The average duration of operation was 2.7±0.56 (2–3.5 h). Postoperative infection was observed in 1 patient. In this infected patient, graft failure occurred and debridement was performed in reoperation. No early complications were seen in the others. Preoperative and postoperative average vaginal lengths were 1.85±0.62 (1–3 cm) and 8.71±1.11 (7–10 cm), respectively. Dyspareunia occurred in 2 cases that were not able to use dilatator regularly: 1 because of cancelation of marriage and the other because of postoperative infection; regular sexual life was achieved in remaining 5 (71%) cases. Conclusion Although there is no consensus about the ideal method of making a functioning vagina among different specialties. The modified McIndoe technique is the most applied method by gynecologists and simple, minimally invasive and with low morbidity. PMID:27403077

  11. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis: A Retrospective Observational Study of 344 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongxia; Wu, Junping; Wu, Qi; Sun, Xin; Li, Li; Xing, Zhiheng; Sun, Hongfen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemoptysis is a significant clinical entity with high morbidity and potential mortality. Both medical management (in terms of resuscitation and bronchoscopic interventions) and surgery have severe limitations in these patients population. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) represents the first-line treatment for hemoptysis. This article discusses clinical analysis, embolization approach, outcomes and complications of BAE for the treatment of hemoptysis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 344 cases, who underwent bronchial arteriography at Tianjin Haihe Hospital between 2006 and 2013. Several aspects of outcome were analyzed: Demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic studies, results, complications and follow-up of BAE. Results: Three hundred and forty-four consecutive patients underwent bronchial arteriography, 336 of 344 patients (97.7%) performed BAE; there were 1530 coils for 920 arteries embolized; the main responsible sources for bleeding were right bronchial artery (29.7%), left bronchial artery (21.6%), combined right and left bronchial trunk (18.4%), right intercostal arteries (13.3%); 61 patients (17.7%) had recurrent hemoptysis within 1 month after undergoing BAE, 74 patients (21.5%) had recurrent hemoptysis over 1 month after undergoing BAE; The common complications of BAE included subintimal dissection, arterial perforation by a guide wire, fever, chest pain, dyspnea, etc. The follow-up was completed in 248 patients, 28 patients had been dead, 21 patients still bleed, 92 patients had lost to follow-up. Conclusions: The technique of BAE is a relatively safe and effective method for controlling hemoptysis. The complications of BAE are rare. Although the long-term outcome in some patients is not good, BAE may be the only life-saving treatment option in patients who are poor surgical candidates. PMID:25563314

  12. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly.

  13. Outcomes and Satisfaction with Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Releases and the Predictors - A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Wu, Meng-Huang; Cheng, Chun-Ying; Chan, Yi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patient’s final satisfaction with endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) is still unpredictable. The study aims to find the predictive factors for satisfaction in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treated by ECTR using the Boston CTS questionnaire. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 37 patients (55 hands) who received ECTR and completed Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire at preoperative visit, 1 month and 6 months after operation while a telephone interview was conducted at 2 years after operation. Independent risk variables, including mean symptom severity scale, functional status scale, each item in questionnaire at all the time points, ASA physical status scale, age, gender, dominant site lesion, bilateral lesions, duration of symptoms and anesthesia method were recorded. Final outcome was determined by the patient’s satisfaction at the interval of 2 years. Predictors to outcome were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis and tested with Pearson correlation test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The severity of hand or wrist numbness during the daytime (Q6, explained 6.5% variances), the severity of numbness or tingling at night (Q9, explained 16.2% variances), the functional status of writing (q1, explained 13.9% variances), carrying grocery bags (q7, explained 13.6% variances) had significant predictive value (p<0.001). Other factors were not significant in the analysis including ASA, gender, age, dominant site lesion, bilateral lesions, anesthesia method and duration of symptoms. Conclusions: Boston questionnaire is a simple and reliable tool with high predictive values to evaluate patient’s outcome and satisfaction in ECTR. PMID:28217200

  14. Fatal firearm wounds: a retrospective study in Bari (Italy) between 1988 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Solarino, Biagio; Nicoletti, Emanuele Maria; Di Vella, Giancarlo

    2007-05-24

    Fatal gunshot injuries are routinely encountered by forensic pathologists practicing in Southern Italy. Bari, the capital city of the Italian region known as Apulia, is a leader with regard to the number of firearm deaths in Italy. This is mainly attributable to local organized crime groups which control a variety of illicit activities. This retrospective study analyzes autopsy data related to fatal firearm wounds, handled by the Institute of Legal Medicine [University of Bari], between 1988 and 2003. A total of 717 cases were selected and classified as follows: firearm homicides (634); suicides (82); and accidental death (1). A significant number of variables have been reviewed such as: month in which the violent event took place; the victims' nationalities; gender and age of victims; site and number of entrance wounds; weapon type used; and manner of death (i.e. homicide; suicide; accidental). Analysis has revealed a homicide versus suicide ratio of almost 8:1. Victims were mostly male with a lower mean age than in other similar studies. Homicides with multiple gunshot wounds were more common than ones with single entrance wounds. For example, in one case, 30 entrance wounds were identified in the murder of a gang boss. Four suicides with two entrance gunshot wounds were identified. Handguns were the most frequently used weapon in all groups (i.e. homicide, suicide, and accidental), with 7.65 mm and 9 mm being the most common calibres. This study revealed a very low incidence of suicide among females. Mental and other types of illness, as well as financial stress were the apparent motives which prompted most of the suicide victims. The homicide cases described were most often related to continual, ongoing fights among local criminal gangs (75%).

  15. Early-Stage Primary Bone Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network (RCN) Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ling; Stauder, Michael C.; Zhang Yujing; Poortmans, Philip; Li Yexiong; Constantinou, Nicolaos; Thariat, Juliette; Kadish, Sidney P.; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Kirova, Youlia M.; Ghadjar, Pirus; Weber, Damien C.; Bertran, Victoria Tuset; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with Stages I and II PBL. Patients and Methods: Thirteen Rare Cancer Network (RCN) institutions enrolled 116 consecutive patients with PBL treated between 1987 and 2008 in this study. Eighty-seven patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without (78) or with (9) surgery, 15 radiotherapy (RT) without (13) or with (2) surgery, and 14 chemotherapy (CXT) without (9) or with (5) surgery. Median RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 4-60). The median number of CXT cycles was six (range, 2-8). Median follow-up was 41 months (range, 6-242). Results: The overall response rate at the end of treatment was 91% (complete response [CR] 74%, partial response [PR] 17%). Local recurrence or progression was observed in 12 (10%) patients and systemic recurrence in 17 (15%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and local control (LC) were 76%, 78%, and 92%, respectively. In univariate analyses (log-rank test), favorable prognostic factors for OS and LSS were International Prognostic Index (IPI) score {<=}1 (p = 0.009), high-grade histology (p = 0.04), CXRT (p = 0.05), CXT (p = 0.0004), CR (p < 0.0001), and RT dose >40 Gy (p = 0.005). For LC, only CR and Stage I were favorable factors. In multivariate analysis, IPI score, RT dose, CR, and CXT were independently influencing the outcome (OS and LSS). CR was the only predicting factor for LC. Conclusion: This large multicenter retrospective study confirms the good prognosis of early-stage PBL treated with combined CXRT. An adequate dose of RT and complete CXT regime were associated with better outcome.

  16. Using routine data to monitor inequalities in an acute trust: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing inequalities is one of the priorities of the National Health Service. However, there is no standard system for monitoring inequalities in the care provided by acute trusts. We explore the feasibility of monitoring inequalities within an acute trust using routine data. Methods A retrospective study of hospital episode statistics from one acute trust in London over three years (2007 to 2010). Waiting times, length of stay and readmission rates were described for seven common surgical procedures. Inequalities by age, sex, ethnicity and social deprivation were examined using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for the other socio-demographic variables and comorbidities. Sample size calculations were computed to estimate how many years of data would be ideal for this analysis. Results This study found that even in a large acute trust, there was not enough power to detect differences between subgroups. There was little evidence of inequalities for the outcome and process measures examined, statistically significant differences by age, sex, ethnicity or deprivation were only found in 11 out of 80 analyses. Bariatric surgery patients who were black African or Caribbean were more likely than white patients to experience a prolonged wait (longer than 64 days, aOR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.36-4.49). Following a coronary angioplasty, patients from more deprived areas were more likely to have had a prolonged length of stay (aOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.25-2.20). Conclusions This study found difficulties in using routine data to identify inequalities on a trust level. Little evidence of inequalities in waiting time, length of stay or readmission rates by sex, ethnicity or social deprivation were identified although some differences were identified which warrant further investigation. Even with three years of data from a large trust there was little power to detect inequalities by procedure. Data will therefore need to be pooled from multiple trusts to detect

  17. Non-ocular melanomas in cats: a retrospective study of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Chamel, Gabriel; Abadie, Jérôme; Albaric, Olivier; Labrut, Sophie; Ponce, Frédérique; Ibisch, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the clinical outcome of 30 cats with non-ocular melanomas and to evaluate the association between clinical or pathological parameters and overall survival time. Methods The database of the animal histopathological laboratory of the National Veterinary School of Nantes (Oniris, Nantes, France) was retrospectively searched to identify cases of feline non-ocular melanomas between December 2009 and April 2014. For each case, clinical data, including signalment, location of the primary tumour, staging, treatment and outcome, were collected from the medical records or via interviews with referring veterinarians. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation included mitotic index, cytonuclear atypias, junctional activity, Melan A and S100 immunostaining, and surgical margins. Univariate analysis to test the prognostic value of the different variables was performed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method using the log-rank test of significance. Results Thirty cats were included in the study. Eleven had a cutaneous non-auricular melanoma, six had a tumour located on the pinna and 13 had a tumour in the oral cavity. Cats with auricular melanomas were significantly younger than cats with tumours in other locations. Location and presence of clinical signs were not of prognostic significance, but the achromic phenotype was significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. Twenty cats were treated with surgery and survived significantly longer than cats that received only medical treatment or that did not receive any treatment. According to our data, mitotic index, cytonuclear atypias, junctional activity, Melan A or S100 expression, and surgical margins were not associated with survival. Conclusions and relevance We show for the first time, in a large series, that the auricular form of melanoma affected significantly younger cats than other extraocular forms. Most feline non-ocular melanomas are malignant and achromic tumours

  18. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Background In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM) children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children. Methods In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50) with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354). Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline. Results The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion and Significance We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case

  19. Complications in Advanced Diabetics in a Tertiary Care Centre: A Retrospective Registry-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ankush; Gomes, Edwin; Dessai, Ankush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a major public health problem in our country and complications of diabetes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is a need to quantify the complications in order to improve our strategies for prevention and management. Aim To measure the prevalence of complications in type 2 diabetics following up at a tertiary care centre and to study its association with the socio-demographic and clinical parameters. Materials and Methods A retrospective record based study was conducted on 3261 type 2 diabetic patients on insulin therapy, recorded in the diabetic registry maintained at Goa Medical College from Aug 2009 to May 2012. Data on anthropometric measurements, demographic characteristics, complications and other details were extracted from these records. Results Out of the 3261 patients 1025 (31.4%) had macrovascular complications and 1122 (34.4%) had at least one microvascular complication. The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease and stroke were 6.7%, 21.3% and 6.6% respectively and were significantly higher in males. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were 16.7%, 16.5% and 16.3% respectively with diabetic nephropathy being significantly higher in males. Trend analysis showed significant association of rising prevalence of all complications with age (p<0.05). Duration of diabetes also showed significantly positive trend for all complications (p<0.05) except stroke. Conclusion The study presents the prevalence of diabetic complications in patients reporting to a tertiary hospital in Goa. Coronary artery disease was found to be the most common complication. As age and duration of diabetes were found to be significantly associated, efforts should be made towards promoting earlier diagnosis of diabetes so as to improve management and decrease the chances of complications. PMID:27190861

  20. Correction of tuberous breast deformity: A retrospective study comparing lipofilling versus breast implant augmentation.

    PubMed

    Brault, Nicolas; Stivala, Alessio; Guillier, David; Moris, Vivien; Revol, Marc; François, Caroline; Cristofari, Sarra

    2017-03-01

    Breast implants and, more recently, autologous fat grafting are the two most common treatments used to correct tuberous breast deformity (TBD). The post-surgical quality of life between the two techniques is not well demonstrated. This study aimed to compare satisfaction and health-related quality of life in patients affected by TBD between these two techniques. All TBD patients operated between January 2008 and May 2015 were retrospectively identified, and only those treated with implants or lipofilling were included. Satisfaction was evaluated at least 6 months after surgery with the postoperative Breast-Q(®) augmentation module. From January 2008 to May 2015, 62 patients were recruited in our study, and 37 patients were evaluated using a Breast-Q questionnaire after at least 6 months of follow-up. Breast implant-augmented patients were significantly more satisfied concerning the "satisfaction with breasts" module (p = 0.002) and the "satisfaction with outcome" module (p = 0.00008). A question-by-question analysis revealed several interesting and significant differences, showing higher scores in most of the questions in the breast implant group. Patients in the lipofilling group, interestingly, had a mean of 1.6 interventions compared to the mean 1.36 interventions in the implant group (p = 0.23). This reflects the need to perform more surgical sessions in the lipofilling group to achieve a satisfactory result. Our study demonstrated that tuberous breast correction with implants can achieve better satisfaction along with good outcomes than lipofilling usually does.

  1. Chronic kidney disease progression: a retrospective analysis of 3-year adherence to a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, Felipe; Leal, Viviane de Oliveira; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2017-11-01

    The potential benefits and dangers of dietary protein restriction in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still controversial. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low protein diet (LPD) on the renal function in nondialysis CKD patients. A retrospective study was conducted from 321 nondialysis CKD patient's medical files (65.1 ± 12.7 yrs, 58.2% men). These patients received individualized dietary protein prescription (0.6-0.8 g protein/kg/day). Protein intake was evaluated by food diary and 24 h-food recall. Adherence to the LPD was considered when patients intake from 90 to 110% of the prescribed amount of protein. The patients were divided into 4 groups: (G1) adherent diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (n = 83); (G2) non-adherent DM patients (n = 106); (G3) adherent non-DM patients (n = 75); (G4) non-adherent non-DM patients (n = 57). Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Both groups of patients (DM and non-DM) that adhered to the LPD showed significant improvement in eGFR (G1: 38.7 ± 13.2 mL/min to 51.1 ± 17.0 mL/min (p < 0.001); G3: 35.1 ± 16.8 mL/min to 46.8 ± 21.4 mL/min (p < 0.001)). In adherent patients, no differences in albumin and BMI were observed at the end of follow up. In non-adherent patients, eGFR significantly decreased in DM group (G2: 44.2 ± 18.5 mL/min to 38.2 ± 15.8 mL/min (p = 0.003)). According to multivariate analysis, annual changes in eGFR were not independent associated with age, gender, BMI, lipid profile, bicarbonate or smoking status. In summary, adherence to low protein diet could be able to improve serum creatinine and eGFR, well-known markers of renal function. However, prospective studies are needed to control confounders which affect renal function and CKD progression.

  2. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: descriptive, retrospective analysis of 59 cases treated at a single center.

    PubMed

    Elander, Johanna; Nekludov, Michael; Larsson, Agneta; Nordlander, Britt; Eksborg, Staffan; Hydman, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    To provide retrospective, descriptive information on patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis treated at a single center during the years 1998-2014, and to evaluate the outcome of a newly introduced treatment strategy. Retrospective analysis of clinical data obtained from medical records. Mortality, pre-morbidity, severity of illness, primary site of infection, type of bacteria, time parameters. The observed 3-month mortality was 6/59 (10 %). The most common initial foci of the infection were pharyngeal, dental or hypopharyngeal. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus milleri bacteria within the Streptococcus anginosus group (66 % of the cases). Using a combined treatment with early surgical debridement combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is possible to reduce the mortality rate among patients suffering from cervical necrotizing fasciitis, compared to the expected mortality rate and to previous historical reports. Data indicated that early onset of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may have a positive impact on survival rate, but no identifiable factor was found to prognosticate outcome.

  3. Is Statin Use Associated With Tendon Rupture? A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Tahmeed; Beri, Abhimanyu; Gardiner, Joseph C; Tang, Xiaoqin; Dwamena, Francesca C

    2015-01-01

    Previous case reports and small studies have suggested that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA-Is) may increase the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort evaluation to better assess this relationship. From approximately 800,000 enrollees of a private insurance database, those who were aged ≤64 years with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment were selected. Exposure was defined as initiation of HMG-CoA-I after the beginning of the study period. Each exposed person was matched with 2 controls of similar age and gender. Baseline characteristics, including known risk factors for tendon rupture, were compared between exposed and control cohorts with fidelity to the study's matched design. After adjusting for differences in follow-up and baseline characteristics, incidence rate ratios for tendon rupture was assessed in HMG-CoA-I users and nonusers. A total of 34,749 exposed patients were matched with 69,498 controls. There was no difference in the occurrence of tendon ruptures in HMG-CoA-I users versus nonusers. The results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and gender. In conclusion, this population-based retrospective cohort evaluation suggests that use of HMG-CoA-Is as a group are not associated with tendon rupture.

  4. Risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zeegers, Maurice P; Bazelier, Marloes T; De Bruin, Marie L; Buntinx, Frank; de Vries, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between diabetes, and both urinary bladder cancer (UBC) risk and mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2, or using antidiabetic drugs (ADDs), were compared to matched non-diabetic controls. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk and mortality of UBC. We adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and body mass index. Results The cohort included 329 168 patients using ADD, and 307 315 controls with 1295 and 1071 patients, respectively, diagnosed as having UBC during follow-up. The adjusted HRs of UBC were 0.77 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.05) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.14) for type 1 and 2 diabetes, respectively. These results were similar if we restricted our analysis to an inception cohort. We noticed a small increased risk during the first year after diagnosis (HR=1.26 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.52)), which could be explained by detection bias. There was no influence of the severity of diabetes as measured by the glycated haemoglobin. Mortality of UBC was not increased for patients with either type 1 (HR=0.95 (95% CI 0.39 to 2.34)) or type 2 diabetes (HR=1.16 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.46)). Conclusions Neither the risk of UBC nor the mortality from UBC was increased in patients with type 1 and patients with type 2 diabetes in the CPRD data. PMID:26033947

  5. Alveolar Ridge Preservation After Tooth Extraction with DFDBA and Platelet Concentrates: A Radiographic Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Baniasadi, Behrang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate vertical alveolar bone loss 3 months after tooth extraction when a technique of ridge preservation was applied using a particulate demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft 300 - 500 µm associated with platelet concentrates (platelet-rich-fibrin) in the form of gel and membranes. Material and Methods: A retrospective radiological clinical study was conducted on 56 patients for whom 95 extractions had been performed immediately followed by alveolar filling. Among the patients, 17 were smokers and 16 were provided with an immediate removable temporary prosthesis after extractions. Vertical bone loss was measured radiologically by panoramic X-ray before extractions and by a computed tomography scan 3 months after, at the level of mid-buccal bone wall, by two independent observers. For statistical analysis, Student’s t-test was performed to compare the mean bone loss between mono- and pluri-radicular teeth and to compare the mean bone loss between tobacco users versus non users and finally to compare the mean bone loss between individuals that had provisional removable prosthesis and those that had not. Results: Three months after tooth extraction, the mean of vertical loss of the mid-buccal bone wall was 0.72 (SD 0.71) mm (5.53% SD 5.19). No significant difference between bone loss at mono-radicular and pluri-radicular teeth (P = 0.982) was observed. There was no significant correlation between tobacco habits and bone loss (P = 0.2), nor between provisional removable prosthesis and bone loss (P = 0.786). Conclusion: These results indicate a good potential for the technique using Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft 300 - 500 µm and platelet concentrates in alveolar bone preservation. PMID:28357003

  6. Blunt Cardiac Injury in the Severely Injured – A Retrospective Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanschen, Marc; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Khalil, Philipe N.; Wierer, Matthias; van Griensven, Martijn; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Biberthaler, Peter; Lefering, Rolf; Huber-Wagner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blunt cardiac injury is a rare trauma entity. Here, we sought to evaluate the relevance and prognostic significance of blunt cardiac injury in severely injured patients. Methods In a retrospective multicentre study, using data collected from 47,580 patients enrolled to TraumaRegister DGU (1993-2009), characteristics of trauma, prehospital / hospital trauma management, and outcome analysis were correlated to the severity of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of cardiac injury was assessed according to the abbreviated injury score (AIS score 1-6), the revised injury severity score (RISC) allowed comparison of expected outcome with injury severity-dependent outcome. N = 1.090 had blunt cardiac trauma (AIS 1-6) (2.3% of patients). Results Predictors of blunt cardiac injury could be identified. Sternal fractures indicate a high risk of the presence of blunt cardiac injury (AIS 0 [control]: 3.0%; AIS 1: 19.3%; AIS 2-6: 19.1%). The overall mortality rate was 13.9%, minor cardiac injury (AIS 1) and severe cardiac injury (AIS 2-6) are associated with higher rates. Severe blunt cardiac injury (AIS 4 and AIS 5-6) is associated with a higher mortality (OR 2.79 and 4.89, respectively) as compared to the predicted average mortality (OR 2.49) of the study collective. Conclusion Multiple injured patients with blunt cardiac trauma are at high risk to be underestimated. Careful evaluation of trauma patients is able to predict the presence of blunt cardiac injury. The severity of blunt cardiac injury needs to be stratified according to the AIS score, as the patients’ outcome is dependent on the severity of cardiac injury. PMID:26136126

  7. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Adler, Michelle; Yuhas, Krista; Myrtil, Martine; Young, Paul; François, Kesner; Grand’Pierre, Reynold; Lowrance, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the “Option B+” strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation. Design This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti. Methods With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model. Results There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%). One quarter (25.3%) dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen. Discussion Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients. PMID:28264045

  8. Retrospective study maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samieirad, Sahand; Tohidi, Elahe; Shahidi-Payam, Akbar; Abedini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies in different countries and geographic zones. Population concentration, lifestyle, cultural background, and socioeconomic status can affect the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in hospitalized patients (2012-2014) which would be useful for better policy making strategies. Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 386 hospitalized patients were evaluated from the department of maxillofacial surgery at Bahonar Hospital of Kerman, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. For data analysis, ANOVA, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test were performed, using SPSS version 21. Results The majority of patients were male (76.5%). Most subjects were within the age range of 20-30 years. Fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the mandible (parasymphysis). There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age group of 16-59 years under went open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age groups (P=0.02). Also, a significant association was observed between gender and the occurrence of fractures (P=0.01). Conclusions Considering the geographic and cultural indices of the evaluated population, it can be concluded that patients age and gender and trauma causes significantly affect the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas and fracture kinds and treatment plans. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, face fractures, maxillofacial trauma, trauma. PMID:26116845

  9. Effect of Alcoholic Intoxication on the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Yi; Shih, Hong-Mo; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Leng-Chieh; He, Guan-Yi; Chen, Chih-Yu; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chao-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated whether alcoholic intoxication (AI) increases the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by using a population-based database in Taiwan. Methods This retrospective matched-cohort study included 57 611 inpatients with new-onset AI (AI cohort) and 230 444 randomly selected controls (non-AI cohort). Each patient was monitored for 10 years to individually identify those who were subsequently diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk of IBD in patients with AI compared with controls without AI. Results The incidence rate of IBD during the 10-year follow-up period was 2.69 per 1 000 person-years and 0.49 per 1 000 person-years in the AI and non-AI cohorts, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidity, the AI cohort exhibited a 3.17-fold increased risk of IBD compared with the non-AI cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19–4.58). Compared with the non-AI cohort, the HRs of CD and UC were 4.40 and 2.33 for the AI cohort, respectively. After stratification for the severity of AI according to the duration of hospital stay, the adjusted HRs exhibited a significant correlation with the severity; the HRs of IBD were 1.76, 6.83, and 19.9 for patients with mild, moderate, and severe AI, respectively (p for the trend < .0001). Conclusion The risk of IBD was higher in patients with AI and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:27802288

  10. The Use of Hypnotics and Mortality - A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Zeng, Ya-Fang; Tang, Gau-Jun; Kao, Hui-Chuan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ho, Hsiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders, especially chronic insomnia, have become major health problem worldwide and, as a result, the use of hypnotics is steadily increasing. However, few studies with a large sample size and long-term observation have been conducted to investigate the relationship between specific hypnotics and mortality. Methods We conducted this retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Information from claims data including basic characteristics, the use of hypnotics, and survival from 2000 to 2009 for 1,320,322 individuals were included. The use of hypnotics was divided into groups using the defined daily dose and the cumulative length of use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated from a Cox proportional hazards model, with two different matching techniques to examine the associations. Results Compared to the non-users, both users of benzodiazepines (HR = 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78–1.85) and mixed users (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.42–1.47) had a higher risk of death, whereas the users of other non-benzodiazepines users showed no differences. Zolpidem users (HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.71–0.75) exhibited a lower risk of mortality in the adjusted models. This pattern remained similar in both matching techniques. Secondary analysis indicated that zolpidem users had a reduced risk of major cause-specific mortality except cancer, and that this protective effect was dose-responsive, with those using for more than 1 year having the lowest risk. Conclusions The effects of different types of hypnotics on mortality were diverse in this large cohort with long-term follow-up based on representative claims data in Taiwan. The use of zolpidem was associated with a reduced risk of mortality. PMID:26709926

  11. Role of Cilostazol Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients with Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming Ying; Pai, Mei-Ann; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Chen, Chang Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its relevant complications are more common in hemodialysis (HD) patients, while the evidence regarding antiplatelet therapy in CKD patients is scarce. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of cilostazol on outcomes in HD patients with asymptomatic PAD (aPAD). Methods. This cohort study enrolled 217 HD patients (median follow-up time: 5.75 years). Associations between cilostazol use and the outcomes were evaluated by time-dependent Cox regression analysis. Results. During follow-up, 39.5% (47/119) patients used cilostazol for aPAD and 31.8% (69/217) patients died. Cilostazol users had significantly lower CVD and all-cause mortalities (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.11 [0.03, 0.51] and 0.2 [0.08, 0.52]) than nonusers. Both death risks were nonsignificantly higher in cilostazol users than in HD patients without aPAD. The unadjusted and adjusted HR [95% CI] of CVD death risk were 0.4 [0.07, 2.12] and 0.14 [0.02, 0.8] for patients with aPAD during follow-up and were 0.74 [0.16, 3.36] and 0.19 [0.04, 0.93] for those with aPAD at initial. Conclusions. In HD patients with aPAD, lower CVD and all-cause mortality rates were observed in low-dose cilostazol user. Further evidences from large-scale prospective study and randomization trial are desired to confirm the effect of cilostazol. PMID:27747241

  12. Central nervous system metastasis secondary to colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mondaca, Sebastián; Hornig, Valentina; Munoz-Schuffenegger, Pablo; Acevedo, Francisco; Garrido, Marcelo; Nervi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to colorectal cancer is infrequent and associated with a poor prognosis. Its treatment is extrapolated from metastases of other origins as the information available on this scenario is limited. The goal of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics of a series of patients and determine the results in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and global survival. Method The records of patients with CNS metastasis of colorectal origin who were treated in this facility between the years 2001 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Results 20 patients with CNS lesions of this origin were identified. Of these, 45% were male and 55% were female (average age 65.5 years). The histology corresponded to tubular adenocarcinoma in 95% of cases. Around 85% of the patients showed a neurological deficit, and their recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classifications were 1 in 20%, 2 in 55%, and 3 in 25% of the cases studied. The treatments provided were: holocerebral radiotherapy (45%), stereotactic radiosurgery (25%), surgery followed by holocerebral radiotherapy (25%), and exclusively palliative care (5%). The PFS was 2.6 months from treatment of the CNS lesion, while the median survival was 3.8 months. The survival times for patients receiving different treatments were as follows: surgery plus holocerebral radiotherapy 16.2 months, stereotactic radiotherapy 12 months, and holocerebral radiotherapy 2.4 months (p = 0.003). Conclusion The prognosis for patients with metastasis of colorectal origin is poor. The patients treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy can have a greater survival. PMID:28105076

  13. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  14. Efficacy of bevacizumab therapy for unresectable malignant glioma: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Hajime; Hirano, Hirofumi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Habu, Mika; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Sadamura, Yuko; Hanada, Tomoko; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Moinuddin, Fm; Arita, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV), an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor A, has been used for primary and recurrent malignant gliomas in Japan since June, 2013. Previous randomized controlled studies demonstrated that BEV prolonged the progression-free survival, but not the overall survival (OS) of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of BEV on the OS of patients with unresectable malignant gliomas. Of the 440 cases of malignant glioma initially treated in our institute between 2000 and 2015, 88 were not suitable for maximal resection due to patient age, physical condition, tumor location and extent, or the patient's wishes. Based on the biopsy results, the pathological diagnosis was glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in 60, 19 and 9 patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were performed to investigate the effect of BEV on OS. OS was longer in the BEV group (n=24) compared with that in the non-BEV group [n=64; median survival time (MST), 566 vs. 243 days, respectively; hazard ratio (HR)=0.413; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.216–0.787; P=0.003]. In the 41 patients who received temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy and the 31 patients with glioblastoma who received TMZ and radiotherapy, OS was longer in the BEV group compared with that in the non-BEV group (MST, 568 vs. 334 days, HR=0.404, 95% CI: 0.175–0.933, P=0.016; and MST, 566 vs. 160 days, HR=0.253, 95% CI: 0.099–0.646, P=0.001, respectively). In the Cox hazard model analysis of 41 patients who underwent TMZ-based chemoradiotherapy after biopsy, the use of BEV was the strongest independent beneficial factor associated with prolonged OS (HR=0.101; P=0.0002). Our retrospective survey suggested that BEV prolongs the OS of patients with unresectable malignant gliomas. However, these results must be verified by a well-designed prospective randomized controlled trial. PMID:28123740

  15. Pregnancy outcomes after exposure to tocilizumab: A retrospective analysis of 61 patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ken; Watanabe, Omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Nakasone, Ayako; Ishizuka, Nobuhiko; Murashima, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the effects of tocilizumab on pregnancy outcomes in Japanese patients with rheumatic disease. Methods: Data from Chugai’s tocilizumab safety database (April 2005 to October 2014) were retrospectively analyzed to identify pregnancy outcomes in patients exposed to tocilizumab. Results: Data were available for 61 pregnancies exposed to tocilizumab, and outcomes were reported for 50 of those pregnancies. In 36 births, no congenital anomalies were identified; however, six neonatal abnormalities were reported: five cases of low birth weight (<2500 g) and one case of neonatal asphyxia. Of 36 births, tocilizumab was resumed during lactation in two patients, with no subsequent adverse events reported in newborns. The spontaneous abortion rate was 18.0% (9 of 50 pregnancies), which is comparable to the rate in the general population. The five terminated pregnancies included one case of caudal regression syndrome. Conclusions: The present retrospective study of 61 pregnancies exposed to tocilizumab at conception indicated no increased rates of spontaneous abortion or congenital abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. However, further study is necessary to confirm the benefit-risk profile of tocilizumab treatment during pregnancy. PMID:26873562

  16. Impacted maxillary canines and root resorption of adjacent teeth: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Costanza; Vernucci, Roberto; Vichi, Maurizio; Leonardi, Rosalia; Barbato, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of impacted maxillary canine is reported to be between 1% and 3%. The lack of monitoring and the delay in the treatment of the impacted canine can cause different complications such as: displacement of adjacent teeth, loss of vitality of neighbouring teeth, shortening of the dental arch, follicular cysts, canine ankylosis, recurrent infections, recurrent pain, internal resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, external resorption of the canine and the adjacent teeth, combination of these factors. An appropriate diagnosis, accurate predictive analysis and early intervention are likely to prevent such undesirable effects. The objective is to evaluate, by means of a retrospective observational study, the possibility of carrying out a predictive analysis of root resorption adjacent to the impacted canines by means of orthopantomographs, so as to limit the prescription of additional 3D radiography. Material and Methods 120 subjects with unilateral or bilateral maxillary impacted canine were examined and 50 patients with 69 impacted maxillary canine (22 male, 28 female; mean age: 11.7 years) satisfied the inclusion criteria of the study. These patients were subjected to a basic clinical and radiographic investigation (orthopantomographs and computerized tomography). All panoramic films were viewed under standardized conditions for the evaluation of two main variables: maxillary canine angulations (a, b, g angles) and the overlapping between the impacted teeth and the lateral incisor (Analysis of Lindauer). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of resorbed lateral incisors depending on sector location and angle measurements. Results Results indicated that b angle has the greatest influence on the prediction of root resorption (predictive value of b angle = 76%). If β angle <18° and Lindauer = I, the probability of resorption is 0.06. Conclusions Evaluation of b angle and superimposition lateral incisor

  17. Retrospective cohort study of cancer morbidity in furniture makers exposed to wood dust.

    PubMed

    Barthel, E; Dietrich, M

    1989-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to examine the cancer morbidity in a group of 759 furniture makers of the Neubrandenburg District. During the study interval of 1973 to 1984, a total of 40 malignant tumors occurred in the exposed group. Except for bronchial cancer (SIR = 68) and prostate cancer (SIR = 43), all observed tumors were overrepresented in comparison to the incidence of such illnesses in the normal population of the study area. Significantly increased SIRs occurred for malignant melanoma (2 cases, SIR = 952) and for rectal cancer (6 cases, SIR = 239). Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses were not observed.

  18. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  19. Association between concurrent use of prescription opioids and benzodiazepines and overdose: retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Eric C; Dixit, Anjali; Humphreys, Keith; Darnall, Beth D; Baker, Laurence C; Mackey, Sean

    2017-03-14

    Objectives To identify trends in concurrent use of a benzodiazepine and an opioid and to identify the impact of these trends on admissions to hospital and emergency room visits for opioid overdose.Design Retrospective analysis of claims data, 2001-13.Setting Administrative health claims database.Participants 315 428 privately insured people aged 18-64 who were continuously enrolled in a health plan with medical and pharmacy benefits during the study period and who also filled at least one prescription for an opioid.Interventions Concurrent benzodiazepine/opioid use, defined as an overlap of at least one day in the time periods covered by prescriptions for each drug. Main outcome measures Annual percentage of opioid users with concurrent benzodiazepine use; annual incidence of visits to emergency room and inpatient admissions for opioid overdose.Results 9% of opioid users also used a benzodiazepine in 2001, increasing to 17% in 2013 (80% relative increase). This increase was driven mainly by increases among intermittent, as opposed to chronic, opioid users. Compared with opioid users who did not use benzodiazepines, concurrent use of both drugs was associated with an increased risk of an emergency room visit or inpatient admission for opioid overdose (adjusted odds ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 2.24; P<0.001) among all opioid users. The adjusted odds ratio for an emergency room visit or inpatient admission for opioid overdose was 1.42 (1.33 to 1.51; P<0.001) for intermittent opioid users and 1.81 (1.67 to 1.96; P<0.001) chronic opioid users. If this association is causal, elimination of concurrent benzodiazepine/opioid use could reduce the risk of emergency room visits related to opioid use and inpatient admissions for opioid overdose by an estimated 15% (95% confidence interval 14 to 16).Conclusions From 2001 to 2013, concurrent benzodiazepine/opioid use sharply increased in a large sample of privately insured patients in the US and

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Ultrasound-guided Flexible Ureteroscopy in the Management of Calyceal Diverticular Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-Qing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Nian-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the most widely recommended treatment for calyceal diverticular calculi, providing excellent stone-free results. However, its invasiveness is not negligible considering its major complication rates. Flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) is currently used to treat calyceal diverticula. However, the greatest drawback of FURS is locating the diverticulum since its neck is narrow and concealed. In such a case, the FURS procedure must be converted to PCNL. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasound-guided flexible ureteroscopy (UFURS) identifying diverticulum and the management of calyceal diverticular calculi. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 24 patients who had calyceal diverticular calculi. In all 12 patients in the UFURS group, direct FURS failed to find evidence of calyceal diverticula but were confirmed with imaging. The other 12 patients in the PCNL group received PCNL plus fulguration of the diverticular walls. Results: Puncture of calyceal diverticulum was successful in all 12 UFURS patients. Two patients in this group had postoperative residual calculi and two patients developed fever. In the PCNL group, percutaneous renal access and lithotomy were successful in all 12 patients. One patient in this group had residual calculi, one had perirenal hematoma, and two patients developed fever. No significant difference was found in the operating time (UFURS vs. PCNL, 91.8 ± 24.2 vs. 86.3 ± 18.7 min), stone-free rate (UFURS vs. PCNL, 9/12 vs. 10/12), and rate of successful lithotripsy (UFURS vs. PCNL, 10/12 vs. 11/12) between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Postoperative pain scores in the FURS group were significantly lower than that in the PCNL group (2.7 ± 1.2 vs. 6.2 ± 1.5, P < 0.05). Hospital stay in the UFURS group was significantly shorter than that in the PCNL group (3.4 ± 0.8 vs. 5.4 ± 1.0 days, P < 0.05). All patients were symptom-free following surgery (UFURS vs. PCNL, 10/10 vs. 12

  1. Clinical outcome of surgical periodontal therapy: a short-term retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hiroki; Fujinami, Koushu; Ida, Atsushi; Furusawa, Masahiro; Nikaido, Masahiko; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Saito, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate retrospectively the outcome of surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal surgeries implemented at General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital during the period of April 2010 through March 2012 were subjected to data analysis. After initial periodontal therapy, 17 clinicians performed a total of 138 periodontal surgeries in 80 patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis (31 men and 49 women; mean age 54). Cases (sites) operated were as follows: open flap debridement=102, periodontal regenerative therapy=29 (17 for intrabony defects, 12 for furcation involvements) and periodontal plastic surgery=7. Enamel matrix derivative or bone graft was used for regenerative therapy. Clinical data were analyzed focusing on the comparison between open flap debridement and regenerative therapy. At 5 months after open flap debridement, mean reduction in probing depth (PD) and gain in clinical attachment level (CAL) was 3.9 mm (range -1.0-9.0) and 2.3 mm (range -1.0-9.0), respectively. The corresponding values with regenerative therapy were 4.0 mm (range 0-8.0) and 2.8 mm (-1.0-6.0), respectively. At sites with initial PD≥8 mm, a significantly greater gain in CAL was obtained with the regenerative therapy than with flap surgery (mean CAL gain 4.3 mm vs. 2.9 mm, p<0.05). Periodontal surgery performed in our clinical setting demonstrated a favorable short-term outcome. Our data suggest the efficacy of regenerative therapy, in particular for the treatment of deep pockets.

  2. Clinical characteristics associated with diagnostic delay of pulmonary embolism in primary care: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Janneke M T; Koster-van Ree, Marleen; Morgenstern, Marcus J; Oudega, Ruud; Schutgens, Roger E G; Moons, Karel G M; Geersing, Geert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the extent of delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in primary care, and to identify determinants that are associated with such diagnostic delay. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting 6 primary care practices across the Netherlands. Participants Data from patients with an objectively confirmed diagnosis of PE (International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) code K93) up to June 2015 were extracted from the electronic medical records. For all these PE events, we reviewed all consultations with their general practitioner (GP) and scored any signs and symptoms that could be attributed to PE in the 3 months prior to the event. Also, we documented actual comorbidity and the diagnosis considered initially. Primary and secondary outcome measures Delay was defined as a time gap of >7 days between the first potentially PE-related contact with the GP and the final PE diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent determinants for delay. Results In total, 180 incident PE cases were identified, of whom 128 patients had 1 or more potential PE-related contact with their GP within the 3 months prior to the diagnosis. Based on our definition, in 33 of these patients (26%), diagnostic delay was observed. Older age (age >75 years; OR 5.1 (95% CI 1.8 to 14.1)) and the absence of chest symptoms (ie, chest pain or pain on inspiration; OR 5.4 (95% CI 1.9 to 15.2)) were independent determinants for diagnostic delay. A respiratory tract infection prior to the PE diagnosis was reported in 13% of cases without delay, and in 33% of patients with delay (p=0.008). Conclusions Diagnostic delay of more than 7 days in the diagnosis of PE is common in primary care, especially in the elderly, and if chest symptoms, like pain on inspiration, are absent. PMID:28279993

  3. Tobacco Stained Fingers and Its Association with Death and Hospital Admission: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Genné, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Among smokers, the presence of tobacco stains on fingers has recently been associated with a high prevalence of tobacco related conditions and alcohol abuse. Objective we aimed to explore tobacco stains as a marker of death and hospital readmission. Method Seventy-three smokers presenting tobacco-tar staining on their fingers and 70 control smokers were followed during a median of 5.5 years in a retrospective cohort study. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test to compare mortality and hospital readmission rates among smokers with and smokers without tobacco stains. Multivariable Cox models were used to adjust for confounding factors: age, gender, pack-year unit smoked, cancer, harmful alcohol use and diabetes. The number of hospital admissions was compared through a negative binomial regression and adjusted for the follow-up time, diabetes, and alcohol use. Results Forty-three patients with tobacco-stained fingers died compared to 26 control smokers (HR 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0 to 2.7; p 0.048). The association was not statistically significant after adjustment. Patients with tobacco-stained fingers needed a readmission earlier than smokers without stains (HR 2.1; 95%CI: 1.4 to 3.1; p<0.001), and more often (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.1). Associations between stains and the first hospital readmission (HR 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and number of readmissions (IRR 1.5; 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.1) persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions Compared to other smokers, those presenting tobacco-stained fingers have a high unadjusted mortality rate and need early and frequent hospital readmission even when controlling for confounders. PMID:26375287

  4. A Smart Tool for Intraoperative Leg Length Targeting in Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Paul; Snider, Matthew; Muir, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leg length discrepancies following total hip arthroplasty (THA) may necessitate subsequent interventions, from heel lifts to revision surgery. Current intraoperative methods of determining leg length are either inaccurate or expensive and invasive. Objective: The objective of the current study was to investigate the ability of a novel, intraoperative smart tool (Intellijoint HIP®, Intellijoint Surgical®, Inc., Waterloo, ON) to provide accurate, real-time leg length measurements during THA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 patients who underwent THA utilizing the Intellijoint HIP smart tool between February and August 2014. Intraoperative leg length data was compared with radiographic leg length calculations. Two observers blinded to the Intellijoint HIP findings independently assessed all post-procedure radiographs. Results: The mean difference between smart tool and radiographic measurements was 1.3 mm [CI: -0.1, 2.7]. 88% (22/25) of intraoperative measurements were within 5 mm of radiographic measurements; 100% (25/25) were within 10 mm. A Bland-Altman analysis showed excellent agreement, with 96% (24/25) of measurements within the statistical limit for acceptable agreement, and 84% (21/25) within the clinically acceptable range (± 5 mm). Removal of the first 13 procedures (surgeon training) decreased the mean difference between methods to 0.6 mm [-0.6, 1.9]. All post-training procedures were associated with a difference of <5 mm. There were no reported adverse events related to the use of the smart tool. Conclusion: The Intellijoint HIP smart tool is a safe and accurate tool for providing intraoperative measurements of leg length in real-time. PMID:27843511

  5. Risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nogami, Kenichiro; Muraki, Isao; Imano, Hironori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine quantitatively the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Design Retrospective cohort study using a claims database. Setting Medical care institutions representing 9% of all secondary hospitals (acute care hospitals) in Japan. Participants In total, 797 324 admissions, comprising 435 354 patients aged 18–79 years at the time of admission, were enrolled between January 2010 and September 2014. All patients were diagnosed with diabetes or admitted to hospitals that provided laboratory data. Main outcome measures Incidence of DIC reported by physicians in claims data. Results Logistic regression analysis found that the risk of DIC was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in non-DM patients (fully adjusted OR: 1.39 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.45)), independent of age, sex, admission year and potential underlying diseases. The higher risk of DIC in T2DM patients was apparent in those who were treated with insulin within the 30-day period prior to admission (1.53 (1.37 to 1.72)). When stratified by the potential underlying diseases, the risk of DIC was higher in T2DM patients with non-septic severe infection (1.67 (1.41 to 1.97)) and with solid tumour (1.59 (1.47 to 1.72)) than in non-DM patients with those underlying diseases. The risk was similar between T2DM and non-DM patients with sepsis (0.98 (0.90 to 1.08)) and lower in T2DM patients with acute leukaemia (0.70 (0.59 to 0.84)). Conclusions T2DM was associated with a higher risk of DIC, particularly when recently treated with insulin, as well as among admissions with solid tumour or non-septic severe infection. PMID:28122835

  6. Injury-related mortality in South Africa: a retrospective descriptive study of postmortem investigations

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Megan; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Laubscher, Ria; Abrahams, Naeemah; Msemburi, William; Lombard, Carl; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate injury-related mortality in South Africa using a nationally representative sample and compare the results with previous estimates. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of medico-legal postmortem investigation data from mortuaries using a multistage random sample, stratified by urban and non-urban areas and mortuary size. We calculated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates for external causes of death. Findings Postmortem reports revealed 52 493 injury-related deaths in 2009 (95% confidence interval, CI: 46 930–58 057). Almost half (25 499) were intentionally inflicted. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 population were as follows: all injuries: 109.0 (95% CI: 97.1–121.0); homicide 38.4 (95% CI: 33.8–43.0; suicide 13.4 (95% CI: 11.6–15.2) and road-traffic injury 36.1 (95% CI: 30.9–41.3). Using postmortem reports, we found more than three times as many deaths from homicide and road-traffic injury than had been recorded by vital registration for this period. The homicide rate was similar to the estimate for South Africa from a global analysis, but road-traffic and suicide rates were almost fourfold higher. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative sample of injury-related mortality in South Africa. It provides more accurate estimates and cause-specific profiles that are not available from other sources. PMID:26229201

  7. Ruptured disc after arthroscopic repositioning in the temporomandibular joint: a retrospective magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Cai, Xieyi; Yang, Chi; Wang, Shaoyi; Huang, Linjian

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the incidence of rupture after arthroscopic repositioning of the disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by reviewing magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the TMJ taken before and after operation, and to investigate correlations retrospectively. We studied 247 patients with anterior disc displacement of the TMJ, and categorised them into 3 groups based on the postoperative MRI. The first group comprised those whose disc ruptured after repositioning, the second those who had a possible rupture of the disc after repositioning, and the third had no rupture of the disc after repositioning. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, maximum incisal mouth opening, whether the anterior disc displacement was unilateral or bilateral, and the Wilkes stage, were included in the analysis. The incidence of rupture (5/247) was 2%. Weak points at the intermediate zone of the disc were found in 4 of the 5 joints. The patients whose discs ruptured were significantly younger than the other 2 groups (p=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative duration of symptoms and mouth opening among the groups. The proportions of unilateral and bilateral disc displacement (p=0.047) and Wilkes stage (p=0.027) differed among the 3 groups. The Wilkes stages was significantly more advanced in the ruptured group than in the other 2 groups (p=0.027) with 4/5 being bilateral. The weak point in the intermediate zone of the disc on MRI could be a sign of rupture. Teenagers and young adults with anterior disc displacement without reduction, particularly those in whom it is bilateral, are at a higher risk of a rupture after repositioning of the disc by arthroscopy.

  8. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean-contaminated head and neck oncologic surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Busch, C-J; Knecht, R; Münscher, A; Matern, J; Dalchow, C; Lörincz, B B

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly used in head and neck oncologic surgery, due to the clean-contaminated nature of these procedures. There is a wide variety in the use of prophylactic antibiotics regarding the duration of application and the choice of agent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term or long-term antibiotic prophylaxis has an impact on the development of head and neck surgical wound infection (SWI). Retrospective chart review was carried out in 418 clean-contaminated head and neck surgical oncology cases at our department. More than 50 variables including tumour type and stage, type of surgical treatment, co-morbidities, duration and choice of antibiotic prophylaxis, and the incidence of SWI were analysed. Following descriptive data analysis, Chi square test by Pearson and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Fifty-eight of the 418 patients (13.9 %) developed SWI. Patients with advanced disease and tracheotomy showed a significantly higher rate of SWI than those with early stage disease and without tracheotomy (p = 0.012 and p = 0.00017, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the SWI rates in the short term and long term treatment groups (14.6 and 13.2 %, respectively; p = 0.689). Diabetes and body weight were not found to be risk factors for SWI. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decrease in SWI in the entire cohort of patients undergoing clean-contaminated major head and neck oncologic surgery. Our data confirmed the extent of surgery and tracheotomy as being risk factors for postoperative SWI.

  9. Natural history of untreated primary hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study of 157 patients.

    PubMed

    Pawarode, A; Voravud, N; Sriuranpong, V; Kullavanijaya, P; Patt, Y Z

    1998-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy with a dismal prognosis; new modalities of treatment as alternatives to surgery have been developed for unresectable patients. The authors obtain baseline data for the natural history of HCC so that the efficacy of new treatments may be evaluated. A retrospective study of 157 untreated patients with tissue-proven or serodiagnosed HCC was conducted. Clinical characteristics including laboratory investigation, treatment received, survival from the time of diagnosis, and prognostic factors were evaluated. There were 129 men and 28 women (ratio, 4.6:1). Median age was 50.9 years (range, 14.1-85.3 years). The most common symptoms and signs were weight loss (68.2%), abdominal fullness (62.5%), abdominal pain (51.6%), hepatomegaly (73.7%), ascites (45.2%), and jaundice (40.6%). Eighteen percent had extrahepatic metastases of which the lungs were the most common site. Seventy percent were hepatitis B virus related. Overall median survival was 8.7 weeks after the time of diagnosis. Survivals by stages were: TNM II, 16.6 weeks; TNM III, 7.3 weeks; TNM IVA, 9.7 weeks; TNM IVB, 7.6 weeks; Okuda II, 10.7 weeks; and Okuda III, 7.3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed serum total bilirubin and albumin as independent prognostic factors of survival. Common causes of death were upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (34.1%), cancer-related causes (cachexia, HCC rupture, metastatic disease, 31.8%), and hepatic failure (25.0%). Patients with HCC were diagnosed at late stages of their disease and the advanced nature of the tumor precluded effective therapy. Earlier tumor detection at a time when patients are better candidates for treatment may be aided by an active surveillance program of high risk groups.

  10. Antihypertensive medications and the risk of kidney stones in older adults: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R Todd; McArthur, Eric; Jandoc, Racquel; Welk, Blayne; Hayward, Jade S; Jain, Arsh K; Braam, Branko; Flockerzi, Veit; Garg, Amit X; Quinn, Robert Ross

    2017-03-23

    Antihypertensives are widely prescribed and could influence kidney stone risk by altering urinary calcium excretion. However, the impact of different classes of antihypertensives on kidney stone risk is unknown. To assess this impact, we conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study using linked health administrative databases. Individuals aged >65 years who initiated one of the four antihypertensive classes (that is, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers or thiazide diuretics) were included. The participants were followed for the occurrence of a kidney stone event while maintaining continuous usage on their drug class. The association between antihypertensive class and outcome was estimated by Cox regression. Of the 542 581 people included, we observed 4533 kidney stone events (0.83%) over a median follow-up of 368 days (365-729). Compared with beta-blockers, thiazides were associated with a lower risk of kidney stones (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.84), ACEis/ARBs with a borderline decreased risk (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.98) and calcium channel blockers with a comparable risk (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.92-1.13). When the risk of requiring an intervention for a kidney stone was examined, the results were consistent with the primary analysis; however, the protective effect of ACEis/ARBs was eliminated (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.87-1.06). In conclusion, relative to beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics were associated with a decreased risk of kidney stone formation in adults aged >65 years, whereas ACEis/ARBs and calcium channel blockers had a comparable risk of presenting with a kidney stone.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 23 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.42.

  11. Association between health literacy and hypertension management in a Chinese community: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Di; Li, Jiangbo; Wang, Yong; Wang, Si; Liu, Kai; Shi, Rufeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2017-03-16

    Low health literacy is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The relationship between literacy and blood pressure (BP) has been inconsistent. We investigated the determinants of health literacy and the potential relationship between health literacy and hypertension management. We conducted a retrospective cohort trial of 360 hypertensive patients. Scale measurements, physical examination, and laboratory tests were performed based on a standard protocol. To determine factors associated with health literacy, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and the discriminatory power of the scale score for hypertension control was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve. After adjusting for potential confounders, our findings show that the level of education, home blood pressure measurement, regular medication, and systolic blood pressure are significantly associated with health literacy. Moreover, patients with high health literacy have better hypertension control, a lower risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD), lower brachial ankle pulse wave velocity values, and better health-related quality of life. In addition, our study also demonstrates that we can identify the health literacy level of hypertensive patients using the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Hypertension. At a cut-off value of 13.5, we predict that patients will achieve long-term hypertension control. Adequate health literacy is a contributing factor to better blood pressure (BP) control and better perceived quality of life in hypertensive patients. Low health literacy increases the 10-year risk of ICVD and incidence of artery stiffness in hypertensive patients. Improving health literacy should be considered an important part of the management of hypertension.

  12. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in outpatients with cirrhosis in Brazil: A 10-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo Campos; Miozzo, Suelen Aparecida da Silva; Dossin, Isabella de Azevedo; Tovo, Cristiane Valle; Branco, Fernanda; de Mattos, Angelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the impact of HCC surveillance on early diagnosis and survival of cirrhotic outpatients. METHODS In this retrospective cohort study, cirrhotic outpatients undergoing HCC surveillance between March 2005 and March 2014 were analyzed. Exclusion criteria were HIV coinfection; previous organ transplantation; diagnosis of HCC at first consultation; missing data in the medical chart; and less than 1 year of follow-up. Surveillance was carried out every six months using ultrasound and serum alpha-fetoprotein determination. Ten-year cumulative incidence and survival were estimated through Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS Four hundred and fifty-three patients were enrolled, of which 57.6% were male. Mean age was 55 years. Hepatitis C virus and heavy use of alcohol were the main etiologic agents of cirrhosis. HCC was diagnosed in 75 patients (16.6%), with an estimated cumulative incidence of 2.6% in the 1st year, 15.4% in the 5th year, and 28.8% in the 10th year. Median survival was estimated at 17.6 mo in HCC patients compared to 234 mo in non-HCC patients (P < 0.001). Early-stage HCC was more often detected in patients who underwent surveillance every 6 mo or less (P = 0.05). However, survival was not different between patients with early stage vs non-early stage tumors [HR = 0.54 (0.15-1.89), P = 0.33]. CONCLUSION HCC is a frequent complication in patients with cirrhosis and adherence to surveillance programs favors early diagnosis. PMID:28028370

  13. Clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients with HIV/AIDS: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alexandra; Montero, Alberto J; Hurley, Judith

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe what is the presentation of breast cancer in women with HIV, their tolerance to therapy, the most common complications of treatment and their outcomes. Retrospective chart review of patients with HIV diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2013 at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital (UM/JMH) 47 females and 1 male were included in the analysis. The median age of diagnosis was 46 years (IQR 41-52) and 64% of the women were premenopausal. Median CD4(+) count was 330 cells/µL (IQR 131-589 cells/µL). 41% had AIDS at time of diagnosis. 94% of patients presented with locoregional disease and 6% with late stage breast cancer. 52% had ER(+) tumors. 6% had HER-2/neu tumor expression and 21 % had triple negative disease. The 5 year PFS was 50% (95% CI 34-64%), the 5 year OS was 44% (95% CI 29-58%), and the Breast cancer-specific survival was 57% (95% CI 40-70%). Death was attributed to breast cancer in 22 patients, AIDS progression in 6 patients, other medical condition in 1, and for 4, the cause was unknown. Serious adverse events were documented in 46% of patients treated with chemotherapy. Targeted therapy was well tolerated. Patients with HIV/AIDS and breast cancer pose a major challenge for oncologists. Surgery, radiation, and endocrine therapy are well tolerated. Standard dose chemotherapy can have life-threatening side effects which can be managed with growth factor support and antimicrobial prophylaxis. All cancer therapy can be given while continuing with antiviral therapy at full dose.

  14. Potentially modifiable risk factors for atrial fibrillation following lung resection surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Ahn, H J; Yeon, S M; Yang, M; Kim, J A; Jung, D M; Park, J H

    2016-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia after thoracic surgery and is associated with increased hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for postoperative atrial fibrillation following lung resection surgery and to suggest possible measures to reduce risk. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 4731 patients who underwent lobectomy or more major lung resection over a 6-year period. Patients who developed atrial fibrillation postoperatively and required treatment were included in the postoperative atrial fibrillation group, while the remaining patients were assigned to the non-postoperative atrial fibrillation group. Risk factors for postoperative atrial fibrillation were analysed by multivariate analysis and propensity score matching. Overall, 12% of patients developed postoperative atrial fibrillation. Potentially modifiable risk factors for postoperative atrial fibrillation were excessive alcohol consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.02, p = 0.0140), red cell transfusion (2.70(2.13-3.43), p < 0.0001), use of inotropes (1.81(1.42-2.31), p < 0.0001) and open (vs. thoracoscopic) surgery (1.59(1.23-2.05), p < 0.0001). Compared with inotrope use, vasopressor administration was not related to postoperative atrial fibrillation. Use of steroids or thoracic epidural anaesthesia did not reduce the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. We conclude that high alcohol consumption, red cell transfusion, use of inotropes and open surgery are potentially modifiable risk factors for postoperative atrial fibrillation. Pre-operative alcohol consumption needs to be addressed. Avoiding red cell transfusion and performing lung resection via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery may reduce the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation and the administration of vasopressors rather than inotropes is preferred.

  15. Herbal medicine for hospitalized patients with severe depressive episode: a retrospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan-Ying; Feng, Bin; Chen, Jiong; Tan, Qing-Rong; Chen, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Wen-Song; Wang, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine is increasingly used in depressed patients. The purpose of this retrospective controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine treatment of severe depressive episode. A total of 146 severely depressed subjects were selected from patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychosomatics of Tongde Hospital at Hangzhou, China between 1st September 2009 and 30th November 2013. While all were medicated with psychotropic drugs, 78 received additional individualized herbal medicine. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24) at admission and thereafter once weekly during hospital stay. The proportion of patients achieving clinical response and remission and incidence of adverse events were compared. The two groups had similar average length of hospital stay for approximately 28 days and were not different in the use of psychotropic medications. Survival analysis revealed that patients with herbal medicine had significantly higher chance of achieving clinical response [relative risk (RR)=2.179, P<0.001] and remission (RR=5.866, P<0.001) compared to those without herbal medicine. Patients with herbal medicine experienced remarkably fewer incidences of physical tiredness, headache, palpitation, dry mouth and constipation, but had a significantly higher incidence of digestive discomfort compared to patients without herbal medicine. These results indicate that additional treatment with individualized herbal medicine enhances antidepressant response and reduces certain side effects associated with psychotropic medications. Herbal medicine is an effective and relatively safe therapy for severe depressive episode (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-OCH-13003864).

  16. A retrospective analysis of possible triggers of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Lian, Ying; Liu, Ying; Wu, Bing-Yun; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2016-04-15

    Antecedent infections have been found to be the most common trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 36 adult patients with GBS and found that surgery, trauma and treatment with ganglioside were also common before the onset of GBS. The proportion of the axonal subtype of GBS in post-surgical/traumatic patients was higher than that in non-surgical/traumatic patients (P=0.013) in the present study. In conclusion, this study has shown that prior infection, surgery, trauma and ganglioside may be clinical contributors to the onset of GBS and raised the possibility that they may act synergistically as triggers for the development of GBS.

  17. East Mediterranean region sickle cell disease mortality trial: retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of 735 patients.

    PubMed

    Karacaoglu, Pelin Kardaş; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Aslı; Solmaz, Soner; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal Turgut; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozbalcı, Demircan; Unal, Selma; Kaya, Hasan; Gurkan, Emel; Yeral, Mahmut; Sariturk, Çagla; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, is characterized by hemolytic anemia and tissue damage from the rigid red blood cells. Although hydroxyurea and transfusion therapy are administered to treat the accompanying tissue injury, whether either one prolongs the lifespan of patients with SCD is unknown. SCD-related mortality data are available, but there are few studies on mortality-related factors based on evaluations of surviving patients. In addition, ethnic variability in patient registries has complicated detailed analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and mortality-related factors among an ethnically homogeneous population of patients with SCD. The 735 patients (102 children and 633 adults) included in this retrospective cohort study were of Eti-Turk origin and selected from 1367 patients seen at 5 regional hospitals. A central population management system was used to control for records of patient mortality. Data reliability was checked by a data supervision group. Mortality-related factors and predictors were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The study group included patients with homozygous hemoglobin S (Hgb S) disease (67 %), Hb S-β(0) thalassemia (17 %), Hgb S-β(+) thalassemia (15 %), and Hb S-α thalassemia (1 %). They were followed for a median of 66 ± 44 (3-148) months. Overall mortality at 5 years was 6.1 %. Of the 45 patients who died, 44 (6 %) were adults and 1 (0.1 %) was a child. The mean age at death was 34.1 ± 10 (18-54) years for males, 40.1 ± 15 (17-64) years for females, and 36.6 ± 13 (17-64) years overall. Hydroxyurea was found to have a notable positive effect on mortality (p = 0.009). Mortality was also significantly related to hypertension and renal damage in a univariate analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.000, respectively). Acute chest syndrome

  18. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  19. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320-1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234-0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent.

  20. A retrospective study on the quality of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines used in the UK between 1996 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Bolgiano, Barbara; Mawas, Fatme; Burkin, Karena; Crane, Dennis T; Saydam, Manolya; Rigsby, Peter; Corbel, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Following the reduction in efficacy of Hib-TT vaccines in the primary immunization schedule observed in the UK between 1999 and 2003, batches of vaccine manufactured by two different companies were retrospectively examined by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. The study evaluated 41 batches of the Hib-TT vaccines manufactured between 1994 and 2003, assaying potency (total PRP saccharide content), integrity (% free saccharide), consistency (molecular sizing), and immunogenicity, as well as reviewing data previously obtained at the time of release. The study indicated the stability of the lyophilized final fill vaccines to extend well past their assigned shelf-lives, and found no trends in the endotoxin content, total saccharide or % free saccharide content. A trend towards slightly larger conjugates was observed over time in Hib-TT A, evidenced in both the manufacturer's data obtained at the time that samples were submitted for testing and in data obtained from the retrospective analysis. The study confirmed that that there had been no significant change in the quality of the Hib vaccines that could possibly account for the change reported in their protective efficacy in the UK. The study also demonstrated the value of independent testing of vaccines from the time of licensure and in the ongoing monitoring and re-examination of selected batches, as necessary, to assure their continuing quality, safety and consistency.

  1. Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Background Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill health in a large sample of male UK Gulf War veterans and a demographically similar non-deployed comparison group; and ii) explored self-reported ill health among veterans who believed that they had Gulf War syndrome. Methods This study uses data from a retrospective cohort study of reproduction and child health in which a validated postal questionnaire was sent to all UK Gulf War veterans (GWV) and a comparison cohort of Armed Service personnel who were not deployed to the Gulf (NGWV). The cohort for analysis comprises 42,818 males who responded to the questionnaire. Results We confirmed that GWV report higher rates of general ill health. GWV were significantly more likely to have reported at least one new medical symptom or disease since 1990 than NGWV (61% versus 37%, OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–2.8). They were also more likely to report higher numbers of symptoms. The strongest associations were for mood swings (OR 20.9, 95%CI 16.2–27.0), memory loss/lack of concentration (OR 19.6, 95% CI 15.5–24.8), night sweats (OR 9.9, 95% CI 6.5–15.2), general fatigue (OR 9.6, 95% CI 8.3–11.1) and sexual dysfunction (OR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.6). 6% of GWV believed they had Gulf War syndrome (GWS), and this was associated with the highest symptom reporting. Conclusions Increased levels of reported ill health among GWV were confirmed. This study was the first to use a questionnaire which did not focus specifically on the veterans' symptoms themselves. Nevertheless, the results are consistent with those of other studies of post-Gulf war illness and thus strengthen overall findings in this area of research. Further examination

  2. Gamma Knife surgery for patients with jugular foramen schwannomas: a multiinstitutional retrospective study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kato, Takenori; Kida, Yoshihisa; Sasaki, Ayaka; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Kondoh, Takeshi; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Sato, Manabu; Sato, Mitsuya; Nagano, Osamu; Nakaya, Kotaro; Nakazaki, Kiyoshi; Kano, Tadashige; Hasui, Koichi; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Yasuda, Soichiro; Moriki, Akihito; Serizawa, Toru; Osano, Seiki; Inoue, Akira

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with jugular foramen schwannomas (JFSs). METHODS This study was a multiinstitutional retrospective analysis of 117 patients with JFSs who were treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) at 18 medical centers of the Japan Leksell Gamma Knife Society. The median age of the patients was 53 years. Fifty-six patients underwent GKS as their initial treatment, while 61 patients had previously undergone resection. At the time of GKS, 46 patients (39%) had hoarseness, 45 (38%) had hearing disturbances, and 43 (36%) had swallowing disturbances. Eighty-five tumors (73%) were solid, and 32 (27%) had cystic components. The median tumor volume was 4.9 cm(3), and the median prescription dose administered to the tumor margin was 12 Gy. Five patients were treated with fractionated GKS and maximum and marginal doses of 42 and 21 Gy, respectively, using a 3-fraction schedule. RESULTS The median follow-up period was 52 months. The last follow-up images showed partial remission in 62 patients (53%), stable tumors in 42 patients (36%), and tumor progression in 13 patients (11%). The actuarial 3- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 91% and 89%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that pre-GKS brainstem edema and dumbbell-shaped tumors significantly affected PFS. During the follow-up period, 20 patients (17%) developed some degree of symptomatic deterioration. This condition was transient in 12 (10%) of these patients and persistent in 8 patients (7%). The cause of the persistent deterioration was tumor progression in 4 patients (3%) and adverse radiation effects in 4 patients (3%), including 2 patients with hearing deterioration, 1 patient with swallowing disturbance, and 1 patient with hearing deterioration and hypoglossal nerve palsy. However, the preexisting hoarseness and swallowing disturbances improved in 66% and 63% of the patients, respectively

  3. Role of Lactobacillus Species in the Intermediate Vaginal Flora in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Alex; Kiss, Herbert; Hagmann, Michael; Machal, Susanne; Holzer, Iris; Kueronya, Verena; Husslein, Peter Wolf; Petricevic, Ljubomir

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor obstetrical outcomes are associated with imbalances in the vaginal flora. The present study evaluated the role of vaginal Lactobacillus species in women with intermediate vaginal flora with regard to obstetrical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively analysed data from all women with singleton pregnancies who had undergone routine screening for asymptomatic vaginal infections at our tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2014. Vaginal smears were Gram-stained and classified according to the Nugent scoring system as normal flora (score 0–3), intermediate vaginal flora (4–6), or bacterial vaginosis (7–10). Only women with intermediate vaginal flora were investigated. Women with a Nugent score of 4 were categorised into those with and without Lactobacilli. Follow-up smears were obtained 4–6 weeks after the initial smears. Descriptive data analysis, the Welch’s t-test, the Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analysis with adjustment for confounders were performed. Gestational age at delivery and birth weight were the outcome measures. Results At antenatal screening, 529/8421 women presented with intermediate vaginal flora. Amongst these, 349/529 (66%) had a Nugent score of 4, 94/529 (17.8%) a Nugent score of 5, and 86/529 (16.2%) a Nugent score of 6. Amongst those with a Nugent score of 4, 232/349 (66.5%) women were in the Lactobacilli group and 117/349 (33.5%) in the Non-Lactobacilli group. The preterm delivery rate was significantly lower in the Lactobacilli than in the Non-Lactobacilli group (OR 0.34, CI 0.21–0.55; p<0.001). Mean birth weight was 2979 ± 842 g and 2388 ± 1155 g in the study groups, respectively (MD 564.12, CI 346.23–781.92; p<0.001). On follow-up smears, bacterial vaginosis rates were 9% in the Lactobacilli and 7.8% in the Non-Lactobacilli group. Conclusions The absence of vaginal Lactobacillus species and any bacterial colonisation increases the risks of preterm delivery and low birth weight in women with

  4. Intravenous Remifentanil versus Epidural Ropivacaine with Sufentanil for Labour Analgesia: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhendong; Su, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Remifentanil with appropriate pharmacological properties seems to be an ideal alternative to epidural analgesia during labour. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) compared with epidural analgesia. Medical records of 370 primiparas who received remifentanil IVPCA or epidural analgesia were reviewed. Pain and sedation scores, overall satisfaction, the extent of pain control, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome as primary observational indicators were collected. There was a significant decline of pain scores in both groups. Pain reduction was greater in the epidural group throughout the whole study period (0∼180 min) (P<0.0001), and pain scores in the remifentanil group showed an increasing trend one hour later. The remifentanil group had a lower SpO2 (P<0.0001) and a higher sedation score (P<0.0001) within 30 min after treatment. The epidural group had a higher overall satisfaction score (3.8±0.4 vs. 3.7±0.6, P = 0.007) and pain relief score (2.9±0.3 vs. 2.8±0.4, P<0.0001) compared with the remifentanil group. There was no significant difference on side effects between the two groups, except that a higher rate of dizziness (1% vs. 21.8%, P<0.0001) was observed during remifentanil analgesia. And logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nausea, vomiting were associated with oxytocin usage and instrumental delivery, and dizziness was associated to the type and duration of analgesia. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar scores and umbilical-cord blood gas analysis were within the normal range, but umbilical pH and base excess of neonatus in the remifentanil group were significantly lower. Remifentanil IVPCA provides poorer efficacy on labor analgesia than epidural analgesia, with more sedation on parturients and a trend of newborn acidosis. Despite these adverse effects, remifentanil IVPCA can still be an alternative option for labor analgesia

  5. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS), both retrospectively and prospectively. This report focuses on the benefits and impacts of all state RPS programs, in aggregate, for the year 2013 (the most-recent year for which the requisite data were available). Relying on a well-vetted set of methods, the study evaluates a number of important benefits and impacts in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, and characterizes key uncertainties. The prior study in this series focused on historical RPS compliance costs, and future work will evaluate costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS policies prospectively.

  6. Correlates of breastfeeding frequency among nomadic pastoralists of Turkana, Kenya: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J

    1995-11-01

    Recent research has shown that significant variation in breast-feeding behavior exists among natural fertility populations, all of whom have been characterized as practicing "on-demand" breastfeeding. A number of recent prospective studies have contributed to a better understanding of breastfeeding structure and of its consequences for population differences in fertility. Currently, there is a growing interest in quantifying the complex environmental and biocultural interactions which influence that structure; in other words, in establishing an ecology of breastfeeding. In this paper, a carefully structured retrospective study of breastfeeding behavior among nomadic Turkana is used to identify environmental, biobehavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with variation in breastfeeding frequency among Turkana women. In agreement with the results of a prospective study conducted as part of the same research, the age (growth) and physical development of nurslings show significant correlations with breastfeeding frequency. Maternal physical status, the depth of the maternal social network, and, to a lesser degree, rainfall patterns are also significant. All of these factors appear to influence breastfeeding through their effects on maternal participation in herding activities and related absences from camp. Finally, the study also presents new strategies for collecting and utilizing retrospective data, which are notoriously unreliable and difficult to classify according to operational definitions recently developed for prospective studies. Results of the present study suggest methods by which the quality and reliability of recall data may be enhanced.

  7. Donepezil and life expectancy in Alzheimer’s disease: A retrospective analysis in the Tajiri Project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) such as donepezil have the effect of delaying progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their effect on life expectancy is unclear. We analyzed the influence of donepezil on life expectancy after onset of AD, together with the effects of antipsychotic drugs and residency in a nursing home. Methods All outpatients at the Tajiri Clinic from 1999–2012 with available medical records and death certificates were included in a retrospective analysis. The entry criteria were a dementia diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria and diagnosis of AD using NINCDS-ADRDA criteria; medical treatment for more than 3 months; and follow up until less than 1 year before death. Results We identified 390 subjects with medical records and death certificates, of whom 275 had a diagnosis of dementia that met the entry criteria. Of 100 patients diagnosed with AD, 52 had taken donepezil and 48 patients had not received the drug due to treatment prior to the introduction of donepezil in 1999 in Japan. The lifetime expectancies after onset were 7.9 years in the donepezil group and 5.3 years in the non-donepezil group. There was a significant drug effect with a significant covariate effect of nursing home residency. Other covariates did not reach a significant level. Conclusions Although this report has the limitation of all retrospective analyses: the lack of randomization, we found a positive effect of donepezil on lifetime expectancy after onset of AD. This may be due to a decreased mortality rate caused by reduction of concomitant diseases such as pneumonia. The similar life expectancies in patients taking donepezil at home and those not taking donepezil in a nursing home indicated a positive health economic effect of the drug. PMID:24720852

  8. Changes in malaria morbidity and mortality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001- 2009): a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious epidemic threat in Mpumalanga Province. In order to appropriately target interventions to achieve substantial reduction in the burden of malaria and ultimately eliminate the disease, there is a need to track progress of malaria control efforts by assessing the time trends and evaluating the impact of current control interventions. This study aimed to assess the changes in the burden of malaria in Mpumalanga Province during the past eight malaria seasons (2001/02 to 2008/09) and whether indoor residual spraying (IRS) and climate variability had an effect on these changes. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study based on the analysis of secondary malaria surveillance data (cases and deaths) in Mpumalanga Province. Data were extracted from the Integrated Malaria Information System. Time series model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) was used to assess the association between climate and malaria. Results Within the study period, a total of 35,191 cases and 164 deaths due to malaria were notified in Mpumalanga Province. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of malaria from 385 in 2001/02 to 50 cases per 100,000 population in 2008/09 (P < 0.005). The incidence and case fatality (CFR) rates for the study period were 134 cases per 100,000 and 0.54%, respectively. Mortality due to malaria was lower in infants and children (CFR < 0.5%) and higher in those >65 years, with the mean CFR of 2.1% as compared to the national target of 0.5%. A distinct seasonal transmission pattern was found to be significantly related to changes in rainfall patterns (P = 0.007). A notable decline in malaria case notification was observed following apparent scale-up of IRS coverage from 2006/07 to 2008/09 malaria seasons. Conclusions Mpumalanga Province has achieved the goal of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by over 70%, partly as a result of scale-up of IRS intervention in combination with other control strategies. These

  9. Retrospective incremental cost analysis of a hospital-based COPD Disease Management Programme in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tunsäter, Alf; Moutakis, Mikael; Borg, Sixten; Persson, Ulf; Strömberg, Leif; Nielsen, Anders Lassen

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports on a retrospective analysis of hospital-based healthcare costs associated with the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During the second half of 2001, Simrishamn Hospital, Sweden, implemented a structured Disease Management Programme (DMP) for COPD and a total of 784 patients with COPD, enrolled in the DMP, were included in the analysis. The goal was to reduce the number of clinical events, such as severe exacerbations by early intervention, aggressive drug treatment, specialists easy available for advice, improved support for smoking cessation, increased number of scheduled follow-ups and closer tracking of high-risk COPD patients. The hospital administrative system provided data on resource consumption, such as outpatient care, inpatient care and drugs and unit cost, used in the economic analysis. The total cost of COPD drugs doubled (from euro 14,133 to euro 30,855 per year) as did the total number of outpatient visits (from 580 to 996 visits per year). The number of hospitalizations for acute COPD exacerbations and COPD with acute lower respiratory infection decreased from 67 to 25 per year. Total COPD-related healthcare costs decreased. The results presented here support the hypothesis that a COPD DMP can offer substantial overall direct cost savings.

  10. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  11. Increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently elevated serum total bile acid: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoliang; Shang, Xiaoyun; Wan, Xing; Xiang, Xiaomei; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong; Wu, Yuzhang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between long-term changes of serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients, we did a retrospective cohort study of 2262 chronic hepatitis B patients with regular antiviral treatment using data from the Hepatitis Biobank at Southwest Hospital Program from 2004 to 2014. Patients in the study were classified into 3 groups according to persistence of elevated serum total bile acid during follow-up: none-low, medium, and high persistence of elevated serum total bile acid. The association between persistence of elevated serum total bile acid and hepatocellular carcinoma was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier analysis including information about patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics. There were 62 hepatocellular carcinoma cases during a total follow-up of 14756.5 person-years in the retrospective study. Compared to patients with none-low persistence of elevated total bile acid, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 2.37 (1.16–4.84), and 2.57 (1.28–5.16) for patients with medium, and high persistence of elevated total bile acid. Our findings identified persistence of elevated serum total bile acid as an independent risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:27905528

  12. Safety of bevacizumab in clinical practice for recurrent ovarian cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    SELLE, FRÉDÉRIC; EMILE, GEORGE; PAUTIER, PATRICIA; ASMANE, IRÈNE; SOARES, DANIELE G.; KHALIL, AHMED; ALEXANDRE, JEROME; LHOMMÉ, CATHERINE; RAY-COQUARD, ISABELLE; LOTZ, JEAN-PIERRE; GOLDWASSER, FRANÇOIS; TAZI, YOUSSEF; HEUDEL, PIERRE; PUJADE-LAURAINE, ERIC; GOUY, SÉBASTIEN; TREDAN, OLIVIER; BARBAZA, MARIE O.; ADY-VAGO, NORA; DUBOT, CORALINE

    2016-01-01

    The poor outcome of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer constitutes a continuous challenge for decision-making in clinical practice. In this setting, molecular targets have recently been identified, and novel compounds are now available. Bevacizumab has been introduced for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer and is, to date, the most extensively investigated targeted therapy in this setting. However, potential toxicities are associated with the use of this monoclonal antibody. These toxicities have been reported in clinical trials, and can also be observed outside of trials. As limited data is currently available regarding the safety of bevacizumab treatment in daily clinical practice, the current retrospective study was designed to evaluate this. Data from 156 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had received bevacizumab treatment between January 2006 and June 2009 were retrospectively identified from the institutional records of five French centers. In contrast to clinical trials, the patients in the present study were not selected and had a heterogeneous profile according to their prior medical history, lines of treatment prior to bevacizumab introduction and number of relapses. The results first confirm the effect of heavy pretreatment on the occurrence of serious and fatal adverse events in clinical practice, as previously reported for clinical trials and for other retrospective cohort studies. Importantly, the data also demonstrates, for the first time, that medical history of hypertension is an independent predictive risk factor for the development of high-grade hypertension during bevacizumab treatment. These results thus suggest that treating physicians must consider all risk factors for managing bevacizumab toxicity prior to its introduction. Such risk factors include the time of bevacizumab introduction, a patient's history of hypertension and a low incidence of pre-existing obstructive disease. PMID:26998090

  13. Psychiatric liaison consultations of patients without psychiatric illness in a general hospital in Germany: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Fißler, Maria; Quante, Arnim

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the utilization of consultation-liaison psychiatric (CLP) service among nonpsychiatric patients in a general hospital. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all patients seen by the CLP in 2013. In 66 (5.9 %) of these 1112 consultations, no psychiatric diagnosis could be identified. These cases were analyzed by department of referral, assumed psychiatric symptoms, consensus with the symptoms found by the CLP, and recommended procedures. Assumed depressive symptoms, suicidal ideations and "difficult" behavior were the predominant reasons for CLP referrals. As the results suggest, CLP service was mostly "overprovided" because of uncertainty about the working areas of psychiatrists or overestimation of the severity of symptoms. These findings emphasize the importance to develop more precise guidelines for CLP services and that it could be worth striving for a more profound psychiatric training for nonpsychiatric physicians to achieve an optimal treatment for patients.

  14. AT-09BEVACIZUMAB AND GLIOBASTOMA OF THE ELDERLY: A SINGLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Barrascout, Eduardo; Lamuraglia, Michele; Gervais, Claire; Tiako, Manuela; Gaillard, Stephan; Aldea, Sorin; Mabro, May; Gachet, Julie; Theodore, Christine

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to determine any difference in progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit and tolerability between elderly and non-elderly patients receiving bevacizumab at recurrence for glioblastoma in a single center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients with recurrent glioblastoma receiving bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 14 days) between January 2011 and December 2013 in second line. Bevacizumab was introduced for all patients at recurrence after a treatment of first line by temozolomide. A cohort of 14 patients was older than 70 years against 18 patients were under 70 years. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of PFS and OS. PFS was 2.8 months for elderly patients against 2.9 for non-elderly patients (p >0.5). OS from recurrence in elderly and non-elderly patients was respectively 4.3 and 5.5 months (p >0,5). Clinical improvement in neurological symptoms was observed in 3 of 14 elderly patients (21.1%) and 11 of 18 young patients (61.1%). A more important improvement in performance status was observed in young patients. Regarding toxicity, 3 of the 14 elderly patients experienced grade II or III hypertension. In younger patients, 5 adverse events have been observed (2 proteinuria, 1 hypertension, 1 hemorrhage and 1 anal abscess). CONCLUSION: Despite small number of patients in this retrospective study, the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in recurrent glioblastoma appears similar in elderly and non-elderly patients. However, clinical benefit seemed to be less important in elderly patients. A prospective multicentric study integrating geriatric assessment tools and quality of life would be interesting in this patient's population.

  15. [Epidemio-clinical profile of human scabies through dermatologic consultation. Retrospective study of 1148 cases].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Zeglaoui, Faten; Ezzine, Nedia; Kharfi, Monia; Zghal, Mohamed; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2003-11-01

    We report a retrospective study of all scabies cases collected in the department of Dermatology of Charles Nicolle Hospital during a 8 year-period (1993-2000). 148 cases of scabies were collected with a mean incidence of 144 new cases/year (65-204). Diagnosis was made clinically in all cases. Parasitological exam was done in case of doubtful diagnosis. Our purpose is to try to define an epidemio-clinical profile of scabies in Tunisia and to estimate the incidence of this parasitosis through our dermatological consultation with reviewing the literature data.

  16. Atrial fibrillation in CLL patients treated with ibrutinib. An international retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Philip A; Lévy, Vincent; Tam, Constantine S; Al Nawakil, Chadi; Goudot, François-Xavier; Quinquenel, Anne; Ysebaert, Loic; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Van Den Neste, Eric; Dupuis, Jehan; Keating, Michael J; Meune, Christophe; Cymbalista, Florence

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 5-9% of patients treated with ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL); the clinical consequences and optimal management are unclear. We retrospectively studied 56 CLL patients who received ibrutinib and developed AF. Median time to onset was 3·8 months. AF was persistent in 35/56 (62%) cases despite treatment. Clinical consequences included: three episodes of severe cardiac failure (one fatal) and one stroke; eight non-thrombocytopenic patients (14%) experienced severe bleeding adverse events. Altogether, ibrutinib was permanently discontinued in 26/56 cases (46%). Data to guide optimal management are lacking and clinical practice guidelines are urgently needed.

  17. Freeze-dried allograft versus autograft bone in scoliosis surgery. A retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Recht, J; Bayard, F; Delloye, C; Vincent, A

    1993-12-01

    Two groups of 36 patients who underwent posterior vertebral fusion for scoliosis were compared retrospectively; the postoperative follow-up was 2 years. Autogenous bone taken from the iliac crest was used in group A, whereas the patients in group B received freeze-dried allograft from our bone bank. There was no significant difference between the two groups in maintenance of the curve correction after the same delay, nor in incidence of complications. A reduction of blood loss or operating time, however, could not be demonstrated in our study.

  18. Long-term follow-up of heel spur surgery. A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vohra, P K; Giorgini, R J; Sobel, E; Japour, C J; Villalba, M A; Rostkowski, T

    1999-02-01

    A comparative retrospective study of 48 open heel spur surgeries and 20 endoscopic plantar fasciotomies was conducted involving 59 patients over a 10-year period. There was a significant reduction in heel pain at the time of follow-up (average, 3 years) for both groups. Overall, 85% of procedures were associated with patient satisfaction with the results, and patients said that they would recommend heel spur surgery for relief of severe heel pain in 94% of cases. Factors influencing the postoperative outcome, such as duration of preoperative symptoms, extent of conservative care, and obesity, are discussed.

  19. Minipigs and potbellied pigs as pets in the veterinary practice--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Schmoll, F; Stumpf, I

    2007-11-01

    Minipigs have become popular pets in recent years. Therefore, an increasing number of veterinarians are being challenged by specific problems of these animals. This retrospective study gives an overview on the diagnoses and therapeutic interventions of the patients submitted to the clinic for swine at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna during the last 6 years (n=48). Most frequently, colic symptoms of the gastro-intestinal tract (n=12) and orthopaedic locomotion disorders (n=10), mainly due to accidents or long claws, could be observed, followed by urogenital tract and skin disorders (n=4 each). Therapeutic interventions are discussed with regard to medical aspects as well as statutory provisions.

  20. Retrospective study of long-term outcome after brain arteriovenous malformation rupture: the RAP score.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Eimad; Debarre, Matthieu; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Di Maria, Federico; Gabrieli, Joseph; Nouet, Aurélien; Chiras, Jacques; Degos, Vincent; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2017-01-20

    OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome. METHODS The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality. RESULTS One hundred thirty-five patients with 139 independent hemorrhagic events related to BAVM rupture were included in this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression followed by stepwise analysis showed that consciousness level according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.1-13.7, p < 10(-3)), hematoma volume (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = 0.005), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.66-21, p < 10(-3)) were independently associated with a poor outcome. A 12-point scale for ruptured BAVM prognostication was constructed combining these 3 factors. The score obtained using this new scale, the ruptured AVM prognostic (RAP) score, was a stronger predictor of a poor long-term outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.87, 95% CI 0.8-0.92, p = 0.009) and inpatient mortality (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.95, p = 0.006) than the ICH score. For a RAP score ≥ 6, sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome were 76.8% (95% CI 63.6-87) and 90.8% (95% CI 81.9-96.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The authors propose a new admission score, the RAP score, dedicated to stratifying the risk of poor long-term outcome after BAVM rupture. This easy-to-use scoring system may help to improve communication between health care providers and consistency in clinical research. Only external prospective cohorts and population

  1. Anaemia and type 2 diabetes: implications from a retrospectively studied primary care case series.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Xr; Li, Y C; Chan, S L; Chan, K H

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. To identify the prevalence of anaemia in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients managed in a primary care setting and to explore its associations with cardiovascular complications and kidney disease. DESIGN. Retrospective case series study. SETTING. General Out-patient Clinic of Hospital Authority, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Chinese type 2 diabetic patients who had annual assessments between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2011 were recruited. Their complete blood picture, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease method), haemoglobin A1c, and urine albumin-creatinine ratio were retrieved. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level of <130 g/L in men and <120 g/L in women (World Health Organization criteria). Student's t test and analysis of variance were used to analyse continuous variables and the Chi squared test for categorical data. Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine associations between haemoglobin level and different variables including age, gender, serum creatinine level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS. Among 6325 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 1441 were found to have anaemia with a period prevalence of 22.8%. The prevalence of anaemia increased significantly with deterioration of renal function. Compared with diabetic patients with normal haemoglobin levels, anaemic diabetic patients had a higher co-morbidity rate for stroke, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (P<0.001). Independent predictors for haemoglobin level among diabetic patients were age, gender, serum creatinine level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin A1c, and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, old age

  2. Cryptococcal meningitis in a tertiary hospital in Pretoria, mortality and risk factors - A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hiesgen, J; Schutte, C; Olorunju, S; Retief, J

    2017-04-01

    Aim This retrospective cohort study analyzes the impact of possible risk factors on the survival chance of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. These factors include the patient's socio-economic background, age, gender, presenting symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory findings and, in particular, non-adherence versus adherence to therapy. Methods Data were collected from all adult patients admitted to Kalafong Hospital with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal meningitis over a period of 24 months. We analyzed the data by the presentation of descriptive summary statistics, logistic regression was used to assess factors which showed association between outcome of measure and factor. Furthermore, multivariable logistic regression analysis using all the factors that showed significant association in the cross tabulation was applied to determine which factors had an impact on the patients' mortality risk. Results A total of 87 patients were identified. All except one were HIV-positive, of which 55.2% were antiretroviral therapy naïve. A history of previous tuberculosis was given by 25 patients (28.7%) and 49 (56.3%) were on tuberculosis treatment at admission or started during their hospital stay. In-hospital mortality was 31%. Statistical analysis showed that antiretroviral therapy naïve patients had 9.9 (CI 95% 1.2-81.2, p < 0.0032) times greater odds of dying compared to those on antiretroviral therapy, with 17 from 48 patients (35.4%) dying compared with 1 out of 21 patients (4.8%) on treatment. Defaulters had 14.7 (CI 95% 1.6-131.6, p < 0.016) times greater odds of dying, with 9 from 18 patients dying (50%), compared to the non-defaulters. In addition, patients who presented with nausea and vomiting had a 6.3 (95% CI 1.7-23.1, p < 0.005) times greater odds of dying (18/47, 38.3%); this remained significant when adjusted for antiretroviral therapy naïve patients and defaulters. Conclusion Cryptococcal meningitis is still a common opportunistic infection

  3. All-cause mortality risk in elderly individuals with disabilities: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chiang, Sheng-Ta; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Disability is considered an important issue that affects the elderly population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between disability and all-cause mortality in US elderly individuals. Design Retrospective and longitudinal designs. Setting Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants A total of 1834 participants in the age range 60–84 years from NHANES 1999–2002. Main outcome measures We acquired five major domains of disability (activities of daily living (ADL), general physical activities (GPA), instrumental ADL (IADL), lower extremity mobility (LEM) and leisure and social activities (LSA)) through self-reporting. We applied an extended-model approach with Cox (proportional hazards) regression analysis to investigate the relationship between different features of disability and all-cause mortality risk in the study population. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 77 deaths occurred. An increased risk of all-cause mortality was identified in elderly individuals with disability after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 2.23; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.85; p=0.004). Participants with more than one domain of disability were associated with a higher risk of mortality (ptrend=0.047). Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for each domain of disability were 2.53 (1.49 to 4.31), 1.99 (0.93 to 4.29), 1.74 (0.72 to 4.16), 1.57 (0.76 to 3.27) and 1.52 (0.93 to 2.48) for LEM, LSA, ADL, IADL and GPA, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study support an increased association between disability and all-cause mortality in the elderly in the USA. Disability in LEM may be a good predictor of high risk of all-cause mortality in elderly subjects. PMID:27625055

  4. Effect of fixed orthodontic therapy on urinary nickel levels: a long-term retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Rakhshan, Vahid; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2012-12-01

    Nickel constitutes about 8-60 % of orthodontic alloys. It is known as an allergenic/cytotoxic trace metal. Therefore, it should be investigated in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment which might last for 2 or 3 years. However, no controlled studies have assessed the influence of orthodontic treatments of longer than 5 months on its systemic levels. Thus, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate systemic nickel in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy for a minimum period of 1 year. In this study, urinary nickel concentrations in 20 female and 10 male patients being treated with stainless steel appliances were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The same procedure was done on a control group of the patients' same-gender near-age siblings (n = 30). The effect of treatment and gender on urinary nickel levels were assessed using a repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey test (α = 0.05). The mean treatment duration was 17.1 ± 6.4 months (range, 12-21). The mean nickel concentrations in male and female patients were 9.67 ± 3.25 and 9.9 ± 3.83 μg/L, respectively. These statistics for male and female control subjects were 6.65 ± 2.57 and 8.43 ± 2.94 μg/L, respectively. The ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between the urinary nickel levels of the treatment and the control groups (P = 0.009) but not between the genders (P = 0.194). The interaction between gender and treatment was also nonsignificant (P = 0.337). The Tukey test indicated that the increase in nickel was higher in male patients, in comparison to their brothers (P < 0.05). It could be concluded that orthodontic therapy for longer durations with stainless-steel archwires might elevate slightly, but significantly, urinary nickel levels.

  5. Correlates of low birth weight in term pregnancies: a retrospective study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vahdaninia, Mariam; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Montazeri, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) is considered as a major multifaceted public health concern. Seventy-two percent of LBW infants are born in Asia. An estimation of 8% LBW infants has been reported for Eastern Mediterranean region including Iran. This study investigated contributory factors of LBW in singleton term births in Tehran, Iran. Tehran is a multicultural metropolitan area and a sample from the general population in Tehran could be regarded as a representative sample of urban population in Iran. Methods This was a retrospective study using data from 15 university maternity hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Data on all singleton term births in these hospitals were extracted from case records during a one calendar year. Study variables included: maternal age, maternal educational level, history of LBW deliveries, history of preterm labor, cigarette smoking during pregnancy, number of parities, chronic diseases and residential area (Tehran versus suburbs of Tehran). In order to examine the relationship between LBW and demographic and reproductive variables the adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed. Results In all, data for 3734 term pregnancies were extracted. The mean age of women was 25.7 (SD = 5.3) years and 5.2% of term births were LBW. In addition to association between LBW and maternal age, significant risk factors for LBW were: history of LBW deliveries [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06–6.03], smoking during pregnancy (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 1.97–10.95) and chronic diseases (OR for hypertension = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.25–6.06, OR for others = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.09–3.83). Conclusion The findings indicate that in addition to maternal age, history of LBW deliveries; smoking during pregnancy and chronic diseases are significant determinants of LBW in this population. This is consistent with national and international findings indicating that maternal variables and risk behaviors during pregnancy play important roles

  6. Prognostic factors in peptic ulcer perforations: a retrospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Unver, Mutlu; Fırat, Özgür; Ünalp, Ömer Vedat; Uğuz, Alper; Gümüş, Tufan; Sezer, Taylan Özgür; Öztürk, Şafak; Yoldaş, Tayfun; Ersin, Sinan; Güler, Adem

    2015-05-01

    Regarding the complications of peptic ulcer, a perforation remains the most important fatal complication. The aim of our retrospective study was to determine relations between postoperative morbidity and comorbid disease or perioperative risk factors in perforated peptic ulcer. In total, 239 patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated peptic ulcer in Ege University General Surgery Department, between June 1999 and May 2013 were included in this study. The clinical data concerning the patient characteristics, operative methods, and complications were collected retrospectively. One hundred seventy-five of the 239 patients were male (73.2%) and 64 were female (26.8%). Mean American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 1 in the patients without morbidity, but mean ASA score was 3 in the morbidity and mortality groups. Primary suture and omentoplasty was the selected procedure in 228 of the patients. Eleven patients underwent resection. In total, 105 patients (43.9%) had comorbidities. Thirty-seven patients (67.3%) in the morbidity group had comorbid diseases. Thirteen (92.9%) patients in the mortality group had comorbid diseases. Perforation as a complication of peptic ulcer disease still remains among the frequent indications of urgent abdominal surgery. Among the analyzed parameters, age, ASA score, and having comorbid disease were found to have an effect on both mortality and morbidity. The controversial subject in the present study is regarding the duration of symptoms. The duration of symptoms had no effect on mortality nor morbidity in our study.

  7. Complication rates in patients using absorbable collagen sponges in third molar extraction sockets: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hoon; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Bok-Joo; Kim, Chul-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the postoperative complication rates for absorbable type-I collagen sponge (Ateloplug; Bioland) use in third molar extraction. Materials and Methods From January to August 2013, 2,697 total patients undergoing third molar extraction and type-I collagen sponge application in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (1,163 patients) and Dong-A University Hospital (1,534 patients) were evaluated in a retrospective study using their operation and medical records. Results A total of 3,869 third molars in 2,697 patients were extracted and the extraction sockets packed with type-I collagen sponges to prevent postoperative complications. As a result, the overall complication rate was 4.52%, with 3.00% experiencing surgical site infection (SSI), 1.14% showing alveolar osteitis, and 0.39% experiencing hematoma. Of the total number of complications, SSI accounted for more than a half at 66.29%. Conclusion Compared to previous studies, this study showed a relatively low incidence of complications. The use of type-I collagen sponges is recommended for the prevention of complications after third molar extraction. PMID:25741465

  8. The Ponseti technique and improved ankle dorsiflexion in children with relapsed clubfoot: a retrospective data analysis.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Erika; Pacey, Verity; Chivers, Alison; Gibbons, Paul; Gray, Kelly

    2017-03-01

    This study quantifies the change in passive ankle range of motion following modified Ponseti casting in children with relapsed idiopathic clubfoot. Fifty-three cases (feet) were retrospectively reviewed, with 6-month follow-up data available for 72% of participants. The median improvement in dorsiflexion was 15° (95% confidence interval: 12.5°-17.5°, P≤0.05), with 85% achieving dorsiflexion≥10°. At the 6-month follow-up, dorsiflexion remained significantly improved and 12 feet (32%) presented with subsequent relapse. Nine were referred for further casting and three were recommended for extra-articular surgery. Repeat modified Ponseti management clinically and statistically improves passive ankle dorsiflexion in relapsed idiopathic clubfoot.

  9. Distribution of lameness lesions in beef cattle: A retrospective analysis of 745 cases

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Benjamin W.; Chamorro, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the relative prevalence of diagnoses and location of lameness lesions in beef cattle. Medical records from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and 745 cases of beef cattle that had presented for lameness were identified. Information regarding signalment, lesion location, and cause of lameness was analyzed. The cause of lameness was localized to the foot in approximately 85% of cases; a hind limb was affected over 70% of the time. The lateral claw was most commonly affected in cases of both fore- and hind-limb lameness. The most common diagnoses of noninfectious etiology were screw claw, vertical fissure, and interdigital fibroma. Infectious foot disease accounted for only 20% of foot lameness. Routine foot trimming may be warranted in some herds to improve weight-bearing balance and alleviate lameness. PMID:27041758

  10. Manipulation in the Treatment of Plantar Digital Neuralgia: A Retrospective Study of 38 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cashley, David G.; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe treatment outcomes for patients with plantar digital neuralgia (PDN) (Morton’s neuroma) who were treated using foot manipulation. Methods Charts were reviewed retrospectively for patients with a diagnosis of PDN and who received a minimum of 6 treatments consisting of manipulation alone. Visual analogue pain scales (VAS) and pressure threshold meter readings (PTM) were extracted as outcome measures. Results Thirty-eight cases met inclusion criteria. Mean pretreatment duration of pain was 28 months. Mean pretreatment VAS was 69.5/100 mm. Mean pretreatment PTM was 2.54 Kp. By the sixth treatment, 30 (79%) of the 38 patients scored a VAS of 0 mm and a further 4 (10%) were below 10 mm. Contralateral limb PTM showed a mean pre-treatment score of 5.5 Kp, which rose slightly to 5.85 Kp. This compared to a pre-treatment score of 2.54 Kp rising to 5.86 Kp in the affected limb. This represents a 126% increase in the affected side compared to 6.5% in the unaffected limb. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant linear trend between decreasing VAS and manipulation (P < .001). Conclusion The patients with PDN who were included in this case series improved with conservative care that included only foot manipulation. PMID:26257593

  11. Citicoline for acute ischemic stroke in Mexican hospitals: a retrospective postmarketing analysis.

    PubMed

    Leon-Jimenez, C; Chiquete, E; Cantu, C; Miramontes-Saldana, M J; Andrade-Ramos, M A; Ruiz-Sandoval, J L

    2010-06-01

    Some neuroprotective agents have shown benefits in animal models, but disappointing results in humans. Citicoline is used in several countries as coadjuvant treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients; however, there are no retrospective postmarketing surveillances on the experience of citicoline in Mexico. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between citicoline exposure and functional outcome at discharge and at 30 and 90 days post-stroke, in a retrospective case-control design on systematic descriptive databases from three referral hospitals. Clinical records of 173 consecutively registered patients were analyzed, 86 of whom were treated with citicoline within the first 48 h after AIS and the remaining 87 were untreated, randomly selected controls matched for age (+/- 5 years), gender and NIHSS (+/- 1 point) at hospital admission. Pretreatment conditions were similar between groups. Compared with controls, exposure to citicoline was associated with a significantly lower 30-day mean and median modified Rankin score (in both, P < 0.05). After paired multivariate analyses (controlled for NIHSS, age, gender, hospital arrival in < 24 h, thrombolysis and comorbidities) citicoline was independently associated with a lower 90-day mortality risk (P = 0.047) and with fewer in-hospital complications (mainly infections and sepsis, P = 0.001). In this observational study, citicoline use was associated with a better functional status and lower rates of short-term mortality, possibly due to fewer in-hospital systemic complications. The putative benefits should be interpreted as clinical associations, since this is not a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  12. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. Methods A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. Results This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of

  13. Risk of obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Huang, Chien-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep disorders are prevalent medical disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether patients with RA are at an increased risk of developing obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is unclear. Design Using population-based retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of OSA in patients with RA. Setting We used claims data of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Participants We identified a RA cohort with 33 418 patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2010 and a randomly selected non-RA comparison cohort with 33 418 individuals frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Incident OSA was estimated by the end of 2011. The HRs of OSA were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The overall incidence rate of OSA was 75% greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (3.04 vs 1.73/10 000 person-years, p<0.001), with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.60). Stratified analyses by sex, age group and comorbidity revealed that the incidence rates of OSA associated with RA were higher in all subgroups. Conclusions This population-based retrospective cohort study suggested that patients with RA should be monitored for the risk of developing OSA. PMID:27895064

  14. DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN A DIRECT-ACCESS SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CLINIC: A 2-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE PRACTICE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Dedekam, Erik A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Dembowski, Scott C.; Westrick, Richard B.; Goss, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Background While advanced diagnostic imaging is a large contributor to the growth in health care costs, direct-access to physical therapy is associated with decreased rates of diagnostic imaging. No study has systematically evaluated with evidence-based criteria the appropriateness of advanced diagnostic imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when ordered by physical therapists. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the appropriateness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) exams ordered by physical therapists in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic. Study Design Retrospective observational study of practice. Hypothesis Greater than 80% of advanced diagnostic imaging orders would have an American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria rating of greater than 6, indicating an imaging order that is usually appropriate. Methods A 2-year retrospective analysis identified 108 MRI/MRA examination orders from four physical therapists. A board-certified radiologist determined the appropriateness of each order based on ACR appropriateness criteria. The principal investigator and co-investigator radiologist assessed agreement between the clinical diagnosis and MRI/surgical findings. Results Knee (31%) and s