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Sample records for retrospective case matched

  1. Iodixanol compared to iohexol for contrast procedures: a case-matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    From, A M; Bartholmai, B J; Williams, A W; McDonald, F S

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies that have attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM) iodixanol compared to a low-osmolar contrast medium (LOCM) for contrast procedures show variable results. To evaluate the nephrotoxicity of the IOCM iodixanol compared to the LOCM iohexol. We performed a retrospective cohort study from April 2004 to March 2006. All contrast procedures with a pre- and post-exposure creatinine value were evaluated for inclusion. Contrast nephropathy (CN) was defined as post-exposure creatinine elevation of > or = 25% or > 0.5 mg/dl within 7 days of contrast exposure. Cases of iodixanol exposure were matched to control cases of iohexol exposure (1:1) based on age, sex, presence of diabetes, pre-exposure creatinine value, and type of imaging study performed. We matched 397 cases of iodixanol (IOCM) exposure to 397 cases of iohexol (LOCM) exposure. Cases of iodixanol which could not be matched to controls were not included in the analysis. After adjustment for prior creatinine, medications, contrast iodine load, prior exposure to contrast material, heart failure, and hypertension, use of iodixanol did not significantly alter rates of CN compared to iohexol (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57-1.46; P = 0.71) or mortality (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.59-1.06; P = 0.12). The use of the IOCM iodixanol was not associated with statistically significant protection against contrast nephropathy or all-cause mortality compared to a matched cohort of patients receiving the LOCM iohexol.

  2. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ventilator-associated pneumonia. A retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Johannes B J; Zhou, Tan Lai; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; Rohde, Gernot G U; Winkens, Bjorn; Van Dessel, Helke A; Dormans, Tom P J; Linssen, Catharina F M; Roekaerts, Paul M H J; Savelkoul, Paul H M; van Mook, Walther N K A

    2016-10-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly identified in critically ill patients, but it is considered a pathogen with limited pathogenicity and it is therefore infrequently targeted. This study explores whether S. maltophilia may cause ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and whether it affects intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and 28-day mortality when compared to VAP caused by other Gram-negative bacilli. Retrospective analysis of a 19-year prospectively collected database. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a cause was considered in VAP-suspected cases when S. maltophilia growth of ≥10(4) cfu/ml was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis. Cases were matched on hospital, gender, age and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score in a 1:3 ratio with controls from the same database suffering from VAP caused by other Gram-negative bacilli. Eight cases met the inclusion criteria, of which three were labelled as 'probable' SM-VAP and three as 'possible' SM-VAP. These six patients constitute 1.8% of all VAPs in the studied period. No significant differences in baseline characteristics and duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.68), length of stay in the ICU (p = 0.55) and hospital (p = 0.84) between cases and controls were identified between cases and controls. Intensive care unit mortality odds ratio was 1.7 (p = 0.55; 95% CI 0.3-10.5) and 28-day mortality odds ratio was 1.4 (p = 0.70; 95% CI 0.2-9.1). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a possible, yet infrequent cause of VAP. No outcome differences were found when compared to matched VAP caused by other Gram-negative bacilli.

  3. Propensity Score Matching: Retrospective Randomization?

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    Randomized controlled trials are viewed as the optimal study design. In this commentary, we explore the strength of this design and its complexity. We also discuss some situations in which these trials are not possible, or not ethical, or not economical. In such situations, specifically, in retrospective studies, we should make every effort to recapitulate the rigor and strength of the randomized trial. However, we could be faced with an inherent indication bias in such a setting. Thus, we consider the tools available to address that bias. Specifically, we examine matching and introduce and explore a new tool: propensity score matching. This tool allows us to group subjects according to their propensity to be in a particular treatment group and, in so doing, to account for the indication bias. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings. © 2015 The Authors. Eur J Oral Sci published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Association between GABA-Modulators and Clostridium difficile Infection – A Matched Retrospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Jonathan; Tham, Johan; Månsson, Fredrik; Ahl, Jonas; Savidge, Tor C.; Dann, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recently, metabolomics studies have suggested that the neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) may modulate C. difficile infection (CDI) pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the association between GABA-modulating pharmaceuticals and CDI development. Methods In July-December 2013, we performed a matched, retrospective case-control study in Skåne county, Sweden, to assess the association between the use of GABA-modulators (defined as regular use of at least one of the following: zolpidem, zopiclone, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, pregabalin or baclofen) and CDI. Multivariate regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for CDI, were fitted to assess the associations and a propensity score-adjusted analysis was performed. Results The study included 292 cases and 292 matched controls. In a multivariate regression model only recent antibiotic use (clindamycin, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) and nursing home residency was significantly associated with CDI. The regular use of any GABA-modulator was not associated with CDI (OR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.69–1.66, p = 0.76). The association between regular use of the selective GABA-agonist zolpidem and CDI trended towards significance (OR = 2.31, 95%CI 0.91–5.86, p = 0.078). These associations remained when only cases treated with antibiotics were included. Corresponding findings for zolpidem was observed in a propensity-score adjusted analysis (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 0.91–6.97, p = 0.075). Severe initial CDI was significantly associated with CDI recurrence (OR = 3.77, 95% CU 1.20–11.86, p = 0.023). Conclusion This study did not identify a general association between GABA-modulators and CDI. A trend towards a significant association between zolpidem and CDI was observed, an association that should be re-assessed in a study appropriately powered for this particular hypothesis. PMID:28060888

  6. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dyfrig A; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000-12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin's Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin's Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin's Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases.

  7. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Dyfrig A.; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. Methods We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000–12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin’s Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. Results 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin’s Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin’s Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Conclusions Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases. PMID:27768685

  8. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Retrospective Case-Matched Cost Comparison of Surgical Treatment of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in the Outpatient Versus Operating Room Setting.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan P; Butala, Niraj; Alam, Murad; Lawrence, Naomi

    2017-07-01

    To date, no study has used authentic billing data in a case-control matched fashion to examine the cost of treating skin cancer in different settings. To compare the cost of surgical treatment of skin cancer in the outpatient versus operating room setting using matched cases based on patient and skin cancer characteristics. ICD-9 diagnosis codes for skin cancers were used to find patients who had a malignant excision current procedural terminology code in the operating room setting during 2010 to 2014. Patient and skin cancer characteristics were used to match cases to those treated as an outpatient. A total of 36 cases (18 operating room and 18 outpatient) had the required information and characteristics to be matched and analyzed for cost. Health status was determined using the American Society of Anesthesiologists anesthesia grading scale. No statistically significant differences were found in the age (p > 0.9) or American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (p > 0.6) of the outpatient and operating room cases. The median cost for outpatient cases was $1,745. For operating room cases, the median cost was $11,323. This was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The outpatient setting remains a cost-effective location to treat skin cancer compared with the operating room.

  10. Matching Clinicians to Operative Cases

    PubMed Central

    Was, A.; Wanderer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Patient and surgical case complexity are important considerations in creating appropriate clinical assignments for trainees in the operating room (OR). The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System is the most commonly used tool to classify patient illness severity, but it requires manual evaluation by a clinician and is highly variable. A Risk Stratification System for surgical patients was recently published which uses administrative billing codes to calculate four Risk Stratification Indices (RSIs) and provides an objective surrogate for patient complexity that does not require clinical evaluation. This risk score could be helpful when assigning operating room cases. Objectives This is a technical feasibility study to evaluate the process and potential utility of incorporating an automatic risk score calculation into a web-based tool for assigning OR cases. Methods We created a web service implementation of the RSI model for one-year mortality and automatically calculated the RSI values for patients scheduled to undergo an operation the following day. An analysis was conducted on data availability for the RSI model and the correlation between RSI values and ASA physical status. Results In a retrospective analysis of 46,740 patients who received surgery in the year preceding the web tool implementation, RSI values were generated for 20,638 patients (44%). The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between ASA physical status classification and one-year mortality RSI values was 0.404. Conclusion We have shown that it is possible to create a web-based tool that uses existing billing data to automatically calculate risk scores for patients scheduled to undergo surgery. Such a risk scoring system could be used to match patient acuity to physician experience, and to provide improved patient and clinician experiences. The web tool could be improved by expanding the input database or utilizing procedure

  11. Health care resource utilisation in primary care prior to and after a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, matched case-control study in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Reed, Catherine; Happich, Michael; Nyhuis, Allen; Lenox-Smith, Alan

    2014-06-17

    This study examined medical resource utilisation patterns in the United Kingdom (UK) prior to and following Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. A patient cohort aged 65 years and older with newly diagnosed AD between January 2008 and December 2010 was identified through the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with a continuous record in the CPRD (formerly the General Practice Research Database [GPRD]) for both the 3 years prior to, and the 1 year following, AD diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. A control cohort was identified by matching general older adult (GOA) patients to patients with AD based on year of birth, gender, region, and Charlson Comorbidity Index at a ratio of 2:1. Medical resource utilisation was calculated in 6-month intervals over the 4-year study period. Comparisons between AD and GOA control cohorts were conducted using conditional logistic regression for patient characteristics and a generalised linear model for resource utilisation. Data for the AD cohort (N = 3,896) and matched GOA control cohort (N = 7,792) were extracted from the CPRD. The groups were 65% female and the AD cohort had a mean age of 79.9 years (standard deviation 6.5 years) at the date of diagnosis. Over the entire study period, the AD cohort had a significantly higher mean primary care consultation rate than the GOA cohort (p < .0001). While the GOA cohort primary care consultation rate gradually increased over the 4-year period (ranging from 5 to 7 consultations per 6-month period), increases were more pronounced in the AD cohort (ranging from 6 to 11 consultations per 6-month period, peaking during the 6-month periods immediately prior to and post diagnosis). The AD cohort also had a higher overall specialty referral rate than the GOA cohort over the 4-year period (37% vs. 25%, respectively; p < .0001); the largest difference was during the 6 months immediately prior to AD diagnosis (17% vs. 5%, respectively; p < .0001). In the

  12. Cardiovascular risk in patients with alopecia areata (AA): A propensity-matched retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kathie P; Joyce, Cara J; Topaz, Maxim; Guo, Ye; Mostaghimi, Arash

    2016-07-01

    The cardiovascular risk of patients with alopecia areata (AA) is not well characterized, with limited studies evaluating the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. We sought to determine the risk for patients with AA to develop subsequent stroke and AMI. We conducted propensity-matched retrospective analysis between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2010, from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA. A comprehensive research patient data repository search was done for International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 704.01 and cases were verified using a natural language processing program. Propensity score matching was used to identify controls for AA cases based on age, race, gender, smoking status, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. We identified 1377 cases of AA matched with 4131 controls. Patients with AA had decreased odds for developing stroke (odds ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.87) and a trend toward decreased risk of AMI (odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.59-1.39). This was a retrospective study using a clinical database. Patients with AA had decreased risk for stroke and AMI, although not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in other AA cohorts and to elucidate a potential mechanism. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Northeastern Pennsylvania Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in northeastern Pennsylvania to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred

  14. Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA chose Bradford County, and parts of neighboring Susquehanna County, as a retrospective case study location because of the extensive hydraulic fracturing activities occurring there, coincident with the large number of homeowner complaints.

  15. Retrospective analysis of seven breast tuberculosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Çakar, Beyhan; Çiledağ, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the demographic data, diagnostic methods, therapeutic regimens and duration of therapy in 7 breast tuberculosis (BTB) cases. The data of BTB cases treated between January 2006 and December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated, with a total of 648 tuberculosis (TB) cases recorded during the 8-year period. Among these cases, 296 patients (50%) suffered from pulmonary TB, 278 (43%) from non-pulmonary TB and 45 (7%) from PTB plus NPTB. In total, 7 BTB were diagnosed, which constituted 1.08% (7/648) of all TB cases and 2.51% (7/278) of all NPTB cases. The mean age of patients was 34±9.46 years, with no pregnant or lactating women. Bilateral breast involvement was detected in only 1 case, while all cases had a BCG scar, and obtained a mean tuberculin skin test (TST) result of 14.28±6.79 mm (range, 7–26 mm). The symptoms included presence of a mass, tenderness, pain, swelling and fluctuation in the breast, with or without discharging sinuses. In 1 case, history of contact with TB was found. All patients were newly-diagnosed BTB cases, with no other organ involvement. Upon histopathological examination of breast tissue, granulomatous inflammation with typical caseous necrosis was observed in 1 case, non-caseous necrosis inflammation was detected in 2 cases, granulomatous inflammation was observed in 3 cases, and mastitis and fat necrosis inflammation was observed in 1 case. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining was positive in only 2 cases, and all patient were treated with anti-TB drugs with a successful outcome and no recurrence. In conclusion, BTB is a rare form of TB and the present retrospective study reported 7 cases of BTB along with the results of histopathological examination, microbiological examination and treatment. TB must be considered when there is presence of breast masses presenting with tenderness, pain, swelling and fluctuation, with or without discharging sinuses. PMID:27882115

  16. [Mucormycosis: retrospective evaluation of 12 cases].

    PubMed

    Arda, Bilgin; Erdem, Aytaç; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Taşbakan, Mehmet Sezai; Ceylan, Naim; Metin, Dilek Yeşim; Midilli, Raşit; Yamazhan, Tansu; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2011-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare and often fatal invasive fungal infection. Disseminated or pulmonary forms are common in patients with immune deficiency while rhinocerebral form is common in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the adult mucormycosis cases which were followed up in our hospital between 2007-2010. The cases were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, laboratory, clinical and treatment results. A total of 12 mucormycosis cases (6 were male; age range: 18-74 years; mean age: 50.83 ± 18.27 years) were evaluated. Ten of the 12 cases had definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal infection according to EORTC/MSG (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group) criteria whereas two had possible mucormycosis. Six cases had rhinoorbital, four had rhinocerabral, one had pulmonary and one had rhinocerebral and pulmonary mucormycosis. Fever (n= 10; 83%), edema in face (n= 8; 67%) and eyes (n= 6; 50%) were the most common symptoms and findings. Mycologic culture was performed in ten cases and was found positive in five cases (four cases had Rhizopus spp. one case had Mucor). In two cases direct microscopy revealed mycelium but culture did not yield any pathogen. Two cases had concomitant Aspergillus spp. growth. Overall mortality rate was determined as 50% (6/12). All of the cases received antifungal therapy (liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole or itraconazole), however, surgical intervention was applied to five cases. Mean duration of antifungal treatment was 60.8 ± 47.4 days. Mortality rate was lower in cases who received concomitant surgical therapy, but the difference was not found statistically significant (2/5 vs. 4/7, p> 0.05). Hematologic diseases (n= 6) and diabetes mellitus (n= 3) were the most common underlying diseases in mucormycosis cases. Voriconazole prophylaxis applied to three cases with hematologic diseases was detected as a risk factor

  17. [Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: retrospective analysis of 6 cases].

    PubMed

    Reaño, Gustavo; Sanchez, Juvenal; Ruiz, Eloy; Celis, Juan; Payet, Eduardo; Berrospi, Francisco; Chavez, Ivan; Young, Frank; Doimi, Franco

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (CX) is a rare kind of chronic cholecystitis, not yet reported in our media, characterized by the presence of chronic, inflammatory infiltration, formation of granulomas, with fibrosis and severe histiocytic reaction with macrophages rich in foam cells. The object of this study is to establish the clinical, radiological and histopathological pattern of CX, by means of the analysis of 6 cases identified in a retrospective check of 191 medical histories of cholecystectomized patients suffering from anatomopathological diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis, in the Department of Abdomen of the Institute of Neoplastic Diseases, from 1939 to 2004. The clinical presentation was characterized by the presence of a palpable mass on physical examination and weight loss. There were complications in two patients. The ultrasonigraph, tomograph and/or laparotomy scans of the vesicle were similar in appearance to a locally advanced vesicular cancer. In none of the specimens was the coexistence of a vesicular carcinoma identified. The vesicle was dried out in block with adjacent hepatic parenchyma in all cases. The CX can simulate a hepatobiliary malignant neoplasia and require suitable oncological surgical treatment. In cases of vesicular tumors, which can be considered inoperable there is the possibility of being faced with a xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (CX), a benign condition treatable with surgery.

  18. [Chronic pancreatitis: Retrospective review of 121 cases].

    PubMed

    Berger F, Zoltán; Mancilla A, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient. History of acute pancreatitis was recorded and exocrine-endocrine function was assessed. We retrieved information of 121 patients with pancreatitis (86 males) in a period of 20 years. The number of cases increased markedly every five years. The calculated incidence and prevalence was 0.8/100,000/year and 6/100,000, respectively. Pancreatic calcifications were initially observed in 93 patients and became evident during the follow-up in another six patients. Severe pain or local complications occurred in 27 patients, requiring surgery in 10 or endoscopic treatment in 15. During the years of follow-up, 55 patients were free of symptoms. Exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was demonstrated and treated in 81 and 67 patients, respectively. Alcoholic etiology was evident in 40% of patients. In 29% no etiology was identified. Mapuche origin was exceptional. Late diagnosis of CP is common, since most of our patients presented with advanced stages. Even though CP is increasingly diagnosed in our hospitals, the number of cases is still far fewer when compared to other countries. Underdiagnosis alone cannot explain this difference and genetic factors might be of importance.

  19. Brucellosis: a retrospective evaluation of 164 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kazak, Esra; Akalın, Halis; Yılmaz, Emel; Heper, Yasemin; Mıstık, Reşit; Sınırtaş, Melda; Özakın, Cüneyt; Göral, Güher; Helvacı, Safiye

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Brucellosis is a public health problem that is prevalent in several developing countries. METHODS The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 164 cases of brucellosis in Bursa, Turkey, were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS The ages of the 164 patients ranged from 15–85 years. All of the patients underwent the Rose Bengal test and 163 (99.4%) patients tested positive. 122 (74.4%) patients were diagnosed with acute brucellosis, 31 (18.9%) with subacute brucellosis and 11 (6.7%) with chronic brucellosis. Focal involvement was found in 101 (61.6%) patients. Although patients with focal involvement had a higher white blood cell count (p = 0.002), those without focal involvement had higher aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase values, and lower platelet values (p = 0.005, 0.007 and 0.039, respectively). Spondylodiscitis was observed on imaging in 58 (66.7%) of the 87 patients who presented with back pain. Among the 118 patients who were examined within the first month of treatment, 79 (66.9%) responded to treatment. The relapse rate was 11.6% among all 164 patients. CONCLUSION Brucellosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis among patients who present with fever, and joint or back pain. Focal involvement should be investigated in the presence of leucocytosis, and subacute or chronic forms of brucellosis. To identify cases of spondylodiscitis, radiography should be performed in patients who present with back pain. PMID:26768063

  20. Raton Basin, Colorado Retrospective Case Study Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA conducted a retrospective case study in the Raton Basin of Colorado to investigate reported instances of contaminated drinking water resources in areas where hydraulic fracturing activities occurred.

  1. Pituitary gigantism: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Creo, Ana L; Lteif, Aida N

    2016-05-01

    Pituitary gigantism (PG) is a rare pediatric disease with poorly defined long-term outcomes. Our aim is to describe the longitudinal clinical course in PG patients using a single-center, retrospective cohort study. Patients younger than 19 years diagnosed with PG were identified. Thirteen cases were confirmed based on histopathology of a GH secreting adenoma or hyperplasia and a height >2 SD for age and gender. Laboratory studies, initial pathology, and imaging were abstracted. Average age at diagnosis was 13 years with an average initial tumor size of 7.4×3.8 mm. Initial transsphenoidal surgery was curative in 3/12 patients. Four of the nine patients who failed the initial surgery required a repeat procedure. Octreotide successfully normalized GH levels in 1/6 patients with disease refractory to surgery (1/6). Two out of five patients received pegvisomant after failing octreotide but only one patient responded to treatment. Five patients were ultimately treated with radiosurgery or radiation patients were followed for an average of 10 years. PG is difficult to treat. In most patients, the initial transsphenoidal surgery failed to normalize GH levels. If the initial surgery was unsuccessful, repeat surgery was unlikely to control GH secretion. Treatment with octreotide or pegvisomant was successful in less than half the patients failing surgery. Radiosurgery was curative, but is not an optimal treatment for pediatric patients. Despite the small sample, our study suggests that the treatment outcome of pediatric PG may be different than adults.

  2. Coccidioidomycosis in infants: A retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica M; Graciano, Ana Lia; Dabrowski, Lukasz; Kuzmic, Brenik; Tablizo, Mary Anne

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to adults, coccidioidomycosis is a rare disease in infants and the mechanisms of disease acquisition are not well described in infants. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in infants in an endemic area. We performed a retrospective observational study of all patients less than 12 months of age admitted to a tertiary free standing children's hospital from 2003-2012 diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis. Thirteen infants were hospitalized during the study period. The majority of the patients presented with upper and/or lower respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptoms included fever (77%), cough (61%), and respiratory distress (38%). Disseminated disease, included pericardial effusion, neck abscess, and lesions in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and left temporoparietal skull. Fluconazole was the initial, antifungal agent used. Amphotericin B was reserved for significant lung disease and disseminated cases. Failed response to fluconazole and amphotericin B were treated with a combination of voriconazole and caspofungin. Average length of treatment was 4 years. All patients survived to hospital discharge. The majority of the patients had resolution of chest radiograph and coccidiodal complement fixing antibody titers. Infant coccidioidomycosis has a non-specific presentation and can mimic common infant respiratory illnesses. In endemic areas, coccidioidomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants with pulmonary symptoms unresponsive to conventional treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:858-862. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Improving statistical analysis of matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Conway, Aaron; Rolley, John X; Fulbrook, Paul; Page, Karen; Thompson, David R

    2013-06-01

    Matched case-control research designs can be useful because matching can increase power due to reduced variability between subjects. However, inappropriate statistical analysis of matched data could result in a change in the strength of association between the dependent and independent variables or a change in the significance of the findings. We sought to ascertain whether matched case-control studies published in the nursing literature utilized appropriate statistical analyses. Of 41 articles identified that met the inclusion criteria, 31 (76%) used an inappropriate statistical test for comparing data derived from case subjects and their matched controls. In response to this finding, we developed an algorithm to support decision-making regarding statistical tests for matched case-control studies.

  4. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Wise County, Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data reports from sampling events collected in wise county, texas as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, retrospective case study.

  5. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data from sampling events conducted in Killdeer, North Dakota as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, retrospective case study

  6. Outcomes after Stroke in Patients with Previous Pressure Ulcer: A Nationwide Matched Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shang-Yi; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Sanford P C; Shih, Chun-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Hung, Chih-Jen; Chen, Ta-Liang; Liao, Chien-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with poststroke adverse events were not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stroke patients with previous pressure ulcers had more adverse events after stroke. Using the claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study matched by propensity score. Three thousand two first-ever stroke patients with previous pressure ulcer and 3002 first-ever stroke patients without pressure ulcer were investigated between 2002 and 2009. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of complications and 30-day mortality after stroke associated with previous pressure ulcer were calculated in the multivariate logistic regressions. Patients with pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than control for poststroke urinary tract infection (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.38-1.78), pneumonia (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.16-1.58), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.66), and epilepsy (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.83-1.85). Stroke patients with pressure ulcer had increased 30-day poststroke mortality (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.55-2.61), particularly in those treated with debridement (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.85-4.44) or high quantity of antibiotics (OR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.10-7.66). Pressure ulcer was associated with poststroke mortality in both genders and patients aged 60 years or older. This study showed increased poststroke complications and mortality in patients with previous pressure ulcer, which suggests the urgent need for monitoring stroke patients for pressure ulcer history. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison Between Different Intramuscular Vitamin B12 Supplementation Regimes: a Retrospective Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Smelt, H J M; Pouwels, S; Said, M; Berghuis, K A; Boer, A K; Smulders, J F

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of vitamin B12 deficiency after bariatric surgery can range from 26 to 70 %. There is no consensus on optimal vitamin B12 supplementation in postbariatric patients. The objective of this study was to compare three different regimes. In this retrospective matched cohort study, we included 63 patients with methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels ≥300 nmol/L. Group A (n = 21) received 6 intramuscular (im) vitamin B12 injections including a loading dose, group B (n = 21) received 3 im vitamin B12 injections without loading dose and group C (n = 21) received no im vitamin B12 injections. The total post-bariatric patient population consisted of 14 males (22.2 %) and 49 women (77.8 %) with a mean current body mass index of 30.6 ± 8.0 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in vitamin B12 and MMA levels between 3 groups at baseline. There was a significant difference in follow-up vitamin B12 levels of group A compared to group B (p = 0.02) and group A compared to group C (p = 0.03). In the follow-up results, there is also a significant decrease in MMA levels of group A compared to group B (p = 0.02), group A compared to group C (p < 0.001), and group B compared to group C (p < 0.01). In this study, a shorter injection regime is probably not sufficient to treat a vitamin B12 deficiency. An injection regime with 6 injections recovered all vitamin B12 deficiencies biochemically. MMA levels cannot recover spontaneously over time without additional im injection regime.

  8. Assisted reproduction technique outcomes for fresh versus deferred cryopreserved day-2 embryo transfer: a retrospective matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Mathilde; Santulli, Pietro; Gayet, Vanessa; Maignien, Chloé; Marcellin, Louis; Pocate-Cheriet, Khaled; Chapron, Charles

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian stimulation could adversely affect endometrial receptivity and consequently embryo implantation. One emerging strategy is the 'freeze-all' approach. Most studies have focused on blastocyst transfers, with limited research on day-2 deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers. In this large retrospective cohort study, outcomes were compared between day-2 fresh versus deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers. After matching by age and number of previous cycles, 325 cycles were included in the fresh group and 325 in the deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers group: no significant differences were found between groups in implantation (0.20 ± 0.33 versus 0.17 ± 0.31, respectively) and ongoing pregnancy rates (21.85% versus 18.46%). Independent predictors for ongoing pregnancy after a multiple logistic regression analysis were the women's age (OR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97), body mass index (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), the number of two pronuclei embryos (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.40) and at least one grade 1 embryo transferred (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.05). In the case of a day-2 embryo transfer, outcomes after treatment with assisted reproduction techniques are similar for fresh versus deferred cryopreserved embryo transfers when pre-transfer progesterone exposures are similar in the two groups.

  9. Nested case-control studies: should one break the matching?

    PubMed

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Keogh, Ruth

    2015-10-01

    In a nested case-control study, controls are selected for each case from the individuals who are at risk at the time at which the case occurs. We say that the controls are matched on study time. To adjust for possible confounding, it is common to match on other variables as well. The standard analysis of nested case-control data is based on a partial likelihood which compares the covariates of each case to those of its matched controls. It has been suggested that one may break the matching of nested case-control data and analyse them as case-cohort data using an inverse probability weighted (IPW) pseudo likelihood. Further, when some covariates are available for all individuals in the cohort, multiple imputation (MI) makes it possible to use all available data in the cohort. In the paper we review the standard method and the IPW and MI approaches, and compare their performance using simulations that cover a range of scenarios, including one and two endpoints.

  10. Intestinal angiodysplasia: retrospective study of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    De Diego, J A; Molina, L M; Diez, M; Delgado, I; Moreno, A; Solana, M; Picardo, A; Garrido, R; Balibrea, J L

    1988-10-01

    Eighteen patients operated on for intestinal angiodysplasia are reported. Visceral angiography was the diagnostic procedure of choice, providing evidence in most cases of lesions in the right colon. Right hemicolectomy was the surgical treatment normally provided. Mortality in our series was nil. This report looks at the main clinical features of these lesions, paying particular attention to their etiopathogenesis.

  11. Outcomes of hematopoietic SCT recipients with rhinovirus infection: a matched, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abandeh, F I; Lustberg, M; Devine, S; Elder, P; Andritsos, L; Martin, S I

    2013-11-01

    The impact of rhinovirus in hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) recipients is not well defined. A retrospective, matched, case-control study of HSCT recipients with rhinovirus was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Controls were matched for timing relative to transplant, malignancy, and stem cell source. There were 47 cases and 94 controls. The cases and controls did not differ with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, donor source, malignancy, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis or significant comorbidities. There were no differences in need for intensive care unit care, 100 day mortality, hospice discharge, relapse of disease, GVHD or development of disease or infection due to CMV or EBV. Other infectious complications after rhinovirus diagnosis were also equal. However, there was an increased number of recurrent hospitalizations from any cause among the cases (46.8% vs 24.5%, P=0.007). Recurrent hospitalizations due to any infection were also more common in cases (34% vs 14.9%, P=0.015). For patients who were diagnosed with rhinovirus pre-transplant (n=13), there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. HSCT recipients with rhinovirus have an increased risk of hospital readmission. However, there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. Transplantation in patients with active rhinovirus infection appears to be safe.

  12. Effectiveness of oral polio vaccination against paralytic poliomyelitis: a matched case-control study in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Webeck, Jenna; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Birungi, Julianne; Nurbile, Yassin; Ehrhardt, Derek; Shukla, Hemant; Chatterjee, Anirban; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    After the last case of type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was reported in 2007, Somalia experienced another outbreak of WPV1 (189 cases) in 2013. We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral polio vaccine (OPV). We retrieved information from the Somalia Surveillance Database. A case was defined as any case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with virological confirmation of WPV1. We selected two groups of controls for each case: non-polio AFP cases ("NPAFP controls") matched to WPV1 cases by age, date of onset of paralysis and region; and asymptomatic "neighborhood controls," matched by age. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated the VE of OPV as (1-odds ratio)×100. We matched 99 WPV cases with 99 NPAFP controls and 134 WPV1 cases with 268 neighborhood controls. Using NPAFP controls, the overall VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86), 59% (2-83) among 1-3 dose recipients, 77% (95% CI, 46-91) among ≥4 dose recipients. In neighborhood controls, the overall VE was 95% (95% CI, 84-98), 92% (72-98) among 1-3 dose recipients, and 97% (89-99) among ≥4 dose recipients. When the analysis was limited to cases and controls ≤24 months old, the overall VE in NPAFP and neighborhood controls was 95% (95% CI, 65-99) and 97% (95% CI, 76-100), respectively. Among individuals who were fully vaccinated with OPV, vaccination was effective at preventing WPV1 in Somalia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Pooled exposure assessment for matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2011-09-01

    Exposure assessment using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure assessment can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched case-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched case-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and assessment of effect modification by a categorical variable. We assess the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched case-control studies.

  14. [Primary brain stem hemorrhage: retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Raison, J S; Bourbotte, G; Baum, T P; Pagès, M

    2008-03-01

    We report a retrospective series of 25 cases of brain stem hemorrhage. Cases of spontaneous hemorrhage of the brain stem which were observed from 1990 to 2000 in a department of neurology were reviewed. Etiological factors, CT scan at admission, clinical signs and the course of the disease were analyzed retrospectively. There were 25 patients, 14 male and 11 female aged from 24 to 91. Fifteen hematomas were related to hypertension, four to coagulation disorders and two to a vascular malformation. The hemorrhage was located in the pons in 22 cases and in the midbrain in three cases. The death rate directly related to the hemorrhage was 14/25 (12 early and two delayed deaths). Prognosis factors were the size of the hemorrhage, a ventricular bleeding, disorders of consciousness and pupillary abnormalities on admission, the need for mechanical ventilation. In brain stem hemorrhage, the size of the hematoma is a more important prognosis factor than age or etiological factors.

  15. Crystalloid Fluid Choice and Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Sepsis: A Matched Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Scott L; Keele, Luke; Balamuth, Fran; Vendetti, Neika; Ross, Rachael; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2017-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that resuscitation with balanced fluids (lactated Ringer [LR]) is associated with improved outcomes compared with normal saline (NS) in pediatric sepsis. We performed matched analyses using data from 12 529 patients <18 years of age with severe sepsis/septic shock at 382 US hospitals between 2000 and 2013 to compare outcomes with vs without LR as part of initial resuscitation. Patients receiving LR were matched 1:1 to patients receiving only NS (NS group), including separate matches for any (LR-any group) or exclusive (LR-only group) LR use. Outcomes included 30-day hospital mortality, acute kidney injury, new dialysis, and length of stay. The LR-any group was older, received larger crystalloid volumes, and was less likely to have malignancies than the NS group. After matching, mortality was not different between LR-any (7.2%) and NS (7.9%) groups (risk ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.98, 1.01; P = .20). There were no differences in secondary outcomes except longer hospital length of stay in LR-any group (absolute difference 2.4, 95% CI 1.4, 5.0 days; P < .001). Although LR was preferentially used as adjunctive fluid with large-volume resuscitation or first-line fluid in patients with lower illness severity, outcomes were not different after matching stratified by volume and proportionate LR utilization, including for patients in the LR-only group. Balanced fluid resuscitation with LR was not associated with improved outcomes compared with NS in pediatric sepsis. Although the current practice of NS resuscitation is justified, selective LR use necessitates a prospective trial to definitively determine comparative effectiveness among crystalloids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa: differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bárbara C; Gonçalves, Sónia F; Martins, Carla; Brandão, Isabel; Roma-Torres, António; Hoek, Hans W; Machado, Paulo P

    2016-06-01

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN METHOD: A case-control design was used to compare a group of women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for AN (N = 98) and BN (N = 79) with healthy controls (N = 86) and with other psychiatric disorders (N = 68). Each control group was matched with AN patients regarding age and parental social categories. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing each person with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview. Compared to AN, women with BN reported significantly higher rates of paternal high expectations, excessive family importance placed on fitness/keeping in shape, and negative consequences due to adolescent overweight and adolescent objective overweight. Overweight during adolescence emerged as the most relevant retrospective correlate in the distinction between BN and AN participants. Family expectations and the importance placed on keeping in shape were also significant retrospective correlates in the BN group.

  17. Spironolactone use and risk of incident cancers: a retrospective, matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Morant, Steven V.; Wei, Li; Thompson, Alastair M.; MacDonald, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Spironolactone is widely used to treat heart failure, hypertension and liver disease with increased usage in recent years. Spironolactone has endocrine effects that could influence cancer risks and historical reports suggest possible links with increased risk of certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of spironolactone exposure on cancer incidence. Methods A pharmacoepidemiological propensity score‐matched cohort study was performed to assess the effect of spironolactone exposure on cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse time to first diagnosis of each prespecified cancer and hazard ratios for spironolactone exposure are presented. The setting for the study was UK primary care using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The participants were 74 272 patients exposed to spironolactone between 1986 and 2013, matched 1:2 with unexposed controls. The prespecified primary outcomes were the first incidence of ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic, colorectal, prostate, renal cell, pharyngeal and thyroid cancers, and myelomonoblastic/‐cytic leukaemias. Secondary outcomes were the remaining 27 types of cancer. Results There was no evidence of an increased risk of any cancer associated with spironolactone use. Spironolactone use was associated with a significantly lower risk of prostate cancer (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.80, P < 0.001). Conclusions In this study, spironolactone use was associated with a lower incidence of prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men in the UK. The possible mechanisms and clinical implications merit further investigation. PMID:27735065

  18. Risk Factors for Scleral Buckle Removal: A Matched, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Covert, Douglas J.; Wirostko, William J.; Han, Dennis P.; Lindgren, Kevin E.; Hammersley, Jill A.; Connor, Thomas B.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative risk factors for scleral buckle (SB) removal. Methods A retrospective, consecutive, matched, case-control study. Cases included all patients undergoing SB removal between 1988 and 2007 at a single academic center. Case patients were matched against 4 randomly selected control patients who underwent SB implantation during the same year as the case patients. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each factor investigated. Results Forty cases of SB removal and 148 matched control cases were identified. Three cases of SB removal were omitted from analysis because of incomplete records. Factors associated with SB removal for any reason, according to univariate analysis, included concurrent globe-penetrating injury at the time of SB placement (OR, 24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9–200), concurrent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (OR, 17.3; CI, 4.9–61), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR, 7.3; CI, 1.8–30), prior long-term topical ocular therapy (OR, 4.3; CI, 1.7–11), and subsequent ocular procedures (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.5–7.5). Factors independently associated with SB removal according to multivariate analysis included concurrent globe-penetrating injury (OR, 27.3; CI, 1.7–426), concurrent PPV (OR, 11.3; CI, 2.9–45), DM (OR, 8.9; CI, 1.3–58), and subsequent ocular procedures (OR, 3.9; CI, 1.4–11). Factors that did not alter SB removal risk included patient age; sex; and type, size, or location of buckling elements used. Conclusions Awareness of these risk factors may be valuable for the surgical planning of retinal detachment repair in patients at higher risk for subsequent SB removal and for risk stratification subsequent to SB implantation. PMID:19277232

  19. Association between migraine and asthma: matched case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Gail; Sedgwick, Philip; Maier, Will; Visick, George; Strachan, David P; Anderson, H Ross

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have suggested a link between asthma and severe headache, and also between migraine and wheezing illness. Recent analysis have also shown an increase of asthma among cases with a prior history of migraine but without a history of hay fever, allergic rhinitis or eczema. AIM: To examine whether there is an association between migraine and asthma in the United Kingdom. DESIGN OF STUDY: Matched case-control study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). SETTING: Practices in the United Kingdom providing data on 5,110,619 patients to the GPRD. METHOD: The subjects were the patients with one or more diagnoses of migraine plus treatment for migraine. Each case was matched by general practice, sex, and age, with one control who had never been given a diagnosis of migraine. Case and control groups were compared for prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory symptoms treated with inhalers or hay fever. Investigations were carried out to determine whether the association between migraine and asthma was stronger among patients with hayfever or those without hayfever, and whether patients with migraine had an increased prescription of other (non-migraine and non-asthma) medications. RESULTS: Among 64 678 case-control pairs, the relative risk of asthma in patients with migraine was 1.59 (95% CI = 1.54 to 1.65) among definite cases, and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.83) among those whose selection as case included beta-blocker prophylaxis. Among definite migraine cases, relative risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory symptoms, eczema, and hay fever (pollinosis), were all raised (at 1.22, 1.85, 1.55, and 1.67, respectively). The association between migraine and asthma was stronger in patients without a diagnosis of hay fever, than in those with hayfever (relative risk = 1.32 and 1.19, respectively). The relative risk of prescription for a range of non-migraine, non-asthma medications was raised

  20. Risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment: a nationwide retrospective matched-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Liao, Chien-Chang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Ta-Liang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving and not receiving acupuncture treatment. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting This study was based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database that included information on stroke patients hospitalised between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004. Participants We identified 42 040 patients hospitalised with newly diagnosed stroke who were aged 20 years and above. Primary and secondary outcome measures We compared incident epilepsy during the follow-up period until the end of 2009 in stroke patients who were and were not receiving acupuncture. The adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of epilepsy associated with acupuncture were calculated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. Results Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment (9.8 per 1000 person-years) experienced a reduced incidence of epilepsy compared to those who did not receive acupuncture treatment (11.5 per 1000 person-years), with an HR of 0.74 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.80) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and coexisting medical conditions. Acupuncture treatment was associated with a decreased risk of epilepsy, particularly among stroke patients aged 20–69 years. The log-rank test probability curve indicated that stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a reduced probability of epilepsy compared with individuals who did not receive acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusions Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment had a reduced risk of epilepsy compared with those not receiving acupuncture treatment. However, the protective effects associated with acupuncture treatment require further validation in prospective cohort studies. PMID:27412100

  1. Reconstructive versus non-reconstructive treatment of anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency. A retrospective matched-pair long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Streich, Nikolaus A; Zimmermann, David; Bode, Gerrit; Schmitt, Holger

    2011-04-01

    In this retrospective case series 80 patients divided in 40 matched pair groups with an arthroscopically proven ACL insufficiency were followed up for 15 years. One half was reconstructed using an autologous BTB patella graft, the other half was treated by a conservative physiotherapeutic based rehabilitation program. At follow-up the clinical scores (Lysholm, IKDC) showed no significant differences between subjects who had undergone ACL reconstruction and those who had not. Furthermore there was no detectable difference in the incidence of osteoarthritis between the cohorts. Patients having a negative pivot shift test showed significantly less signs of radiographic osteoarthritis and better functional assessment scores whether reconstructed or not. Based on these results and a review of the literature there is no clear evidence that ACL reconstruction reduces the rate of OA development or improves the long-term symptomatic outcome. Probably review of reconstruction by an anatomical approach will be more successful than operative techniques decades ago.

  2. [A retrospective analysis of 97 drunk driving cases].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Chu, Yun; Zong, Xiong-Xin; Wang, Zi-Wei; Chu, Jian-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Based on a retrospective analysis of the drunk driving cases, to explore the drunk drivers' personnel composition, occurrence time and psychology. As a result of punishment of the drunk driving by criminal law for one year from May 1st, 2011 to April 30th, 2012, 91 drunk driving cases were statistically analyzed the easy-happening time of drunk driving, the drunk drivers' age, gender, occupational characteristics, domicile and psychological factors. In 97 drunk driving cases, 26-40 years old, non-local domiciled and non-professional male drivers were prone to drunk driving at night from 22:00 to 5:00. The behavior of drunk driving is relevant to time, age, genders and occupation. The psychological characteristics of most drivers are fluky, making-life-easy, competitive and peacockish.

  3. Effect of captopril on infantile haemangiomas: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Christou, Elizabeth M; Wargon, Orli

    2012-08-01

    The mechanism of action of beta adrenergic blockers in the involution of infantile haemangioma (IH) remains unclear. It has been proposed that the renin-angiotensin pathway may play a role. We present a retrospective case series of 17 patients with IH who were treated with oral corticosteroid therapy and developed hypertension requiring treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. All patients, with written documentation, demonstrated an improvement in their lesion at the start of oral corticosteroid therapy (n = 14). Captopril alone did not sustain the corticosteroid-induced involution with a documented worsening of infantile haemangioma in seven out of 12 patients (58%).

  4. [Localized scleroderma: a retrospective study about 92 cases].

    PubMed

    El Fékih, Nadia; Réjaibi, Iménc; Kamoun, Hajer; Zéglaoui, Faten; Fazaa, Bécima; Kharfi, Monia; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2009-09-01

    Sclerodermas are rare affections which can be located or generalized. Localized form is the most frequent. The purpose of this study was to describe epidemiologic, clinics, biological, immunological, therapeutic, evolutionary characteristics of the localized scleroderma through a personal series and the data of the literature. We have performed a retrospective study on all patients followed in the department of dermatology of the Hospital Charles Nicole during 14 years period. Our study was about 92 cases of localized scleroderma (73 were females and 19 males). The mean age was 35 years (between 2 and 72 years). The majority of localised sclerodermas (66.2% of the cases) appeared before 40 years with a maximum of frequency between 10 and 30 years (41.6%). Only 11.9% of the cases were observed before 10 years. They were 51 cases (55%) of morphea, 35 cases (38%) of scleroderma in bands including 32 linear scleroderma and 3 scleroderma en coup de sabre, 5 cases (5.5%) of generalized morphea and 1 case (0.15%) of deep morphea. Average therapeutic was specified among 63 patients (87%), and the evolution could be appreciated among 45 patients. The epidemiologic data observed in our series are comparable with those reported in the literature. Therapeutic difficulties and risks of functional after-effects, particular in scleroderma in bands, remain the principal concern for all the authors.

  5. Stafne bone cavity: a retrospective study of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Gómez, Carmen; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2006-05-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with Stafne bone cavity. A retrospective, observational study of 11 cases of Stafne bone cavity. After finding an imagine compatible with Stafne bone cavity in the Orthopantomograph(r) of 11 patients, a sialography of the mandibular gland was made in 3 cases, computerized tomography (CT) in 6 cases, and in 4 cases surgical intervention to confirm the diagnosis. The average age was 51.5 years, predominantly males. The entity was diagnosed incidentally during a routine radiology in all cases. The sialography revealed glandular tissue within the defect, and the CT demonstrated the conservation of the lingual cortical and the peripheral origin of the lesion. Glandular tissue was found within the lesions of two of the patients who underwent surgery, and in the other two the cavity was empty. No progressive changes were found in any of the 11 cases. Stafne bone cavity was an incidental finding, presenting no evolutionary changes, and as such conservatory therapy based on periodic controls was indicated. Currently, complementary techniques such as CT are sufficient to establish a certain diagnosis.

  6. [Infectious sacroiliitis in tunisian centre: retrospective study of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Bellazreg, Foued; Alaya, Zeineb; Hattab, Zouhour; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Ayeche, Mohamed Laziz Ben; Bouajina, Elyes; Letaief, Amel; Hachfi, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Infectious sacroiliitis are rare but they can be complicated by disabling functional sequelae. To describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of infectious sacroiliitis among patients treated in Sousse Medical Center, Tunisia. A retrospective, descriptive study, of infectious sacroiliitis among patients hositalized in Sousse between 2000 and 2015. The diagnosis was made on the basis of medical signs, imaging, microbiological indicators. In the study were enrolled twenty five patients, 10 men and 15 women; the average age was 41 years (19-78). Sacroiliitis were due to pyogenic bacteria in 14 cases (56%), brucella bacteria in 6 cases (24%) and tuberculosis bacteria in 5 cases (20%). The mean duration of symptoms was 61, 45 and 402 days respectively. The most common clinical signs were buttock pain (92%) and fever (88%). Standard radiographic evaluation was abnormal in 75% of cases. CT scan and MRI of the sacroiliac joints was performed in all cases. The diagnosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 24 cases (96%). The average duration of antibiotic treatment was 83 days in the pyogenic sacroiliitis, and 102 days in brucellar sacroiliitis. The evolution was favorable in 12 patients (48%), 9 patients (36%) had sequelae of sacroiliac joint pain and 4 patients (16%) died. In our study, time frame of infectious sacroiliitis evolution did not predict the causative bacterium, hence the need for bacteriological documentation in order to prescribe appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  7. Allele-level HLA matching for umbilical cord blood transplantation for non-malignant diseases in children: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Mary; Wang, Tao; Veys, Paul A; Boelens, Jaap J; St Martin, Andrew; Spellman, Stephen; Bonfim, Carmem Sales; Brady, Colleen; Cant, Andrew J; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Davies, Stella M; Freeman, John; Hsu, Katherine C; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Kenzey, Chantal; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Michel, Gerard; Orchard, Paul J; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Veneris, Michael R; Volt, Fernanda; Wynn, Robert; Lee, Stephanie J; Horowitz, Mary M; Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2017-07-01

    The standard for selecting unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases relies on antigen-level (lower resolution) HLA typing for HLA-A and HLA-B, and allele-level for HLA-DRB1. We aimed to study the effects of allele-level matching at a higher resolution-HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1, which is the standard used for adult unrelated volunteer donor transplantation for non-malignant diseases-for umbilical cord blood transplantation. We retrospectively studied 1199 paediatric donor-recipient pairs with allele-level HLA matching who received a single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for non-malignant diseases reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research or Eurocord and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant. Transplantations occurred between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012. The primary outcome was overall survival. The effect of HLA matching on survival was studied using a Cox regression model. Compared with HLA-matched transplantations, mortality was higher with transplantations mismatched at two (hazard ratio [HR] 1·55, 95% CI 1·08-2·21, p=0·018), three (2·04, 1·44-2·89, p=0·0001), and four or more alleles (3·15, 2·16-4·58, p<0·0001). There were no significant differences in mortality between transplantations that were matched and mismatched at one allele (HR 1·18, 95% CI 0·80-1·72, p=0·39). Other factors associated with higher mortality included recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·13-1·74, p=0·0020), reduced intensity compared with myeloablative conditioning regimens (HR 1·36, 1·10-1·68, p=0·0041), transplantation of units with total nucleated cell dose of more than 21 × 10(7) cells per kg compared with 21 × 10(7) cells per kg or less (HR 1·47, 1·11-1·95, p=0·0076), and transplantations done in 2000-05 compared with those done in 2006-12 (HR 1·64, 1·31-2·04, p<0·0001). The 5-year overall survival adjusted for

  8. The economic impact of Marfan syndrome: a non-experimental, retrospective, population-based matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marfan syndrome is a rare disease of the connective tissues, affecting multiple organ systems. Elevated morbidity and mortality in these patients raises the issue of costs for sickness funds and society. To date, there has been no study analysing the costs of Marfan syndrome from a sickness fund and societal perspective. Objective To estimate excess health resource utilisation, direct (non-)medical and indirect costs attributable to Marfan syndrome from a healthcare payer and a societal perspective in Germany in 2008. Methods A retrospective matched cohort study design is applied, using claims data. For isolating the causal effect of Marfan syndrome on excess costs, a genetic matching algorithm was used to reduce differences in observable characteristics between Marfan syndrome patients and the control group. 892 patients diagnosed with Marfan syndrome (ICD-10 Q87.4) were matched from a pool of 26,645 control individuals. After matching, we compared health resource utilisation and costs. Results From the sickness fund perspective, an average Marfan syndrome patient generates excess annual costs of €2496 compared with a control individual. From the societal perspective, excess annual costs amount to €15,728. For the sickness fund, the strongest cost drivers are inpatient treatment and care by non-physicians. From the sickness fund perspective, the third (25–41 years) and first (0–16 years) age quartiles reveal the greatest surplus in total costs. Marfan syndrome patients have 39% more physician contacts, a 153% longer average length of hospital stay, 119% more inpatient stays, 33% more prescriptions, 236% more medical imaging and 20% higher average prescription costs than control individuals. Depending on the prevalence, the economic impact from the sickness fund perspective ranges between €24.0 million and €61.4 million, whereas the societal economic impact extends from €151.3 million to €386.9 million. Conclusions Relative to its low

  9. The economic impact of Marfan syndrome: a non-experimental, retrospective, population-based matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Achelrod, Dmitrij; Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Linder, Roland; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Stargardt, Tom

    2014-06-23

    Marfan syndrome is a rare disease of the connective tissues, affecting multiple organ systems. Elevated morbidity and mortality in these patients raises the issue of costs for sickness funds and society. To date, there has been no study analysing the costs of Marfan syndrome from a sickness fund and societal perspective. To estimate excess health resource utilisation, direct (non-)medical and indirect costs attributable to Marfan syndrome from a healthcare payer and a societal perspective in Germany in 2008. A retrospective matched cohort study design is applied, using claims data. For isolating the causal effect of Marfan syndrome on excess costs, a genetic matching algorithm was used to reduce differences in observable characteristics between Marfan syndrome patients and the control group. 892 patients diagnosed with Marfan syndrome (ICD-10 Q87.4) were matched from a pool of 26,645 control individuals. After matching, we compared health resource utilisation and costs. From the sickness fund perspective, an average Marfan syndrome patient generates excess annual costs of €2496 compared with a control individual. From the societal perspective, excess annual costs amount to €15,728. For the sickness fund, the strongest cost drivers are inpatient treatment and care by non-physicians. From the sickness fund perspective, the third (25-41 years) and first (0-16 years) age quartiles reveal the greatest surplus in total costs. Marfan syndrome patients have 39% more physician contacts, a 153% longer average length of hospital stay, 119% more inpatient stays, 33% more prescriptions, 236% more medical imaging and 20% higher average prescription costs than control individuals. Depending on the prevalence, the economic impact from the sickness fund perspective ranges between €24.0 million and €61.4 million, whereas the societal economic impact extends from €151.3 million to €386.9 million. Relative to its low frequency, Marfan syndrome requires high healthcare

  10. [A Retrospective Analysis of 88 Solved Intentional Homicide Cases].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia-quan; Liu, Jian-feng

    2016-04-01

    To summarize the key points, difficulties and relevant practical experiences for analyzing the scene of solved intentional homicide cases. The data of 88 solved intentional homicide cases in a county from 2004 to 2013 were collected and the retrospective analysis was performed. The number of local female victims obviously higher than non-local female victims and the number of non-local suspects is obviously higher than local suspects. The number of Male suspects showed higher compared with the female. Most of them were temporary workers, unemployment or farmers with less education backgrounds. The main causes of victims' death were mechanical injury or asphyxia. The murders were acquaintances in most intentional homicide cases. The motive of the stranger murders was commonly money. The murder behavior types of homicide cases were related with people, money and sexual assault. Camouflage and guilty behavior showed the most significance. The accurate identification of suspects is one of the most important task in forensic investigation and reflects the importance of the criminal scene analysis for intentional homicide cases. It also provides the direction of future research.

  11. [Retrospective evaluation of 15 cases with psoas abscesses].

    PubMed

    Turunç, Tahsin; Turunç, Tuba; Demiroğlu, Y Ziya; Colakoğlu, Sule

    2009-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are suppurative collections within the fascia surrounding the psoas and iliacus muscles. In this retrospective study it was aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings and treatment outcomes of 15 psoas abscess cases admitted to Baskent University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey during June 2003-January 2008 period. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years (range 18 to 70 years) with a female to male ratio of 5/10. Thirteen of the cases (86.5%) were admitted with the complaints of fever and back pain. Thirteen of the cases were diagnosed by abdominal computerized tomography while the other two by abdominal ultrasonography. One of the 15 patients was considered as primary psoas abscess, while the remaining 14 as secondary psoas abscess. The most common accompanying disease was diabetes mellitus (66.6%). Fourteen patients with secondary psoas abscess had vertebral osteomyelitis which was due to tuberculosis in five cases, to urinary tract infection in five cases, to pneumoniae in two cases, to surgical infection in one case and to brucellosis in one case. The cultivation of the abscess material from the 14 secondary psoas abscess cases revealed growth of bacteria in 11 of them (5 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1 Escherichia coli, 1 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 1 methicilin-resistant S. aureus, 1 Acinetobacter baumannii, 1 Brucella melitensis, 1 Serratia marcescens). The biochemical parameters of the cases (mean leukocyte counts: 14.500 cell/mm3; mean erythrocyte sedimentation rates: 78 mm/hour; mean C-reactive protein levels: 108 mg/dl) were also high. Thirteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage and received appropriate antibiotic treatment and the other two patients were treated with open surgical debridement. The duration of antimicrobial treatment was one year for M. tuberculosis cases and about 4-6 weeks in the others. One of the cases died due to complicating meningitis and sepsis. It is

  12. Is dengue and malaria co-infection more severe than single infections? A retrospective matched-pair study in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue and malaria are two major arthropod-borne infections in tropical areas, but dual infections were only described for the first time in 2005. Reports of these concomitant infections are scarce and there is no evidence of more severe clinical and biological pictures than single infections. Methods To compare co-infections to dengue alone and malaria alone, a retrospective matched-pair study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 among patients admitted in the emergency department of Cayenne hospital, French Guiana. Results 104 dengue and malaria co-infection cases were identified during the study period and 208 individuals were matched in two comparison groups: dengue alone and malaria alone. In bivariate analysis, co-infection clinical picture was more severe than separated infections, in particular using the severe malaria WHO criteria. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with co-infection versus dengue were: masculine gender, CRP level > 50 mg/L, thrombocytopaenia < 50 109/L, and low haematocrit <36% and independent factors significantly associated with co-infections versus malaria were red cells transfusion, low haematocrit < 36%, thrombocytopaenia < 50 109/L and low Plasmodium parasitic load < 0.001%. Conclusions In the present study, dengue and malaria co-infection clinical picture seems to be more severe than single infections in French Guiana, with a greater risk of deep thrombocytopaenia and anaemia. PMID:22549018

  13. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin; Elahi, Elham; Barati, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  14. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  15. Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: a matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; Leclerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Shumer, Daniel; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exist to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the present study aimed to fill this gap. A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record data from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen between 2002 and 2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM with MTF youth on mental health outcomes. The sample (N = 360) had a mean age of 19.6 years (standard deviation, 3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared with cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a twofold to threefold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p < .05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use. Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared with cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of autistic disorder after exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery: a nationwide, retrospective matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Ru; Huang, Jing-Yang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Jan, Shiou-Rung; Lung, Chia-Chi; Chang, Hui-Chin; Lin, Long-Yau; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-05-01

    Deficits of learning, memory and cognition have been observed in newborn animals exposed to general anaesthetics. However, conclusions from clinical studies conducted in humans to investigate the relationship between anaesthesia and neurodevelopmental disorders have been inconsistent. Autistic disorder is typically recognised earlier than other neurobehavioural disorders. Although certain genes apparently contribute to autistic disorder susceptibility, other factors such as perinatal insults and exposure to neurotoxic agents may play a crucial role in gene-environmental interaction. This study was designed to investigate the association of exposure to general anaesthesia/surgery with autistic disorder. We hypothesised that exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery before 2 years of age is associated with an increased risk of developing autistic disorder. A retrospective matched-cohort study. A medical university. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2001 to 2010 were analysed. The birth cohort included 114,435 children, among whom 5197 were exposed to general anaesthesia and surgery before the age of 2 years. The 1 : 4 matched controls comprised 20,788 children. The primary endpoint was the diagnosis of autistic disorder after the first exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery. No differences were found in the incidence of autistic disorder between the exposed group (0.96%) and the unexposed controls (0.89%) (P = 0.62). Cox proportional regression showed that the hazard ratio of exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.57 to 1.53] after adjusting for potential confounders. Age at first exposure did not influence the risk of autistic disorder. No relationship was found between the total number of exposures and the risk of autistic disorder. Exposure to general anaesthesia and surgery before the age of 2 years age at first exposure and number of exposures were not

  17. Preadmission Use of Calcium Channel Blockers and Outcomes After Hospitalization With Pneumonia: A Retrospective Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Hunter, Krystal; Gaughan, John; Poddar, Sameer

    In sepsis, an overwhelming immune response, as mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators, can lead to shock, multiple organ damage, and even death. Pneumonia is the leading cause of sepsis. In animal septic models, sepsis could induce uncontrolled calcium (Ca) leaking, raising cytosolic Ca to a toxic level, causing irreversible cellular injuries and organ failure. All types of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), by inhibiting Ca influx, have been shown to decrease overall mortality in various septic animal models. However, to our best knowledge, no clinical study had been conducted to investigate the beneficial effect(s) of CCBs in sepsis. We conducted a retrospective propensity-matched cohort study after screening 2214 patients hospitalized for pneumonia from year 2012 to 2014 at our institution. We identified 387 preadmission CCB users and 387 nonusers by propensity score matching. Logistic regression analysis was then used to determine the association between preadmission CCB use and outcomes in pneumonia. Our study showed that the odds for development of severe sepsis was significantly lower in the CCB user group [odds ratio (OR), 0.466; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.311-0.697; P = 0.002]. Preadmission CCB use was associated with a lower risk of contracting bacteremia (OR, 0.498; 95% CI, 0.262-0.99; P = 0.0327), lower risk of acute respiratory insufficiency (OR, 0.573; 95% CI, 0.412-0.798; P = 0.001), lower risk of intensive care unit admission (OR, 0.602; 95% CI, 0.432-0.840; P = 0.0028). In conclusion, our study suggested preadmission CCB use was associated with a reduction in the risks of development of respiratory insufficiency, bacteremia, and severe sepsis in patients admitted to the hospital with pneumonia.

  18. Body contouring surgery decreases long-term weight regain following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wiser, Itay; Avinoah, Eliezer; Ziv, Oren; Parnass, Adam J; Averbuch Sagie, Roni; Heller, Lior; Friedman, Tali

    2016-11-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) surgery is the safest yet least effective method for massive weight loss. Thirty to 50 percent of patients undergoing LAGB will regain part of their lost weight. To evaluate the effect of body contouring plastic surgery (BCPS) following LAGB on long-term body mass index (BMI) control. Department of Surgery A, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel. A retrospective cohort study of patients aged 18-50 years, who underwent LAGB surgery between 1997 and 2007, was performed. Out of 2405 patients undergoing LAGB during those years, 861 were excluded and 1544 were recruited by phone. The final group included 72 patients matched for age and gender. Long-term weight regain was evaluated and compared between a group of patients who underwent subsequent body contouring plastic surgery (LBCPS) and a group of LAGB only (LAGBO). Groups were matched for age, gender, and pre-operative body mass index (BMI). LBCPS (n = 18) had lower endpoint BMI and BMI regain percentage compared with LAGBO (n = 54) (24.64 ± 3.76 vs. 31.0 ± 7.2 kg/m(2), p < 0.001; 13 ± 14% vs. 34± 31%. p < 0.001, respectively). BCPS had an independent strong protective effect for endpoint BMI regain over 25% and BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) (HR = 0.19, p = 0.025; HR = 0.13, p = 0.046, respectively). When compared with patients who did not undergo BCPS following LAGB, patients who underwent BCPS following LAGB had improved long-term BMI control. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bruxism and dental implant treatment complications: a retrospective comparative study of 98 bruxer patients and a matched group.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the complications of dental implant treatment in a group of patients with bruxism in comparison with a matched group of non-bruxers. Patients being diagnosed as bruxers were identified within a group of patients consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses at one specialist clinic, based on the most recent listed sign and symptoms of bruxism according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. A diagnostic grading system of "possible," "probable," and "definite" sleep or awake bruxism was used, according to a recent published international consensus. A case-control matching model was used to match the bruxers with a group of non-bruxers, based on five variables. Implant-, prosthetic-, and patient-related data were collected, as well as 14 mechanical complications, and compared between groups. Ninety-eight of 2670 patients were identified as bruxers. The odds ratio of implant failure in bruxers in relation to non-bruxers was 2.71 (95% CI 1.25, 5.88). Considering the same number of patients with the same total number of implants equally distributed between groups, the bruxers group had a higher prevalence of mechanical complications in comparison with the non-bruxers group. This study suggests that bruxism may significantly increase both the implant failure rate and the rate of mechanical and technical complications of implant-supported restorations. Other risk factors may also have influenced the results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Coblation cryptolysis to treat tonsil stones: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher Y; Thrasher, Richard

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a novel and potentially effective approach in the treatment of tonsil stones using Coblation technology. A retrospective pilot case series was performed demonstrating the effectiveness of a technique that we call Coblation tonsil cryptolysis. This technique is unique in that it can be performed in adult patients without sedation using only local anesthesia, much like laser tonsil cryptolysis. As with laser cryptolysis, pain is significant for only a few days and most adults can resume normal diet and activity within 1 week. In contrast, tonsillectomy entails significant morbidity for several weeks. However, Coblation avoids the significant disadvantages of laser use, including the potential for airway fire, retinal damage from reflected scatter, dealing with plume from vaporized tissues, oral/facial burns, and the high cost of purchasing and maintaining laser equipment. After a single session of Coblation tonsil cryptolysis, a significant decrease and even elimination of tonsil stones can potentially be achieved.

  1. [Pulmonary cryptococcosis: a retrospective analysis of 65 cases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifang; Shi, Yi; Ding, Yuan; Wang, Qin; Su, Xin

    2014-10-01

    To improve understanding of the clinical manifestations and imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis. The clinical features, imaging characteristics, laboratory examinations, treatment and prognosis of 65 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively analyzed. The data were collected from Nanjing General Hospital , Suqian Municipal People's Hospital and People's Liberation Army 81 Hospital from January 2001 to March 2013. There were 65 proven cases diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis, including 44 males and 21 females, aged from 12 to 73 years [average (44 ± 13) years]. The most common clinical symptoms included cough (n = 32), expectoration(n = 20) , fever (n = 16), and chest pain (n = 14), while some patients(n = 18) had no symptoms. Common chest imaging findings included single or multiple masses or nodules (n = 36), patchy infiltrates (n = 19, and mixed lesions (n = 10). Among the 21 cases with cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen detection, 14 were positive. The antigen titre ( ≥ 1: 8 for positivity) was positively correlated with disease severity and lesion extent. The diagnosis of 45 cases was proven by percutaneous lung biopsy and 3 were diagnosed by bronchoscopic biopsy, while 17 were confirmed by surgery. Among 65 patients, 53 underwent Acute Physiology and Chronic Health EvaluationII (APACHEII) scoring, and 45 had a score of less than 10. Among them, 38 cases acquired complete or partial recovery, 4 were progressive and 3 died. Eight cases had a score of 10 or more, of whom 3 acquired complete or partial recovery, 1 was progressive and 4 died. The most common clinical manifestations of pulmonary cryptococcosis were cough and expectoration and the most common chest imaging features were masses or nodular shadows. Percutaneous lung biopsy was a commonly used method to diagnose this disease. Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen detection was helpful for the diagnosis and management with a relatively high sensitivity

  2. Central odontogenic fibroma: Retrospective study of 8 clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    Hrichi, Radia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a benign odontogenic tumour derived from the dental mesenchymal tissues. It is a rare tumour and only 70 cases of it have been published. Bearing in mind the rareness of the tumour, 8 new cases of central odontogenic fibroma have been found by analyzing the clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of COF. Patients and Method: A retrospective study was carried out on 3011 biopsies in the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Dental Clinic of Barcelona University between January 1995 and March 2008. 85 odontogenic tumours were diagnosed of which 8 were central odontogenic fibroma. The radiological study was based on orthopantomographs, periapical and occlusal radiographies and computerised tomographics. The variables collected were: sex, age, clinical characteristics of the lesion, treatment received and possible reappearances of the tumour. Results: The central odontogenic fibroma represents 9.4% of all odontogenic tumours. Of the 8 cases, 5 were diagnosed in men and 3 in women. The average age was 19.9 years with an age range of 11 to 38 years. The most common location of the tumour was in the mandible. All cases were associated with unerupted teeth. Of the 8 tumours, 3 provoked rhizolysis of the adjacent teeth and 4 cases caused cortical bone expansion. 50% of the patients complained of pain associated to the lesion. No case of recurrence was recorded up to 2 years after the treatment. Conclusions: Central odontogenic fibromas usually evolve asymptomatically although they can manifest very aggressively provoking dental displacement and rhizolysis. Radiologically, COF manifest as a uni or multilocular radiotransparent image although they can be indistinguishable from other radiotransparent lesions making diagnosis more difficult. COF treatment involves conservative surgery as well as follow-up patient checks. Key words: Odontogenic tumour, central odontogenic

  3. Cervicofacial Lymphatic Malformations: A Retrospective Review of 40 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byung Chae; Kim, Jae Bong; Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Kang Young; Yang, Jung Dug; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Yong-Sun; Lee, Jong Min; Huh, Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic malformation (LM) is a form of congenital vascular malformation with a low incidence. Although LM has been studied, no consensus has emerged regarding its cause or treatment. Methods In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 40 patients who visited our vascular anomalies center for the treatment of cervicofacial LM, which is a common manifestation of LM. The medical records of patients over a period of 12 years were reviewed and analyzed for commonalities regarding the diagnosis and the results of treatment. Results Suspected cervicofacial LM was confirmed through imaging studies. No difference in incidence was observed according to sex, and 73% of patients first presented with symptoms before the age of two years. The left side and the V2–V3 area were most commonly affected. No significant differences in incidence were observed among the macrocystic, microcystic, and combined types of LM. A total of 28 out of 36 patients received sclerotherapy as the first choice of treatment, regardless of the type of lesion. Complete resolution was achieved in only 25% of patients. Conclusions LM is important to confirm the diagnosis early and to choose an appropriate treatment strategy according to the stage of the disease and each individual patient's symptoms. When treatment is delayed or an incorrect treatment is administered, patient discomfort increases as the lesion gradually spreads. Therefore, more so than is the case for most other diseases, a team approach on a case-by-case basis is important for the accurate and appropriate treatment of LM. PMID:26848440

  4. Natal and Neonatal Teeth: A Retrospective Study of 15 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Basavanthappa, Nagaveni N; Kagathur, Umashankara; Basavanthappa, Radhika N; Suryaprakash, Satisha T

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To present 17 natal/neonatal teeth in 15 patients and describe their clinical characteristics, associated disorders, complications and treatment. Methods: A retrospective study of neonates who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India, between 2003 and 2006 was carried out. It was a study of clinical data, such as the age and gender of the patients, the history and chief complaints of mothers, the clinical appearance and location of natal/neonatal teeth, and associated complications and treatments. Results: A total of 17 teeth (6 natal, 11 neonatal) were found in 15 patients. No significant gender predilection (8 male, 7 female) was found. Sixteen natal/neonatal teeth were placed in mandibular incisor area (10 on the right side and 6 on the left side) and one tooth in the maxillary incisor area. In 13 patients, the occurrence of natal/neonatal teeth was unilateral, and in 2 patients, it was bilateral. Three cases were associated with enamel hypoplasia, 3 cases with Riga-Fede disease, and 1 case with gingival hyperplasia. One case involved a patient with cleft lip and palate. Radiographic examination confirmed these teeth to be supernumerary, and all teeth exhibited hypermobility. Extraction had been done in all the cases. Eleven of the extracted teeth exhibited only rudimentary roots, and six teeth showed no roots. Conclusions: The occurrence of a natal/neonatal tooth is a rare phenomenon. When it occurs, the teeth have a variety of clinical characteristics and lead to different complications. Knowledge of the management of these structures is essential for the overall well being of a child. PMID:21494384

  5. Natal and neonatal teeth: a retrospective study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Basavanthappa, Nagaveni N; Kagathur, Umashankara; Basavanthappa, Radhika N; Suryaprakash, Satisha T

    2011-04-01

    To present 17 natal/neonatal teeth in 15 patients and describe their clinical characteristics, associated disorders, complications and treatment. A retrospective study of neonates who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India, between 2003 and 2006 was carried out. It was a study of clinical data, such as the age and gender of the patients, the history and chief complaints of mothers, the clinical appearance and location of natal/neonatal teeth, and associated complications and treatments. A total of 17 teeth (6 natal, 11 neonatal) were found in 15 patients. No significant gender predilection (8 male, 7 female) was found. Sixteen natal/neonatal teeth were placed in mandibular incisor area (10 on the right side and 6 on the left side) and one tooth in the maxillary incisor area. In 13 patients, the occurrence of natal/neonatal teeth was unilateral, and in 2 patients, it was bilateral. Three cases were associated with enamel hypoplasia, 3 cases with Riga-Fede disease, and 1 case with gingival hyperplasia. One case involved a patient with cleft lip and palate. Radiographic examination confirmed these teeth to be supernumerary, and all teeth exhibited hypermobility. Extraction had been done in all the cases. Eleven of the extracted teeth exhibited only rudimentary roots, and six teeth showed no roots. The occurrence of a natal/neonatal tooth is a rare phenomenon. When it occurs, the teeth have a variety of clinical characteristics and lead to different complications. Knowledge of the management of these structures is essential for the overall well being of a child.

  6. [Percutaneous catheterization for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a retrospective case series].

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; He, H Y; Tang, X; Wang, R; Zhang, C Y; Wang, S Q; Sun, B; Tong, Z H

    2017-09-12

    Objective: To review the experience of percutaneous catheterization for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) by respiratory intensivists at a single institution. Methods: A retrospective review of 87 patients undergoing percutaneous catheterization for ECMO in Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from November 2009 to January 2017. Subject demographics, type of support, cannulation configuration, types of cannulas, use of imaging modalities, and complications were recorded and summarized. Results: The 87 patients consisted of 61 males and 26 females. The average age was (47±16)years (range 15-82 years ). Fifty-six patients were given ECMO therapy because of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), and 16 were treated as a bridge for lung transplantation and 15 for other causes. Eighty-one cases were given VV-ECMO support, and 6 cases were given VA-ECMO support. The most commonly used cannulas were 15-17 F arterial cannulas and 21-23 F venous cannulas. Preinsertion ultrasound was performed in 62 patients (71%) . Bedside chest radiography was used to help adjust the position of the end of the cannula in 11 patients (13%). Percutaneous catheterization was successful in 85 cases (97%) , while it failed in 2 female patients due to thick subcutaneous fat layer, and open surgical approach was used. Percutaneous femoral artery collateral circulation was established by ourselves in 5 cases. One patient with femoral artery catheterization without collateral circulation had gangrene of limbs. The complications included 9 cases of catheter site hemorrhage, 4 catheter-related bloodstream infection and 1 pulmonary embolism during ECMO weaning. Conclusion: Percutaneous catheterization for ECMO can be performed with a high rate of success and a low rate of complications.

  7. Therapeutic management of DRESS: a retrospective study of 38 cases.

    PubMed

    Funck-Brentano, Elisa; Duong, Tu-Anh; Bouvresse, Sophie; Bagot, Martine; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Chosidow, Olivier; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    There is no consensus regarding treatment for drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). We report a single-center observational series of therapeutic management of DRESS. We examined data for 50 consecutive patients admitted from March 2005 to June 2009 with a discharge diagnosis of DRESS (RegiSCAR score). For the 38 patients with a DRESS score of 4 or more, topical steroid treatment alone was initiated in 66% of cases. On admission, 13 patients received systemic steroids; in 7 of them, systemic steroid treatment was initiated or maintained for life-threatening organ failure, with kidney, lung, and/or nervous system involvement. Complications of DRESS, such as relapse, viral reactivation, and sepsis, were less frequent with topical steroid than with systemic steroids. None of the patients died during their stay in hospital. Retrospective nonblinded design and dermatologic recruitment are limitations. The variables underlying the choice of treatment study were not analyzed. Systemic steroids may not be required for the management of mild forms of DRESS, and may thus be reserved for more severe cases. Prospective studies are required to evaluate strategies for treating DRESS. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dementia deaths in hospice: a retrospective case note audit.

    PubMed

    Vries, Kay de; Nowell, Allyson

    2011-12-01

    Dementia is now recognized as a progressive terminal illness and it is established that people with dementia have significant palliative care needs as they approach the end of life. However, population prevalence studies suggest that very few people with dementia access hospice services in the UK. The literature further suggests that hospice staff may be inadequately prepared to care for people with dementia. A retrospective internal case note audit covering a 3-month period of referrals was undertaken in one hospice in the south of England as part of work to establish staff education requirements arising from patient make-up. Only patients over the age of 65 were included. Of the 288 case notes audited, 9% of the patients had either been diagnosed with dementia or suffered with dementia as a comorbidity. The results of the audit suggest that the number of people with dementia referred to hospice services may have increased in the last decade. This is in keeping with expectations and future predictions resulting from increased disease surveillance and an increasingly ageing population.

  9. Feline urate urolithiasis: a retrospective study of 159 cases.

    PubMed

    Dear, Jonathan D; Shiraki, Ryojj; Ruby, Annette L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the signalment, clinicopathologic data, and diagnostic imaging of cats with urate urolithiasis, as well as the salts of uric acid present in the uroliths. A retrospective analysis of feline urate uroliths submitted to the GV Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory between 2000 and 2008 was included. From these data, records were assimilated from referring veterinarians (143); furthermore, all recorded cases from within the William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (16) were included. Median values for the complete blood count and chemistry panels available were within the reference intervals, when provided, with only a few outliers present. Of all cases evaluated, seven had a portosystemic shunt (PSS). Cats with urate uroliths and a PSS were younger than cats without a PSS (2 years vs 7 years). The pathogenesis of urate uroliths in cats is poorly understood. Most cats were not completely evaluated for a PSS, however, clinicopathologic parameters indicating hepatic dysfunction were seldom noted; more sensitive diagnostics such as serum bile acids were rarely performed to confirm or negate the presence of a shunt. Studies are warranted to evaluate pathogenesis of urate uroliths to tailor proper management and breeding strategies.

  10. Five Year Retrospective Case Series of Adnexal Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Smitha; Nayar, Jayashree

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Adnexal torsion is a rare gynaecological emergency that requires an early surgical intervention to save the adnexa from irreversible damage .Our study is about clinical presentation and management approach of adnexal torsion in a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Review of case records during the five years of 2008 November -2013 November in Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, India. Results: Adnexal torsion was found mainly in the reproductive age. Ultrasound was the most commonly used imaging modality. Benign tumours predispose to torsion. Torsion occurred during postovulatory period in many cases. Polycystic ovaries were a risk factor for unexplained torsion in younger age groups. Diagnosis of adnexal torsion was mostly intra operative by direct visualisation of the rotated adnexa. Laparoscopy was the preferred method of surgical intervention. Ovarian conservation was tried in majority of the child bearing age groups. Conclusion: Adnexal torsion is a rare emergency which requires a high index of clinical suspicion for diagnosis as the symptoms are non specific. Imaging helps in diagnosis but most of them are diagnosed intra operatively. Laparoscopic conservative surgery is the preferred surgical approach especially in younger age groups. An early surgical intervention helps in salvaging the adnexa and prevents further complications. PMID:25653994

  11. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: A Retrospective Review of 16 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasad, Kowsalya; MuddeGowda, Mythri Kuthagale

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by extensive destruction of the involved kidney. It is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of renal morbidity around the world. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was undertaken to review the xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis cases presented at our tertiary care referral center in Bangalore, India. Results A total of 16 biopsy-proven cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis from October 2007 to March 2010 treated at our institute were included in the study. There were 10 females and 6 males with a mean age of 51.5 years. Flank pain was the most common presenting symptom followed by fever. All patients had unilateral disease and underwent total nephrectomy of the affected nonfunctional kidney. Conclusions Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic and unusual infectious inflammatory condition involving the renal parenchyma. The definite treatment is nephrectomy. Early identification and prompt treatment of this relatively benign and uncommon condition is important to minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:21750755

  12. Intermediate probability lung scans (IPLS): retrospective review of 82 cases.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Y; Ng, D C; Ang, E S; Goh, A S; Sundram, F X

    2001-10-01

    In the light of a reported 30-40% prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in intermediate probability lung scans (IPLS) based on results of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study, we examined the frequency of documented PE in 82 patients with IPLS, the management strategy employed in these patients with regards to additional imaging (e.g. further evaluation with venous sonography or spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA)), anticoagulation therapy, and subsequent follow-up outcomes. Retrospective review of the medical records of 82 patients with intermediate probability ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) lung scans from January 1998 to July 1999. 14.1% of V/Q scans were reported as having an intermediate probability of PE. 72% of IPLS were subject to further evaluation with venous Doppler ultrasound and/or CTA, and 39% of these patients had evidence of thrombo-embolic disease. All patients with imaging evidence of thromboembolic disease were started on anticoagulation therapy. In addition, 19 patients were treated based on clinical judgement. Amongst the 35 patients who were not treated, 17 (49%) were based on clinical findings without further imaging. There was no mortality on follow-up of 28 cases of untreated IPLS. The majority of IPLS will have further imaging, out of which over one-third will have thrombo-embolic disease. Approximately half of IPLS cases will receive anticoagulation therapy. No mortality or PE was found on follow-up of patients who were not treated.

  13. Chiropractic Treatment of Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, Steven; Fischer, Rebecca; Roy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe chiropractic treatment of 14 patients who presented with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Methods This is a retrospective case series of 14 patients, including 13 adults and 1 child. The majority of these patients were undergoing chiropractic care for spine-related conditions when they presented with additional TMD signs and symptoms. They were evaluated and treated with Activator Methods International published protocols relative to the temporomandibular joint before the addition of treatment to the suprahyoid muscles. Results All pre- and postadjustment assessments were recorded using a numeric pain scale. The resulting average showed a reduction in the patients’ pain scores from the initial visit of 8.3 ± 1.6 to the last visit at 1.4 ± 1.1 with an 80.9% ± 15.4% improvement. The average number of visits was 13.6 ± 8.2. Conclusion All patients selected for this case series showed a reduction of temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms. PMID:26793040

  14. Acute myocardial infarction in Scottish military veterans: a retrospective cohort study of 57,000 veterans and 173,000 matched nonveterans.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Beverly P; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P

    2014-06-15

    Few studies of veterans have examined cardiovascular disease as the primary outcome, other than in relation to specific conflicts or hazards. To assess the long-term risk and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in United Kingdom veterans from a broad range of military backgrounds and experience, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 57,000 veterans resident in Scotland and 173,000 civilians matched on age, sex, and area of residence. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the risks of fatal/nonfatal AMI overall, by sex, and by year of birth, adjusting for the potentially confounding effect of socioeconomic status, and to compare rates of case-fatality following AMI at 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year follow-up. Over a mean follow-up period of 29 years between 1981 and 2012, a total of 2,106 (3.8%) veterans experienced an AMI as compared with 5,261 (3.1%) nonveterans (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.29; P < 0.001). There was an increased risk of AMI among veterans born in 1945-1959 but not among those born from 1960 onward. Case-fatality was lower among veterans at 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year follow-up. We conclude that health behaviors such as smoking may have increased the risk of AMI in older veterans but that younger veterans have benefited from in-service health promotion initiatives.

  15. Endoscopic Septoplasty: A Retrospective Analysis of 415 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shreeya V; Kulkarni, Vinay P; Burse, Kiran; Bharath, Manu; Bharadwaj, Chaitanya; Sancheti, Vandana

    2015-09-01

    Nasal obstruction is the most common complaint in nasal and sinus disease. Deviated nasal septum is a very frequently encountered and common cause. Surgical correction of a deviated septum- nasal septoplasty- is the definite treatment for septal deviation. Over the last 2 decades, the applications for endoscopy in the field of rhinology have evolved beyond functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Septoplasty which is among the three most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology is particularly well suited to endoscopic application. Endoscopic septoplasty as a minimally invasive technique can limit the dissection and minimize trauma to the nasal septal flap under excellent visualization whose primary advantage is to decrease morbidity and post operative swelling in isolated septal deviation by limiting the excision to the area of deviation. This was a retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary care medical college hospital over a period of 5 years. The study group comprised 415 patients in and around Nashik District; who visited our tertiary health centre and were subjected to endoscopic septoplasty. Complete data records from 415 patients were available for statistical analysis. Maximum numbers of patients were in age group 20-39. The youngest patient was 7 years old and oldest was 75 years. Mean age was 32 years. The 7 years old was operated for DCR for congenital NLD block and septoplasty was adjunct procedure. Even the 75 years was operated for DCR. In the present study out of 415 cases, 256 (67.5 %) cases were male and 115 (32.5 %) cases were female. There is a male preponderance in the overall distribution of cases. In the present study of 415 patients, the most common operative procedure done was septoplasty in 260 (62.6 %), FESS with septoplasty in 38 (9.2 %) cases, septorhinopolasty in 41 (9.9 %) cases and DCR with septoplasty in 78 (18.3 %) cases. Endoscopic septoplasty facilitates good access to accomplish endoscopic DCR, FESS, and

  16. Cost of post-operative intravenous iron therapy in total lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective, matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martín-Montañez, Elisa; Naveira, Enrique; Seara, Javier; Pavía, José

    2014-01-01

    Background Requirements for allogeneic red cell transfusion after total lower limb arthroplasty are still high (20–50%), and post-operative intravenous iron has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements for this surgery. We performed a cost analysis to ascertain whether this alternative is also likely to be cost-effective. Materials and methods Data from 182 matched-pairs of total lower limb arthroplasty patients, managed with a restrictive transfusion protocol and without (control group) or with post-operative intravenous iron (iron group), were retrospectively reviewed. Acquisition and administration costs of iron (iron sucrose or ferric carboxymaltose) and allogeneic red cell concentrates, haemoglobin measurements, and prolonged stay in hospital were used for blood management cost analysis. Results Patients in the iron group received 600 mg intravenous iron, without clinically relevant incidents, and had a lower allogeneic transfusion rate (11.5% vs 26.4% for the iron and control groups, respectively; p=0.001). The reduction in transfusion rate was more pronounced in anaemic patients (17% vs 40%; p=0.015) than in non-anaemic ones (9.6% vs 21.2%; p=0.011). There were no differences with respect to post-operative infection rate. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion stayed in hospital longer (+1.9 days [95% CI: 1.2–2.6]). As intravenous iron reduces the allogeneic transfusion rate, both iron formulations were cost-neutral in the different cost scenarios (−25.5 to 62.1 €/patient for iron sucrose, and −51.1 to 64.4 €/patient for ferric carboxymaltose). Discussion In patients presenting with or without pre-operative anaemia, post-operative intravenous iron after total lower limb arthroplasty seems to be safe and is associated with reduced transfusion rates, without incremental costs. For anaemic patients, its efficacy could be increased by associating some other blood-saving method. PMID:24120595

  17. Paediatric lymphoedema: A retrospective chart review of 86 cases.

    PubMed

    Watt, Hilary; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; Wargon, Orli; Adams, Susan

    2017-01-01

    To define the clinical characteristics, investigations, management and outcomes of lymphoedema in a paediatric cohort. A retrospective chart review of children with lymphoedema seen at two tertiary paediatric hospitals since 1998. Telephone interviews with parents were performed when information was missing. Information recorded included demographic data, features of diagnosis and clinical presentation, symptoms, complications and treatment. A total of 86 patients with lymphoedema were identified. Eighty cases (93%) were primary and six cases (7%) were secondary. Most were female (60%). Location of swelling was most commonly the lower limbs (94%). There were 13 cases (15%) of genital involvement. Swelling presented in the first 12 months of life in 60% of primary lymphoedema patients. Complications of lymphoedema occurred in 73% of patients. Lymphoscintigraphy was the most common investigation used (65%), followed by ultrasound (57%) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (35%). Eight of the 48 (17%) lymphoscintigraphs produced a false negative result or were inconclusive with a correct diagnosis subsequently made clinically and using MRI. Average time to diagnosis was 9 months. Lymphoedema was managed with compression garments (99%), manual lymph drainage (97%) and multilayered bandaging (68%). Eight patients had an operative procedure as a part of management. Primary lymphoedema is more common than secondary lymphoedema in children. Onset tends to be during infancy for both males and females, and the lower limb is typically involved. Causes of secondary lymphoedema are diverse and rare. Diagnosis in children is often delayed but is possible based on history and physical examination alone and when further investigation is necessary MRI is effective. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Telomere length in prospective and retrospective cancer case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, Karen A.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Shah, Mitul; Driver, Kristy E.; Luben, Robert N.; Bingham, Sheila A.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that shorter mean telomere length in lymphocytes is associated with increased susceptibility to common diseases of aging, and may be predictive of cancer risk. However, most analyses have examined retrospectively-collected case-control studies. Mean telomere length was measured using high-throughput quantitative Real Time PCR. Blood for DNA extraction was collected after cancer diagnosis in the East Anglian SEARCH Breast (2243 cases, 2181 controls) and SEARCH Colorectal (2249 cases, 2161 controls) studies. Prospective case-control studies were conducted for breast cancer (199 cases) and colorectal cancer (185 cases), nested within the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Blood has been collected at least 6 months prior to diagnosis, and was matched to DNA from two cancer-free controls per case. In the retrospective, SEARCH studies, the age-adjusted Odds Ratios for shortest (Q4) vs. longest (Q1) quartile of mean telomere length was 15.5 (95%CI 11.6–20.8), p-het=5.7×10−75; with a ‘per quartile’ p-trend=2.1×10−80 for breast cancer, and 2.14 (95%CI 1.77–2.59), p-het=7.3×10−15; with a ‘per quartile’ p-trend=1.8×10−13 for colorectal cancer. In the prospective, EPIC study, the comparable Odds Ratios [Q4 vs. Q1] were 1.58 (95%CI 0.75–3.31), p-het=0.23 for breast cancer, and 1.13 (95%CI 0.54–2.36), p-het=0.75 for colorectal cancer risk. Mean telomere length was shorter in retrospectively-collected cases than in controls but the equivalent association was markedly weaker in the prospective studies. This suggests that telomere shortening largely occurs after diagnosis, and may not, therefore, be of value in cancer prediction. PMID:20395204

  19. Scoring system to predict asymptomatic choledocholithiasis before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sarli, L; Costi, R; Gobbi, S; Iusco, D; Sgobba, G; Roncoroni, L

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate if a recently proposed score system based on six preoperative parameters [history of colic pain and/or jaundice, dyspepsia, cholecystitis, ultrasound (US), evidence of common bile duct stones (CBDS), number and size of gallbladder stones at US, level of serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and/or alkaline phosphatase is effective in the selection of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with asymptomatic CBDS and could allow a significant reduction of the total number of preoperative examinations. In the case group, 408 patients were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-risk classes and underwent, respectively, no further preoperative assessment of the bile duct, intravenous cholangiography (IVC), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was performed whenever the surgeon was in doubt as to biliary anatomy or bile duct clearance. These patients were compared with 408 retrospectively matched patients (control group) undergoing routine preoperative IVC and/or ERC. In the case group, significantly lower numbers of IVC (120 vs 392) and IOC (3 vs 16) were performed ( p < 0.005), whereas no difference in the total number of ERCs was noted. One patient in the control group had retained CBDS detected during follow-up evaluation, whereas none occurred in the case group. The proposed scoring system allows selective use of IVC, ERC, and/or IOC in patients undergoing elective LC.

  20. CIN III lesions and regression: retrospective analysis of 635 cases.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Melodi; Böhmer, Gerd; Neumann, Heinrich H; von Wasielewski, Reinhard

    2015-11-21

    The rate of spontaneous regression in CIN III lesions is controversial. Whereas some studies have reported high regression rates of up to 38% after prolonged biopsy-conus intervals, others have shown rates between 0 and 4% without considering time intervals. Identification of young patients with potentially regressing CIN III could offer the chance to avoid conisation, thus lowering the risk of preterm labour. To further clarify the facts, we retrospectively compared 635 biopsies showing CIN III with the diagnosis of the conisation. Either regression (CIN I or less) or non-regression (CIN II and higher) was recorded. Diagnoses were made by light microscopy and p16 immunostaining. Conisation was performed between 2 and 463 days after biopsy (median 8.9 weeks). Six hundred twenty one (98%) were HPV-HR positive. In 345 cases, HPV subtyping was available, showing HPV16 infection in 57%. Routine processing of the conisation tissue showed no corresponding CIN lesion (< CIN II) in 40 cases (6.3%). Additional step sectioning of the tissue revealed small CIN II+ lesions in 80%. Finally, eight cases (1.3%) fulfilled the criteria of regression. No regression was seen in HPV16 positive cases. Twelve invasive carcinomas were detected by routine processing of the conisation tissue. These results are in contrast with some prior reports that might have overestimated spontaneous regression of CIN III. Study size and an accurate discrimination between CIN II and CIN III lesions by histopathology seem to be the most likely factors to explain the diverging results published. Complete step sectioning of the whole tissue is also mandatory in questionable cases. Although theories exist that the initial biopsy might stimulate the immune system, thus triggering regression within weeks, our data do not substantially support such a mechanism. Overall, the chance of a CIN III lesion to regress rapidly within weeks or months after diagnosis seems to be small. We found more previously

  1. A retrospective study on 69 cases of maxillary tooth transposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shiu-yin; Chu, Vanessa; Ki, Yung

    2012-01-01

    The published literature on tooth transposition includes only a few studies that have involved more than 50 subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of true maxillary tooth transposition and possible associated dental anomalies in a larger sample of children. The dental records and radiographs of children who had been diagnosed as having true maxillary tooth transposition at a School Dental Clinic in Hong Kong were studied retrospectively. Data were analyzed for sex and side distribution, as well as for associated dental anomalies. Trends of differences were analyzed statistically using the Fisher exact or chi-squared test. A total of 69 cases of true maxillary tooth transposition were identified and studied; its prevalence in Hong Kong Chinese children was 0.81%. More females than males were affected, and the difference between the sexes was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth, microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors or dental impaction was higher in patients with maxillary tooth transposition than in the general population (P < 0.05, P < 0.0005, and P < 0.0001, respectively). The fact that patients with maxillary tooth transposition were more likely to have congenital absence or microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors lent further support to the contention that a developmental field defect plays a role in the pathogenesis of maxillary tooth transposition.

  2. Infantile acne: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Prey, Sorilla; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Stalder, Jean-François; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Infantile acne is a rare and poorly understood disorder. The objective of this study was to improve our knowledge about the epidemiology and clinical course of infantile acne, and evaluate approaches to treatment. This two-center retrospective study covered the period between 1985 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were: (i) age less than 24 months when lesions appeared; (ii) presence of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions; (iii) persistence of lesions for at least 2 months. The data were drawn from clinical and photographic records, followed by administration of a telephone questionnaire to parents. It was proposed that each case be reviewed on the basis of the child's appearance and score on an acne scar clinical grading scale. Sixteen children were included. Nine had a family history of severe adolescent acne. The average duration of disease was 22 months. Two patients had been effectively treated with oral isotretinoin. More than half of the patients exhibited scars. We re-examined five children (average acne scar clinical grading scale score = 12/540). On the basis of the frequency of scarring, and the severity and average duration of lesions, the use of oral retinoids in severe infantile acne warrants evaluation.

  3. Laryngeal disease in cats: a retrospective study of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samantha S; Harvey, Andrea M; Barr, Frances J; Moore, Alasdair H; Day, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review the medical records of cats referred to the University of Bristol for investigation of laryngeal disease (n=35). Cases were categorised into one of four groups: cats with laryngeal paralysis (LP, n=14), laryngeal neoplasia (n=10), laryngeal inflammation (n=6), or miscellaneous laryngeal diseases (n=5). Laryngoscopy and echolaryngography were useful diagnostic techniques but histology was required for diagnosis of diseases other than LP. Two cats with lymphoma received chemotherapy achieving survival times of 60 and 1440 days. Four cats with LP were treated surgically, with a median survival time of 300 days (range 10-360 days) and six were treated conservatively with a median survival time of 780 days (range 300-2520 days). Three cats with inflammatory disease were treated medically and one by excision of the lesion. Two cats achieved survival times of 120 and 2800 days. Cats with LP, laryngeal lymphoma or laryngitis had excellent long-term survival following appropriate treatment.

  4. Does COPD have a clinically relevant impact on hearing loss? A retrospective matched cohort study with selection of patients diagnosed with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kamenski, Gustav; Bendova, Jana; Fink, Waltraud; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Zehetmayer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a multisystemic disease has a measurable and biologically explainable impact on the auditory function detectable in the laboratory. This study tries to clarify if COPD is also a significant and clinically relevant risk factor for hearing impairment detectable in the general practice setting. Design Retrospective matched cohort study with selection of patients diagnosed with COPD. Setting 12 general practices in Lower Austria. Participants Consecutive patients >35 years with a diagnosis of COPD who consulted 1 of 12 single-handed GPs in 2009 and 2010 were asked to participate. Those who agreed were individually 1:1 matched with controls according to age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Main outcome measures Sensorineural hearing impairment as assessed by pure tone audiometry, answers of three questions concerning a self-perceived hearing problem, application of the whispered voice test and the score of the Hearing Inventory for the Elderly, Screening Version (HHIE-S). Results 194 patients (97 pairs of 194 cases and controls) with a mean age of 65.5 (SD 10.2) were tested. Univariate conditional logistic regression resulted in significant differences in the mean bone conduction hearing loss and in the total score of HHIE-S, in the multiple conditional regression model, only smoking (p<0.0001) remained significant. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that there is an association between COPD and hearing impairment which, if found, would have allowed better management of patients with COPD. PMID:26586319

  5. Evaluation of DNA match probability in criminal case.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Lee, H S; Park, M; Hwang, J J

    2001-02-15

    The new emphasis on quantification of evidence has led to perplexing courtroom decisions and it has been difficult for forensic scientists to pursue logical arguments. Especially, for evaluating DNA evidence, though both the genetic relationship for two compared persons and the examined locus system should be considered, the understanding for this has not yet drawn much attention. In this paper, we suggest to calculate the match probability by using coancestry coefficient when the family relationship is considered, and thus the performances of the identification values depending on the calculation of match probability are compared under various situations.

  6. Breast cancer recurrence in patients receiving epidural and paravertebral anesthesia: a retrospective, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koonce, Stephanie L; Mclaughlin, Sarah A; Eck, Dustin L; Porter, Steven; Bagaria, Sanjay; Clendenen, Steven R; Robards, Christopher B

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an association between the use of regional paravertebral or epidural anesthesia and a reduction in tumor recurrence following breast cancer surgery. To examine this relationship we performed a retrospective case-control study of patients undergoing breast cancer surgery receiving regional, regional and general, or general anesthesia. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients undergoing surgery for stage 0 to III breast cancer. Patients identified as receiving regional anesthesia were then matched for age, stage, estrogen receptor (ER) status, progesterone receptor status, and HER-2 expression with patients who received no regional anesthesia. Univariate (Pearson's χ2 test and odds ratio) and multivariate logistic analyses with backward stepwise regression were performed to determine factors associated with cancer recurrence. Between 1998 and 2007, 816 women underwent surgery for stage 0-III breast cancer at our institution. Forty-five patients developed tumors. Univariate analysis showed the use of regional anesthesia trended towards reduced cancer recurrence, but it did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.06). Higher recurrence rates were associated with ER positive status (p = 0.003) and higher tumor stage (p < 0.0001). Age and HER-2 status were not associated with increased cancer recurrence (both p > 0.11). Multivariate analysis confirmed ER status and stage as independently influential (p = 0.002 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Although we found a trend towards reduced breast cancer recurrence with the use of regional anesthesia, univariate analysis did not reach statistical significance.

  7. Risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy after cardiopulmonary bypass: a matched case/control study.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, G A; Garrity, J A; Dearani, J A; Abel, M D; Schroeder, D R; Mullany, C J

    2001-12-01

    Visual loss (acuity or field) secondary to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is a rare but devastating complication of cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We determined clinical features and risk factors for ION by a retrospective time-matched, case-control study. ION was identified in 17 (0.06%) patients out of 27,915 patients who underwent CPB between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1994. For each ION patient, two patients who underwent CPB exactly 2 wk before the ION patient were selected as controls. Data were analyzed by using conditional logistic regression with the 1:2 matched-set feature of 17 cases and 34 controls. Two-tailed P values < or =0.05 were considered significant. From bivariate analysis, smaller minimum postoperative hemoglobin concentration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, P = 0.047) and the presence of atherosclerotic vascular disease (OR = 7.0, P = 0.026) were found to be independently associated with ION after CPB, as were smaller minimum postoperative hemoglobin concentration (OR = 2.2, P = 0.027) and preoperative angiogram within 48 h of surgery (OR = 7.2, P = 0.042). In ION patients, 13 (76.5%) of 17 experienced a minimum postoperative hemoglobin value of < 8.5 g/dL, whereas only 14 (41.2%) of 34 control patients experienced values < 8.5 g/dL. Patients with clinically significant vascular disease history or preoperative angiogram may be at increased risk for ischemic optic neuropathy after cardiac surgery, especially if the hemoglobin remains low in the postoperative period.

  8. Longitudinal plasma metanephrines preceding pheochromocytoma diagnosis: a retrospective case-control serum repository study.

    PubMed

    Olson, S W; Yoon, S; Baker, T; Prince, L K; Oliver, D; Abbott, K C

    2016-03-01

    Plasma metanephrines (PMN) are highly sensitive for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, but the natural history of PMN before pheochromocytoma diagnosis has not been previously described. The aim of the study was to compare the progression of PMN before pheochromocytoma diagnosis to matched healthy and essential hypertension disease controls. A retrospective case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) study. We performed a DoDSR study that compared three longitudinal pre-diagnostic PMN for 30 biopsy-proven pheochromocytoma cases to three longitudinal PMN for age, sex, race, and age of serum sample matched healthy and essential hypertension disease controls. Predominant metanephrine (MN) or normetanephrine (NMN) production was identified for each case and converted to a percentage of the upper limit of normal to allow analysis of all cases together. PMN were measured by Quest Diagnostics. The predominant plasma metanephrine (PPM) was >100 and 300% of the upper limit of normal a median of 6.6 and 4.1 years before diagnosis respectively. A greater percentage of pheochromocytoma patients had a PPM >100 and >300% of the upper limit of normal compared with combined healthy and essential hypertension disease controls <2, 2-8, and >8 years prior to diagnosis. For patients with a baseline PPM 90-300% of the upper limit of normal, a 25% rate of rise per year was 100% specific for pheochromocytoma. PPMs elevate years before diagnosis which suggests that delayed diagnoses are common. For mild PMN elevations, follow-up longitudinal PMN trends may provide a highly specific and economical diagnostic tool. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Clinical impact and risk stratification of balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal disease in nitinol stenting era: Retrospective multicenter study using propensity score matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Taketsugu; Takamura, Takaaki; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Iida, Osamu; Hirano, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Yamaoka, Terutoshi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Kitayama, Michihiko; Kajinami, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Nitinol stenting could bring the better outcome in endovascular therapy for femoropopliteal disease. However, it might be expected that recent marked advances in both device technology and operator technique had led to improved efficacy of balloon angioplasty even in this segment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical impact of balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal disease and make risk stratification clear by propensity score matching analysis. Based on the multicenter retrospective data, 2758 patients (balloon angioplasty: 729 patients and nitinol stenting: 2029 patients), those who underwent endovascular therapy for femoropopliteal disease, were analyzed. The propensity score matching procedure extracted a total of 572 cases per group, and the primary patency rate of balloon angioplasty and nitinol stenting groups after matching was significantly the same (77.2% vs 82.7% at 1 year; 62.2% vs 64.3% at 3 years; 47.8% vs 54.3% at 5 years). In multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis, significant predictors for primary patency were diabetes mellitus, regular dialysis, cilostazol use, chronic total occlusion, and intra-vascular ultra-sonography use. The strategy of balloon angioplasty was not evaluated as a significant predictor for the primary patency. After risk stratification using five items (diabetes mellitus, regular dialysis, no use of intra-vascular ultra-sonography, chronic total occlusion, and no use of cilostazol: the DDICC score), the estimated primary patency rates of each group (low, DDICC score 0-2; moderate, DDICC score 3; high risk, DDICC score 4-5) were 88.6%, 78.3%, and 63.5% at 1 year; 75.2%, 60.7%, and 39.8% at 3 years; and 66.0%, 47.1%, and 26.3% at 5 years (p < 0.0001). The primary patency rate of balloon angioplasty and nitinol stenting groups was significantly the same in each risk stratification. This study suggests that balloon angioplasty does not have inferiority to nitinol stenting but does have

  10. Laparoscopic versus Open Omental Patch Repair for Early Presentation of Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Matched Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Keith Haozhe; Koura, Aaryan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes between laparoscopic and open omental patch repair (LOPR versus OR) in patients with similar presentation of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). The secondary aim was to evaluate the outcomes according to the severity of peritonitis. Methods. All patients who underwent omental patch repair at two university-affiliated institutes between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed. Matched cohort between LOPR and OR groups was achieved by only including patients that had ulcer perforation <2 cm in size and symptoms occurring <48 hours. Outcome measures were defined in accordance with length of stay (LOS), postoperative complications, and mortality. Results. 148 patients met the predefined inclusion criteria with LOPR performed in 40 patients. Outcome measures consistently support laparoscopic approach but only length of hospital stay (LOS) achieved statistical significance (LOPR 4 days versus OR 5 days, p < 0.01). In a subgroup analysis of patients with MPI score >21, LOPR is also shown to benefit, particularly resulting in significant shorter LOS (4 days versus 11 days, p < 0.01). Conclusion. LOPR offers improved short-term outcomes in patients who present within 48 hours and with perforation size <2 cm. LOPR also proved to be more beneficial in high MPI cases. PMID:27722200

  11. Clinically overt postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Teo, Roderick; Punter, Jeanette; Abrams, Keith; Mayne, Christopher; Tincello, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    We set out to determine the incidence of symptomatic postpartum urinary retention (PUR) after vaginal delivery and to establish any associated risk factors. We carried out a retrospective case-control study of women having PUR after vaginal delivery from 2001 to 2005. Four controls, matched for date of delivery, were selected for each case in univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses. There were 15,757 deliveries and 30 cases of PUR (incidence 0.2%). Median duration of PUR was 19 days (range 3-85). Eighty percent were managed with intermittent self-catheterization. The use of regional analgesia increased the risk of PUR [odds ratio (OR) 6.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-19.96], while ethnicity (Caucasian vs Asian) reduced the risk (OR 0.27, CI 0.08-0.85) (p<0.05). PUR is uncommon but carries significant morbidity. Epidural analgesia and Asian ethnic origin increase the risk. We recommend routine catheterization for up to 24 h after delivery after epidural analgesia.

  12. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; van der Linden, Ana; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-08-09

    To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Retrospective case series study. Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital infections and arthrogryposis. The arthrogryposis was unrelated to the abnormalities

  13. Congenital Zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Lins, Otavio Gomes; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley; Sobral da Silva, Paula Fabiana; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes; do Amaral, Fernando José; Gomes, Joelma Arruda; Ribeiro de Medeiros, Igor Colaço; Ventura, Camila V; Ramos, Regina Coeli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus. Design Retrospective case series study. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants Seven children with arthrogryposis and a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Main clinical, radiological, and electromyographic findings, and likely correlation between clinical and primary neurological abnormalities. Results The brain images of all seven children were characteristic of congenital infection and arthrogryposis. Two children tested positive for IgM to Zika virus in the cerebrospinal fluid. Arthrogryposis was present in the arms and legs of six children (86%) and the legs of one child (14%). Hip radiographs showed bilateral dislocation in seven children, subluxation of the knee associated with genu valgus in three children (43%), which was bilateral in two (29%). All the children underwent high definition ultrasonography of the joints, and there was no evidence of abnormalities. Moderate signs of remodeling of the motor units and a reduced recruitment pattern were found on needle electromyography (monopolar). Five of the children underwent brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the remaining two CT only. All presented malformations of cortical development, calcifications predominantly in the cortex and subcortical white matter (especially in the junction between the cortex and white matter), reduction in brain volume, ventriculomegaly, and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MRI of the spine in four children showed apparent thinning of the cord and reduced ventral roots. Conclusions Congenital Zika syndrome should be added to the differential diagnosis of congenital

  14. A concordance index for matched case-control studies with applications in cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Field, John; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-02-10

    In unmatched case-control studies, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) may be used to measure how well a variable discriminates between cases and controls. The AUC is sometimes used in matched case-control studies by ignoring matching, but it lacks interpretation because it is not based on an estimate of the ROC for the population of interest. We introduce an alternative measure of discrimination that is the concordance of risk factors conditional on the matching factors. Parametric and non-parametric estimators are given for different matching scenarios, and applied to real data from breast and lung cancer case-control studies. Diagnostic plots to verify the constancy of discrimination over matching factors are demonstrated. The proposed simple measure is easy to use, interpret, more efficient than unmatched AUC statistics and may be applied to compare the conditional discrimination performance of risk factors.

  15. Limb Lengthening and Then Insertion of an Intramedullary Nail: A Case-matched Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Dawn; Fragomen, Austin T.; Ilizarov, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for lengthening, deformity correction, and treatment of nonunions and bone defects. The classic method uses an external fixator for both distraction and consolidation leading to lengthy times in frames and there is a risk of refracture after frame removal. We suggest a new technique: lengthening and then nailing (LATN) technique in which the frame is used for gradual distraction and then a reamed intramedullary nail inserted to support the bone during the consolidation phase, allowing early removal of the external fixator. We performed a retrospective case-matched comparison of patients lengthened with LATN (39 limbs in 27 patients) technique versus the classic (34 limbs in 27 patients). The LATN group wore the external fixator for less time than the classic group (12 versus 29 weeks). The LATN group had a lower external fixation index (0.5 versus 1.9) and a lower bone healing index (0.8 versus 1.9) than the classic group. LATN confers advantages over the classic method including shorter times needed in external fixation, quicker bone healing, and protection against refracture. There are also advantages over the lengthening over a nail and internal lengthening nail techniques. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800209

  16. Causal diagrams and the logic of matched case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

    2012-01-01

    It is tempting to assume that confounding bias is eliminated by choosing controls that are identical to the cases on the matched confounder(s). We used causal diagrams to explain why such matching not only fails to remove confounding bias, but also adds colliding bias, and why both types of bias are removed by conditioning on the matched confounder(s). As in some publications, we trace the logic of matching to a possible tradeoff between effort and variance, not between effort and bias. Lastly, we explain why the analysis of a matched case-control study – regardless of the method of matching – is not conceptually different from that of an unmatched study. PMID:22701093

  17. Matching clinicians to operative cases: a novel application of a patient acuity score.

    PubMed

    Was, A; Wanderer, J

    2013-01-01

    Patient and surgical case complexity are important considerations in creating appropriate clinical assignments for trainees in the operating room (OR). The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System is the most commonly used tool to classify patient illness severity, but it requires manual evaluation by a clinician and is highly variable. A Risk Stratification System for surgical patients was recently published which uses administrative billing codes to calculate four Risk Stratification Indices (RSIs) and provides an objective surrogate for patient complexity that does not require clinical evaluation. This risk score could be helpful when assigning operating room cases. This is a technical feasibility study to evaluate the process and potential utility of incorporating an automatic risk score calculation into a web-based tool for assigning OR cases. We created a web service implementation of the RSI model for one-year mortality and automatically calculated the RSI values for patients scheduled to undergo an operation the following day. An analysis was conducted on data availability for the RSI model and the correlation between RSI values and ASA physical status. In a retrospective analysis of 46,740 patients who received surgery in the year preceding the web tool implementation, RSI values were generated for 20,638 patients (44%). The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between ASA physical status classification and one-year mortality RSI values was 0.404. We have shown that it is possible to create a web-based tool that uses existing billing data to automatically calculate risk scores for patients scheduled to undergo surgery. Such a risk scoring system could be used to match patient acuity to physician experience, and to provide improved patient and clinician experiences. The web tool could be improved by expanding the input database or utilizing procedure booking codes rather than billing data.

  18. Reduced cost and mortality using home telehealth to promote self-management of complex chronic conditions: a retrospective matched cohort study of 4,999 veteran patients.

    PubMed

    Darkins, Adam; Kendall, Stephen; Edmonson, Ellen; Young, Michele; Stressel, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis of 2009-2012 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data assessed the efficacy of care coordination home telehealth (CCHT), a model of care designed to reduce institutional care. Outcomes for 4,999 CCHT-non-institutional care (NIC) patients were compared with usual (non-CCHT) care in a matched cohort group (MCG) of 183,872 Veterans. Both cohorts were comprised of patients with complex chronic conditions with statistically similar baseline (pre-CCHT enrollment) healthcare costs, when adjusted for age, sex, chronic disease, emergency room (ER) visits, hospital admissions, hospital lengths of stay, and pharmacy costs. Subsequent analyses after 12 months of CCHT-NIC enrollment showed mean annual healthcare costs for CCHT-NIC patients fell 4%, from $21,071 to $20,206, whereas the corresponding costs for MCG patients increased 48%, from $20,937 to $31,055. Higher mean annual pharmacy expenditure of 22% ($470 over baseline) for CCHT-NIC patients versus 15% for MCG patients ($326 over baseline) was attributable to the medication compliance effect of better care coordination. Several healthcare cost drivers (e.g., ER visits and admissions) had sizable declines in the CCHT-NIC group. Medicare usage review in both cohorts excluded this as a confounding factor in cost analyses. Prefinal case selection criteria analysis of both cohorts yielded a 9.8% mortality rate in CCHT patients versus 16.58% in non-CCHT patients. This study corroborates previous positive VHA analyses of CCHT but contradicts results from recent non-VHA studies, highlighting the efficacy of the VHA's standardized CCHT model, which incorporates a biopsychosocial approach to care that emphasizes patient self-management.

  19. Who benefits most from mild therapeutic hypothermia in coronary intervention era? A retrospective and propensity-matched study.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Eisuke; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Ishihara, Masaharu; Shimatani, Yuji; Kurisu, Satoshi; Nakama, Yasuharu; Dai, Kazuoki; Otani, Takayuki; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Ejiri, Kentaro; Oda, Nozomu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of the time interval from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation (CPA-ROSC) in cardiac arrest patients and the types of patients who will benefit from therapeutic hypothermia. Four hundred witnessed adult comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac etiology were enrolled in the study. The favorable neurological outcome was defined as category 1 or 2 on the five-point Pittsburgh cerebral performance scale at the time of hospital discharge. A matching process based on the propensity score was performed to equalize potential prognostic factors in the hypothermia and normothermia groups, and to formulate a balanced 1:1 matched cohort study. The rate of favorable neurological outcome was higher (P < 0.05) in the hypothermia group (n = 110) than in the normothermia group in patients with CPA-ROSC of 15 to 20 minutes (64% vs. 17%), 20 to 25 minutes (70% vs. 8%), 25 to 30 minutes (50% vs. 7%), 35 to 40 minutes (27% vs. 0%) and 40 to 45 minutes (29% vs. 2%). A similar association was observed in a propensity-matched cohort, but the differences were not significant. There was no significant difference in the rate of favorable neurological outcome between the hypothermia-matched group and the normothermia-matched group. In the patients whose CPA-ROSC was greater than 15 minutes, however, the rate of favorable neurological outcome was higher in the hypothermia-matched group than in the normothermia-matched group (27% vs. 4%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the CPA-ROSC was an independent predictor of favorable neurological outcome (every 1 minute: odds ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.85 to 0.92, P < 0.001). The CPA-ROSC is an independent predictor of neurological outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia is more beneficial in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest with CPA-ROSC greater than 15 minutes.

  20. Semiparametric regression models for detecting effect modification in matched case-crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inyoung; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Ho

    2011-07-10

    In matched case-crossover studies, it is generally accepted that covariates on which a case and associated controls are matched cannot exert a confounding effect on independent predictors included in the conditional logistic regression model because any stratum effect is removed by the conditioning on the fixed number of sets of a case and controls in the stratum. Hence, the conditional logistic regression model is not able to detect any effects associated with the matching covariates by stratum. In addition, the matching covariates may be effect modification and the methods for assessing and characterizing effect modification by matching covariates are quite limited. In this article, we propose a unified approach in its ability to detect both parametric and nonparametric relationships between the predictor and the relative risk of disease or binary outcome, as well as potential effect modifications by matching covariates. Two methods are developed using two semiparametric models: (1) the regression spline varying coefficients model and (2) the regression spline interaction model. Simulation results show that the two approaches are comparable. These methods can be used in any matched case-control study and extend to multilevel effect modification studies. We demonstrate the advantage of our approach using an epidemiological example of a 1-4 bi-directional case-crossover study of childhood aseptic meningitis associated with drinking water turbidity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A multicenter matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Arias-Ortiz, Paola Mariana; Calderón, Libia Del Pilar; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Moreno, José; Leal, Aura Lucía; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Grebo, Grupo

    2016-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent pathogen at critical care services. Its presence leads to increased hospital stays and mortality risk in patients with bacteremia. However, the etiology of this resistance marker has not been fully studied. To identify risk factors associated with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in critically ill patients treated at intensive care units in Bogotá, Colombia. We conducted a retrospective paired case-control study, nested in a cohort of patients diagnosed with S. aureus bacteremia and treated at intensive care units between 2006 and 2008 in Bogotá. Cases were patients with positive blood culture to methicillin resistance, matched in a 1:1 ratio with methicillin-sensitive controls isolated from the same institution and hospitalization year. We used conditional logistic regression to analyze the risk factors associated with the presence of resistance, with emphasis on prior antibiotic therapy. We included 372 patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Factors such as the use of pre-hospital devices: vascular (OR=1.986, 95% CI 1.038 to 3.801) and urinary (OR=2.559, 95% CI: 1.170 to 5.596), along with the number of previously used antibiotics, were associated with the emergence of resistance. The number of antibiotics used previously was determined to have a gradient effect, particularly carbapenems. The rational use of antibiotics and surveillance of exposure to surgical procedures or use of invasive devices are interventions that could diminish the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia causes.

  2. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a Moroccan retrospective study of 30 cases

    PubMed Central

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare origin of stroke, the clinical presentation and etiologies vary. The prognosis is shown to be better than arterial thrombosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and MR Venograpgy (MRV) are currently important tools for the diagnosis. We studied 30 cases of CVT diagnosed in the department of neurology at the University Hospital of Fez (Morocco). Patients diagnosed with CVT signs between January 2003 and October 2007 were included in the study. Cerebral CT-scan was performed in 27 cases (90%) while the MRI examination was done in 18 patients (67%); and most patients (90%) received anticoagulant therapy. The mean age of our patients was of 29 years (age range between 18 days and 65 years). A female predominance was observed (70%). The clinical presentation of patients was dominated by: headache in 24 cases (80%), motor and sensory disability in 15 cases (50%), seizures in 10 cases (33%), consciousness disorder in 10 cases (33%). CVT was associated to post-partum in 10 cases (33%), infectious origin in 8 cases (26%), Behçet disease in 2 cases (7%), pulmonary carcinoma in 1 case, thrombocytemia in 1 case and idiopathic in 7 cases (23%). The evolution was good in 20 cases (67%), minor squelaes were observed in 6 patients (20%), while major squelaes were observed in 2 cases. Two cases of death were registered. The CVT is a pathology of good prognosis once the diagnosis is promptly established and early heparin treatment initiated. PMID:25317229

  3. Measures of Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Incident Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Matched Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lekavich, Carolyn L; Barksdale, Debra J; Wu, Jia-Rong; Neelon, Virginia; Crandell, Jamie; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    Evidence continues to demonstrate increasing prevalence, cost, and mortality implications of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but clearly defined parameters that distinguish between control subjects and HFpEF have not been established. This study was designed to detect differences in markers associated with Ventricular-arterial coupling and HFpEF when comparing matched case and control groups. A study cohort of case (incident patients with HFpEF; n = 155) and matched control (patients with no prior heart failure; n = 155) groups was retrospectively identified. Matching criteria included race, sex, age, and date of echocardiography (within 1 year). Physiologic and echocardiographic markers were collected from previously acquired transthoracic echocardiograms. These echocardiographic images were reanalyzed, and measures of ventricular-arterial coupling were calculated. Using conditional logistic regression and controlling for covariates, models were fitted to detect differences in HFpEF markers between case and control subjects. Statistically significant differences in markers that reflect ventricular elastance (Ees; P = .007) and left atrial diameter (LAdiam; P = .04) were detected when comparing the case and control groups. Conditional logistic regression analyses suggested a 40% higher odds of being in the case group with every 1-unit increase in Ees (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.79) and a 2.92 times higher odds of being in the case group for every 1 cm increase in LAdiam (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.064-7.994). Ees and LAdiam are easily measurable echocardiographic markers that may have a role in identifying and tracking the progression toward incident HFpEF without increasing cost or risk to the patient. Prospective studies are indicated to explore the use of Ees and LAdiam as predictors of impending HFpEF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Leber's congenital amaurosis. Retrospective review of 43 cases and a new fundus finding in two cases.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, R; Mets, M B; Maumenee, I H

    1987-03-01

    Leber's congenital amaurosis is a hereditary clinical disorder that may be associated with several different diseases. This study consists of a retrospective review of 43 cases. Twenty of our patients had fundus appearances that resembled retinitis pigmentosa. Five had normal-appearing fundi. The remainder had other, previously reported fundus abnormalities, with the exception of two patients who demonstrated a new fundus finding, a nummular pigmentary pattern. Other associated eye anomalies included cataracts, keratoconus, ptosis, and strabismus. The most frequent systemic associations were mental retardation, cystic renal disease, skeletal disorders, and hydrocephalus.

  5. Effect of pentoxifylline on anaemia control in haemodialysis patients: retrospective observational case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gutiérrez, José M; Ferrer-Nadal, Asunción; García-Fernández, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of anaemia in haemodialysis (HD) with iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) does not lead to adequate anaemia control and has been associated with inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) may be beneficial in these cases. Our aim was to study the potential effect of PTX on anaemia in haemodialysis patients. Retrospective observational case-control study on 18 patients (treated with PTX) and 18 controls (without PTX matched by age and sex) on HD (Clínica Universidad de Navarra). Four patients received PTX due to vascular disease and 14 due to refractory anaemia (which was defined as haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dl in the last three months despite high doses of ESA and transferrin saturation of >20%). Hb, MIRCERA dose and C-reactive protein were recorded before starting PTX treatment (baseline), at 3 months and at the end of the study. In patients who received PTX, there was an increase in Hb (P<.001) over three months and a decrease in the ESA dose at the end of the study (P=.002). The baseline differences in Hb between groups (lowest of all cases) (P<.001) and ESA dose (highest of all cases) (P=.006), disappeared at 3 months. At the end of the study, 11/18 (61.1%) of patients treated with PTX had adequate Hb levels and received doses of ESA comparable with those of the controls. In HD patients, PTX in doses of 800 mg/day improves Hb significantly and in the short term (3 months) in HD patients (around 61% response) and allows the required ESA dose to be reduced in the medium-long term. This effect is sustained over time and treatment is tolerated well.

  6. The complicated duodenal diverticulum: retrospective analysis of 11 cases.

    PubMed

    de Perrot, Thomas; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Platon, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    A series of rare complicated duodenal diverticula were reported with emphasis on causes for misdiagnosis. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of complicated duodenal diverticulum were retrospectively obtained. Computed tomographic (CT) reports and findings were reviewed. Complications consisted of diverticulitis (n=2), perforation (n=7), or obstructive cholangitis (n=2). CT imaging demonstrated a duodenal diverticular structure with findings due to the kind of complications. At the time of CT interpretation, a complicated duodenal diverticulum was suspected in 5 out of 11 patients. Awareness of the duodenal diverticulum and complications may improve the diagnostic value of CT in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shigellosis outbreak linked to canteen-food consumption in a public institution: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Garitano, I; Naranjo, M; Forier, A; Hendriks, R; DE Schrijver, K; Bertrand, S; Dierick, K; Robesyn, E; Quoilin, S

    2011-12-01

    On 13 November 2009, the authorities of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of Shigella sonnei at a public institution. A study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. We performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. The reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively collected Shigella specimens. We found 52 cases distributed over space (25/35 departments) and time (2 months). We found a matched odds ratio of 3·84 (95% confidence interval 1·02-14·44) for canteen-food consumption. A food handler had travelled to Morocco shortly before detection of the first laboratory-confirmed case. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples tested negative for Shigella. Confirmed cases presented PFGE profiles, highly similar to archived isolates from Morocco. Foodborne transmission associated with the canteen was strongly suspected.

  8. Spontaneous acromegaly: a retrospective case control study in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, F; Zagnoli, L; Rosenberg, D; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M

    2014-10-01

    Acromegaly results from the overproduction of growth hormone in adulthood and is characterised by overgrowth of soft tissue and/or bone as well as insulin resistance. There are few data indicating the risk factors associated with this disease in dogs or its clinicopathological features and sequelae. The objective of this retrospective study was to catalogue and assess these aspects of the disease in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) which were found to be over-represented among acromegalic dogs attending two veterinary referral clinics over a period of 7 years. Each acromegalic dog (AD) was compared with two breed/age/sex matched controls. Clinical signs of acromegaly included panting, polyuria/polydipsia, widened interdental spaces, weakness, inspiratory stridor, macroglossia, weight gain, redundant skin folds, thick coat, exophthalmos and mammary masses. Serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine-kinase, glucose, triglyceride, phosphate ion, and 'calcium per phosphate product' concentrations were significantly higher in acromegalic animals while haemoglobin concentration, blood urea nitrogen, sodium and chloride ion concentrations, and urinary specific gravity, osmolality and fractional excretion of phosphate were significantly lower. Although, in the majority of cases clinicopathological abnormalities resolved following ovariohysterectomy, in one dog, acromegalic signs abated and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations normalised only following the surgical excision of mammary tumours carried out 2 months after ovariohysterectomy. The findings of this study indicate that GSDs are predisposed to the development of acromegaly with a suspected inherited susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. USA paralympic team archer with McCune Albright Syndrome: a retrospective case report.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nick; Nyland, John; Roberts, Craig S

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective case report describes a 22-year-old woman with McCune Albright Syndrome who was an archery Bronze Medalist at the 2008 USA Paralympic Games. The subject completed the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Hip Dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Score (HOOS). SF-36 scores met or exceeded those for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) female athletes, and age and gender matched USA norms for vitality, mental health and role emotional subscales. General health was lower than NCAA female athletes. Physical functioning, role: physical, bodily pain and social functioning subscale scores were lower than both comparison groups. HOOS symptom subscale scores revealed disabilities with walking (performed with crutches), hip abduction and stair climbing. Target archery does not require the lower extremity strength and motion required by many other sports. Identifying the ideal time to undergo total hip arthroplasty is difficult. As total hip arthroplasty becomes less invasive, more durable, with greater modular options, and with lower revision rates, more young patients will likely benefit. Serial SF-36 and HOOS surveys may help patients and surgeons better delineate symptom, functional limitation and disability changes across the early lifespan assisting surgical timing decisions while balancing existing function, quality of life values and near future technological advances.

  10. Retrospective Biodosimetry of an Occupational Overexposure-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Beaton-Green, L A; Barr, T; Ainsbury, E A; Wilkins, R C

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, Health Canada was approached by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to conduct biodosimetry for a possible overexposure 4 y prior to assessment. Dose estimates were determined by means of two cytogenetic assays, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and translocations as measured by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). As dicentrics are considered to be unstable over time, the results of the DCA were adjusted to account for the time elapsed between the suspected exposure and sampling. The frequency of damage was then compared to Health Canada's calibration curves, respectively, to calculate dose. In addition, the translocation data were corrected for age-related increases in background. With a half-life of 36 months for dicentric chromosomes taken into consideration, the dose estimates from both assays were in agreement. Due to the uncertainty in the half-life of dicentrics, the FISH assay is considered to be more reliable as a technique for retrospective biodosimetry.

  11. [Imported hepatic amebiasis in adults: retrospective study of 58 cases].

    PubMed

    Rapp, C; Valentin, C; Verret, C; Margery, J; Simon, F; Ficko, C; Carmoi, T

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of a retrospective study of patients hospitalized for serologically- confirmed hepatic amebiasis confirmed by serology in four French military hospitals from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2012. The study included 58 patients (53 men, 5 women) with a median age of 41 years (range: 25-80). Among them, 34 (59%) were in the military, 10 (17%) were tourists, 10 migrants (15%), and 4 expatriates (5%). For 75%, contamination occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. The qualitative latex test was simple to use and reliable, even in the emergency department. Medical treatment by metronidazole alone was efficacious in 75% of the patients. Indications for drainage must be discussed according to the clinical and laboratory evidence.

  12. Anaesthesia for awake craniotomy: A retrospective study of 54 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sokhal, Navdeep; Rath, Girija Prasad; Chaturvedi, Arvind; Dash, Hari Hara; Bithal, Parmod Kumar; Chandra, P Sarat

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The anaesthetic challenge of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate sedation, analgesia, respiratory and haemodynamic stability in an awake patient who should be able to co-operate during intraoperative neurological assessment. The current literature, sharing the experience on awake craniotomy, in Indian context, is minimal. Hence, we carried out a retrospective study with the aim to review and analyse the anaesthetic management and perioperative complications in patients undergoing awake craniotomy, at our centre. Methods: Medical records of 54 patients who underwent awake craniotomy for intracranial lesions over a period of 10 years were reviewed, retrospectively. Data regarding anaesthetic management, intraoperative complications and post-operative course were recorded. Results: Propofol (81.5%) and dexmedetomidine (18.5%) were the main agents used for providing conscious sedation to facilitate awake craniotomy. Hypertension (16.7%) was the most commonly encountered complication during intraoperative period, followed by seizures (9.3%), desaturation (7.4%), tight brain (7.4%), and shivering (5.6%). The procedure had to be converted to general anaesthesia in one of patients owing to refractory brain bulge. The incidence of respiratory and haemodynamic complications were comparable in the both groups (P > 0.05). There was less incidence of intraoperative seizures in patients who received propofol (P = 0.03). In post-operative period, 20% of patients developed new motor deficit. Mean intensive care unit stay was 2.8 ± 1.9 day (1–14 days) and mean hospital stay was 7.0 ± 5.0 day (3–30 days). Conclusions: ‘Conscious sedation’ was the technique of choice for awake craniotomy, at our institute. Fentanyl, propofol, and dexmedetomidine were the main agents used for this purpose. Patients receiving propofol had less incidence of intraoperative seizure. Appropriate selection of patients, understanding the procedure of surgery, and judicious

  13. Imatinib in advanced chordoma: A retrospective case series analysis.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Nadia; Casali, Paolo G; Morosi, Carlo; Messina, Antonella; Palassini, Elena; Pilotti, Silvana; Tamborini, Elena; Radaelli, Stefano; Gronchi, Alessandro; Stacchiotti, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Imatinib showed activity in 50 chordoma patients treated within a Phase II study. In that study, 70% of patients remained with stable disease (SD), median progression free survival (PFS) was 9 months and median overall survival (OS) was 34 months. We now report on a retrospective series of PDGFB/PDGFRB positive advanced chordoma patients treated with imatinib as a single agent within a compassionate-use programme at Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy (INT) between August 2002 and November 2010, when the programme was closed. 48 patients were consecutively treated with imatinib 800 mg/d. All patients had inoperable and progressive disease before starting imatinib. Demographics, treatment duration, toxicity and response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) were retrospectively recorded. The median duration of therapy was 7 months (1-46.5). No patient is on therapy at present. 46 patients were evaluable for response. No partial responses were detected. Best response was: stable disease 34 (74%), progressive disease 12 (26%). At a median follow-up of 24.5 months (0.5-117), median PFS was 9.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.7-13). Eight patients (16.5%) remained on therapy >18 months and 10 patients (21%) remained progression-free >18 months. Median OS was 30 months (95% CI 20-40), with 24 (50%) patients dead at the time of the present analysis. We confirm the activity of imatinib in locally advanced and metastatic chordoma, in terms of >70% tumour growth arrest in previously progressive patients. Median duration of response lasted almost 10 months, with >20% of patients progression-free at 18+ months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of Disease Risk Score Matching in Nested Case-Control Studies: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rishi J; Glynn, Robert J; Wang, Shirley; Gagne, Joshua J

    2016-05-15

    In a case-control study, matching on a disease risk score (DRS), which includes many confounders, should theoretically result in greater precision than matching on only a few confounders; however, this has not been investigated. We simulated 1,000 hypothetical cohorts with a binary exposure, a time-to-event outcome, and 13 covariates. Each cohort comprised 2 subcohorts of 10,000 patients each: a historical subcohort and a concurrent subcohort. DRS were estimated in the historical subcohorts and applied to the concurrent subcohorts. Nested case-control studies were conducted in the concurrent subcohorts using incidence density sampling with 2 strategies-matching on age and sex, with adjustment for additional confounders, and matching on DRS-followed by conditional logistic regression for 9 outcome-exposure incidence scenarios. In all scenarios, DRS matching yielded lower average standard errors and mean squared errors than did matching on age and sex. In 6 scenarios, DRS matching also resulted in greater empirical power. DRS matching resulted in less relative bias than did matching on age and sex at lower outcome incidences but more relative bias at higher incidences. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of DRS model misspecification might be more pronounced at higher outcome incidences, resulting in higher relative bias. These results suggest that DRS matching might increase the statistical efficiency of case-control studies, particularly when the outcome is rare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Primary health care utilization prior to suicide: a retrospective case-control study among active-duty military personnel.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Eldar; Shelef, Leah; Mann, J John; Portugese, Shirly; Krivoy, Amir; Shoval, Gal; Weiser, Mark; Fruchter, Eyal

    2014-08-01

    About 45% of civilians who died by suicide had contact with a doctor within 1 month of death. Thus, educating primary care physicians (PCP) to detect and mitigate depression is an important suicide-prevention strategy. However, the PCP consulting rate before suicide has not been examined in a military population. We investigated the utilization of primary health care and mental health services by active-duty military personnel suicide cases prior to death in comparison to matched military controls. All suicides (N = 170) were extracted from a cohort of all active-duty Israeli military male personnel between 2002 and 2012. Applying a retrospective, nested case-control design, we compared primary care services utilization by suicide cases with demographic and occupationally matched military controls (N = 500). Whereas 38.3% of suicide cases contacted a PCP within the last month before death, only 27.6% of suicide cases contacted a mental health specialist during their entire service time. The PCP contact rate within 1 month before death or index day did not differ between suicide cases and military controls (38.3% vs. 33.8%, χ²₁ = 1.05, P = .3). More suicide cases contacted a mental health specialist within service time than did military controls (27.6% vs. 13.6%, χ²₁ = 10.85, P = .001). Even though PCP contact rate by military personnel who died by suicide is slightly lower than that reported for civilians who died by suicide prior to their death, it is higher than mental health specialist contact rate and higher than that by age-matched civilians who died by suicide. These results imply that PCPs education is a viable approach to suicide prevention in a military setting. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Is there any impact of HLA-DPB1 disparity in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic SCT? Results of a French multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gagne, K; Loiseau, P; Dubois, V; Dufossé, F; Perrier, P; Dormoy, A; Jollet, I; Renac, V; Masson, D; Picard, C; Lafarge, X; Hanau, D; Quainon, F; Delbos, F; Coeffic, B; Absi, Léna; Eliaou, J-F; Moalic, V; Fort, M; de Matteis, M; Theodorou, I; Hau, F; Batho, A; Pedron, B; Caillat-Zucman, S; Marry, E; Raus, N; Yakoub-Agha, I; Cesbron, A

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in a large cohort of 1342 French patients who underwent 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated HSCT. A significant impact of HLA-DPB1 allelic mismatches (2 vs 0) was observed in severe acute GVHD (aGVHDIII-IV) (risk ratio (RR)=1.73, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.09-2.73, P=0.019) without impact on OS, TRM, relapse and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). According to the T-cell epitope 3 (TCE3)/TCE4 HLA-DPB1 disparity algorithm, 37.6% and 58.4% pairs had nonpermissive HLA-DPB1, respectively. TCE3 and TCE4 disparities had no statistical impact on OS, TRM, relapse, aGVHD and cGVHD. When TCE3/TCE4 disparities were analyzed in the graft-vs-host or host-vs-graft (HVG) direction, only a significant impact of TCE4 nonpermissive disparities in the HVG direction was observed on relapse (RR=1.34, CI 95% 1.00-1.80, P=0.048). In conclusion, this French retrospective study shows an adverse prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches (2 vs 0) on severe aGVHD and of nonpermissive TCE4 HVG disparities on relapse after HLA-matched 10/10 unrelated HSCT.

  17. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Berthiaume, Luc R; Fick, Gordon H; Laupland, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer-reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis. Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%). Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02). They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08). In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001). The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.

  18. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J; Berthiaume, Luc R; Fick, Gordon H; Laupland, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Background Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer-reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis. Results Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%). Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02). They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08). In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature. PMID:22570570

  19. A retrospective analysis of 7 cases of familial mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Chie; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Kisida, Dai; Yazaki, Masahide; Nakamura, Akinori; Kaku, Satosi; Makino, Hidehiko; Tadokoro, Rei; Azuma, Kouta; Tsuboi, Kazuyuki; Tani, Mei; Tamura, Masao; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Morimoto, Mai; Nishioka, Aki; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Kitano, Masayasu; Tsunoda, Shinichiro; Sawai, Hideaki; Sano, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) is a single inherited autoinflammatory disease characterized by periodic fever with relatively short duration of 1 to 3 days and sterile serositis. Although the prevalence rate is highest in the Mediterranean coastal area, a large number of cases have been reported recently by genetic analysis by identification of MEFV (Mediterranean fever) which is responsible gene in Japan too. In outpatient department of rheumatology, diagnosis and treatment of FMF is performed in cases where fever and abdominal pain attack are repeated for a short period of time. We examined cases in which symptoms considered periodic seizures were repeated, excluding autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and malignant tumors. In both cases, genetic analysis is performed as auxiliary diagnosis. Seven cases satisfied the Tel-Hashomer criteria criteria and MEFV gene mutation was detected. Everyone was a female, and half had seizure symptoms at menstruation. Even though there is a difference in the amount of colchicine to be used, either one is effective. In cases of periodic symptoms or cases called periodic fever, exclusion diagnosis is carried out, there is a need to suspect FMF, determine the effect of colchicine, and perform genetic analysis.

  20. Bisphosphonates in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An International Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Chellapandian, Deepak; Makras, Polyzois; Kaltsas, Gregory; van den Bos, Cor; Naccache, Lamia; Rampal, Raajit; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Weitzman, Sheila; Egeler, R. Maarten; Abla, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone is the most common organ of involvement in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is often painful and associated with significant morbidity from pathological fractures. Current first-line treatments include chemotherapy and steroids that are effective but often associated with adverse effects, whereas the disease may reactivate despite an initial response to first-line agents. Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors that have shown to be helpful in treating bone lesions of LCH. To date, there are no large international studies to describe their role in treating bone lesions of LCH. Method We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 13 patients with histologically proven LCH, who had received bisphosphonates either at diagnosis or at disease reactivation. Results Ten patients (77%) had a single system bone disease, and 3 (23%) had bone lesions as part of multisystem disease. Median follow-up time post-bisphosphonate therapy was 4.6 years (range, 0.8 to 8.2 years). Treatment with bisphosphonates was associated with significant pain relief in almost all patients. Twelve (92%) achieved resolution of active bone lesions, and 10 out of them had no active disease for a median of 3.5 years (range, 0.8 to 5 years). One patient did not respond. No major adverse effects were reported in this series. Conclusion Bisphosphonates are well-tolerated drugs that can significantly improve bone pain and induce remission in active bone LCH. Future prospective studies evaluating the role of bisphosphonates in LCH are warranted. PMID:27413525

  1. Adult intussusception: A retrospective review of 41 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Cui, Xing-Yu; Liu, Yu; Long, Jin; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Guo, Ren-Xuan; Guo, Ke-Jian

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To optimize the preoperative diagnosis and surgical management of adult intussusception (AI). METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathology 41 adult patients with postoperative diagnoses of intussusception was conducted. RESULTS: Forty-one patients with 44 intussusceptions were operated on, 24.4% had acute symptoms, 24.4% had subacute symptoms, and 51.2% had chronic symptoms. 70.7% of the patients presented with intestinal obstruction. There were 20 enteric, 15 ileocolic, eight colocolonic and one sigmoidorectal intussusceptions. 65.9% of intussusceptions were diagnosed preoperatively using a computed tomography (CT) scan (90.5% accurate) and ultrasonography (60.0% accurate, rising to 91.7% for patients who had a palpable abdominal mass). Coloscopy located the occupying lesions of the lead point of ileocolic, colocolonic and sigmoidorectal intussusceptions. Four intussusceptions in three patients were simply reduced. Twenty-one patients underwent resection after primary reduction. There was no mortality and anastomosis leakage perioperatively. Except for one patient with multiple small bowel adenomas, which recurred 5 mo after surgery, no patients were recurrent within 6 mo. Pathologically, 54.5% of the intussusceptions had a tumor, of which 27.3% were malignant. 9.1% comprised nontumorous polyps. Four intussusceptions had a gastrojejunostomy with intestinal intubation, and four intussusceptions had no organic lesion. CONCLUSION: CT is the most effective and accurate diagnostic technique. Colonoscopy can detect most lead point lesions of non-enteric intussusceptions. Intestinal intubation should be avoided. PMID:19598308

  2. Neck pain in children: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jocelyn; Davidian, Christine; Mior, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal pain in the paediatric population is a significant health issue, with an increasing prevalence as they age. Paediatric patients attend for chiropractor care for spinal pain, yet, there is a paucity of quality evidence to guide the practitioner with respect to appropriate care planning. Methods: A retrospective chart review was used to describe chiropractic management of paediatric neck pain. Two researchers abstracted data from 50 clinical files that met inclusion criteria from a general practice chiropractic office in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Data were entered into SPSS 15 and descriptively analyzed. Results: Fifty paediatric neck pain patient files were analysed. Patients’ age ranged between 6 and 18 years (mean 13 years). Most (98%) were diagnosed with Grade I–II mechanical neck pain. Treatment frequency averaged 5 visits over 19 days; with spinal manipulative therapy used in 96% of patients. Significant improvement was recorded in 96% of the files. No adverse events were documented. Conclusion: Paediatric mechanical neck pain appears to be successfully managed by chiropractic care. Spinal manipulative therapy appears to benefit paediatric mechanical neck pain resulting from day-today activities with no reported serious adverse events. Results can be used to inform clinical trials assessing effectiveness of manual therapy in managing paediatric mechanical neck pain. PMID:27713576

  3. Hanging Deaths: A Retrospective Study Regarding 260 Cases.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria Cristina; Verzeletti, Andrea; Piras, Mauro; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Hanging is a form of asphyxia caused by external pressure on the upper airways deriving from a band tightened by the gravitational weight of the body. During a 33-year period from 1983 to 2015, there were 260 hanging deaths examined at the Brescia Institute of Forensic Medicine (Northern Italy), which represented approximately 40% of all the asphyxial deaths recorded during this period. Almost all of the cases were represented by suicidal events, 1 case was a homicide event and there also was a case of sexual asphyxia. Eighty-two percent of the victims were men; 18% were women. There was an increasing tendency in the ages between 20 and 60 years, and the highest number of cases was observed in the 41- to 50-year age group (23% of the cases). The most common place chosen by the victim was the home setting followed by isolated outdoor places. The most common ligature material was a rope. The pathological findings were evaluated in all cases.

  4. [Retrospective analysis of 117 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Lan, C Q; Weng, H; Li, H Y; Chen, L; Lin, Q H; Liu, J F; Huang, J B

    2016-11-12

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis(PC). Methods: A total of 117 cases of PC, confirmed by pathological examinations at Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from January 2009 to December 2013, were studied. Results: The patients consisted of 75 males and 42 females, with a mean age of (44.1±13.7) years (range, 16 to 76 years). Thirty-eight cases were immunocompromised hosts (ICH) and 79 cases were non-immunocompromised hosts (NICH). The clinical symptoms of most patients were mild and the main clinical manifestations were cough and sputum production. The chest CT manifestations were as follows: nodular or mass-like shadows in 66, patchy infiltrates or consolidation in 34, and mixed lesions in 17 cases. There were a variety of CT signs accompanied, with halo sign (78 cases) and proximal air bronchogram (63 cases) being the most common. These two signs were more common in NICH than ICH (77.2%, 44.7%, P=0.001; 60.8%, 39.5%, P=0.047). They were also more likely to be seen in the patchy infiltrates or consolidation and mixed patterns than in nodular or mass-like type of PC(82.4%, 82.4% and 54.5%, P=0.007; 76.5%, 82.4% and 33.3%, P=0.000), while lobulation sign, spicule sign and pleural indentation were more likely to be seen in the latter(0%, 5.9% and 30.3%, P=0.000; 0%, 5.9% and 27.3%, P=0.000; 0%, 5.9% and 19.7%, P=0.005). The lesions of PC were mainly found in the right lung and lower lobes. The lesions in NICH were more commonly seen in multiple lobes than ICH. Enhanced CT scanning was performed in 38 patients, and 24 cases showed uniform enhancement and 27 moderate enhancement. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by pathological findings. A hundred and one cases were treated and carefully followed in our hospital except 16 cases who were lost for follow-up. Seventy-one were cured and 30 were improved. Conclusions: The clinical symptoms of PC were diverse and nonspecific. Halo sign and proximal air bronchogram are helpful

  5. Retrospective case series of aripiprazole augmentation in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeni; Cho, Soo-Churl; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kim, Boong-Nyun

    2010-09-01

    Due to co-morbidities and treatment resistant nature of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), diverse combinations of regimens have been tried. This retrospective study aimed to explore adjunctive use of aripiprazole in children with PDD. Changes in illness severity were measured by Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) in 14 aripiprazole-treated patients with PDD. Improvement of illness severity was observed after aripiprazole add-on (5.8±0.8 to 4.9±1.0, Z=-2.75, p=0.001). Mean dosage was 7.7 mg/day [standard deviation (SD) 3.3, range 5-15]. A higher mean dosage was observed in group with improvement in symptoms (t=-2.33, df =12, p=0.004). The target symptoms most effectively improved after using aripiprazole were positive psychotic symptoms (mean CGI-I: 2.0±1.4, 3 responders/4 patients, 75% response) followed by aggressive behavior (2.5±1.7, 3/4, 75%), self-injurious behavior (2.0±1.0, 2/3, 67%), stereotypic behavior (2.7±1.2, 2/3, 67%), tic (2.8±1.0, 2/4, 50%), irritability (3.5±2.1, 1/2, 50%), obsessive behavior (2.5±2.1, 1/3, 33%), hyperactivity (3.4±1.6, 3/7, 43%) and mood fluctuation (3, 0/1, no response). Five patients (35%) discontinued aripiprazole due to treatment-emergent adverse effects (akathisia, insomnia, withdrawal). The results of this study suggest that aripiprazole augmentation may be used safely in maladaptive behaviors of some populations of PDD. However, future studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  6. Management of paediatric spontaneous pneumothorax: a multicentre retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Blackburn, Carol; Babl, Franz E; Gamage, Lalith; Schutz, Jacquie; Nogajski, Rebecca; Dalziel, Stuart; Donald, Colin B; Druda, Dino; Krieser, David; Neutze, Jocelyn; Acworth, Jason; Lee, Mark; Ngo, Peter K

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric guidelines are lacking for management of spontaneous pneumothorax. Adult patient-focused guidelines (British Thoracic Society 2003 and 2010) introduced aspiration as first-line intervention for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and small secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces (SSP). Paediatric practice is unclear, and evidence for aspiration success rates is urgently required to develop paediatric-specific recommendations. Retrospective analysis of PSP and SSP management at nine paediatric emergency departments across Australia and New Zealand (2003-2010) to compare PSP and SSP management. 219 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax occurred in 162 children (median age 15 years, 71% male); 155 PSP episodes in 120 children and 64 SSP episodes in 42 children. Intervention in PSP vs SSP episodes occurred in 55% (95% CI 47% to 62%) vs 70% (60% to 79%), p<0.05. An intercostal chest catheter (ICC) was used in 104/219 (47%) episodes. Aspiration was used in more PSP than in SSP episodes with interventions (27% (18% to 37%) vs 9% (3% to 21%), p<0.05). Aspiration success was 52% (33% to 70%) overall and not significantly different between PSP and SSP. Aspiration success was greater in small vs large pneumothoraces (80% (48% to 95%) vs 33% (14% to 61%), p=0.01). Small-bore ICCs were used in 40% of ICCs and usage increased during the study. In this descriptive study of pneumothorax management, PSP and SSP management did not differ and ICC insertion was the continuing preferred intervention. Overall success of aspiration was lower than reported results for adults, although success was greater for small than for large pneumothoraces. Paediatric prospective studies are urgently required to determine optimal paediatric interventional management strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. Material and Methods A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. Results The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Conclusions Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Key words:Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy

  8. The natural history of halo nevi: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Aouthmany, Mouhammad; Weinstein, Mara; Zirwas, Matthew J; Brodell, Robert T

    2012-10-01

    The time period between onset of depigmentation around the halo nevus (HN) to complete resolution of the nevus and halo has not been well studied. We sought to better understand the natural history of the HN. A retrospective chart review of patients with a clinical diagnosis of HN selected from a private practice database (1994-2010) was performed. In all, 52 patients with 80 HN were identified. The current stage of the HN was determined by a follow-up questionnaire and physical examination of 36 patients with 56 HN. Seven HN were excised. Of the remaining 49 HN, 51% (25) demonstrated no change in the halo or nevus after an average of 4.2 years; 14.3% (7) demonstrated partial nevus regression with persistence of the halo after an average of 6.7 years; 4.1% (2) demonstrated complete involution of the nevus with persistent halo depigmentation after an average of 7.7 years; 8.2% (4) demonstrated complete nevus involution with some repigmentation of the halo after an average of 11.8 years; 22.4% (11) demonstrated complete resolution of the nevus with complete repigmentation of the halo after an average of 7.8 years. Some subjects were lost to follow-up. The time of initial HN onset was dependent on patient recall. These results demonstrate that HN typically persist for a decade or longer. A subgroup may progress through stages of involution with a return to normal-appearing skin, but even these lesions persisted for an average of 7.8 years. Education about the prolonged natural history of HN may reassure patients and avoid unnecessary excision. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric coccidioidomycosis in central California: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    McCarty, James M; Demetral, Lindsey C; Dabrowski, Lukasz; Kahal, Amandeep K; Bowser, Anna M; Hahn, Julianne E

    2013-06-01

    Coccidioidomycosis, an endemic fungal infection seen throughout the southwestern United States, is not well described in children. We performed a retrospective observational study of all children admitted to Children's Hospital Central California with coccidioidomycosis from 1 January 2010 to 1 September 2011. Thirty-three children, aged 6 months to 17 years, were hospitalized during the study period. These included patients with pneumonia (n = 28), pleural effusion (n = 13), pleural empyema (n = 4), lung abscess (n = 7), pericarditis (n = 2), osteomyelitis (n = 5), meningitis/cerebritis (n = 2), and vocal cord infection (n = 1). Mediastinitis, with radiographic evidence of purulence and necrotic/abscessed lymph nodes in the mediastinum, was present in 7 patients (21%) and tended to occur more often in younger children (median age, 3 years [range, 0.5-11 years] vs 7 years [range, 0.6-17 years] for non-mediastinitis patients; P = .10). Seven patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and 10 required surgical intervention. One patient died of meningitis. Hospitalizations were longer for patients with mediastinitis (median, 130 days [range, 58-200 days] vs 43 days [range, 3-273 days for non-mediastinitis patients]; P < .01) and those with maximum coccidioidal complement fixing antibody titers ≥1:128 (median, 174 days [range, 53-273 days] vs 33 days [range, 3-200 days] for those with maximum titers <1:128; P < .01). Coccidioidomycosis causes a substantial disease burden in the children of central California. Mediastinitis is common and tends to occur in younger children. Patients with mediastinitis or elevated coccidioidal complement fixation titers require longer hospitalizations. Further research is needed on the prevention and treatment of this disease.

  10. Continuous neurophatic orofacial pain: A retrospective study of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics of Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain in patients that suffer Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP), Painful Post-Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy (PPTTN) or Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) and to describe their treatment. A retrospective observational study was made, reviewing the clinical history of the patients diagnosed with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain between 2004 and 2011 at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona and at the Orofacial Pain Unit of the Teknon Medical Center of Barcelona. The average age of the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was 54.5, with a clear female predominance (86.9%, n=20). Of all patients, 60.9% (n=14) were suffering a PIFP, 21.7% (n=5) had a BMS and 17.4% (n=4) were presenting a PPTTN. The pain quality described by the patients with Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain was oppressive (43.47%, n=10), widely represented by patients with PIFP, and burning (39.13%, n=9) being the only quality that described patients with BMS. The treatment carried out with the patients was only pharmacologic. The most used drugs for the treatment of PIFP and PPTTN were clonazepam (50%, n=9) and amitriptyline (44.44%, n=8). However, a 55.5% (n=10) of the patients with PIFP or PPTTN required the association of two or more drugs for a correct pain control. All the patients with BMS responded satisfactorily to clonazepam. Continuous Neuropathic Orofacial Pain is a little known condition among the general population, physicians and dentists. This favors a late diagnosis and inaccurate treatments which entail unnecessary suffering. It is important to inform both the general population and health professionals concerning this painful condition. Continuous neuropathic orofacial pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia.

  11. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895

  12. Feline Mammary Carcinoma: A Retrospective Evaluation of 17 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, M. J.; Barteaux, L.; Ferns, L. E.; Angelopoulos, E.

    1984-01-01

    Seventeen biopsies of feline mammary carcinoma submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Marketing were reviewed. All 17 cases were female cats. Data on age, reproductive status (sexually intact vs. neutered), therapy, outcome of the cases and histological features were consistent with data on feline mammary carcinoma previously reported. Four of these 17 cats had a history of receiving exogenous progestin prior to tumor development. The possible role of progestins as initiators or promoters of feline mammary carcinoma was discussed. The use of feline mammary carcinoma as a model for carcinoma of the breast in women was reviewed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422482

  13. Effect of T-cell-epitope matching at HLA-DPB1 in recipients of unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fleischhauer, Katharina; Shaw, Bronwen E; Gooley, Theodore; Malkki, Mari; Bardy, Peter; Bignon, Jean-Denis; Dubois, Valérie; Horowitz, Mary M; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Morishima, Yasuo; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Ringden, Olle; Spellman, Stephen; Velardi, Andrea; Zino, Elisabetta; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2012-04-01

    The risks after unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation with matched HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 alleles between donor and recipient (10/10 matched) can be decreased by selection of unrelated donors who also match for HLA-DPB1; however, such donors are difficult to find. Classification of HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T-cell-epitope groups could identify mismatches that might be tolerated (permissive) and those that would increase risks (non-permissive) after transplantation. We did a retrospective study to compare outcomes between permissive and non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation. HLA and clinical data for unrelated-donor [corrected] transplantations submitted to the International Histocompatibility Working Group in haemopoietic-cell transplantation were analysed retrospectively. HLA-DPB1 T-cell-epitope groups were assigned according to a functional algorithm based on alloreactive T-cell crossreactivity patterns. Recipients and unrelated donors matching status were classified as HLA-DPB1 match, non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch (those with mismatched T-cell-epitope groups), or permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch (those with matched T-cell-epitope groups). The clinical outcomes assessed were overall mortality, non-relapse mortality, relapse, and severe (grade 3-4) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). Of 8539 transplantations, 5428 (64%) were matched for ten of ten HLA alleles (HLA 10/10 matched) and 3111 (36%) for nine of ten alleles (HLA 9/10 matched). Of the group overall, 1719 (20%) were HLA-DPB1 matches, 2670 (31%) non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches, and 4150 (49%) permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches. In HLA 10/10-matched transplantations, non-permissive mismatches were associated with a significantly increased risk of overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·15, 95% CI 1·05-1·25; p=0·002), non-relapse mortality (1·28, 1·14-1·42; p<0·0001), and severe aGvHD (odds ratio [OR] 1·31, 95% CI 1

  14. Effect of T-cell-epitope matching at HLA-DPB1 in recipients of unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhauer, Katharina; Gooley, Theodore; Malkki, Mari; Bardy, Peter; Bignon, Jean-Denis; Dubois, Valérie; Horowitz, Mary M; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Morishima, Yasuo; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Ringden, Olle; Spellman, Stephen; Velardi, Andrea; Zino, Elisabetta; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The risks after unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation with matched HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 alleles between donor and recipient (10/10 matched) can be decreased by selection of unrelated donors who also match for HLA-DPB1; however, such donors are difficult to find. Classification of HLA-DPB1 mismatches based on T-cell-epitope groups could identify mismatches that might be tolerated (permissive) and those that would increase risks (non-permissive) after transplantation. We did a retrospective study to compare outcomes between permissive and non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in unrelated-donor haemopoietic-cell transplantation. Methods HLA and clinical data for unrelated-donor transplantations submitted to the International Histocompatibility Working Group in haemopoietic-cell transplantation were analysed retrospectively. HLA-DPB1 T-cell-epitope groups were assigned according to a functional algorithm based on alloreactive T-cell crossreactivity patterns. Recipients and unrelated donors matching status were classified as HLA-DPB1 match, non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch (those with mismatched T-cell-epitope groups), or permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch (those with matched T-cell-epitope groups). The clinical outcomes assessed were overall mortality, non-relapse mortality, relapse, and severe (grade 3–4) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). Findings Of 8539 transplantations, 5428 (64%) were matched for ten of ten HLA alleles (HLA 10/10 matched) and 3111 (36%) for nine of ten alleles (HLA 9/10 matched). Of the group overall, 1719 (20%) were HLA-DPB1 matches, 2670 (31%) non-permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches, and 4150 (49%) permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches. In HLA 10/10-matched transplantations, non-permissive mismatches were associated with a significantly increased risk of overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·15, 95% CI 1·05–1·25; p=0·002), non-relapse mortality (1·28, 1·14–1·42; p<0·0001), and severe a

  15. [Aggressive fibromatosis in childhood: retrospective analysis of four cases].

    PubMed

    Garrido Colino, C; López Pérez, J; Palacios López, M E; Vivanco Martínez, J L; Torres Valdivieso, M J; Melero Moreno, C; Rodríguez Peralto, J L

    1998-07-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare illness in children. We analyzed the records of four patients, taken from a total of 505, all of which had different types of tumours, over a period of ten years. In the four cases, three were male and one female. Their ages ranged from 0-7 years old. We also did a review of this pathology. The illness may present itself a a painless mass found particularly in the pelvic area, knee, buttock and anterior mediastinum, respectively. Two of these cases presented lysis of osseous tissue shown in radiologic assays. The diagnosis was histological in every case. The only treatment was surgical in all of them. Two of the cases required only one intervention to achieve remission and up to now there has been no record of further illness. At the time of writing this paper the patients are alive after a follow-up period of thirty months. Up to now, no other alternative forms of treatment have been convincing. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy are probably beneficial, but the precise indication for its use is not well defined.

  16. [Childhood cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia: retrospective study of 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Fenniche, S; Souissi, A; Benmously, R; Ben Jannet, S; Marrak, H; Mokhtar, I

    2006-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread parasitic disease that represents a major public health problem in several countries including Tunisia. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of childhood CL in a university hospital center in Tunis. The files of all children treated for of CL in the Dermatology Department of Habib Thameur Hospital over a 23-year period were reviewed. A total of 60 children were included. The mean age was 9.2 years and the sex ratio was 0.93. All patients lived or had stayed in an endemic area. Infectious risk was highest in autumn (41.6%). The most frequent clinical finding consisted of crusty nodules (53.3%) that were most often the only manifestation (63.3%) and usually located on the face (65%). Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by either peripheral blood smear (56.6%) or histological examination (35%). The treatment of choice was Glucantime administered by the intralesional route in 70% of patients or by intramuscular route in 30%. The outcome was favorable in all cases within 2 weeks to 6 months. Sequels were noted in 9 cases (18%) in the form of pigmented (7 cases) or atrophic (2 cases) residual scars. The frequency of childhood CL is relatively high especially during the second decade of life. Childhood CL is characterized by a generally favorable outcome and lack of distinguishing clinical characteristics form adult CL. If possible, therapeutic abstention is more widely in the children due to the high risk of adverse reactions.

  17. Avian mycobacteriosis in psittacines: a retrospective study of 123 cases.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Roy, P; Dhillon, A S; Shivaprasad, H L

    2013-02-01

    One hundred and twenty-three cases of mycobacterioses were diagnosed in psittacine birds from a total of 9,241 submissions for necropsy examination or histopathology made to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System between 1990 and 2007. The species affected most commonly were Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.)(n = 32; 26%) and grey-cheeked parakeets Brotogeris pyrrophterus (n = 23; 18.7%). The main gross findings on necropsy examination were enlarged and mottled pale livers and spleens and thickening of the small intestinal wall with numerous pale miliary nodules on the mucosa. Microscopical examination revealed infiltration of foamy macrophages and giant cells containing acid-fast bacteria in various organs. The gene encoding mycobacterial 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from DNA extracted from 22 cases. The species of Mycobacterium involved was determined by analysis of restriction endonuclease patterns of the PCR products. Mycobacterium genavense was detected in 19 cases and Mycobacterium avium in two cases. One parrotlet (Touit spp.) had a mixed infection of both species of mycobacteria. It is concluded that M. genavense is the primary cause of mycobacteriosis in psittacine birds and the potential for zoonotic disease should be considered, especially for immunocompromised owners.

  18. [A retrospective study of 180 cases of apical microsurgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanguo; Li, Dan; Tian, Yu; Yu, Qing

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome and the potential prognostic factors of apical microsurgery. The teeth with persistent periapical diseases were treated by microsurgery using micro instruments, ultrasonic retrotips and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) under dental operate microscope. The procedure includes incision and flap retraction, osteotomy, apicoectomy, retro- preparation and retro- filling of root canal. Patients were recalled at 1, 3, 6, and 12- month intervals. The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examinations, and the potential prognostic factors were analyzed. One hundred and eighty cases (240 teeth), including 132 upper anterior teeth, 22 lower anterior teeth, 31 upper premolars, 18 lower premolars, 19 upper molars and 18 lower molars, were treated by microsurgery between July 2010 and December 2012. A total of 152 cases (207 teeth) were recalled. The application of the apical microsurgery included failure of previous endodontic treatment, periapical lesion with post, periapical cyst, calcified canals, separated instruments, overfilling, open apex, root facture, failure of previous apical surgery, apical fenestration, and special root canal system. The success rate was 90.8% (188/207). Age, sex, tooth position, type of periapical radiolucency, fistula and clinical application type appeared to have a negative effect on the outcome. Endo-perio lesion was a significant factor. Eighteen cases (19 teeth) failed mainly because of periodontally involved lesion and vertical root fracture. Apical microsurgery, which combines the magnification and illumination provided by the microscope with the proper use of micro instruments, can treat the teeth with persistent periapical diseases precisely and less traumatically with high success rate. Case selection and standardized operations play a key role for success.

  19. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: A retrospective case series and a hospital-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kwei-Lan; Tsai, Wen-Chien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2017-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology often involving skin. Studies on cutaneous sarcoidosis and comorbidities are limited. This study is aimed to describe the clinical features of cutaneous sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital and to determine the relationships between cutaneous sarcoidosis and comorbidities.This retrospective study evaluates patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis in a tertiary center in Taiwan from 1996 to 2015. The records of 38 patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis were reviewed for clinical characteristics and evaluated by analysis of variance. A 1:4 case-control analysis was conducted with 152 age- and sex-matched controls who underwent biopsy for other benign skin tumors.The male to female ratio was 1:4.4. The average age at diagnosis was 51.7 years. Female patients were on average 13.9 years older than male patients. The correlation of age with gender was statistically significant (P = .037). The most common cutaneous lesions were plaques (47.4%) and confined to the face (71.1%). Of the 38 patients, 26.3% had diabetes mellitus. Age over 40 (P = .014) and female (P = .014) were associated with facial involvement. In the case-control study, a higher percentage of patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis than of control subjects had diabetes mellitus (P = .001), hearing loss (P = .031) and eye diseases (P = .047).The present study demonstrates a striking female predominance and high proportions of facial involvement. Diabetes mellitus, hearing loss, and eye diseases may be associated with Taiwanese patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis.

  20. Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Krasa, Holly; Oberdhan, Dorothee; Chapman, Arlene; Perrone, Ronald D

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets. PMID:25759590

  1. Urticarial vasculitis: a retrospective study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Suárez, F; Pulpillo-Ruiz, Á; Zulueta Dorado, T; Conejo-Mir Sánchez, J

    2013-09-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is a subtype of vasculitis characterized clinically by urticarial lesions and histologically by necrotizing vasculitis. To study the clinical and histologic features of urticarial vasculitis in patients seen in the dermatology department of Hospital Universitario Virgen de Rocío in Seville, Spain, and to examine the association between hypocomplementemia and systemic disease. We performed a chart review of histologically confirmed cases of urticarial vasculitis in the database of our department covering a period of 10 years. Fifteen patients (9 women and 6 men with a median age of 51 years) were included. In 14 patients (93%), the lesions persisted for more than 24hours, and in 9 cases (60%) the lesions resolved leaving residual purpura or hyperpigmentation. Seven patients (47%) had low complement levels in the blood, 12 (80%) had extracutaneous symptoms, and 8 (53%) had associated systemic disease, the most common of which was systemic lupus erythematosus. Urticarial vasculitis may be underdiagnosed. Response to treatment is variable, and hypocomplementemia and extracutaneous symptoms may indicate the presence of associated systemic disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric perioperative adverse events requiring rapid response: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schleelein, Laura E; Vincent, Ariel M; Jawad, Abbas F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Kreher, Genna D; Rehman, Mohamed A; Goebel, Theodora K; Cohen, David E; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2016-07-01

    Perioperative pediatric adverse events have been challenging to study within and across institutions due to varying definitions, low event rates, and incomplete capture. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative adverse event prevalence and to evaluate associated case characteristics and potential contributing factors at an academic pediatric quaternary-care center. At the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), perioperative adverse events requiring rapid response assistance are termed Anesthesia Now (AN!) events. They have been accurately captured and entered into a quality improvement database since 2010. Adverse events involving open heart and cardiac catheterization cases are managed separately and not included in this database. We conducted a retrospective case-control study utilizing Compurecord (Phillips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA), EPIC (EPIC, Verona, WI, USA), and Chartmaxx (MedPlus, Mason, OH, USA) systems matching AN! event cases to noncardiac controls (1 : 2) based on surgical date. From April 16, 2010 to September 25, 2012, we documented 213 AN! events in the noncardiac perioperative complex and remote sites at our main hospital. AN! prevalence was 0.0043 (1 : 234) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.0037, 0.0049). Respiratory events, primarily laryngospasm, were most common followed by events of cardiovascular etiology. Median age was lower in the AN! group than in controls, 2.86 years (interquartile range 0.94, 10.1) vs 6.20 (2.85, 13.1), P < 0.0001. Odds ratios (with 95% CI) for age, 0.969 (0.941, 0.997); American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, 1.67 (1.32, 2.12); multiple (≥2) services, 2.27 (1.13, 4.55); nonoperating room vs operating room location, 0.240 (0.133, 0.431); and attending anesthesiologist's experience, 0.976 (0.959, 0.992) were all significant. Decreased age, increased comorbidities, multiple (vs single) surgical services, operating room (vs nonoperating room) location, and decreased staff

  3. [Face presentation: retrospective study of 32 cases at term].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Ceccaldi, P-F; Chesnoy, V; Robinet, G; Gabriel, R

    2006-05-01

    To determine the etiologic factors, circumstances of diagnosis, obstetrical management and complications of face presentation and to value the maternal and foetal prognosis of this presentation. Thirty-two cases of face presentation have been observed in the maternity wards of Reims and Troyes over the last 12 years. The incidence of face presentation was 0.7 per 1000 deliveries. Spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred with mento-anterior presentation 73% of the time and caesarean section was performed in 100% of mento-posterior presentation. There was no increasing rate of foetal or maternal mortality and morbidity with vaginal delivery. Face presentation is an unusual complication of pregnancy with obstetric factors that predispose the foetus to face presentation. The low foetal and maternal mortality and morbidity substantiate the effectiveness of conservative management in face presentation.

  4. Clinical features and outcomes of tuberculosis in transplant recipients as compared with the general population: a retrospective matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benito, N; García-Vázquez, E; Horcajada, J P; González, J; Oppenheimer, F; Cofán, F; Ricart, M J; Rimola, A; Navasa, M; Rovira, M; Roig, E; Pérez-Villa, F; Cervera, C; Moreno, A

    2015-07-01

    There are no previous studies comparing tuberculosis in transplant recipients (TRs) with other hosts. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of tuberculosis in TRs and patients from the general population. Twenty-two TRs who developed tuberculosis from 1996 through 2010 at a tertiary hospital were included. Each TR was matched by age, gender and year of diagnosis with four controls selected from among non-TR non-human immunodeficiency virus patients with tuberculosis. TRs (21 patients, 96%) had more factors predisposing to tuberculosis than non-TRs (33, 38%) (p <0.001). Pulmonary tuberculosis was more common in non-TRs (77 (88%) vs. 12 TRs (55%); p 0.001); disseminated tuberculosis was more frequent in TRs (five (23%) vs. four non-TRs (5%); p 0.005). Time from clinical suspicion of tuberculosis to definitive diagnosis was longer in TRs (median of 14 days) than in non-TRs (median of 0 days) (p <0.001), and invasive procedures were more often required (12 (55%) TRs and 15 (17%) non-TRs, respectively; p 0.001). Tuberculosis was diagnosed post-mortem in three TRs (14%) and in no non-TRs (p <0.001). Rates of toxicity associated with antituberculous therapy were 38% in TRs (six patients) and 10% (seven patients) in non-TRs (p 0.014). Tuberculosis-related mortality rates in TRs and non-TRs were 18% and 6%, respectively (p 0.057). The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed that the only predictor of tuberculosis-related mortality was a higher number of organs with tuberculosis involvement (adjusted hazard ratio 8.6; 95% CI 1.2-63). In conclusion, manifestations of tuberculosis in TRs differ from those in normal hosts. Post-transplant tuberculosis resists timely diagnosis, and is associated with a higher risk of death before a diagnosis can be made.

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  6. Treatment of chronic low back pain incorporating active patient participation and chiropractic: a retrospective case report.

    PubMed

    Legier, Larry

    2005-01-01

    To present a retrospective case report about a patient who suffered from chronic lower back pain for sixteen years, finding little relief from numerous medical and traditional chiropractic interventions, until active patient participation was incorporated in the chiropractic treatment process. A 43-year-old female experienced severe right lumbar, right sacrum, and right acetabular pain and muscle spasms occurring after playing a vigorous tennis match 16 years earlier. Pain intensity was rated as 8 out of 10 on a variable analog scale. Prior treatments included prolonged bed rest, cortisone injection, chiropractic manipulation, stretching, acupuncture, physical therapy, and other rehabilitation interventions. By the time of presentation she also experienced right arm and right upper back pain. A lumbar MRI scan showed an L4/5 disc bulge. Patrick's, Yeoman's and Kemp's tests were positive on her right side. She had an asymmetrical gait pattern with a right hip hike, lateral shift and rotation of the pelvis. Weakness of the left gluteus maxi-mus, gluteus medius, and right erector spinae muscles was present. Motion palpation revealed several fixations. There was tenderness to palpation of the right psoas muscle and a trigger point in the right illiacus muscle. Home-based rehabilitation including low-tech muscle-specific patient controlled dynamic spinal stabilization exercises, cardiovascular training and various stretching techniques was incorporated with chiropractic manipulation. Significant improvement was noted within a 40 week treatment course. Incorporation of active patient participation seemed to be a significant factor in the resolution of the patient's low back pain. Active patient participation improved the quality of life for this patient.

  7. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy.

  8. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value <.001) of receiving a cervical screening test; an OR of 2.05 (CI 1.88 – 2.22; X2: 24.236; p.value <.001) of being ceased from screening; and an OR of 0.14 (CI 0.001 – 0.28; X2: 286.341; p.value <0.001 of being a non-responder compared to age and practice-matched women without learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and markers of gastric cancer risk in Alaska Native persons: A retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Keck, James W; Miernyk, Karen M; Bulkow, Lisa R; Kelly, Janet J; McMahon, Brian J; Sacco, Frank; Hennessy, Thomas W; Bruce, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alaska Native persons experience gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates that are three to four times higher than in the general United States population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pepsinogen I, pepsinogen I/II ratio, anti-Helicobacter pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibody levels, and blood group for their associations with gastric cancer development in Alaska Native people. METHODS: The present analysis was a retrospective case-control study that matched gastric cancers reported to the Alaska Native Tumor Registry from 1969 to 2008 to three controls on known demographic risk factors for H pylori infection, using sera from the Alaska Area Specimen Bank. Conditional logistic regression evaluated associations between serum markers and gastric cancer. RESULTS: A total of 122 gastric cancer cases were included, with sera predating cancer diagnosis (mean = 13 years) and 346 matched controls. One hundred twelve cases (91.8%) and 285 controls (82.4%) had evidence of previous or ongoing H pylori infection as measured by anti-H pylori antibody levels. Gastric cancer cases had a 2.63-fold increased odds of having positive anti-H pylori antibodies compared with their matched controls (P=0.01). In a multivariate model, non-cardia gastric cancer (n=94) was associated with anti-H pylori antibodies (adjusted OR 3.92; P=0.004) and low pepsinogen I level (adjusted OR 6.04; P=0.04). No association between gastric cancer and blood group, anti-CagA antibodies or pepsinogen I/II ratio was found. CONCLUSION: Alaska Native people with gastric cancer had increased odds of previous H pylori infection. Low pepsinogen I level may function as a precancer marker for noncardia cancer. PMID:24945184

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and markers of gastric cancer risk in Alaska Native persons: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Keck, James William; Miernyk, Karen M; Bulkow, Lisa R; Kelly, Janet J; McMahon, Brian J; Sacco, Frank; Hennessy, Thomas W; Bruce, Michael G

    2014-06-01

    Alaska Native persons experience gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates that are three to four times higher than in the general United States population. To evaluate pepsinogen I, pepsinogen I/II ratio, anti-Helicobacter pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibody levels, and blood group for their associations with gastric cancer development in Alaska Native people. The present analysis was a retrospective case-control study that matched gastric cancers reported to the Alaska Native Tumor Registry from 1969 to 2008 to three controls on known demographic risk factors for H pylori infection, using sera from the Alaska Area Specimen Bank. Conditional logistic regression evaluated associations between serum markers and gastric cancer. A total of 122 gastric cancer cases were included, with sera predating cancer diagnosis (mean = 13 years) and 346 matched controls. One hundred twelve cases (91.8%) and 285 controls (82.4%) had evidence of previous or ongoing H pylori infection as measured by anti-H pylori antibody levels. Gastric cancer cases had a 2.63-fold increased odds of having positive anti-H pylori antibodies compared with their matched controls (P=0.01). In a multivariate model, noncardia gastric cancer (n=94) was associated with anti-H pylori antibodies (adjusted OR 3.92; P=0.004) and low pepsinogen I level (adjusted OR 6.04; P=0.04). No association between gastric cancer and blood group, anti-CagA antibodies or pepsinogen I/II ratio was found. Alaska Native people with gastric cancer had increased odds of previous H pylori infection. Low pepsinogen I level may function as a precancer marker for noncardia cancer.

  11. Lexical enhancement during prime-target integration: ERP evidence from matched-case identity priming.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Gómez, Pablo; Jiménez, María; Perea, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    A number of experiments have revealed that matched-case identity PRIME-TARGET pairs are responded to faster than mismatched-case identity prime-TARGET pairs for pseudowords (e.g., JUDPE-JUDPE < judpe-JUDPE), but not for words (JUDGE-JUDGE = judge-JUDGE). These findings suggest that prime-target integration processes are enhanced when the stimuli tap onto lexical representations, overriding physical differences between the stimuli (e.g., case). To track the time course of this phenomenon, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) masked-priming lexical decision experiment that manipulated matched versus mismatched case identity in words and pseudowords. The behavioral results replicated previous research. The ERP waves revealed that matched-case identity-priming effects were found at a very early time epoch (N/P150 effects) for words and pseudowords. Importantly, around 200 ms after target onset (N250), these differences disappeared for words but not for pseudowords. These findings suggest that different-case word forms (lower- and uppercase) tap into the same abstract representation, leading to prime-target integration very early in processing. In contrast, different-case pseudoword forms are processed as two different representations. This word-pseudoword dissociation has important implications for neural accounts of visual-word recognition.

  12. Surgical resection versus local ablation for HCC on cirrhosis: results from a propensity case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Sandri, Marco; Campagnaro, Tommaso; Valdegamberi, Alessandro; Conci, Simone; Bagante, Fabio; Turcato, Gianni; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Iacono, Calogero

    2012-02-01

    Surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) had great improvements in the last decades with low morbidity and mortality and good long-term results. Percutaneous local ablative therapies (LAT) such as radiofrequency ablation and ethanol injection (PEI) for HCC gained consent for their efficacy and safety. In retrospective studies, patients submitted to resection (LR) or LAT frequently have important selection bias. Propensity case-matched analysis proved to reduce selection bias of retrospective studies and allow comparison between different therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate survival comparing LR and LAT in two groups of cirrhotic patients with HCC matched with propensity score methods. Four hundred and seventy-eight cirrhotic patients with HCC treated with LR or LAT with curative intent between January 1995 and December 2009 were included in the study. One hundred and eighty-one patients underwent LR, and 297 patients were treated with LAT. Tumor stage and liver function were evaluated in all patients. To balance the covariates in the two groups, a one-to-one propensity case-matched analysis was used. A multivariable logistic model based on age, gender, etiology of cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class, number of nodules, maximum diameter of nodules, and serum alpha-fetoprotein level was used to estimate propensity score. One-to-one caliper matching of LR and LAT groups was performed, generating a matched sample of 176 patients with 88 patients in each group. Median survival was 65.1 months (95% CI = 48.5-81.7) after LR and 37.3 months (95% CI = 29.3-45.3) after LAT (p = 0.008). For patients in Child-Pugh class A with single HCC and maximum diameter <5 cm, median survival was 65.0 months (95% CI = 58.4-71.6) for the LR group and 63.7 months (95% CI = 31.8-95.7) for the LAT group (p = 0.730). For patients in Child-Pugh class A with single HCC and diameter ≥5 cm, median survival was 79.9 months (95% CI = 40.1-119.8) for the LR

  13. Oncologic Outcomes after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Following Total Mastectomy in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jai Min; Paik, Hyun-June; Park, Sungmin; Yi, Ha Woo; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Se Kyung; Yu, Jonghan; Bae, Soo Youn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) following total mastectomy (TM) has increased markedly in patients with breast cancer. As the indications for IBR have been broadened and more breast-conserving surgery-eligible patients are undergoing IBR, comparing the oncologic safety between TM only and IBR following TM becomes more difficult. This study aimed to analyze the oncologic outcomes between TM only and IBR following TM via a matched case-control methodology. Methods A retrospective review was conducted to identify all patients who underwent TM between 2008 and 2014. We excluded patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, including palliative chemotherapy, and had a follow-up duration <12 months, inflammatory breast cancer, or incomplete data. We divided the remaining patients into two groups: those who underwent TM only (control group) and those who underwent IBR following TM (study group). The groups were propensity score-matched. Matched variables included age, pathologic stage, estrogen or progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, and year of operation. Results After matching, 878 patients were enrolled in the control group and 580 patients in the study group. The median follow-up duration was 43.4 months (range, 11–100 months) for the control group and 41.3 months (range, 12–100 months) for the study group (p=1.000). The mean age was 47.3±8.46 years for the control group and 43.9±7.14 years for the study group (p>0.050). Matching was considered successful for the matching variables and other factors, such as family history, histology, multiplicity, and lymphovascular invasion. There were no significant differences in overall survival (log-rank p=0.454), disease-free survival (log-rank p=0.186), local recurrence-free survival (log-rank p=0.114), or distant metastasis-free survival rates (logrank p=0.537) between the two groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that IBR following TM is a feasible

  14. Heading the ball: a case of a Le Fort II fracture in a football match.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Ebru; Onur, Ozge; Denizbasi, Arzu; Kosargelir, Mehmet; Akoglu, Haldun; Ibrahim, Abdullah

    2011-03-15

    Facial injuries can impair a patient's ability to eat, speak and interact with others. Severe injuries occur as a result of interpersonal or domestic violence, or in motor vehicle collisions, including those involving motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles. The authors present a case of LeFort II fracture caused by a collision of opponents while heading the ball in a football match.

  15. Practical guidance for the use of a pattern-matching technique in case-study research: a case presentation.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Adel F; Gardner, Glenn E; McCarthy, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on a study that demonstrates how to apply pattern matching as an analytical method in case-study research. Case-study design is appropriate for the investigation of highly-contextualized phenomena that occur within the social world. Case-study design is considered a pragmatic approach that permits employment of multiple methods and data sources in order to attain a rich understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The findings from such multiple methods can be reconciled in case-study analysis, specifically through a pattern-matching technique. Although this technique is theoretically explained in the literature, there is scant guidance on how to apply the method practically when analyzing data. This paper demonstrates the steps taken during pattern matching in a completed case-study project that investigated the influence of cultural diversity in a multicultural nursing workforce on the quality and safety of patient care. The example highlighted in this paper contributes to the practical understanding of the pattern-matching process, and can also make a substantial contribution to case-study methods.

  16. Are written advance directives helpful to guide end-of-life therapy in the intensive care unit? A retrospective matched-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane S; Peschel, Ilka; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Curtis, J Randall; Westermann, Isabella; Kabisch, Bjoern; Pfeifer, Ruediger; Guenther, Albrecht; Michalsen, Andrej; Reinhart, Konrad

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether treatment preferences in patients' advance directives (ADs) are associated with life-supporting treatments received during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU). This is a retrospective cohort study, including patients who died in 4 ICUs of a university hospital in Germany. Patients with ADs were matched with 2 patients each without ADs using propensity scores. Sixty-four (13%) of 477 patients had ADs, written a median of 109 weeks before admission. Five categories of applicability conditions were identified, most of them difficult to interpret in the ICU (eg, "advanced brain impairment" or "imminent death"). Advance directives contained a number of treatment refusals. Specifically, 63 of 64 refused "life-sustaining measures." Compared to patients without ADs, patients with ADs were less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (9% vs 23%, P = .029) and more likely to have do-not-resuscitate orders (77% vs 56%, P = .007). Therapy-limiting decisions and ICU length of stay did not differ between those with or without ADs. Patients with ADs are less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation but otherwise receive similar life-sustaining treatments compared to matched patients without ADs. More research is needed to explore reasons for potential noncompliance with patient preferences. © 2013.

  17. Classification and the case matching algorithm of the blast furnace burden surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ming; Zhang, Sen; Yin, Yixin; Shao, Lizhen

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the burden surface and the gas flow in blast furnace was studied in this paper using the improving k-means algorithm and graded case based matching method. An improved k-means classification algorithm was proposed based on the evaluation of effectiveness index to study the relationship between the burden surface and the gas flow in blast furnace from historical data, which proved the proposed algorithm has high accuracy according to the experimental data and different standard data sets. The paper also proposed a matching algorithm on the basis of the above clustering algorithm to obtain the most matched historical burden surface with the current burden surface. At last, compared with both of the improved grey similarity matching algorithm and Euclidean nearest neighbor matching algorithm, the results showed that the proposed method has higher efficiency and matching accuracy, and it is more suitable for the research of the relationship between burden surface and gas flow to assist the monitoring of the blast furnace to control burden surface.

  18. [Epidemio-clinical profile of human scabies through dermatologic consultation. Retrospective study of 1148 cases].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Zeglaoui, Faten; Ezzine, Nedia; Kharfi, Monia; Zghal, Mohamed; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2003-11-01

    We report a retrospective study of all scabies cases collected in the department of Dermatology of Charles Nicolle Hospital during a 8 year-period (1993-2000). 148 cases of scabies were collected with a mean incidence of 144 new cases/year (65-204). Diagnosis was made clinically in all cases. Parasitological exam was done in case of doubtful diagnosis. Our purpose is to try to define an epidemio-clinical profile of scabies in Tunisia and to estimate the incidence of this parasitosis through our dermatological consultation with reviewing the literature data.

  19. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  20. Brief Report: Retrospective Case Series of Oxcarbazepine for Irritability/Agitation Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jessica F.; Sanders, Kevin B.; Benneyworth, M. Hannah; Smith, Jessica L.; DeJean, Virginia M.; McGrew, Susan G.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We examined response to oxcarbazepine prescribed for irritability/agitation symptoms in a retrospective case series of 30 patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The average patient was 12.0 years old (range 5-21) and taking two other psychotropic medications (range 0-4). Fourteen patients (47 %) had a clinical global impression of…

  1. Game Coaching System Design and Development: A Retrospective Case Study of FPS Trainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Wee Hoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a retrospective case study of a game-based learning (GBL) researcher who cooperated with a professional gamer and a team of game developers to design and develop a coaching system for First-Person Shooter (FPS) players. The GBL researcher intended to verify the ecological validity of a model of cooperation; the developers wanted to…

  2. Brief Report: Retrospective Case Series of Oxcarbazepine for Irritability/Agitation Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jessica F.; Sanders, Kevin B.; Benneyworth, M. Hannah; Smith, Jessica L.; DeJean, Virginia M.; McGrew, Susan G.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We examined response to oxcarbazepine prescribed for irritability/agitation symptoms in a retrospective case series of 30 patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The average patient was 12.0 years old (range 5-21) and taking two other psychotropic medications (range 0-4). Fourteen patients (47 %) had a clinical global impression of…

  3. Reading in English and in Chinese: Case Study of Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Two Adult ELLS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yang; Gilles, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) has proved to be a useful instructional tool in language arts classrooms and for English learners from various cultures. However, it has not been used with native Mandarin-speaking English learners. This qualitative case study explored the reading process of two adult Mandarin-speaking ELs through RMA. They read…

  4. Spatial analysis of health effects of large industrial incinerators in England, 1998-2008: a study using matched case-control areas.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Nicola F; Fanshawe, Thomas R; Keegan, Thomas J; Stewart, Alex G; Diggle, Peter J

    2013-01-25

    To assess whether residential proximity to industrial incinerators in England is associated with increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality. Retrospective study using matched case-control areas. Five circular regions of radius 10 km near industrial incinerators in England (case regions) and five matched control regions, 1998-2008. All cases of diseases of interest within the circular areas. Counts of childhood cancer incidence (<15 years); childhood leukaemia incidence (<15 years); leukaemia incidence; liver cancer incidence; lung cancer incidence; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence; all-cause mortality; infant mortality (<1 year) and liver cancer mortality. The estimated relative risks for case circles versus control circles for the nine outcomes considered  range from 0.94 to 1.14, and show neither elevated risk in case circles compared to control areas nor elevated risk with proximity to incinerators within case circles. This study applies statistical methods for analysing spatially referenced health outcome data in regions with a hypothesised exposure relative to matched regions with no such exposure. There is no evidence of elevated risk of cancer incidence or mortality in the vicinity of large industrial incinerators in England.

  5. Dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Muller, Arnaud; Guaguère, Eric; Degorce-Rubiales, Frédérique; Bourdoiseau, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    A retrospective study of 16 cases of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor in dogs is reported. Hunting dogs were overrepresented (12/16). Skin lesions were observed on the face in all cases, but also on other locations (limbs, neck). The lesions included alopecia (15/16), erythema (13/16), scales (14/16), and crusts (13/16). Histopathology was performed in 10 cases and showed folliculitis and a lichenoid interface dermatitis. Fungal culture was positive in all cases and clinical resolution was achieved with standard antifungal agents (enilconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin). Two recurrences were observed (new contacts with rodents).

  6. Dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor: A retrospective study of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Arnaud; Guaguère, Eric; Degorce-Rubiales, Frédérique; Bourdoiseau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study of 16 cases of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor in dogs is reported. Hunting dogs were overrepresented (12/16). Skin lesions were observed on the face in all cases, but also on other locations (limbs, neck). The lesions included alopecia (15/16), erythema (13/16), scales (14/16), and crusts (13/16). Histopathology was performed in 10 cases and showed folliculitis and a lichenoid interface dermatitis. Fungal culture was positive in all cases and clinical resolution was achieved with standard antifungal agents (enilconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin). Two recurrences were observed (new contacts with rodents). PMID:21731090

  7. Fired Cartridge Case Identification Using Optical Images and the Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method for ballistics identification was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CMC method is based on the correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of the correlation of entire images. Four identification parameters – TCCF, Tθ, Tx and Ty are proposed for identifying correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The correlation conclusion (matching or non-matching) is determined by whether the number of CMC is ≥ 6. This method has been previously validated using a set of 780 pair-wise 3D topography images. However, most ballistic images stored in current local and national databases are in an optical intensity (grayscale) format. As a result, the reliability of applying the CMC method on optical intensity images is an important issue. In this paper, optical intensity images of breech face impressions captured on the same set of 40 cartridge cases are correlated and analyzed for the validation test of CMC method using optical images. This includes correlations of 63 pairs of matching images and 717 pairs of non-matching images under top ring lighting. Tests of the method do not produce any false identification (false positive) or false exclusion (false negative) results, which support the CMC method and the proposed identification criterion, C = 6, for firearm breech face identifications using optical intensity images. PMID:26601045

  8. Risk Factors for Primary Pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHUSSUPOV, Baurzhan; HERMOSILLA, Sabrina; TERLIKBAYEVA, Assel; AIFAH, Angela; MA, Xin; ZHUMADILOV, Zhaxybay; ABILDAYEV, Tleukhan; DARISHEVA, Meruyert; BERIKKHANOVA, Kulzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions. PMID:27252913

  9. Combining matched and unmatched control groups in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    le Cessie, Saskia; Nagelkerke, Nico; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Pomp, Elisabeth R; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2008-11-15

    Multiple control groups in case-control studies are used to control for different sources of confounding. For example, cases can be contrasted with matched controls to adjust for multiple genetic or unknown lifestyle factors and simultaneously contrasted with an unmatched population-based control group. Inclusion of different control groups for a single exposure analysis yields several estimates of the odds ratio, all using only part of the data. Here the authors introduce an easy way to combine odds ratios from several case-control analyses with the same cases. The approach is based upon methods used for meta-analysis but takes into account the fact that the same cases are used and that the estimated odds ratios are therefore correlated. Two ways of estimating this correlation are discussed: sandwich methodology and the bootstrap. Confidence intervals for the pooled estimates and a test for checking whether the odds ratios in the separate case-control studies differ significantly are derived. The performance of the method is studied by simulation and by applying the methods to a large study on risk factors for thrombosis, the MEGA Study (1999-2004), wherein cases with first venous thrombosis were included with a matched control group of partners and an unmatched population-based control group.

  10. A matched case-control study of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: still a devastating complication.

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Le Maréchal, M; Dupont, D; Ducastelle-Leprêtre, S; Balsat, M; Labussière-Wallet, H; Barraco, F; Nicolini, F-E; Thomas, X; Gilis, L; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T; Wallet, F; Rabodonirina, M; Salles, G; Michallet, M; Ader, F

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis (TXP) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Little is known about the risk factors and there is no consensus on prophylactic measures. To investigate the risk factors, we conducted a single-centre, retrospective matched case-control study among adults who underwent AHSCT from January 2006 to March 2015 in our hospital. TXP cases were identified from the prospectively maintained hospital's database. The 1:2 control population consisted of the two patients who received an AHSCT immediately before and after each case with similar donor relationship (related, unrelated) but who did not develop TXP. Risk factors were identified by conditional logistic regression. Clinical features and outcome of TXP were examined. Twenty-three (3.9%) cases of TXP (20 diseases, three infections) were identified among 588 AHSCT recipients. Twenty (87%) cases had a positive pre-transplant Toxoplasma gondii serology. In comparison with 46 matched control patients, risk factors were the absence of effective anti-Toxoplasma prophylaxis (odds ratio (OR) 11.95; 95% CI 3.04-46.88; p <0.001), high-grade (III-IV) acute graft-versus-host-disease (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.04-9.23; p 0.042) and receipt of the tumour necrosis factor-α blocker etanercept (OR 12.02; 95% CI 1.33-108.6; p 0.027). Mortality attributable to TXP was 43.5% (n = 10). Non-relapse mortality rates during the study period of cases and controls were 69.6% (n = 16) and 17.4% (n = 8), respectively. Lung involvement was the dominant clinical feature (n = 14). Two cases were associated with graft failure, one preceded by haemophagocytic syndrome. Given TXP-related morbidity and attributable mortality, anti-Toxoplasma prophylaxis is essential for optimized management of seropositive AHSCT recipients.

  11. 3-Factor Versus 4-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Warfarin Reversal in Severe Bleeding: A Multicenter, Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jones, G Morgan; Erdman, Michael J; Smetana, Keaton S; Mohrien, Kerry M; Vandigo, Joseph E; Elijovich, Lucas

    2016-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4PCC) for emergent reversal of bleeding secondary to warfarin. While current research has demonstrated superiority of 4PCC over plasma, direct comparisons with 3-factor PCC (3PCC) are lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of 3PCC and 4PCC. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who received PCC at one of four medical centers. All patients in the 3PCC group were treated at one center that utilizes a fixed, weight-based dosing protocol. After evaluation of all patients meeting inclusion criteria, propensity-score matching was used to adjust for differences in treatment characteristics. There was no difference in the primary outcome of INR ≤ 1.4 between 3PCC and 4PCC in both the unmatched (85.7 vs. 90.6 %; p = 0.37) and matched (84.2 vs. 92.1 %; p = 0.48) analyses. There was a significant difference in goal INR achieved favoring 4PCC (56.3 vs 90.0 %; p < 0.02) when baseline INR > 4.0. A total of three thrombotic events were documented, all in the 4PCC group. We found no difference in the rate of INR reversal in those treated with 3PCC and 4PCC. However, those with a baseline INR > 4.0 may experience more successful INR reversal with 4PCC.

  12. Risk Factors for Border Malaria in a Malaria Elimination Setting: A Retrospective Case-Control Study in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Wei; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiang-Rui; Wang, Jia-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for border malaria in a malaria elimination setting of Yunnan Province, China. The study comprised 214 cases and 428 controls. The controls were individually matched to the cases on the basis of residence, age, and gender. In addition, statistical associations are based on matched analyses. The frequencies of imported, male, adult, and vivax malaria cases were respectively 201 (93.9%), 194 (90.7%), 210 (98.1%), and 176 (82.2%). Overnight stay in Myanmar within the prior month was independently associated with malaria infection (odds ratio [OR] 159.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 75.1–338.9). In particular, stays in lowland and foothill (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.5–11.8) or mid-hill (OR 42.8, 95% CI 5.1–319.8) areas, or near streamlets (OR 15.3, 95% CI 4.3–55.2) or paddy field or pools (OR10.1, 95% CI 4.4–55.8) were found to be independently associated with malaria. Neither forest exposure nor use of vector control measures was associated with malaria. In conclusion, travel to lowland and foothill or mid-hill hyperendemic areas, especially along the waterside in Myanmar, was found to be the highest risk factor for malaria. In considering the limitations of the study, further investigations are needed to identify the major determinants of malaria risk and develop new strategies for malaria elimination on China-Myanmar border. PMID:25601994

  13. Sequential tests for gene-environment interactions in matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Schipper, Maria

    2004-12-30

    The sample size necessary to detect a significant gene x environment interaction in an observational study can be large. For reasons of cost-effectiveness and efficient use of available biological samples we investigated the properties of sequential designs in matched case-control studies to test for both non-hierarchical and hierarchical interactions. We derived the test statistics Z and V and their characteristics when applied in a two-sided triangular test. Results of simulations show good agreement with theoretical values for V and the type I error. Power values were larger than their theoretical values for very large sample sizes. Median gain in efficiency was about 27 per cent. For a 'rare' phenotype gain in efficiency was larger when the alternative hypothesis was true than under the null hypothesis. Sequential designs lead to substantial efficiency gains in tests for interaction in matched case-control studies.

  14. Risk factors for non-syndromic oral clefts: a matched case-control study in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Yang, M; Gong, T; Shen, M; Du, Y

    2015-01-01

    To explore the risk factors for CL/P in Hubei Province, China. A hospital-based, matched case-control study was conducted. One hundred and eight cases with CL/P were matched by age and sex with 108 normal controls. Their parents were retrospectively interviewed using a questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to calculate the relative risk by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Univariate analysis identified ten factors as significantly related to CL/P (P < 0.05). Multivariate conditional logistic regression models showed that five of these factors were significantly associated with CL/P. Paternal occupational exposure (OR = 13.08, 95% CI: 2.35-72.86), first-trimester maternal illness (OR = 36.67, 95% CI: 5.37-250.36), first-trimester maternal bad mood (OR = 8.69, 95% CI: 1.35-55.84), first-trimester maternal diet of eggs or milk (≥5 meals per week, OR = 6.72, 95% CI: 1.23-36.69), and first-trimester maternal sexual activity (OR = 5.98, CI 95%:1.14-31.49) were risk factors for CL/P. In our study, we identified that paternal occupational exposure, first-trimester maternal illness, first-trimester maternal bad mood, first-trimester maternal diet of eggs or milk (≥5 meals per week), and first-trimester maternal sexual activities were significantly associated with increased CL/P. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Survival outcomes in pregnancy associated breast cancer: a retrospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sheikh Asim; Gupta, Sameer; Sehgal, Rajesh; Vogel, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) has been defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within one year of delivery. It is believed that after adjusting for age and stage, the 5-year survival rates are the same in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. We conducted a retrospective case-control study among patients treated at our institution between 1990 and 2005 to compare the 5-year survival outcomes for PABC with women treated for breast cancer who were not pregnant. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and log rank tests were used to assess the associations between OS, DFS and pregnancy status, HER-2 status, ER/PR status, and family history. The median age was 33 years (range 24-42) for both groups. Twenty-two (55%) patients with PABC were ER/PR receptor positive compared with 20 (50%) for the controls. Ninety percent of patients with PABC received chemotherapy compared with 87.5% in the nonpregnant group. 91.5% of patients with PABC had breast-conserving surgery and 8.5% had mastectomies compared with 86% and 14%, respectively, for the control group. The median OS was 4.9 years in the PABC group compared with 6 years for the controls (p = 0.02). The median DFS was 2.7 years for the PABC group compared with 5.1 years for the controls (p = 0.01). The most common site of relapse was bone for the PABC group (27%) and local recurrence (33%) for the controls. Univariate analysis revealed that OS and DFS were associated with pregnancy status, family history, ER/PR status, and stage. After adjusting for age and stage, PABC patients had higher risk of both death (p = 0.01) and recurrence (p = 0.02) compared with nonpregnant controls. Women with PABC had significantly shorter OS and DFS compared with nonpregnant age and stage-matched controls. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cashew nut causes more severe reactions than peanut: case-matched comparison in 141 children.

    PubMed

    Clark, A T; Anagnostou, K; Ewan, P W

    2007-08-01

    Cashew nut allergy is becoming common, but the risk of severe reactions in comparison with peanut allergy is unknown. A case-matching study of children with a recent history of a reaction after definite nut ingestion, with positive skin prick test. Children whose worst ever reaction was to cashew nut (cashew group), were matched with two children each whose worst ever reaction was to peanut (peanut group) for sex, age of reaction and presentation, amount ingested, and asthma. Severity of the worst clinical reactions to date was compared. A total of 47 children in the cashew group were matched to 94 in the peanut group. There were no differences in clinical features between groups for matching criteria, except asthma (more prevalent in the peanut group). Wheezing and cardiovascular symptoms were reported more frequently during reactions in the cashew compared with the peanut group: odds ratios (OR) 8.4 (95% CI: 3.2-22.0) and 13.6 (95% CI: 5.6-32.8), respectively. The cashew group received intramuscular adrenaline more frequently: OR 13.3 (95% CI: 5.5-32.2). Overall, the OR for a severe reaction (severe dyspnoea and/or collapse) in the cashew group was 25.1 (95% CI: 3.1-203.5). Previous studies show cashew nut can cause severe reactions; this is the first study to show by case-matching that severe clinical reactions occur more frequently in cashew compared with peanut allergy. The nut type which caused the worst reaction to date should be considered when providing emergency medication.

  17. Handling missing data in matched case-control studies using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Shaun R; Keogh, Ruth H

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of matched case-control studies is often complicated by missing data on covariates. Analysis can be restricted to individuals with complete data, but this is inefficient and may be biased. Multiple imputation (MI) is an efficient and flexible alternative. We describe two MI approaches. The first uses a model for the data on an individual and includes matching variables; the second uses a model for the data on a whole matched set and avoids the need to model the matching variables. Within each approach, we consider three methods: full-conditional specification (FCS), joint model MI using a normal model, and joint model MI using a latent normal model. We show that FCS MI is asymptotically equivalent to joint model MI using a restricted general location model that is compatible with the conditional logistic regression analysis model. The normal and latent normal imputation models are not compatible with this analysis model. All methods allow for multiple partially-observed covariates, non-monotone missingness, and multiple controls per case. They can be easily applied in standard statistical software and valid variance estimates obtained using Rubin's Rules. We compare the methods in a simulation study. The approach of including the matching variables is most efficient. Within each approach, the FCS MI method generally yields the least-biased odds ratio estimates, but normal or latent normal joint model MI is sometimes more efficient. All methods have good confidence interval coverage. Data on colorectal cancer and fibre intake from the EPIC-Norfolk study are used to illustrate the methods, in particular showing how efficiency is gained relative to just using individuals with complete data.

  18. Nutrient deficiency and obstetrical outcomes in pregnant women following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A retrospective Danish cohort study with a matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hammeken, Lianna Hede; Betsagoo, Ramsina; Jensen, Ann Nygaard; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and small-for-gestational-age births are known to be associated although the etiology is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate pregnancy outcomes and maternal nutritional status among pregnant women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using maternal anemia and gestational weight gain as indicators of micronutrient and macronutrient deficiency in pregnancy. The study was designed as a retrospective matched cohort study. All Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated pregnant women (n=151) who were followed in the outpatient obstetric clinic at Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark and gave birth between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 were included. Each Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman was closely matched with a non-Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman. Primary outcomes were small-for-gestational-age birth, maternal anemia and gestational weight gain. The two groups (matched 1:1) were compared by paired tests on all measures, conditional logistic regression for paired binary data and the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired continuous data. The risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (odds ratio (OR)=2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.04-6.82) and maternal anemia (OR=3.0, 95% CI; 1.09-8.25) were significantly increased for the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group compared to the non-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group. No significant difference was found in gestational weight gain (p=0.169) between women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (11.51kg±8.97 standard deviation (SD)) and non- Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated women (12.18kg±6.28 SD). A history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and anemia, while a finding of differences in gestational weight gain is uncorroborated. Our findings suggest a role of micronutrient deficiency rather than reduced gestational weight gain in the etiology of small-for-gestational-age birth among

  19. Diagnosis of High-Grade Osteosarcoma by Radiology and Cytology: A Retrospective Study of 52 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Lambert; Unni, Krishnan K.; Bertoni, Franco; Brosjö, Otte; Kreicbergs, Andris

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic value of combined radiology and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was retrospectively assessed in a consecutive series of 52 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma. The series was divided into typical and atypical osteosarcomas according to radiological features and site. Thirty-two of 33 radiologically typical osteosarcoma cases were correctly diagnosed by cytology; one lesion was diagnosed as sarcoma NOS. Nineteen osteosarcoma cases were radiographically atypical. Six of these were diagnosed as osteosarcoma and another six as sarcoma NOS. In three cases another type of sarcoma was suggested. One case was falsely classified as benign. FNAC of three cases were non-diagnostic. Overall, the diagnostic difficulties pertained to the radiologically atypical cases. Notably, four of these also posed considerable difficulties in the histopathological assessment prompting external consultation. Our study suggests that open biopsy can be obviated in high-grade osteosarcomas exhibiting typical radiological features, i.e., in two-thirds. PMID:18521391

  20. Suicidal hanging in Kuwait: retrospective analysis of cases from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elwahab Hassan, Dalia; Ghaleb, Sherein S; Kotb, Heba; Agamy, Mervat; Kharoshah, Magdy

    2013-11-01

    Suicide is an important health hazard worldwide. We retrospectively analyzed the autopsy records of the Institute of Forensic Medicine between 2010 and 2012 to document the characteristics of fatalities resulting from hanging in Kuwait. Upon analysis of death scene investigation and autopsy reports together with the information gathered from the police, the cases of hanging fatalities of suicidal origin were selected. A retrospective study was carried out on 118 suicidal hanging cases autopsied at Forensic Medicine Center in Kuwait (from 2010 to 2012). Of these cases, 86 (73%) were males and 32 females (27%). There was an increasing trend of hanging among ages between 21 and 50 years (87.3%) and the third decade had the highest number of victims (about 43%) between all age groups. Local Kuwaiti nationals comprised a small proportion of cases (7 persons, 5.9%), while the others were foreigners working in Kuwait with an Indian precedence (54 persons, 54.8%), followed by other 12 different nationalities representing 39.3% of the cases. In conclusion, there was a decreasing trend of suicide by hanging in Kuwait from 44 cases in 2010 to 25 cases in 2012.

  1. Do selected drugs increase the risk of lupus? A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Schoonen, W Marieke; Thomas, Sara L; Somers, Emily C; Smeeth, Liam; Kim, Joseph; Evans, Stephen; Hall, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between risk of lupus and exposure to selected drugs implicated in risk of lupus in a number of case reports. METHODS In this matched nested case-control study we utilized primary care data from the UK General Practice Research Database recorded between 1987 and 2001. Cases with at least one medical code for systemic lupus erythematosus or drug-induced lupus in their computerized records were matched to controls without a medical code for lupus or any other autoimmune disorder. Using conditional logistic regression we computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of lupus associated with exposure to selected drugs. RESULTS There were 875 incident cases, of which 12% (n = 107) had evidence of a prescription for one or more of the suspected drugs, and 3632 matched controls. For some drugs, prescriptions were too uncommon to be able to estimate associated risk of lupus. Despite small numbers of exposed patients and low statistical precision we observed an increased risk of lupus for hydralazine (OR = 6.62, 95% CI 1.03, 42.74), minocycline (OR = 4.23, 95% CI 2.65, 6.75) and carbamazepine (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.09, 3.22). There was some indication that the effect of carbamazepine was restricted to women (P for interaction by gender = 0.047). CONCLUSION This study shows that even those drugs suggested by case reports as causing lupus cannot all be clearly shown to be associated, even in a very large population-based database. Our findings support causal relationships for carbamazepine, minocycline and possibly hydralazine. Overall, drugs do not seem to be a major cause of lupus. PMID:20840450

  2. Growth of the hard palate in infants with Down syndrome compared with healthy infants-A retrospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Klingel, Daniel; Hohoff, Ariane; Kwiecien, Robert; Wiechmann, Dirk; Stamm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To investigate morphological differences of the hard palate in infants with Down syndrome (DS) compared with a volumetric-matched control group (CG). Trial design: retrospective case control study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, plaster casts of edentulous maxillae of 40 DS infants (20 females and 20 males, aged 221.3 ± 132.4 days) and 40 CG infants (20 females and 20 males, aged 53.9 ± 87.2 days) were digitized and converted into 3-dimensional stereolithography data. An automated landmark- and investigator-independent method for assessing two-dimensional measurements such as width, depth, and length of palate, as well as palatal index and the 3-dimensional volume, were used. Matching DS and healthy CG infants by age, we found reduced sizes in all linear and volumetric measurements in the DS group. Matching both groups by palatal volume, we found no differences between the groups according to palatal width (p = .93), palatal depth (p = .32), and palatal index (p = .31). Control infants with the same palatal volume compared with the DS infants were about 151 days younger, 95%-CI = [102, 200] (Hodges-Lehmann estimator). Except for palatal length and palatal volume, the growth pattern of DS palates decreased irregularly at age 6 to 9 months. The palate of DS infants in the first 6 to 9 month of life is of normal shape but considerably smaller compared with healthy normals. From 6 to 9 months onward, the growth pattern of the hard palate in DS infants decreases irregularly. High-arch-constricted palates could, therefore, be interpreted as secondarily acquired in later life. We therefore speculate that it could be advantageous to begin oral muscular stimulating therapy between 6 and 9 months of age which may prevent palatal shape alterations and enhance oral function which also contributes to maxillary development.

  3. Factors associated with rifampin resistance in staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJI): a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Y; Eigenmann, K; Ledergerber, B; Derksen, L; Rafeiner, P; Clauss, M; Nüesch, R; Zellweger, C; Vogt, M; Zimmerli, W

    2013-04-01

    Rifampin combination therapy plays an important role in the management of staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, the emergence of rifampin resistance is a feared complication. We retrospectively analysed predetermined potential risk factors in patients with rifampin-resistant staphylococcal PJI in a multicentre case-control study. Cases (n = 48) were defined as PJI caused by rifampin-resistant staphylococci. Rifampin-susceptible controls (n = 48) were matched for microorganism and type of prosthetic joint. Uni- and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Forty-eight cases (31 men; median age 67 years; age range 39-88 years) with hip- (n = 29), knee- (n = 13), elbow- (n = 4), shoulder- (n = 1) or ankle-PJI (n = 1) were enrolled in the study. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in ten and 38 episodes, respectively. Most of the cases (n = 44, 92 %) had a previous PJI, and 93 % (n = 41) of these had been treated with rifampin. There was an independent association of emergence of rifampin resistance with male sex (OR 3.6, 95 % CI 1.2-11), ≥ 3 previous surgical revisions (OR 4.7, 95 % CI 1.6-14.2), PJI treatment with high initial bacterial load (inadequate surgical debridement, <2 weeks of intravenous treatment of the combination medication; OR 4.9, 95 % CI 1.6-15) and inadequate rifampin therapy (OR 5.4, 95 % CI 1.2-25). Based on our results, extensive surgical debridement and adequate antibiotic therapy are needed to prevent the emergence of rifampin resistance.

  4. Dermatoglyphic traits in Thai schizophrenia patients: a matching case-control study.

    PubMed

    Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Nanakorn, Somsong; Mongconthawornchai, Paiboon; Virasiri, Surapol; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Thepsuthummarat, Kaewchai

    2011-03-01

    To compare fingerprint patterns, means of dermatoglyphic variables i.e., total finger ridge count, total a-b ridge count, pattern complexity index, and fingerprint pattern asymmetry between patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. A cross-sectional, matching case-control was conducted. Thirty-four males and 34 females with schizophrenia and an equal number of age and sex matched normal controls were selected. Fingerprints and partial palm prints of all of the subjects were obtained using the Automated Inkless Fingerprint Imaging Software and the transparent-adhesive tape technique, respectively. Using paired t-tests (p < 0.05), the cases and controls, males and females separately, were compared for fingerprint pattern asymmetry, total finger ridge counts (TFRC), a-b ridge counts of the right (RABRC), left (LABRC), and both hands (TABRC), and pattern complexity index (PCI). Between cases and controls, neither sex had any significant differences in the mean scores for the pattern asymmetries, TFRC, right-left-ABRC and TABRC. However, the mean scores for PCI were significantly different between the male cases and controls (2.82 vs. 4.94, p = 0 009). Only male patients exhibited average scores for complex patterns (whorls minus arches less than 2), which might be a biomarker for screening of schizophrenia in males.

  5. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:28070424

  6. Mechanisms of tricuspid valve regurgitation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a case-matched echocardiographic-surgical comparison study.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Tara; Honjo, Osami; Seller, Neil; Atlin, Cori; Redington, Andrew; Caldarone, Christopher A; van Arsdell, Glen; Mertens, Luc

    2013-02-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms of tricuspid valve (TV) insufficiency in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) include structural anomalies of TV leaflets and ventricular dilatation. We hypothesized that 2-D echocardiography underestimates the importance of TV structural abnormalities, whereas surgical assessment underestimates the importance of motion abnormalities, and compared echocardiographic assessment with surgical description. Two independent experts retrospectively reviewed echocardiograms of all patients who had staged single-ventricular palliation and TV repair during January 1998-December 2008, and compared with case-matched controls who did not require TV repair. Primary and secondary mechanisms of TV insufficiency were categorized, and surgical findings ascertained from operation records. There were 32 patients with a median age of 5.9 months (0.3-140) and 32 matched controls. On echocardiographic review, an abnormality of at least one leaflet was noted in every patient (100%) vs. in only 14 controls 14 (44%) (P < 0.001). Leaflet prolapse was described in 22 (69%), and the restriction of a leaflet in 20 (69%). Agreement between the experts was excellent (κ = 0.64-0.88). On surgical inspection, annular dilatation was found in 17 (53%), and leaflet dysplasia in 14 (44%). Agreement between echocardiographic and surgical assessment was poor (κ < 0.6). Important structural abnormalities are common in patients with HLHS and TV insufficiency, some readily identified by 2-D echocardiography. However, there are significant discrepancies between echocardiographic and surgical findings. Echocardiographic assessment is sensitive to detect leaflet motion abnormalities, but not leaflet structural abnormalities. Both echocardiographers and surgeons should be aware of these limitations when planning surgical interventions.

  7. Determinants of unwanted pregnancies in India using matched case-control designs.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Priyanka; Ram, Faujdar; Dwivedi, Laxmi Kant

    2012-08-11

    In India, while the total fertility rate has been declined from 3.39 in 1992-93 to 2.68 in 2005-06, the prevalence of unintended pregnancy is still stagnant over the same period. A review of existing literature shows that within the country, there are variations in fertility preferences between different regions. Also there is a strong argument that the availability of a health facility at the village level plays an important role in reshaping the fertility behavior of women. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no information at the village level (which is the lowest geographical boundary) in the recent round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the specific objective of this study is to examine the impact of individual and household level variables on unwanted pregnancies without controlling the village level variation. Further, once the village level variation (i.e. unobserved variation) has been controlled, it is necessary to study whether there has been any alteration in the contribution of factors from earlier results of without adjusting the village level variation. This paper attempts to examine the associated factors of unwanted pregnancies, without matching the village and after matching the village, by using the matched case-control design. Nationwide data from India's latest NFHS-3 conducted during 2005-06 was used for the present study. Frequency and pair wise matching has been applied in the present paper and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to work out the models and to find out the factors associated with unwanted pregnancies. A major finding of this study was that 1:3 case-control study (without matching the village) shows that women belonging to non Hindu/Muslim religion, Scheduled Tribe, women who have experienced child loss and if the previous birth interval is 24 through 36 months were significant predictors of unwanted pregnancy. However, this relationship did not hold significant after village wise matching. Other

  8. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    PubMed

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI <0.9 or >1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Case-Match Controlled Comparison of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis and Intramedullary Nailing for the Stabilization of Humeral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gareth; Yeo, Gerald; Meta, Mahendrakumar; Miller, David; Hohmann, Erik; Tetsworth, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    To compare the risk of major complications after either minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) or intramedullary nailing (IMN) of humeral shaft fractures. Retrospective, case-match controlled study. A major metropolitan tertiary referral trauma center in Australia. Thirty patients with fractures of the humeral shaft. Either MIPO or IMN were performed on 15 patients each with traumatic humeral shaft fractures. The cumulative risk of 3 major complications associated with these procedures: nonunion, infection, and iatrogenic radial nerve injury. An overall major complication rate of 53% was observed in the patients treated with IMN; one complication (7%) was identified in those managed with humeral MIPO, a nonunion. Complications after IMN included 4 patients (27%) with nonunion, 3 patients (20%) with iatrogenic radial nerve injuries, and 1 patient (7%) with a wound infection. Statistical analysis revealed a significant between-group difference (P = 0.01) in the cumulative rate of major complications. When each of these complications was considered independently, no statistically significant difference was demonstrated. This study suggests that humeral MIPO results in a significantly lower pooled major complication rate than that of IMN, and it should therefore be considered an attractive alternative to IMN in those patients requiring surgical stabilization of a traumatic humeral shaft fracture. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. The clinical and economic burden of significant bleeding during lung resection surgery: A retrospective matched cohort analysis of real-world data.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip K; Roy, Sanjoy; Daskiran, Mehmet; Yoo, Andrew; Li, Gang; Fegelman, Elliott J

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to quantify the clinical and economic burden of significant bleeding in lung resection surgery in the US. This study utilized 2009-2012 data from the Premier Perspective Database(TM). Adult patients with primary pulmonary lobectomy or segmentectomy procedures were categorized by the surgical approach (VATS vs open) and primary diagnosis (primary or metastatic lung cancer vs non-lung cancer). Patients requiring ≥3 units of blood products with at least 1 unit of PRBCs: "significant bleeding" cohort; those requiring <3 units: "non-significant bleeding" cohort; and those not requiring blood products: "no bleeding" cohort. A matched cohort analysis was performed between the "significant bleeding" and the "no bleeding cohort" using matching variables: hospital, lung cancer diagnosis, year of surgery, APR-DRG severity score, procedure type and approach, age, and gender. The "All-patient" cohort comprised 21,429 patients: 213 "significant bleeding"; 2,780 "non-significant bleeding"; and 18,436 "no bleeding". Overall incidence of significant chest bleeding was 0.99%. Patients from "significant bleeding" cohort and "non-significant bleeding" cohort had 2.5 days and 2 days (p < 0.0001) longer length of stay in the hospital compared to those in the "no bleeding" cohort, respectively. Overall, hospital costs for "significant bleeding" cohort were higher than "no bleeding" cohort for those who were covered under Medicare ($59,871 vs $23,641), were ≥76 years of age ($64,010 vs $24,243), had greater severity of illness ($97,813 vs $51,871) and underwent open segmentectomy ($74,220 vs $21,903). Hospital costs for "significant bleeding" cohort and "non-significant bleeding" were significantly higher ($11,589 and $5,280, respectively, p < 0.0001) than no bleeding cohort. Although significant bleeding during lung resection surgery is rare, patients with such complication could stay longer at the hospital and cost an average of

  11. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Valdivieso, Jose Ramon; Monedero, Pablo; Vives, Marc; Garcia-Fernandez, Nuria; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2009-09-22

    Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI.Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  12. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery. PMID:19772621

  13. Thulium Vaporesection of the Prostate and Thulium Vapoenucleation of the Prostate in Patients on Oral Anticoagulants: A Retrospective Three-Centre Matched-Paired Comparison.

    PubMed

    Netsch, Christopher; Magno, Carlo; Butticè, Salvatore; Macchione, Luciano; Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Gross, Andreas J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term results of thulium vaporesection of the prostate (ThuVEP) and thulium vapoenucleation of the prostate (ThuVARP) in patients with benign prostatic obstruction on oral anticoagulants (OA). A 3-centre retrospective matched-paired comparison of patients treated by ThuVEP (n = 26) or ThuVARP (n = 26) was performed. Thirty-four patients were on aspirin/ticlopidin, 7 on clopidogrel or clopidogrel and aspirin, and 11 on phenprocoumon at the time of surgery. Haemoglobin decrease was higher after ThuVEP compared to ThuVARP (1.5 vs. 0.3 g/dl, p < 0.001). The rate of postoperative blood transfusions (3.9 vs. 0%), clot retention (3.9 vs. 0%), and re-operation (7.7 vs. 0%) was not different between ThuVEP and ThuVARP (p = 0.274). Catheterization time was shorter for ThuVARP (1 vs. 2 days, p < 0.01). Qmax was significantly higher after ThuVEP at 6-month follow-up (31 vs. 21.5 ml/s, p < 0.001), while improvements in International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, and post-voiding residual urine showed no differences between the groups. Urethral or bladder neck strictures did not occur during the 6-month follow-up in both groups. ThuVEP and ThuVARP are safe and efficacious procedures in patients on OA. Although patients assigned to ThuVEP had higher Qmax at 6-month follow-up, ThuVARP resulted in similar functional outcomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A GIS-based Matched Case-control Study of Road Characteristics in Farm Vehicle Crashes.

    PubMed

    Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Mello, Elizabeth R; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2016-11-01

    Farm vehicle-related crashes (crashes) are hazardous for farm and non-farm vehicle users; however, most studies examine risk factors of injury given a crash, and shed little light on risk factors of crashes. We evaluated the association of road sinuosity and gradient with crashes in nine Midwestern States from 2005 to 2010. We collected crash data from the state departments of transportation, and road segment data from the Environmental Sciences Research Institute. We measured gradient and sinuosity of road segments using ArcGIS. A road segment with a crash was defined as a case (n = 6,848), and that without a crash was defined as a control. Controls were matched to cases by ZIP code, road type, and length in 1:1 (controls = 6,808) matching scheme. In addition, a 1:many control matched scheme was employed such that all road segments adjacent to the case would serve as controls (n = 24,390). We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable conditional logistic regression. The adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% gradient was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.75) as compared with a leveled (<1% gradient) road segment. Compared with a straight (<1% sinuosity) road segment, the adjusted OR of a crash on a road segment with 6%-10% sinuosity was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.52). Roads with increased gradient and sinuosity had fewer farm crashes. These associations may be due to cautious driving behaviors on curvy or steep roads and road side signage alerting drivers of impending curve or grade.

  15. [Complications in bland struma surgery. A retrospective study based on 2,035 personal cases].

    PubMed

    Vara-Thorbeck, R; Tovar, J L; Rosell, J; Guerero, J A; Ruiz, M; Salvi, M; Morales, O I; Vara-Thorbeck, C

    1989-01-01

    In the present retrospective study we examine the complications arising from simple goiter operations based on the analysis of 2,035 cases. The mortality rate is extremely low (0.3%). The most typical intraoperative complications - such as unilateral vocal cord paralysis (1.6%) and permanent parathyroprival hypocalcemia (0.4%) were observed to occur much more frequently in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy than in those of partial resection. - As a result of the introduction of synthetic reabsorbent sewing materials, healing problems have been drastically reduced (0.4%). Hypothyreosis and goiter recurrence can be avoided in cases of subtotal thyroidectomy by life-long and individually adjusted administration of thyroid hormones (rate of incidence in our study 3.1%). - In our view a subtotal thyroidectomy is indicate in cases where malignity is suspected (one or more cold nodules).

  16. Extranodal oral non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A retrospective study of 40 cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Keszler, Alicia; Piloni, María J; Paparella, María L; Soler, Marcela de Dios; Ron, Patricia Cabrera; Narbaitz, Marina

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of extranodal oral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas diagnosed at the Surgical Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry at Buenos Aires University, Argentina, between 1985 and 2004. The 40 cases found represent 0.2% of the oral biopsies diagnosed during that time and 4.6% of malignant neoplasias. Overall mean age of patients was 49.4 years, and frequency was greater in males. 80% affected soft tissues. Prevalent location was gingival, followed by palate. Intraosseous cases were more frequent in mandible (75%) than in upper maxilla. 100% of the cases were phenotype B, with a higher frequency of high-grade aggressiveness. The most common histological type was Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma. 60% of the Plasmablastic Lymphomas in the series came from HIV+ patients. Evolution time prior to consultation was 1 to 3 months in 57.7% of the cases.

  17. Diagnosis of fetal osteogenesis imperfecta by multidisciplinary assessment: a retrospective study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qichang; Wang, Wenbo; Cao, Lin; Sun, Li; Xu, Yasong; Zhong, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    To describe our 2 year experience in diagnosing prenatal-onset osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by multidisciplinary assessment. We retrospectively analyzed 10 cases of fetal OI by using prenatal ultrasound evaluation, postnatal radiographic diagnosis, and molecular genetic testing of COL1A1/2. By postnatal radiographic examination, five patients were diagnosed with type II OI and five were diagnosed with type III OI. A causative variant in the COL1A1 gene was found in four cases of type II and one case of type III OI; a causative variant in the COL1A2 gene was found in two cases of type III OI. The definitive diagnosis of fetal OI should be accomplished using a multidisciplinary assessment, which is paramount for proper genetic counseling. With the discovery of COL1A1/2 gene variants as a cause of OI, sequence analysis of these genes will add to the diagnostic process.

  18. Dissociative sensibility disorders - A retrospective case series and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Weber, Peter; Erlacher, Rahel

    2017-09-01

    Dissociative disorders present a huge challenge in clinical settings. In contrast to other dissociative symptoms, dissociative sensibility disorders are rarely focused on. To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of dissociative sensibility disorders in children and adolescents, and to review the use of diagnostic procedures. For the review, a literature search used Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubPsych (to 02/2015) and the reference lists of the studies identified. Screening of titles and abstracts; full-text assessment by two reviewers. The original case series was identified by using the local data register. Two reviewers independently reviewed the data and, if they agreed on the relevance, extracted the data. In the original case series, data were extracted retrospectively from the records. Sixteen studies and seven case reports were identified, including 931 cases with dissociative disorders. In 210 cases the patient suffered either from a single sensibility disorder or predominantly from sensibility disorders. We identified thirteen further cases in our cohort. In both groups there was female predominance; the mean age of manifestation was early adolescence. The timing of admissions was variable. In approximately 50% of cases a premorbid stressful life event could be identified. Over 75% of cases had a good prognosis with complete resolution. Retrospective character of our own data collection, partially missing differentiation between the subgroups of dissociative disorders in the reviewed studies. There is no uniform procedure for diagnostic work-up. The overall short-term prognosis is good. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Robotic Single-Site and Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery in Gynecology: Clinical Outcomes and Cost Analysis of a Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    El Hachem, Lena; Andikyan, Vaagn; Mathews, Shyama; Friedman, Kathryn; Poeran, Jashvant; Shieh, Kenneth; Geoghegan, Michael; Gretz, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes and costs associated with robotic single-site (RSS) surgery compared with those of conventional laparoscopy (CL) in gynecology. Retrospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-affiliated community hospital. Female patients undergoing RSS or CL gynecologic procedures. Comparison of consecutive RSS gynecologic procedures (cases) undertaken between October 2013 and March 2014 with matched CL procedures (controls) completed during the same time period by the same surgeon. Patient demographic data, operative data, and hospital financial data were abstracted from the electronic charts and financial systems. An incremental cost analysis based on the use of disposable equipment was performed. Total hospital charges were determined for matched RSS cases vs CL cases. RSS surgery was completed in 25 out of 33 attempts; 3 cases were aborted before docking, and 5 were converted to a multisite surgery. There were no intraoperative complications or conversions to laparotomy. The completed cases included 11 adnexal cases and 14 hysterectomies, 3 of which included pelvic lymph node dissection. Compared with the CL group, total operative times were higher in the RSS group; however, there were no significant between-group differences in estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, or complication rates. Disposable equipment cost per case, direct costs, and total hospital charges were evaluated. RSS was associated with an increased disposable cost per case of $248 to $378, depending on the method used for vaginal cuff closure. The average total hospital charges for matched outpatient adnexal surgery were $15,450 for the CL controls and $18,585 for the RSS cases (p < .001), and the average total hospital charges for matched outpatient benign hysterectomy were $14,623 for the CL controls and $21,412 for the RSS cases (p < .001). Although RSS surgery and CL have comparable clinical outcomes in selected patients

  20. A retrospective analysis for aetiology and clinical findings of 287 secondary amyloidosis cases in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuglular, Serhan; Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Paydas, Saime; Oner, Ayse; Utas, Cengiz; Bozfakioglu, Semra; Ataman, Rezzan; Akpolat, Tekin; Ok, Ercan; Sen, Saniye; Düsünsel, Ruhan; Evrenkaya, Rifki; Akoglu, Emel

    2002-11-01

    Secondary amyloidosis is the most frequent of the various types of systemic amyloidosis, the epidemiology of which is not yet fully known. The aim of our study was to evaluate retrospectively the collective data for the aetiological distribution, clinical findings and approaches to the management of secondary amyloidosis in Turkey. Data from a simple questionnaire addressing aetiology, and demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven secondary amyloidosis was retrospectively analysed. Eleven nephrology clinics contributed data for this study. The 11 contributing centres provided a total of 287 cases (102 female, 185 male). The aetiological distribution was as follows: familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) 64%, tuberculosis 10%, bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive lung disease 6%, rheumatoid arthritis 4%, spondylarthropathy 3%, chronic osteomyelitis 2%, miscellaneous 4%, unknown 7%. Oedema accompanied by proteinuria was present in 88% of the cases, hepatomegaly in 17%, and splenomegaly in 11%. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 115+/-26 and 73+/-15 mmHg respectively. The family history was positive in 16%; 73% of the cases were on colchicine treatment when the questionnaire was administered. Thirty-eight per cent of the cases had progressed to ESRD and were on renal replacement therapy. FMF is the leading cause of secondary amyloidosis in Turkey, followed by tuberculosis. Oedema accompanied by proteinuria is the most prominent presenting finding, and hypotension seems to be common among these patients.

  1. A retrospective study of 72 cases diagnosed with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia in indian populace

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Hitesh-Chander; Sachdeva, Akash; Verma, Ajay; Dhupar, Vikas; Dhupar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Context: Trigeminal neuralgia is as a chronic, debilitating condition, which can have a major impact on quality of life. There are few reports of trigeminal neuralgia in oriental populations. Objectives: To evaluate the retrospective data of the patients diagnosed with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia and to understanding the disorder in the Indian populace. Methods: The retrospective data of 72 patients with typical idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia regarding age of onset, gender, site of involvement, clinical presentations and treatment received during three years of the follow up was collected and analyzed. Results: In the present retrospective study, the mean age was 54.9 years; female to male ratio was 2.13:1; rural to urban ratio 1.76:1 with 62.5% suffered trigeminal neuralgic pain on the right side. Carbamazepine was found to be highly effective in 60.8% of the cases on long-term basis with maintenance doses. Other treatment modalities were employed in more refractory cases including add-on of gabapentin, which relieved the symptoms for an additional duration of 13±3months. The neurolytic alcohol bloc was given in 30% of patients who stopped responding to combination of carbamazepine and gabapentin and relieved pain for a mean duration of 17.25±2.95 months. Twenty three percent of the patients (23%) required peripheral neurectomy. Conclusions: Carbamazepine was found to be highly effective in trigeminal neuralgia. Other treatment modality includes add-on of gabapentin, neurolytic alcohol blocs and peripheral surgical intervention in more refractory cases. Only limited cases needed further neurological consideration. Key words:Trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine, gabapentin, alcohol bloc, peripheral neurectomy. PMID:25810840

  2. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Isolated Pathologies of the Sphenoid Sinus: Retrospective Study of 46 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Marcolini, Thomas Ribeiro; Safraider, Maryane Cristine; Socher, Jan Alessandro; Lucena, Guilherme Olinto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated disease of the sphenoid is rare and has often been overlooked due to its remote location and difficult access. Objective A retrospective study of the main causes of isolated sphenoid sinus diseases with discussion of the most appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 46 cases of isolated sphenoid disease treated between January 2008 and December 2013 were evaluated by objective ear, nose, and throat examination and video endoscopy, computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses, and, in some cases, magnetic resonance imaging. In each case, we decided between drug and/or endoscopic treatment. Results We identified 12 cases of isolated sphenoiditis (26.1%), 3 cases of fungal sphenoiditis (6.5%), 3 cases of sphenochoanal polyps (6.5%), 22 cases of mucocele (47.8%), 2 cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak (4.3%), and 1 case each of meningoencephalocele (2.1%), inverted papilloma (2.1%), fibrous dysplasia (2.1%), and squamous cell carcinoma (2.1%). Conclusion A prevalence of inflammatory and infectious diseases was found, and endoscopic surgery for the sphenoid sinus approach is effective in treating various diseases of the isolated sphenoid, whether complicated or not. PMID:25992167

  3. Pregnancy and tuberculosis: to assess tuberculosis cases in pregnancy in a developing region retrospectively and two case reports.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Nadi; Yilmaz, Sema

    2008-11-01

    PREGNANCY AND TUBERCULOSIS (TB): To assess TB cases during pregnancy in a developing region retrospectively and to present two case reports. Since TB cases activated by HIV infection during pregnancy are well reported in the literature, we aimed to investigate the aggressiveness of pulmonary TB among pregnant women and to assess the effects of TB on the fetus in Kutahya, an area where HIV positive cases are not seen. The medical records between 2000 and 2005 of the Provincial Health Directorate and Dispensary Against Tuberculosis in Kutahya were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Between 2000 and 2005, 667 pulmonary TB cases were examined in the Kutahya region. Of these, 106 occurred in women at reproductive ages between 20 and 44. All were HIV negative cases. In this area, five TB cases were found during pregnancy. There were three cases seen in the first trimester, but pregnancy was ended by curettage. Two women had pulmonary TB and gave birth. Five cases were evaluated as class 1 TB. During and after pregnancy, isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide (INH + RFP + ETB + PRZ) were used for the treatment. Resistance to anti-TB drugs was not seen during the treatment. Neither congenial nor neonatal TB was seen. Generally, TB is expected to be more aggressive during pregnancy. Since our cases were HIV negative, it can be thought that TB did not progress aggressively. Less aggressiveness and non-resistance to TB treatment in HIV-negative pregnant women compared with HIV-positive women were observed. Therefore, HIV infection results in greater mortality than the triple combination of human immunodeficiency virus, mycobacterium TB, and pregnancy. Besides, the advance of TB in pregnant women was not different from that in non-pregnant women in Kutahya. The fetus and the newborn were not affected. INH, RFP, ETB, and PRZ were used for therapy.

  4. Epoetin in the 'untransfusable' anaemic patient: a retrospective case series and systematic analysis of literature case reports.

    PubMed

    Heh-Foster, A M; Naber, M; Pai, M P; Lesar, T S

    2014-08-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents [erythropoietin (EPO)] have been recommended to treat anaemic patients who cannot receive or refuse blood tranfusion ('untransfusable' patients). The objective of the study was to quantify the association of EPO use with haemoglobin (Hgb) recovery in anaemic untransfusable hospitalised patients. EPO treated anaemic untransfusable patients were identified through the combination of a retrospective case review and a systematic review of the medical literature. Literature reports of untransfusable patients not treated with any EPO were used as a comparator group. Hgb concentrations before and following EPO use were abstracted and used to determine the rate of Hgb recovery for each case. Multilevel mixed effects modelling was used to determine the association of Hgb recovery with EPO use. A total of 76 EPO treated cases (19 cases from the retrospective hospital case review and 57 from the literature), and 33 non-EPO treated comparator patients from the literature were included in the study. Hgb increased similarly over time in all groups at an overall mean standard error (SE) rate of 0·13 (0·01) g dL(-1)  day(-1) . The Hgb recovery rate was higher in patients with lower baseline Hgb, regardless of EPO use. No association was found between the rate of Hgb recovery and EPO use, dose or therapy duration. In anaemic, 'untransfusable' hospitalised patients, EPO use was not associated with increased Hgb recovery at anytime within 28 days. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Functional electrical stimulation with cycling in the critically ill: a pilot case-matched control study.

    PubMed

    Parry, Selina M; Berney, Sue; Warrillow, Stephen; El-Ansary, Doa; Bryant, Adam L; Hart, Nicholas; Puthucheary, Zudin; Koopman, Renè; Denehy, Linda

    2014-08-01

    The purpose was to determine (a) safety and feasibility of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-cycling and (b) compare FES-cycling to case-matched controls in terms of functional recovery and delirium outcomes. Sixteen adult intensive care unit patients with sepsis ventilated for more than 48 hours and in the intensive care unit for at least 4 days were included. Eight subjects underwent FES-cycling in addition to usual care and were compared to 8 case-matched control individuals. Primary outcomes were safety and feasibility of FES-cycling. Secondary outcomes were Physical Function in Intensive Care Test scored on awakening, time to reach functional milestones, and incidence and duration of delirium. One minor adverse event was recorded. Sixty-nine out of total possible 95 FES sessions (73%) were completed. A visible or palpable contraction was present 80% of the time. There was an improvement in Physical Function in Intensive Care Test score of 3.9/10 points in the intervention cohort with faster recovery of functional milestones. There was also a shorter duration of delirium in the intervention cohort. The delivery of FES-cycling is both safe and feasible. The preliminary findings suggest that FES-cycling may improve function and reduce delirium. Further research is required to confirm the findings of this study and evaluate the efficacy of FES-cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tenkate, T D; Stafford, R J

    2001-12-01

    Campylobacter infection has one of the highest rates of all the notifiable diseases in Australia, with a peak in children aged 0-35 months. A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for campylobacter infection for children in this age group. Eighty-one cases and 144 controls were enrolled in the study that was conducted between 24 January 1996 and 21 January 1997. The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with illness: ownership of pet puppies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 16.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.73-73.65) and pet chickens (OR 11.80, CI 1.37-101.75), and consumption of mayonnaise (OR 4.13, CI 1.61-10.59). We propose that children aged less than 3 years are at risk of campylobacter infection if residing in a household which has puppies or chickens as pets.

  7. Point source modeling of matched case-control data with multiple disease subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we propose nonlinear distance-odds models investigating elevated odds around point sources of exposure, under a matched case-control design where there are subtypes within cases. We consider models analogous to the polychotomous logit models and adjacent-category logit models for categorical outcomes and extend them to the nonlinear distance-odds context. We consider multiple point sources as well as covariate adjustments. We evaluate maximum likelihood, profile likelihood, iteratively reweighted least squares, and a hierarchical Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under these distance-odds models. We compare these methods using an extensive simulation study and show that with multiple parameters and a nonlinear model, Bayesian methods have advantages in terms of estimation stability, precision, and interpretation. We illustrate the methods by analyzing Medicaid claims data corresponding to the pediatric asthma population in Detroit, Michigan, from 2004 to 2006.

  8. Risk factors for campylobacter infection in infants and young children: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Tenkate, T. D.; Stafford, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has one of the highest rates of all the notifiable diseases in Australia, with a peak in children aged 0-35 months. A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for campylobacter infection for children in this age group. Eighty-one cases and 144 controls were enrolled in the study that was conducted between 24 January 1996 and 21 January 1997. The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with illness: ownership of pet puppies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 16.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.73-73.65) and pet chickens (OR 11.80, CI 1.37-101.75), and consumption of mayonnaise (OR 4.13, CI 1.61-10.59). We propose that children aged less than 3 years are at risk of campylobacter infection if residing in a household which has puppies or chickens as pets. PMID:11811871

  9. Multidrug-resistant TB among previously treated TB cases: A retrospective study in Nagpur, India.

    PubMed

    Munje, Radha; Deshmukh, Rajesh; Tumane, Kondeshwar

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major public health concern and threat for tuberculosis control efforts worldwide. Globally, 3.6% of new TB cases and 20.2% of previously treated cases, are estimated to have MDR-TB. The prevalence of MDR-TB in India has been estimated to be 1-3% in new TB cases and around 12-14% in previously treated TB cases. There is limited information of the trends of MDRTB among various types of previously treated cases, i.e. relapse, treatment after failure, treatment after default and other cases. This study was conducted to know the trends of MDR-TB among various types of previously treated cases treated as per Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) guidelines. This was a retrospective record review of MDRTB cases diagnosed during 2007-2011 who were previously treated for anti-TB treatment under RNTCP. A total of 249 retreatment tuberculosis patients diagnosed as having MDRTB were included. Majority 84 (34%) of cases were from 25 to 34 years age group, which is productive age group. Among the MDRTB cases, 177 (71%) were male and 72 (29%) were female. The proportion of MDR-TB among different subcategories of retreatment TB cases were relapse 117 (47%), treatment failure 96 (39%), treatment after default 22 (9%) and others 14 (6%). Study findings highlight high proportion of MDRTB among the relapse and treatment failure cases. Further research is needed to understand high occurrence rates of MDRTB among relapse and failure cases treated under RNTCP and need for early detection of MDR-TB among these high-risk groups. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in an acute care hospital--a retrospective case control study].

    PubMed

    Müller, Rita; Halfens, Ruud; Schwendimann, René; Müller, Marianne; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter E

    2009-12-01

    Falls in patient are a major problem in acute care institutions because of direct and indirect consequences. The objectives of the present retrospective case control study were to explore predictors of falls and fall-related injuries in hospitalised patients in a department of internal medicine at a Swiss acute care hospital. The sample included 228 hospitalised patients with a fall and 228 patients without a fall as control subjects, matched by age, gender and medical diagnosis. The cases were further analysed, whereby injured patients were compared with uninjured ones. Data were obtained from patient records and the hospital information system (HIS). Patients with a previous fall, mobility disorders, altered cognition, altered urinary and fecal excretions, intake of sedativa or other psychotropic drugs, a higher amount of comorbidities and case mix, as well as a prolonged length of stay were significantly more frequent in the cases than in the controls. Patients with falls and controls showed no differences in terms of impaired vision, intake of five and more medications, or diuretica. Analysis by logistic regression revealed mobility disorder (OR 5,2; 95 % VI 2.39-11.44) and altered excretions (OR 1,8; 95 % VI 1.02-3.31) as significant main effects and there also were significant interactions between previous falls, intake of sedativa or other psychopharmaca and altered cognition. No difference could be seen in any variable between patients with a fall-related injury and no injury. Therefore a predictive profile could be found for patients at risk to fall which might be helpful for further prevention strategies. However, no predictive marker for fall-related injuries could be defined in the present study.

  11. [Risk factors on road traffic accidents in middle school students: a matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-chun; Jin, Hui-qing; Tao, Xing-yong; Zhang, Shu-lin; Hu, Chuan-lai

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the predictors of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in middle school students, a case-control study was designed to seek new clues for prevention and control on RTAs in this population. Cases were 116 students who experienced RTAs from 2005/01/01 to 2005/12/31. 116 students were served as controls who were from the same class of the cases and matched by age and sex. Information on personal behavior, family conditions, and knowledge, attitude, practice (KAB) on road traffic of these children were collected and compared. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the relationship between these factors and RTAs. Compared to the controls, the cases showed more negative attitude and risk-taking-behaviors especially in riding bicycle. However, knowledge on road safety showed less significant differences between case and control groups. The negative attitude and risk-taking-behaviors were independent risk factors for RTAs by logistic regression. In addition, distance from home to school that longer than 1000 m seemed a risk factors for RTAs, while high education levels among mothers was a protective factor. Road safety attitude and behavior, distance from home to school were the main influence factors for RTAs among middle school students. It seemed more important in improving the attitude and behavior on road safety than to enhance the knowledge for prevention and control of RTAs among middle school students.

  12. Retrospective assessment of osteomyelitis. Etiology, demographics, risk factors, and management in 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Koorbusch, G F; Fotos, P; Goll, K T

    1992-08-01

    A retrospective review and analysis of the management of osteomyelitis in 35 patients at a major hospital complex has been made. In this patient population sample, trauma and odontogenic sources were determined to be the most prevalent causes of osteomyelitis of the jaws, which in the vast majority of cases affected the mandible. Alcohol and/or tobacco use was reported in at least one half of the cases surveyed. Surgical exploration and debridement were most frequently used during the treatment of these cases. The microbial causes of these lesions were most frequently mixed infections that originated from the oral cavity. Antimicrobial therapy most often used beta-lactam-bearing antibiotics, although combinations with other agents were often included. These and other data obtained through this study underscore the multifactored causes and therapeutic approaches found in osteomyelitis of the jaws.

  13. Distribution of lameness lesions in beef cattle: A retrospective analysis of 745 cases

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Benjamin W.; Chamorro, Manuel F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the relative prevalence of diagnoses and location of lameness lesions in beef cattle. Medical records from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and 745 cases of beef cattle that had presented for lameness were identified. Information regarding signalment, lesion location, and cause of lameness was analyzed. The cause of lameness was localized to the foot in approximately 85% of cases; a hind limb was affected over 70% of the time. The lateral claw was most commonly affected in cases of both fore- and hind-limb lameness. The most common diagnoses of noninfectious etiology were screw claw, vertical fissure, and interdigital fibroma. Infectious foot disease accounted for only 20% of foot lameness. Routine foot trimming may be warranted in some herds to improve weight-bearing balance and alleviate lameness. PMID:27041758

  14. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Ankush; Wadde, Kavita; Dewalwar, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% The cyst in mixed dentition stage cause expansion of buccal cortex, displacement of teeth and may present as case of infection. The cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molar are of frequent occurrence. The differential diagnosis of this lesion is radicular cysts of deciduous molar: developmental or infammatory dentigerous cyst of corresponding unerupted premolar. After going through the available literature of radicular cyst of deciduous molars and dentigerous cysts of developing premolars in mixed dentition we studied the five cases of cyst in periradicular region of deciduous molars in mixed dentition retrospectively for the diagnostic dilemma of radicular cyst verses dentigerous cyst. In conclusion, we can set some criteria for the diagnosis which is particularly important for treatment and for conservation of developing premolar. How to cite this article: Manekar VS, Chavan A, Wadde K, Dewalwar V. Cysts in Periradicular Region of Deciduous Molars in Mixed Dentition: Retrospective Study of Five Cases. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):229-235. PMID:25709310

  15. The phenotypic spectrum of progressive supranuclear palsy: a retrospective multicenter study of 100 definite cases.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Gesine; Stamelou, Maria; Kurz, Carolin; Ferguson, Leslie W; Rajput, Alexander; Chiu, Wan Zheng; van Swieten, John C; Troakes, Claire; Al Sarraj, Safa; Gelpi, Ellen; Gaig, Carles; Tolosa, Eduardo; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Giese, Armin; Roeber, Sigrun; Arzberger, Thomas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Höglinger, Günter U

    2014-12-01

    The phenotypic variability of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may account for its frequent misdiagnosis, in particular in early stages of the disease. However, large multicenter studies to define the frequency and natural history of PSP phenotypes are missing. In a cohort of 100 autopsy-confirmed patients we studied the phenotypic spectrum of PSP by retrospective chart review. Patients were derived from five brain banks with expertise in neurodegenerative disorders with referrals from multiple academic hospitals. The clinical characteristics of the 100 cases showed remarkable heterogeneity. Most strikingly, only 24% of cases presented as Richardson's Syndrome (RS), and more than half of the cases either showed overlapping features of several predescribed phenotypes, or features not fitting proposed classification criteria for PSP phenotypes. Classification of patients according to predominant clinical features in the first 2 years of the disease course allowed a more comprehensive description of the phenotypic spectrum. These predominance types differed significantly with regard to survival time and frequency of cognitive deficits. In summary, the phenotypic spectrum of PSP may be broader and more variable than previously described in single-center studies. Thus, too strict clinical criteria defining distinct phenotypes may not reflect this variability. A more pragmatic clinical approach using predominance types could potentially be more helpful in the early recognition of and for making prognostic predictions for these patients. Given the limitations arising from the retrospective nature of this analysis, a systematic validation in a prospective cohort study is imperative.

  16. Aspergillus otitis in small animals--a retrospective study of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Goodale, Elizabeth C; Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus spp. are saprophytic opportunistic fungal organisms and are a common cause of otomycosis in humans. Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing Aspergillus otitis in dogs and cats. To characterize signalment, putative risk factors, treatments and outcomes of a case series of dogs and cats with Aspergillus otitis. Eight dogs and nine cats diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis. A retrospective review of medical records from 1989 to 2014 identified animals diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis based on culture. All dogs weighed greater than 23 kg. The most common putative risk factors identified in this study were concurrent diseases, therapy causing immunosuppression or a history of an otic foreign body. Aspergillus otitis was unilateral in all study dogs and most cats. Concurrent otitis media was confirmed in three dogs and one cat, and suspected in two additional cats. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common isolate overall and was the dominant isolate in cats. Aspergillus niger and A. terreus were more commonly isolated from dogs. Animals received various topical and systemic antifungal medications; however, otic lavage under anaesthesia and/or surgical intervention increased the likelihood of resolution of the fungal infection. Aspergillus otitis is uncommon, typically seen as unilateral otitis externa in cats and larger breed dogs with possible risk factors that include immunosuppression and otic foreign bodies; previous antibiotic usage was common. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Manipulation in the Treatment of Plantar Digital Neuralgia: A Retrospective Study of 38 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cashley, David G.; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe treatment outcomes for patients with plantar digital neuralgia (PDN) (Morton’s neuroma) who were treated using foot manipulation. Methods Charts were reviewed retrospectively for patients with a diagnosis of PDN and who received a minimum of 6 treatments consisting of manipulation alone. Visual analogue pain scales (VAS) and pressure threshold meter readings (PTM) were extracted as outcome measures. Results Thirty-eight cases met inclusion criteria. Mean pretreatment duration of pain was 28 months. Mean pretreatment VAS was 69.5/100 mm. Mean pretreatment PTM was 2.54 Kp. By the sixth treatment, 30 (79%) of the 38 patients scored a VAS of 0 mm and a further 4 (10%) were below 10 mm. Contralateral limb PTM showed a mean pre-treatment score of 5.5 Kp, which rose slightly to 5.85 Kp. This compared to a pre-treatment score of 2.54 Kp rising to 5.86 Kp in the affected limb. This represents a 126% increase in the affected side compared to 6.5% in the unaffected limb. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant linear trend between decreasing VAS and manipulation (P < .001). Conclusion The patients with PDN who were included in this case series improved with conservative care that included only foot manipulation. PMID:26257593

  18. Skeletal Metastasis of Unknown Primary Origin at the Initial Visit: A Retrospective Analysis of 286 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Hirohisa; Kim, Yongji; Suehara, Yoshiyuki; Kubota, Daisuke; Akaike, Keisuke; Ishii, Midori; Mukaihara, Kenta; Okubo, Taketo; Murata, Hideki; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Kazuo; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Skeletal metastasis is a common metastatic event for several carcinomas, and the treatment for skeletal metastasis of unknown primary (SMUP) are a critical issue in cancer therapy. Making a diagnosis of the primary site is the most crucial step in the treatment of SMUP; however, the procedures are sometimes difficult and time-consuming, and the primary site often remains unknown. Therefore, to establish optimal diagnostic strategies and elucidate the overall survival rates of SMUP, we conducted this retrospective study. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 286 SMUP cases from a total of 2,641 patients with skeletal metastases who were treated between 2002 and 2014 at our initiations. Results The primary sites were identified in 254/286 patients (88.8%), while 32 (11.2%) primary sites were not detected by our diagnostic strategies. Lung cancer was identified in 72 (25.2%) cases, and was the most frequently observed primary lesion. The median survival time of the SMUP patients was 20.0 months, while the median survival times of solitary bone metastasis cases and multi-bone metastasis cases were 39.0 months and 16.0 months, respectively. The median survival times of prostate cancer cases was over 120 months, that of patients with primary lung cancers was 9.0 months and the median survival time of cases who were finally diagnosed with an unknown primary was 11.0 months. Conclusions We believe that our study would contribute to establishing an optimal strategy for diagnosing the primary site in SMUP patients, and our data provide definite indications for the survival times for different SMUP situations. PMID:26115010

  19. Risk factors associated with the development of seizures among adult patients treated with ertapenem: A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Cho, Hui-Ling; Lai, Li-Fen; Tong, Show-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of those ertapenem-treated adult patients with and without development of seizures, and identify the associated factors for the development of seizures. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. Patients developing seizures during their ertapenem treatment course were identified as case patients. Those without seizures who had received ertapenem for at least five days were considered as the pool of control patients. For each case patient, four matched patients from the control pool were randomly selected as the final control group, based on age, gender, and the date of ertapenem prescription. Results A total of 1706 ertapenem-treated patients were identified, 33 (1.9%) individuals developed seizures with the enrollment of 132 matched control patients. Among these 33 patients, the average age was 79.3 ± 7.5 years, and 20 (60.6%) were male. The mean Charlson co-morbidity score was 4.5 ± 2.4, and the first episode of seizure happened 3.3 ± 2.6 days after receiving ertapenem. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors associated with the development of ertapenem-associated seizures were old stroke (OR, 14.36; 95% CI, 4.38–47.02; p < 0.0001), undergoing brain images within one year prior to the admission (OR, 5.73; 95% CI, 1.78–18.43; p = 0.0034), low hemoglobin level (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.28–12.75; p = 0.0165) and low platelet count (OR, 4,94; 95% CI, 1.56–15.68; p = 0.0067) at presentations, and protective factors against the development of seizures were heart failure (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.00–0.63; p = 0.0222), concomitant use of steroids (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05–0.77; p = 0.0201), or antiplatelet agents (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02–0.63, p = 0.0123) with ertapenem. Conclusions The development of ertapenem-associated seizures may occur more frequently and much earlier due to its widespread

  20. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Immunocompromised Patients: Outcomes from a Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fábio C M; Monga, Manoj; Dall'Aqua, Vinicius; Marchini, Giovanni S; Vicentini, Fabio C; Danilovic, Alexandre; Srougi, Miguel; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in immunocompromised patients with those of PCNL in healthy population. A matched case-control study was performed from January 2009 through December 2014 using our prospectively collected kidney stone database. Patients with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C (cellular immune dysfunction), and patients on high dose of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of autoimmune diseases composed the case group. Control group included patients with kidney stones and no other comorbidity. Patients were randomly matched based on Guy's score as a surrogate of case complexity. Sixty-two patients were enrolled in this study, 21 cases and 42 controls. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and body mass index between groups. Regarding PCNL technique, there were no differences in patient positioning, number of accesses, and operative time. Complication rate was higher in the case group (38.1% vs 14.3%; p = 0.032); however, major complications, defined by Clavien score ≥3, were not statistically different (4.8% vs 2.4%; p = 0.611). There was a tendency of more postoperative urinary tract infection in the case group (19% vs 4.8%; p = 0.069). Mean decrease in hemoglobin level (3.3 vs 2.4 mg/dL; p = 0.037) and blood transfusion rate (23.8% vs 4.8%; p = 0.036) was significantly higher in the case group. Immunocompromised patients had a 2.8-fold increased risk of complications (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 7.74) and a 5.8-fold increased risk of blood transfusion (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 1.29, 26.55). There were no differences in stone-free rate, nephrostomy tube time, and length of hospital stay. Immunocompromised patients are at higher risk for complications such as bleeding after PCNL.

  1. The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM.

  2. Paracoccidioidomycosis in southern Rio Grande do Sul: A retrospective study of histopathologically diagnosed cases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Silvana Pereira; Jorge, Valéria Magalhães; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and is endemic to Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the PCM cases in the countryside south of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The files from four histopathology laboratories located in the city of Pelotas were obtained, and all of the epidemiological and clinical data from the PCM diagnosed cases were collected for analysis. A total of 123 PCM cases diagnosed between 1966 and 2009 were selected. Of these patients, 104 (84.5%) were male, and 17 were female. The patients ranged from 02 to 92 years of age. Fifty-two cases (41.9%) were obtained from the oral pathology laboratory, and the remaining 71 cases (58.1%) were obtained from the three general pathology laboratories. Of all of the patients studied, 65.2% lived in rural zones and worked in agriculture or other related fields. Data on the evolution of this disease was available for 43 cases, and the time frame ranged from 20 to 2920 days (mean = 572.3 days). An accurate diagnosis performed in less than 30 days only occurred in 21% of the cases. PCM is endemic to the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, it is recommended that PCM be included as a differential diagnosis, mainly for individuals between 30 and 60 years of age, living in rural zones and who have respiratory signs and associated-oropharyngeal lesions. PMID:24948940

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma resulting from chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective study of 8 cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghu; Cui, Haomin; Dong, Jinlei; He, Yu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a severe malignant tumor but was rare in the chronic osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to present the results from a retrospective study the cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. Material and methods: Between 1974 and 2010, eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma after chronic osteomyelitis were treated. The patients had an average age of 55 years (range 45 to 66 years), with a male predominance (6 men and 2 woman). We analyzed the time up to cancerization, localization and histopathological types of the carcinoma, and types and results of the treatment. Results: The mean delay between the initial injury and the diagnosis of malignant transformation was 28 years (range 8 to 50 years). The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in six cases, femur in one case and ankle in one case. The pathological examination showed two cases of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with bone invasion and six cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Curative amputation was performed in all patients but one who refused. No recurrence or metastasis occurred during follow-up time. Conclusion: Amputation appears to be an effective treatment method in squamous carcinoma secondary to chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:26617726

  4. Effects of smoking severity and moderate and severe periodontitis on serum C-reactive protein levels: an age- and gender-matched retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Arash; Sarlati, Fatemeh; Bidi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Leila; Azaminejad, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) which might affect cardiovascular events can be affected by chronic diseases and smoking. Since the effects of smoking dosage as well as the mutual effect of smoking and periodontitis on CRP levels have not been evaluated, we aimed to assess these. This retrospective age- and gender-matched study was performed on 120 dental patients. Clinical attachment loss, pocket probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), O'Leary plaque index and serum CRP were recorded. Patients were divided into one control and five cohort groups (n = 20 each) according to smoking severity [pack years (PY) below or above 30] and periodontal condition (healthy periodontium and moderate/severe periodontitis). The effects of clinical measurements, age, gender, smoking and periodontitis on CRP were assessed using one- and two-way analyses of variance, Tukey and Bonferroni post hoc tests, and multiple linear regression (α = 0.05). CRP concentrations were 0.07255 ± 0.009539, 0.09645 ± 0.010625, 0.122235 ± 0.018442, 0.3758 ± 0.187369, 0.81595 ± 0.0410299 and 1.8717 ± 0.652728 mg/l, respectively, in the control (PY ≤ 30 with healthy periodontium), cohort 1 (PY > 30 with healthy periodontium), cohort 2 (PY ≤ 30 with moderate periodontitis), cohort 3 (PY > 30 with moderate periodontitis), cohort 4 (PY ≤ 30 with severe periodontitis) and cohort 5 (PY > 30 with severe periodontitis). The positive effects of age, smoking severity, periodontitis and PPD, on CRP increase were significant (Regression p < 0.02). BoP had a negative effect (p = 0.015). Clinicians should warn the patients, especially the older ones, about the effects of their gingival health and smoking on their cardiovascular condition.

  5. Common Mental Disorders Associated with Tuberculosis: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Gleide Santos; Pereira, Susan Martins; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Marinho, Jamocyr Moura; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the availability of treatment and a vaccine, tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Mental disorders might contribute to the burden of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted. The study population included symptomatic respiratory patients who attended three referral hospitals and six community clinics in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A doctor’s diagnosis defined potential cases and controls. Cases were newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases, and controls were symptomatic respiratory patients for whom tuberculosis was excluded as a diagnosis by the attending physician. Cases and controls were ascertained in the same clinic. Data collection occurred between August 2008 and April 2010. The study instruments included a structured interview, a self-reporting questionnaire for the identification of common mental disorders, and a questionnaire for alcoholism. An univariate analysis included descriptive procedures (with chi-square statistics), and a multivariate analysis used conditional logistic regression. Results The mean age of the cases was 38 years, and 61% of the cases were males. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of tuberculosis were significantly higher in patients dignosed with a common mental disorder (OR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.05–1.70). Conclusion There appears to be a positive and independent association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis; further epidemiological studies are required to increase our understanding of the possible biological and social mechanisms responsible for this association. Independent of the direction of the association, this finding has implications for the provision of care for mental disorders and for tuberculosis. PMID:24937319

  6. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lynn; Harrild, Kirsten

    2010-05-27

    An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361) were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083) were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05). A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99). This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  7. Leber's congenital amaurosis. A retrospective study of 33 cases and a histopathological study of one case.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Carr, R E

    1978-05-01

    This report is a retrospective study of 33 patients seen over a 16-year period in whom a diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis was made. The findings of an autosomal recessive heredity in 33%, connatal blindness (visual acuity less than 20/200) in 95%m nystagmus in 75%, and a markedly abnormal electroretinogram in 100% is in agreement with the findings of previously published large series. The difficulty in making the correct diagnosis initially was related to the wide variety of fundus findings and a high association (30%) of central nervous system disease. In the differential diagnosis of connatal blindness, only Leber's congenital amaurosis exhibits an absent or markedly diminished response on electroretinogram. The histopathologic findings in a 6-month-old infant with this disorder are compared with those of previously published reports.

  8. Differences in risk factors of malignancy between men and women with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz; Szymańska-Garbacz, Elektra; Miszczyszyn, Zofia; Dereziński, Tadeusz; Czupryniak, Leszek

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this multicenter, retrospective, case-control study was to identify differences in risk factors of malignancy between men and women with type 2 diabetes. Among women the most prevalent malignancies were: breast and uterine cancers (35.6% and 14.4% respectively), while among men there were: colorectal and prostate cancers (24.5% and 13.3% respectively). In both gender metformin use was associated with lower cancer risk. Obesity and insulin treatment in dose-dependent and time-varying manner were associated with significantly increased risk of malignancy in females. In men, unexpectedly, cardiovascular disease was more prevalent in control group. Other variables did not show significant association with malignancy risk. 118 women and 98 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed cancer after diagnosis of diabetes and the same number of strictly age matched controls with type 2 diabetes and without malignancy were included into the study. Diabetes duration, antidiabetic medications use, glycated hemoglobin level, body mass index, smoking habits, occupation, presence of comorbidities and aspirin use were included into analyses. Metformin demonstrated protective effect against cancer in both sexes. Obesity and insulin treatment seem to have greater impact on cancer risk among women.

  9. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy following external beam radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; YANG, HUI; GUO, LING; SU, HONGYU; WEI, SHIHUI; ZHANG, XIULAN

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) is a severe ocular complication in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) following external beam radiation therapy. However, the systemic risk factors for this condition remain unclear. Therefore, patients with NPC who received radiotherapy between 2004 and 2007 at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed in this case-control study. The study included 40 RION patients and 40 patients in the control group, who were strictly matched to the RION patients by tumor histopathology, location, Union for International Cancer Control-Tumor Node Metastasis classification and radiotherapy protocol. Univariate and multivariate statistical regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of RION. The univariate analysis demonstrated that age (>60 years), gender (female) and chemotherapy significantly affected the risk of RION, whereas diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis B virus infection did not exert a significant effect. The results of the multivariate analysis suggested that only gender and chemotherapy were significantly associated with an increased incidence of RION. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that female gender and chemotherapy constitute risk factors for the development of RION following radiotherapy for NPC. The ocular symptoms of high-risk patients should be carefully investigated and reported by ophthalmologists. PMID:27123298

  10. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35), gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25), pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66) and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score) were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family history of hypertension

  11. Risk factors of mortality during the first year after low energy osteoporosis fracture: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Aurore; Coiffier, Guillaume; Couchouron, Tiffen; Perdriger, Aleth; Guggenbuhl, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality of fracture complications. The objective of this study was to examine predictive factors of mortality during the first year after an osteoporotic fracture. Methods It is a retrospective case-control study using data of a group of 1081 patients aged over 50 years with severe osteoporotic fractures by the Rennes university hospital emergency department from August 2007 to September 2008. Patients (cases) who died during the year following the fracture were compared with others who had survived (controls) one year after the fracture, matched on age, sex and type of fracture. Pre-fracture comorbidities and complications after the fractures were studied. Results Forty-two cases and 126 controls were analyzed without significant differences in age, sex or type of fracture. On univariate analysis, previous neoplasia, neurodegenerative disease, walking aids, thromboembolic complication, post fracture infection, post fracture heart failure, post fracture acute respiratory failure were associated with more mortality after osteoporotic fracture. After multivariate analysis, only previous neoplasia (OR = 4.63 [1.79 – 11.95]; p = 0.02) and acute respiratory failure after fracture (OR = 28.15 [5.75 – 137.9]; p<0.001) were retained as predictive factors during the year following the fracture. Conclusion Patients died more often from their co-morbidities than direct complications of their fractures. Osteoporotic fracture seems to be a marker of poor health status and a factor which may hasten the death. PMID:27920808

  12. Cases of typhoid fever in Copenhagen region: a retrospective study of presentation and relapse.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Freja Cecille; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2013-08-11

    Typhoid fever is a systemic illness which in high-income countries mainly affects travellers. The incidence is particularly high on the Indian subcontinent. Travellers who visit friends and relatives (VFR) have been shown to have a different risk profile than others. We wished to identify main characteristics for travellers infected with S. Typhi considering both clinical and laboratory findings in order to provide for faster and better diagnostics in the future. The outcome of treatment, especially concerning relapse, was evaluated as well. Retrospectively collected data from 19 adult cases of typhoid fever over a 5-year period at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Denmark. The patients were young adults, presenting with symptoms within a month after travelling. 84% were returned from travelling in the Indian subcontinent. 17 out of 19 patients were VFR-travellers. The main symptoms were fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (84%), headache (58%) and dry cough (26%). Laboratory findings showed elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in all cases and elevated alanine transaminase (ALAT) in 47% of cases. In primary cases 4 isolates were fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, the remaining were intermediate susceptible. Relapse occurred in 37% of the cases and only in cases where the patient was infected by a strain with intermediate susceptibility. Better pre-travel counselling should be given to VFR-travellers. The main symptoms and laboratory findings confirm previous findings. The relapse rate was unexpected high and could be correlated to ciprofloxacin-resistance.

  13. Tumors of the salivary gland in Mexicans. A retrospective study of 360 cases.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Velázquez, C-P; Durán-Padilla, M-A; Gómez-Apo, E; Quezada-Rivera, D; Gaitán-Cepeda, L-A

    2012-03-01

    To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) in order to identify possible risk profiles. The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%). Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life.

  14. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians and octogenarians: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Moubarak, Ghassan; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Badenco, Nicolas; Guiot, Aurélie; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Bergmann, Jean-François; Bardin, Thomas; Leenhardt, Antoine; Solal, Alain Cohen

    2012-10-01

    Centenarians have been proposed as a model of successful aging but recent studies suggest a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Some findings on their electrocardiograms (ECGs) are simply age-related and others mirror underlying diseases. We aimed to identify ECG features truly associated with extreme age. Retrospective analysis of 55 centenarians hospitalized between January 2000 and June 2010. Each centenarian was matched with three octogenarians according to gender, presence of hypertension, aortic stenosis, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. A history of hypertension was present in 32 (58%) centenarians, aortic stenosis in 6 (11%), heart failure in 8 (15%), and ischemic heart disease in 6 (11%). Centenarians had a higher heart rate than octogenarians (81 ± 15 bpm vs. 72 ± 15 bpm, respectively, P  <  0.001) but were less frequently on beta-blockers (7% vs. 36%, respectively, P < 0.001). Centenarians displayed more frequently atrial premature beats than octogenarians (18% vs. 3%, respectively, P < 0.001) but tended to have less atrial fibrillation (15% vs. 22% respectively, P = 0.21). Centenarians had more frequently left QRS axis deviation (48% vs. 28%, P = 0.009) and Q waves (14% vs. 1%, P = 0.02). QT interval was more prolonged in centenarians (446 ± 42 ms vs. 429 ± 39 ms, P = 0.008). Two centenarians (4%) and 24 (15%) octogenarians had a strictly normal ECG (P = 0.02). Abnormal ECG is a common finding in centenarians, with different characteristics than in younger elderly individuals. These differences are unrelated to the presence of cardiac diseases. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: A retrospective study of 184 cases.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Jun; Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index.Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of recurrent secondary septic peritonitis in dogs (2000-2011): 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Dominic M; Tivers, Michael S; Holahan, Matthew; Welch, Kristin; House, Arthur; Adamantos, Sophie E

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of recurrent septic peritonitis in dogs. Multicenter retrospective observational study. Client-owned dogs with recurrent septic peritonitis. Three university emergency and referral hospitals. None. Medical records from 3 veterinary university teaching hospitals were reviewed and data were collected using a standardized data collection sheet for all cases of septic peritonitis during the study period (2000-2011). Forty one dogs met the inclusion criteria for recurrent peritonitis. All dogs underwent relaparotomy. The original cause of septic peritonitis in these cases included previous surgery for gastrointestinal foreign body removal (n = 26), gastrointestinal neoplasia (n = 3), gastric or duodenal ulceration (n = 3), biliary tract leakage (n = 2), and single instance for each of the following: penetrating foreign body, hernia strangulation, intussusception, mesenteric volvulus, infection of the laparotomy incision, prostatic abscess, and trauma. Eighteen animals survived to discharge. There was no difference detected between survivors and nonsurvivors with recurrent peritonitis in terms of inciting cause, serum albumin concentration, surgical management, or provision of appropriate initial antimicrobials. The survival rate for dogs having recurrent peritonitis was 43.9% (18/41 dogs). This retrospective study did not identify any significant prognostic indicators for dogs with recurrent peritonitis and that the mortality rate for dogs having more than one surgery for septic peritonitis is similar to that reported for a single surgery for septic peritonitis. ©Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  17. Is malignant otitis externa on the increase? A retrospective review of cases.

    PubMed

    Bhasker, Diana; Hartley, Angela; Agada, Frank

    2017-02-01

    We performed a retrospective review of all patients with malignant otitis externa (MOE) treated in our center between July 2004 and December 2012 to evaluate the current epidemiology in our region and to ascertain causative factors associated with the perceived increase in the number of cases diagnosed. Eleven patients were identified (5 men and 6 women), with a mean age of 77 years (range: 38 to 97 years). Diabetes was present in 36%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the causative organism in 64% of cases; all pathogens were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We noted a significant increase in the diagnostic frequency of MOE during the study period (p = 0.0027) No obvious causative factors were identified. Due to the mortality associated with this condition, further studies are required to establish national trends.

  18. Lyme Disease Manifestations in the Foot and Ankle: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jason R; Dunn, Karl W; Braccia, Domenick; Ciliberti, Louis J; Becker, Dina K; Hollinger, Joshua K; Brand, Shelley M

    Lyme disease is the result of Borrelia burgdorferi bacterial infection after exposure from a tick bite. A pathognomonic finding in early-stage Lyme disease is an expanding, red macular ring known as erythema migrans. Lyme arthritis is a late-stage manifestation of this disease, affecting the large, weightbearing joints with intermittent pain and swelling. The existing data on Lyme disease and subsequent arthritis have reported manifestations in the lower extremity, primarily in the knee and ankle and less commonly the small joints of the foot. We present a retrospective case series of 11 cases of painful arthritis in the foot and ankle with confirmatory Lyme disease testing. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P; Bülow, S

    2013-08-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows locally complete resection of early rectal cancer as an alternative to conventional radical surgery. In case of unfavourable histology after TEM, or positive resection margins, salvage surgery can be performed. However, it is unclear if the results are equivalent to primary treatment with total mesorectal excision (TME). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether there is a difference in outcome between patients who underwent early salvage resection with TME after TEM, and those who underwent primary TME for rectal cancer. From 1997 to 2011, early salvage surgery with TME after TEM was performed in 25 patients in our institution. These patients were compared with 25 patients who underwent primary TME, matched according to gender, age (±2 years), cancer stage and operative procedure. Data were obtained from the patients' charts and reviewed retrospectively. No patients received preoperative chemotherapy. Perioperative data and oncological outcome were analysed. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the results between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in median operating time (P = 0.39), median blood loss (P = 0.19) or intraoperative complications (P = 1.00). The 30-day mortality was 8 % (n = 2) among patients who underwent salvage TME after TEM, and no patients died in the primary TME group (P = 0.49). There was no significant difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8 %) with local recurrences among the patients with primary TME (P = 0.49). Distant metastasis occurred in one patient (4 %) after salvage TME and in 3 patients (12 %) with primary TME (P = 0.61). The median

  20. Tuberculosis retreatment 'others' in comparison with classical retreatment cases; a retrospective cohort review.

    PubMed

    Nabukenya-Mudiope, Mary G; Kawuma, Herman Joseph; Brouwer, Miranda; Mudiope, Peter; Vassall, Anna

    2015-09-02

    Many of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa are still largely dependent on microscopy as the mainstay for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) including patients with previous history of TB treatment. The available guidance in management of TB retreatment cases is focused on bacteriologically confirmed TB retreatment cases leaving out those classified as retreatment 'others'. Retreatment 'others' refer to all TB cases who were previously treated but with unknown outcome of that previous treatment or who have returned to treatment with bacteriologically negative pulmonary or extra-pulmonary TB. This study was conducted in 11 regional referral hospitals (RRHs) serving high burden TB districts in Uganda to determine the profile and treatment success of TB retreatment 'others' in comparison with the classical retreatment cases. A retrospective cohort review of routinely collected National TB and Leprosy Program (NTLP) facility data from 1 January to 31 December 2010. This study uses the term classical retreatment cases to refer to a combined group of bacteriologically confirmed relapse, return after failure and return after loss to follow-up cases as a distinct group from retreatment 'others'. Distribution of categorical characteristics were compared using Chi-squared test for difference between proportions. The log likelihood ratio test was used to assess the independent contribution of type of retreatment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, age group and sex to the models. Of the 6244 TB cases registered at the study sites, 733 (11.7%) were retreatment cases. Retreatment 'others' constituted 45.5% of retreatment cases. Co-infection with HIV was higher among retreatment 'others' (70.9%) than classical retreatment cases (53.5%). Treatment was successful in 410 (56.2%) retreatment cases. Retreatment 'others' were associated with reduced odds of success (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22,0.88) compared to classical cases. Lost to follow up was the commonest adverse outcome (38

  1. Herpesvirus-Associated Acute Urticaria: An Age Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mareri, Arianna; Adler, Stuart P.; Nigro, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute and recurrent acute urticaria are often associated with multiple factors including infections and recent data suggest a role for herpesviruses. Objective To test the null hypothesis, that is, there is no association of herpesvirus infections with urticaria. Methods Thirty-seven patients between one month and 15 years of age were age matched to 37 controls who were healthy or had mild acute respiratory infections but without urticaria. Patients and controls were followed for 1 to 6 years. Diagnostic studies included DNA detection by real-time PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Tests for other infections included adenovirus, parvovirus B 19, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, Group A streptococci, rotavirus, and parasites. Results Specific infections were diagnosed in 26 of 37 cases and among 9 of 37 control children (P=0.0002). Single or concomitant herpesvirus infections occurred in 24 cases and in 4 controls (65% vs 11 %, p=0.0003). Cases had 10 HHV-6 infections, 8 CMV infections, 5 EBV infections, and 4 HSV-1 infections. Conclusion Herpesvirus infections are associated with acute or recurrent acute urticaria. PMID:24386470

  2. Medico-Legal Findings, Legal Case Progression, and Outcomes in South African Rape Cases: Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Christofides, Nicola; Vetten, Lisa; Jina, Ruxana; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2009-01-01

    Background Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. Methods and Findings We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771), 14% (209) of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31) of adults and 7% (44) of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22) of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's) going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87–18.13, p = 0.003). In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14–34.3, p = 0

  3. Is case-specificity content-specificity? An analysis of data from extended-matching questions.

    PubMed

    Dory, Valerie; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Case-specificity, i.e., variability of a subject's performance across cases, has been a consistent finding in medical education. It has important implications for assessment validity and reliability. Its root causes remain a matter of discussion. One hypothesis, content-specificity, links variability of performance to variable levels of relevant knowledge. Extended-matching items (EMIs) are an ideal format to test this hypothesis as items are grouped by topic. If differences pertaining to content knowledge are the main cause of case-specificity, variability across topics should be high and variability across items within the same topic low. We used generalisability analysis on results of a written test composed of 159 EMIs sat by two cohorts of general practice trainees at one university. Two hundred and twenty-seven trainees took part. The variance component attributed to subjects was small. Variance attributed to topics was smaller than variance attributed to items. The main source of error was interaction between subjects and items, accounting for two-thirds of error. The generalisability D study revealed that for the same total number of items, increasing the number of topics results in a higher G coefficient than increasing the number of items per topic. Topical knowledge does not seem to explain case-specificity observed in our data. Structure of knowledge and reasoning strategy may be more important, in particular pattern-recognition which EMIs were designed to elicit. The causal explanations of case-specificity may be dependent on test format. Increasing the number of topics with fewer items each would increase reliability but also testing time.

  4. Chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain of pregnancy: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint in pregnancy, with a reported prevalence of 57% to 69% and incidence of 61%. Although such pain can result in significant disability, it has been shown that as few as 32% of women report symptoms to their prenatal provider, and only 25% of providers recommend treatment. Chiropractors sometimes manage low back pain in pregnant women; however, scarce data exist regarding such treatment. This retrospective case series was undertaken to describe the results of a group of pregnant women with low back pain who underwent chiropractic treatment including spinal manipulation. Seventeen cases met all inclusion criteria. The overall group average Numerical Rating Scale pain score decreased from 5.9 (range 2-10) at initial presentation to 1.5 (range 0-5) at termination of care. Sixteen of 17 (94.1%) cases demonstrated clinically important improvement. The average time to initial clinically important pain relief was 4.5 (range 0-13) days after initial presentation, and the average number of visits undergone up to that point was 1.8 (range 1-5). No adverse effects were reported in any of the 17 cases. The results suggest that chiropractic treatment was safe in these cases and support the hypothesis that it may be effective for reducing pain intensity.

  5. Retrospective diagnosis of two rabies cases in humans by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dedkov, V G; Lukashev, A N; Deviatkin, A A; Kuleshov, K V; Safonova, M V; Poleshchuk, E M; Drexler, J F; Shipulin, G A

    2016-05-01

    Rabies is prevalent in 150 countries and is definitely found in Russian Federation. The average registered incidence of rabies infection among animals in Russia is 3000 cases per year. At least 500,000 cases of animal bites and scratches are registered in the Russia every year, but only 2-4 cases of rabies infection in humans are reported per year. This relatively low incidence of rabies infection among humans is the result of a well-organized program of rabies surveillance and control as well as the readily available vaccination and immunoglobulin therapies. However, physician awareness of rabies infection in patients with acute encephalopathy is low, and some cases of rabies remain undiagnosed. A retrospective study of autopsy materials from patients who died of encephalitis of unknown etiology in the Astrakhan region of Russia in 2003. A broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis followed by high throughput sequencing were used for the diagnosis. Two cases of rabies were detected and subsequently confirmed using a fluorescent antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a mouse inoculation test. Two strains of rabies virus were isolated and characterized using virological methods. The entire genome of each strain was sequenced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sedation with sevoflurane for magnetic resonance imaging in pediatrics: retrospective study of 5864 cases].

    PubMed

    De Sanctis Briggs, V

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the use of sevoflurane for sedating pediatric patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging studies. Data were extracted retrospectively from the records of 5864 pediatric patients (aged 0-18 years) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging studies in our hospital from 1999 to 2004. Sevoflurane was usually administered at high concentrations of up to 7% on induction; after 2 minutes the concentration was reduced. The patient, breathing spontaneously, was kept sedated with a sevoflurane concentration of 1.5% to 2% in a mixture of 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen. Optimal sedation was achieved in 5789 (98.72%) of the cases treated. Complications included 11 episodes of vomiting, 53 cases (0.9%) of mild respiratory depression, 6 cases of severe respiratory depression on induction, and 5 cases of agitation. There were no cases of prolonged sedation. Sevoflurane is useful for sedating pediatric patients in the setting of this study. Induction is rapid and gentle, and maintained sedation is constant, stable and homogeneous. Awakening and recovery are rapid, and the incidence of complications low.

  7. False-Negative Cases on Confocal Microscopy Examination: A Retrospective Evaluation and Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Coco, Valeria; Farnetani, Francesca; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Ciardo, Silvana; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Peris, Ketty; Pellacani, Giovanni; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is a second-level examination for dermoscopically equivocal melanocytic lesions. However, the number of false-negative cases on confocal microscopy and the scenarios in which confocal microscopy may fail have not been fully elucidated. To calculate the percentage of false-negative melanomas upon reflectance confocal microscopy examination in a large series of cases. A retrospective analysis on 201 melanomas, evaluated for dermoscopic/confocal criteria of melanoma, was carried out. Twenty-three melanomas out of 201 cases (11.4%) revealed a low 7-point checklist score. On confocal examination, 22 out of 23 lesions have been diagnosed correctly as melanomas. Only 1 lesion did not display melanoma features, neither upon dermoscopy nor upon confocal microscopy examination. Seven lesions out of 201 cases (3.5%) were judged as negative on confocal examination, even if 6 of them were diagnosed as melanomas by clinical and/or dermoscopic evaluation. After histopathological revision, these cases were grouped into 5 categories: (1) amelanotic melanoma (n = 1), (2) hyperkeratotic melanomas (n = 2), (3) lentiginous melanomas (n = 2), (4) melanoma with small pagetoid cells (n = 1), (5) spitzoid melanoma (n = 1). Confocal and dermoscopic examination, along with patient-related information and clinical history, can lead to an optimal patient management. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The porous polyethylene (Medpor) spherical orbital implant: a retrospective study of 136 cases.

    PubMed

    Blaydon, Sean M; Shepler, Todd R; Neuhaus, Russell W; White, William L; Shore, John W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate complications and risk factors associated with the placement of wrapped and unwrapped porous polyethylene (PP) spherical implants after evisceration, enucleation, or secondary implantation. A retrospective, interventional, noncomparative case series of consecutive cases of PP implant placement after anophthalmic socket surgery performed by three surgeons over a 5-year period. A PP spherical implant was placed in 133 patients, 61 women (2 bilaterally) and 72 men (1 bilaterally). There were 91 enucleations, 30 eviscerations, and 15 secondary implant placements. Sixty-six (48.5%) implants were wrapped prior to placement. Parameters evaluated included: age, sex, prior ocular surgery or radiation treatment, indications for surgery, procedure performed, size of PP sphere, material used to wrap the implant, and complications. A total of 17 of 136 (12.5%) cases had documented postoperative complications, with implant exposure being the most common. In 5 patients (3.7%), implant exposure developed: 1 after evisceration and 4 after primary enucleation. Three of the five exposures were small and resolved with either observation alone or in one case with surgical revision of the socket. In two cases, the exposures were large enough that removal of the implant was indicated, one after evisceration and the other after enucleation with placement of a wrapped PP sphere. Our series revealed no significant difference in exposure rate between wrapped and unwrapped PP sphere implants, nor was the exposure rate affected by whether an eye was eviscerated or enucleated.

  9. Sarcoidosis with involvement of the paranasal sinuses - a retrospective analysis of 12 biopsy-proven cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extrapulmonary involvement by sarcoidosis is observed in about 30–40% of patients with sarcoidosis. Little is known about the frequency and clinical characteristics of sinonasal sarcoidosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of biopsy-proven sinonasal sarcoidosis. Patients were identified from a patient population of 1360 patients with sarcoidosis at the Outpatient Clinic for Sarcoidosis and Rare Lung Diseases at LungClinic Grosshansdorf, a tertiary care hospital for respiratory medicine. Results The most frequent signs and symptoms were nasal polyps (4 cases), epistaxis (3 cases), nasal crusts (8 cases) and anosmia (5 cases). Pulmonary sarcoidosis of the patients was staged as stage I (n = 1) and stage II (n = 11) on chest radiographs. Spirometry was normal in 11 patients. 7 patients had a diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide of less than 90% of predicted. Other organs were affected in 8 patients. All patients received systemic corticosteroid treatment and most patients received topical steroids. 5 patients received steroid sparing agents. Repeated sinus surgery had to be performed in 4 patients. Conclusions Sinonasal involvement is a rare disease manifestation of sarcoidosis with a frequency slightly lower than 1% in our patient population. The clinical course of sinonasal sarcoidosis can be complicated by relapse despite systemic immunosuppressive treatment and repeated sinus surgery. PMID:24070015

  10. Late functional outcomes after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect: a double case-match control study.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Yasuhiro; Chetan, Devin; Ono, Naoki; Mertens, Luc L; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S; Honjo, Osami

    2013-06-01

    We sought to elucidate late functional outcomes of the right ventricular outflow tract and atrioventricular valves after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect. From 1990 to 2010, the data from 41 patients who underwent repair were retrospectively reviewed. The median age at repair was 22.4 months (interquartile range, 10.8-41.6 months). Of the 41 patients, 13 (32%) had received previous palliations. The preoperative anatomic differences, physiologic differences, and long-term functional outcomes were determined using a double case-matched control with isolated tetralogy of Fallot and isolated atrioventricular septal defect. The right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed, with the pulmonary valve preserved in 23 patients (56%). There were 3 early deaths and no late deaths. Survival was 92.1% at 15 years. During a median follow-up period of 5.9 years (interquartile range, 0.14-13.7 years), 29 reinterventions were performed in 13 (32%) patients. Freedom from all reintervention at 15 years was 52.8%. Of the 29 procedures, 12 (41%) were related to the right ventricular outflow tract. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract-related reintervention was greater in patients who had their pulmonary valve preserved (95% vs 70% at 10 years; P = .046). Reinterventions were performed for the atrioventricular valve in 2 (5%) patients and subaortic stenosis in 1 (2%) patient. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract-related reintervention (tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect, 88.6% vs tetralogy of Fallot alone, 83.9% at 5 years; P = .809) and atrioventricular valve/left ventricular outflow tract-related reintervention (tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect, 95.2% vs atrioventricular septal defect alone, 86.0% at 5 years; P = .332) were comparable between the tetralogy of Fallot with atrioventricular septal defect and matched control groups. Late survival and atrioventricular valve function after

  11. Conservative chiropractic management of urinary incontinence using applied kinesiology: a retrospective case-series report

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Scott C.; Rosner, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the chiropractic management of 21 patients with daily stress and occasional total urinary incontinence (UI). Clinical Features Twenty-one case files of patients 13 to 90 years of age with UI from a chiropractic clinic were reviewed. The patients had a 4-month to 49-year history of UI and associated muscle dysfunction and low back and/or pelvic pain. Eighteen wore an incontinence pad throughout the day and night at the time of their appointments because of unpredictable UI. Intervention and Outcome Patients were evaluated for muscle impairments in the lumbar spine, pelvis, and pelvic floor and low back and/or hip pain. Positive manual muscle test results of the pelvis, lumbar spine muscles, and pelvic floor muscles were the most common findings. Lumbosacral dysfunction was found in 13 of the cases with pain provocation tests (applied kinesiology sensorimotor challenge); in 8 cases, this sensorimotor challenge was absent. Chiropractic manipulative therapy and soft tissue treatment addressed the soft tissue and articular dysfunctions. Chiropractic manipulative therapy involved high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation; Cox flexion distraction manipulation; and/or use of a percussion instrument for the treatment of myofascial trigger points. Urinary incontinence symptoms resolved in 10 patients, considerably improved in 7 cases, and slightly improved in 4 cases. Periodic follow-up examinations for the past 6 years, and no less than 2 years, indicate that for each participant in this case-series report, the improvements of UI remained stable. Conclusion The patients reported in this retrospective case series showed improvement in UI symptoms that persisted over time. PMID:22942842

  12. Conservative chiropractic management of urinary incontinence using applied kinesiology: a retrospective case-series report.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Scott C; Rosner, Anthony L

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this case series is to describe the chiropractic management of 21 patients with daily stress and occasional total urinary incontinence (UI). Twenty-one case files of patients 13 to 90 years of age with UI from a chiropractic clinic were reviewed. The patients had a 4-month to 49-year history of UI and associated muscle dysfunction and low back and/or pelvic pain. Eighteen wore an incontinence pad throughout the day and night at the time of their appointments because of unpredictable UI. Patients were evaluated for muscle impairments in the lumbar spine, pelvis, and pelvic floor and low back and/or hip pain. Positive manual muscle test results of the pelvis, lumbar spine muscles, and pelvic floor muscles were the most common findings. Lumbosacral dysfunction was found in 13 of the cases with pain provocation tests (applied kinesiology sensorimotor challenge); in 8 cases, this sensorimotor challenge was absent. Chiropractic manipulative therapy and soft tissue treatment addressed the soft tissue and articular dysfunctions. Chiropractic manipulative therapy involved high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation; Cox flexion distraction manipulation; and/or use of a percussion instrument for the treatment of myofascial trigger points. Urinary incontinence symptoms resolved in 10 patients, considerably improved in 7 cases, and slightly improved in 4 cases. Periodic follow-up examinations for the past 6 years, and no less than 2 years, indicate that for each participant in this case-series report, the improvements of UI remained stable. The patients reported in this retrospective case series showed improvement in UI symptoms that persisted over time.

  13. Retrospective analysis of a case series of patients with traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Luiz Adriano; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; Tedeschi, Helder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between the treatment, the characteristics of the lesions and the clinical outcome of patients with traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients treated conservatively or surgically between 2010 and 2013 with complete data sets. Results We analyzed 37 patients, 73% were men with mean age of 41.7 years. Of these, 32% were submitted to initial surgical treatment and 68% received conservative treatment. Seven (29%) underwent surgery subsequently. In the surgical group, there were seven cases of odontoid type II fractures, two cases of fracture of posterior elements of the axis, one case of C1-C2 dislocation with associated fractured C2, one case of occipitocervical dislocation, and one case of combined C1 and C2 fractures, and facet dislocation. Only one patient had neurological déficit that improved after treatment. Two surgical complications were seen: a liquoric fistula and one surgical wound infection (reaproached). In the group treated conservatively, odontoid fractures (eight cases) and fractures of the posterior elements of C2 (five cases) were more frequent. In two cases, in addition to the injuries of the craniocervical junction, there were fractures in other segments of the spine. None of the patients who underwent conservative treatment presented neurological deterioration. Conclusion Although injuries of craniocervical junction are relatively rare, they usually involve fractures of the odontoid and the posterior elements of the axis. Our results recommend early surgical treatment for type II odontoid fractures and ligament injuries, the conservative treatment for other injuries. PMID:28076601

  14. Clinicopathological findings of focal organizing pneumonia: a retrospective study of 37 cases.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhen; Feng, Ruie; Tian, Xinlun; Zhang, Haibo; Huo, Li; Liu, Hongrui

    2015-01-01

    Focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) is an uncommon disease. The etiology, and in particular the disease's relationship with infection and the incidence of idiopathic FOP, is relatively unknown. The aim of this study is to review clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients with organizing pneumonia (OP) presenting solitary lesions and to analyze possible causes. We retrospectively reviewed 37 surgical lung biopsy or resection cases of pathologically confirmed FOP over a period of 10 years. Microscopically, 17 cases showed OP with neutrophilic infiltration or abscess, 11 with epithelioid cell granulomas or scattered multinucleated giant cells, 2 with greater eosinophilic infiltration, and the remaining 7 cases met the diagnostic criteria for pathological cryptogenic OP (COP). The 37 cases of FOP included 22 men and 15 women, aged 29-76 years, and 17 cases had a history of smoking. Cough, fever, sputum, chest or back pain and hemoptysis were the main symptoms. Seven cases were asymptomatic. The diameters of the lesions ranged from 0.2-6.0 cm (median, 3.0 cm). Fever (9/30), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein elevation (9/17) and abnormalities in pulmonary function test (8/24) existed in focal secondary OP (FSOP) patients, but these symptoms were rarely observed in focal COP (FCOP) (0/7, 1/7 and 0/7 cases, respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the FSOP and FCOP. Histologically, secondary factors exist in the majority of FOP cases. Idiopathic FOP is found in a minority. With respect to secondary FOP, acute infection and granulomatous inflammation are the main causes. Surgical resection alone appears sufficient for the management of FOP.

  15. Does Educational Preparation Match Professional Practice: The Case of Higher Education Policy Analysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Eduardo C.; Martinez, Mario C.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the extent to which higher education policy analysts and master's and doctoral faculty of higher education and public affairs programs match on a set of competencies thought to be important to higher education policy analysis. Analysts matched master's faculty in three competencies while analysts and doctoral faculty matched in…

  16. A multicenter, matched case-control study of risk factors for equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Alford, P; Geller, S; Richrdson, B; Slater, M; Honnas, C; Foreman, J; Robinson, J; Messer, M; Roberts, M; Goble, D; Hood, D; Chaffin, M

    2001-05-01

    Risk factors for equine laminitis were examined in a prospective case-control study of the 258 cases seen at six collaborating veterinary teaching hospitals over a 32-month period. Case-control pairs were matched on institution, clinician, and season of diagnosis. The 90% of case-control pairs (78 acute, 155 chronic) that had complete data for age, gender, and breed were used in separate conditional logistic-regression models for acute and chronic laminitis. There was an increase in risk for horses with acute laminitis from 5 to 7 years of age (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3-16) and from 13 to 31 years of age (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12) (both compared to <5 years); risk was increased for chronic laminitis from 10 to 14 years (OR 3, 95% CI 1.4-6.8) and from 15 to 38 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.1) (both compared to <6 years). Mares - but not stallions - were more likely than geldings to develop acute laminitis (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2) and chronic laminitis (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6). In the small acute-laminitis data set, the breed variable was collapsed into three categories: Thoroughbred (THB, reference), the Quarter Horse (QH), and other (non-QH-THB). The non-QH-THB group was at increased risk of acute laminitis (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.8). For the seven breed-group categories used in the chronic-laminitis model, however, all non-THB breed groups appeared significantly at risk as compared to the THB, with odds ratios ranging from 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.30) for the QH to 9.1 (95% CI 2.1-39.3) for ponies.

  17. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: descriptive, retrospective analysis of 59 cases treated at a single center.

    PubMed

    Elander, Johanna; Nekludov, Michael; Larsson, Agneta; Nordlander, Britt; Eksborg, Staffan; Hydman, Jonas

    2016-12-01

    To provide retrospective, descriptive information on patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis treated at a single center during the years 1998-2014, and to evaluate the outcome of a newly introduced treatment strategy. Retrospective analysis of clinical data obtained from medical records. Mortality, pre-morbidity, severity of illness, primary site of infection, type of bacteria, time parameters. The observed 3-month mortality was 6/59 (10 %). The most common initial foci of the infection were pharyngeal, dental or hypopharyngeal. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus milleri bacteria within the Streptococcus anginosus group (66 % of the cases). Using a combined treatment with early surgical debridement combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is possible to reduce the mortality rate among patients suffering from cervical necrotizing fasciitis, compared to the expected mortality rate and to previous historical reports. Data indicated that early onset of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may have a positive impact on survival rate, but no identifiable factor was found to prognosticate outcome.

  18. C5 Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery: A Multicenter Retrospective Review of 59 Cases.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sara E; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Nassr, Ahmad; Mroz, Thomas E; Fish, David E; Wang, Jeffrey C; Fehlings, Michael G; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Tortolani, P Justin; Traynelis, Vincent C; Gokaslan, Ziya; Hilibrand, Alan S; Isaacs, Robert E; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Chou, Dean; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Baird, Evan O; Sasso, Rick C; Arnold, Paul M; Buser, Zorica; Bydon, Mohamad; Clarke, Michelle J; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Jobse, Bruce; Lord, Elizabeth L; Lubelski, Daniel; Massicotte, Eric M; Steinmetz, Michael P; Smith, Gabriel A; Pace, Jonathan; Corriveau, Mark; Lee, Sungho; Cha, Peter I; Chatterjee, Dhananjay; Gee, Erica L; Mayer, Erik N; McBride, Owen J; Roe, Allison K; Yanez, Marisa Y; Stroh, D Alex; Than, Khoi D; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective review of C5 palsy after cervical spine surgery. Postoperative C5 palsy is a known complication of cervical decompressive spinal surgery. The goal of this study was to review the incidence, patient characteristics, and outcome of C5 palsy in patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective review of 13 946 patients across 21 centers who received cervical spine surgery (levels C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, inclusive. P values were calculated using 2-sample t test for continuous variables and χ(2) tests or Fisher exact tests for categorical variables. Of the 13 946 cases reviewed, 59 patients experienced a postoperative C5 palsy. The incidence rate across the 21 sites ranged from 0% to 2.5%. At most recent follow-up, 32 patients reported complete resolution of symptoms (54.2%), 15 had symptoms resolve with residual effects (25.4%), 10 patients did not recover (17.0%), and 2 were lost to follow-up (3.4%). C5 palsy occurred in all surgical approaches and across a variety of diagnoses. The majority of patients had full recovery or recovery with residual effects. This study represents the largest series of North American patients reviewed to date.

  19. An outbreak of foodborne hepatitis A: the value of serologic testing and matched case-control analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, T L; Hutcheson, R H; Fricker, R S; Schaffner, W

    1983-01-01

    In April 1981, an outbreak of hepatitis A occurred among state legislators in Tennessee. Although the number of cases was small, we traced the source to a food handler who served cold meats and cheese. This investigation demonstrates the value of rapid serologic testing using a radioimmunoassay technique and matched case-control analysis to identify small foodborne outbreaks of hepatitis A. PMID:6311035

  20. A retrospective clinical study of 98 adult idiopathic primary intraventricular hemorrhage cases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Shrestha, Bal Krishna; Yu, Zhiyuan; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to define the clinical features, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of idiopathic primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IPIVH). We retrospectively collected the data of consecutively admitted patients who were diagnosed and treated for IPIVH in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2014. The clinical information, treatment, and prognosis at the 6-month follow-up were analyzed. Among the 3798 cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 98 IPIVH (2.58%) patients were recruited for the study. The study population consisted of 60 males and 38 females, with an average age (± standard deviation, SD) of 51.20 ± 15.48 years. The initial symptoms were headache (75 cases) and impaired consciousness (23 cases). The surgical treatments included hematoma evacuation under a microscope or an endoscope in 8 cases (8.16%), external ventricular drainage (EVD) in 11 cases (11.22%), lumbar drainage (LD) in 10 cases (10.20%), and a combination of EVD and LD in 11 cases (11.22%). In total, 4 patients died in the hospital (4.08%). At the 6-month follow-up, 73 patients (74.49%) had an improved outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS] < 3), and 21 patients (21.43%) had a poor outcome (mRS ≥ 3 points) at the end of the 6-month follow-up. IPIVH is rare in clinical practice, and hypertension is the most common risk factor. Furthermore, the treatment of IPIVH is still controversial. Hematoma evacuation under a microscope or an endoscope, EVD, LD and a combination of EVD and LD could be surgical options for the treatment of IPIVH patients. The outcomes for IPIVH patients could be relatively favorable with individualized treatment. PMID:27759637

  1. Clinical outcomes of antimicrobial lock solutions used in a treatment modality: a retrospective case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Gerrald, Katherine R; Moran, Robert R

    2010-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial lock therapy (ALT) may be considered as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) when catheter removal is not a favorable option. Objective To evaluate the outcomes associated with ALT as adjunctive treatment of CRBSI. Methods This was a 24-month retrospective case series analysis evaluating patients treated for more than 24 hours with ALT. The primary outcome was blood culture sterilization for 30 days posttherapy. The impact of ALT duration and time to initiation on central venous catheter (CVC) salvage were evaluated. Logistic regression modeled the association between ALT and sterilization rates, with a prespecified level of significance (α) of 0.1. Results Twenty-six cases were included in data analysis. Patients included ranged from 5 months to 82 years of age; 77% of patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition or chemotherapy. The majority of patients received vancomycin, daptomycin, or gentamicin combined with heparin in a lock solution. Blood culture sterilization was achieved in 69.2% of cases, and sterilization plus CVC retention was achieved in 11 cases (42.3%). Longer durations of ALT (≥9 days) were significantly correlated with blood culture sterilization (odds ratio = 1.367, P = 0.077). Conclusion ALT used as an adjunct to systemic therapy for adequate duration in CRBSI can achieve CVC sterilization and retainment without subsequent infectious complications. PMID:22291495

  2. [Pediatric cataract in a developing country: retrospective review of 328 cases].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Quiroga-Reyes, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric cataracts constitute an important cause of low visual acuity. The objective of the present work is to know the characteristics of this pathology in an ophthalmic attention unit of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive, transversal study was carried out in 328 cases of pediatric cataracts (children between 0 and 14 years). 190 (57.9%) patients were male and 138 (42.1%) female, 145 (44.2%) cases were congenital cataracts and 183 (55.8%) acquired cataracts; 160 (48.8%) presented unilateral affection and 168 (51.2%) bilateral. The treatment was surgical in 98.2% of the cases. The mean age at diagnosis of congenital cataract was 34.9 months. The mean age of presentation of the acquired ones was 76.6 months. The treatment was abandoned in 70.58% cases of congenital cataracts and 64.10% of acquired cataracts. In the congenital ones, 44% presented visual acuity in the range of 20/200 and 20/70 and in the acquired ones, 32.5% were better than 20/30. The data found was not encouraging due to the late detection and the abandon of the treatment, which are bad prognosis factors.

  3. Retrospective analysis of the cholera cases imported to France from 1973 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Ioos, Sophie; Rotureau, Brice; Paquet, Christophe; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Fournier, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    The manners of traveling and travelers' vulnerability to infection are changing: increasing numbers of travelers, travels at the extreme ages of life, "backpacker" tourism in close contact with local populations. What is the epidemiologic situation and what are the trends of imported cholera to Metropolitan France? A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken on all the confirmed cases of cholera imported to France, and notified from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 2005, using compulsory notification data from local health departments and information from the National Reference Centre. A total of 129 imported cases of cholera were notified between 1973 and 2005 (3.9 cases/y on average). The geographical sources of infection have changed with time: in the 1980s, 94% of the patients were infected in Maghreb (Morocco and Algeria) but none were in 2000. On the other hand, Asia and West Africa progressively emerged and now predominate. In spite of certain poorly informed data and possible underdetection, the number of cases of importation appears to be low and falling. The patient profile seems to have evolved and increasingly concerns people at the extreme ages of life, living elsewhere than the principal basins of immigration in France, and diagnosis is increasingly made in nonteaching hospitals. The lessons likely to help clinicians will be discussed.

  4. Oral granuloma gravidarum: a retrospective study of 41 cases in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    CARDOSO, Juliana Andrade; SPANEMBERG, Juliana Cassol; CHERUBINI, Karen; de FIGUEIREDO, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; SALUM, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Granuloma gravidarum (GG) is an inflammatory lesion, which develops in the oral mucosa of pregnant women in response to chronic low-grade irritants, under the influence of hormonal factors. Objective: To characterize GG clinically by means of a retrospective study of the cases of the Oral Medicine Division, São Lucas Hospital, Brazil. Material and Methods: Cases of GG diagnosed between 1980 and 2012 were analyzed. Data were obtained referring to the age of the patients, lesion location, clinical features, as well as the presence of local irritants. The gestation period in which the lesion developed was also investigated. Results: Forty-one cases of GG were found. The lesions developed predominantly in the third trimester of pregnancy (51.22%) and the mean age of the patients was 28 years. Most GG was found in the gingiva (73.17%), was reddish color and had a mean diameter of 1.5 cm. Local irritants were involved in 75.6% of the cases. Conclusions: The hormonal conditions of pregnancy can have an impact on the oral cavity, predisposing the patient to inflammatory lesions such as GG. PMID:23857656

  5. Validation of a modified pediatric early warning system score: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Skaletzky, Sharon M; Raszynski, Andre; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2012-05-01

    The Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score may be useful for detection of deterioration in clinical condition. In this retrospective study, the cases were patients transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and controls were those not transferred to the PICU. The maximum PEWS score in both groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The study population included 100 cases and 250 controls. There was no difference in the age of cases and controls (6.3 vs 6.3 years). The length of hospital stay (18.09 ± 32 vs 3.93 ± 2.9 days; P < .001) and the maximum PEWS score (2.95 ± 1.5 vs 1.4 ± 0.8) were significantly higher for the cases (P < .0001). The PEWS score area under the ROC was 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.86). The sensitivity and specificity for a score 2.5 were 62% and 89%, respectively. The use of the modified PEWS score can help identify patients on wards who are at risk for deterioration.

  6. Brain hemorrhages in Jacobsen syndrome: A retrospective review of six cases and clinical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Grossfeld, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Jacobsen syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by distal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 11. All patients with Jacobsen syndrome have Paris-Trousseau syndrome, a bleeding disorder that causes neonatal thrombocytopenia, and persistent platelet dysfunction. Despite that, to date there are no reported cases of hemorrhagic strokes occurring in patients with Jacobsen syndrome. In the last 6 years at least six cases of brain hemorrhages in patients with Jacobsen syndrome have occurred. In this report, we perform a retrospective review of these six cases. The analysis indicates that the etiology of brain hemorrhages in Jacobsen syndrome is likely multifactorial. A likely cause (or causes) was identified in three of the cases, and additional potential risk factors were identified. Based on these findings, clinical recommendations are provided that should aid in the identification of those individuals with Jacobsen syndrome that are at increased risk for brain hemorrhages, and will hopefully decrease the occurrence of this devastating complication in people with Jacobsen syndrome.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Primary intracranial and spinal hydatidosis: a retrospective study of 21 cases

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kun; Luo, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Ting-Rong; Wen, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, radiological aspects, treatments, and outcomes of primary central nervous system (CNS) hydatidosis and compare our results with those observed for secondary intracranial hydatidosis. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 21 cases of primary CNS hydatid cysts operated on at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between 1996 and 2010. Results Of the 21 primary cases, the vast majority were intracranial hydatidosis patients (20 cases, 95.24%). Only one patient had spinal hydatidosis. Unlike previously published reports, we found that intracranial hydatid cysts were more common in adults (80.96%) than in children (19.04%), with a slight male predominance (M/F  =  1.1). All symptoms, including vomiting, nausea, and focal neurological signs, resulted from the increased intracranial pressure, which was closely associated with the cyst location. For the spinal hydatidosis patient, the primary symptom of back pain was indicative of spinal cord compression syndrome. All cysts in the 21 primary cases were pathologically similar. The recurrence percentage was 28% over 12 years. Two patients with multiple intracranial hydatid cysts died due to foramen magnum herniation. Conclusion Despite imaging and therapeutic advances, CNS hydatidosis remains difficult to treat, and severe complications and the high incidence of recurrence result in unsatisfactory outcomes. PMID:23683329

  8. Diagnosis and management of tumor-like hypophysitis: A retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SONGXUE; WANG, CHAOHUI; ZHANG, JIANMIN; TIAN, YONG; WU, QUN

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-like hypophysitis is an uncommon sellar condition that presents as inflammatory lesions on the structures of the pituitary gland. The diagnosis and management of hypophysitis poses a significant challenge, as its clinical manifestation and appearance in imaging studies are difficult to distinguish from that of pituitary tumors. The present retrospective study summarizes two rare cases of primary granulomatous hypophysitis, two cases of lymphocytic hypophysitis, and three cases in which a pathological diagnosis was not determined due to the use of hormone replacement therapy only. The mean age of the patients studied was 45.71±22.16 years, and the patients comprised two males and five females. The clinical signs of hypophysitis included headache, fever, gradual decrease in visual acuity, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed sellar and pituitary stalk lesions, with iso- or hypodense signals on T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in three cases. It was challenging to diagnose hypophysitis due to the lack of any significant specific clinical signs. A transsphenoidal biopsy with fast-frozen pathology is able to diagnose hypophysitis. Glucocorticoid therapy may be a potential treatment for hypophysitis, as complete removal of pituitary masses may disable pituitary function. PMID:26893737

  9. Effectiveness of penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime for penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a retrospective, propensity-score-adjusted case-control and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jette Lindbjerg; Skov, Robert; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ostergaard, Christian; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates account for a fifth of cases of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Denmark, but little is known about treatment outcomes with penicillins or other antimicrobials. Here we compare penicillin, dicloxacillin and cefuroxime as definitive treatments in relation to 30 day mortality. A retrospective chart review of 588 penicillin-susceptible S. aureus cases at five centres from January 1995 to December 2010. Data on demographics, antimicrobial treatment, clinical signs and symptoms, and mortality at day 30 were collected. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs associated with mortality were modelled using propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies were carried out. Definitive therapy with cefuroxime was associated with an increased risk of 30 day mortality compared with penicillin (adjusted HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.49-4.32). Other variables that were statistically significantly associated with 30 day mortality included increasing age, disease severity and a primary respiratory focus. Osteomyelitis/arthritis was associated with a lower risk of death than were other secondary manifestations. Propensity-score-matched case-control studies confirmed an increased risk of 30 day mortality: cefuroxime treatment (39%) versus penicillin treatment (20%), P = 0.037; and cefuroxime treatment (38%) versus dicloxacillin treatment (10%), P = 0.004. Definitive therapy for penicillin-susceptible SAB with cefuroxime was associated with a significantly higher mortality than was seen with therapy with penicillin or dicloxacillin.

  10. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Risk factors for idiopathic cystitis in Norwegian cats: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Heidi S; Sævik, Bente K; Finstad, Øystein W; Grøntvedt, Elin T; Vatne, Terese; Eggertsdóttir, Anna V

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare a group of cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) with a group of control cats without present or previous signs of lower urinary tract disease in order to identify factors in characteristics, personality, behaviour, environment and daily life that would make them more susceptible to the disease. The study was a matched case-control study comparing results from telephone interviews based on a standardised questionnaire. The questions were organised into six subject groups: the characteristics of the cat; the cat's environment; the presence of other pets in the household; the cat's feeding and drinking regime; management of the cat's litter box; and the cat's opportunity to perform natural behaviour. The results from the present study showed that a cat diagnosed with FIC was more likely to be overweight and to be of a nervous disposition than the control cats. In addition, several differences between cases and controls were detected at a univariable level of analysis, related to outdoor access and the cats' perceived safety and comfort in their home environments. While not significant after multivariable analysis, these variables may still be of importance owing to potential interrelations. Several significant differences between cats with FIC and control cats were revealed, and the results support the hypothesis of environmental stress as being a potential factor in the development of FIC. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  12. [Association between herpetic burden and chronic ischemic heart disease: matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Esteban-Hernández, Jesús; San Román Montero, Jesús; Gil, Ruth; Anegón, María; Gil, Angel

    2011-07-09

    Previous studies showed a plausible association between herpetic burden and ischemic heart disease. Our aim is to test this hypothesis in an spanish seroepidemiological context. Sex and age matched case-control study (1:1) including patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and healthy controls. Herpetic burden was defined as the aggregate number of antibody seropositivities (IgG) for Epstein Barr Virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, Herpes simplex type 1 and type 2. We found that 90.7% of cases and 70,7% of controles (P=.002), were seropositive to 4 or more herpesvirus (high herpetic burden). Within control group, hypercholesterolemic subjects had a higher proportion of high burden (88,5% vs. 61,2%, P=.02). High herpetic burden was associated with ischemic heart disease, even after adjusting for diabetes, smoking, hypertension and literacy level, (OR: 4,5 [1,23-16,53]), but not when hypercholesterolemia was included in the model (OR 2,2 [0,45-10,62]). The hypothesized relationship is independent from most but not all classical cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-incision versus hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy: a case-matched series.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Dhruvil P; Ragupathi, Madhu; Patel, Chirag B; Ramos-Valadez, Diego I; Pickron, T Bartley; Haas, Eric M

    2010-12-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery is an emerging modality. We incorporated this technique as an alternative to hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. We investigated intraoperative and short-term outcomes following single-incision laparoscopic colectomy compared with hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. Between July and November 2009, single-incision colorectal procedures were performed and matched to hand-assisted procedures based on five criteria: gender, age, body mass index, pathology, and type of procedure. Demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative data were assessed. Twenty-four pairs of patients with a mean age of 55.1 years and mean body mass index of 28.5 kg/m(2) were matched. The majority of cases (79.2%) were right hemicolectomies. The ranges of incision length were 2-6 cm (single incision) and 5-11 cm (hand-assisted). Mean operating time was significantly longer for single-incision procedures (143.2 min) compared with hand-assisted procedures (112.8 min), p < 0.0004. There was no significant difference in the groups regarding conversions or intraoperative complications (p < 0.083 and p < 1.0, respectively). Mean length of stay for the single-incision approach (2.7 days) was significantly shorter compared with the hand-assisted approach (3.3 days), p < 0.02. Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy is a safe and feasible alternative to hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Although the technique required longer operative time, it resulted in smaller incision size and significantly shorter length of hospitalization.

  14. Co-occurrence of monoclonal gammopathy and myelodysplasia: a retrospective study of fourteen cases.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yataro; Oguma, Shigeru; Ohno, Hitoshi; Nakabo, Yukiharu; Katsurada, Tatsuya; Kawahara, Masahiro; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    We report a series of 14 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) accompanied by a monoclonal gammopathy unrelated to therapy. Twelve of these had monoclonal gammopathy of undermined significance (MGUS) and two had smoldering multiple myeloma. These cases represent 10.2 % of all MDS cases seen at our institution over a 14-year period (January 2000 to December 2013). The incidence of MGUS was determined to be significantly higher in MDS than in age-matched concurrent controls by χ(2) test. Absence of prior chemotherapy and simultaneous presentation of MDS and MGUS in most cases suggest true co-occurrence of the two disorders. MGUS was found in all WHO subtypes of MDS with a wide range of risk factors. However, 11 out of the 12 MDS cases accompanied with MGUS had relatively low karyotypic risks. In addition, serum M protein levels remained largely unchanged in 4 cases of MGUS for which serial determinations were performed. These findings indicate that MGUS may not affect the prognosis of MDS.

  15. Is procalcitonin increased in cases of invasive amoebiasis? A retrospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Recipon, Guillaume; Piver, Éric; Caille, Agnès; Le Pape, Patrice; Pihet, Marc; Pagès, Jean-Christophe; Chandenier, Jacques; Desoubeaux, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are commonly used for diagnostic guidance in routine bacterial infections. By contrast, little data are currently available regarding PCT in parasitic diseases, and its role in cases of invasive amoebiasis has not yet been described. For this purpose, 35 adult patients with a proven diagnosis of invasive or digestive amoebiasis were included in a 4-year study period. Serum PCT was retrospectively assessed. Results were analysed with regard to the usual inflammatory biomarkers, like C-reactive protein (CRP). PCT was significantly higher in patients with proven invasive amoebiasis than in digestive amoebiasis (mean value: 4.03 μg/L versus 0.07 μg/L, respectively; P < 0.001), but the SD was greater than with CRP, and the effect was less than that demonstrated in bacterial infections. By contrast, PCT was not shown to be elevated during digestive amoebiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentiating neuropathology from psychopathology with longitudinal and retrospective data: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, M L

    1993-02-01

    This case study report of diagnostic psychological testing considers the implications of a 53-point verbal-performance IQ differential, with the benefit of neuropsychological and neuroradiologic imaging studies, a 6-month follow-up Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R; Wechsler, 1981) evaluation, and retrospective examination of early school records and test findings. The approach highlights the limitations of cross-sectional clinical studies in differential diagnosis, particularly when both psychodynamic and neuropsychological factors are at issue. This report demonstrates how an early acquired neurodevelopmentally based deficit can alter or restructure the appearance of adult cognitive-perceptual functions. Further, early neurodevelopmental impairment is considered from the standpoint of its influence on compromised autonomous ego functions.

  17. Tracheobronchial Mycosis in a Retrospective Case-Series Study of Five Status Asthmaticus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Garbo; Porter, Paul C.; Bandi, Venkata; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The aetiology of status asthmaticus (SA), a complication of severe asthma, is unknown. Fungal exposure, as measured by fungal atopy, is a major risk factor for developing asthma, but the relationship of fungi in SA per se has not previously been reported. In this five patient retrospective case series study, lower respiratory tract cultures were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage or tracheal aspirate fluid, comparing standard clinical laboratory cultures with a specialized technique in which respiratory mucus was removed prior to culture. We show mucolytic treatment allows increased detection of fungal growth, especially yeast, from the lower airways of all SA patients. We also demonstrate that the yeast Candida albicans inhalation readily induces asthma-like disease in mice. Our observations suggest, SA may represent a fungal infectious process, and supports additional prospective studies utilizing anti-fungal therapy to supplement conventional therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotics and high-dose glucocorticoids, which can promote fungal overgrowth. PMID:23280490

  18. A Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Use in Retrospective Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    Safety standards contain technical and process-oriented safely requirements. The best time to include these requirements is early in the development lifecycle of the system. When software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, a retrospective safety case will need to be constructed for the software in the system. This can be a difficult task because there may be few to no art facts available to show compliance to the software safely requirements. The risks associated with not meeting safely requirements in a legacy safely-critical computer system must be addressed to give confidence for reuse. This paper introduces a proposal for a software safely risk taxonomy for legacy safely-critical computer systems, by specializing the Software Engineering Institute's 'Software Development Risk Taxonomy' with safely elements and attributes.

  19. The Stateville penitentiary malaria experiments: a case study in retrospective ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, malaria research was conducted in prisons. A notable example was the experiments at Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois, in which prisoner-subjects were infected with malaria for the purpose of testing the safety and efficacy of novel anti-malaria drugs. Over time, commentators have shifted from viewing the malaria research at Stateville as a model of ethical clinical research to seeing the experiments as paradigmatic of abusive human experimentation. This essay undertakes a retrospective ethical assessment of the Stateville malaria research during the 1940s in light of basic ethical principles and the Nuremberg Code, as well as contemporary malaria research. In addition to its historical interest, this case study provides a rich context for addressing basic issues of research ethics, including the voluntariness of consent, the justification of risks, and the exploitation of vulnerable subjects.

  20. Obstetric outcome of ethnic Turkish women in London: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, M; Bognanno, A; Subramanian, V; Macneilly, L; Miguel, L; Dong, S; Taiwo, E; Nauta, M; Yoong, W

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that the maternal mortality in ethnic minority women is significantly greater than that of Caucasian British women. The objective of this study was to compare the demographic and obstetric outcomes between these two groups. Data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period from 148 index and 148 control cases. The study group had statistically similar maternal age, labour duration, blood loss and mode of delivery compared with Caucasian British women (p > 0.05). A total of 68% of Turkish women spoke little or no English; were more likely to be non-smokers and also more likely to be married to unemployed spouses (p = 0.0001). This is the first study comparing obstetric outcomes of immigrant Turkish women with their Caucasian British counterparts. There was no significant difference in maternal or fetal outcomes, which could be attributed to the 'healthy migrant' theory, coupled with increased vigilance in ethnic minority pregnancies.

  1. In vitro fertilization outcomes after ablation of endometriomas using plasma energy: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Motte, I; Roman, H; Clavier, B; Jumeau, F; Chanavaz-Lacheray, I; Letailleur, M; Darwish, B; Rives, N

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian endometrioma ablation using plasma energy appears to be a valuable alternative to cystectomy, because it could spare underlying ovarian parenchyma resulting in high spontaneous and overall pregnancy rates. After initial postoperative decrease, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) level progressively increases several months after ablation. The aim of our study was to assess the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women managed for ovarian endometriomas by ablation using plasma energy, when compared to those in women free of endometriosis. Retrospective preliminary case-control study, enrolling women undergoing IVF or IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), from July 2009 to December 2014. Cases were infertile women with previous ovarian endometrioma ablation using plasma energy and were matched by age, AMH level and assisted reproductive technique with controls presumed free of endometriosis. IVF/ICSI response (type of protocol, dose of gonadotrophin, number of oocytes, fertilization rate) and outcomes were compared between the two groups. In all, 37 cases were compared to 74 controls. Age (30.9±4.4 years vs. 31.7±4.2 years), AMH level (2.8±2ng/mL vs. 2.8±1.7ng/mL) and ART procedures (ICSI in 24.3% vs. 27%) were comparable between the two groups. Of the 37 cases, previous surgical procedures on right and left ovaries were performed in 27% and 21.6% of patients respectively, 81% of patients were nullipara. AFSr score was 73±41, while deep endometriosis infiltrated the rectum and the sigmoid colon in respectively 40.5% and 27% of patients. Despite a lower number of oocytes retrieved, cases presented better implantation rate, pregnancy and delivery rates per cycle, oocyte retrieval, transfer, and embryo, as well as superior cumulative birth rate per transfer. Ovarian endometrioma ablation using plasma energy is followed by good IVF/ICSI outcomes, suggesting that surgical procedure spares underlying ovarian parenchyma. These results consolidate those

  2. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S G; Shahid, Abu S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM) children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children. In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50) with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354). Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline. The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons). We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  3. Removal of hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity. A retrospective study of 128 cases.

    PubMed

    Tamarit-Borrás, Meritxell; Delgado-Molina, Esther; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2005-01-01

    Based on our accumulated experience, the present study evaluates and discusses the indications, advantages and inconveniences of oral cavity epulis resection using the carbon dioxide laser (CO2) versus the Erbium:YAG laser (Er:YAG), diode laser and surgical scalpel. A retrospective study has been made of 120 patients involving the removal of 128 epulis lesions with the CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser, diode laser and surgical scalpel. Postoperative controls were carried out after 7, 15 and 30 days to evaluate healing and wound evolution, and after 3, 6 and 12 months to assess possible relapse. Two groups were defined, based on the clinical and etiopathogenic characteristics of the excised lesions: gingival hyperplastic lesions (77 cases) and fibromatous hyperplasia (51 cases). The lower jaw was the most frequent location of gingival hyperplasia (51.9%). Fibrous hyperplasia was the most common histological diagnosis (49 cases; 63.6%). Percentage relapse following removal was 9.1%, of which 5 cases corresponded to fibrous hyperplasia. Only one malignancy was identified, corresponding to infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma. On the other hand, of the 51 treated cases of fibromatous hyperplasia, 58.8% were located in the upper jaw. These were histologically confirmed to be fibrous hyperplasia, with relapse in 19.6% of the cases. Although the different surgical techniques used for removal of epulis of the oral cavity are appropriate, we consider the CO2 laser to be the treatment of choice, since it offers a number of both intra- and postoperative advantages. On the other hand, all oral lesions require histological study to establish a firm diagnosis.

  4. Anaphylaxis-related deaths in Ontario: a retrospective review of cases from 1986 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Examining deaths caused by anaphylaxis may help identify factors that may decrease the risk of these unfortunate events. However, information on fatal anaphylaxis is limited. The objectives of our study were to examine all cases of fatal anaphylaxis in Ontario to determine cause of death, associated features, co factors and trends in mortality. The identification of these factors is important for developing effective strategies to overcome gaps in monitoring and treatment of patients with food allergies and risk for anaphylaxis. Methods This was a retrospective case-series analysis of all causes of anaphylaxis-related deaths using data from the Ontario Coroner’s database between 1986 and 2011. Quantitative data (e.g. demographic) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency analysis using SPSS. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis of grounded theory methodology. Results We found 92 deaths in the last 26 years related to anaphylaxis. Causes of death, in order of decreasing frequency, included food (40 cases), insect venom (30 cases), iatrogenic (16 cases), and idiopathic (6 cases). Overall, there appears to be a decline in the frequency of food related deaths, but an increase in iatrogenic causes of fatalities. We found factors associated with fatal anaphylaxis included: delayed epinephrine administration, asthma, allergy to peanut, food ingestion outside the home, and teenagers with food allergies. Conclusions Our findings indicate the need to improve epinephrine auto-injector use in acute reactions, particularly for teens and asthmatics with food allergies. In addition, education can be improved among food service workers and food industry in order to help food allergic patients avoid potentially fatal allergens. The increasing trend in iatrogenic related anaphylaxis is concerning, and requires monitoring and more investigation. PMID:25670935

  5. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Background In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM) children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children. Methods In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50) with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354). Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline. Results The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion and Significance We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case

  6. Tumors of the salivary gland in Mexicans. A retrospective study of 360 cases

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Padilla, Marco A.; Gómez-Apo, Erick; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) i6n order to identify possible risk profiles. Design of study: The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. Results: 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%) Conclusions: Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life. Key words: Salivary glands tumours, epithelial tumours, pleomorphic adenoma, papillary cistadenoma lymphomatosum, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:22143697

  7. Cervicofacial infection in a Nigerian tertiary health institution: a retrospective analysis of 77 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ononiwu, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Infection involving the orbit, zygomatic space, lateral pharyngeal space, or hemifacial and oral floor phlegmon is referred to as cervicofacialvinfection (CFI). When diagnosis and/or adequate treatment are delayed, these infections can be life-threatening. Most cases are the result of odontogenic infections. We highlight our experiences in the management of this life-threatening condition. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who presented with CFI from December 2005 to June 2012 at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic or the Accident and Emergency Unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (Zaria, Nigeria). The medical records of all patients who presented with either localized or diffuse infection of the maxillofacial soft tissue spaces were retrospectively collected. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 and are expressed as descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Of the 77 patients, 49 patients (63.6%) were males, a male to female ratio of 1:7.5. The ages ranged from two years to 75 years with a mean of 35.0±19.3 years, although most patients were older than 40 years. The duration of symptoms prior to presentation ranged from 6 to 60 days, with a mean of 11.0±9.4 days. More than 90% of the patients presented to the clinic within the first 10 days. The most commonly involved anatomical space was the submandibular space (n=29, 37.7%), followed by hemifacial space (n=22, 28.6%) and buccal space (n=7, 9.1%). Ludwig angina accounted for about 7.8% of the cases. Conclusion CFI most commonly involves the submandibular space, typically affects individuals with a low level of education, and is influenced by traditional medical practices. Despite improved health care delivery, CFI remains a significant problem in developing countries. PMID:26734555

  8. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted.

  9. Risk factors for tube shunt exposure: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koval, Michael S; El Sayyad, Fouad F; Bell, Nicholas P; Chuang, Alice Z; Lee, David A; Hypes, Stephen M; Grover, Davinder S; Baker, Laura A; Huddleston, Stephen M; Budenz, Donald L; Feldman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate potential risk factors for developing tube shunt exposure in glaucoma patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-one cases from 41 patients that had tube shunt exposure from 1996 to 2005 were identified from the Robert Cizik Eye Clinic and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Each case was matched with 2 controls of the same gender and with tube shunts implanted within 6 months of the index case. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Results. The study cohort includes a total of 121 eyes from 121 patients. The mean age was 63.6 ± 19.7 years, ranging from 1 to 96 years. The average time to exposure was 19.29 ± 23.75 months (range 0.36-85.74 months). Risk factors associated with tube exposure were Hispanic ethnicity (P = 0.0115; OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.7), neovascular glaucoma (P = 0.0064; OR = 28.5; 95% CI, 2.6-316.9), previous trabeculectomy (P = 0.0070; OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7), and combined surgery (P = 0.0381; OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1-12.7). Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity, neovascular glaucoma, previous trabeculectomy, and combined surgery were identified as potential risk factors for tube shunt exposure. These potential risk factors should be considered when determining the indication for performing tube shunt implantation and the frequency of long-term followup.

  10. Individual and community factors for railway suicide: a matched case-control study in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; McClure, Roderick; Milner, Allison

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to simultaneously examine individual- and community-level factors associated with railway suicide. We performed a case-control study in Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2012. Data on cases of railway suicide were obtained from the National Coronial Information System (a database of coronial investigations). Controls were living individuals randomly selected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia study, matching to cases on age groups, sex and year of exposures. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the individual-level and community-level influences on individual odds of railway suicide, controlling for socioeconomic status. Individual-level diagnosed mental illness increased railway suicide odds by six times [95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 9.2]. Community-level factors such as living in an area with a presence of railway tracks [odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 2.8], within a city (OR 3.2, 95 % CI 1.9, 5.4), and with a higher overall suicide rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) were independently associated with greater individual odds of railway suicide compared to living in an area without a presence of railway tracks, outside a city, and with a relatively lower overall suicide rate. The effects of mental illness and high incidence of overall suicides are prominent, but not specific on railway suicide. The effects of presence of railway tracks and city residence suggest the importance of accessibility to the railways for individual risk of railway suicide. Prevention efforts should focus on vulnerable people live in areas with easy access to the railways.

  11. Entamoeba histolytica Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Matched Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Infection with Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) can be potentially transmitted by sexual contact. The seroepidemiology of E. histolytica in female sex workers has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether E. histolytica is associated with the occupation of female sex work. In addition, the correlates of E. histolytica seroprevalence in female sex workers were also investigated. Methods We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 187 female sex workers and 374 women without sex work. Cases and controls were tested for the presence of E. histolytica IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of female sex workers was determined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies were found in five (2.7%) of 187 female sex workers and in 16 (4.3%) of 374 controls (odds ratios (OR) = 0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22 - 1.70; P = 0.34). Mean optical density of the immunoassay in seropositive cases and controls was 1.35 ± 0.93 and 0.73 ± 0.45, respectively (P = 0.05). Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection did not vary significantly with age, education, socioeconomic level, or health status of sex workers. Seropositivity to E. histolytica did not correlate with work characteristics such as duration in the occupation, condom use, type of sex, or a history of sexually transmitted diseases, or with behavioral variables such as washing hands before eating, or consumption of untreated water. Conclusions Results indicate that female sex workers do not have an increased risk for E. histolytica infection in Durango City, Mexico. Further studies to determine the risk of infection with E. histolytica by sexual contact should be conducted. PMID:28611864

  12. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case-control study in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990-2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. A matched case-control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0-7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service intervention associated with neonatal deaths in normal and low

  13. [Retrospective study of 48 cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Alessandro, Lucas; Pastor Rueda, José M; Villalonga, Juan F; Bruno, Verónica A; Carpani, Federico; Blaquier, Juan B; Tognarelli, Sofía; Varela, Francisco J; Muggeri, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84); with male predominance (2.1:1). Forty one cases (85%) were immunocompetent patients. Brain MRI findings showed parenchymal involvement in 45 cases (94%), 43% with frontal lobe and 35% basal ganglia, 4% had meningeal involvement and 2% had ophthalmic involvement at diagnosis. Fifty-five percent had restricted signal on diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhancement was found in 89%. Pyramidal syndrome was the main initial clinical manifestation (56%). There were abnormal findings in 62% of CSF samples, but in only 11.1% positive cytology results were detected. The most frequent type was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (83%), being B-cell type the most common form between them (96%). In our series PCNSL was more frequent in immunocompetent elderly male subjects. At initial evaluation, clinical manifestations and MRI findings were variable. The initial suspicion of this entity would allow an early diagnosis, avoiding empirical treatments that may confuse or delay diagnosis.

  14. Primary pyomyositis of the pelvis in children: a retrospective review of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Styles L; Lincoln, Eric D; Prohaska, Matthew G

    2011-12-06

    Primary pyomyositis of the pelvic musculature is a condition rarely seen in temperate climates, although its frequency has been increasing in the United States. The condition should be considered in the initial differential diagnosis of an adolescent presenting with fever, difficulty ambulating, and hip pain. This is a retrospective review of 8 cases of primary pelvic pyomyositis in patients aged 18 years or younger who were treated at the Children's Medical Center in Augusta, Georgia. The site of infection was the obturator internus in the majority of the cases (5). The site was the gluteus, iliopsoas, and iliacus in 1 case each. Four patients who were diagnosed early responded to intravenous antibiotics with no need for further intervention. Two patients required incision and drainage of an abscess combined with antibiotics. Two patients had prolonged hospital courses requiring intensive unit care and mechanical ventilation. Blood cultures were positive in 87.5% of patients, and all patients presented with elevated acute phase reactants. One of the most difficult diagnostic aspects of presentation is an inconclusive symptom profile. It is noteworthy that patients with pelvic pyomyositis may present with limited range of motion in a specific plane (the motion placing the infected muscle on stretch) vs global limited range of motion of the joint as is commonly seen in septic arthritis. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent systemic illness and complications associated with this condition. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is helpful to diagnose and guide treatment.

  15. Fatal Flea-Borne Typhus in Texas: A Retrospective Case Series, 1985-2015.

    PubMed

    Pieracci, Emily G; Evert, Nicole; Drexler, Naomi A; Mayes, Bonny; Vilcins, Inger; Huang, Philip; Campbell, Jill; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    AbstractFlea-borne (murine) typhus is a global rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi. Although flea-borne typhus is no longer nationally notifiable, cases are reported for surveillance purposes in a few U.S. states. The infection is typically self-limiting, but may be severe or life-threatening in some patients. We performed a retrospective review of confirmed or probable cases of fatal flea-borne typhus reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services during 1985-2015. When available, medical charts were also examined. Eleven cases of fatal flea-borne typhus were identified. The median patient age was 62 years (range, 36-84 years) and 8 (73%) were male. Patients presented most commonly with fever (100%), nausea and vomiting (55%), and rash (55%). Respiratory (55%) and neurologic (45%) manifestations were also identified frequently. Laboratory abnormalities included thrombocytopenia (82%) and elevated hepatic transaminases (63%). Flea or animal contact before illness onset was frequently reported (55%). The median time from hospitalization to administration of a tetracycline-class drug was 4 days (range, 0-5 days). The median time from symptom onset to death was 14 days (range, 1-34 days). Flea-borne typhus can be a life-threatening disease if not treated in a timely manner with appropriate tetracycline-class antibiotics. Flea-borne typhus should be considered in febrile patients with animal or flea exposure and respiratory or neurologic symptoms of unknown etiology.

  16. Uveal cysts in domestic cats: a retrospective evaluation of thirty-six cases.

    PubMed

    Blacklock, Benjamin T; Grundon, Rachael A; Meehan, Melissa; Tetas Pont, Roser; Hartley, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate uveal cysts in domestic cats by identifying prevalence, predispositions, location, presumed etiologies, and sequelae. The clinical databases of two referral hospitals (The Animal Health Trust in the UK and Animal Eye Care in Australia) were searched to identify cats that had been diagnosed with uveal cysts, either as an incidental finding or as the reason for referral. Thirty-six cases were found. The signalment of the patients was recorded, along with any relevant previous clinical history, treatment, follow-up, and sequela. The data were compared with the unaffected feline populations examined by ophthalmologists in the two hospitals over the same 10-year time period. Thirty-six cats were affected, from a total examined population of 5017 (prevalence 0.72%). Twenty-one of the 36 cats were Burmese. The two centers examined 516 Burmese cats in the same time period, giving an incidence in Burmese cats of 4.1%. The mean age of affected cats at presentation was 10.25 years (SD = 4.12 years), and female cats accounted for 23 of 36 of the cases. Only 2 of 36 cats had concurrent intraocular disease. Uveal cysts in domestic cats are rare ophthalmic findings, and in most cases, they do not cause any clinical problems The Burmese breed is overrepresented in the data, with a relatively high prevalence of uveal cysts. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients of Post Polio Residual Paralysis: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Sobrón, Francisco Borja; Martínez-Ayora, Álvaro; Cuervas-Mons, Manuel; Quevedo, Tania; Laguna, Rafael; Vaquero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is a viral, nervous system disease that affects both the upper and the lower extremities. The treatment of severe coxarthrosis in these patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been widely questioned because of the high risk of subsequent complications. The aim of the present study was to describe both radiological and medium term clinical results in a series of patients with post polio residual paralysis that underwent THA. We report a retrospective review of a series of 5 five patients diagnosed with severe coxarthrosis secondary to post polio residual paralysis who were operated between 2008 and 2012. Uncemented THA was performed in all cases by the same surgeon. Clinical evaluation was carried out using the Harris Hip Score (HHS) at the preoperative visit, at 6 months, and annually after surgery. The median age was 47 years, and the median followup was 55 months (interquartile range P25-P75: range 31-72 months). According to the HHS, a significant clinical improvement was observed in all patients with a median score of 81 points (interquartile range P25-P75: range 74-89) at 1 year of followup. A case of relapsing dislocation that required revision surgery of the implant was recorded. No cases of component loosening were found. THA surgery in patients with post polio residual paralysis is a complex procedure with a significant complication rate, but a predictable clinical improvement may encourage surgeons to perform in patients with severe coxarthrosis and moderate functional expectations.

  18. Laser treatment of pigmented lesions in clinical practice: a retrospective case series and patient satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Hague, J S; Lanigan, S W

    2008-03-01

    Lasers are frequently used to treat pigmented skin lesions; however, there is little published data from routine clinical practice. We performed a retrospective review of patients treated between January 2003 and January 2004 to describe the patients, methods used and the clinical outcome. The long-term result was determined by a patient questionnaire. In total, 67 patients with 76 pigmented lesions were treated (22 males and 45 females, mean age 22 years); 27% had Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. The Q-switched Nd:YAG, and erbium:YAG lasers were used in 75% and 24% of cases, respectively, with an average of 5.4 treatments/patient. The physician-rated outcome at the end of treatment was 'very positive' in 45% and 'mostly positive' in 30% of cases. The patient-rated outcome at an average of 21 months post-treatment was 'excellent' in 29.5%, 'good' in 25%, and 'fair' in 22.7% of the 44 cases. About 50% of patients with the three most common lesions (congenital naevi, other/unspecified naevi and naevus of Ota) achieved good or excellent long-term results.

  19. Sporotrichosis: a retrospective evaluation of 23 cases seen in northern California (1987-2007).

    PubMed

    Crothers, Samantha L; White, Stephen D; Ihrke, Peter J; Affolter, Verena K

    2009-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is an uncommon to rare cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis of animals and humans caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Twenty-three mammalian cases of sporotrichosis examined between 1987 and 2007 at the University of California, Davis - Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, were retrospectively evaluated with regard to the historical, clinical, diagnostic and treatment findings. Cats were the most common species affected (n = 14). In addition, sporotrichosis was diagnosed in four dogs, four horses and a donkey. Six of 23 cases were diagnosed with the localized cutaneous form of sporotrichosis (four cats, one dog, one horse), 10 with the cutaneous-lymphatic form (four cats, two dogs, three horses and a donkey), and seven with the disseminated form (six cats, one dog). Two of 23 cases did not have skin lesions at the time of diagnosis (one cat, one dog). The most common mode of diagnosis was demonstration of S. schenckii on histopathological evaluation of tissue. In contrast with most previously described sporotrichosis infections in cats, few to no fungal organisms were seen in histopathological samples (haematoxylin and eosin and special stains) in five of the 14 cats. Treatments received included itraconazole (12 cats, one dog), ketoconazole (three dogs), fluconazole (one cat, one donkey), sodium iodide (four horses, one cat) and potassium iodide (one cat, one horse, one donkey). The prognosis for successful treatment was good in all species. Fluconazole was successful in inducing resolution of the cutaneous lesions and controlling the infection in one cat with disseminated sporotrichosis.

  20. Dysplastic change rate in cases of oral lichen planus: A retrospective study of 112 cases in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan; Esfahani, Alireza Monsef; Ghorbani, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Lichen planus is a chronic systemic disease and oral mucosa is commonly involved. Oral lichen planus (OLP) most commonly affects middle-aged women. The prevalence of the disease ranges between 0.5% and 2.6% in the general population and the range of malignant transformation varies between 0% and 10%. Objectives: To assess the rate of malignant transformation of OLP samples. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 112 medical records of patients with histological diagnosis of OLP who attended the Department of Pathology at the Educational Hospital from 2005 to 2012. H&E-stained slides were reviewed by two pathologists using strict clinical and histopathological diagnostic World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Dysplastic changes were diagnosed and graded according to the latest WHO classification. Results: Of the 112 cases diagnosed as OLP, there were 39 males and 73 females and the patients’ ages ranged from 15 to 86 years (mean age 44.5 years). The erosive form with fifty cases was the most common clinical type and the papular type with one case was the least common clinical type. Regarding the site, the buccal mucosa was the most common site with 52 cases. Totally, dysplastic changes were found in 12 samples, among them five cases showed mild dysplasia and seven cases showed moderate dysplasia. One case developed oral squamous cell carcinoma after 3 years. Conclusion: OLP is considered as a premalignant condition by the WHO and several authors. Although the malignancy rate is not so high, to reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer arising on OLP lesions, a regular follow-up examination is recommended. PMID:27721603

  1. Sebaceous adenitis in Swedish dogs, a retrospective study of 104 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hernblad Tevell, Elisabeth; Bergvall, Kerstin; Egenvall, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Sebaceous adenitis (SA) is an uncommon, immune mediated skin disease in dogs. The aim was to retrospectively investigate SA in dogs in Sweden with respect to breed, sex and age distribution. A second aim was to retrospectively compare clinical signs in dogs with generalized SA and to estimate the survival after diagnosis in the English springer spaniel, standard poodle and the akita. Methods In total 34 Swedish veterinarians contributed with 104 clinically and histologically verified SA cases. Breed, gender and age at diagnosis were registered for each case. The degree of clinical signs at time for diagnosis and at follow-up and information about treatments, concurrent diseases and euthanasia were recorded for the springer spaniels, standard poodles and akitas using a standardized questionnaire. Results A total of 104 cases of SA were included; most cases were recorded for the springer spaniel (n = 25), standard poodle (n = 21) and the akita (n = 10). These three breeds, together with the lhasa apso and the chow-chow, were the most common when national registry data from the Swedish Board of Agriculture and Swedish Kennel Club were considered. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years. The proportion of males was 61%. When the springer spaniels, standard poodles and the akitas with generalized signs were compared (n = 51), the spaniels showed significantly more severe clinical signs than the poodles at diagnosis regarding alopecia, seborrhoea, pyoderma and the overall severity of clinical signs. At follow-up, the degree of clinical signs for otitis externa and pyoderma differed significantly between the breeds. The estimated median survival time was 42 months. In dogs where data regarding survival was available at the end of the study (n = 44), SA was reported to be the reason for euthanasia in 14 dogs, whereof 7 within 24 months after diagnosis. Conclusion The result of this study implicates that the English springer spaniel is a breed predisposed to SA

  2. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed.

  3. A 5-year retrospective evaluation of snakebite cases in Hatay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Ali; Zeren, Cem; Celik, M Murat; Arica, Secil; Ozden, Raif; Duru, Mehmet; Tasın, Veyis

    2015-02-01

    Snakebites are relatively rare medical emergency cases that might lead to serious consequences. This study aims to evaluate snakebite cases in terms of medical follow-up, antivenom therapy and antivenom reactions. Medical records of patients admitted to emergency department between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 were retrospectively investigated. Snakebite-related cases of a total of 125 patients were included in the scope of the study. Of the total 125 cases, 54.4% were male and 45.6% were female. Most of cases (n: 65, 52%) were aged over 30 years, while the mean age was 34.87 ± 19.29 years. Snakebite-related applications to the emergency department were mostly seen in June with 27 cases. Upon admitting, all patients were recorded to be conscious and showing good general conditions; however, they suffered from pain and edema at the site of bite. Of all, 25 patients only suffered from bite injury and ecchymosis due to snakebite. The site of bite was upper extremities in 66 patients (52.8%), whereas it was lower extremities in 58 (46.4%). Of all, antivenom was unnecessary in 25 (20%) patients, while four antivenoms were administered to each of the 23 (18.4%) patients. Furthermore, six (4.8%) patients needed nine antivenom administrations for each. Anaphylaxis (n: 2, 1.6%), compartment syndrome (n: 2, 1.6%) and serum sickness (n: 1, 0.8%) encountered in remaining cases. Of all, 86 (68.8%) patients were hospitalized in the emergency department, while 25 (20.0%) patients were followed up by observation in emergency service. Only one patient was treated and followed up in intensive care unit. Implementation of antivenom therapy is considered unnecessary for the treatment of all snakebite cases. Antivenom reactions and number of related cases might be reduced by continuous close monitoring, appropriate prophylaxis and controlled slow infusion administration of medications. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Network-based regularization for matched case-control analysis of high-dimensional DNA methylation data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hokeun; Wang, Shuang

    2013-05-30

    The matched case-control designs are commonly used to control for potential confounding factors in genetic epidemiology studies especially epigenetic studies with DNA methylation. Compared with unmatched case-control studies with high-dimensional genomic or epigenetic data, there have been few variable selection methods for matched sets. In an earlier paper, we proposed the penalized logistic regression model for the analysis of unmatched DNA methylation data using a network-based penalty. However, for popularly applied matched designs in epigenetic studies that compare DNA methylation between tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues or between pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions, applying ordinary logistic regression ignoring matching is known to bring serious bias in estimation. In this paper, we developed a penalized conditional logistic model using the network-based penalty that encourages a grouping effect of (1) linked Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites within a gene or (2) linked genes within a genetic pathway for analysis of matched DNA methylation data. In our simulation studies, we demonstrated the superiority of using conditional logistic model over unconditional logistic model in high-dimensional variable selection problems for matched case-control data. We further investigated the benefits of utilizing biological group or graph information for matched case-control data. We applied the proposed method to a genome-wide DNA methylation study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) where we investigated the DNA methylation levels of tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from HCC patients by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 Beadchip. Several new CpG sites and genes known to be related to HCC were identified but were missed by the standard method in the original paper. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of Urate-Lowering Therapy on All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hyperuricemic Patients without Gout: A Case-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tsay, Gregory J; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increased risk of mortality in patients with hyperuricemia has been reported. We examined (1) the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in untreated hyperuricemic patients who did not receive urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and (2) the impact of ULT on mortality risk in patients with hyperuricemia. Methods In this retrospective case-matched cohort study during a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 40,118 Taiwanese individuals aged ≥17 years who had never used ULT and who had never had gout were examined. The mortality rate was compared between 3,088 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT and reference subjects (no hyperuricemia, no gout, no ULT) matched for age and sex (1:3 hyperuricemic patients/reference subjects), and between 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who received ULT and 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT (matched 1:1 based on their propensity score and the index date of ULT prescription). Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate the respective risk of all-cause and CVD (ICD-9 code 390–459) mortality. Results After adjustment, hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT had increased risks of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–1.59) and CVD (2.13; 1.34–3.39) mortality relative to the matched reference subjects. Hyperuricemic patients treated with ULT had a lower risk of all-cause death (0.60; 0.41–0.88) relative to hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT. Conclusion Under-treatment of hyperuricemia has serious negative consequences. Hyperuricemic patients who received ULT had potentially better survival than patients who did not. PMID:26683302

  6. Risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in east China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, W X; Dai, Y; Zhou, Y J; Liu, H; Duan, S G; Han, H H; Chen, Y

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY To determine risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, we conducted a population-based case-control study in sentinel hospital surveillance areas of Shanghai and Jiangsu province, China. Seventy-one patients with diarrhoea and confirmed V. parahaemolyticus infections were enrolled, and they were matched with 142 controls for gender, age and residential area. From the multivariable analysis, V. parahaemolyticus infections were associated with antibiotics taken during the 4 weeks prior to illness [odds ratio (OR) 7·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–54·4)], frequent eating out (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·0–10·4), and shellfish consumption (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·0–11·1), with population-attributable fractions of 0·09, 0·24, and 0·14, respectively. Protective factors included keeping the aquatic products refrigerated (OR 0·4, 95% CI 0·2–1·0) and pork consumption (OR 0·2, 95% CI 0·1–0·9) [corrected] .

  7. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  8. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  9. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  10. Trueperella pyogenes multispecies infections in domestic animals: a retrospective study of 144 cases (2002 to 2012).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M G; Risseti, R M; Bolaños, C A D; Caffaro, K A; de Morais, A C B; Lara, G H B; Zamprogna, T O; Paes, A C; Listoni, F J P; Franco, M M J

    2015-06-01

    Formerly, Arcanobacterium pyogenes was recently renamed Trueperella pyogenes. This opportunistic bacterium is related to miscellaneous pyogenic infections in animals. Most studies involving T. pyogenes are case reports, whereas few surveys have focused the major aspects of T. pyogenes infections involving a case series study design. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate selected epidemiological and clinical aspects, as well as the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 144 cases of T. pyogenes infections among domestic animals from 2002 to 2012. T. pyogenes was isolated from different clinical specimens from cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, horses, dogs, and buffaloes. Correlations were assessed by the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Mastitis (45.1%), abscesses (18.0%), pneumonia (11.1%), and lymphadenitis (9.0%) were the most common clinical manifestations. In addition, the organism was also isolated from other miscellaneous clinical specimens from cases of septicemia, encephalitis, pyometra, prostatitis, orchitis, seminal vesiculitis, pericarditis, and omphalitis. No statistical association was observed between T. pyogenes infections and age, gender, or season across the study. The most effective drugs against the pathogen were florfenicol (99.1%), cefoperazone (96.0%), cephalexin (95.0%), and ceftiofur (94.8%). High resistance rates were observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (49.3%), followed by norfloxacin (10.9%) and tetracycline (9.2%). This study highlights the diversity of clinical manifestations and the opportunistic behavior of T. pyogenes infections in domestic animals, with predominance of mastitis, abscesses, pneumonia, and lymphadenitis. It also reinforces the importance of knowing the susceptibility profile before initiating therapy, to improve antimicrobial therapy approaches.

  11. Outcomes for single-incision laparoscopic colectomy surgery in obese patients: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Keller, Deborah S; Ibarra, Sergio; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Ponte, Oscar Moreno; Madhoun, Nisreen; Pickron, T Bartley; Haas, Eric M

    2016-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is safe and feasible for benign and malignant colorectal diseases. SILS offers several patient-related benefits over multiport laparoscopy. However, its use in obese patients has been limited from concerns of technical difficulty, oncologic compromise, and higher complication and conversion rates. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of SILS for colectomy in obese patients. Review of a prospective database identified patients undergoing elective colectomy using SILS from 2009 to 2014. They were stratified into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and non-obese cohorts (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) and then matched on patient characteristics, diagnosis, and operative procedure. Demographic and perioperative outcome data were evaluated. The primary outcome measures were operative time, length of stay (LOS), and conversion, complication, and readmission rates for each cohort. A total of 160 patients were evaluated-80 in each cohort. Patients were well matched in demographics, diagnosis, and procedure variables. The obese cohort had significantly higher BMI (p < 0.001) and ASA scores (p = 0.035). Operative time (176.9 ± 64.0 vs. 144.4 ± 47.2 min, p < 0.001) and estimated blood loss (89.0 ± 139.5 vs. 51.6 ± 38.0 ml, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the obese. There were no significant differences in conversion rates (p = 0.682), final incision length (p = 0.088), LOS (p = 0.332), postoperative complications (p = 0.430), or readmissions (p = 1.000) in the obese versus non-obese. Further, in malignant cases, lymph nodes harvested (p = 0.757) and negative distal margins (p = 1.000) were comparable across cohorts. Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy in obese patients had significantly longer operative times, but comparable conversion rates, oncologic outcomes, lengths of stay, complication, and readmission rates as the non-obese cohorts. In the obese, where higher morbidity rates are typically associated with

  12. High risk of urinary tract infections in post-operative gynaecology patients: a retrospective case analysis.

    PubMed

    Crosby-Nwaobi, R R; Faithfull, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the incidence and risk factors related to the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), post surgery, in women being treated for a gynaecological cancer. A retrospective case analysis of 215 women was conducted using data collected via case review with domains covering known risk factors for the occurrence of urinary infections. Bacteriuria was defined as greater than 10(5) colony-forming units per millilitre. A total of 30.7% of women had a UTI post-operatively. Among these, 75.7% infections were Escherichia coli. Having a catheter in situ for ≤3 days was found to be slightly significant in the formation of a UTI post-operatively (U= 3878, P < 0.05). Having a catheter in situ for ≥7 days was found to be highly significant (χ(2) (1) = 6.602, P < 0.01), with an odds ratio of 2.44. A positive correlation was found between the duration of the catheter in situ and type of UTI (τ= .251, P < 0.01). Although urinary catheterisation is known to be related to hospital-acquired infection, a shorter duration of catheterisation may reduce the risk of possible infection post surgery. Oncology teams need to be more aware of this risk, identify women more likely to be catheterised for longer and use preventative strategies for managing infection, such as silver nitrite-lined catheters.

  13. Prognostic Factors and Outcomes of Adult-Onset Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A Retrospective Analysis of 34 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Oto, Masafumi; Yoshitsugu, Kanako; Uneda, Shima; Nagamine, Michiko; Yoshida, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has features that are distinct from that of HLH in pediatric patients. The clinical records at the Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed 34 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of HLH-2004. The median age of patients was 60.0 (range 15-86). Underlying diseases were diagnosed in 17 patients. They consisted of malignant lymphoma (n=3), other neoplastic disease (n=3), viral infection (n=4), collagen vascular disease (n=3), Kikuchi’s disease (n=3) and drug (n=1). Underlying diseases were not diagnosed in 17 patients despite examination. The treatments were steroids (n=18), dexamethasone + cyclosporine A (CSA) + etoposide (n=4), multidrug chemotherapy (n=2), steroids and CSA (n=3). Eleven patients died during observation. In a multivariate analysis, the significant predictor for death was age at onset (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95%CI, 1.02-1.44; P=0.027). Autopsy was performed in 4 cases, but the underlying disease remained unknown in 3 of those cases. Adult-onset HLH has high diversity and various outcomes. The mechanism of adult-onset HLH is not fully understood and further research is required. PMID:26331000

  14. Efficacy of carboxymethyl beta-glucan in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Stentella, Patrizia; Biamonti, Alberto; Carraro, Carlo; Inghirami, Paolo; Mancino, Pasquale; Pietrangeli, Daniela; Votano, Sergio; Lazzari, Paola; DE Medici, Caterina

    2017-10-01

    Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection constitutes the principal risk factor for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. For this reason, new drugs have been studied to support the host immune system against the HPV infection. The aim of this retrospective, case-control study was to detect the efficacy and safety of carboxymethyl β-glucan (Colpofix®) gel as adjuvant therapy in HPV infection. The medical records of patients attending the Colposcopy Service of four hospitals in Rome from 2011 to 2013 were collected. Case arm consisted of patients submitted to local therapy with Colpofix®. Control arm comprised patients who did not receive this therapy. A total of 999 patients were included, divided into four groups, according to their cytological and histological specimens, colposcopy and subsequent management. Local therapy with Colpofix® gel resulted effective with respect to no therapy for the regression of low-grade CIN (CIN1) in patients submitted to follow up (P=0.0204), while it was no effective for the regression of CIN1 submitted to ablative therapy and high-grade CIN (CIN 2+) (P value not significant). In conclusion, Colpofix® gel represents a valid alternative to "wait and see" strategy in patients affected by CIN1. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these results.

  15. Pesticide poisoning cases in Ankara and nearby cities in Turkey: an 11-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kır, M Ziya; Öztürk, Gülfer; Gürler, Mukaddes; Karaarslan, Bekir; Erden, Gönül; Karapirli, Mustafa; Akyol, Ömer

    2013-05-01

    Since they are available in open markets and pharmacies, pesticides have been widely used all over the country. (Un)intentional poisoning with these compounds is one of the most common causes of chemical poisoning, especially in rural agricultural areas. Pesticide poisonings reported by various countries showed that it is a worldwide health problem with 250,000-370,000 associated deaths each year. In this study, medico-legal deaths between the years 2001 and 2011 in Ankara and nearby cities in Turkey were investigated retrospectively. The autopsies were partly carried out by Ankara Branch of Council of Forensic Medicine. Data were collected from reports of the Morgue Department whose toxicological analyses were performed in the Chemistry Department. The data revealed that 70 cases out of 10,720 autopsied ones had been attributed to fatal pesticide poisoning. The age range was 1-80 years (mean ± SD, 41.33 ± 17.42 years). Most of the cases (60%) were reported from Ankara. Insecticides were the most common (94%) cause of fatal pesticide poisonings, most of them (63%) being organophosphate insecticides. The percentages of pesticide-induced deaths are quite high in our society and should therefore not be underestimated. Accordingly, intensive efforts to reduce occupational and intentional pesticide poisonings are urgently needed in Ankara and nearby cities.

  16. The use of oral cyclosporin to treat feline dermatoses: a retrospective analysis of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, A; Raviri, G; Cornegliani, L

    2006-06-01

    Limited information is available regarding the use of cyclosporin A (CsA) for the treatment of feline dermatoses. The aim of this retrospective study was therefore to describe the efficacy of CsA for the therapy of eosinophilic granuloma (EG), eosinophilic plaque, indolent ulcer, linear granulomas, idiopathic pruritus and stomatitis. A computer search for feline dermatological cases treated with CsA between 1999 and 2004 was performed. Based on history, clinical signs and laboratory diagnostic tests, it was then possible to divide cases into three groups and to select 23 cats. Seven cats had one or more of the following conditions: EG, eosinophilic plaque, indolent ulcer and/or linear granuloma (group A); eight cats had idiopathic pruritus (group B) and eight cats had plasmacytic stomatitis (group C). Doses ranged from 5.8 to 13.3 mg kg(-1) oral CsA. All cats were monitored, with complete serum blood analysis and physical examination, monthly for a minimum of 6 months. Response to therapy was scored (severity of lesions and pruritus) with a 0-10 visual analogue scale at each visit (day 0, day, 30, day 60, day 90). All cats in groups A and B were cured and were maintained on alternate day therapy. In group C, 4/8 patients went into remission, while remaining cats have a fair to good improvement. Routine haematological and biochemical examination failed to reveal abnormalities related to CsA administration.

  17. A retrospective analysis of histopathology of 64 cases of lepra reactions.

    PubMed

    Adhe, Vijay; Dongre, Atul; Khopkar, Uday

    2012-03-01

    Lepra reactions are not always diagnosable under the microscope. We analyzed skin histopathology in 64 cases of lepra reaction. To make detailed observations on histopathologic features of type 1 and type 2 lepra reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum, ENL). In this retrospective study, we included 64 patients diagnosed during a 3-year period as lepra reaction based on clinico-pathological co-relation. Out of the 64 patients, 22 were of type 1 reaction and 42 of ENL. The most consistent finding in type 1 reaction was papillary dermal edema (86%) followed by pyknosis of lymphocytes (77%) and intercellular edema within granuloma (73%). Surprisingly, folliculotropism of lymphocytes was seen in 55% and subcutaneous infiltration in 36%. In ENL, the most common finding was presence of neutrophils within the granuloma (100%), followed by leukocytoclasia (81%), papillary dermal edema (81%), and neutrophilic panniculitis (69%). Fibrin in the vessel wall or/and granulomas was noted in only 38% while fibrin thrombi in the vessel walls were seen in only 12% of cases. Infiltration of macrophage granulomas by neutrophils is a reliable sign of ENL. Classical signs of vasculitis are not always present in ENL. Folliculotropism and lymphocytic panniculitis were frequent in type 1 reactions while neutrophilic panniculitis was common with ENL.

  18. Efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with painful vertebral metastases: A retrospective study in 47 cases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Gang

    2015-11-01

    This study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in treating vertebral metastases, focusing on the related intractable pain and operative complications including cement leakage, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, dysneuria, etc. Forty-seven patients with spinal metastatic tumours who underwent PVP between September 2011 and March 2013 in the hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Pain scores on one day before the surgery, on one day after the surgery and at the end of the follow-up were recorded using VAS. The VAS scores were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test using SPSS 19.0. The distribution and leakage of PMMA and complications (cardiopulmonary dysfunction, dysneuria, etc.) were evaluated by CT and plain film. PVP in all patients was successful. The preoperative mean value of VAS and the postoperative mean value of VAS showed statistical difference (8.4 ± 1.4 and 3.1 ± 2.3 respectively). At the end of follow-up, the mean value of VAS was 3.4 ± 1.9. Bone cement leakage was observed in 35 vertebrae. Among the cases with bone cement leakage, one case showed the related complication (radiating pain in left limb) and was relieved after treatment of dexamethasone and analgesia for one week; the others did not present any related complication. With some limitations in the study, PVP appeared to be an alternative method to treat painful spine metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methylphenidate-risperidone combination in child psychiatry: A retrospective analysis of 44 cases.

    PubMed

    Javelot, H; Glay-Ribau, C; Ligier, F; Weiner, L; Didelot, N; Messaoudi, M; Socha, M; Body-Lawson, F; Kabuth, B

    2014-05-01

    Psychotimulant-antipyschotic combinations are frequently used in child psychiatry, but have been rarely described in the literature. We propose here a retrospective study of 44 children who received the combination methylphenidate (MPH)-risperidone (RIS). The sample is composed of children who received either MPH (n=28) or RIS (n=16) as primary treatment. A vast majority of the children had a comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. For over 60% of patients, regardless of their initial monotherapy, bitherapy decreased the symptoms of ADHD and conduct disorder, sleep disorders and anxiety. Concerning the safety of the bitherapy, a compensation effect on weight gain and appetite was respectively observed in 70% and 50% of patients. Even though iatrogenic tachycardia can be encountered with both drugs, it has never been reported when they are associated and we have reported a total of 3 cases in our study. We have also observed a case of dyskinesia resolved with the discontinuation of the treatment. MPH-RIS bitherapy appears to be particularly effective in ADHD with conduct disorder symptoms. Although tolerance may limit its use, the benefit/risk ratio seems favourable for a number of children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrospective case-control study of viral pathogen screening in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia lesions.

    PubMed

    García-López, R; Moya, A; Bagan, J V; Pérez-Brocal, V

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to survey the presence of known oncoviruses in oral biopsies from patients diagnosed with the aetiologically undetermined proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and compare results to those from milder oral leukoplakia (OL) cases, oral squamous cell carcinoma, a common outcome of the lesions of interest, and healthy controls. Blind, retrospective, case-control study. A stomatology unit in an academic Hospital and a Public Health laboratory. Forty patients were divided in four groups. Ten patients had been diagnosed with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, 10 with OL and 10 with OSCC, and 10 were healthy subjects. The presence or absence of oncovirus DNA was assayed with the amplification of viral genetic markers using PCR and subsequent gel electrophoresis confirmation. Amplified fragments were sequenced and identified bioinformatically. No DNA from the herpesvirus, papillomavirus or polyomavirus species was detected in the samples. No association between proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and target viruses was detected. A higher throughput viral metagenomic approach may prove valuable for future analyses, as it would not be restricted to a priori knowledge of potential targets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Retrospective Analysis of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Revision Cases of a Single Institute

    PubMed Central

    Park, Man-Kyu; Kim, Myungsoo; Park, Ki-Su; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt complication is a major obstacle in the management of hydrocephalus. To study the differences of VP shunt complications between children and adults, we analyzed shunt revision surgery performed at our hospital during the past 10 years. Methods Patients who had undergone shunt revision surgery from January 2001 to December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively by chart review about age distribution, etiology of hydrocephalus, and causes of revision. Patients were grouped into below and above 20 years old. Results Among 528 cases of VP shunt surgery performed in our hospital over 10 years, 146 (27.7%) were revision surgery. Infection and obstruction were the most common causes of revision. Fifty-one patients were operated on within 1 month after original VP shunt surgery. Thirty-six of 46 infection cases were operated before 6 months after the initial VP shunt. Incidence of shunt catheter fracture was higher in younger patients compared to older. Two of 8 fractured catheters in the younger group were due to calcification and degradation of shunt catheters with fibrous adhesion to surrounding tissue. Conclusion The complications of VP shunts were different between children and adults. The incidence of shunt catheter fracture was higher in younger patients. Degradation of shunt catheter associated with surrounding tissue calcification could be one of the reasons of the difference in facture rates. PMID:26113963

  2. [Neonatal bronchoscopy: a retrospective analysis of 67 cases and a review of their indications].

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, J A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Clington, A; Serelha, M

    2004-01-01

    The availability of newer, more sophisticated and versatile bronchoscopes has expanded the spectrum and scope of the indications for bronchoscopy in the newborn infant both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of the bronchoscopies performed on newborn infants, and to review the indications of this procedure in this age group. Sixty-three patients were submitted to 67 bronchoscopies in a period of 13 years, allowing the diagnosis of 45 anomalies and malformations of the tracheo-bronchial tree, and the performance of 24 bronchoalveolar lavages. In six cases, endoscopic removal of secretions helped to resolve resistant atelectasia, while in another case, with esophageal atresia, intra-operative definition of the fistula tract was possible through catheterisation of the fistula with the bronchoscope. The flexible bronchoscope was preferred for diagnosis by direct visualisation, and the rigid bronchoscope for some diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Stridor, unexplained cyanosis, hemoptysis, persistent or recurrent pulmonary images, difficulties in the intubation or extubation, and persistent disturbances in ventilation are among the main indications for bronchoscopy in the newborn infant. Bronchoscopy also allows the performance of subsidiary techniques, such as bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy and laser therapy.

  3. Dietary Supplements, Isotretinoin, and Liver Toxicity in Adolescents: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    DeKlotz, Cynthia Marie Carver; Roby, Keith D; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2017-10-01

    Isotretinoin is the most effective acne therapy available, but has the potential for a number of adverse side effects, including transaminitis. The iPLEDGE isotretinoin program recommends avoiding some herbals and supplements due to potential side effects. However, little is known about the effects of protein supplements on the liver, particularly in patients taking isotretinoin. We designed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients on or preparing to take isotretinoin therapy who were concurrently ingesting protein or herbal supplementation and who developed transaminitis. In 100% (8/8) of cases, dietary supplementation was determined to be at least a possible cause of elevated liver transaminases. In 75% (6/8) of cases, dietary supplement appears to be the most likely cause at some point in their evaluation. Most of our patients' elevations in aspartate aminotransferase and/or alanine aminotransferase were likely caused by supplementation with protein, creatine, or herbal extracts, rather than prescribed isotretinoin or tetracycline antibiotics for acne. Hence, dietary supplementation may cause liver function abnormalities. As supplement usage appears common in teenagers, clinicians should consider counseling their patients to avoid these products, particularly when prescribing known hepatotoxic drugs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Feline secondary spontaneous pneumothorax: a retrospective study of 16 cases (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    Liu, Debra T; Silverstein, Deborah C

    2014-01-01

    To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, diagnostic findings, underlying etiologies, treatment, and outcome associated with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) in cats; and to identify clinical feature differences among cats with asthma associated secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (AASSP) versus nonasthma-associated secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (NAASSP). Retrospective case series. University teaching hospital. Sixteen client-owned cats with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. None. Domestic short hair was the predominant breed in this study (n = 15). The median age was 8 years old (range: 7 weeks to 17 years) with no sex predilection. Fourteen cats were affected by multi-lobar pulmonary pathology of infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic causes. Asthma was the most common cause of spontaneous pneumothorax (25%). Ten of 12 treated cats survived the initial episode of spontaneous pneumothorax to discharge with medical management, including all 4 cats with AASSP. Reoccurrence was documented in 4 cats. Pulmonary lobectomy was curative for 1 cat with congenital accessory lung lobe emphysema. No difference in clinical presentation was identified between cats with AASSP and cats with NAASSP. Feline SSP is frequently associated with extensive pulmonary pathology. Supportive medical management is most appropriate, except in rare cases with focal congenital abnormalities that may benefit from surgical intervention. AASSP appears to carry a good prognosis for short-term outcome (survival to discharge). Clinical assessment, imaging, and invasive diagnostics were required to differentiate between AASSP and NAASSP. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  5. Neurogenic pruritus: an unrecognised problem? A retrospective case series of treatment by acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Stellon, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Intractable localised segmental pruritus without a rash has been reported over the years under various titles depending on the area of the body affected. Notalgia paresthetica and brachioradial pruritus are the two terms used for what is believed to be a form of neuropathy. The clinical observations reported here suggest that other localised cases of pruritus exist that share common clinical features, and the term neurogenic pruritus is suggested to encompass these under one clinical condition. Acupuncture has been used to treat skin conditions, of which pruritus is one symptom. This retrospective study looked at the symptomatic relief of neurogenic pruritus in 16 patients using acupuncture. In 12 cases the affected dermatomes of the body were innervated by cervical spinal nerves, seven innervated by dorsal spinal nerves and four innervated by the lumbar spinal nerves. Seven patients had areas affected by two different regions of the spine. Restricted neck or back movements were noted in patients as were areas of paravertebral spasm or tenderness of the muscles. Total resolution of symptoms as judged by VAS occurred in 75% of patients. Relapse occurred in 37% of patients within 1-12 months following treatment. Acupuncture appeared to be effective in alleviating the distressing symptom of itching in patients presenting with neurogenic pruritus.

  6. The physician as patient in palliative care: A retrospective case-note audit.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Lachlan C; Zambrano, Sofia C; Crawford, Gregory B

    2016-10-01

    Dying physicians may present unique challenges to palliative care teams. Studies of dying physicians are scarce, but those that exist suggest a potential absence of a coordinating clinician, prolongation of curative treatments, resistance to palliative care input and barriers to discussing psychosocial needs. The aim was to describe and examine the care provided to physician-patients referred to an Australian palliative care service, and to identify issues faced by the physician-patient and by the treating team. A retrospective case-note audit of the case notes of medical practitioners referred for palliative care and dying between January 2007 and April 2013 was conducted. There was evidence of medically qualified friends or family members initiating referrals and directing treatment decisions. There was some evidence of increased consultant-led decision-making and bypassing of usual referral pathways and systems for providing after-hours advice and calling consultants directly. There also appeared to be some reluctance by junior doctors to make decisions, because of the patient's desire for consultant-level advice only. This study adds to the growing body of literature that identifies the potential difficulties associated with caring for medical practitioners. By understanding some of the complexity of this particular doctor-patient relationship, clinicians can approach the management of physician-patients facing the end of their lives with a more sound understanding of their particular care needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome in South African children: insights from a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    van Toorn, Ronald; Janse van Rensburg, Pieter; Solomons, Regan; Ndondo, Alvin P; Schoeman, Johan F

    2012-03-01

    Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome is a recognized sequel of febrile partial status in children younger than 4 years. To describe the clinical features, neuroradiology and outcome in 8 South African children with HHE syndrome. A retrospective descriptive study of 8 consecutive cases of HHE syndrome presenting to tertiary hospitals in the Western Cape over a 2 year period. The median age of onset of convulsive status was 16 months (range: 9-36 months). Gender distribution was equal. The duration of the initial episode of status exceeded 2 h in all children. All children were reported to have been developmentally normal prior to the onset of the first seizure and none previously suffered seizures or had a family history of febrile seizures and epilepsy. In 7 of the 8 cases the initial seizure was not associated with fever or preceding illness. Imaging demonstrated cerebral hemiatrophy in all and additional crossed cerebellar atrophy in 2 children. Moderate to severe intellectual disability ensued in the majority of children. The severity of the intellectual disability correlated with the degree of the motor deficit and occurred irrespective of the cerebral hemisphere involved. In contrast to developed countries, HHE syndrome is still prevalent in South Africa. The neurological morbidity in South African children is significant and highlights the need for improved emergency care of status epilepticus. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the efficacy of video versus direct laryngoscopy through retrospective comparison of 436 emergency intubation cases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamen M; Agrawal, Ankit; Schulte, Thomas E

    2013-12-01

    Video laryngoscopy has become a common practice for tracheal intubations. However, information on its efficacy in emergency intubations is minimal. The external video monitor may act as a means for assistance by present staff, heighten teaching ability, and improve intubation outcomes. We conducted a retrospective review consisting of 436 patients requiring emergency intubation outside the operating room to evaluate the application of a C-MAC video laryngoscope for emergency intubation(s). Nine cases were removed, 315 underwent direct laryngoscopy, 73 underwent video laryngoscopy, and 39 underwent both methods. The C-MAC laryngoscope provided a significantly better visualization of the glottis (p = 0.02). The C-MAC also provided successful intubation on the first attempt in 82 % of the 39 direct laryngoscopy cases subsequently intubated with the C-MAC. The presence of the attending anesthesiologist (while the resident intubates) had no effect on complication rates; the number of attempts required and the grade view obtained were nonsignificant (p = 0.91 and p = 0.34, respectively). Overall, use of the C-MAC video laryngoscope provided a better view of the airway structures during an emergency intubation. The success of the C-MAC laryngoscope in intubation after failed direct laryngoscopy suggests the importance of the video laryngoscope as the primary intubation approach during an emergency intubation.

  9. Liver resection for benign hepatic lesions: A retrospective analysis of 827 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Li-Ning; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Huang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the operative and perioperative factors associated with hepatectomy of benign hepatic lesions. METHODS: A total of 827 condecutive cases of benign hepatic lesion undergoing hepatectomy from January 1986 to December 2005 in the Chinese PLA General Hospital were investigated retrospectively according to their medical documentation. RESULTS: The effect of operative and perioperative factors on the outcome of patients were analyzed. Of the 827 cases undergoing hepatectomy for more than 3 liver segments accounted for 22.1%, 316 (38.21%) required transfusion of blood products during operation. The average operating time was 220.59 ± 109.13 min, the average hospital stay after operation was 13.55 ± 9.38 d. Child-Pugh A accounted for 98.13%. The postoperative complication rate was 13.54% and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.24%. Multivariate analysis showed that operating time (P = 0.004, OR = 1.003) and albumin value (P = 0.040, OR = 0.938) were the independent predictors of morbidity and indicated that operating time, blood transfusion, complication rate, and LOS had a trend to decrease. CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy for benign hepatic lesions can be performed safely with a low morbidity and mortality, provided that it is carried out with optimized perioperative management and an innovative surgical technique. PMID:19084942

  10. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  11. Missing exposure data in stereotype regression model: application to matched case-control study with disease subclassification.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaeil; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gruber, Stephen B; Sinha, Samiran

    2011-06-01

    With advances in modern medicine and clinical diagnosis, case-control data with characterization of finer subtypes of cases are often available. In matched case-control studies, missingness in exposure values often leads to deletion of entire stratum, and thus entails a significant loss in information. When subtypes of cases are treated as categorical outcomes, the data are further stratified and deletion of observations becomes even more expensive in terms of precision of the category-specific odds-ratio parameters, especially using the multinomial logit model. The stereotype regression model for categorical responses lies intermediate between the proportional odds and the multinomial or baseline category logit model. The use of this class of models has been limited as the structure of the model implies certain inferential challenges with nonidentifiability and nonlinearity in the parameters. We illustrate how to handle missing data in matched case-control studies with finer disease subclassification within the cases under a stereotype regression model. We present both Monte Carlo based full Bayesian approach and expectation/conditional maximization algorithm for the estimation of model parameters in the presence of a completely general missingness mechanism. We illustrate our methods by using data from an ongoing matched case-control study of colorectal cancer. Simulation results are presented under various missing data mechanisms and departures from modeling assumptions.

  12. Freshman year mental health symptoms and level of adaptation as predictors of Internet addiction: a retrospective nested case-control study of male Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bin; Han, Wei; Zeng, Lingxia; Guo, Xiong

    2013-12-15

    A retrospective nested case-control study was designed to explore whether freshman year mental health status and level of adaptation are predictors of Internet addiction. The study cohort was 977 college students at a university in northwest China. In the first college year, the students' mental health status and adaptation level were assessed using the Chinese College Student Mental Health Scale (CCSMHS) and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS). In the following 1-3 years, 62 Internet-addicted subjects were identified using Young's 8-item diagnostic questionnaire. Controls were matched for demographic characteristics. Using logistic regression analysis, freshman year mental health status, including factors such as somatization, anxiety, depression and self-contempt, and freshman year adaptive problems were found to be causal factors and predictors of Internet addiction. Freshman with features of depression, learning maladaptation and dissatisfaction could be an important target-intervention population for reducing Internet addiction.

  13. [Etiologies of non-hemolytic jaundice in infants: a retrospective analysis of 3113 cases].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Hongmei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the causes of non-hemolytic jaundice among infants in Chongqing, China from the period of 1982 to 2011 and to determine whether the etiologies have changed over the past 30 years. The medical records of 3 113 infants,aged 1 month to 1 year,admitted to our hospital with non-hemolytic jaundice were collected and stratified according to decade-long time periods: group A (1982-1991), n=537; group B (1992-2001), n=786; group C (2002-2011), n=1 790. Data on sex, age, etiology and bilirubin level were retrospectively assessed using the chi-square test. In the three groups, boys consistently accounted for the majority of cases (group A:74.3%, group B:66.7%, group C:62.6%). In group A, 52% of the patients were 1-2 months of age; the peak age of patients in both group B and C was 2-3 months (group B:67.8%, group C:61.0%). Group A showed the highest level of patients with mildly elevated total bilirubin level (80.3%); however, moderately elevated total bilirubin level was most frequent in group B (53.4%) and group C (49.7%). The main etiologic diagnoses of the patients in group A were cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (31.7%), sepsis (18.2%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1.3%), and biliary tract anomalies (1.3%); 46.6% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group B were CMV infection (36.0%), sepsis (21.5%), breast milk jaundice (2.0%), and HBV (1.9%); 37.9% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group C were CMV infection (42.6%), sepsis (7.5%), breast milk jaundice (17.7%), and biliary tract anomalies (2.46%); 29.1% of the cases had unclear cause. In Chongqing, infective factors, especially CMV, remain the main cause of nonhemolytic jaundice in infants, but bacterial etiologies have declined over the past 30 years.Non-infective factors, such as biliary tract anomalies and inherited metabolic diseases, have trended upwards. Although there has been great progress in the clinical management of

  14. 18C. Chinese Herbs Cured a Kidney Calculus—A Retrospective Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is referred to as holistic or complementary and alternative medicine. Herbal remedy plays the main role of TCM. It has been widely used in preventive measures and treatment modalities for all stages of illness. Here is a retrospective case report about herb healing the kidney stone and improving type II diabetes and hypertension. Patient, Method and Result: A male, 46 years old, chief complaint: intermittent lumbago 6 years. The other symptoms were fatigue and slight thirst. He had been diagnosed with type II diabetes, hypertension of 2 years, and a small kidney stone (6 years). His blood pressure (BP) was between 140/85mmHg to 150/95mmHg; fasting plasma glucose was around 7mmol/L to 8 mmol/L. PE: BP 145/95 mmHg. Lab: 2hPG: 15.1mmol/L. Urinalysis: RBC: 5-6/HP, WBC: 2-4/ HP, GLU. Ultrasound: kidney stone, 0.3x 0.2 cm, at the inferior pole of the left kidney. This patient irregularly took Metformin, refused to control diet or use antihypertensives, but was open to using an herbal formula, 1 dose per day. After 1 year's treatment, his back pain, fatigue, and thirst gradually disappeared. BP was around130-120/85-75mmHg, 2h PG: 7.3mmol/L. FPG: 6mmol/L. Urinalysis: RBC: 0-2/HP, WBC: negative, Glu. Ultrasound: normal, no stone found. Discussion: Generally, there is no method to remove a small stone in the renal parenchyma. In this case, Chinese herbal tea achieved a dramatic curing result. At retrospective review after 8 years, no stone recurred. From the TCM theory, the stone is the result of heat congealing turbid dampness; the diabetes is Yin-deficient heat. The basic function of this formula is to tonify Qi and Yin, invigorate blood, clear heat, and resolve the stone. In conjunction with Metformin, the patient's diabetes and hypertension were improved. Conclusion: This Chinese herb formula dissolved the kidney stone and prevented a new stone from recurring. There is no obvious

  15. Review of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Fatal Cases Seen Among Adults: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Sing-Sin; Omar, Sharifah Faridah Syed; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Abd-Jamil, Juraina; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. The disease affects mainly children, but in recent years it is becoming more of an adult disease. Malaysia experienced a large dengue outbreak in 2006 to 2007, involving mostly adults, with a high number of deaths. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a retrospective study to examine dengue death cases in our hospital from June 2006 to October 2007 with a view to determine if there have been changes in the presentation of severe to fatal dengue. Nine of ten fatal cases involved adult females with a median age of 32 years. All had secondary dengue infection. The mean duration of illness prior to hospitalization was 4.7 days and deaths occurred at an average of 2.4 days post-admission. Gastrointestinal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, intravascular leakages and bleeding occurred in the majority of cases. DSS complicated with severe bleeding, multi-organ failure and coagulopathy were the primary causes of deaths. Seven patients presented with thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, five of which had hemoconcentration and increased ALT and AST indicative of liver damage. Co-morbidities particularly diabetes mellitus was common in our cohort. Prominent unusual presentations included acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis with pericarditis, and hemorrhages over the brain and heart. Conclusions In our cohort, dengue fatalities are seen primarily in adult females with secondary dengue infection. The majority of the patients presented with common clinical and laboratory warning signs of severe dengue. Underlying co-morbidities may contribute to the rapid clinical deterioration in severe dengue. The uncommon presentations of dengue are likely a reflection of the changing demographics where adults are now more likely to contract dengue in dengue endemic regions. PMID:23658849

  16. Ameloblastoma of the jaws: a retrospective analysis of 340 cases in a Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Siar, Chong Huat; Lau, Shin Hin; Ng, Kok Han

    2012-03-01

    Ameloblastoma of the human jaw is an uncommon but clinically significant odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. The aim was to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of ameloblastoma in a Malaysian population. This is a retrospective study (1993 through 2008) of consecutive ameloblastoma cases accessioned in 2 main oral pathology diagnostic centers: the Unit of Stomatology, Institute for Medical Research and the Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine, and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data on patient demographics, tumor location, symptomology, duration, radiographic appearance, preoperative diagnosis, clinicopathologic subtypes, treatment, and recurrence were analyzed. Three hundred forty cases of ameloblastoma were reviewed. These were from 197 male patients (57.9%) and 143 female patients (42.1%), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.4:1. A wide age range (7 to 85 years), mean onset age of 30.3 ± 16.3 years, and peak incidence in the second decade of life were recorded. Most were mandibular tumors (n = 311/340, 91.5%). These consisted of 95 (28%) unicystic ameloblastomas, 221 (65%) solid/multicystic ameloblastomas, 22 (6.4%) desmoplastic ameloblastoma, and 2 (0.6%) peripheral ameloblastomas. Unicystic ameloblastoma (41.1%) and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (52.0%) mostly affected Malays patients, whereas desmoplastic ameloblastoma (59.1%) was prevalent in Chinese patients. Unicystic ameloblastoma (56.8%) and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (47.1%) occurred predominantly in the body and posterior mandible, whereas desmoplastic ameloblastoma (36.4%) preferentially involved the anterior jaw segment. Most tumors presented as multilocular radiolucencies (36.8%). Enucleation (n = 42/92, 45.7%) was the treatment of choice. About 18 cases (13.3%) presented with recurrence. Because ameloblastoma subsets differ in their biologic behavior, the present data are significant as baseline references for clinicians and

  17. Spirocercosis in dogs in Israel: A retrospective case-control study (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Aroch, Itamar; Markovics, Alexander; Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Kuzi, Sharon; Harrus, Shimon; Yas, Einat; Baneth, Gad; Bar-El, Maya; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Segev, Gilad; Lavy, Eran

    2015-07-30

    This case-control retrospective study (years 2004-2009) investigated the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic test findings of dogs with esophageal spirocercosis (ES) presented to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (HUVTH) and coproscopy-positive dogs at the Kimron Veterinary Institute (KVI), Israel. It included 133 dogs with ES and 133 negative controls diagnosed at the hospital, and 343 dogs diagnosed at the KVI. The average incidence of ES at the HUVTH was 22.5/year, and the percentage of spirocercosis cases was stable at both institutions (HUVTH, 0.67-1.23%; KVI, 5-8%). Dogs aged > 5 years old had 100-fold likelihood to be infected compared to dogs aged ≤ 1 year of age (P < 0.001). Mean body weight (P = 0.0004), proportion of Retrievers (P = 0.002) and sporting breed dogs (P = 0.006) were higher, while proportion of toy breeds (P = 0.004) was lower in the ES group compared to the control group. The proportion of cases from Greater Tel-Aviv decreased (P = 0.002), while that of those from Judea and Jerusalem increased (P = 0.01) compared to the 1990 s. Spirocercosis occurred in 22 dogs despite past prophylactic avermectin treatment. Vomiting and regurgitation were the most common clinical signs of ES. Coproscopy was S. lupi-positive in 33/60 dogs (55.0%). The median number of esophageal nodules was two (range 1-8), with a median diameter of 3.5 cm (range 1.0-11.0). Malignant esophageal lesion transformation was confirmed in 29 dogs (22%). Despite preventive attempts, spirocercosis has spread in Israel over time, compared to previous findings, raising questions about the efficacy of the currently accepted prophylactic protocol is incompletely effective.

  18. Single-Use Detergent Sacs: A Retrospective Multicenter Canadian Review of Emergency Department Cases.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Eltorki, Mohamed; VandenBerg, Stephanie; Allain, Dominic; Freedman, Stephen B; Beno, Suzanne

    2016-07-12

    Single-use detergent sacs (SUDS) are widely used in North America and Europe with emerging literature on their toxicity. This is the first Canadian multicenter study aimed to quantify and compare SUDS exposures to traditional detergent exposures. A retrospective review of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program databases was conducted at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Alberta Children's Hospital in Calgary and the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton. All exposures presenting to these 3 centers between 2009 and 2014 were identified, a case form was completed, and data were analyzed. Forty cases of SUDS exposure were identified alongside 35 cases of traditional detergent exposure during the study period resulting in an incidence of 3.16 SUDS exposures per million children per year presenting to tertiary pediatric emergency departments (EDs). In contrast, traditional detergent exposures had an incidence of 2.78 exposures per million children per year presenting to tertiary pediatric EDs over the study period. Although there was no change in incidence of exposure to traditional detergent over the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of SUDS exposures from 2010 to 2013, with a decrease seen in 2014. There was no significant difference seen in age, sex, location of exposure, transportation to hospital, morbidity, or mortality associated with SUDS exposures compared with traditional detergent exposure. Although not statistically more likely to cause long-term complications, SUDS-exposed children required more follow-up visits to health care providers than traditional detergents. This multicenter study is the first to establish the incidence of SUDS and traditional detergent exposure in 3 Canadian cities. Overall, the frequency of exposure to detergents-both traditional and SUDS-is very low. Given the increase in SUDS exposure seen from 2011 to 2013, alongside larger sales of SUDS, continued efforts are required to

  19. Review of Dengue hemorrhagic fever fatal cases seen among adults: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sam, Sing-Sin; Omar, Sharifah Faridah Syed; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Abd-Jamil, Juraina; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in many countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. The disease affects mainly children, but in recent years it is becoming more of an adult disease. Malaysia experienced a large dengue outbreak in 2006 to 2007, involving mostly adults, with a high number of deaths. We undertook a retrospective study to examine dengue death cases in our hospital from June 2006 to October 2007 with a view to determine if there have been changes in the presentation of severe to fatal dengue. Nine of ten fatal cases involved adult females with a median age of 32 years. All had secondary dengue infection. The mean duration of illness prior to hospitalization was 4.7 days and deaths occurred at an average of 2.4 days post-admission. Gastrointestinal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, intravascular leakages and bleeding occurred in the majority of cases. DSS complicated with severe bleeding, multi-organ failure and coagulopathy were the primary causes of deaths. Seven patients presented with thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, five of which had hemoconcentration and increased ALT and AST indicative of liver damage. Co-morbidities particularly diabetes mellitus was common in our cohort. Prominent unusual presentations included acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis with pericarditis, and hemorrhages over the brain and heart. In our cohort, dengue fatalities are seen primarily in adult females with secondary dengue infection. The majority of the patients presented with common clinical and laboratory warning signs of severe dengue. Underlying co-morbidities may contribute to the rapid clinical deterioration in severe dengue. The uncommon presentations of dengue are likely a reflection of the changing demographics where adults are now more likely to contract dengue in dengue endemic regions.

  20. Encephalopathy after whole-cell pertussis or measles vaccination: lack of evidence for a causal association in a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ray, Paula; Hayward, Jean; Michelson, David; Lewis, Edwin; Schwalbe, Joan; Black, Steve; Shinefield, Henry; Marcy, Michael; Huff, Ken; Ward, Joel; Mullooly, John; Chen, Robert; Davis, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Whole-cell pertussis (wP) and measles vaccines are effective in preventing disease but have also been suspected of increasing the risk of encephalopathy or encephalitis. Although many countries now use acellular pertussis vaccines, wP vaccine is still widely used in the developing world. It is therefore important to evaluate whether wP vaccine increases the risk of neurologic disorders. A retrospective case-control study was performed at 4 health maintenance organizations. Records from January 1, 1981, through December 31, 1995, were examined to identify children aged 0 to 6 years old hospitalized with encephalopathy or related conditions. The cause of the encephalopathy was categorized as known, unknown or suspected but unconfirmed. Up to 3 controls were matched to each case. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relative risk of encephalopathy after vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in the 90 days before disease onset as defined by chart review compared with an equivalent period among controls indexed by matching on case onset date. Four-hundred fifty-two cases were identified. Cases were no more likely than controls to have received either vaccine during the 90 days before disease onset. When encephalopathies of known etiology were excluded, the odds ratio for case children having received DTP within 7 days before onset of disease was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45-3.31, P = 0.693) compared with control children. For MMR in the 90 days before onset of encephalopathy, the odds ratio was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 0.51-2.98, P = 0.647). In this study of more than 2 million children, DTP and MMR vaccines were not associated with an increased risk of encephalopathy after vaccination.

  1. Private schooling and admission to medicine: a case study using matched samples and causal mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Houston, Muir; Osborne, Michael; Rimmer, Russell

    2015-08-20

    Are applicants from private schools advantaged in gaining entry to degrees in medicine? This is of international significance and there is continuing research in a range of nations including the USA, the UK, other English-speaking nations and EU countries. Our purpose is to seek causal explanations using a quantitative approach. We took as a case study admission to medicine in the UK and drew samples of those who attended private schools and those who did not, with sample members matched on background characteristics. Unlike other studies in the area, causal mediation analysis was applied to resolve private-school influence into direct and indirect effects. In so doing, we sought a benchmark, using data for 2004, against which the effectiveness of policies adopted over the past decade can be assessed. Private schooling improved admission likelihood. This did not occur indirectly via the effect of school type on academic performance; but arose directly from attending private schools. A sensitivity analysis suggests this finding is unlikely to be eliminated by the influence of an unobserved variable. Academic excellence is not a certain pathway into medicine at university; yet applying with good grades after attending private school is more certain. The results of our paper differ from those in an earlier observational study and find support in a later study. Consideration of sources of difference from the earlier observational study suggest the causal approach offers substantial benefits and the consequences in the causal study for gender, ethnicity, socio-economic classification and region of residence provide a benchmark for assessing policy in future research.

  2. Power and execution performance tradeoffs of GPGPU computing: a case study employing stereo matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunagiri, Sarala; Jaloma, Jaime; Portillo, Ricardo; Argueta, Arturo

    2013-03-01

    GPGPUs and Multicore processors have become commonplace with their wide usage in traditional high performance computing systems as well as mobile computing devices. A significant speedup can be achieved for a variety of general-purpose applications by using these technologies. Unfortunately, this speedup is often accompanied by high power and/or energy consumption. As a result, energy conservation is increasingly becoming a major concern in designing these computing devices. For large-scale systems such as massive data centers, the cost and environmental impact of powering and cooling computer systems is the main driver for energy-efficiency. On the other hand, for the mobile computing sector, energy conservation is driven by the need to extend battery life and power capping is mandated by the restrictive power budget of mobile platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Our focus is to understand the power performance tradeoffs in executing Army applications on portable or tactical computing platforms. For a GPGPU computing platform, this study investigates how host processors (CPUs) with different Thermal Design Power (TDP) might affect the execution time and the power consumption of an Army-relevant stereo-matching code accelerated by a GPGPU. For image pairs with size approximately one Megapixel we observed a decrease in execution time of nearly 50% and a decrease in average power by 5% when executed on a low TDP Intel Xeon processor host. The decrease in energy consumption was over 50%. For a larger image pair, although there was no substantial decrease in execution time, there was a decrease in power and energy consumption of approximately 6%. Although we cannot make general conclusions based on a case study, it points to the possibility that for some tactical-HPC GPGPU-accelerated applications, a host processor with a lower TDP might provide better system performance in terms of power consumption while not degrading the execution-time performance.

  3. Use of sleep medications and risk of cancer: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sivertsen, Børge; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between sleep-medication use and mortality, especially cancer deaths, but findings are mixed, and large population-based studies are lacking. Data from the Finnish Public Sector study were linked to the Finnish Cancer Register and the Drug Prescription Register of Finland. A total of 5053 cancer cases (mean age of 57.4 years) diagnosed in 2002-2011, and their 24,388 controls free of cancer and matched for sex, age, socioeconomic status, employer, and geographical area, were identified. The use of sleep medications was defined as purchases of prescribed sleep medications. Both quantity and duration of prior sleep-medication use during the seven years studied were associated with increased odds of having cancer. Compared with participants not using sleep medications, the odds ratio was 1.18-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.39) for those who used >100 defined daily doses per year and 1.16-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.34) for those who had such a medication for >3 years. Site-specific analyses showed a more pronounced association of quantity and duration of sleep-medication use with subsequent cancer of the respiratory system (odds ratio for >100 defined daily doses per year vs. no use: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.97-6.11). No associations were found with other cancer sites. In this register-based study, sleep-medication use was associated with an increased cancer incidence of the respiratory system. Further studies are needed to examine potential carcinogenic mechanisms associated with hypnotic medications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic robot-assisted versus open total pancreatectomy: a case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Boggi, Ugo; Palladino, Simona; Massimetti, Gabriele; Vistoli, Fabio; Caniglia, Fabio; De Lio, Nelide; Perrone, Vittorio; Barbarello, Linda; Belluomini, Mario; Signori, Stefano; Amorese, Gabriella; Mosca, Franco

    2015-06-01

    The enhanced dexterity offered by robotic assistance could be excessive for distal pancreatectomy but not enough to improve the outcome of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Total pancreatectomy retains the challenges of uncinate process dissection and digestive reconstruction, but avoids the risk of pancreatic fistula, and could be a suitable operation to highlight the advantages of robotic assistance in pancreatic resections. Eleven laparoscopic robot-assisted total pancreatectomies (LRATP) were compared to 11 case-matched open total pancreatectomies. All operations were performed by one surgeon during the same period of time. Robotic assistance was employed in half of the patients, based on robot availability at the time of surgery. Variables examined included age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, estimated blood loss, need for blood transfusions, operative time, tumor type, tumor size, number of examined lymph nodes, margin status, post-operative complications, 90-day or in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, and readmission rate. No LRATP was converted to conventional laparoscopy, hand-assisted laparoscopy or open surgery despite two patients (18.1 %) required vein resection and reconstruction. LRATP was associated with longer mean operative time (600 vs. 469 min; p = 0.014) but decreased mean blood loss (220 vs. 705; p = 0.004) than open surgery. Post-operative complications occurred in similar percentages after LRATP and open surgery. Complications occurring in most patients (5/7) after LRATP were of mild severity (Clavien-Dindo grade I and II). One patient required repeat laparoscopic surgery after LRATP, to drain a fluid collection not amenable to percutaneous catheter drainage. One further patient from the open group required repeat surgery because of bleeding. No patient had margin positive resection, and the mean number of examined lymph nodes was 45 after LRATP and 36 after open surgery. LRATP is feasible

  5. Evaluation of risk factors for arytenoid dislocation after endotracheal intubation: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Le; Wang, Wu-tao; Yu, Xue-rong; Zhang, Xiu-hua; Huang, Yu-guang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk factors for postoperative arytenoid dislocation. From September 2003 to August 2013, the records of 16 patients with a history of postoperative arytenoid dislocation were reviewed. Patients matched in terms of date and type of procedures were chosen as the controls (n=16). Recorded data for all patients were demographics, smoking status, alcoholic status, preoperative physical status, airway evaluation, intubation procedures, preoperative laboratory test results, anesthetic consumption and intensive care unit stay. For arytenoid dislocation cases, we further analyzed the incidences of the left and right arytenoid dislocation, and the outcomes of surgical repair and conservative treatment. Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages, and were compared using the chi-squared test. Continuous variables were expressed as means±SD and compared using the Student's unpaired t-test. To determine the predictors of arytenoid dislocation, a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Sixteen patients with postoperative arytenoid dislocation were enrolled, with a median age of 52 years. Most postoperative arytenoid dislocation patients (15/16, 93.75%) received surgical repair, except one patient who recovered after conservative treatment. None of the postoperative arytenoid dislocation patients were smokers. Red blood cell (P=0.044) and hemoglobin (P=0.031) levels were significantly lower among arytenoid dislocation cases compared with the controls. Non-smoking and anemic patients may be susceptible to postoperative arytenoid dislocation. However, neither of them was independent risk factor for postoperative arytenoid dislocation.

  6. Referrals to an Intellectual Disability Psychotherapy Service in an Inner City Catchment Area--A Retrospective Case Notes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Geosrgina; Mukherjee, Raja A. S.; Karagianni, Efthalia; Attavar, Rajnish; Sinason, Valerie; Hollins, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aims were to identify referral characteristics and outcomes for people with intellectual disabilities referred to a psychodynamic psychotherapy service. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case notes review of anonymized data relating to 100 sequential patient episodes. Results: A total of 81 people out of 100 with a range of…

  7. Orthopedic Management of Patients with Pompe Disease: A Retrospective Case Series of 8 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Forst, Jürgen; Forst, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pompe disease (PD), a lysosomal storage disease as well as a neuromuscular disorder, is a rare disease marked by progressive muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in recent years allowed longer survival but brought new problems to the treatment of PD with increasing affection of the musculoskeletal system, particularly with a significantly higher prevalence of scoliosis. The present paper deals with the orthopedic problems in patients with PD and is the first to describe surgical treatment of scoliosis in PD patients. Patients and Methods. The orthopedic problems and treatment of eight patients with PD from orthopedic consultation for neuromuscular disorders are retrospectively presented. We analyzed the problems of scoliosis, hip dysplasia, feet deformities, and contractures and presented the orthopedic treatment options. Results. Six of our eight PD patients had scoliosis and two young patients were treated by operative spine stabilization with benefits for posture and sitting ability. Hip joint surgery, operative contracture release, and feet deformity correction were performed with benefits for independent activity. Conclusion. Orthopedic management gains importance due to extended survival and musculoskeletal involvement under ERT. Surgical treatment is indicated in distinct cases. Further investigation is required to evidence the effect of surgical spine stabilization in PD. PMID:24523658

  8. Retrospective study of 149 cases of salivary gland carcinoma in a Spanish hospital population.

    PubMed

    Collazo-Fernández, L; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez, J; García-Martín, R; Ballestín-Carcavilla, C

    2017-03-01

    The clinical and histological characteristics of salivary gland tumors vary widely, complicating their diagnosis and management, and major differences have been recorded in the distribution of histopathological diagnoses among different countries. This retrospective study reviewed the demographic (age, sex) and clinicopathological (pathology diagnosis and localization) characteristics of cases diagnosed with primary SGC between June 1992 and May 2014 in the Pathology Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital of Madrid. Diagnoses were recorded according to the 2005 WHO classification. The study included 149 SCG patients, aged between 11 and 94 yrs, with mean age at onset of 55.56 yrs and peak incidence in the eighth decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.01. The parotid gland was the most frequently involved (75.2%). The most frequent carcinoma was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.2%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (15.4%). The demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients with salivary gland carcinomas in Spain, reported here for the first time, are broadly similar to those found in other countries.

  9. Retrospective study of 149 cases of salivary gland carcinoma in a Spanish hospital population

    PubMed Central

    Campo-Trapero, Julián; Cano-Sánchez, Jorge; García-Martín, Rosa; Ballestín-Carcavilla, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Background The clinical and histological characteristics of salivary gland tumors vary widely, complicating their diagnosis and management, and major differences have been recorded in the distribution of histopathological diagnoses among different countries. Material and Methods This retrospective study reviewed the demographic (age, sex) and clinicopathological (pathology diagnosis and localization) characteristics of cases diagnosed with primary SGC between June 1992 and May 2014 in the Pathology Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital of Madrid. Diagnoses were recorded according to the 2005 WHO classification. Results The study included 149 SCG patients, aged between 11 and 94 yrs, with mean age at onset of 55.56 yrs and peak incidence in the eighth decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.01. The parotid gland was the most frequently involved (75.2%). The most frequent carcinoma was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.2%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (15.4%). Conclusions The demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients with salivary gland carcinomas in Spain, reported here for the first time, are broadly similar to those found in other countries. Key words:Salivary gland carcinomas, descriptive, salivary glands, salivary gland tumors, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, Spain. PMID:28160579

  10. Aortic Dissection and Sudden Unexpected Deaths: A Retrospective Study of 31 Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Ling; Mu, Hong-Shu; Fan, Shuan-Liang; He, Fang-Gang; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is the most common cause of sudden unexpected death related to aortic diseases. A retrospective study of 31 sudden unexpected deaths caused by AAD was conducted at Xi'an Jiaotong University Forensic Center from 2001 to 2012. We summarized the forensic characteristics of AAD and assessed the clinically diagnostic accuracy of AAD. The characteristics of sudden unexpected death due to AAD were male predominant (male: female=6.7:1), relatively young with the mean age of 44, and predominance of type A dissection (77.4%). Cardiac tamponade was the most frequent cause of sudden death (87.1%). Of the 31 cases, 26 (83.9%) patients were not recognized clinically and were misdiagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, cholecystitis, acute gastroenteritis, renal/urinary lithiasis, or acute pancreatitis. In summary, AAD can be difficult to recognize, diagnosis is therefore sometimes delayed or missed. The medicolegal death investigation can help physicians have a better understanding of AAD.

  11. Retrospective study of severe cases of leptospirosis admitted in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Ittyachen, A M; Krishnapillai, T V; Nair, M C; Rajan, A R

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate patient demographics, risk factors, complications, seropositivity, treatment and outcome among leptospirosis patients. Retrospective analysis of 104 patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) with a clinical suspicion of leptopirosis. Ten-bedded medical ICU in a medical school situated in a rural area endemic for leptospirosis. Seropositivity for leptospirosis, patient demographics, risk factors, complications, treatment and survival. One hundred and four patients were admitted with a clinical suspicion of leptospirosis. Fifty-three (50.7%) were serologically confirmed cases. Males dominated both groups. Most of the admissions were in the monsoon season. Exposure to moist soil was the main risk factor. The mortality in the seronegative group was 26.8% while it was only 3.8% in the seropositive group. Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, primarily acute respiratory distress syndrome with thromboctyopenia and renal failure were the causes for mortality. All the patients who died presented late into the illness. The initial diagnosis of leptospirosis depends on a high index of clinical suspicion, routinely available diagnostic tests being unreliable in the initial period. A reliable, unsophisticated test should be developed for early detection of this disease. As leptospirosis in its early stage mimics other tropical infections, both medical professionals and the general public (especially with risk of occupational exposure) should be educated about the disease and the need to seek early medical intervention.

  12. [Severe bacterial keratitis referred to ophthalmology emergency departments: a retrospective study of 268 cases].

    PubMed

    Dethorey, G; Daruich, A; Hay, A; Renard, G; Bourges, J-L

    2013-02-01

    To investigate epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of severe bacterial keratitis, in order to update current understanding of risk factors (RF) and prognosis. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study from January 2005 to January 2011, identifying and collecting data from inpatients admitted for severe documented bacterial keratitis. We found 268 unilateral corneal ulcers. At least one local or systemic risk factor was identified in 255/268 patients (95%). The leading risk factor was contact lens wear (129/268), followed by underlying corneal disease (50/268) and prior corneal surgery (47/268). Initial and final visual acuities were 0.06 and 0.2 (1.20 and 0.72 LogMAR) respectively. Contact lens wear was associated with better prognosis and shorter hospitalization (P<0.05). Corneal healing was obtained in 255/268 patients (95%), with adjuvant surgery for 33 patients. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Gram+ cocci, more commonly associated with degenerative keratopathy or prior corneal surgery, and Gram- bacilli, more commonly associated with contact lenses (P<0.05). Both demonstrated a similar prognosis. Specific risk factors should be investigated in cases of severe bacterial keratitis. Contact lens wear is the most frequent risk factor, but with a better prognosis than underlying corneal disease, prior corneal surgery or systemic risk factors. The specific bacterial pathogen no longer appears to dramatically influence the outcome of severe corneal ulcers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Spine tumor resection among patients who refuse blood product transfusion: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Kisilevsky, Alexandra E; Stobart, Liam; Roland, Kristine; Flexman, Alana M

    2016-12-01

    To describe the perioperative blood conservation strategies and postoperative outcomes in patients who undergo complex spinal surgery for tumor resection and who also refuse blood product transfusion. A retrospective case series. A single-center, tertiary care and academic teaching hospital in Canada. All adult patients undergoing elective major spine tumor resection and refusing blood product transfusion who were referred to our institutional Blood Utilization Program between June 1, 2004, and May 9, 2014. Data on the use of iron, erythropoietin, preoperative autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, antifibrinolytic therapy, cell salvage, intraoperative hypotension, and active warming techniques were collected. Data on perioperative hemoglobin nadir, adverse outcomes, and hospital length of stay were also collected. Four patients who refused blood transfusion (self-identified as Jehovah's Witnesses) underwent non-emergent complex spine surgery for recurrent chondrosarcoma, meningioma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and metastatic malignant melanoma. All patients received 1 or more perioperative blood conservation strategy including preoperative iron and/or erythropoietin, intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy, and cell salvage. No patients experienced severe perioperative anemia (average hemoglobin nadir, 124 g/L) or anemia-related postoperative complications. Patients who decline blood product transfusion can successfully undergo major spine tumor resection. Careful patient selection and timely referral for perioperative optimization such that the risk of severe anemia is minimized are important for success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  15. Retrospective analysis of placenta accreta: management strategies--evaluation of 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Evsen, Mehmet Siddik; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydine, Hatice Ender; Nur, Caca Fatma; Mehmet, Obut; Gul, Talip

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate maternal characteristics, surgical treatment options, and morbidity of patients with placenta accreta. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of placenta accreta patients who were diagnosed and hospitalized between 2006 and 2010 at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of the Dicle University Hospital (Center A) and Maternity Hospital (Center B) in Diyarbakir Turkey The data were retrieved from medical charts of both hospitals. Maternal demographic features, clinical outcomes, type of surgical intervention, and complications were evaluated. The incidence of placenta accreta was 1/426 deliveries in Center A and 1/7573 deliveries in Center B over a 5-year period. Thirty-nine (95.1%) patients had placenta previa, and 32 (78.0%) patients had at least one previous cesarean delivery Hysterectomy was performed in 28 (68.3%) of 41 women with placenta accreta and uterine preservation was achieved in 13 (31.7%) of them. One (2.4%) maternal death occurred. Estimated blood loss was >2 liters and all patients required blood products transfusion. Placenta accreta is highly associated with the existence of placenta previa, especially in cases with previous cesarean delivery When placenta accreta is diagnosed or suspected, the patient should be referred to a tertiary center for optimum care, where the obstetrical team should include experienced pelvic surgeons who are capable of performing emergent hysterectomy internal iliac artery ligation, and uterine devascularization procedures.

  16. Compliance with periodontal maintenance at the University of Pittsburgh: Retrospective analysis of 315 cases.

    PubMed

    Famili, Pouran; Short, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance care is the most important part of periodontal treatment because maintenance - adherence to the schedule of recall dental appointments after treatment - is believed to be the key in preventing the recurrence of periodontal disease. This article is a retrospective analysis of 315 cases from the Department of Periodontics and Preventive Dentistry at the University of Pittsburgh to determine compliance with periodontal maintenance schedules over a two-year period. Following the completion of periodontal surgical treatment, patients were placed on a regimen of maintenance care that included recalls every three months, professional prophylaxis by the hygiene faculty, and repeated instructions in home self-care. Medical records and patient charts of 315 subjects were selected randomly and reviewed in terms of the patient's attending the scheduled recall visit. It was hypothesized that female subjects would show better compliance with the maintenance care regimen than male subjects, as suggested in the literature. Among the 315 subjects, 112 (54 women and 58 men) followed the recommended recall schedule; 30% ultimately returned for the three-month prophylaxis recall visit after the initial periodontal surgical appointment, and thus were considered to have complied with the suggested maintenance program. The investigators failed to reject the stated hypothesis that women would display better compliance than men (p = 0.3).

  17. Odontogenic tumors in Mexico: a collaborative retrospective study of 349 cases.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, A; Ledesma-Montes, C; Caballero-Sandoval, S; Portilla-Robertson, J; Ruíz-Godoy Rivera, L M; Meneses-García, A

    1997-12-01

    Reports about the frequency of odontogenic tumors are scarce, and diagnostic criteria used in the reports are not uniform. This article presents the results of a retrospective study of odontogenic tumors recorded in four services of diagnostic pathology in Mexico City (two dental schools, one cancer hospital, and one private oral pathology service). The final diagnosis in each case was based on the 1992 histologic criteria of the World Health Organization. The frequency of odontogenic tumors, expressed as a percent of all oral and maxillofacial specimens, ranged from 0.8% in the cancer hospital (0.02% of all biopsies) to 3.7% in the private oral pathology service. The frequency was identical for the two dental schools (2.5%). We found a total of 349 odontogenic tumors; of these, 345 were benign (98.8%), and 4 (1.1%) were malignant (3 were primary intraosseous carcinomas and 1 was a malignant ameloblastoma). The most frequently occurring tumors were odontoma (34.6%), ameloblastoma (23.7%), myxoma (17.7%), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (7.1%), and calcifying odontogenic cyst (6.8%). Although relatively rare, odontogenic tumors are still an important cause of extensive surgical procedures in Mexico.

  18. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean; Lee, Sooyoung

    2016-11-01

    Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age.

  19. Abdominal ultrasonographic findings associated with feline infectious peritonitis: a retrospective review of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kristin M; O'Brien, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a mutated form of the feline enteric coronavirus (FeCV) that can present with a variety of clinical signs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze abdominal ultrasonographic findings associated with cats with confirmed FIPV infection. Sixteen cases were included in the study from a review of medical records at two academic institutions; inclusion was based either on necropsy lesions (n=13) or a combination of histopathological, cytological, and clinicopathological findings highly suggestive of FIPV infection (n=3). The liver was judged to be normal in echogenicity in 11 (69%) cats, diffusely hypoechoic in three cats, focally hyperechoic in one cat, and focally hypoechoic in one cat. Five cats had a hypoechoic subcapsular rim in one (n=3) or both (n=2) kidneys. Free fluid was present in the peritoneal cavity in seven cats and in the retroperitoneal space in one cat. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was noted in nine cats. The spleen was normal in echogenicity in 14 cats and was hypoechoic in two. One cat had bilateral orchitis with loss of normal testicular architecture. Although none of these ultrasonographic findings are specific for FIPV infection, a combination of these findings should increase the index of suspicion for FIPV infection when considered along with appropriate clinical signs.

  20. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on the Delivery Outcome of Induced Labour: A Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the use of epidural analgesia during induced labour was a risk factor for instrumental vaginal delivery and caesarean section (CS) delivery. Study Design. This was a retrospective case series of primigravidae women being induced at term for all indications with a normal body mass index (BMI) at booking and under the age of 40 years. Results. We identified 1,046 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of which 31.2% had an epidural analgesia. Those with an epidural analgesia had significantly greater maternal age, higher BMI, greater percentage of oxytocin usage, and a longer first and second stage of labour. Women with an epidural analgesia had a higher instrumental delivery (37.9% versus 16.4%; p < 0.001) and CS delivery rate (26% versus 10.1%; p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis indicated that the use of an epidural was not a risk factor for a CS delivery but was a risk factor for an instrument-assisted delivery (adjusted OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.51–5.24; p < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study supports the literature evidence that the use of an epidural increases the instrumental delivery rates. It has also added that there is no effect on CS delivery and the observed increase is due to the presence of confounding factors. PMID:27990163

  1. A retrospective review of cases preoperatively diagnosed by radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Anupam; Cohen, Liza M; Lissner, Gary S; Karagianis, Achilles G

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study is to examine orbital lesions identified on preoperative radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations (CVMs), identify their imaging characteristics, and determine if these may help differentiate CVMs from other intraorbital masses. An IRB-approved retrospective chart review over 30 years was undertaken identifying lesions "consistent with cavernous hemangioma" on radiologic studies, which were subsequently surgically resected with a tissue diagnosis. All radiologic images (CT and MRI) obtained preoperatively were re-reviewed by a single masked neuroradiologist. The pattern of contrast enhancement on sequential MRI views was used to determine whether the enhancing characteristics helped identify CVMs compared to other intraorbital masses. Fifty-seven orbital lesions consistent with a CVM were identified on imaging. Fourteen (25%) of them were resected, of which nine (64%) were found to be CVMs on pathologic examination. Five (36%) were found to be a different lesion, most commonly schwannoma (21%). On imaging, CVMs tended to display heterogeneous progressive enhancement, whereas other tumors, in particular schwannomas, enhanced at their maximum level immediately. Based on these characteristics, on re-review, the masked neuroradiologist was able to differentiate a CVM versus other tumors for all 14 imaging cases. This study suggests that examining the pattern of contrast enhancement may help to correctly differentiate a CVM from other isolated, encapsulated orbital lesions on CT/MR imaging.

  2. BLOOD PRODUCT TRANSFUSIONS IN GREAT APES: A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF 12 CASES.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Alicia; Sturgeon, Ginger; Rossi, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Although the administration of blood and blood products can be lifesaving, transfusions in exotic species are less common because of the lack of knowledge of a species' blood groups, the availability of species-specific donors, and possible adverse effects. Recently, blood groups were elucidated in great apes; however, few reports have been published regarding actual transfusion situations in these species. This information is critical because poorly executed transfusions can compromise already weakened patients or result in the death of the recipient. In 2014, a retrospective survey of U.S. zoos housing great apes received 45 of 67 responses; from which, 12 transfusion cases in great apes were identified, including Sumatran orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus sumatraensis, n = 4), chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes , n = 1), and western lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla, n = 7). These animals, ranging from birth to 31 yr, received intravenous transfusions of whole blood, packed red blood cells, or human albumin. Overall, animals that received transfusions for anemia because of chronic illness or blood loss survived, but those individuals with concurrent life-threatening issues did not survive. No adverse reactions related to the transfusion occurred, except in two orangutans given human albumin.

  3. Subtalar Distraction Arthrodesis with Fresh Frozen Femoral Neck Allograft: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Spencer J; Brandao, Roberto A; Manway, Jeffrey M; Burns, Patrick R

    2016-10-01

    Subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis has been well reported with use of structural iliac crest or local autologous bone graft for malunited calcaneal fractures. Early reports for structural allograft did not yield good, consistent results, leading to a subsequent lack of recommendation in previous literature. Newer studies have had promising results utilizing femoral allograft as an alternative to autogenous bone graft. We performed a retrospective chart review on 10 patients (12 feet) undergoing subtalar joint distraction arthrodesis with femoral neck allograft for malunited calcaneal fractures. The primary aim of this study was to report on successful union rates and, in addition, outline any consistent complications. Twelve of the 12 procedures (100%) yielded successful fusion with a mean final follow-up of 7.7 months (range = 2.2-35.1 months). The mean increase in talocalcaneal height was 4 mm (range = 2-6 mm). The overall complication rate was 16.6%, including one superficial wound complication that healed uneventfully and one hardware removal. In conclusion, the current study reports a 100% successful fusion rate with interpositional structural femoral neck allograft in treatment for malunited calcaneal fractures. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    The cause of behavioural changes described by Alzheimer for his original case, Auguste D., has been recently reconfirmed by histological examination. However, there has been active speculation regarding the cause of behavioural changes exhibited by the political satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) during the final three years of his life for over 250 years. Swift's symptoms of cognitive changes, memory impairment, personality alterations, language disorder and facial paralysis have all been apportioned differing levels of significance in various attempts at retrospective diagnosis. The various medical arguments put forward from the 18th through 20th centuries will be critically examined. The diagnoses considered refer to evolving theories of insanity, phrenology, localization of cortical function, hydrocephalus, psychoanalysis, aphasia, dementia and depression in ageing. Re-consideration of the attempts to re-diagnose Swift's final mental state by the leading neurological thinkers of the day, including Wilde (The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849), Bucknill (1882), Osler [Osler's textbook Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892); published in St Thomas's Hospital Gazette (London) 1902; 12: 59-60), Brain (Irish Med J 1952: 320-1 and 337-346) and Boller and Forbes (J Neurol Sci 1998; 158: 125-133) reveal the changing attitudes regarding the significance of behavioural symptoms to neurological diagnosis from the 18th century to the present day.

  5. Congenital midline cervical cleft: A retrospective case series of 8 children.

    PubMed

    Achard, Sophie; Leroy, Xavier; Fayoux, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare developmental abnormality of the ventral neck of unclear etiology. It consists of a midline skin defect. This study reports a case series of 8 patients with congenital midline cervical cleft. Retrospective review chart including all children referred with congenital midline cervical cleft over 5 years in tertiary center. The study was conducted to determine the presence of associated malformations, to specify the cleft pathology, to analyze the nature of associated cysts, and to discuss surgical procedure. Eight patients ranged from 3 days to 5 years. Two had an associated cervical midline cyst, 3 had a significant micrognatia. Pathological observations were in favor of a branchial origin. There was no recurrence of cervical contraction after a mean follow-up of 20 months. Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare and generally isolated congenital malformation. It does not require either extensive assessment or specific genetic. Described associated cysts might be part of the cleft and not bronchogenic or thyroglossal cysts. Early surgical excision reduces cervical contracture, but linear or Z-plasty closure is still debated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical Treatment of the Accessory Navicular (Os Tibiale Externum) in Dancers: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, A B M Boni; Diemer, Willemijn M

    2016-01-01

    This study is to draw attention to a relatively common anatomical anomaly and its possible operative treatment in dancers. The accessory navicular, or os tibiale externum, is an accessory bone on the medial side of the navicular of the foot at the insertion of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT). It can cause obvious hyperpronation, medial foot pain, and a limited and painful relevé in dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the operative treatment of the accessory navicular exclusively in dancers. Six dancers (10 feet) were treated in our clinic for a symptomatic accessory navicular Type II. Five of them (eight feet) underwent surgery, two unilaterally and three bilaterally (at the same time). All five had an excellent result at mean follow-up of 4.7 years, given that they fully resumed their professional dance activities without restriction, discomfort, or residual symptoms. One patient stopped dancing for unrelated reasons and became symptom free without further (surgical) treatment. Although no conclusions can be drawn from a retrospective case series and other treatment modalities were not considered, simple excision of a symptomatic accessory navicular Type II seems to be a good choice in dancers.

  7. Lightning deaths: a retrospective review of New Mexico's cases, 1977-2009.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Jennifer L; Lathrop, Sarah L; Briones, Alice J; Andrews, Sam W; Aurelius, Michelle B

    2015-01-01

    To better understand lightning deaths, a retrospective review of electronic records from New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator database was performed between 1977 and 2009 to update and assess current risk factors. Information on demographics, circumstances, autopsy, and death certificates were collected and analyzed. Fifty-four decedents were identified, ages 2-71 years old (mean 34 years old), 42 males and 12 females. Common racial/ethnic groups were non-Hispanic Whites and American Indians (together comprising 72% of all cases). Physical findings were often related to the heat carried by the electrical current including clothing alterations (29.6%) and burning of skin (53.7%). Most deaths occurred on weekend afternoons in summer months, associated with recreational activities or agricultural work, and rural locations (77.8%). Utilizing the demographic information, clustered events, and associated outdoor activities will assist in creating public awareness and provide a framework to support targeted warnings in an attempt to prevent future deaths.

  8. Anesthetic management of peroral endoscopic myotomy for esophageal achalasia: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eriko; Murata, Hiroaki; Minami, Hitomi; Sumikawa, Koji

    2014-06-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a newly developed, less invasive treatment for esophageal achalasia that requires general anesthesia under positive pressure ventilation. In this retrospective case series, we describe the anesthetic management of 28 consecutive patients who underwent POEM for esophageal achalasia. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil under positive pressure ventilation through a tracheal tube. Retained contents in the esophagus were evacuated just before anesthesia induction to prevent regurgitation into the trachea. The POEM procedure was performed using an orally inserted flexible fiberscope. Elevation of end-tidal carbon dioxide after initiating esophageal carbon dioxide insufflation was observed in all patients and was treated by minute adjustments to the ventilation volume. Scopolamine butylbromide-induced tachycardia in one patient was treated with landiolol hydrochloride, which is a short-acting beta 1-selective blocker. Minor subcutaneous emphysema around the neck was observed in one patient. POEM was successfully completed, and tracheas were extubated immediately after the procedure in all patients. Our findings suggest that prevention of aspiration pneumonia during anesthesia induction, preparation for carbon dioxide insufflation-related complications, and treatment of scopolamine butylbromide-induced tachycardia play important roles in safe anesthesia management of POEM for esophageal achalasia.

  9. Retrospective Likelihood Based Methods for Analyzing Case-Cohort Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuanyuan; Cai, Tianxi; Chen, Yu; Yang, Ying; Chen, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The case cohort (CCH) design is a cost effective design for assessing genetic susceptibility with time-to-event data especially when the event rate is low. In this work, we propose a powerful pseudo score test for assessing the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the event time under the CCH design. The pseudo score is derived from a pseudo likelihood which is an estimated retrospective likelihood that treats the SNP genotype as the dependent variable and time-to-event outcome and other covariates as independent variables. It exploits the fact that the genetic variable is often distributed independent of covariates or only related to a low-dimensional subset. Estimates of hazard ratio parameters for association can be obtained by maximizing the pseudo likelihood. A unique advantage of our method is that it allows the censoring distribution to depend on covariates that are only measured for the CCH sample while not requiring the knowledge of follow up or covariate information on subjects not selected into the CCH sample. In addition to these flexibilities, the proposed method has high relative efficiency compared with commonly used alternative approaches. We study large sample properties of this method and assess its finite sample performance using both simulated and real data examples. PMID:26177343

  10. Subbrachial approach to humeral shaft fractures: new surgical technique and retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, Vladimir; Pogorelic, Zenon; Gulan, Gordan; Vilovic, Katarina; Stalekar, Hrvoje; Bilan, Kanito; Grandic, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few surgical approaches for treating humeral shaft fractures. Here we present our results using a subbrachial approach. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series involving patients who had surgery for a humeral shaft fracture between January 1994 and January 2008. We divided patients into 4 groups based on the surgical approach (anterior, anterolateral, posterior, subbrachial). In all patients, an AO 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate was used. Results During our study period, 280 patients aged 30–36 years underwent surgery for a humeral shaft fracture. The average duration of surgery was shortest using the subbrachial approach (40 min). The average loss of muscle strength was 40% for the anterolateral, 48% for the posterior, 42% for the anterior and 20% for the subbrachial approaches. The average loss of tension in the brachialis muscle after 4 months was 61% for the anterolateral, 48% for the anterior and 11% for the subbrachial approaches. Sixteen patients in the anterolateral and anterior groups and 6 patients in the posterior group experienced intraoperative lesions of the radial nerve. No postoperative complications were observed in the subbrachial group. Conclusion The subbrachial approach is practical and effective. The average duration of the surgery is shortened by half, loss of the muscle strength is minimal, and patients can resume everyday activities within 4 months. No patients in the sub-brachial group experienced injuries to the radial or musculocutaneous nerves. PMID:23187037

  11. Orthopedic management of patients with Pompe disease: a retrospective case series of 8 patients.

    PubMed

    Haaker, Gerrit; Forst, Jürgen; Forst, Raimund; Fujak, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Pompe disease (PD), a lysosomal storage disease as well as a neuromuscular disorder, is a rare disease marked by progressive muscle weakness. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in recent years allowed longer survival but brought new problems to the treatment of PD with increasing affection of the musculoskeletal system, particularly with a significantly higher prevalence of scoliosis. The present paper deals with the orthopedic problems in patients with PD and is the first to describe surgical treatment of scoliosis in PD patients. The orthopedic problems and treatment of eight patients with PD from orthopedic consultation for neuromuscular disorders are retrospectively presented. We analyzed the problems of scoliosis, hip dysplasia, feet deformities, and contractures and presented the orthopedic treatment options. Six of our eight PD patients had scoliosis and two young patients were treated by operative spine stabilization with benefits for posture and sitting ability. Hip joint surgery, operative contracture release, and feet deformity correction were performed with benefits for independent activity. Orthopedic management gains importance due to extended survival and musculoskeletal involvement under ERT. Surgical treatment is indicated in distinct cases. Further investigation is required to evidence the effect of surgical spine stabilization in PD.

  12. Factors Associated With Infectious Laryngitis: A Retrospective Review of 15 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Carissa M.; Jetté, Marie E.; Clary, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the culturable microbes associated with infectious laryngitis and outline effective treatment strategies. Methods This is a retrospective chart review of adult patients with persistent dysphonia plus evidence of laryngeal inflammation who underwent biopsy for culture at a tertiary care medical center. Demographic factors, symptoms as reported on validated patient assessment tools, past medical history, social history, culture results, and treatment duration and response were reviewed. Results Fifteen patients with infectious laryngitis were included in this study. Culture results demonstrated Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and “normal respiratory flora.” In most patients, multiple courses of prolonged antibiotics were needed to treat MSSA or MRSA. Infections associated with other microbes resolved with a single course of antibiotics. Conclusions In this population, infectious laryngitis is defined as colonization with bacteria not found in the previously characterized laryngeal microbiome of benign vocal fold lesions. In suspected cases of infectious laryngitis, culture is recommended, by biopsy if needed. For MSSA- and MRSA-associated laryngitis, an extended course of antibiotics may be necessary for symptom improvement and resolution of laryngeal inflammation. However, the optimal treatment regimen has yet to be defined and will require larger, prospective studies. PMID:28397557

  13. The GEOS Retrospective Data Assimilation System: The 6-hour lag case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Yan-Qiu; Todling, Ricardo; Guo, Jing; Cohn, Stephen E.; Navon, I. Michael; Yang, Yan; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The fixed-lag Kalman smoother (FLKS) has been proposed as a framework to construct data assimilation procedures capable of producing high-quality climate research datasets. Fixed-lag Kalman smoother-based systems, referred to as retrospective data assimilation systems, are an extension to three-dimensional filtering procedures with the added capability of incorporating observations not only in the past and present time of the estimate, but also at future times. A variety of simplifications are necessary to render retrospective assimilation procedures practical. In this article, we present an FLKS-based retrospective data assimilation system implementation for the Goddard Earth Observing System (GOES) Data Assimilation System (DAS). The practicality of this implementation comes from the practicality of its underlying (filter) analysis system, i.e., the physical-space statistical analysis system (PSAS). The behavior of two schemes is studied here. The first retrospective analysis (RA) scheme is designed simply to update the regular PSAS analyses with observations available at times ahead of the regular analysis times. Although our GEOS DAS implementation is general, results are only presented for when observations 6-hours ahead of the analysis time are used to update the PSAS analyses and thereby to calculate the so-called lag-1 retrospective analyses. Consistency tests for this RA scheme show that the lag-1 retrospective analyses indeed have better 6-hour predictive skills than the predictions from the regular analyses. This motivates the introduction of the second retrospective analysis scheme which, at each analysis time, uses the 6-hour retrospective analysis to replace the first-guess normally used in the PSAS analysis, and therefore allows the calculation of a revised (filter) PSAS analysis. Since in this scheme the lag-1 retrospective analyses influence the filter results, this procedure is referred to as the retrospective-based iterative analysis (RIA) scheme

  14. Sleep-Related Infant Deaths in Victoria: A Retrospective Case Series Study.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dwyer, Jeremy; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Young, Jeanine; Stephan, Karen Lesley; McClure, Roderick John

    2016-05-01

    There is general agreement that in some circumstances, sharing a sleep surface of any kind with an infant increases the risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy. There is a paucity of research conducted in Australia examining this issue. This study examines the frequency and distribution of sleep-related infant deaths in a defined population, and reports the proportion that occurred in the context of bed-sharing. A retrospective population-based case series study was conducted of infants (≤365 days) who died in a sleeping context during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Information about the infant, caregiver, sleeping environment and bed-sharing was collected from a review of the coroner's death investigation record. During the 3-year study period, 72 infant deaths occurred in a sleeping context. Of these, 33 (45.8 %) occurred in the context of bed-sharing: n = 7 in 2008; n = 11 in 2009; and n = 15 in 2010. Further analysis of the 33 deaths occurring in the context of bed-sharing showed that in this group, bed-sharing was largely intentional, habitual and most often involved the mother as one of the parties. Given the case series nature of the study design, a causal relationship between bed-sharing and infant death could not be inferred. However the fact that nearly half of all sleep-related deaths occurred in the context of bed-sharing, provides strong support for the need to undertake definitive analytic studies in Australia so that evidence-based advice can be provided to families regarding the safety of bed-sharing practices.

  15. Non-ocular melanomas in cats: a retrospective study of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Chamel, Gabriel; Abadie, Jérôme; Albaric, Olivier; Labrut, Sophie; Ponce, Frédérique; Ibisch, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the clinical outcome of 30 cats with non-ocular melanomas and to evaluate the association between clinical or pathological parameters and overall survival time. Methods The database of the animal histopathological laboratory of the National Veterinary School of Nantes (Oniris, Nantes, France) was retrospectively searched to identify cases of feline non-ocular melanomas between December 2009 and April 2014. For each case, clinical data, including signalment, location of the primary tumour, staging, treatment and outcome, were collected from the medical records or via interviews with referring veterinarians. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation included mitotic index, cytonuclear atypias, junctional activity, Melan A and S100 immunostaining, and surgical margins. Univariate analysis to test the prognostic value of the different variables was performed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method using the log-rank test of significance. Results Thirty cats were included in the study. Eleven had a cutaneous non-auricular melanoma, six had a tumour located on the pinna and 13 had a tumour in the oral cavity. Cats with auricular melanomas were significantly younger than cats with tumours in other locations. Location and presence of clinical signs were not of prognostic significance, but the achromic phenotype was significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. Twenty cats were treated with surgery and survived significantly longer than cats that received only medical treatment or that did not receive any treatment. According to our data, mitotic index, cytonuclear atypias, junctional activity, Melan A or S100 expression, and surgical margins were not associated with survival. Conclusions and relevance We show for the first time, in a large series, that the auricular form of melanoma affected significantly younger cats than other extraocular forms. Most feline non-ocular melanomas are malignant and achromic tumours

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: a retrospective analysis of 1313 cases.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohamed K; Abdella, Heba M; Khalifa, Mohamed O; El Dorry, Ahmed K

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumours worldwide. Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV in the world and the prevalence of HCC is increasing in the last years. The aim was to study epidemiological characteristics of HCC in Egypt. Retrospective chart review of 1456 Egyptian patients with HCC was done. Records of 1313 patients (1035 males, 278 females; median age 56 years) fulfilling diagnostic criteria for HCC were analysed for clinical, aetiological, radiological and tumour characteristics. The majority of cases (75%) were from rural areas. The most frequent age category affected by HCC was between 51 and 60 years (45.7%); 50% of the patients reported accidental discovery of their hepatic focal lesions. The major presenting symptom was newly developed right hypochondrial pain (66.3%). HCV Ab was detected in 91.32% of the studied patients while HVB infection was reported in 2.51%. 59.3% of patients had AFP levels below 200 ng/ml (the diagnostic level). On studying tumour characteristics, the right lobe of the liver was more frequently occupied by the focal lesions (75.4%) than the left lobe (15.7%) and 12.5% of patients had bilobar affection. Five hundred and six patients (38.6%) had more than one hepatic focal lesion and 228 patients (17.4%) had tumours occupying >50% of the liver. HCC is a major health problem in Egypt and its incidence is increasing. The high prevalence of HCV infection makes screening programmes and surveillance of those patients a very important tool to early detect cases of small HCCs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Infective endocarditis in Principal Hospital of Dakar: a retrospective study of 42 cases over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Zeba, Nafissatou; Dia, Khadidiatou; Fall, Awa Ndaw; Fall, Fatou; Fall, Pape Diadie; Gning, Sara Boury

    2017-01-01

    Infective Endocarditis (IE) is an endocardial infection usually caused by bacteria that affects not only the native heart valves but also, with increasing frequency intravascular implanted devices and congenital heart diseases. Despite medical advances, IE remains a life-threatening disease with substantial morbidity and mortality. In Africa, its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological, clinical features, diagnostic techniques currently used in medical practice and the range of micro-organisms that are responsible. This was a retrospective study done at Principal Hospital of Dakar. We include all patients who were admitted with clinical manifestations of definite or possible IE according to the extended DUKE criteria between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014. We collected and analyzed epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and outcomes data of 42 patients. Hospital prevalence of IE was 0.078% (42/53711). The mean age was 27.5+/- 18 years with a sex ratio (M/F) of 0.55. IE were more common in patients with damaged or abnormal heart valves (78.6%) and in thoses with underlying structural defects (14.3%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (90%) and cardiac murmurs (81%). Extracardiac clinical manifestations were very rare. The usual laboratory parameters of inflammation were elevated in 90% of patients. Blood cultures were negative in 50% of cases and positive in 21.4%. The main organism found was Staphylococcus aureus. Echocardiography found vegetations in 95.2% of cases, chamber enlargement in 73.8% and mitral regurgiation in 83.3%. Broad-spectrum penicillins including ampicillin and gentamycine were used for all patients. Major complications were heart failure (47.6%). Strokes and cerebral abcess (23.8%) and Vascular emboli 14.3%. Hospital mortality was 31%. IE remains a life-threatening disease with hight mortality despites improved techniques of

  18. Central nervous system metastasis secondary to colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mondaca, Sebastián; Hornig, Valentina; Munoz-Schuffenegger, Pablo; Acevedo, Francisco; Garrido, Marcelo; Nervi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to colorectal cancer is infrequent and associated with a poor prognosis. Its treatment is extrapolated from metastases of other origins as the information available on this scenario is limited. The goal of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics of a series of patients and determine the results in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and global survival. Method The records of patients with CNS metastasis of colorectal origin who were treated in this facility between the years 2001 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Results 20 patients with CNS lesions of this origin were identified. Of these, 45% were male and 55% were female (average age 65.5 years). The histology corresponded to tubular adenocarcinoma in 95% of cases. Around 85% of the patients showed a neurological deficit, and their recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classifications were 1 in 20%, 2 in 55%, and 3 in 25% of the cases studied. The treatments provided were: holocerebral radiotherapy (45%), stereotactic radiosurgery (25%), surgery followed by holocerebral radiotherapy (25%), and exclusively palliative care (5%). The PFS was 2.6 months from treatment of the CNS lesion, while the median survival was 3.8 months. The survival times for patients receiving different treatments were as follows: surgery plus holocerebral radiotherapy 16.2 months, stereotactic radiotherapy 12 months, and holocerebral radiotherapy 2.4 months (p = 0.003). Conclusion The prognosis for patients with metastasis of colorectal origin is poor. The patients treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy can have a greater survival. PMID:28105076

  19. Retrospective study of feline and canine cryptococcosis in Australia from 1981 to 2001: 195 cases.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, C R; Krockenberger, M B; Wigney, D I; Martin, P; Malik, R

    2004-10-01

    A retrospective study of 155 cats and 40 dogs diagnosed with cryptococcosis between 1981 and 2001 was undertaken. Age, sex, breed, clinical findings, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus status (in cats), species of Cryptococcus causing disease and region of domicile were recorded. Associations between variables were tested. Male and female cats were affected equally. Age ranged from 1 to 16 years, with a preponderance of cats aged between 2 and 3 years. Siamese, Himalayan and Ragdoll breeds were over-represented. Rural cats were more frequently infected with Cryptococcus gattii. Retroviral infection was not identified as a predisposing condition and was not correlated with either species of Cryptococcus or physical findings. Most cats had signs of nasal cavity infection, which was typically localised for a substantial period before invasion of adjacent structures or dissemination. Male and female dogs were affected equally. A marked preponderance of young, large breed dogs was noted. Border Collies, Boxers, Dalmatians, Dobermann Pinschers, Great Danes and German Shepherds were over-represented. Cryptococcus species involved was not affected by place of domicile. Although nasal cavity involvement was important, the canine cohort had a greater propensity to develop secondary central nervous system involvement and disseminated disease than feline cases. There were no clinical findings in either cats or dogs which could be reliably used to distinguish disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii from disease caused by Cryptococcus gattii. Both Cryptococcus species appear to be primary pathogens of cats and dogs, with the upper respiratory tract presumed to be the predominant primary site of inoculation in most but not all cases.

  20. [Risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa: a retrospective study of 3 840 cases].

    PubMed

    Lyu, B; Chen, M; Liu, X X

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa through retrospective study of 3 840 placenta previa cases. The clinical data of 3 840 patients with placenta previa who delivered in West China Second University Hospital between Jan 2005 and June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship of certain factors and peripartum hysterectomy was analyzed, including maternal age, residence place, parity, prior curettage, prior cesarean section, twin or multiple pregnancy, antenatal vaginal bleeding, type of placenta previa, suspected placenta accreta, antenatal level of hemoglobin and gestational age at delivery. The prevalence of placenta previa was 4.84%(3 840/79 304)in West China Second University Hospital during the study period, and the incidence of preipartum hysterectomy in patients with placenta previa was 2.76%(106/3 840). One-factor analysis demonstrated that residence place, parity, times of prior curettage, prior cesarean section, prenatal vaginal bleeding, anterior placenta, type of placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and gestational age at delivery were potential risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy(P<0.01). Variables with P<0.1 in one-factor analysis were introduced to multi-factor logistic regression analysis, which suggested that one prior cesarean section(OR=12.9,95% CI:6.3-26.3), two or more prior cesarean sections(OR=14.4, 95%CI:3.9-53.2), anterior placenta(OR=4.8, 95%CI:2.1-10.7), complete placenta previa(OR=5.9, 95%CI: 1.8-42.5), placenta accreta(OR=11.2, 95%CI:6.8-18.6), antenatal hemoglobin<100 g/L(OR=1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-2.8)and delivery before 34 gestational weeks(OR=3.2, 95%CI: 1.6-6.3)were independent risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in patients with placenta previa(P<0.05). Prior cesarean section, anterior placenta, complete placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and delivery before 34 gestational weeks are high risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa

  1. Somatoform disorder as a predictor of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: Evidence from a nested case-control study and a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chun; Lee, Ming-Huei; Lin, Hsuan-Hung; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chang, Kun-Min; Lin, Hsiu-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has several well-known comorbid psychiatric manifestations, including insomnia, anxiety, and depression. We hypothesized that somatoform disorder, which is a psychosomatic disease, can be used as a sensitive psychiatric phenotype of IC/BPS. We investigated whether somatoform disorder increases the risk of IC/BPS.A nested case-control study and a retrospective cohort study were followed up over a 12-year period (2002-2013) in the Taiwan Health Insurance Reimbursement Database. In the nested case-control study, 1612 patients with IC/BPS were matched in a 1:2 ratio to 3224 controls based on propensity scores. The odds ratio for somatoform disorder was calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. In the retrospective cohort study, 1436 patients with somatoform disorder were matched in a 1:2 ratio to 2872 patients with nonsomatoform disorder based on propensity scores. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio associated with the development of IC/BPS in patients with somatoform disorder, and the cumulative survival probability was tested using the Kaplan-Meier analysis.We found that the odds ratio for somatoform disorder was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-5.76). Although the average time until IC/BPS development in the control subjects was 11.5 ± 1.3 years, this interval was shorter in patients with somatoform disorder (6.3 ± 3.6 years). The hazard ratio for developing IC/BPS was 2.50 (95% CI 1.23-5.58); the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.26 (95% CI 1.002-5.007). The patients and controls also differed significantly in their cumulative survival probability for IC/BPS (log rank P < .05).Evidence from the nested case-control study and retrospective cohort study consistently indicated that somatoform disorder increases the risk for IC/BPS. Our study suggests that somatoform disorder can be used as a sensitive psychiatric phenotype to predict IC/BPS. Any past history

  2. Retrospective analysis of 140 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma followed-up in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    SIMÕES-PEREIRA, JOANA; BUGALHO, MARIA JOÃO; LIMBERT, EDWARD; LEITE, VALERIANO

    2016-01-01

    Familial cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may be diagnosed by genetic screening, while in sporadic tumors the diagnosis relies mainly on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The aim of the present study was to determine the demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of MTC patients followed-up at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology Francisco Gentil (Lisbon, Portugal). For that purpose, a retrospective analysis of 140 MTC patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 was performed. The results indicated that patients with hereditary MTC (11.4%) were significantly younger than patients with sporadic MTC. Of the latter, 34.3% had no clinical suspicion of MTC prior to surgery. The sensitivity of cytology and calcitonin (CT) assay in diagnosing MTC were 51.3 and 98.7%, respectively. All familial index cases and 69.0% of sporadic cases presented with advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis, while 73.0% of familial MTC detected by genetic/pentagastrin screening were diagnosed at the early stage of the disease. Biochemical cure (BC) was achieved in 39.7% of patients and, of these, only 6.5% relapsed. The 5 and 10-year survival rates were 79.3 and 73.6%, respectively. Age >45 years (P=0.026), advanced stage at diagnosis (P<0.001) and absence of BC (P<0.001) were predictors of a worse prognosis on univariate analysis. However, when the patients detected by genetic/pentagastrin screening were excluded from the analysis, age was no longer a prognostic factor, although disease stage remained a significant prognostic factor. On multivariate analysis, BC was the only factor with a significant impact on prognosis (P=0.031). In addition, the present study confirmed that the majority of patients were diagnosed at advanced stages, and CT determination was observed to be more sensitive than cytology to diagnose MTC. Patients at early stages were more prone to achieve BC, which was a favorable prognostic factor. To the best of our knowledge, the present study

  3. Retrospective analysis of 616 air-rescue trauma cases related to the practice of extreme sports.

    PubMed

    Gosteli, Gaël; Yersin, Bertrand; Mabire, Cédric; Pasquier, Mathieu; Albrecht, Roland; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Extreme sports (ESs) are increasingly popular, and accidents due to ESs sometimes require helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs). Little is known about their epidemiology, severity, specific injuries and required rescue operations. Our aims were to perform an epidemiological analysis, to identify specific injuries and to describe the characteristic of prehospital procedures in ES accidents requiring HEMSs. This is a retrospective study, reviewing all rescue missions dedicated to ESs provided by HEMS REGA Lausanne, from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2008. ES were classified into three categories of practice, according to the type of risk at the time of the fall. Among the 616 cases meeting inclusion criteria, 219 (36%) were clearly high-risk ES accidents; 69 (11%) and 328 (53%) were related to potential ES, but with respectively low or indeterminate risk at the time of the fall. In the high-risk ES group, the median age was 32 years and 80% were male. Mortality at 48h was 11%, almost ten times higher than in the other two groups. The proportion of potentially life-threatening injuries (the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) score≥4) was 39% in the high-risk ES group and 13% in the other two groups. Thirty per cent of the cases in the high-risk ES group presented an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15, compared with 7% in the other groups. Thoracolumbar vertebral fractures were the most common injuries with 32% of all cases having at least one, involving the T12-L2 junction in 56% of cases. The other most frequent injuries were traumatic brain injuries (16%), rib fractures (9%), pneumothorax (8%) and femoral (7%), cervical (7%), ankle (5%) and pelvic (5%) fractures. Median time on site for rescue teams was higher in the confirmed high-risk ES group, with 50% of prehospital missions including at least one environmental difficulty. High-risk ESs led to high-energy accidents, characterized by a large proportion of severe injuries and axial traumas

  4. Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    CHE, D.; CAMPESE, C.; SANTA-OLALLA, P.; JACQUIER, G.; BITAR, D.; BERNILLON, P.; DESENCLOS, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an aetiology of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, with a high case-fatality ratio (CFR). We conducted a matched case-control study to identify risk factors for sporadic, community-acquired LD. Cases of sporadic, community-acquired and biologically confirmed LD, in metropolitan France from 1 September 2002 to 31 September 2004, were matched with a control subject according to age, sex, underlying illness and location of residence within 5 km. We performed a conditional logistic regression on various host-related factors and exposures. Analysis was done on 546 matched pairs. The CFR was 3·5%. Age ranged from 18–93 years (mean 57 years), with a 3·6 male:female sex ratio. Cases were more likely to have smoked with the documentation of a dose-effect relation, to have travelled with a stay in a hotel (OR 6·1, 95% CI 2·6–14·2), or to have used a wash-hand basin for personal hygiene (OR 3·5, 95% CI 1·6–7·7) than controls. Tobacco and travel have been previously described as risk factors for LD, but this is the first time that such a dose-effect for tobacco has been documented among sporadic cases. These findings will provide helpful knowledge about LD and help practitioners in identifying patients at high risk. PMID:18211725

  5. Retrospective analysis of a case series of patients with traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Luiz Adriano; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; Tedeschi, Helder

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the treatment, the characteristics of the lesions and the clinical outcome of patients with traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction. This was a retrospective study of patients treated conservatively or surgically between 2010 and 2013 with complete data sets. We analyzed 37 patients, 73% were men with mean age of 41.7 years. Of these, 32% were submitted to initial surgical treatment and 68% received conservative treatment. Seven (29%) underwent surgery subsequently. In the surgical group, there were seven cases of odontoid type II fractures, two cases of fracture of posterior elements of the axis, one case of C1-C2 dislocation with associated fractured C2, one case of occipitocervical dislocation, and one case of combined C1 and C2 fractures, and facet dislocation. Only one patient had neurological déficit that improved after treatment. Two surgical complications were seen: a liquoric fistula and one surgical wound infection (reaproached). In the group treated conservatively, odontoid fractures (eight cases) and fractures of the posterior elements of C2 (five cases) were more frequent. In two cases, in addition to the injuries of the craniocervical junction, there were fractures in other segments of the spine. None of the patients who underwent conservative treatment presented neurological deterioration. Although injuries of craniocervical junction are relatively rare, they usually involve fractures of the odontoid and the posterior elements of the axis. Our results recommend early surgical treatment for type II odontoid fractures and ligament injuries, the conservative treatment for other injuries. Avaliar a correlação entre o tratamento, as características das lesões e o resultado clínico em pacientes com lesões traumáticas na junção craniocervical. Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes maiores de 18 anos tratados de forma conservadora ou cirúrgica, entre 2010 e 2013. Foram analisados 37 pacientes, 73% eram do

  6. Benefits of ultra-fast-track anesthesia in left ventricular assist device implantation: a retrospective, propensity score matched cohort study of a four-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    Zayat, Rashad; Menon, Ares K; Goetzenich, Andreas; Schaelte, Gereon; Autschbach, Ruediger; Stoppe, Christian; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Tewarie, Lachmandath; Moza, Ajay

    2017-02-08

    The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has gained significant importance for treatment of end-stage heart failure. Fast-track procedures are well established in cardiac surgery, whereas knowledge of their benefits after LVAD implantation is sparse. We hypothesized that ultra-fast-track anesthesia (UFTA) with in-theater extubation or at a maximum of 4 h. after surgery is feasible in Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) level 3 and 4 patients and might prevent postoperative complications. From March, 2010 to March, 2012, 53 LVADs (50 Heart Mate II and 3 Heart Ware) were implanted in patients in our department. UFTA was successfully performed (LVAD ultra ) in 13 patients. After propensity score matching, we compared the LVAD ultra group with a matched group (LVAD match ) receiving conventional anesthesia management. Patients in the LVAD ultra group had significantly lower incidences of pneumonia (p = 0.031), delirium (p = 0.031) and right ventricular failure (RVF) (p = 0.031). They showed a significantly higher cardiac index in the first 12 h. (p = 0.017); a significantly lower central venous pressure during the first 24 h. postoperatively (p = 0.005) and a significantly shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (p = 0.016). Kaplan-Meier analysis after four years of follow-up showed no significant difference in survival. In this pilot study, we demonstrated the feasibility of ultra-fast-track anesthesia in LVAD implantation in selected patients with INTERMACS level 3-4. Patients had a lower incidence of postoperative complications, better hemodynamic performance, shorter length of ICU stay and lower incidence of RVF after UFTA. Prospective randomized investigations should examine the preservation of right ventricular function in larger numbers and identify appropriate selection criteria.

  7. The association of hypernatremia and hypertonic saline irrigation in hepatic hydatid cysts: A case report and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rujun; Wu, Renhua; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei; Zhang, Yuwei

    2017-09-01

    Hypernatremia is a rare but fatal complication of hypertonic saline (HS) irrigation in hepatic hydatid disease. It needs careful monitoring and treatment. A 28-year-old woman with hepatic hydatid cysts who received operation treatment developed electrolyte disturbances. We also conducted a retrospective study about influence of HS application on electrolytes in patients with hepatic hydatid disease receiving surgery. Hypernatremia, developed after HS irrigation. Normal saline, 5% dextrose and other supportive treatment were administered. In the retrospective study, a comparison of electrolyte and glucose fluctuation was made among different HS application groups. The patient developed hypernatremia after irrigation with HS and died from severe complications. Although some cases of complications are found, no significant relationship between HS irrigation and hypernatremia was reported according to the retrospective study. Hypernatremia after HS irrigation remains rare but might cause severe complications. Monitoring and appropriate treatment are needed to improve prognosis.

  8. Pediatric Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 271-case Retrospective Study at a Single Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Xu, Ge-Zhi; Jiang, Rui; Ni, Ying-Qin; Wang, Ke-Yan; Gu, Rui-Ping; Ding, Xin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric infectious endophthalmitis is a serious sight-threatening disease for children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the etiology, microbiological spectrum, and visual outcomes of infectious endophthalmitis in children at a single institution in China. Methods: It is a retrospective study of the medical records of all patients under 14 years of age with histories of infectious endophthalmitis, treated at a single institution from January 1, 2009 to January 1, 2015. The clinical characteristics, etiology, microbiological spectrum, and management, as well as the visual outcomes, were analyzed. The Kappa test and Chi-square test were used in the statistical evaluation. Results: A total of 271 children were identified, with a mean age of 5.61 ± 2.93 years (range 5 months to 14 years). Ocular trauma (94.8%) and previous ocular surgery (3.0%) were the most common etiologies. Overall, 147 (54.2%) cases had positive cultures, and 176 organisms were isolated from these patients. A single species was isolated in 120 (81.6%) cases, with multiple organisms in 27 (18.4%) cases, and the most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, comprising 29.5% and 26.8% of the isolates, respectively. Moreover, of 176 isolates, 142 (80.8%) were Gram-positive organisms, 23 (13.0%) were Gram-negative organisms, and 11 (6.2%) were fungi. The final visual outcomes were 20/200 or better in 66 (24.4%) eyes, counting fingers to 20/200 in 34 (12.5%), hand motions in 30 (11.1%), light perception in 33 (12.2%), no light perception in 32 (11.8%), and 9 (3.3%) eyes were enucleated or eviscerated. The visual outcomes were not available in 67 (24.7%) patients. Conclusions: Penetrating ocular trauma is the most frequent cause of pediatric endophthalmitis in China. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species are the most commonly identified organisms in exogenous pediatric endophthalmitis whereas Fusarium species are commonly

  9. Retrospective review of Contura HDR breast cases to improve our standardized procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Iftimia, Ileana; Cirino, Eileen T.; Ladd, Ron; Mower, Herbert W.; McKee, Andrea B.

    2013-07-01

    To retrospectively review our first 20 Contura high dose rate breast cases to improve and refine our standardized procedure and checklists. We prepared in advance checklists for all steps, developed an in-house Excel spreadsheet for second checking the plan, and generated a procedure for efficient contouring and a set of optimization constraints to meet the dose volume histogram criteria. Templates were created in our treatment planning system for structures, isodose levels, optimization constraints, and plan report. This study reviews our first 20 high dose rate Contura breast treatment plans. We followed our standardized procedure for contouring, planning, and second checking. The established dose volume histogram criteria were successfully met for all plans. For the cases studied here, the balloon-skin and balloon-ribs distances ranged between 5 and 43 mm and 1 and 33 mm, respectively; air{sub s}eroma volume/PTV{sub E}val volume≤5.5% (allowed≤10%); asymmetry<1.2 mm (goal≤2 mm); PTV{sub E}val V90%≥97.6%; PTV{sub E}val V95%≥94.9%; skin max dose≤98%Rx; ribs max dose≤137%Rx; V150%≤29.8 cc; V200%≤7.8 cc; the total dwell time range was 225.4 to 401.9 seconds; and the second check agreement was within 3%. Based on this analysis, more appropriate ranges for the total dwell time and balloon diameter tolerance were found. Three major problems were encountered: balloon migration toward the skin for small balloon-to-skin distances, lumen obstruction, and length change for the flexible balloon. Solutions were found for these issues and our standardized procedure and checklists were updated accordingly. Based on our review of these cases, the use of checklists resulted in consistent results, indicating good coverage for the target without sacrificing the critical structures. This review helped us to refine our standardized procedure and update our checklists.

  10. Transgender voice and communication treatment: a retrospective chart review of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Garabedian, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    People transitioning from male to female (MTF) gender seek speech-language pathology services when they feel their voice is betraying their genuine self or perhaps is the last obstacle to representing their authentic gender. Speaking fundamental frequency (pitch) and resonance are most often targets in treatment because the combination of these two voice characteristics can account for the majority of how listeners perceive a speaker's gender. Intonation, voice quality, pragmatics and non-verbal communication contribute to a lesser extent but are usually recommended in treatment guidelines. There are few examples of effective treatment with male-to-female transgender individuals in the literature. Due to a small number of reports, it remains unclear how closely clinical practice follows recommended approaches and the extent to which gains may be expected. The purpose of this study was to examine retrospectively 5 years' worth of cases of voice feminization treatment at a university clinic in order to describe a unique clinical population and report treatment techniques and outcomes. Demographic information and treatment outcome data (e.g. acoustic measures) were available for collection from 25 of the 32 cases discharged from a university clinic between 2006 and 2010. Behavioural targets of treatment goals also were examined. Clients were in various stages of male-to-female gender transitions during treatment; at discharge, 80% of them presented as female 100% of the time. A majority (88%) had a history of feminizing hormone treatment and 28% presented with a voice disorder separate from gender presentation concerns. Treatment goals included the following (listed in order of percentage of cases that addressed the topic): forward resonance, increased fundamental frequency or pitch, physical and mental relaxation, intonation, phonotraumatic behaviours, breath control, non-verbal communication, pragmatics, and vocal hygiene. After treatment, clients had increased

  11. Birth attendance and magnitude of obstetric complications in Western Kenya: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Liambila, Wilson N; Kuria, Shiphrah N

    2014-09-08

    Skilled birth attendance is critical in the provision of child birth related services. Yet, literature is scanty on the outcomes of child birth related complications in situations where majority of women deliver under the care of non-skilled birth attendants compared to those who are assisted by skilled providers. The study sought to assess the nature of childbirth related complications among the skilled and the non-skilled birth attendants in Western Kenya. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 15-49 years at the household. Controls were individually matched to cases on the basis of age and socio-economic status. A total of 294 cases and 291 controls were interviewed. Data were collected on various demographic and socio-economic characteristics and women's perception on the quality of care. All independent variables were analysed initially in bivariate models and those that were significantly associated with obstetric complications were included in multiple logistic regression model in order to control for confounding factors. Odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals, were computed to show the association between the occurrence, magnitude and the extent to which child birth related complications were managed. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the cases and controls were similar. About 52% of the deliveries were assisted by skilled birth attendants while non-skilled providers attended to 48% of them. The odds of the occurrence of obstetric complications were greater among the women who were attended to by skilled providers in health facilities: adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.32 (CI 0.95, 1.84) than among those who were assisted by unskilled birth attendants, AOR 0.76 (CI 0.55, 1.06). Undignified care, high delivery and transport costs and fear of hospital procedures such as HIV tests and mishandling of the placenta were cited as some of the barriers to facility deliveries. Skilled birth attendants in facilities were associated

  12. Effect of smoking status on healthcare costs and resource utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes in routine clinical practice: a retrospective nested case-control economic study.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibánez-Nolla, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    To compare healthcare resource utilization and costs according to smoking status in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort nested case-control study was designed. Cases were current smokers, while 2 types of controls (former smokers and never smokers) were matched (2 controls per case) for age, sex, duration of diabetes and burden of comorbidity using data from medical records. Noninstitutionalized diabetics of both genders, aged>18 years and seen consecutively over a 5-year period before the index date, were enrolled. Analysis compared healthcare resource utilization, loss of productivity due to sick leave and corresponding costs. In total, 2,490 medical records were analyzed, i.e. 498 cases, 996 former smokers and 996 never smokers. Mean age was 63.4 years (64.9% male). Smokers had higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels (7.4 vs. 7.2 and 7.2%, respectively; p=0.013) and a lower degree of metabolic control (49.2 vs. 54.7 and 55.8%; p=0.036). Smokers had higher average annual costs (EUR 3,583) than former smokers (EUR 2,885; p<0.001) and never smokers (EUR 2,183; p<0.001). Diabetic smoker patients had lower metabolic control, higher health resource utilization and more sick leave, resulting in higher healthcare costs and lost productivity compared with both former and never smoker diabetics. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of case management on services use under the PRISMA coordination model: a nested matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Marie-France; Raîche, Michel; Hébert, Réjean

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Under the PRISMA coordination model, all older people benefit from several model components, but only subjects identified with moderate to severe disabilities are eligible for case management. The PRISMA model has proven its effectiveness at the population level. However, for the sub-group with case management, what is its effect on services use? Study We used data from the PRISMA study on adults aged 75 or over at risk of functional decline to compare subjects exposed to case management to unexposed ones, matched for functional disabilities, age, and gender. We studied change in annual services use, contrasting the year of assignment to the previous year. Results Among subjects in the PRISMA experimental group, 18% were assigned a case manager. Matched pairs were created for 49 cases for which data were available before and after assignment. Change in the number of annual ER visits was similar across groups, but the number of annual hospitalisations tended to increase less for exposed subjects (p=0.08). Change in annual hours for home maintenance was similar across groups, but more hours of help for personal care were added for case-managed older people (p=0.01), possibly by increasing access to home care. This strengthens the value of case management in an ISD network.

  14. [Clinical and epidemiological differences between Bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants: a matched case control study].

    PubMed

    Giménez-Sánchez, Francisco; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Sánchez-Forte, Miguel; López-Sánchez, María Ángeles; González-Jiménez, Yolanda; Azor-Martínez, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    An increase in cases of pertussis, mainly in young infants, has been reported in the last few years. The clinical presentation of this disease is very similar to that produced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which makes the diagnosis difficult. To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics between Bordetella pertussis and RSV infections in infants admitted to hospital. An analytical matched case-control study was conducted during the period 2008-2011. Cases were defined as infants admitted with pertussis confirmed by PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirate. Each case was matched by age, sex and date of admission to two controls defined as patients with RSV infection detected by immunochromatography in nasal aspirate. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data were compared. Seventy eight patients (26 cases of pertussis and 52 controls RSV+) were included. Sociodemographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Cases had more days of symptoms prior to admission, longer hospital stays, and increased frequency of epidemic family environment. Apnoea and cyanosis were more frequent. Cases of pertussis were more likely to have apnoea, cyanosis, and lymphocytosis while RSV infections had more frequent fever, vomiting and respiratory distress. The clinical presentations of pertussis and RSV infection are similar, but there are some characteristics that can help to distinguish between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Uveal effusion following acute primary angle-closure: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Gang; Li, Jian-Jun; Tian, Hua; Li, Yan-Hong; Gong, Yu-Jing; Su, An-Le; He, Na

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the morphological changes in anterior segment in Chinese patients with uveal effusion (UE) after the attack of acute primary angle-closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and to assess the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS In a retrospective case series, 26 eyes in 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with UE after the treatment of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication for the attack of APAC were enrolled. The unaffected fellow eyes served as controls. The morphological changes were observed by ultrasonography, slit lamp microscopy and gonioscopy. UBM was used to assess the degree and extent of effusion based on the analysis of parameters associated with UE. RESULTS The mean IOP was 9.2 (SD 2.1) mm Hg at the diagnosis of UE after IOP-lowering medication, while 14.1 (SD, 2.6) mm Hg in the fellow eyes (P=0.000). The anterior chamber depth (ACD) (P=0.000), angle opening distance at 500 µm (AOD500) (P<0.01) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) (P<0.05) were decreased significantly, while ciliary body thickness (CBT) (P<0.05) increased significantly in UE eyes. UE grade analysis showed 7 eyes in grade 1, 9 eyes in grade 2, and 10 eyes in grade 3. Quadrant scores were performed of 4 eyes in 1 quadrant, 3 eyes in 3 quadrants, and 19 eyes in 4 quadrants. There was the positive correlation between grade and quadrant score (r=0.644, P=0.000). The effusion on all eyes were recovered after medication, which mean IOP was 13.9 (SD, 2.8) mm Hg. CONCLUSION UE is a frequent complication in Chinese patients after the attack of APAC, partially associated with hypotony. The severity of UE is correlation with height of effusion, extent of detachment, and shallower ACD. PMID:28393032

  16. Radial Head Prosthesis Removal: a Retrospective Case Series of 14 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Valentin; Christoforou, Dimitrios C.; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David C.; Mudgal, Chaitanya S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to report the preoperative complaints and postoperative outcome of patients after removal of the radial head prosthesis. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 14 adult patients (6 females and 8 males) from 2007 to 2011, who underwent radial head prosthesis removal by three surgeons. The average time between implantation and removal was 23 months (range from 2 weeks to 12 years, median 12 months). Results: The leading reported complaints before removal were restricted mobility of the elbow (active range of motion of less than 100 degrees) in 6, pain in 3, and pain together with restricted mobility in 4 patients. The objective findings before removal were restricted mobility of the elbow in 10 (71%), capitellar cartilage wear, loose implants, and heterotopic ossification each in 8 (57%), subluxation of the radio-capitellar joint or malpositioning of the stem in 5 (36%), and chronic infection in 2 (14%) patients. All patients with pain had wear of the capitellar cartilage on radiographs. The ulnar nerve was decompressed in four patients at the time of removal. Four patients underwent a subsequent operation for postoperative ulnar nerve symptoms 5 to 21 months after removal. Four patients were still complaining about persistent pain at the last follow-up visit. Except two patients, the total range of motion improved with a mean of 34 degrees (range 5 to 70) after a mean follow-up of 11 months. Conclusions: Removal of radial head prosthesis improved function and lessened pain in our case series. The reoperation rate was yet nearly 30% due to ulnar neuritis. Selective ulnar nerve decompression at the time of removal must be evaluated, especially in patients with expected large gain in range of motion after removal. PMID:26110173

  17. Histoplasmosis Complicating Tumor Necrosis Factor–α Blocker Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of 98 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Vergidis, Paschalis; Avery, Robin K.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Dotson, Jennifer L.; Assi, Maha A.; Antoun, Smyrna A.; Hamoud, Kassem A.; Burdette, Steven D.; Freifeld, Alison G.; McKinsey, David S.; Money, Mary E.; Myint, Thein; Andes, David R.; Hoey, Cynthia A.; Kaul, Daniel A.; Dickter, Jana K.; Liebers, David E.; Miller, Rachel A.; Muth, William E.; Prakash, Vidhya; Steiner, Frederick T.; Walker, Randall C.; Hage, Chadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Histoplasmosis may complicate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–α blocker therapy. Published case series provide limited guidance on disease management. We sought to determine the need for long-term antifungal therapy and the safety of resuming TNF-α blocker therapy after successful treatment of histoplasmosis. Methods. We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 98 patients diagnosed with histoplasmosis between January 2000 and June 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for severe disease. Results. The most commonly used biologic agent was infliximab (67.3%). Concomitant corticosteroid use (odds ratio [OR], 3.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.06–14.60]) and higher urine Histoplasma antigen levels (OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03–1.25]) were found to be independent predictors of severe disease. Forty-six (47.4%) patients were initially treated with an amphotericin B formulation for a median duration of 2 weeks. Azole treatment was given for a median of 12 months. TNF-α blocker therapy was initially discontinued in 95 of 98 (96.9%) patients and later resumed in 25 of 74 (33.8%) patients at a median of 12 months (range, 1–69 months). The recurrence rate was 3.2% at a median follow-up period of 32 months. Of the 3 patients with recurrence, 2 had restarted TNF-α blocker therapy, 1 of whom died. Mortality rate was 3.2%. Conclusions. In this study, disease outcomes were generally favorable. Discontinuation of antifungal treatment after clinical response and an appropriate duration of therapy, probably at least 12 months, appears safe if pharmacologic immunosuppression has been held. Resumption of TNF-α blocker therapy also appears safe, assuming that the initial antifungal therapy was administered for 12 months. PMID:25870331

  18. Treatment outcome of osteosarcoma after bilateral retinoblastoma: a retrospective study of eight cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ah; Choi, Sang Yul; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Hyery; Kim, Jeong Hun; Sung, Ki Woong; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Park, Kyung Duk

    2014-10-01

    To analyse clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of osteosarcoma that developed in survivors of bilateral retinoblastoma. Three institutions participated in this retrospective study. Among survivors of bilateral retinoblastoma who were diagnosed and treated between 1995 and 2012, 8 cases (4 male, 4 female) of osteosarcoma were identified. Medical records were thoroughly reviewed. Median age at diagnosis of bilateral retinoblastoma was 8.5 months (range 1.4-18.4 months). Treatment modalities for retinoblastoma were: enucleation+chemotherapy+radiotherapy (n=6); chemotherapy combined with focal therapy (n=1); and chemotherapy+radiotherapy (n=1). Median radiotherapy dose was 46.5 Gy (range 45-54 Gy). Median age at diagnosis of osteosarcoma was 8.9 years (range 5.4-20.3 years). Median interval between retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma was 8.2 years (range 5.0-20.0 years). Tumour locations were femur (n=5), tibia (n=1), mandible (n=1), and nasal cavity (n=1). Two patients presented with lung metastasis. Seven patients received multimodal treatment, and treatment was refused in 1 patient. After diagnosis of osteosarcoma, the patients were followed for a median of 17.3 months (range 4.4-56.4 months). The 2-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 56.3 ± 19.9% and 33.3 ± 18.0%, respectively. At the time of analysis, 5 patients remained alive, and 2 of them were on therapy. Of the 3 surviving patients without evidence of disease, 2 received high dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell support. Our data could be used as a basis for future studies aimed at reaching consensus about long term follow-up and treatment guidelines for this genetically susceptible group of patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Alternative laronidase dose regimen for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I: a multinational, retrospective, chart review case series.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Dafne Dain Gandelman; Acosta, Angelina X; Giugliani, Roberto; Hlavatá, Anna; Hlavatá, Katarína; Tchan, Michel C; Lopes Barth, Anneliese; Cardoso, Laercio; Embiruçu de Araújo Leão, Emília Katiane; Esposito, Ana Carolina; Kyosen, Sandra Obikawa; De Souza, Carolina Fischinger Moura; Martins, Ana Maria

    2016-04-29

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with laronidase (recombinant human α-L-iduronidase, Aldurazyme®) is indicated for non-neurological signs and symptoms of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). The approved laronidase dose regimen is weekly infusions of 0.58mg/kg, however, patients and caregivers may have difficulty complying with the weekly regimen. We examined clinical outcomes, tolerability, compliance, and satisfaction in a series of patients who switched to every other week infusions. This multinational, retrospective, chart review case series analyzed data from 20 patients who had undergone ERT with laronidase 0.58mg/kg weekly for more than one year, and who then switched to 1.2mg/kg every other week. The majority of patients had attenuated MPS I phenotypes (9 with Hurler-Scheie and 8 with Scheie syndromes) and 3 patients had severe MPS I (Hurler syndrome). Most patients presented with organomegaly (17/20), umbilical and/or inguinal hernia (16/20), cardiac abnormalities (17/20), musculoskeletal abnormalities (19/20), and neurological and/or developmental deficits (15/20). Following laronidase treatment, signs stabilized or improved. No deterioration or reversal of clinical outcome was noted in any patient who switched from the weekly dose of 0.58mg.kg to 1.2mg/kg every other week. There were no safety issues during the duration of every other week dosing. Patient compliance and satisfaction with the dosing regimen were greater with every other week dosing than weekly dosing. An alternative dose regimen of 1.2mg/kg laronidase every other week was well tolerated and clinically similar to the standard dose for patients who were stabilized with weekly 0.58 mg/kg for one year or more. When an individualized approach to laronidase therapy is necessary, every other week dosing may be an alternative for patients with difficulty receiving weekly infusions.

  20. A retrospective case note review of laparoscopic versus open reversal of Hartmann’s procedure

    PubMed Central

    Yeomans, NP

    2014-01-01

    Introduction First described in 1921, Hartmann’s procedure is the gold standard treatment for complicated sigmoid diverticular disease. It is also used commonly for other causes of perforation of the large bowel. However, the reversal rate in the UK is much lower than in comparable countries, at only 18–22%. Furthermore, laparoscopic reversal (LRH) is used far less frequently than open reversal (ORH) despite evidence that a laparoscopic technique reduces patient morbidity and decreases patient recovery time. Methods This retrospective case note review undertook an analysis of all the patients who had undergone Hartmann’s procedure at two centres in Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust between February 2007 and February 2012. Out of 305 patients, 235 were identified and included in the analysis. Comparisons were then drawn between LRH and ORH groups. Results The reversal rate was 21%. Three-quarters (76%) were performed using an open technique, 20% were laparoscopic and 5% were converted to an open procedure. The mean hospital stay was longer for the ORH group (9.82 days, standard deviation [SD]: 5.85 days, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.99 days) than for the LRH group (7.29 days, SD: 4.65 days, 95% CI: 11.58 days) p=0.006). Seven ORH patients (21%) were reoperated but only one LRH patient (13%) had a reoperation at six months. Five factors were found to have a significant effect on the likelihood of reversal of Hartmann’s procedure. Conclusions The overall reversal rate for Hartmann’s procedure remains low. Shorter hospital stays, lower 6-month reoperation rates and reduced 30-day complication rates are associated with LRH when compared with ORH. PMID:25245735

  1. Septic arthritis following arthroscopic reconstruction of cruciate ligaments of the knee: retrospective case review.

    PubMed

    Erice, Alejo; Neira, M Inmaculada; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Chiaraviglio, Ana; Gutiérrez-Guisado, Javier; Rodríguez de Oya, Ricardo

    2017-06-23

    Rupture of cruciate ligaments of the knee is a common injury that is repaired by arthroscopic reconstruction, which can give rise to septic arthritis. The objective of this article is to describe the clinical and microbiological aspects of this entity. Retrospective review of cases of septic arthritis following arthroscopic reconstruction of cruciate ligaments of the knee that occurred at a single institution from 2000-2015. According to time elapsed from surgery, infections were classified as acute (< 14 days), subacute (> 14 days and<30 days), and late (> 30 days). A descriptive and comparative analysis stratified by type of infection and causative microorganism was performed. 3,219 patients underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of cruciate ligaments of the knee and 30 (0.9%) developed septic arthritis. Seventeen (57%) were acute infections and 12 (40%) subacute; there was one late infection. The causative microorganisms were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (n=13; 43%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=12; 40%), other grampositive cocci (n=3; 10%), and gramnegative bacilli (n=2; 7%). All patients underwent arthroscopic debridement; no grafts were removed. All patients received antibiotic therapy for a median of 23.5 days (range: 14 - 78 days); all infections were cured. No significant differences were found in any of the variables analysed among the infection type or the causative microorganism. Septic arthritis after arthroscopic reconstruction of cruciate ligaments of the knee is uncommon. It generally presents within 4 weeks of surgery and is caused by Staphylococci. Its treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement (without necessarily removing the graft) and antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracheobronchial foreign bodies in cats: a retrospective study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rodolfo Oliveira; Bongrand, Yannick; Lepoutre, Julie Gallay; Gomes, Eymeric; Hernandez, Juan

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate age, sex, breed, clinical signs, time between onset of signs and presentation, diagnostic procedures, method of extraction, location and nature of foreign bodies (FBs) in confirmed cases of tracheobronchial FBs in cats. We hypothesised that bronchoscopy was effective in extracting tracheobronchial FBs in cats. Methods A retrospective study was performed using clinical reports from three private practices in France between May 2009 and November 2014. Cats were included if an intraluminal tracheobronchial FB had been identified and extracted (either by bronchoscopy or surgery). Results Twelve cats (six male, six female) were included. Mean age was 3.75 ± 2.5 years. Coughing was the main complaint and was present in 9/12 (75%) of the cats. Thoracic radiographs were obtained in 12/12 cats (100%) and a FB was suspected in 11/12 (92%). Bronchoscopy was performed in all of the cats and enabled FB extraction in 10/12 (83%) of them. In 2/12 cats (17%), an additional surgical approach was required. In 6/12 (50%) cats, FBs were located in the trachea, while in 6/12 (50%) cats FBs were in the bronchial tree, particularly in the right caudal bronchus (4/6; 66%). Seven of 12 (58%) FBs were vegetal in nature, 3/12 (25%) were mineral and 2/12 (17%) were undetermined. All the mineral FBs were extracted from the trachea, while the majority of the vegetal ones (5/7; 71%) were found in the bronchi. Conclusions and relevance Feline respiratory FBs can be found in the trachea and in the bronchial tree, particularly in the right caudal bronchus. Vegetal FBs tend to migrate through the bronchial tree, whereas mineral ones tend to lodge in the trachea. Bronchoscopy seems to be a highly effective procedure for the extraction of tracheobronchial FBs in cats.

  3. Retrospective case series of the imaging findings of facial nerve hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yunlong; Jin, Yanfang; Yang, Bentao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and thin-section magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of facial nerve hemangioma. The HRCT and MRI characteristics of 17 facial nerve hemangiomas diagnosed between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients included in the study suffered from a space-occupying lesion of soft tissues at the geniculate ganglion fossa. Affected nerve was compared for size and shape with the contralateral unaffected nerve. HRCT showed irregular expansion and broadening of the facial nerve canal, damage of the bone wall and destruction of adjacent bone, with "point"-like or "needle"-like calcifications in 14 cases. The average CT value was 320.9 ± 141.8 Hu. Fourteen patients had a widened labyrinthine segment; 6/17 had a tympanic segment widening; 2/17 had a greater superficial petrosal nerve canal involvement, and 2/17 had an affected internal auditory canal (IAC) segment. On MRI, all lesions were significantly enhanced due to high blood supply. Using 2D FSE T2WI, the lesion detection rate was 82.4 % (14/17). 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) revealed the lesions in all patients. HRCT showed that the average number of involved segments in the facial nerve canal was 2.41, while MRI revealed an average of 2.70 segments (P < 0.05). HRCT and MR findings of facial nerve hemangioma were typical, revealing irregular masses growing along the facial nerve canal, with calcifications and rich blood supply. Thin-section enhanced MRI was more accurate in lesion detection and assessment compared with HRCT.

  4. Retrospective case series on patients with chronic spinal pain treated with dextrose prolotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R Allen; Ding, Michele

    2004-08-01

    To determine the clinical benefits of dextrose prolotherapy in patients with chronic spinal pain. Retrospective case series. During the first 2 years at an outpatient prolotherapy clinic. One hundred and seventy-seven (177) consecutive patients with a history of chronic spinal pain completed prolotherapy treatment and were followed for a period ranging from 2 months to 2.5 years. Patients were treated with a proliferant solution containing 20% dextrose and 0.75% xylocaine. One half milliliter (0.5 mL) of proliferant was injected into the facet capsules of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, or combinations of the three areas. The iliolumbar and dorsal sacroiliac ligaments were also injected in patient with low back pain. Injections were typically done on a weekly basis for up to 3 weeks. A set of three injections was repeated in 1 month's time if needed. Level of pain, and improvement in activities of daily living were measured on a five-point scale. Improvement in ability to work was also assessed. Ninety-one percent (91.0%) of patients reported reduction in level of pain; 84.8% of patients reported improvement in activities of daily living, and 84.3% reported an improvement in ability to work. Women required on average, three more injections than men. Cervical spine response rates were lower than thoracic or lumbar spine. No complications from treatment were noted. Dextrose prolotherapy appears to be a safe and effective method for treating chronic spinal pain that merits further investigation. Future studies need to consider differences in gender response rates.

  5. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors: a retrospective study of 27 cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Granulosa tumors were described for the first time in 1855 by Rokitansky. These tumors are malignancies with a relatively favorable prognosis. They are characterized by a prolonged natural history and a tendency to late recurrences. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of granulosa cell tumors and to investigate the prognosis factor for recurrences. Methods The clinical data of patients who were treated in the period from January 2003 to December 2010 at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco for adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary were investigated retrospectively. Data for age, clinical manifestation, imaging, diagnosis and treatment of the patients were reviewed and analyzed. Post-operative histology was obtained for all patients. Results Twenty-seven cases were retrieved. The median patient age was 53 years. The most common clinical manifestations at diagnosis were abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Mean tumor size was 14 cm. The majority of patients had stage I (63%, n = 17), while (18,5%, n = 5) had stage III, (7.4%, n = 2) had stage IV, and (11%, n = 3) of patients had an unknown stage. In the follow-up period (median = 63.44 months), five (18.51%) patients relapsed. The median time to relapse was 41.8 months, (range: 18 to 62 months). Conclusions Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is an uncommon neoplasm. The adult form progresses slowly and often is diagnosed in an early stage of disease. Surgery is indicated. A prolonged post-therapeutic follow-up is necessary because of the risk of recurrences, late and exceptional for the adult form. PMID:23777285

  6. Retrospective Evaluation of Parenteral Nutrition in Alpacas: 22 Cases (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Clore, E.R.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Bedenice, D.; Buffington, C.A. Tony; Anderson, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition is an important method of nutritional support in hospitalized animals, but minimal information has been published on its use in camelids. Hypothesis/Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in alpacas, evaluate the formulations used, and determine potential complications. Animals Twenty-two alpacas hospitalized at the Tufts Cummings School for Veterinary Medicine (site 1: n = 8) and the Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (site 2: n = 14). Methods A retrospective analysis of all alpacas that received TPN between 2002 and 2008 was performed to assess clinical indications, clinical and clinicopathologic data, and outcome. Results The most common underlying diseases in animals receiving TPN were gastrointestinal dysfunction (n = 16), hepatic disease (n = 2), and neoplasia (n = 2). Several metabolic abnormalities were identified in animals (n = 20/22) before TPN was initiated, including lipemia (n = 12/22), hyperglycemia (11/22), and hypokalemia (n = 11/22). Median age was significantly lower for site 1 cases (0.1 years; range, 0.01–11.0) compared with those from site 2 (4.9 years; range, 0.1–13.7; P = .03). Animals at site 2 also had a longer duration of hospitalization (P = .01) and TPN administration (P = .004), as well as higher survival rate (P < .02). Twenty-one of 22 alpacas developed at least 1 complication during TPN administration. Metabolic complications were most prevalent (n = 21/22) and included hyperglycemia (n = 8/21), lipemia (n = 7/21), hypokalemia (n = 3/21), and refeeding syndrome (n = 3/21). Conclusions and Clinical Importance TPN is a feasible method of nutritional support for alpacas when enteral feeding is not possible. Prospective studies are warranted to determine optimal TPN formulations for alpacas. PMID:21418323

  7. Victims of the Palestinian uprising (Intifada): a retrospective review of 220 cases.

    PubMed

    Emile, H; Hashmonai, D

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the cases of the victims of the Palestinian uprising (Intifada) and to describe the clinical presentations, the types of weapons used, and the different sites of injuries. This is a retrospective chart review study of the patients who were injured during the Palestinian uprising in the period April 1993-April 1994 and treated in the emergency department of the Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel. The Barzilai Medical Center is a regional level II trauma referral general hospital. Two hundred and twenty patients were injured during the Palestinian uprising and referred to our emergency department. Forty-one patients were citizens of the Gaza area, 26 patients were Israeli civilians, and 153 were Israeli soldiers. There were 55 patients (25%) injured by firearms, 10 patients (4.5%) by explosives, and 120 (54.5%) by striking stones. Seventy-three patients (33.2%) were hospitalized, and 22 patients needed surgery. The most commonly injured part of the body was the lower limb among the Gaza citizens and the head and neck among the Israeli soldiers and civilians. Striking stones was the most common means of injury used by the Palestinians, and stab wounds by knives and other sharp objects were the most common injuries among Israeli civilians. None of the patients suffered direct blast injuries. The Palestinian uprising resulted in many victims and disabled people in both nations. Terrorism did not cease after the peace treaty. It changed its face and moved from Gaza to the center of Israel. Suicidal terrorist bombing in public spaces and public buses carries more danger and more victims with much more severe injuries. We hope that the future will be brighter, and both nations will eventually be able to live in peace.

  8. Abnormalities associated with congenital scoliosis: a retrospective study of 226 Chinese surgical cases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianxiong; Wang, Zijia; Liu, Jiaming; Xue, Xuhong; Qiu, Guixing

    2013-05-01

    Retrospective study of a series of 226 consecutive Chinese patients with congenital scoliosis. To identify the incidence of intraspinal abnormalities and other organ defects in surgical patients with congenital scoliosis in Chinese population. Previous studies have revealed high rates of intraspinal anomalies and other organ defects in patients with congenital scoliosis. The incidence of abnormalities in patients with congenital scoliosis in Chinese population has not been reported. A total of 226 patients with congenital scoliosis underwent surgical treatment in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2005 and March 2011 were identified. A definitive diagnosis of congenital scoliosis for all patients was made. Complete data were reviewed, including medical records, plain radiograph, magnetic resonance (MR) image of the whole spine, echocardiography, and renal ultrasound. The incidence of intraspinal abnormalities and other organ defects were analyzed. Intraspinal abnormalities were found in 99 (43%) patients. Diastematomyelia was identified to be the most common intraspinal pathological anomaly, which was different from the previous reports. The incidence of intraspinal anomaly in patients with failures of segmentation and mixed defects were significantly higher than those with failures of formation. Patients with thoracic hemivertebrae were found to have a higher incidence of intraspinal abnormalities than patients with lumbar hemivertebrae. Patients with intraspinal abnormality had a higher incidence of positive clinical findings than those with normal magnetic resonance imaging. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. Other organic defects were found in 91(40%) patients. Cardiac defects were detected in 18%, urogenital anomalies in 12%, and gastrointestinal anomalies in 5% of the patients in this study. Diastematomyelia was found to be the most common intraspinal pathological anomaly and cardiac defects were

  9. Effect of bevacizumab on intracranial meningiomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 - a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Klausen, Camilla; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Thomsen, Carsten; Fugleholm, Kaare; Poulsgaard, Lars; Lassen, Ulrik; Mau-Sorensen, Morten; Hofland, Kenneth Francis

    2016-11-01

    The hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS). Approximately 80% of NF2 patients also have intracranial meningiomas. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in both NF2-related and sporadic occurring meningiomas and anti-VEGF therapy (bevacizumab) may, therefore, be beneficial in NF2-related meningiomas. The purpose of the study was to report the effect of bevacizumab on meningiomas in NF2 patients. We retrospectively reviewed the effect of bevacizumab on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of 14 intracranial meningiomas in 7 NF2 patients. Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg was administered intravenously every two weeks for six months and 15 mg/kg every three weeks thereafter. Patients were evaluated according to the modified Macdonald criteria with repeated magnetic resonance (MR) scans. The median duration of therapy was 27 months (range 16-34) and 42 MR scans (median 8, range 4-11) were reviewed. The median annual change in meningioma CSA prior to bevacizumab was 2% (range -4%-+76%). During treatment, a decrease in meningioma CSA was observed in 5 of 14 meningiomas (36%) in 5 of 7 patients (71%). The median decrease in CSA was -10% (range -3%--25%). One meningioma (7%) progressed and the remaining (93%) had stable disease. Bevacizumab may slow or reverse the growth of some NF-related meningiomas. However, we have previously reported a fatal case of intracerebral hemorrhage following bevacizumab in NF2 patients, wherefore, this effect needs to be balanced carefully against the risk of side effects.

  10. Pregnancy associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A retrospective case-control analysis of maternal survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Kan; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Jia, Wei-Hua; Shao, Jian-Yong; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PANPC) has been associated with poor survival. Recent advances in radiation technology and imaging techniques, and the introduction of chemotherapy have improved survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not clear whether these changes have improved survival in PANPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare five-year maternal survival in patients with PANPC and non-pregnant patients with NPC. After adjusting for age, stage and chemotherapy mode, we conducted a retrospective case-control study among 36 non-metastatic PANPC patients and 36 non-pregnant NPC patients (control group) who were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. The median age of both groups was 30years (range, 23-35years); median follow-up for all patients was 70months. Locoregionally-advanced disease accounted for 83.3% of all patients with PANPC and 92.9% of patients who developed NPC during pregnancy. In both the PANPC and control groups, 31 patients (86.1%) received chemotherapy and all patients received definitive radiotherapy. The five-year rates for overall survival (70% vs. 78%, p=0.72), distant metastasis-free survival (79% vs. 76%, p=0.77), loco-regional relapse-free survival (97% vs. 91%, p=0.69) and disease-free survival (69% vs. 74%, p=0.98) were not significantly different between the PANPC and control groups. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed that only N-classification was significantly associated with five-year OS. This study demonstrates that, in the modern treatment era, pregnancy itself may not negatively influence survival outcomes in patients with NPC; however, pregnancy may delay the diagnosis of NPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histoplasmosis complicating tumor necrosis factor-α blocker therapy: a retrospective analysis of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Vergidis, Paschalis; Avery, Robin K; Wheat, L Joseph; Dotson, Jennifer L; Assi, Maha A; Antoun, Smyrna A; Hamoud, Kassem A; Burdette, Steven D; Freifeld, Alison G; McKinsey, David S; Money, Mary E; Myint, Thein; Andes, David R; Hoey, Cynthia A; Kaul, Daniel A; Dickter, Jana K; Liebers, David E; Miller, Rachel A; Muth, William E; Prakash, Vidhya; Steiner, Frederick T; Walker, Randall C; Hage, Chadi A

    2015-08-01

    Histoplasmosis may complicate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α blocker therapy. Published case series provide limited guidance on disease management. We sought to determine the need for long-term antifungal therapy and the safety of resuming TNF-α blocker therapy after successful treatment of histoplasmosis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 98 patients diagnosed with histoplasmosis between January 2000 and June 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for severe disease. The most commonly used biologic agent was infliximab (67.3%). Concomitant corticosteroid use (odds ratio [OR], 3.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.06-14.60]) and higher urine Histoplasma antigen levels (OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.25]) were found to be independent predictors of severe disease. Forty-six (47.4%) patients were initially treated with an amphotericin B formulation for a median duration of 2 weeks. Azole treatment was given for a median of 12 months. TNF-α blocker therapy was initially discontinued in 95 of 98 (96.9%) patients and later resumed in 25 of 74 (33.8%) patients at a median of 12 months (range, 1-69 months). The recurrence rate was 3.2% at a median follow-up period of 32 months. Of the 3 patients with recurrence, 2 had restarted TNF-α blocker therapy, 1 of whom died. Mortality rate was 3.2%. In this study, disease outcomes were generally favorable. Discontinuation of antifungal treatment after clinical response and an appropriate duration of therapy, probably at least 12 months, appears safe if pharmacologic immunosuppression has been held. Resumption of TNF-α blocker therapy also appears safe, assuming that the initial antifungal therapy was administered for 12 months. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Clinical and sonographic risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia - a case-control study with parity and gestational age matched controls.

    PubMed

    Parantainen, Jukka; Palomäki, Outi; Talola, Nina; Uotila, Jukka

    2014-06-01

    To examine the clinical risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia today and to evaluate ultrasound methods predicting it. Retrospective, matched case-control study at a University Hospital with 5000 annual deliveries. The study population consisted of 152 deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia over a period of 8.5 years (January 2004-June 2012) and 152 controls matched for gestational age and parity. The data was collected from the medical records of mothers and children and analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Incidences and odds ratios were calculated for risk factors and complications. Antenatal ultrasound data was analyzed when available by conditional logistic regression to test for significant differences between study groups. Birthweight (OR 12.1 for ≥4000 g; 95% CI 4.18-35.0) and vacuum extraction (OR 3.98; 95% CI 1.25-12.7) remained the most significant clinical risk factors. Only a trend of an association of pregestational or gestational diabetes was noticed (OR 1.87; 95% CI 0.997-3.495, probability of type II error 51%). Of the complications of shoulder dystocia the incidence of brachial plexus palsies was high (40%). Antenatal ultrasound method based on the difference between abdominal and biparietal diameters had a significant difference between cases and controls. The impact of diabetes as a risk factor has diminished, which may reflect improved screening and treatment. Antenatal ultrasound methods are showing some promise, but the predictive value of ultrasound alone is probably low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Left innominate vein stenosis in an asymptomatic population: a retrospective analysis of 212 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangjiang; Shi, Yaxue; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Lan; Xue, Guanhua; Gu, Leyi; Hao, Changning; Yang, Shuofei; Kan, Kejia

    2017-01-23

    Although left innominate vein (LIV) stenosis has been demonstrated to be attributed to compression by adjacent anatomical structures, most of the studies are focusing on hemodialysis patients with clinical symptoms compatible with LIV stenosis. The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence of LIV stenosis and its influencing factors in an asymptomatic, non-hemodialysis population, which has rarely been performed. From Jan 2013 to Dec 2014, 212 consecutive cases undergoing a chest multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography were enrolled. LIV stenosis was defined as loss of the area of the LIV (that is, 1 - compression degree) >25%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the independent risk factors associated with LIV stenosis. LIV stenosis occurred in 35.4% of cases (75/212), with the median loss of the area of the LIV of 36.2% (interquartile range 30.2-49.8%). There were significant differences in age (62.5 ± 11.7 vs. 58.6 ± 14.3 years; P = 0.041), BMI (23.9 ± 2.9 vs. 23.0 ± 3.3, P = 0.036), the frequency of crossing site of LIV over the origin of the aortic arch (54.7 vs. 24.8%, P < 0.001), and the space between aortic arch and sternum [mean ± SD, 11.6 ± 4.2 mm vs. median, 14.1 (interquartile range 11.9-16.3) mm, P < 0.001] between patients with and without LIV stenosis, but only the latter two were confirmed as independent factors by the multivariate logistic regression analysis [crossing site of LIV over the aortic arch, OR (95% CI) = 2.632 (1.401, 4.944), P = 0.003; space between the aortic arch and sternum, OR (95% CI) = 0.841 (0.770, 0.919), P < 0.001]. The patients with an older age, high BMI, LIV crossing over the origin of the aortic arch, or smaller space between aortic arch and sternum may have high risks for LIV stenosis. They should be paid more attention to exclude LIV stenosis preoperatively using MDCT angiography to prevent venous access

  14. Global respiratory syncytial virus-associated mortality in young children (RSV GOLD): a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Scheltema, Nienke M; Gentile, Angela; Lucion, Florencia; Nokes, D James; Munywoki, Patrick K; Madhi, Shabir A; Groome, Michelle J; Cohen, Cheryl; Moyes, Jocelyn; Thorburn, Kentigern; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Lupisan, Socorro P; Gordon, Aubree; Sánchez, José F; O'Brien, Katherine L; Gessner, Bradford D; Sutanto, Agustinus; Mejias, Asuncion; Ramilo, Octavio; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Halasa, Natasha; de-Paris, Fernanda; Pires, Márcia Rosane; Spaeder, Michael C; Paes, Bosco A; Simões, Eric A F; Leung, Ting F; da Costa Oliveira, Maria Tereza; de Freitas Lázaro Emediato, Carla Cecília; Bassat, Quique; Butt, Warwick; Chi, Hsin; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Ali, Asad; Lucero, Marilla G; Fasce, Rodrigo A; Lopez, Olga; Rath, Barbara A; Polack, Fernando P; Papenburg, Jesse; Roglić, Srđan; Ito, Hisato; Goka, Edward A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Nair, Harish; Bont, Louis J

    2017-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of pneumonia mortality in young children. However, clinical data for fatal RSV infection are scarce. We aimed to identify clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years with RSV-related mortality using individual patient data. In this retrospective case series, we developed an online questionnaire to obtain individual patient data for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of children aged younger than 5 years who died with community-acquired RSV infection between Jan 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 2015, through leading research groups for child pneumonia identified through a comprehensive literature search and existing research networks. For the literature search, we searched PubMed for articles published up to Feb 3, 2015, using the key terms "RSV", "respiratory syncytial virus", or "respiratory syncytial viral" combined with "mortality", "fatality", "death", "died", "deaths", or "CFR" for articles published in English. We invited researchers and clinicians identified to participate between Nov 1, 2014, and Oct 31, 2015. We calculated descriptive statistics for all variables. We studied 358 children with RSV-related in-hospital death from 23 countries across the world, with data contributed from 31 research groups. 117 (33%) children were from low-income or lower middle-income countries, 77 (22%) were from upper middle-income countries, and 164 (46%) were from high-income countries. 190 (53%) were male. Data for comorbidities were missing for some children in low-income and middle-income countries. Available data showed that comorbidities were present in at least 33 (28%) children from low-income or lower middle-income countries, 36 (47%) from upper middle-income countries, and 114 (70%) from high-income countries. Median age for RSV-related deaths was 5·0 months (IQR 2·3-11·0) in low-income or lower middle-income countries, 4·0 years (2·0-10·0) in upper middle

  15. Bony injuries in homicide cases (1994-2014). A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Flieger, Alexander; Kölzer, Sarah C; Plenzig, Stefanie; Heinbuch, Sara; Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-09-01

    Even when human skeletal remains are found in contexts indicative of body disposal after homicide, none of the bones may manifest injuries. When skeletons are incomplete, there are two possibilities, the injured bones are missing or none were injured. This leads to the question how frequently bones are injured during homicide, where the injuries tend to be placed, and whether the frequency of injury is related to the type of homicide. To answer these questions, the postmortem reports from all autopsies performed for homicide victims at the Institute of Legal Medicine at the University Hospital in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, between 1994 and 2014, were retrospectively evaluated for bony injuries discovered during autopsy. In 90 cases, a preliminary postmortem computed tomography (pmCT) examination had been performed. The cases were categorized into the following five groups by type of fatal trauma: blunt force, sharp force, gunshot injury, strangulation, or other. In total, the postmortem reports for 897 homicides (527 male, 370 female) were evaluated. The number of victims per trauma category were sharp force, 309; blunt force, 179; gunshot injury, 242; strangulation, 92; and other, 75. Bony injuries had been reported in 70.9 % of the homicides. The "gunshot" category contained the highest proportion of victims with bony injuries (92.6 %). With 80.4 %, the second-highest proportion of victims with bony injuries was in the "blunt force" category, followed by 66.3 % of victims in the "sharp force" group. In contrast, with 53.3 %, the second-lowest proportion of victims with bony injuries was in the "strangulation" category, which contained a preponderance of female victims, followed by 17.3 % of victims with bony injuries in the "other" category. Bony injuries thus occurred in the majority of homicides. Forensic osteological analysis should, therefore, always be performed on badly decomposed human remains. Where necessary, the additional use of visualization

  16. Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard F; Girard, Robyn Heister; Rao, Daniel; Ly, Binh T; Davis, Daniel P

    2007-07-01

    Stingray stings are common along coastal regions of this country and the world. The tail of the stingray contains a barbed stinger attached to a venom gland and contained within an integumentary sheath. During a sting, the stinger and sheath can become embedded in the soft tissue of the victim, and venom is injected into the wound. Stingray venom most often causes severe pain on contact, although the exact mechanism of toxicity is not certain. Hot water immersion of the stung extremity has been reported to be effective in relieving pain associated with the envenomation, but large studies of this therapy have not been performed. We retrospectively reviewed stingray stings presenting to our Emergency Department (ED) over an 8-year period. Cases were divided into acute (group 1, within 24 h of the sting) and subacute (group 2, 24 h or more after the sting) presentations. Charts were abstracted for information concerning the victim's history, physical examination, treatment, diagnostic imaging, and outcome, including the effectiveness of hot water immersion as analgesia, and use of antimicrobials. A total of 119 cases were identified and abstracted, 100 in group 1 and 19 in group 2. Of the group 1 patients initially treated with hot water immersion alone, 88% had complete relief of pain within 30 min without administration of any other analgesic. In the patients who initially received a dose of analgesic along with hot water immersion, none required a second dose of analgesics and all had complete pain relief before discharge. There were no adverse effects (such as thermal burns) with this therapy. Analysis of infectious complications in group 1 patients demonstrated a significant number of patients returning to the ED with wound infections when prophylactic antibiotics were not administered at initial presentation. Our findings suggest that hot water immersion was effective in decreasing or eliminating the pain associated with stingray envenomation in our series. Due

  17. A comparison of prospective and retrospective responses on sudden infant death syndrome by case and control mothers.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, L E; Ponsonby, A L; Dwyer, T

    1993-03-15

    Based on information from two studies of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) from 1988-1991 in Tasmania, Australia, prospective and retrospective maternal responses to an identical set of questions were compared for 27 cases and 25 controls. There was good agreement on demographic factors, maternal obstetric history, parental smoking, and infant feeding practices. Reported changes in sleep habits were slightly greater for cases, and further work is needed to determine if this reflects recall bias or real changes during early infant life. Case mother reports regarding family history of disease and infant bedding were more discrepant, suggesting recall bias and supporting prospective collection of this information.

  18. Image matching algorithms for breech face marks and firing pins in a database of spent cartridge cases of firearms.

    PubMed

    Geradts, Z J; Bijhold, J; Hermsen, R; Murtagh, F

    2001-06-01

    On the market several systems exist for collecting spent ammunition data for forensic investigation. These databases store images of cartridge cases and the marks on them. Image matching is used to create hit lists that show which marks on a cartridge case are most similar to another cartridge case. The research in this paper is focused on the different methods of feature selection and pattern recognition that can be used for optimizing the results of image matching. The images are acquired by side light images for the breech face marks and by ring light for the firing pin impression. For these images a standard way of digitizing the images used. For the side light images and ring light images this means that the user has to position the cartridge case in the same position according to a protocol. The positioning is important for the sidelight, since the image that is obtained of a striation mark depends heavily on the angle of incidence of the light. In practice, it appears that the user positions the cartridge case with +/-10 degrees accuracy. We tested our algorithms using 49 cartridge cases of 19 different firearms, where the examiner determined that they were shot with the same firearm. For testing, these images were mixed with a database consisting of approximately 4900 images that were available from the Drugfire database of different calibers.In cases where the registration and the light conditions among those matching pairs was good, a simple computation of the standard deviation of the subtracted gray levels, delivered the best-matched images. For images that were rotated and shifted, we have implemented a "brute force" way of registration. The images are translated and rotated until the minimum of the standard deviation of the difference is found. This method did not result in all relevant matches in the top position. This is caused by the effect that shadows and highlights are compared in intensity. Since the angle of incidence of the light will give a

  19. Diabetes, cardiac disorders and asthma as risk factors for severe organ involvement among adult dengue patients: A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Junxiong; Hsu, Jung Pu; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Progression to severe organ involvement due to dengue infection has been associated with severe dengue disease, intensive care treatment, and mortality. However, there is a lack of understanding of the impact of pre-existing comorbidities and other risk factors of severe organ involvement among dengue adults. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to characterize and identify risk factors that predispose dengue adults at risk of progression with severe organ involvement. This study involved 174 dengue patients who had progressed with severe organ involvement and 865 dengue patients without severe organ involvement, matched by the year of presentation of the cases, who were admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital between year 2005 and 2008. Age group of 60 years or older, diabetes, cardiac disorders, asthma, and having two or more pre-existing comorbidities were independent risk factors of severe organ involvement. Abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, and hematocrit rise and rapid platelet count drop at presentation were significantly associated with severe organ involvement. These risk factors, when validated in a larger study, will be useful for triage by clinicians for prompt monitoring and clinical management at first presentation, to minimize the risk of severe organ involvement and hence, disease severity. PMID:28045096

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Enterobacter species versus Escherichia coli: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seongman; Kim, Taeeun; Kim, Min-Chul; Chong, Yong Pil; Kim, Sung-Han; Sung, Heungsup; Lim, Young-Suk; Lee, Sang-Oh; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2016-06-07

    Enterobacter species are important nosocomial pathogens, and there is growing concern about their ability to develop resistance during antimicrobial therapy. However, few data are available on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Enterobacter spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We retrospectively identified all patients with SBP caused by Enterobacter species admitted to a tertiary care hospital between January 1997 and December 2013. Each case was age- and sex-matched with four patients with Escherichia coli SBP. A total of 32 cases with Enterobacter SBP and 128 controls with E. coli SBP were included. Twenty-one (65.6 %) cases and 111 (86.7 %) controls had Child-Pugh class C (P = 0.006). Cases were significantly more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma (65.6 % vs. 37.5 %, P = 0.004) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (28.1 % vs. 9.4 %, P = 0.005). The initial response to empirical therapy (81.3 % vs. 81.2 %, P = 0.995) and the 30-day mortality (37.5 % vs. 28.9 %, P = 0.35) were not significantly different between the groups. Drug resistance emerged in one case and in no controls (4.3 % [1/23] vs. 0 % [0/98], P = 0.19). Compared with E. coli SBP, patients with Enterobacter SBP more frequently had hepatocellular carcinoma and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet clinical outcomes were comparable. Development of resistance during third-generation cephalosporin therapy was infrequent in patients with Enterobacter SBP.

  1. Comparison of quality of life following total ankle arthroplasty and ankle arthrodesis: Retrospective study of 54 cases.

    PubMed

    Dalat, F; Trouillet, F; Fessy, M H; Bourdin, M; Besse, J-L

    2014-11-01

    The benefit of ankle arthroplasty compared to arthrodesis continues to be debated, but the quality of life after these two interventions has rarely been assessed. We conducted a case-control study to compare quality of life and functional and athletic ability. Functional results, athletic ability, and quality of life after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) are better than after ankle arthrodesis. Two continuous series of 59 TAAs and 46 arthrodeses (operated on between 1997 and 2009) were evaluated retrospectively using a questionnaire including the functional items of the AOFAS score, the Foot Function Index (FFI) score, the Foot Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and the SF-36. Eighty-three responses (79% of the overall series) were matched in two groups: 32 TAAs [age at the intervention, 51.4years (range, 21-63years); follow-up, 52.2months (range, 30-146months); age at revision, 55.8years (range, 26-67years); BMI, 27.7 (range, 21.7-36.7)] and 22 arthrodeses [age at intervention, 50.1years (range, 24-72years); follow-up 57.9months (range, 12-147months); age at revision 54.9 years (range, 31-75years); BMI, 26.8 (range, 17.6-37)] (NS on all items between the two groups). The pain results were better after TAA, but with no statistically significant difference: AOFAS pain, (/40) 28.1±8.2 vs. 24.5±9.6; FFI pain, 16.6±18.8 vs. 24.3±21.5. The overall FFI score (/100) was better (P=0.048) after TAA (16.2±16.5 vs. 24.8±18.2). The overall mean athletic level compared to the state prior to the injury was relatively low in both groups, but significantly (p=0.007) higher in the TAA group: FAAM sports score (/100), 49.5±24.4 vs. 29.8±26.2. The quality-of-life scores, SF-36 physical health, mental health, and general health were not significantly different after TAA and arthrodesis: mental health score, 63.1±14.7 vs. 57.8±21.5; physical health score, 61.3±17.8 vs. 53.7±23.9, overall score, 63.2±16.4 vs. 55.9±23.5. Very few publications describe activities and quality of

  2. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO), Personality Traits, and Iterative Decompression Sickness. Retrospective Analysis of 209 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lafère, Pierre; Balestra, Costantino; Caers, Dirk; Germonpré, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is a need to evaluate the influence of risk factors such as patency of foramen ovale (PFO) or “daredevil” psychological profile on contra-indication policy after a decompression sickness (DCS). Methods: By crossing information obtained from Belgian Hyperbaric Centers, DAN Emergency Hotline, the press, and Internet diving forums, it was possible to be accountable for the majority if not all DCS, which have occurred in Belgium from January 1993 to June 2013. From the available 594 records we excluded all cases with tentative diagnosis, medullary DCS or unreliability of reported dive profile, leaving 209 divers records with cerebral DCS for analysis. Demographics, dive parameters, and PFO grading were recorded. Twenty-three injured divers were tested using the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale V and compared to a matched group not involved in risky activities. Results: 41.2% of all injured came for iterative DCS. The average depth significantly increases with previous occurrences of DCS (1st DCS: 31.8 ± 7.9 mfw; 2nd DCS: 35.5 ± 9.8 mfw; 3rd DCS: 43.4 ± 6.1 mfw). There is also an increase of PFO prevalence among multiple injured divers (1st DCS: 66.4% 2nd & 3rd DCS: 100%) with a significant increase in PFO grade. Multiple-times injured significantly scored higher than control group on thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking, boredom susceptibility and total score. Conclusion: There is an inability of injured diver to adopt conservative dive profile after a DCS. Further work is needed to ascertain whether selected personality characteristics or PFO should be taken into account in the clearance decision to resume diving. PMID:28824507

  3. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO), Personality Traits, and Iterative Decompression Sickness. Retrospective Analysis of 209 Cases.

    PubMed

    Lafère, Pierre; Balestra, Costantino; Caers, Dirk; Germonpré, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is a need to evaluate the influence of risk factors such as patency of foramen ovale (PFO) or "daredevil" psychological profile on contra-indication policy after a decompression sickness (DCS). Methods: By crossing information obtained from Belgian Hyperbaric Centers, DAN Emergency Hotline, the press, and Internet diving forums, it was possible to be accountable for the majority if not all DCS, which have occurred in Belgium from January 1993 to June 2013. From the available 594 records we excluded all cases with tentative diagnosis, medullary DCS or unreliability of reported dive profile, leaving 209 divers records with cerebral DCS for analysis. Demographics, dive parameters, and PFO grading were recorded. Twenty-three injured divers were tested using the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale V and compared to a matched group not involved in risky activities. Results: 41.2% of all injured came for iterative DCS. The average depth significantly increases with previous occurrences of DCS (1st DCS: 31.8 ± 7.9 mfw; 2nd DCS: 35.5 ± 9.8 mfw; 3rd DCS: 43.4 ± 6.1 mfw). There is also an increase of PFO prevalence among multiple injured divers (1st DCS: 66.4% 2nd & 3rd DCS: 100%) with a significant increase in PFO grade. Multiple-times injured significantly scored higher than control group on thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking, boredom susceptibility and total score. Conclusion: There is an inability of injured diver to adopt conservative dive profile after a DCS. Further work is needed to ascertain whether selected personality characteristics or PFO should be taken into account in the clearance decision to resume diving.