Science.gov

Sample records for returning excess flu

  1. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu. The best step is to get a flu vaccine. If you have the flu: Stay in your ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  2. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... a week. Until they do, they have to stay home from school and take it easy. We hope you're flu-free this year, but if you do get the flu, ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Flu Center A Kid's ...

  3. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  4. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  5. Understanding the multifractality in portfolio excess returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    The multifractality in stock returns have been investigated extensively. However, whether the autocorrelations in portfolio returns are multifractal have not been considered in the literature. In this paper, we detect multifractal behavior of returns of portfolios constructed based on two popular trading rules, size and book-to-market (BM) ratio. Using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, we find that the portfolio returns are significantly multifractal and the multifractality is mainly attributed to long-range dependence. We also investigate the multifractal cross-correlation between portfolio return and market average return using the detrended cross-correlation analysis. Our results show that the cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent, while those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent.

  6. Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to lower ... flu and spreading it to others. The flu vaccine causes antibodies to develop in your body about ...

  7. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms and their clinical judgment. Will my health care provider test me for flu if I have flu-like ... flu symptoms do not require testing because the test results usually do not change how you are treated. Your health care provider may diagnose you with flu based on ...

  8. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Flu Vaccine Does My Child Need? Your Child's Immunizations: Influenza Vaccine Immunization Schedule Tips for Treating the Flu Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Vomiting Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature Flu Center Who Needs a Flu Shot? ...

  9. Flu Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous continue What to Do If the Flu Bugs You If you get the flu, the best way to take care of yourself is to rest in bed and drink lots of liquids like water and other non-caffeinated drinks. Stay home from ...

  10. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  11. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Newsletters Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... an additional B virus. What kinds of flu vaccines are available for children? Influenza vaccine options for ...

  12. [Spanish flu related data].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-10-01

    Swine flu epidemic is a current topic, and data relating to Spanish flu pandemic from 1918 to 1920 were presented for your information. Monthly trend of number of deaths due to influenza, acute bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchopneumonia together with PTB, other TB and TB of all forms from 1917 to 1920 was presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Flu epidemics in early 1917 and from winter 1917 to spring 1818 were so-called common seasonal flu epidemic, however, new pandemic started from October 1918, and the number of deaths due to flu increased 14 times compared with previous month in October, 19 times in November, and the pandemic reached the summit, and started to decrease from December, however, marked decline was seen only after April 1919. The number of deaths due to flu started to increase again from November 1919, and reached its summit again in January 1920, and the pandemic ended in July. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza in 1918 was shown in Fig. 2. The rate was high among infants, 20s and 30s and elderly, and by sex, the rate of female was higher below 35 and lower above 35. The number of deaths due to acute bronchitis and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia fluctuated in parallel with that of influenza, and deaths due to these conditions were very difficult to differentiate, and the impact of flu could better be evaluated by summing up all these three conditions, the sum of deaths due to three conditions was expressed as influenza related death. The proportion of deaths due to three conditions by age group was shown in Fig. 3. The proportion of acute bronchitis was high in infants and elderly, and in the other age groups, influenza occupied around 30% and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia around 70% of influenza related death. Total number of deaths due to influenza related diseases from 1918 to 1920 was 816,884, and the annual rate was 489.4 per 100,000. Annual age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza related diseases was shown in

  13. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  14. Flu & You: Preventive Steps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected Publications Vaccination Benefit Publications Vaccine Safety Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Guidelines for Flu Vaccination Good Health Habits Key ...

  15. Does the private sector receive an excessive return from investments in health care infrastructure projects? Evidence from the UK.

    PubMed

    Vecchi, Veronica; Hellowell, Mark; Gatti, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the cost-efficiency of Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) in the delivery of hospital facilities in the UK. We outline a methodology for identifying the "fair" return on equity, based on the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) of each investor. We apply this method to assess the expected returns on a sample of 77 contracts signed between 1997 and 2011 by health care provider organisations in the UK. We show that expected returns are in general in excess of the WACC benchmarks. The findings highlight significant problems in current procurement practices and the methodologies by which bids are assessed. To minimise the financial impact of hospital investments on health care systems, a regulatory regime must ensure that expected returns are set at the "fair" rate.

  16. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  17. Afghanistan Drawdown Preparations: DOD Decision Makers Need Additional Analyses to Determine Costs and Benefits of Returning Excess Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-19

    Major end items are equipment that is important to operational readiness such as aircraft; boats; motorized wheeled , tracked, and towed vehicles...Process (cont.) Loader , Scoop Type (July 2012 Playbook, p. 292) There are155 Marine Corps Scoop Type Loaders in Afghanistan, all of which are... loaders are determined to be excess when the disposition instructions are issued, the transportation cost for the return of these loaders could range

  18. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  19. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... years, outbreaks of bird flu have occurred in Asia, Africa and parts of Europe. Most people who ... for travelers If you're traveling to Southeast Asia or to any region with bird flu outbreaks, ...

  20. "Stomach Flu" (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" A A A en español "El virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  1. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) By Mayo Clinic Staff Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection marked by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and ...

  2. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs The ... Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the flu)? ...

  3. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected Publications Vaccination Benefit Publications Vaccine Safety Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies Guidelines for Flu Vaccination Good Health Habits Key ...

  4. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  5. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... short lasting. What are the side effects? Most children don’t have any side effects from the vaccine, but it can cause mild side effects. For ... cause the flu. The flu vaccine protects your child from the flu. However, ... can sometimes cause mild side effects that may be mistaken for the flu. Keep ...

  6. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... mist humidifier saline (saltwater) nose drops acetaminophen or ibuprofen (check package for correct dosage) Never give aspirin ... that doesn't go away after acetaminophen or ibuprofen Think Prevention! Get the flu vaccine each year. ...

  7. Flu Symptoms & Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Influenza Vaccine Safety: A Summary for Clinicians Large-Scale Influenza Vaccination Clinic Planning Flu Vaccine Effectiveness 2005- ... Prevention & Control of Influenza in the Peri- and Postpartum Settings Interim Guidance for the Use of Masks ...

  8. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease in other animals, including domestic and wild birds, pigs, horses, and dogs, with sporadic outbreaks in ... the flu viruses of all other mammal and bird species combined. This suggests that these viruses have ...

  9. THE MASS LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR EXCESS EMISSION AT 8 AND 24 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, Margaret; Leitherer, Claus; Vijh, Uma; Gordon, Karl D.; Sewilo, Marta; Volk, Kevin; Blum, Robert D.; Harris, Jason; Babler, Brian L.; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl A.; Cohen, Martin; Hora, Joseph L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Markwick-Kemper, Francisca

    2009-06-15

    We present empirical relations describing excess emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) survey which includes the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m bands. We combine the SAGE data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; J, H, and K {sub s}) and the optical Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS; U, B, V, and I) point source catalogs in order to create complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star candidates in the LMC. AGB star outflows are among the main producers of dust in a galaxy, and this mass loss results in an excess in the fluxes observed in the 8 and 24 {mu}m bands. The aim of this work is to investigate the mass loss return by AGB stars to the interstellar medium of the LMC by studying the dependence of the infrared excess flux on the total luminosity. We identify oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, and extreme AGB star populations in our sample based on their 2MASS and IRAC colors. The SEDs of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars are compared with appropriate stellar photosphere models to obtain the excess flux in all the IRAC bands and the MIPS 24 {mu}m band. Extreme AGB stars are dominated by circumstellar emission at 8 and 24 {mu}m; thus we approximate their excesses with the flux observed in these bands. We find about 16,000 O-rich, 6300 C-rich, and 1000 extreme sources with reliable 8 {mu}m excesses, and about 4500 O-rich, 5300 C-rich, and 960 extreme sources with reliable 24 {mu}m excesses. The excesses are in the range 0.1 mJy to 5 Jy. The 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses for all three types of AGB candidates show a general increasing trend with luminosity. The color temperature of the circumstellar dust derived from the ratio of the 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses decreases with an increase in excess, while the 24 {mu

  10. Flu Season's Starting to Rear Its Head

    MedlinePlus

    ... the year." Last year's flu season was particularly hard on older people. In a typical flu season, flu complications -- including pneumonia -- send more than 200,000 Americans to the hospital. Death rates linked to flu ...

  11. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Cancer Should People With Cancer Get a Flu Shot? Getting a flu shot is recommended for ... need for the flu season. What types of flu vaccines are recommended for people with cancer? People ...

  12. American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features American Indians, Alaska Natives, and the Flu Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccination against ... the flu. Protect Indian Country by Getting Your Flu Vaccine A flu vaccine not only protects you ...

  13. Flu Prevention and Treatment Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Flu Prevention and Treatment Tips Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Influenza, or the “flu,” is a contagious respiratory illness. It can cause ...

  14. Flu Shots Are Worth It

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162776.html Flu Shots Are Worth It Vaccine most important for young kids, seniors, people ... may not keep you from getting the flu, it will limit the severity and duration of the ...

  15. Flu Season Starting to Peak

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162917.html Flu Season Starting to Peak More severe strain of ... 6, 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Flu season is in full swing and it's starting ...

  16. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  17. College students and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007446.htm College students and the flu To use the sharing features ... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article ...

  18. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Newsletters Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can spread through that community. How do flu vaccines work? Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in ...

  19. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... flu this season. Take 3 Steps to Fight Flu The first and best way to protect against ...

  20. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  1. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  2. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and People with Asthma Language: English Español ...

  3. Flu and People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and People with Diabetes Language: English Español ...

  4. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  5. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  6. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive ...

  7. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  8. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ... allergic conditions. How is the safety of flu vaccines in pregnant women monitored? CDC and FDA conduct ...

  9. Flu Cases Starting to Spread: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163159.html Flu Cases Starting to Spread: CDC Illness now being reported in middle sections of ... potential benefit from the vaccine," Lynnette Brammer, a CDC epidemiologist, said Friday. She said flu activity is " ...

  10. Caring for Your Child's Cold or Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Caring for Your Child’s Cold or Flu Page Content ​Unfortunately, there's no cure for the ... Liquid Medicine Safely for more information. Prevent & Treatment: Flu vaccine Children 6 months or older should get ...

  11. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can be contagious ... depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause gastroenteritis, ...

  12. Flu Tightens Its Hold on The Nation

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163039.html Flu Tightens Its Hold on the Nation It's not too late to get vaccinated, CDC says ... pregnant women -- to get their flu shots before it's too late. "Even though activity is elevated, we ...

  13. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  14. The Spanish flu in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for Denmark and for Danish towns from 1917 to 1921, and population data from the 1916 and 1921 censuses, we analysed incident cases, cumulative, age-specific and age-standardized rates. Overall, more than 900,000 persons contracted flu during the y 1918-1920, and 1 out of 50 patients died from the disease. An early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20-34 y producing a W curve for mortality by age. The background for the better outcome in children aged 1-15 y as well as for the disease immunity in the elderly population should be further investigated.

  15. Antibiotic Use in Cold and Flu Season and Prescribing Quality: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsan, Marcella; Morden, Nancy; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Zhou, Weiping; Skinner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive antibiotic use in cold and flu season is costly and contributes to antibiotic resistance. The study objective was to develop an index of excessive antibiotic use in cold and flu season and determine its correlation with other indicators of prescribing quality. Methods and Findings We included Medicare beneficiaries in the 40% random sample denominator continuously enrolled in fee for service benefits for 2010 and/or 2011 (7,961,201 person-years (PY)) and extracted data on prescription fills for oral antibiotics that treat respiratory pathogens. We collapsed the data to the state-level so that it could be merged with monthly flu activity data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Linear regression, adjusted for state-specific mean antibiotic use and demographic characteristics, was used to estimate how antibiotic prescribing responded to state-specific flu activity. There was considerable geographic variation in flu-associated antibiotic use across states—lowest in Vermont and Connecticut and highest in Mississippi and Florida. There was a robust positive correlation between medications that often cause adverse events in the elderly and flu-associated prescribing (0.755; p<0.001), while there was a strong negative correlation with beta-blocker use after a myocardial infarction (MI) (−0.413; p=0.003). Conclusion Adjusted flu-associated antibiotic use was positively correlated with high-risk medications to the elderly and negatively correlated with beta-blocker use post MI. These findings suggest excessive antibiotic use reflects low quality prescribing, and imply that practice and policy solutions should go beyond narrow, antibiotic-specific, approaches to encourage evidence-based prescribing for the elderly Medicare population. PMID:26569644

  16. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  17. U.S. Vaccine Guidelines for Flu, HPV Updated

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163466.html U.S. Vaccine Guidelines for Flu, HPV Updated CDC panel revises ... need to know about: No more nasal flu vaccine. Unlike traditional flu shots made from dead virus, ...

  18. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are or might become pregnant during flu season be vaccinated," according to a team led by ... 2005. The investigators found that in the flu seasons before the 2009-2010 H1N1 flu pandemic, only ...

  19. Best Ways to Steer Clear of The Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Best Ways to Steer Clear of the Flu For starters, get a flu vaccine to protect yourself and others, infectious diseases ... way for people to protect themselves from the flu is to get vaccinated -- and it's not too ...

  20. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  1. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... have not been shown to cause harm to pregnant women or their developing babies. If you have your baby before getting your flu shot, you still need to get vaccinated. The flu is spread from person to person. You, or others who care for ...

  2. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials conducted ...

  3. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  4. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español ...

  5. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  6. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePlus

    ... by more than $500 billion. Exploring Flu Protein Biology to Improve Antivirals A representation of the structure ... combat this drug resistance by exploiting the virus's biology. One target is pocket-shaped structures on the ...

  7. There's Still Time for Your Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough antibodies to give you maximum protection, the agency notes. "We often see spikes in flu during and right after the holidays as people congregate and travel in planes that bring people close together," said ...

  8. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ... with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with HIV ...

  9. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Newsletters Guillain-Barré syndrome and Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... in 1976 with GBS and the swine flu vaccine? In 1976 there was a small increased risk ...

  10. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu that's been going around? Or just a common cold ? Although the flu (or influenza ) usually causes symptoms ... someone feel worse than symptoms associated with a common cold, it's not always easy to tell the difference ...

  11. Flu Cases Spiking Across the United States: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Flu Cases Spiking Across the United States: CDC Hospitalizations and deaths among kids and adults on ... died from flu-related complications, according to the CDC. Hospitalizations among people in their 50s and 60s ...

  12. Black Americans More Likely to Skip Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164106.html Black Americans More Likely to Skip Flu Shot They're concerned about vaccine safety, study ... of American adults don't get an annual flu shot, and black Americans are even less likely ...

  13. Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163564.html Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds Vaccine should be ... MONDAY, Feb. 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- It's still flu season, and not too late to get your ...

  14. Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped from Cat to Human

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162717.html Bird Flu Strain May Have Jumped From Cat to ... would be the first known transmission of this bird flu strain from cat to human, officials said. ...

  15. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... used to treat flu illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an ...

  16. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs, called viruses, cause colds. Symptoms of the common cold include: Runny nose Nasal congestion Sneezing Sore throat ... flu symptoms are similar to those of a common cold. Flu can symptoms can also include fever, muscle ...

  17. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs, called viruses, cause colds. Symptoms of the common cold include: Runny nose Nasal congestion Sneezing Sore throat ... Read More Acute respiratory distress syndrome Avian influenza Common cold Cough Fever Flu H1N1 influenza (Swine flu) Immune ...

  18. Applying lessons from behavioral economics to increase flu vaccination rates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick; Stevens, Ryan

    2016-05-06

    Seasonal influenza imposes an enormous burden on society every year, yet many people refuse to obtain flu shots due to misconceptions of the flu vaccine. We argue that recent research in psychology and behavioral economics may provide the answers to why people hold mistaken beliefs about flu shots, how we can correct these misconceptions, and what policy-makers can do to increase flu vaccination rates.

  19. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A ... a sore throat, cough, and high fever — could it be the flu that's been going around? Or ...

  20. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    PubMed

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection.

  1. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

  2. A Case of American Education Flu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that the American educational system's penchant for testing may be likened to an educational flu. Notes that teachers feel increasing pressure to abandon techniques that are engaging if they are not specifically aimed at performance on test day. Contends that the American educational system needs to keep pace with international…

  3. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Amharic) PDF Public Health - Seattle and King County Arabic (العربية) Home Care for Pandemic Flu (Arabic) الرعاية ...

  4. Flu Shot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Armenian (Հայերեն) Bengali (Bangla) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Arabic (العربية) Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant) English ( ...

  5. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Methods Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004–2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Results A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and

  6. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  7. Excessive Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive tanning appears to be evident in about one quarter of regular sunbathers. Susceptible individuals are likely to be young Caucasians from Western societies. Despite ongoing education by the media to the public about the risks of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the availability of potent sunscreens, there seems to be a concurrent proliferation of tanning facilities. What might be potential psychological explanations for excessive or pathological tanning? Psychopathological explanations may exist on both Axes I and II and include substance use, obsessive-compulsive, body dysmorphic, and borderline personality disorders. While there is no known treatment for pathological sunbathing, we discuss several treatment interventions from the literature that have been successfully used for the general public. PMID:20622941

  8. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  9. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

  10. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Vaccination It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu ... older should get the flu vaccine each year. It usually takes two weeks after you are vaccinated ...

  11. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... viruses, it may still provide some protection. Flu vaccine cannot prevent: • flu that is caused by a virus not covered ... life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of flu vaccine, or have a severe allergy to any part ...

  12. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic

  13. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return after... separate return of either spouse are to be taken into account in determining the extent to which the...

  14. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Protect Your Child and Family from the Flu this School Year English 本学年家长预防子女和家人感染流感应采取的措施 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Gripe H1N1 (gripe porcina) Characters not displaying ...

  15. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  16. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  18. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  19. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  20. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? A A A I just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get ...

  1. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  2. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  3. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  4. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... Influenza Vaccine Safety: A Summary for Clinicians Large-Scale Influenza Vaccination Clinic Planning Flu Vaccine Effectiveness 2005- ... Prevention & Control of Influenza in the Peri- and Postpartum Settings Interim Guidance for the Use of Masks ...

  5. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  6. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  7. Colds and the Flu: Respiratory Infections during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most other respiratory viruses (such as regular measles, mumps, roseola, mononucleosis ["mono"] and bronchiolitis) don't seem ... disease, flu, german measles, influenza, measles, mono, mononucleosis, mumps, pregnancy, respiratory infections, roseola, rubella, varicella Family Health, ...

  8. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  9. Flu fighters use the Web to track virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantanzaro, Michele

    2009-04-01

    Physicists in Italy have begun analysing data from a new Web-based project that seeks to model how flu spreads through a population. The project, known as Influweb, involved some 2000 ordinary Italians replying over the last six months to a weekly e-mailed questionnaire about their state of health and current geographical location. The project will be able to pin down the spread of flu in real time and with a spatial resolution on the level of a person's postcode.

  10. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  11. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease.

  12. Flu Vaccine a Pretty Good Match for Viruses This Year: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163624.html Flu Vaccine a Pretty Good Match for Viruses This Year: ... News) -- It's not perfect, but this year's flu vaccine is a fairly good match for the circulating ...

  13. Most U.S. Kids Who Die from Flu Are Unvaccinated

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164426.html Most U.S. Kids Who Die From Flu Are Unvaccinated Researchers estimate ... Researchers found that about three-quarters of U.S. kids who died of flu complications between 2010 and ...

  14. Lessons from the past: familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918.

    PubMed

    Gottfredsson, Magnús; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Jónsson, Stefán; Kristjánsson, Már; Kristjánsson, Kristleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G; Löve, Arthur; Blöndal, Thorsteinn; Viboud, Cécile; Thorvaldsson, Sverrir; Helgason, Agnar; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Stefánsson, Kári; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif

    2008-01-29

    The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21-50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter of 1918, representing >92% of all fatal domestic cases mentioned by historical accounts. The highest case fatality proportion was 2.8%, and peak excess mortality was 162/100,000/week. Fatality proportions were highest among infants, young adults, and the elderly. A genealogical database was used to study relatedness and relative risk (RR) of the fatal influenza victims and relatives of their unaffected mates. The significance of these RR computations was assessed by drawing samples randomly from the genealogical database matched for age, sex, and geographical distribution. Familial aggregation of fatalities was seen, with RRs for death ranging from 3.75 for first-degree relatives (P < 0.0001) to 1.82 (P = 0.005), 1.12 (P = 0.252), and 1.47 (P = 0.0001) for second- to fourth-degree relatives of fatal influenza victims, respectively. The RRs within the families of unaffected mates of fatal influenza victims were 2.95 (P < 0.0001), 1.27 (P = 0.267), 1.35 (P = 0.04), and 1.42 (P = 0.001), for first- to fourth-degree relatives, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of death from the Spanish flu was similar within families of patients who succumbed to the illness and within families of their mates who survived. Our data do not provide conclusive evidence for the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to the Spanish flu.

  15. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  16. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed.

  17. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  18. Declining Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald H.; Perrin, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association's (TIAA) College Retirement and Equity Fund is criticized for its low returns and its chief executive officer's recent salary raise. It is said to be in need of additional regulation and policyholder involvement. A TIAA vice president responds that the analysis given is inaccurate and misleading.…

  19. [The military role in a flu pandemic].

    PubMed

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the

  20. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... after you've been vaccinated, call your doctor right away. Pregnant women who catch the flu may need to take antiviral medicine to decrease the chances of developing complications. *Names have been changed to protect user privacy. ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  1. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  2. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  3. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  4. Limit Asthma Attacks Caused by Colds or Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attack. References Bailey W, et al. Trigger control to enhance asthma management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 19, ... Flu and people with asthma. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... and Management of Asthma. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. ...

  5. Flu, risks, and videotape: escalating fear and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S; Prager, Fynnwin

    2012-04-01

    While extensive risk perception research has focused on emotions, cognitions, and behavior at static points in time, less attention has been paid to how these variables might change over time. This study assesses how negative affect, threat beliefs, perceived risk, and intended avoidance behavior change over the course of an escalating biological disaster. A scenario simulation methodology was used that presents respondents with a video simulation of a 15-day series of local news reports to immerse respondents in the developing details of the disaster. Systemic manipulation of the virus's causal origin (terrorist attack, medical lab accident, unknown) and the respondent's proximity to the virus (local vs. opposite coast) allowed us to investigate the dynamics of public response. The unfolding scenario was presented in discrete episodes, allowing responses to be tracked over the episodes. The sample includes 600 respondents equally split by sex and by location, with half in the Washington, DC area, and half in the Los Angeles area. The results showed respondents' reactions to the flu epidemic increased as the disaster escalated. More importantly, there was considerable consistency across respondents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to the epidemic over the episodes. In addition, the reactions of respondents proximally closer to the epidemic increased more rapidly and with greater intensity than their distant counterparts. Finally, as the flu epidemic escalated, both terrorist and accidental flu releases were perceived as being less risky and were less likely to lead to avoidance behavior compared to the unknown flu release.

  6. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  7. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  8. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model.

  9. Novel Isoprene Sensor for a Flu Virus Breath Monitor

    PubMed Central

    Gouma, Pelagia-Irene; Wang, Lisheng; Simon, Sanford R.; Stanacevic, Milutin

    2017-01-01

    A common feature of the inflammatory response in patients who have actually contracted influenza is the generation of a number of volatile products of the alveolar and airway epithelium. These products include a number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitric oxide (NO). These may be used as biomarkers to detect the disease. A portable 3-sensor array microsystem-based tool that can potentially detect flu infection biomarkers is described here. Whether used in connection with in-vitro cell culture studies or as a single exhale breathalyzer, this device may be used to provide a rapid and non-invasive screening method for flu and other virus-based epidemics. PMID:28117692

  10. Flu Vaccination: The Gap Between Evidence and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Forcades i Vila, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this article exposes a wide gap between evidence and public policy with regard to influenza vaccination in the context of the 2009 pandemic and with regard to yearly seasonal epidemics. It shows that the World Health Organization and health authorities worldwide failed to protect the interests of the most vulnerable during the 2009 flu pandemic and demonstrates a lack of scientific base for seasonal flu vaccination campaigns. Narrowing the gap between scientific evidence and public health policies with regard to influenza is a serious and urgent matter, one that implies confronting the interests of big pharmaceutical corporations and their allies at academic and government levels. The credibility of science and the well-being of many are at stake.

  11. New tools to anticipate disasters, epidemics, flu outbreaks.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Researchers at the Johns Hopkins National Center for the Study of Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response (PACER) in Baltimore, MD, have unveiled three new web-based tools that hospitals, EDs, and public health authorities can use to help them prepare for surges related to disasters, epidemics, and seasonal flu outbreaks. The prediction models, including EMCAPS 2.0, Surge, and FluCast, are designed to give health care administrators a better idea of anticipated patient volumes as well as the number and types of injuries that are likely to result from specific disaster scenarios. The web-based tools are being made available free of charge. Users just need to register and establish an account on the PACER website. Further refinements to all three tools are planned as user feedback is collected and results are assessed.

  12. Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-12

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability...Limitation Edward C. Liu Legislative Attorney February 12, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RS22327 Report Documentation...Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the

  13. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system.

  14. Avian flu: sites seek to respond and reassure.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Marilynn

    2005-03-01

    Avian flu outbreaks in Thailand and Vietnam, followed by a reported case of human-to-human transmission in Cambodia (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2005_02_02/en/) prompted rapid responses by health authorities around the world. The WHO and local health ministries launched investigations into the potential source(s) of the outbreaks, and millions of ducks and other farm poultry were slaughtered (http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/feb0205cambodian.html). The US Centers for Disease Control responded by elevating its previous advice to travellers about avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia from an Outbreak Notice to a Travel Health Precaution, and increased surveillance for the disease. Some experts predict that the world is on the brink of an avian flu pandemic; others say a pandemic may not be inevitable, but urge caution and ongoing monitoring. The following sites offer background information and the latest news on avian flu.

  15. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  16. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  17. Comparison: Flu Prescription Sales Data from a Retail Pharmacy in the US with Google Flu Trends and US ILINet (CDC) Data as Flu Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) for five years' aggregate data (2007–2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). PMID:22952719

  18. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  19. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  20. FluDetWeb: an interactive web-based system for the early detection of the onset of influenza epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The early identification of influenza outbreaks has became a priority in public health practice. A large variety of statistical algorithms for the automated monitoring of influenza surveillance have been proposed, but most of them require not only a lot of computational effort but also operation of sometimes not-so-friendly software. Results In this paper, we introduce FluDetWeb, an implementation of a prospective influenza surveillance methodology based on a client-server architecture with a thin (web-based) client application design. Users can introduce and edit their own data consisting of a series of weekly influenza incidence rates. The system returns the probability of being in an epidemic phase (via e-mail if desired). When the probability is greater than 0.5, it also returns the probability of an increase in the incidence rate during the following week. The system also provides two complementary graphs. This system has been implemented using statistical free-software (ℝ and WinBUGS), a web server environment for Java code (Tomcat) and a software module created by us (Rdp) responsible for managing internal tasks; the software package MySQL has been used to construct the database management system. The implementation is available on-line from: http://www.geeitema.org/meviepi/fludetweb/. Conclusion The ease of use of FluDetWeb and its on-line availability can make it a valuable tool for public health practitioners who want to obtain information about the probability that their system is in an epidemic phase. Moreover, the architecture described can also be useful for developers of systems based on computationally intensive methods. PMID:19640304

  1. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  2. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  3. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  4. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... at greater risk for serious complications if they get the flu. This includes older people, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain health conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), and persons who live in facilities like nursing homes. Flu ...

  5. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... at greater risk for serious complications if they get the flu. This includes older people, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain health conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), and persons who live in facilities like nursing homes. Flu ...

  6. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  7. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  8. Passive immunity to pandemic H1N1 2009 by swine flu parties.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Nitish; Aggarwal, Pushkar

    2009-12-15

    The general population is concerned about the probable devastating effects of pandemic H1N1 2009. Based upon the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, scientific publications and theories, the idea of swine flu parties to achieve passive immunity against pandemic H1N1 2009 has been proposed. Public health officials have asked the general public not to resort to this method. However, no concrete evidence of the reasoning behind the recommendation has been given. In this paper, we have dynamically modeled the effect of swine flu parties on the immunity achieved and associated mortality for a period of two years. The simulations show that the public should not organize or participate in swine flu parties as they will likely increase swine flu-associated mortality.

  9. Excessive Blinking in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratch on the front surface of the eye), conjunctivitis (pink eye), foreign body in the eye, or ... is excessive blinking treated? If an abrasion or conjunctivitis is diagnosed, eye drops or ointment may be ...

  10. Flu channel drug resistance: a tale of two sites.

    PubMed

    Pielak, Rafal M; Chou, James J

    2010-03-01

    The M2 proteins of influenza A and B virus, AM2 and BM2, respectively, are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize in the viral membrane to form proton-selective channels. Proton conductance of the M2 proteins is required for viral replication; it is believed to equilibrate pH across the viral membrane during cell entry and across the trans-Golgi membrane of infected cells during viral maturation. In addition to the role of M2 in proton conductance, recent mutagenesis and structural studies suggest that the cytoplasmic domains of the M2 proteins also play a role in recruiting the matrix proteins to the cell surface during virus budding. As viral ion channels of minimalist architecture, the membrane-embedded channel domain of M2 has been a model system for investigating the mechanism of proton conduction. Moreover, as a proven drug target for the treatment of influenza A infection, M2 has been the subject of intense research for developing new anti-flu therapeutics. AM2 is the target of two anti-influenza A drugs, amantadine and rimantadine, both belonging to the adamantane class of compounds. However, resistance of influenza A to adamantane is now widespread due to mutations in the channel domain of AM2. This review summarizes the structure and function of both AM2 and BM2 channels, the mechanism of drug inhibition and drug resistance of AM2, as well as the development of new M2 inhibitors as potential anti-flu drugs.

  11. [Mass communication during the "H1N1 flu"].

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E; Martino, G; Balli, M; Puggelli, F; Tiscione, E; Bonaccorsi, G; Bonanni, P

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays communication plays a key role in healthcare, especially when a detailed risk analysis is important for correct information, as in the case of the H1N1 flu virus A. Through our study we have analyzed how the event "H1N1 flu" was addressed by the media, considering the period April 2009-June 2010. We collected the information from "Il Corriere della Sera", "La Repubblica" and "City", in addition to an online site for general information such as "TGCOM". The analyzed peak of daily news was seen a few weeks before the pandemic peak; in addition, after the peak of the pandemic, the interest of the press has completely collapsed, and eventually disappeared altogether. The media can influence the thought and consequentially how the recipients act, leading to a misperception of risk ('risk') and danger ('hazard'). Moreover the institutions and health professionals are not always able to communicate effectively to meet the needs for correct information. It is desirable in the future a greater degree of collaboration between media and authorities to have a clearer simpler and less misleading communication in the health field, helping recipients to act properly.

  12. 13. SETTLING TANK, OVERFLOW DITCH, NORTHEAST SIDE; OVERFLOW DITCH RETURNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SETTLING TANK, OVERFLOW DITCH, NORTHEAST SIDE; OVERFLOW DITCH RETURNED EXCESS WATER TO BEAVER BROOK. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  13. Nonaccommodative convergence excess.

    PubMed

    von Noorden, G K; Avilla, C W

    1986-01-15

    Nonaccommodative convergence excess is a condition in which a patient has orthotropia or a small-angle esophoria or esotropia at distance and a large-angle esotropia at near, not significantly reduced by the addition of spherical plus lenses. The AC/A ratio, determined with the gradient method, is normal or subnormal. Tonic convergence is suspected of causing the convergence excess in these patients. Nonaccommodative convergence excess must be distinguished from esotropia with a high AC/A ratio and from hypoaccommodative esotropia. In 24 patients treated with recession of both medial recti muscles with and without posterior fixation or by posterior fixation alone, the mean correction of esotropia was 7.4 prism diopters at distance and 17 prism diopters at near.

  14. [Excessive daytime sleepiness].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Silva, Rogério Santos; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    2005-05-01

    Sleepiness is a physiological function, and can be defined as increased propension to fall asleep. However, excessive sleepiness (ES) or hypersomnia refer to an abnormal increase in the probability to fall asleep, to take involuntary naps, or to have sleep atacks, when sleep is not desired. The main causes of excessive sleepiness is chronic sleep deprivation, sleep apnea syndrome, narcolepsy, movement disorders during sleep, circadian sleep disorders, use of drugs and medications, or idiopathic hypersomnia. Social, familial, work, and cognitive impairment are among the consequences of hypersomnia. Moreover, it has also been reported increased risk of accidents. The treatment of excessive sleepiness includes treating the primary cause, whenever identified. Sleep hygiene for sleep deprivation, positive pressure (CPAP) for sleep apnea, dopaminergic agents and exercises for sleep-related movement disorders, phototherapy and/or melatonin for circadian disorders, and use of stimulants are the treatment modalities of first choice.

  15. Reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu: Qualitative interviews with callers to NHS Direct

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the early stages of the 2009 swine flu (influenza H1N1) outbreak, the large majority of patients who contacted the health services about the illness did not have it. In the UK, the NHS Direct telephone service was used by many of these patients. We used qualitative interviews to identify the main reasons why people approached NHS Direct with concerns about swine flu and to identify aspects of their contact which were reassuring, using a framework approach. Methods 33 patients participated in semi-structured interviews. All patients had telephoned NHS Direct between 11 and 14 May with concerns about swine flu and had been assessed as being unlikely to have the illness. Results Reasons for seeking advice about swine flu included: the presence of unexpectedly severe flu-like symptoms; uncertainties about how one can catch swine flu; concern about giving it to others; pressure from friends or employers; and seeking 'peace of mind.' Most participants found speaking to NHS Direct reassuring or useful. Helpful aspects included: having swine flu ruled out; receiving an alternative explanation for symptoms; clarification on how swine flu is transmitted; and the perceived credibility of NHS Direct. No-one reported anything that had increased their anxiety and only one participant subsequently sought additional advice about swine flu from elsewhere. Conclusions Future major incidents involving other forms of chemical, biological or radiological hazards may also cause large numbers of unexposed people to seek health advice. Our data suggest that providing telephone triage and information is helpful in such instances, particularly where advice can be given via a trusted, pre-existing service. PMID:20678192

  16. Acute Lung Injury Accompanying Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Flu Vaccination in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Etsuko; Nei, Takahito; Kuzu, Shinichi; Chubachi, Kumi; Nojima, Daisuke; Taniuchi, Namiko; Yamano, Yoshimitsu; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Flu vaccinations are administered worldwide every winter for prevention. We herein describe a case of acute lung injury resulting from a pathologically confirmed alveolar hemorrhage, which may have been closely related to a preceding vaccination for pandemic influenza A of 2009/10. The present patient had been hospitalized with an acute lung injury after flu vaccination one year prior to the present hospitalization, however, he received another flu vaccination. We should consider a vaccine-related adverse reaction as a potential cause of pulmonary disease if patients present with this illness during the winter season.

  17. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak.

  18. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories.

  19. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Cancer.gov

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  20. Reflections on the 1976 Swine Flu Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. Donald

    2006-01-01

    In 1976, 2 recruits at Fort Dix, New Jersey, had an influenzalike illness. Isolates of virus taken from them included A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1n1), a strain similar to the virus believed at the time to be the cause of the 1918 pandemic, commonly known as swine flu. Serologic studies at Fort Dix suggested that >200 soldiers had been infected and that person-to-person transmission had occurred. We review the process by which these events led to the public health decision to mass-vaccinate the American public against the virus and the subsequent events that led to the program's cancellation. Observations of policy and implementation success and failures are presented that could help guide decisions regarding avian influenza. PMID:16494713

  1. 32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Return of public domain land. 644.534 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.534 Return of public domain land. (a) General. The procedures... Department of the Army to assist and advise the land holder and protect the public from dangerous...

  2. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    search for chemical biosignatures to understand the habitability potential of the subsurface ocean of Enceladus [Glavin et al. 2011]. By assessing the chiral excess among different amino acids, identifying chains of amino acids, isolate distinct sequences of these chains and the same for nucleic acids, we can formulate a new set of hypotheses to address some of the key science questions required for investigating the stage of extraterrestrial life at Enceladus beyond the four factors of habitability. Criticality of Analyses - For extraterrestrial organic matter analyses such as chirality and compound-specific isotopes, the repeatable robustness of laboratory measurements is a necessity. These analyses require a series of chemical extraction and derivatization steps prior to analysis that is adapted to the sample and procedures results-driven. The Stardust mission is an excellent example of the challenges in the analysis of organics. Confirmation of the cometary origin of the amino acid glycine from comet Wild 2 was obtained 3 years after the samples were returned to Earth. This long period of laboratory development allowed several modifications to the extraction protocol, multiple analytical techniques and instrumentations. Reference: Tsou et al., Astrobiology, in press 2012. McKay et al. Astrobiology 2008. Waite et al. Nature V 460 I 7254, 2009. Postberg et al. EPSC 642P 2011. Glavin et al., LPSC, #5002, 2011.

  3. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess.

  4. A Multicenter Retrospective Review of Prone Position Ventilation (PPV) in Treatment of Severe Human H7N9 Avian Flu

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun; Zhou, Lixin; He, Weiqun; Chen, Sibei; Nong, Lingbo; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Tieou; Li, Yimin; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually have a poor clinical outcome. Prone position ventilation (PPV) has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with severe ARDS. This study explored the effects of PPV on the respiratory and circulatory mechanics of H7N9-infected patients with severe ARDS. Methods Individuals admitted to four hospitals designated for H7N9 patients in Guangdong province were treated with PPV, and their clinical data were recorded before and after receiving PPV. Results Six of 20 critically ill patients in the ICU received PPV. After treatment with 35 PPV sessions, the oxygenation index (OI) values of the six patients when measured post-PPV and post-supine position ventilation (SPV) were significantly higher than those measured pre-PPV (P < 0.05).The six patients showed no significant differences in their values for respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (TV) or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean values for arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), lactic acid (LAC) levels or the doses of norepinephrine (NE) administered when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Conclusion PPV provided improved oxygenation that was sustained after returning to a supine position, and resulted in decreased carbon dioxide retention. PPV can thus serve as an alternative lung protective ventilation strategy for use in patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe ARDS. PMID:26317621

  5. Synthesis of full length PB1-F2 influenza A virus proteins from 'Spanish flu' and 'bird flu'.

    PubMed

    Röder, René; Bruns, Karsten; Sharma, Alok; Eissmann, André; Hahn, Friedrich; Studtrucker, Nicole; Fossen, Torgils; Wray, Victor; Henklein, Peter; Schubert, Ulrich

    2008-08-01

    The proapoptotic influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein contributes to viral pathogenicity and is present in most human and avian isolates. Previous synthetic protocols have been improved to provide a synthetic full length H1N1 type PB1-F2 protein that is encoded by the 'Spanish flu' isolate and an equivalent protein from an avian host that is representative of a highly pathogenic H5N1 'bird flu' isolate, termed SF2 and BF2, respectively. Full length SF2, different mutants of BF2 and a number of fragments of these peptides have been synthesized by either the standard solid-phase peptide synthesis method or by native chemical ligation of unprotected N- and C-terminal peptide fragments. For SF2 chemical ligation made use of the histidine and the cysteine residues located in positions 41 and 42 of the native sequence, respectively, to afford a highly efficient synthesis of SF2 compared to the standard SPPS elongation method. By-product formation at the aspartic acid residue in position 23 was prevented by specific modifications of the SPPS protocol. As the native sequence of BF2 does not contain a cysteine residue two different mutants of BF2 (Y42C) and BF2 (S47C) with appropriate cysteine exchanges were produced. In addition to the full length molecules, fragments of the native sequences were synthesized for comparison of their physical characteristics with those from the H1N1 human isolate A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). All peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and SDS-PAGE. The protocols allow the synthesis of significant amounts of PB1-F2 and its related peptides.

  6. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... medications. In contrast, clinicians may have overprescribed common antibiotics. The authors of the study concluded that more ...

  7. What You Should Know and Do This Flu Season If You Are 65 Years and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... Influenza Vaccine Safety: A Summary for Clinicians Large-Scale Influenza Vaccination Clinic Planning Flu Vaccine Effectiveness 2005- ... Prevention & Control of Influenza in the Peri- and Postpartum Settings Interim Guidance for the Use of Masks ...

  8. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  9. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  10. Is It a Cold or The Flu? Here's How to Tell

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162821.html Is It a Cold or the Flu? Here's How to ... 30, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- It's a miserable feeling -- you're exhausted, your throat ...

  11. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  12. Flu Shot May Curb Respiratory Infections in People with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shot May Curb Respiratory Infections in People With Heart Failure Doctors should consider high-dose vaccine for those ... HealthDay News) -- Flu and pneumonia vaccines may reduce heart failure patients' risk of dangerous respiratory infections, a new ...

  13. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A

  14. ["Hardly a house without ill people" The Spanish Flu in Styria].

    PubMed

    Hörzer, Thomas; Kunze, Ursula

    2012-04-01

    This article examines the impact of the Spanish flu at the microscopic level. Main question was if the pandemic killed more people in a selected mountain village than the total men of the village who were being killed during the First World War. Other topics are the reaction of the local government on the flu and which prophylaxis was ordered. The main focus lies on the analysis of the parish registers by graphs.

  15. The global swine flu pandemic 2: infection control measures and preparedness strategies.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This second in a two-part unit on swine flu looks at infection control measures for nurses. During late spring and early summer, increasing numbers of people became infected with novel swine origin influenza type A virus (influenza A(H1N1)v 2009) and a global pandemic started. Part 1 of this unit explored the biology of influenza viruses and the origins and characteristics of flu pandemics. This part reviews viral transmission, infection prevention and control and pandemic preparedness.

  16. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available.

  17. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  18. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread.

  19. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  20. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    possible scenario of the Boomerang mission includes the approach to Deimos prior to the landing of Phobos. The needed excess ΔV w.r.t. simple scenario (elliptical orbit à near-Phobos orbit) amounts to 0.67 km s-1 (1.6 vs 0.93 km s-1). The Boomerang mission basically repeats the Phobos-SR (2011) architecture, where the transfer-orbiting spacecraft lands on the Phobos surface and a small return vehicle launches the return capsule to Earth. We consider the Boomerang mission as an important step in Mars exploration and a direct precursor of Mars Sample Return. The following elements of the Boomerang mission might be directly employed, or serve as the prototypes for the Mars Sample return in future: Return vehicle, Earth descent module, Transfer-orbital spacecraft. We urge the development of this project for its high science value and recognize its elements as potential national contribution to an international Mars Sample Return project. Galimov E.M., Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation, Solar System Res., v.44, No.1, pp5-14, 2010. Chappaz L., H.J. Melosh, M. Vaguero, and K.C. Howell, Material transfer from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos, 43rd Lunar and planetary Science Conference, paper 1422, 2012.

  1. Visibility Estimation for the CHARA/JouFLU Exozodi Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Paul D.; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Mennesson, Bertrand; Scott, Nicholas J.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the estimation of the interferometric visibility (fringe contrast) for the Exozodi survey conducted at the CHARA array with the JouFLU beam combiner. We investigate the use of the statistical median to estimate the uncalibrated visibility from an ensemble of fringe exposures. Under a broad range of operating conditions, numerical simulations indicate that this estimator has a smaller bias compared with other estimators. We also propose an improved method for calibrating visibilities, which not only takes into account the time interval between observations of calibrators and science targets, but also the uncertainties of the calibrators’ raw visibilities. We test our methods with data corresponding to stars that do not display the exozodi phenomenon. The results of our tests show that the proposed method yields smaller biases and errors. The relative reduction in bias and error is generally modest, but can be as high as ∼ 20 % {--}40 % for the brightest stars of the CHARA data and statistically significant at the 95% confidence level (CL).

  2. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions.

  3. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Smolinski, Mark S.; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Chunara, Rumi; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Wójcik, Oktawia; Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, Andre; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We summarized Flu Near You (FNY) data from the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons in the United States. Methods. FNY collects limited demographic characteristic information upon registration, and prompts users each Monday to report symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced during the previous week. We calculated the descriptive statistics and rates of ILI for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons. We compared raw and noise-filtered ILI rates with ILI rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ILINet surveillance system. Results. More than 61 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2012–2013 season, totaling 327 773 reports. Nearly 40 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2013–2014 season, totaling 336 933 reports. Rates of ILI as reported by FNY tracked closely with ILINet in both timing and magnitude. Conclusions. With increased participation, FNY has the potential to serve as a viable complement to existing outpatient, hospital-based, and laboratory surveillance systems. Although many established systems have the benefits of specificity and credibility, participatory systems offer advantages in the areas of speed, sensitivity, and scalability. PMID:26270299

  4. A rapid method for assessing social versus independent interest in health issues: a case study of 'bird flu' and 'swine flu'.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Effective communication strategies regarding health issues are affected by the way in which the public obtain their knowledge, particularly whether people become interested independently, or through their social networks. This is often investigated through localized ethnography or surveys. In rapidly-evolving situations, however, there may also be a need for swift, case-specific assessment as a guide to initial strategy development. With this aim, we analyze real-time online data, provided by the new 'Google Trends' tool, concerning Internet search frequency for health-related issues. To these data we apply a simple model to characterise the effective degree of social transmission versus decisions made individually. As case examples, we explore two rapidly-evolved issues, namely the world-wide interest in avian influenza, or 'bird flu', in 2005, and in H1N1, or 'swine flu', from late April to early May 2009. The 2005 'bird flu' scare demonstrated almost pure imitation for two months initially, followed by a spike of independent decision that corresponded with an announcement by US president George Bush. For 'swine flu' in 2009, imitation was the more prevalent throughout. Overall, the results show how interest in health scares can spread primarily by social means, and that engaging more independent decisions at the population scale may require a dramatic announcement to push a populace over the 'tipping point'.

  5. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men) to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic. PMID:21078169

  6. Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ... Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding Iron Deficiency Anemia Vitamin Deficiency Anemia Anemia of Chronic Disease Aplastic Anemia Autoimmune ...

  7. Consequences of excess iodine

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 μg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. PMID:24342882

  8. Returning to practice.

    PubMed

    Holland, S

    1994-03-01

    All too often health visitors seeking to return to practice following a career break are met with negative response, writes Stevie Holland. Here she recounts the words and experiences of some of the health visitors who enrolled on the HVA's open learning 'Return to practice' courses in recent years. The health visiting profession needs to encourage the enthusiasm and innovation of returners if it is to survive in today's political climate, she warns.

  9. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  10. Timely detection of localized excess influenza activity in Northern California across patient care, prescription, and laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sharon K; Kulldorff, Martin; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard J; Kleinman, Kenneth P; Hsu, John; Platt, Richard

    2011-02-28

    Timely detection of clusters of localized influenza activity in excess of background seasonal levels could improve situational awareness for public health officials and health systems. However, no single data type may capture influenza activity with optimal sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness, and it is unknown which data types could be most useful for surveillance. We compared the performance of 10 types of electronic clinical data for timely detection of influenza clusters throughout the 2007/08 influenza season in northern California. Kaiser Permanente Northern California generated zip code-specific daily episode counts for: influenza-like illness (ILI) diagnoses in ambulatory care (AC) and emergency departments (ED), both with and without regard to fever; hospital admissions and discharges for pneumonia and influenza; antiviral drugs dispensed (Rx); influenza laboratory tests ordered (Tests); and tests positive for influenza type A (FluA) and type B (FluB). Four credible events of localized excess illness were identified. Prospective surveillance was mimicked within each data stream using a space-time permutation scan statistic, analyzing only data available as of each day, to evaluate the ability and timeliness to detect the credible events. AC without fever and Tests signaled during all four events and, along with Rx, had the most timely signals. FluA had less timely signals. ED, hospitalizations, and FluB did not signal reliably. When fever was included in the ILI definition, signals were either delayed or missed. Although limited to one health plan, location, and year, these results can inform the choice of data streams for public health surveillance of influenza.

  11. Alleviating CTAC and Flu combined pollution damage in Chlorella vulgaris by exogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liang, Zhijie; Ge, Fei; Xu, Yin; Yang, Liang; Zeng, Hui

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of sodium nitroprussiate (SNP), an exogenous NO-donor, on the joint toxicity of binary mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and fluoranthene (Flu) (CTAC/Flu), which are representatives for surfactants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) respectively, in a unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). The results showed that the addition of low SNP (20μM) alleviated the CTAC/Flu combined pollution damage in C. vulgaris. Supplement of low SNP significantly increased the algae biomass, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) as compared to CTAC/Flu treatment alone. SNP also reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the reactive oxygen species (ROS), as compared with CTAC/Flu treated alone. On the contrary, the above phenomena were reversed when high concentration of SNP (100μM) was added. Our study indicated that the damage of the joint action of surfactants and PAHs on hydrobios can be alleviated through protecting against oxidant substances and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes with an exogenous supply of NO in certain concentration range.

  12. Necessity to critically review the automatic results of the Xpert Flu assay.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Ilka; Alidjinou, Enagnon Kazali; Lazrek, Mouna; Dewilde, Anny; Hober, Didier

    2017-02-02

    While using the Xpert Flu assay we became aware of false-negative results. The study aimed to analyze the causes of these false-negative results. One hundred fifty-nine respiratory specimens were tested in the Xpert Flu assay and in multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) for respiratory viruses. Discordant specimens were tested in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. One hundred fifty-two (96%) and 151 (95%) specimens yielded concordant results for influenza A and B, respectively. Fifteen specimens tested negative in the Xpert Flu assay and positive in a multiplex RT-PCR. Positive results were confirmed for 12 of these specimens in the Influenza A/B r-gene assay. Xpert Flu assay amplification curves and endpoints suggested that the false-negative results were mainly due to erroneous automatic result interpretation. We report false-negative results of the Xpert Flu assay due to erroneous automatic result interpretation. Careful analysis of amplification curves and endpoints is needed to avoid reporting of false-negative results.

  13. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-01-01

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued. PMID:17038194

  14. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front.

    PubMed

    Lim, Meng-Kin

    2006-10-13

    If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu - winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

  15. Does correcting myths about the flu vaccine work? An experimental evaluation of the effects of corrective information.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason

    2015-01-09

    Seasonal influenza is responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars of medical costs per year in the United States, but influenza vaccination coverage remains substantially below public health targets. One possible obstacle to greater immunization rates is the false belief that it is possible to contract the flu from the flu vaccine. A nationally representative survey experiment was conducted to assess the extent of this flu vaccine misperception. We find that a substantial portion of the public (43%) believes that the flu vaccine can give you the flu. We also evaluate how an intervention designed to address this concern affects belief in the myth, concerns about flu vaccine safety, and future intent to vaccinate. Corrective information adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website significantly reduced belief in the myth that the flu vaccine can give you the flu as well as concerns about its safety. However, the correction also significantly reduced intent to vaccinate among respondents with high levels of concern about vaccine side effects--a response that was not observed among those with low levels of concern. This result, which is consistent with previous research on misperceptions about the MMR vaccine, suggests that correcting myths about vaccines may not be an effective approach to promoting immunization.

  16. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  17. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

  18. Evaluation of the rapid influenza detection tests GOLD SIGN FLU and Quick Navi-Flu for the detection of influenza A and B virus antigens in adults during the influenza season.

    PubMed

    Akaishi, Yu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshimi; Hirayama, Yoji

    2016-11-01

    As the characteristics and accuracy of rapid influenza detection tests (RIDTs) vary, the development of a high-performance RIDT has been eagerly anticipated. In this study, the new RIDT GOLD SIGN FLU and the existing RIDT Quick Navi-Flu were evaluated in terms of detecting the antigens of influenza viruses A and B in Japanese adults with influenza-like symptoms. The study was performed from December 2013 to March 2014. Among the 123 patients from whom nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected, 59 tested positive by viral isolation as the gold standard method (influenza A, n=38; influenza B, n=21). For GOLD SIGN FLU, the sensitivities were 73.7% and 81.0%, and the specificities were 97.6% and 98.0% for influenza A and B, respectively. For Quick Navi-Flu, the sensitivities were 86.8% and 85.7%, and the specificities were 98.8% and 100% for influenza A and B, respectively. The time to the appearance of the line on the test strip was less than 3min for influenza A and less than 2min for influenza B with both RIDTs in more than 90% of cases. GOLD SIGN FLU was useful for diagnosing influenza A, and the result was readily available for influenza B particularly among adult patients. Quick Navi-Flu showed better sensitivities and specificities than GOLD SIGN FLU.

  19. The 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu" Outbreak: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-30

    of seasonal flu. Laboratory testing of the new strain indicates that the antiviral drugs oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) are expected...health emergency determination, FDA issued EUAs to allow emergency use of (1) oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and

  20. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)
    <...

  1. Can movie theater advertisements promote health behaviors? Evaluation of a flu vaccination pilot campaign.

    PubMed

    Peddecord, K Michael; Jacobson, Isabel Gomez; Engelberg, Moshe; Kwizera, Lisa; Macias, Violet; Gustafson, Kathleen W

    2008-09-01

    As part of a multimedia campaign to promote annual influenza vaccination, three slides were shown as part of the slide show of advertisements prior to the beginning of previews in movie theaters in San Diego County. Intercept surveys were conducted following the movie. The primary target groups for the campaign were adults with children 6 months to 2 years of age and adults over 50 years of age. Overall, 88% of exposed patrons reported seeing some type of movie ad. Among those who recalled any ad, 24% recalled the flu advertisement. In contrast, recall of flu-related news coverage was high, with over 95% of exposed and comparison interviewees recalling news stories during the campaign period. While 56% of those interviewed remembered one or more specific flu-related news items, individuals within this group who also had also been exposed to the movie ads were not more likely to recall flu campaign advertisements. We describe a method for estimating valid recalls and cost per valid exposure. Further research that compares movie ads with public service announcements (PSAs) in other venues is necessary to solidify our conclusions that movie advertising is a highly cost-effective medium for health communication.

  2. Mathematical formulation and numerical simulation of bird flu infection process within a poultry farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Arrival Rince; Nova, Tertia Delia; Watanabe, M.

    2016-02-01

    Bird flu infection processes within a poultry farm are formulated mathematically. A spatial effect is taken into account for the virus concentration with a diffusive term. An infection process is represented in terms of a traveling wave solutions. For a small removal rate, a singular perturbation analysis lead to existence of traveling wave solutions, that correspond to progressive infection in one direction.

  3. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  4. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  5. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  6. Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2006-01-01

    Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

  7. College students' perceptions of H1N1 flu risk and attitudes toward vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Meagan A; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2011-10-13

    College students are highly susceptible to the H1N1 virus, yet previous studies suggest that college students perceive themselves at low risk for the flu. We surveyed 514 undergraduates to assess their perceptions of H1N1 flu risk and opinions about flu vaccines. A third of respondents stated that they were not at risk of getting the H1N1 flu because they were young. Responses indicated a distrust of the safety and effectiveness of influenza vaccinations; only 15.8% of participants planned on receiving H1N1 vaccination. Top reasons for refusing the H1N1 vaccine included questioning vaccine safety and effectiveness, and concerns about potential serious and/or benign side effects. Top reasons for H1N1 vaccination acceptance included receiving a doctor recommendation for the vaccine, having previously gotten a seasonal vaccine, and being at high-risk for influenza. Our findings suggest that college students are inaccurate in assessing their risk level and are unlikely to seek vaccinations.

  8. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  9. The effects of a hot drink on nasal airflow and symptoms of common cold and flu.

    PubMed

    Sanu, A; Eccles, R

    2008-12-01

    Hot drinks are a common treatment for common cold and flu but there are no studies reported in the scientific and clinical literature on this mode of treatment. This study investigated the effects of a hot fruit drink on objective and subjective measures of nasal airflow, and on subjective scores for common cold/flu symptoms in 30 subjects suffering from common cold/flu. The results demonstrate that the hot drink had no effect on objective measurement of nasal airflow but it did cause a significant improvement in subjective measures of nasal airflow. The hot drink provided immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness and tiredness, whereas the same drink at room temperature only provided relief from symptoms of runny nose, cough and sneezing. The effects of the drinks are discussed in terms of a placebo effect and physiological effects on salivation and airway secretions. In conclusion the results support the folklore that a hot tasty drink is a beneficial treatment for relief of most symptoms of common cold and flu.

  10. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared.

  11. A Content Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of the Seasonal Flu Vaccine in Ontario, Canada, October 2001 to March 2011.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Samantha B; Lu, Stephanie K; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Smale, Bryan; MacDougall, Heather; Pearce, Alex R

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal flu vaccine uptake has fallen dramatically over the past decade in Ontario, Canada, despite promotional efforts by public health officials. Media can be particularly influential in shaping the public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. We therefore sought to identify the nature of the relationship between risk messages about getting the seasonal flu vaccine in newspaper coverage and the uptake of the vaccine by Ontarians between 2001 and 2010. A content analysis was conducted to quantify risk messages in newspaper content for each year of analysis. The quantification allowed us to test the correlation between the frequency of risk messages and vaccination rates. During the time period 2001-2010, vaccination rates were positively and significantly related to the frequency of risk messages in newspaper coverage (r = .691, p < .05). The most commonly identified risk messages related to the flu vaccine being ineffective, the flu vaccine being poorly understood by science, and the flu vaccine causing harm. Newspaper coverage plays an important role in shaping public response to seasonal flu vaccine campaigns. Public health officials should work alongside media to ensure that the public are exposed to information necessary for making informed decisions regarding vaccination.

  12. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-07-06

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27,000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch.

  13. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  14. [Excessive sweating related to hydromorphone].

    PubMed

    Vinit, J; Devilliers, H; Audia, S; Leguy, V; Mura, H; Falvo, N; Berthier, S; Besancenot, J-F; Bonnotte, B; Lorcerie, B

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse and abundant sweating in a middle age patient evolving for several weeks should raise suspicion of malignant lymphoma and infectious or neuroendocrine disorders before considering a drug origin. We report a patient who presented with severe and invalidating excessive sweating related to hydromorphone therapy for vertebral pain. Amongst their many reported side-effects, excessive sweating disappearing with discontinuation of the drug have been reported with some opiates.

  15. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  16. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  17. Cyclic variations in the dynamics of flu incidence in Azerbaijan, 1976-2000.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, B D; Babayev, E S

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in influenza (flu) incidence had been observed in various countries (e.g. periods T = 1, 2-3, 5-6, 8·0, 10·6-11·3, 13, 18-19 years) and its close similarity with cycles in natural environmental phenomena as meteorological factors and heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested. This report aimed at verifying previous results on cyclic patterns of flu incidence by exploring whether flu annual cyclicity (seasonality) and trans-year (13 to <24 months) and/or multiannual (long-term, ⩾24 months) cycles might be present. For this purpose, a relatively long monthly flu incidence dataset consisting of absolute numbers of new cases from the Grand Baku area, Azerbaijan, for the years 1976-2000 (300 months) was analysed. The exploration of underlying chronomes or, time structures, was done by linear and nonlinear parametric regression models, autocorrelation, spectral analysis and periodogram regression analysis. We analysed temporal dynamics and described multicomponent cyclicity, determining its statistical significance. The analysis, considering the flu data specifically stratified in three distinct intervals (1976-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000), and also combinations thereof, indicated that the main cyclic pattern was a seasonal one, with a period of T = 12 months. Further, a number of multiannual cycles with periods T in the ranges of 26-36, 62-85 or 113-162 months were observed, i.e. average periods of 2·5, 6·1 and 11·5 years, respectively. Indeed, most of these cycles correspond to similar cyclic parameters of HGA and further analyses are warranted to investigate such relationships. In conclusion, our study revealed the presence of multicomponent cyclic dynamics in influenza incidence by using relatively long time-series of monthly data. The specific cyclic patterns of flu incidence in Azerbaijan allows further, more specific modelling and correlations with environmental factors of similar cyclicity, e.g. HGA, to be explored. These results

  18. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B.

  19. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess...

  20. [Evaluation of a novel flu vaccination campaign among health personnel for the 2011-2012 season].

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ángeles, Roberto; Villanueva-Ruiz, César O; García-Román, Vicente; Mendoza-García, José L; Conesa-Peñuela, F Javier; Tenza Iglesias, Isidra; García Shimizu, Patricia; Sánchez-Payá, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the healthcare personnel seasonal influenza immunization program in the 2011-2012 flu season. The campaign included several innovative actions (informational brochure, recommendations for unvaccinated staff to wear a mask, acknowledgement letters, etc). Coverage and characteristics of the health personnel were compared with the previous season using the chi-square test. Vaccination coverage for the 2011-12 flu season was 26.5%, compared to 24.5% achieved in 2010-2011 (p=0.052). The improvement in vaccination coverage approached statistical significance but remains very low. To improve these low vaccination levels, we recommend developing other strategies, such as incentive policies or making vaccination mandatory.

  1. Xpert Flu for point-of-care diagnosis of human influenza in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory infections, particularly those caused by influenza viruses, represent the third-most important cause of death in the world due to infectious diseases. Nevertheless, despite the enormous publicity attracted by epidemics due to these viruses, laboratory diagnosis, documentation and recording of respiratory diseases is still unsatisfactory. Available diagnostic tests capable of providing results rapidly are either limited and insufficiently sensitive or highly sensitive and specific but insufficiently rapid. Considerable investment and research efforts have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for influenza A and B viruses and the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid(®), CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review current knowledge of the Xpert Flu test, discuss its potential value as a point-of-care test and outline the potential leads for future development.

  2. [Among doctors and for the lay: fragments of the medical discourse during the 1918 flu epidemic].

    PubMed

    Bertucci-Martins, Liane Maria

    2005-01-01

    News from Europe of a new epidemic, called the Spanish influenza or Spanish flu, began appearing in São Paulo city newspapers in June 1918. On 15 October, the State Sanitation Service confirmed the occurrence of the first cases in the city. From among the discussions on the nature of the disease and the various treatment proposals then brought forward, I highlight two suggested treatments: the recommendations approved by the São Paulo Academy of Medicine, and "mercurialization." In this effort to organize knowledge about the Spanish flu and, indirectly, to instruct the population at large, proposals and debates surrounding forms of treatment demonstrated both how medical-scientific discourse was developed and how it was growing ever more arcane to the general population.

  3. Improvement of the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine using PapMV nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Savard, Christian; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilène; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic.

  4. 26 CFR 54.6011-1 - General requirement of return, statement, or list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... return, statement, or list. (a) Minimum funding standards or excess contributions for self-employed... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirement of return, statement, or list. 54.6011-1 Section 54.6011-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  6. Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system. PMID:23927386

  7. The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) ’Swine Flu’ Outbreak: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-20

    Tamiflu and Relenza, respiratory protection devices, and other medical supplies, from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), to help states respond to... medical visits, and other measures. One CDC official commented that reported cases of H1N1 flu probably represent only a fraction of actual cases...with good hygienic practices recommended by the WHO, FAO, Codex Alimentarius Commission and the OIE, will not be a source of infection. To date there

  8. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Implications for Homeland Security in the New Millennium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-09

    of the early findings revealed that essentially all flu viruses in circulation today represent genetic offspring of the1918 virus , but it seems clear...each year and that allows it to cross species is called reassortment.49 Reassortment occurs when two different viruses , say a human virus and a bird...the nation’s health and security. This paper reviews the 1918 pandemic, explores concerns about the avian influenza virus H5N1, and considers

  9. Impact of the flu mask regulation on health care personnel influenza vaccine acceptance rates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Frances; Masick, Kevin D; Armellino, Donna

    2016-10-01

    Achieving high vaccination rates of health care personnel (HCP) is critical in preventing influenza transmission from HCP to patients and from patients to HCP; however, acceptance rates remain low. In 2013, New York State adopted the flu mask regulation, requiring unvaccinated HCP to wear a mask when in areas where patients are present. The purpose of this study assessed the impact of the flu mask regulation on the HCP influenza vaccination rate. A 13-question survey was distributed electronically and manually to the HCP to examine their knowledge of influenza transmission and the influenza vaccine and their personal vaccine acceptance history and perception about the use of the mask while working if not vaccinated. There were 1,905 respondents; 87% accepted the influenza vaccine, and 63% were first-time recipients who agreed the regulation influenced their vaccination decision. Of the respondents who declined the vaccine, 72% acknowledge HCP are at risk for transmitting influenza to patients, and 56% reported they did not receive enough information to make an educated decision. The flu mask protocol may have influenced HCP's choice to be vaccinated versus wearing a mask. The study findings supported that HCP may not have adequate knowledge on the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Regulatory agencies need to consider an alternative approach to increase HCP vaccination, such as mandating the influenza vaccine for HCP.

  10. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored.

  11. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  12. Light and Excess Manganese1

    PubMed Central

    González, Alonso; Steffen, Kenneth L.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of light intensity on antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and chlorophyll content was studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to excess Mn. Leaves of bean genotypes contrasting in Mn tolerance were exposed to two different light intensities and to excess Mn; light was controlled by shading a leaflet with filter paper. After 5 d of Mn treatment ascorbate was depleted by 45% in leaves of the Mn-sensitive genotype ZPV-292 and by 20% in the Mn-tolerant genotype CALIMA. Nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and glutathione reductase were not affected by Mn or light treatment. Ten days of Mn-toxicity stress increased leaf ascorbate peroxidase activity of cv ZPV-292 by 78% in low light and by 235% in high light, and superoxide dismutase activity followed a similar trend. Increases of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity observed in cv CALIMA were lower than those observed in the susceptible cv ZPV-292. The cv CALIMA had less ascorbate oxidation under excess Mn-toxicity stress. Depletion of ascorbate occurred before the onset of chlorosis in Mn-stressed plants, especially in cv ZPV-292. Lipid peroxidation was not detected in floating leaf discs of mature leaves exposed to excess Mn. Our results suggest that Mn toxicity may be mediated by oxidative stress, and that the tolerant genotype may maintain higher ascorbate levels under stress than the sensitive genotype. PMID:9765534

  13. Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem

    2004-02-01

    Sexual behavior changes as well as depression, anxiety, and organic mood/personality disorders have been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients before and after epilepsy surgery. The authors describe a 14-year-old girl with symptoms of excessive masturbation in inappropriate places, social withdrawal, irritability, aggressive behavior, and crying spells after selective amygdalohippocampectomy for medically intractable TLE with hippocampal sclerosis. Since the family members felt extremely embarrassed, they were upset and angry with the patient which, in turn, increased her depressive symptoms. Both her excessive masturbation behavior and depressive symptoms remitted within 2 months of psychoeducative intervention and treatment with citalopram 20mg/day. Excessive masturbation is proposed to be related to the psychosocial changes due to seizure-free status after surgery as well as other possible mechanisms such as Kluver-Bucy syndrome features and neurophysiologic changes associated with the cessation of epileptic discharges. This case demonstrates that psychiatric problems and sexual changes encountered after epilepsy surgery are possibly multifactorial and in adolescence hypersexuality may be manifested as excessive masturbation behavior.

  14. OUTFLOWS IN SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2015-08-10

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  15. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

    2015-04-01

    A total of 281 clinical specimens (nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) were tested with the Xpert® Flu/RSV XC. The results were compared to those obtained with the real-time retro transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays routinely used in our laboratory. The Xpert® Flu/RSV XC showed sensitivity/specificity of 97.8%/100% and 97.9%/100% for flu and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively.

  16. The first announcement about the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic in Greece through the writings of the pioneer newspaper "Thessalia" almost a century ago.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karachaliou, Fotini; Kalogirou, Vasiliki; Gatos, Giorgos; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Antoniou, Antonios; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    A local pioneer newspaper, "Thessalia", was the first to announce the arrival of "Spanish Flu" in Greece. It was July 19th 1918 when an epidemic outbreak occurred in the city of Patras. Until then, "Thessalia" had dealt in depth with the flu pandemic in the Greek district of Thessaly, informing the readers of the measures taken, as well as the social and economic aspects of the flu.

  17. Bird flu, influenza and 1918: the case for mutant Avian tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Influenza is Italian for "influence", Latin: influentia. It used to be thought that the disease was caused by a bad influence from the heavens. Influenza was called a virus long, long before it was proven to be one. In 2005, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine estimated that a recurrence of the 1918 influenza epidemic could kill between 180 million and 360 million people worldwide. A large part of the current bird-flu hysteria is fostered by a distrust among the lay and scientific community regarding the actual state of our knowledge regarding the bird flu or H5N1 and the killer "Influenza" Pandemic of 1918 that it is compared to. And this distrust is not completely unfounded. Traditionally, "flu" does not kill. Experts, including Peter Palese of the Mount School of Medicine in Manhattan, remind us that even in 1992, millions in China already had antibodies to H5N1, meaning that they had contracted it and that their immune system had little trouble fending it off. Dr. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne, UC Berkely demographers, reported in 2000 convincing statistics showing that undetected tuberculosis may have been the real killer in the 1918 flu epidemic. Aware of recent attempts to isolate the "Influenza virus" on human cadavers and their specimens, Noymer and Garenne summed that: "Frustratingly, these findings have not answered the question why the 1918 virus was so virulent, nor do they offer an explanation for the unusual age profile of deaths". Bird flu would certainly be diagnosed in the hospital today as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Roger and others favor suspecting tuberculosis in all cases of acute respiratory failure of unknown origin. By 1918, it could be said, in so far as tuberculosis was concerned, that the world was a supersaturated sponge ready to ignite and that among its most vulnerable parts was the very Midwest where the 1918 unknown pandemic began. It is theorized that the lethal pig epidemic that began in Kansas

  18. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  19. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  20. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  1. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  2. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  3. Excess carbon in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Oxley, M. P.; Puzyrev, Y.; Tuttle, B. R.; Duscher, G.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2010-12-01

    The application of SiC in electronic devices is currently hindered by low carrier mobility at the SiC/SiO2 interfaces. Recently, it was reported that 4H-SiC/SiO2 interfaces might have a transition layer on the SiC substrate side with C/Si ratio as high as 1.2, suggesting that carbon is injected into the SiC substrate during oxidation or other processing steps. We report finite-temperature quantum molecular dynamics simulations that explore the behavior of excess carbon in SiC. For SiC with 20% excess carbon, we find that, over short time (˜24 ps), carbon atoms bond to each other and form various complexes, while the silicon lattice is largely unperturbed. These results, however, suggest that at macroscopic times scale, C segregation is likely to occur; therefore a transition layer with 20% extra carbon would not be stable. For a dilute distribution of excess carbon, we explore the pairing of carbon interstitials and show that the formation of dicarbon interstitial cluster is kinetically very favorable, which suggests that isolated carbon clusters may exist inside SiC substrate.

  4. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  5. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  6. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by...

  7. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and...

  8. Stress fracture of ulna due to excessive push-ups.

    PubMed

    Meena, Sanjay; Rastogi, Devarshi; Solanki, Bipin; Chowdhury, Buddhadev

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities and spine, but are rarely found in non-weight-bearing bones of the body. Stress fracture of the ulna is extremely rare. We report a case of complete stress fracture of ulna caused due to excessive push ups in a young athlete. Conservative management was successful in healing of fracture and returning this patient back to his previous activity level. Physician should have high index of suspicion, whenever they encounter a young athlete complaining of forearm pain.

  9. Return to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  10. Awaiting Halley's Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyn, Herman M.

    2004-01-01

    When Comet Halley perihelioned in early 1986, there were people still around who had witnessed its previous, 1910 apparition. )Then there is Mark Twain, who was born under the comet in 1835, wished for his demise upon its return, and died one day after it perihelioned in 1910!( I so enjoyed my 1986 view of Halley, that I decided I would like to be among those who see it again when it perihelions in 2061. The big problem with this ambition is that I would need to live to a Guinness Book of World's Records age of 131 years. Now, thanks to Randy Showstack's In Brief news note, ``Farthest, faintest detection of a comet'' (Eos, 16 September 2003), I have been handed a fallback position which, literally, I may be able to live with: a telescopic photo of Halley at aphelion.

  11. Returning to freud.

    PubMed

    Chessick, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    In this article I attempt to renew interest in the importance of Freud's work for both the practice of psychoanalysis and in the training of psychoanalysts. I hope to stimulate readers to return to Freud's writings in detail, which seem to be increasingly neglected these days both in training and in the many conflicting contemporary models of psychoanalysis. I propose that the identity of psychoanalysis can still be based on Freud's work, and his approach can form a fundamental center from which there are various channels of divergence that may be useful when the patient seems to need them. But the centerpiece of our training and our orientation, I suggest, should be the basic principles spelled out in Freud's numerous volumes, in spite of the many changes and contradictions and even outright mistakes and cultural blindness he displays in some instances. I proceed to review some of these basic principles in the hope of persuading the reader to return to Freud again. I present these with some commentary from my own 50 years of clinical experience. I briefly review the clinical cornerstones of Freud's approach as developed in his early books, his controversial papers on technique, and his later emendations, which constitute the actual reality of Freud at work in psychoanalysis (that sometimes--and sometimes wisely--violates his papers on technique), and I discuss his notion of curative factors in psychoanalysis. All of this is to revive an interest in Freud's thought and to emphasize the lasting value of his work, both in its contemporary clinical relevance and as the proposed foundation stone of our identity as psychoanalysts.

  12. Excess deferred taxes: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S.

    1985-04-04

    The states originally split on whether to accelerate refunds to customers for overpaid taxes resulting from the decrease in corporate income taxes, but recent regulatory decisions favor a quick payback of excess deferred taxes. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) indicates that this may violate normalization rules for accounting and threaten the utility's eligibility for accelerated depreciation deductions. After reviewing the positions of the IRS, state commissions, and the courts, the author concludes that the debate will continue until the Treasury Department issues definitive regulations. 1 table.

  13. [Google Flu Trends--the initial application of big data in public health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Lei; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-06-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) was the first application of big data in the public health field. GFT was open online in 2009 and attracted worldwide attention immediately. However, GFT failed catching the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and kept overestimating the intensity of influenza-like illness in the 2012-2014 season in the United States. GFT model has been updated for three times since 2009, making its prediction bias controlled. Here, we summarized the mechanism GFT worked, the strategy GFT used to update, and its influence on public health.

  14. JouFLU: an upgraded FLUOR beam combiner at the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomé, E.; Scott, N.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Mollier, B.; Reess, J. M.; Chapron, F.; Buey, T.; Sevin, A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2012-07-01

    FLUOR, which has been operational on CHARA since 2002, is an infrared fiber beam combiner. The telescope array will soon be fitted with an adaptive optics system, which will enhance the interferometer performance. In this framework, FLUOR has been entirely redeveloped and will be able to measure visibilities with higher accuracy and better sensitivity. The technical upgrades consist of improving some existing systems and developing new features. The bench, which is now remotely operable, primarily offers spectral dispersion (long fringes scanning), a more sensitive camera and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mode. This paper presents the detailed opto-mechanical design of JouFLU (FLUOR rejuvenation), and the current instrument status.

  15. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Boon H; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2011-08-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has been learnt from the Pandemic of 2009/2010 but the messages about vaccination and treatment seem to be taken slowly by the clinical profession. Most people affected by the virus, including pregnant women, suffer a mild viral illness, and make a full recovery. The median duration of illness is around seven days. This influenza typically affects the younger age group i.e. from the ages of 5-65 years. Current experience shows that the age group experiencing increased morbidity and mortality rates are in those under 65 years of age. Pregnant women, because of their altered immunity and physiological adaptations, are at higher risk of developing pulmonary complications, especially in the second and third trimesters. In the United Kingdom, twelve maternal deaths were reported to be associated with the H1N1 virus during the pandemic and clear avoidable factors were identified (Modder, Review of Maternal Deaths in the UK related to A H1N1 2009 influenza (CMACE). www.cmace.org.uk, 2010). The pregnancy outcomes were also poor for women who were affected by the virus with a fivefold increase in the perinatal mortality rate and threefold increase in the preterm delivery rate (Yates et al. Health Technol Assess 14(34):109-182, 2010). There continues to be a low uptake of the flu vaccine and commencement of antiviral treatment for pregnant women.

  16. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  17. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  19. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  20. 77 FR 77180 - Notice of Transportation Services' OMB Designation, timely return of excess transit benefits to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... of the Federal internal controls that now govern the Transit Benefit Program to prevent future... that federal agencies strengthen internal controls to ensure compliance with the Federal Transit... with the security controls identified in the DOT's System of Records Notice, DOT/ALL 8...

  1. Evolutionary complexities of swine flu H1N1 gene sequences of 2009.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Niladri Kumar; Roy, Ayan; Das, Ballari; Das, Santasabuj; Basak, Surajit

    2009-12-18

    A recently emerged novel influenza A (H1N1) virus continues to spread globally. The pandemic caused by this new H1N1 swine influenza virus presents an opportunity to analyze the evolutionary significance of the origin of the new strain of swine flu. Our study clearly suggests that strong purifying selection is responsible for the evolution of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus among human. We observed that the 2009 viral sequences are evolutionarily widely different from the past few years' sequences. Rather, the 2009 sequences are evolutionarily more similar to the most ancient sequence reported in the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database collected in 1918. Analysis of evolutionary rates also supports the view that all the genes in the pandemic strain of 2009 except NA and M genes are derived from triple reassorted swine viruses. Our study demonstrates the importance of using complete-genome approach as more sequences will become available to investigate the evolutionary origin of the 1918 influenza A (H1N1) swine flu strain and the possibility of future reassortment events.

  2. Pathology of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) flu.

    PubMed

    Calore, E E; Uip, D E; Perez, N M

    2011-02-15

    Pathological studies would aid in finding the real causes of death and in outlining adequate strategies for treatment regarding patients with poor clinical outcome of influenza A H1N1 swine flu. We describe the autopsy findings of six cases of influenza A H1N1 swine flu. The lungs in these cases had an alveolitis with hyaline membranes. Immunohistochemistry for influenza was positive only in lungs (in pneumocytes, in macrophages, in some multinucleate cells in alveoli, and in blood vessel walls) of two cases. Disseminated petechial brain hemorrhage was observed in four of the cases and focally in one case. Focal myocarditis was observed in one case. Coagulation infarcts (ischemic) were observed in the pancreas of two cases and in the spleen of two cases. Our results indicate that there was marked replication of the virus in alveoli in the more recently infected cases, which could explain the extensive diffuse alveolar damage. In our cases, there were important vascular phenomena that resulted in hemorrhage and thrombosis, but without marked decrease of platelet count and coagulation cascade disruptions. This would be attributed to hemodynamic disruption. However, it is possible that the hemorrhagic petechial lesions in the brain are due to vascular lesions or to an increase of endothelial permeability.

  3. [The Spanish flu in Iceland 1918. Lessons in medicine and history].

    PubMed

    Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Pandemic influenza has emerged 1-3 times each century. The pandemic in 1918, or the "Spanish flu" was caused by a novel influenza strain which caused the death of 21-50 million people world wide. Descriptions of the epidemic in Iceland give a detailed account on how and when the virus was introduced to the population of Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, by the crew of two ships, "Botnía". and "Willemoes" on October 19th 1918. The spread of the illness was extremely rapid and peaked 3 weeks later. It caused significant morbidity and mortality among inhabitants of the southern and western part of Iceland. Within 6 weeks, close to 500 individuals had died, thereof more than 50% in Reykjavik. The attack rate in Reykjavik was at least 63% and the case fatality proportion was close to 2.6%. The age-specific mortality was highest among young children, people 20-40 years of age and the elderly. In addition, pregnant women had extremely poor prognosis (37% case fatality). Attempts to halt the spread of the epidemic to the northern and eastern parts of the island were successful. By identifying the individuals who died from the Spanish flu using historical data, it has recently been shown that genetic factors probably did not play a major role in the pathogenesis of fatal cases. These historical data can be used to assist in planning for new pandemics of influenza, which are believed to be inevitable.

  4. The effects of excessive humidity.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B

    1998-06-01

    Humidification devices and techniques can expose the airway mucosa to a wide range of gas temperatures and humidities, some of which are excessive and may cause injury. Humidified gas is a carrier of both water and energy. The volume of water in the gas stream depends on whether the water is in a molecular form (vapor), particulate form (aerosol), or bulk form (liquid). The energy content of gas stream is the sum of the sensible heat (temperature) of the air and any water droplets in it and the heat of vaporization (latent energy) of any water vapor present. Latent heat energy is much larger than sensible heat energy, so saturated air contains much more energy than dry air. Thus every breath contains a water volume and energy (thermal) challenge to the airway mucosa. When the challenge exceeds the homeostatic mechanisms airway dysfunction begins, starting at the cellular and secretion level and progressing to whole airway function. A large challenge will result in quick progression of dysfunction. Early dysfunction is generally reversible, however, so large challenges with short exposure times may not cause irreversible injury. The mechanisms of airway injury owing to excess water are not well studied. The observation of its effects lends itself to some general conclusions, however. Alterations in the ventilation-perfusion ratio, decrease in vital capacity and compilance, and atelectasis are suggestive of partial or full occlusion of small airways. Changes in surface tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient are consistent with flooding of alveoli. There also may be osmotic challenges to mucosal cell function as evidenced by the different reaction rates with hyper- and hypotonic saline. The reaction to nonisotonic saline also may partly explain increases in specific airway resistance. Aerosolized water and instilled water may be hazardous because of their demonstrated potential for delivering excessive water to the airway. Their use for airway humidification or

  5. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  6. Comparing Prescription Sales, Google Trends and CDC Data as Flu Activity Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Lorber, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if the prescription sales data from a large retail pharmacy chain in the US were comparable to Google Flu trends and CDC’s US ILI Network data as flu activity indicator. Introduction In a 2007 survey of public health officials in the United States, International Society for Disease Surveillance found that only 7% used pharmacy prescription sales data for surveillance (1). There have been many reports suggesting effective use of prescription sales data in syndromic surveillance (2, 3, 4, 5). Community pharmacies can provide a valuable supplementary tool for syndromic surveillance of infectious diseases. Methods We extracted five years of de-identified prescription sales data from the proprietary pharmacy computer system of a large retail pharmacy chain in the United States. The prescriptions were written for the common drugs for the treatment of influenza: Amantadine, Os-eltamivir, Rimantadine, and Zanamivir. We acquired Google Flu trends national aggregate counts data that represented the estimates of the ILI cases per 100,000 physician visits. We acquired CDC ILINET data for 2007. We calculated Pearson ‘r’ between our data and Google and CDC data. We also created comparable trends graphs after converting the counts of the influenza scripts and the counts of the Google estimated ILI cases to logarithmic scale. Results The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts for all the four drugs and the Google estimates of the ILI cases for years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75–0.91), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95), 0.91(95% CI, 0.85–0.95), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78–0.92) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94) for years 2007 through 2011 together. The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts and the CDC % unweighted ILI (2007) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). Conclusions A strong to very strong correlation between prescription sales data and Google Flu trends and CDC’s ILI

  7. Treating both wastewater and excess sludge with an innovative process.

    PubMed

    He, Sheng-bing; Wang, Bao-zhen; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Yi-feng

    2003-11-01

    The innovative process consists of biological unit for wastewater treatment and ozonation unit for excess sludge treatment. An aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used to remove organics and nitrogen, and an anaerobic reactor was added to the biological unit for the release of phosphorus contained at aerobic sludge to enhance the removal of phosphorus. For the excess sludge produced in the MBR, which was fed to ozone contact column and reacted with ozone, then the ozonated sludge was returned to the MBR for further biological treatment. Experimental results showed that this process could remove organics, nitrogen and phosphorus efficiently, and the removals for COD, NH3-N, TN and TP were 93.17%, 97.57%, 82.77% and 79.5%, respectively. Batch test indicated that the specific nitrification rate and specific denitrification rate of the MBR were 1.03 mg NH3-N/(gMLSS x h) and 0.56 mg NOx-N/(gMLSS x h), and denitrification seems to be the rate-limiting step. Under the test conditions, the sludge concentration in the MBR was kept at 5000-6000 mg/L, and the wasted sludge was ozonated at an ozone dosage of 0.10 kgO3/kgSS. During the experimental period of two months, no excess sludge was wasted, and a zero withdrawal of excess sludge was implemented. Through economic analysis, it was found that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and excess sludge was only 0.045 RMB Yuan (USD 0.0054)/m3 wastewater.

  8. Mars Double-Flyby Free Returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A subset of Earth-originating Mars double-flyby ballistic trajectories is documented. The subset consists of those trajectories that, after the first Mars flyby, perform a half-revolution transfer with Mars before returning to Earth. This class of free returns is useful for both human and robotic Mars missions because of its low geocentric energy at departure and arrival, and because of its extended stay time in the vicinity of Mars. Ballistic opportunities are documented over Earth departure dates ranging from 2015 through 2100. The mission is viable over three or four consecutive Mars synodic periods and unavailable for the next four, with the pattern repeating approximately every 15 years. Over the remainder of the century, a minimum Earth departure hyperbolic excess speed of 3.16 km/s, a minimum Earth atmospheric entry speed of 11.47 km/s, and a minimum flight time of 904 days are observed. The algorithm used to construct these trajectories is presented along with several examples.

  9. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  10. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  11. 7 CFR 945.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 945.44 Section 945.44 Agriculture... Assessments § 945.44 Excess funds. (a) The funds remaining at the end of a fiscal period which are in excess... amount not to exceed approximately one fiscal period's budgeted expenses. Funds in such reserve shall...

  12. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  13. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  14. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b)...

  15. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  16. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  17. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  18. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  19. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall...

  20. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  1. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  2. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  3. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  4. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  5. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  6. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  7. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  8. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  9. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  10. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  11. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess...

  12. Flu Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a virus, your body builds up a defense system by making antibodies against it. That means ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  13. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... as migratory birds. These viruses can infect domestic poultry or pigs, and rarely, humans. When animal viruses ... in humans have resulted from contact with infected poultry (e.g., domesticated chicken, ducks and turkeys) or ...

  14. Flu Widget

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Language: English Español File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  15. Pandemic Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Planning National Pandemic Influenza Plans (2005-2009) Regulations and Laws That May Apply During a Pandemic Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Community Mitigation Vaccine and Other Medical ...

  16. Lessons learned from the 2007-2008 cold and flu season: what worked and what was worthless.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A; Robinson, Larry E

    2008-04-01

    The 2007-2008 cold and flu season had a feeble beginning but a dramatic end. Most states in the U.S. were reporting their highest number of flu cases well into February and March. It is concerning that not only the public but health care professionals have not embraced widespread vaccination because approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths a year continue to make this condition one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. The real question that needs to be asked next year is who should not be vaccinated rather than who needs to be vaccinated. Preventive measures with soap and water and 62% ethyl alcohol hand gels continue to make sense, whereas the antibacterial soaps seem to provide no added protection and theoretically increase the risk of bacterial resistance. A few dietary supplements garnered some attention. Among products with clinical research, an oral 500 mg qd immunogenic fermentate (Epicor) reduced the risk and duration of cold and flu symptoms in subjects vaccinated for seasonal influenza. Two novel prescription medications (zanamivir [Relenza], and oseltamivir [Tamiflu]) are available for the prevention and/or treatment of influenza and also have demonstrated minimal resistance compared to the older medications. These FDA-approved medications should receive more attention because of their overall effectiveness in treating the flu during the first stages of the disease process.

  17. Flu Outbreaks Force Schools to Adjust Plans: Classes Canceled in Some Places to Prevent Spread of Influenza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda; Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    A flu outbreak at Madison Junior High School in Ohio prompted school officials to close the building for two days. At Webber Junior High School in Fort Collins, Colorado, where absenteeism recently hit 20 percent for two bad weeks, educators were forced to slow the pace of schoolwork so sick students did not fall behind. This article reports on…

  18. Androgen excess in cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Marynick, S P; Chakmakjian, Z H; McCaffree, D L; Herndon, J H

    1983-04-28

    We measured hormone levels in 59 women and 32 men with longstanding cystic acne resistant to conventional therapy. Affected women had higher serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. Affected men had higher levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and lower levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin than controls. To lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dexamethasone was given to men, and dexamethasone or an oral contraceptive pill, Demulen (or both), was given to women. Of the patients treated for six months, 97 per cent of the women and 81 per cent of the men had resolution or marked improvement in their acne. The dose of dexamethasone required to reduce dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels was low, rarely exceeding the equivalent of 20 mg of hydrocortisone per day. We conclude that most patients with therapeutically resistant cystic acne have androgen excess and that lowering elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate results in improvement or remission of acne in most instances.

  19. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Influenza A, Influenza A 2009 H1N1, and Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, E. M.; Poulter, M.; Dwyer, D.; Speers, D.; Rawlinson, W.; Baleriola, C.; Robinson, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection. PMID:22378908

  20. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection.

  1. Feature discrimination/identification based upon SAR return variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasco, W. A., Sr.; Pietsch, R.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the statistics of The look-to-look variation statistics in the returns recorded in-flight by a digital, realtime SAR system are analyzed. The determination that the variations in the look-to-look returns from different classes do carry information content unique to the classes was illustrated by a model based on four variants derived from four look in-flight SAR data under study. The model was limited to four classes of returns: mowed grass on a athletic field, rough unmowed grass and weeds on a large vacant field, young fruit trees in a large orchard, and metal mobile homes and storage buildings in a large mobile home park. The data population in excess of 1000 returns represented over 250 individual pixels from the four classes. The multivariant discriminant model operated on the set of returns for each pixel and assigned that pixel to one of the four classes, based on the target variants and the probability distribution function of the four variants for each class.

  2. FRS Geospatial Return File Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geospatial Return File Format describes format that needs to be used to submit latitude and longitude coordinates for use in Envirofacts mapping applications. These coordinates are stored in the Geospatail Reference Tables.

  3. Another Kind of Returning Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Judith B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the needs of women who are returning to school for adult basic education. Provides suggestions for meeting the needs of this group in terms of professional action, counselor education, teacher training, grants, financial support, publication, and volunteerism. (JAC)

  4. GET POKED: Comparing an Incentive-Based Flu Campaign with Vaccinate-or-Mask Policies to Boost Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Seema; Lorv, Bailey; Henseleit, Susanne; Iroanyah, Ngozi

    2016-01-01

    The median influenza vaccination rate for Toronto acute care facilities in 2013/14 was only 44%, well below the target rate of 90%. While many Toronto hospitals adopted a vaccinate-or-mask policy, Trillium Health Partners (THP) opted to create a multimodal incentives-based flu campaign entitled GET POKED. This campaign, which required significant additional resourcing, only increased our vaccination rate by 10%. While having some modest success, we believe it is unlikely that non-policy based interventions will efficiently and sustainably raise flu vaccine rates. Vaccinate-or-mask policies, while having some inherent challenges, may be worth exploring as part of THP's larger flu-prevention strategy.

  5. Androgen excess: Investigations and management.

    PubMed

    Lizneva, Daria; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia. Moreover, assessment of biochemical hyperandrogenism is necessary, particularly in patients with unclear or absent hirsutism, and will include assessing total and free testosterone (T), and possibly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione, although these latter contribute limitedly to the diagnosis. Assessment of T requires use of the highest quality assays available, generally radioimmunoassays with extraction and chromatography or mass spectrometry preceded by liquid or gas chromatography. Management of clinical hyperandrogenism involves primarily either androgen suppression, with a hormonal combination contraceptive, or androgen blockade, as with an androgen receptor blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or a combination of the two. Medical treatment should be combined with cosmetic treatment including topical eflornithine hydrochloride and short-term (shaving, chemical depilation, plucking, threading, waxing, and bleaching) and long-term (electrolysis, laser therapy, and intense pulse light therapy) cosmetic treatments. Generally, acne responds to therapy relatively rapidly, whereas hirsutism is slower to respond, with improvements observed as early as 3 months, but routinely only after 6 or 8 months of therapy. Finally, FPHL is the slowest to respond to therapy, if it will at all, and it may take 12 to 18 months of therapy for an observable response.

  6. [Revisiting the Spanish flu: the 1918 influenza pandemic in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Adriana da Costa

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes the political and social impacts of the 1918 Spanish flu epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's federal capital. Based on an analysis of Rio de Janeiro press reports and of other documentation (including annals, reports, and bulletins from a federal ministry, the Mayor's Office, and the Chamber of Deputies, along with studies from the Brazilian National Academy of Medicine and dissertations from Rio de Janeiro's Faculdade de Medicina), we explore use of the epidemic as a means of political engineering. Our focus is on how the epidemic impacted not only the representation of certain political and social actors but also the reaffirmation of a group of sanitarians as an intelligentsia with a vocation for political leadership who played a key role in the process of modernizing Brazilian society.

  7. Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Chowell, G; Ammon, C E; Hengartner, N W; Hyman, J M

    2006-11-10

    The 1918 influenza pandemic known as the "Spanish Flu" has been the worst in recent history with estimated worldwide mortality ranging from 20 to 100 million deaths. Using epidemic modeling and hospital notification data during the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, we estimated the reproductive numbers of the first and second waves of influenza infection to be R(1)=1.49 (95% CI: 1.45-1.53) and R(2)=3.75 (95% CI: 3.57-3.93), respectively. Our estimates indicate that containment of the next influenza pandemic could require strict interventions that include effective isolation strategies in hospitals and reductions in the susceptibility of the general population.

  8. Ethnography of epidemiologic transition: Avian flu, global health politics and agro-industrial capitalism in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuengsatiansup, Komatra

    2008-04-01

    This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies. The case of Thailand poses a question of how the strength of ethnographic practice could be deployed to account for the reality of the global-local interface of the new epidemiologic transition.

  9. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data.

  10. Age and ethnic differences in cold weather and contagion theories of colds and flu.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-02-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with other people causes disease were more causally sophisticated than explanations of how cold weather causes it. Finally, Mexican American and other minority children were more likely than European American children to subscribe to cold weather theories, a difference partially but not wholly attributable to ethnic group differences in parent education. Findings support the value of an intuitive or naïve theories perspective in understanding developmental and sociocultural differences in concepts of disease and in planning health education to help both children and their parents shed misconceptions so that they can focus on effective preventive actions.

  11. Excess noise in tunable diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The method and the apparatus for identifying excess-noise regions in tunable diode lasers are described. These diode lasers exhibit regions of excess noise as their wavelength is tuned. If a tunable diode laser is to be used as a local oscillator in a superheterodyne optical receiver, these excess-noise regions severely degrade the performance of the receiver. Measurement results for several tunable diode lasers are given. These results indicate that excess noise is not necessarily associated with a particular wavelength, and that it is possible to select temperature and injection current such that the most ideal performance is achieved.

  12. Return to work following ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Whates, P D; Irving, M

    1984-08-01

    The experiences of 1033 members of the 51 English divisions of the Ileostomy Association of Great Britain and Ireland have been analysed in respect of their return to work after construction of an ileostomy. Although there was a fall in the number of patients returning to work after operation this was often for reasons unrelated to surgery. The majority of those returning to work resumed work with the same employer and usually in the same post. Fifty-nine (5.7 per cent) patients began work for the first time after operation, including 33 (3.2 per cent) who were previously inactive although of working age. Analysis of occupational class shows that, although a number of patients initially resumed work within a lower class, once established in employment successful career advancement was possible. Problems in the gaining or resumption of employment were reported by 56 (5.4 per cent) patients. In 22 (2.1 per cent) patients, almost all approaching or above retirement age, successful surgery resulted in a decision not to return to employment. An ileostomy is no barrier to successful return to work in nearly all occupations, and is accomplished by the majority of patients without major difficulty.

  13. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  14. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  15. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  16. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  17. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  18. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  19. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Eligibility Requirements for Mortgage Insurance... Section 236 interest reduction payments may apply to retain Excess Income for project use unless the mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  10. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment... current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment Agreement or the mortgagor falls within any... of Excess Income that was: (i) Repaid in accordance with a Workout or Repayment Agreement with...

  11. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment... current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment Agreement or the mortgagor falls within any... of Excess Income that was: (i) Repaid in accordance with a Workout or Repayment Agreement with...

  12. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    PubMed

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  13. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost…

  14. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich J.; Sun, Jing; Olsen, Lars Rønn; Zhang, Guang Lan; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Brusic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using a modular framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability. The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B-cell vaccine targets and assessment of neutralizing antibody coverage. FluKB supports the discovery of vaccine targets and the analysis of viral diversity and its implications for vaccine discovery as well as potential T-cell breadth and antibody cross neutralization involving multiple strains. FluKB is representation of a new generation of databases that integrates data, analytical tools, and analytical workflows that enable comprehensive analysis and automatic generation of analysis reports. PMID:26504853

  15. Sample Return Primer and Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, Kirk; Cheuvront, Allan; Faris, Grant; Hirst, Edward; Mainland, Nora; McGee, Michael; Szalai, Christine; Vellinga, Joseph; Wahl, Thomas; Williams, Kenneth; Lee, Gentry; Duxbury, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This three-part Sample Return Primer and Handbook provides a road map for conducting the terminal phase of a sample return mission. The main chapters describe element-by-element analyses and trade studies, as well as required operations plans, procedures, contingencies, interfaces, and corresponding documentation. Based on the experiences of the lead Stardust engineers, the topics include systems engineering (in particular range safety compliance), mission design and navigation, spacecraft hardware and entry, descent, and landing certification, flight and recovery operations, mission assurance and system safety, test and training, and the very important interactions with external support organizations (non-NASA tracking assets, landing site support, and science curation).

  16. Regional differences in pathogen prevalence and defensive reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak among East Asians and Westerners.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Park, Justin H

    2010-09-24

    Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas); rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  17. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  18. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  19. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  20. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  1. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  2. Uncertain Educational Returns in a Developing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Sandeep; Luckert, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the distribution of educational returns by gender for India. While previous studies focus on mean returns, the variance of educational returns has important implications for policy-making and micro-level decision making with respect to education. If the variance of educational returns is large, it can leave large sections of…

  3. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0086. Form Numbers: None--form... INFORMATION CONTACT: Leroy McKinney Jr., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and...

  4. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  5. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  6. Cardiovascular damage resulting from chronic excessive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Patil, Harshal R; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Magalski, Anthony; Vogel, Robert A; McCullough, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    A daily routine of physical activity is highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of many prevalent chronic diseases, especially of the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, chronic, excessive sustained endurance exercise may cause adverse structural remodeling of the heart and large arteries. An evolving body of data indicates that chronically training for and participating in extreme endurance competitions such as marathons, ultra-marathons, Iron-man distance triathlons, very long distance bicycle racing, etc., can cause transient acute volume overload of the atria and right ventricle, with transient reductions in right ventricular ejection fraction and elevations of cardiac biomarkers, all of which generally return to normal within seven to ten days. In veteran extreme endurance athletes, this recurrent myocardial injury and repair may eventually result in patchy myocardial fibrosis, particularly in the atria, interventricular septum and right ventricle, potentially creating a substrate for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, chronic, excessive, sustained, high-intensity endurance exercise may be associated with diastolic dysfunction, large-artery wall stiffening and coronary artery calcification. Not all veteran extreme endurance athletes develop pathological remodeling, and indeed lifelong exercisers generally have low mortality rates and excellent functional capacity. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology of extreme endurance exercise, and make suggestions about healthier fitness patterns for promoting optimal CV health and longevity.

  7. FluMob: Enabling Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Health-care Workers via Mobile Phones.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng

    2017-01-01

    Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore's pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system.

  8. Multi-spectral fluorescent reporter influenza viruses (Color-flu) as powerful tools for in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Satoshi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Dongming; Ozawa, Makoto; Ando, Tomomi; Shoemaker, Jason E; Ishikawa, Izumi; Yamada, Shinya; Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Shinji; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-25

    Seasonal influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease; highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Although numerous studies have addressed the pathogenicity of influenza viruses, influenza pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours ('Color-flu' viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. On adaptation to mice, stable expression of the fluorescent proteins in infected animals allows their detection by different types of microscopy and by flow cytometry. We use this system to analyse the progression of viral spread in mouse lungs, for live imaging of virus-infected cells, and for differential gene expression studies in virus antigen-positive and virus antigen-negative live cells in the lungs of Color-flu-infected mice. Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis.

  9. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina; Turner, Stephen J.

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  10. FluMob: Enabling Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Health-care Workers via Mobile Phones

    PubMed Central

    Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng

    2017-01-01

    Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore’s pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system. PMID:28367433

  11. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    DOE PAGES

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; ...

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we comparemore » pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.« less

  12. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  13. Characterization of avalanche photodiodes for lidar atmospheric return signal detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antill, C. W., Jr.; Holloway, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to characterize noise, dark current, overload, and gain versus bias, relationships of ten avalanche photodiodes. The advantages of avalanche photodiodes over photomultiplier tubes for given laser wavelengths and return signal amplitudes are outlined. The relationship between responsivity and temperature and dark current and temperature are examined. Also, measurements of the noise equivalent power, the excess noise factor, and linearity are given. The advantages of using avalanche photodiodes in the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment and the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment are discussed.

  14. Analysing Enterprise Returns on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Janelle; McDonald, Rod

    Recent Australian and overseas studies on evaluation of enterprises' return on training investment (ROTI) were reviewed to identify key issues in encouraging increased evaluation of training benefits by enterprises and successful approaches that may inform future "enterprise-friendly" studies of ROTI. It was concluded that more…

  15. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  16. The Returns to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Amanda Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions…

  17. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  18. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  19. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page Fukami M, Shozu M, Ogata T. Molecular bases and phenotypic determinants of aromatase ... T, Nishigaki T, Yokoya S, Binder G, Horikawa R, Ogata T. Aromatase excess syndrome: identification of cryptic duplications ...

  1. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are in excess of the average annual per-student expenditure in an LEA during the preceding school year for an elementary school or secondary school student, as may be appropriate, and that must be...

  2. Implications of stress range for inelastic analysis. [CRBRP flued head containment penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Karabin, M.E.; Dhalla, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    The elastic stress range over a complete load cycle is routinely used to formulate simplified rules regarding the inelastic behavior of structures operating at elevated temperature. For example, a 300 series stainless steel structure operating at elevated temperature, in all probability, would satisfy the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria if the linearized elastic stress range is less than three times the material yield strength. However, at higher elastic stress ranges it is difficult to judge, a priori, that a structural component would comply with inelastic Code criteria after a detailed inelastic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that it is not the elastic stress range but the stress intensities at specific times during a thermal transient which provide a better insight into the inelastic response of the structure. The specific example of the CRBRP flued head design demonstrates that the temperature differential between various parts of the structure can be changed by modifying the insulation pattern and heat flow path in the structure, without significantly altering the elastic stress range over a complete load cycle. However, the modified design did reduce the stress intensity during steady state elevated temperature operation. This modified design satisfied the inelastic Code criteria whereas the initial design failed to comply with the strain accumulation criterion.

  3. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS).

    PubMed

    Ding, Helen; Santibanez, Tammy A; Jamieson, Denise J; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Euler, Gary L; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Lu, Peng-Jun; Singleton, James A

    2011-06-01

    We sought to describe vaccination with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent (2009 H1N1) and trivalent seasonal (seasonal) vaccines among pregnant women during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. A national H1N1 flu survey was conducted April through June 2010. The 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage estimates were 45.7% and 32.1%, respectively, among pregnant women aged 18-49 years. Receipt of a health care provider's recommendation for vaccination, perceived effectiveness of influenza vaccinations, and perceived high chance of influenza infection were independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage. Pregnancy during October 2009 through January 2010 was independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage. The 2009 H1N1 vaccination level among pregnant women was higher than the seasonal vaccination level during the 2009 through 2010 season; it was also higher than vaccination among nonpregnant women with and without high-risk conditions. Health care providers and public health messaging played important roles in influencing vaccination behavior.

  4. [The "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918-1919 in La Réunion (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2015-01-01

    Brought in by the ship Madonna, which was taking local survivors of World War I back to Reunion, the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic reached the island in March 1919 and lasted for three months. The controversies between doctors and between doctors and the colonial administrators, officials' desertion of their posts, and food shortages together caused a major panic. The epidemic appears to have ravaged people under the age of 40 and the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, at a period when the economy was already in the doldrums and the population had been declining since the late 19th century. Estimates indicate 2000 deaths in the capital of Saint-Denis, among a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and 7 to 20,000 deaths on the island as a whole, representing 4-11% of the population - far more than the 949 local soldiers killed on the battlefields of Europe. According to legend, salvation came from the sky as a small cyclone on May 11, 1919: it lasted an hour, swept away the "miasmas" and washed the island clean of all its impurities.

  5. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use...SUBTITLE Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ability to measure alcohol quantity consumed and associated damage better than can be done with ethyl alcohol level measures and other existing

  6. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    S. et al. (2002). Decreased activity of brain phospholipid metabolic enzymes in human users of cocaine and methamphetamine. Drug & Alcohol ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use...NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. Effects of excess dietary tyrosine or certain xenobiotics on the cholesterogenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, S.; Masaki, H.; Aoyama, Y.; Yoshida, A.

    1986-05-01

    Comparison of the effects of excess dietary tyrosine, DDT, chlorobutanol (Chloretone) or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on serum cholesterol, hepatic activities of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis,3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and in vivo rates of the hepatic cholesterol synthesis measured by /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation were investigated in rats. Serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in rats fed the DDT, chlorobutanol, BHA or excess tyrosine diets than in rats fed the control diet for 7 days. Serum cholesterol concentration remained higher compared to control rats when excess tyrosine was fed for 21 d. When rats were fed a basal diet after feeding a tyrosine excess diet for 2 wk, liver weight and serum cholesterol level returned to normal within 7 d. The incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver cholesterol and the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase were greater in rats fed excess tyrosine or certain xenobiotics than in control rats. Present results suggested that the increase in serum cholesterol concentration due to excess dietary tyrosine or certain xenobiotics is mainly attributable to the stimulation of liver cholesterol synthesis.

  8. wFlu: Characterization and Evaluation of a Native Wolbachia from the Mosquito Aedes fluviatilis as a Potential Vector Control Agent

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela da Silva; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest and practical progress in using the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia as a vector control agent for human vector-borne diseases. Such vector control strategies may require the introduction of multiple, different Wolbachia strains into target vector populations, necessitating the identification and characterization of appropriate endosymbiont variants. Here, we report preliminary characterization of wFlu, a native Wolbachia from the neotropical mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, and evaluate its potential as a vector control agent by confirming its ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, and measuring its effect on three parameters determining host fitness (survival, fecundity and fertility), as well as vector competence (susceptibility) for pathogen infection. Using an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. fluviatilis cured of its native Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment, we show that in its natural host wFlu causes incomplete, but high levels of, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, has high rates of maternal transmission, and no detectable fitness costs, indicating a high capacity to rapidly spread through host populations. However, wFlu does not inhibit, and even enhances, oocyst infection with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. The stage- and sex-specific density of wFlu was relatively low, and with limited tissue distribution, consistent with the lack of virulence and pathogen interference/symbiont-mediated protection observed. Unexpectedly, the density of wFlu was also shown to be specifically-reduced in the ovaries after bloodfeeding Ae. fluviatilis. Overall, our observations indicate that the Wolbachia strain wFlu has the potential to be used as a vector control agent, and suggests that appreciable mutualistic coevolution has occurred between this endosymbiont and its natural host. Future work will be needed to determine whether wFlu has virulent host effects and/or exhibits pathogen interference when

  9. STS-32 Return to KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia, returning to KSC after the successful STS-32 mission, is poised atop the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) as the duo fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at KSC January 26. Columbia, carrying the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in its payload bay, was compleitng a two-day ferry flight from Edwards Air Force Base, California. Landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility occurred a few moments later at 3:30 p.m.

  10. The returning traveler with fever.

    PubMed

    Saxe, S E; Gardner, P

    1992-06-01

    The febrile returning traveler tests a clinician's knowledge of tropical medicine as well as skills in differential diagnosis. A thorough history with special emphasis placed on the patient's travel itinerary and knowledge of the geographic location and incubation times of certain tropical diseases will narrow the diagnostic possibilities. This will allow the clinician to focus the diagnostic work-up and make wise choices of laboratory tests and procedures.

  11. Asteroid Return Mission Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Gershman, Robert; Landau, Damon; Polk, James; Porter, Chris; Yeomans, Don; Allen, Carlton; Williams, Willie; Asphaug, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the technological feasibility of finding, characterizing, robotically capturing, and returning an entire Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) to the International Space Station (ISS) for scientific investigation, evaluation of its resource potential, determination of its internal structure and other aspects important for planetary defense activities, and to serve as a testbed for human operations in the vicinity of an asteroid. Reasonable projections suggest that several dozen candidates NEAs in the size range of interest (approximately 2-m diameter) will be known before the end of the decade from which a suitable target could be selected. The conceptual mission objective is to return an approximately 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a total flight time of approximately 5 years using a single Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle. Preliminary calculations indicate that this could be accomplished using a solar electric propulsion (SEP) system with high-power Hall thrusters and a maximum power into the propulsion system of approximately 40 kW. The SEP system would be used to provide all of the post-launch delta V. The asteroid would have an unrestricted Earth return Planetary Protection categorization, and would be curated at the ISS where numerous scientific and resource utilization experiments would be conducted. Asteroid material brought to the ground would be curated at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This preliminary study identified several areas where additional work is required, but no show stoppers were identified for the approach that would return an entire 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a mission that could be launched by the end of this decade.

  12. Economic Returns to Military Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    on subsequent earnings, the short time horizon over which vets could return to school and catchup , and employer discrimination against and societal...the military, drop below those of nonveterans for a brief period after discharge, and then catchup and overtake the earnings of nonveterans thereafter... catchup , and employer discrimination against and societal rejection of Vietnam vets as noted in previous sections of this report. In sum, his studies do not

  13. Challenging Return to Play Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, Chad A.; O’Connor, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sports medicine providers frequently return athletes to play after sports-related injuries and conditions. Many of these conditions have guidelines or medical evidence to guide the decision-making process. Occasionally, however, sports medicine providers are challenged with complex medical conditions for which there is little evidence-based guidance and physicians are instructed to individualize treatment; included in this group of conditions are exertional heat stroke (EHS), exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait (ECAST). Evidence Acquisition: The MEDLINE (2000-2015) database was searched using the following search terms: exertional heat stroke, exertional rhabdomyolysis, and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: These entities are unique in that they may cause organ system damage capable of leading to short- or long-term detriments to physical activity and may not lend to complete recovery, potentially putting the athlete at risk with premature return to play. Conclusion: With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of EHS, ER, and ECAST and the factors associated with recovery, better decisions regarding return to play may be made. PMID:26896216

  14. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  15. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  16. Maternity Leave: Tips for Returning to Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... telecommuting or working part time. Prepare to continue breast-feeding. If you plan to breast-feed after returning ... or nearby child care, consider the logistics of breast-feeding your baby during the workday. Set a return- ...

  17. Returning to sports after a back injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  18. Comparison of the Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa ProFlu+™ assay for detecting influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Bambach, Adrienne V; Leber, Amy L; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Patel, Anami; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2014-09-01

    The relative performance of 2 widely used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, the Focus diagnostics Simplexa™ Flu A/B & RSV kit (nucleic acid extraction-dependent assay) and the Prodessa Proflu+™ assay, was evaluated using 735 prospectively and retrospectively collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Overall, the assays showed positive and negative agreements of 100% and 99.7% for influenza A, 98.1% and 99.9% for influenza B, and 99.3% and 99.5% for respiratory syncytial virus. The relative analytical sensitivity of the 2 assays was also similar.

  19. Improving Google Flu Trends Estimates for the United States through Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Leah J.; Xu, Biying; Yasui, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses Internet search queries in an effort to provide early warning of increases in influenza-like illness (ILI). In the United States, GFT estimates the percentage of physician visits related to ILI (%ILINet) reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, during the 2012–13 influenza season, GFT overestimated %ILINet by an appreciable amount and estimated the peak in incidence three weeks late. Using data from 2010–14, we investigated the relationship between GFT estimates (%GFT) and %ILINet. Based on the relationship between the relative change in %GFT and the relative change in %ILINet, we transformed %GFT estimates to better correspond with %ILINet values. In 2010–13, our transformed %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for 17 of the 29 weeks that %ILINet was above the seasonal baseline value determined by the CDC; in contrast, the original %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for only two of these 29 weeks. Relative to the %ILINet peak in 2012–13, the peak in our transformed %GFT estimates was 2% lower and one week later, whereas the peak in the original %GFT estimates was 74% higher and three weeks later. The same transformation improved %GFT estimates using the recalibrated 2013 GFT model in early 2013–14. Our transformed %GFT estimates can be calculated approximately one week before %ILINet values are reported by the CDC and the transformation equation was stable over the time period investigated (2010–13). We anticipate our results will facilitate future use of GFT. PMID:25551391

  20. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1).

    PubMed

    Coburn, Brian J; Wagner, Bradley G; Blower, Sally

    2009-06-22

    Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918-1919 pandemic strain (mean R0 approximately 2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

  1. Modeling of the influence of humidity on H1N1 flu in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PEI, Y.; Tian, H.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009, a heavy Flu hit the whole world. It was caused by the virus H1N1. The influenza first broke out in Mexico in March and the United States in April, 2009. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the H1N1 influenza became pandemic, alert to a warning phase of six. By the end of 2011, 181302 H1N1 cases were reported in mainland China. To improve our understanding on the impact of environmental factors on the disease transmission, we constructed an SIR (Susceptible - Infectious - Recovered) model incorporating environmental factors. It was found that the absolute humidity was a dominant environmental factor. The study interpolated the humidity data monitored with 340 weather stations from 1951 to 2011 in mainland China. First, the break point of the trend for the absolutely humidity was detected by the BFAST (Break For Additive Season and Trend) method. Then, the SIR model with and without the absolutely humidity incorporated in the model was built and tested. Finally, the results with the two scenarios were compared. Results indicate that lower absolutely humidity may promote the transmission of the H1N1 cases. The calculated basic reproductive number ranges from 1.65 to 3.66 with a changing absolute humidity. This is consistent with the former study result with basic reproductive number ranging from 2.03 to 4.18. The average recovery duration was estimated to be 5.7 days. The average duration to get immunity from the influenza is 399.02 days. A risk map is also produced to illustrate the model results.

  2. Regulating the 1918-19 pandemic: flu, stoicism and the Northcliffe press.

    PubMed

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Social historians have argued that the reason the 1918–19 ‘Spanish’ influenza left so few traces in public memory is that it was ‘overshadowed’ by the First World War, hence its historiographical characterisation as the ‘forgotten’ pandemic. This paper argues that such an approach tends to overlook the crucial role played by wartime propaganda. Instead, I put emotion words, emotives and metaphors at the heart of my analysis in an attempt to understand the interplay between propaganda and biopolitical discourses that aimed to regulate civilian responses to the pandemic. Drawing on the letters of Wilfred Owen, the diaries of the cultural historian Caroline Playne and the reporting in the Northcliffe press, I argue that the stoicism exhibited by Owen and amplified in the columns of The Times and the Daily Mail is best viewed as a performance, an emotional style that reflected the politicisation of ‘dread’ in war as an emotion with the potential to undermine civilian morale. This was especially the case during the final year of the conflict when war-weariness set in, leading to the stricter policing of negative emotions. As a protean disease that could present as alternately benign and plague-like, the Spanish flu both drew on these discourses and subverted them, disrupting medical efforts to use the dread of foreign pathogens as an instrument of biopower. The result was that, as dread increasingly became attached to influenza, it destabilised medical attempts to regulate the civilian response to the pandemic, undermining Owen’s and the Northcliffe press’s emotives of stoicism.

  3. Assured crew return capability Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Harvey Dean

    1990-01-01

    The Crew Emergency Return Vehicle (CERV) is being defined to provide Assured Crew Return Capability (ACRC) for Space Station Freedom. The CERV, in providing the standby lifeboat capability, would remain in a dormat mode over long periods of time as would a lifeboat on a ship at sea. The vehicle must be simple, reliable, and constantly available to assure the crew's safety. The CERV must also provide this capability in a cost effective and affordable manner. The CERV Project philosophy of a simple vehicle is to maximize its useability by a physically deconditioned crew. The vehicle reliability goes unquestioned since, when needed, it is the vehicle of last resort. Therefore, its systems and subsystems must be simple, proven, state-of-the-art technology with sufficient redundancy to make it available for use as required for the life of the program. The CERV Project Phase 1'/2 Request for Proposal (RFP) is currently scheduled for release on October 2, 1989. The Phase 1'/2 effort will affirm the existing project requirements or amend and modify them based on a thorough evaluation of the contractor(s) recommendations. The system definition phase, Phase 2, will serve to define CERV systems and subsystems. The current CERV Project schedule has Phase 2 scheduled to begin October 1990. Since a firm CERV avionics design is not in place at this time, the treatment of the CERV avionics complement for the reference configuration is not intended to express a preference with regard to a system or subsystem.

  4. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  5. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon W.; Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites,…

  6. Excess Electron Localization in Solvated DNA Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, Maeve; Kohanoff, Jorge

    2011-06-10

    We present a first-principles molecular dynamics study of an excess electron in condensed phase models of solvated DNA bases. Calculations on increasingly large microsolvated clusters taken from liquid phase simulations show that adiabatic electron affinities increase systematically upon solvation, as for optimized gas-phase geometries. Dynamical simulations after vertical attachment indicate that the excess electron, which is initially found delocalized, localizes around the nucleobases within a 15 fs time scale. This transition requires small rearrangements in the geometry of the bases.

  7. Photoreceptor damage following exposure to excess riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Eckhert, C D; Hsu, M H; Pang, N

    1993-12-15

    Flavins generate oxidants during metabolism and when exposed to light. Here we report that the photoreceptor layer of retinas from black-eyed rats is reduced in size by a dietary regime containing excess riboflavin. The effect of excess riboflavin was dose-dependent and was manifested by a decrease in photoreceptor length. This decrease was due in part to a reduction in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer, a structure formed from stacked photoreceptor nuclei. These changes were accompanied by an increase in photoreceptor outer segment autofluorescence following illumination at 328 nm, a wavelength that corresponds to the excitation maxima of oxidized lipopigments of the retinal pigment epithelium.

  8. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  9. Mars 2005 Sample Return Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Convened at the request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe of the NASA Office of Space Science, the purpose of this workshop was to reexamine the science issues that will determine how an optimum sample return mission would be carried out in 2005 given the new context that has emerged for Mars exploration since the last such workshop was held (in 1987). The results and summary of discussion that took place at the meeting are contained in this volume. The community was invited to participate in the preparation of the final written report by browsing through the agenda and reading the text and viewgraphs provided by workshop participants and submitting comments for that section.

  10. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  11. Hematospermia in a returned traveler

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient’s microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection. PMID:28163813

  12. Prospective evaluation of the Alere i Influenza A&B nucleic acid amplification versus Xpert Flu/RSV.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van, J C; Caméléna, F; Dahoun, M; Pilmis, B; Mizrahi, A; Lourtet, J; Behillil, S; Enouf, V; Le Monnier, A

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and accurate detection of influenza virus in respiratory specimens is required for optimal management of patients with acute respiratory infections. Because of the variability of the symptoms and the numerous other causes of influenza-like illness, the diagnosis of influenza cannot be made on the basis of clinical criteria alone. Thus, rapid influenza diagnostic tests have been developed such as the Alere i Influenza A&B isothermal nucleic acid assay. We prospectively evaluated the performance of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay in comparison with our routine Xpert Flu/RSV assay. Positive samples were subtyped according to the protocol from the National Influenza Center (Paris, France). A total of 96 respiratory nasal swab samples were analyzed: with both methods, 38 were positive and 56 were negative. Samples were prospectively collected from January 20 to April 8, 2015, from patient (86 adult and 10 pediatric patients) presenting with an influenza-like illness through the French influenza season. In comparison with the Xpert Flu/RSV assay, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay were 95% and 100%, respectively. Our results indicate that the Alere i Influenza A&B assay has a good overall analytical performance and a high degree of concordance with the PCR-based Xpert Flu/RSV assay. The Alere i Influenza A&B isothermal nucleic acid amplification test is a powerful tool for influenza detection due to its high sensitivity and specificity as well as its ability to generate results within 15min.

  13. [Organization of sanitary and epidemiological measures to protect the Omsk region involved in epizootia of avian flu].

    PubMed

    Erofeev, Iu V; Uskov, P A; Kriga, A S; Nikitin, S V; Vaĭtovich, M A; Burashnikova, I P; Anpilova, N G; Ukrainets, N V; Turchaninov, D V

    2006-01-01

    In article organizational aspects of carrying out preventive and antiepidemic actions at a regional level are considered at the bird's flu epizootia. Epizootic researches have shown, that infection of poultry has taken place as a result of contact to a wild bird. Serological inspection 521 persons on presence of antibodies to a influenza A (H5N1) has not revealed seropositive persons. The conclusion, that the forecast of development of a situation for spring of 2006 is made in view of a direction of migration of a wild waterfowl is unfavourable.

  14. The effects and underlying mechanism of excessive iodide on excessive fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Zhao, Liang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Liu, Yeming; Jiang, Chunyang; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-07-01

    In many regions, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide coexist in groundwater, which may lead to biphasic hazards to human thyroid. To explore fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity and the mechanism underlying the effects of excessive iodide on fluoride-induced cytotoxicity, a thyroid cell line (Nthy-ori 3-1) was exposed to excessive fluoride and/or excessive iodide. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis, and the expression levels of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were detected. Fluoride and/or iodide decreased cell viability and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. ROS, the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), IRE1, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) were enhanced by fluoride or the combination of the two elements. Collectively, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide have detrimental influences on human thyroid cells. Furthermore, an antagonistic interaction between fluoride and excessive iodide exists, and cytotoxicity may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis.

  15. Return to sport following amputation.

    PubMed

    Matthews, D; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F

    2014-08-01

    Amputation in athletes has a substantial impact on lifestyle and sporting activity, as well as self-perception and quality of life. The impact of limb loss on athletic ability will vary depending on the cause of amputation and the anatomical location of the amputation. The use of sporting activity for rehabilitation of amputees was first introduced in 1944 at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. The first international paralympic games were founded in 1960. Following these events the opportunity to participate in sport following limb loss has increased significantly. Sport participation has been aided by the development of sporting prostheses, however multiple factors will determine the exact prosthesis used. These include the nature of the sporting activity as well as the level of the amputation. The biomechanics involved in walking and running are altered following the loss of a limb or part thereof. This can cause subsequent degenerative changes within the remaining joints on the amputated limb as well as the contralateral limb. Factors affecting return to sporting activity are multivariate and inter-related, including patient factors, surgical factors, nature and level of the sporting activity and prosthetic factors. The authors review current literature, detail predictive factors of return to sport and the physical and psychosocial impact on patients following limb amputation.

  16. Returning to work while breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Biagioli, Frances

    2003-12-01

    Mothers who work outside the home initiate breastfeeding at the same rate as mothers who stay at home. However, the breastfeeding continuance rate declines sharply in mothers who return to work. While the work environment may be less than ideal for the breastfeeding mother, obstacles can be overcome. Available breast pump types include manual pumps, battery-powered pumps, electric diaphragm pumps, electric piston pumps, and hospital-grade electric piston pumps. Electric piston pumps may be the most suitable type for mothers who work outside the home for more than 20 hours per week; however, when a mother is highly motivated, any pump type can be successful in any situation. Conservative estimates suggest that breast milk can be stored at room temperature for eight hours, refrigerated for up to eight days, and frozen for many months. A breastfeeding plan can help the working mother anticipate logistic problems and devise a practical pumping schedule. A mother's milk production usually is well established by the time her infant is four weeks old; it is best to delay a return to work until at least that time, and longer if possible.

  17. [Conservative and surgical treatment of convergence excess].

    PubMed

    Ehrt, O

    2016-07-01

    Convergence excess is a common finding especially in pediatric strabismus. A detailed diagnostic approach has to start after full correction of any hyperopia measured in cycloplegia. It includes measurements of manifest and latent deviation at near and distance fixation, near deviation after relaxation of accommodation with addition of +3 dpt, assessment of binocular function with and without +3 dpt as well as the accommodation range. This diagnostic approach is important for the classification into three types of convergence excess, which require different therapeutic approaches: 1) hypo-accommodative convergence excess is treated with permanent bifocal glasses, 2) norm-accommodative patients should be treated with bifocals which can be weaned over years, especially in patients with good stereopsis and 3) non-accommodative convergence excess and patients with large distance deviations need a surgical approach. The most effective operations include those which reduce the muscle torque, e. g. bimedial Faden operations or Y‑splitting of the medial rectus muscles.

  18. Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area. PMID:10029502

  19. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  20. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.166 Excess cash. (a... than Federal Perkins Loan Program funds, that an institution does not disburse to students or parents... funds that an institution receives from the Secretary under the just-in-time payment method. (b)...

  1. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236.60 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  2. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  3. Excessive Interviews: Listening to Maternal Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willink, Kate

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author revisits an interview with Ava Montalvo--a mother of two living in Albuquerque, New Mexico--which initially confounded her interpretive resources. This reflexive, performative article examines the role of excess as an analytical lens through which to understand maternal subjectivity and elaborates the methodological…

  4. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  5. Controlled expedient disposal of excess gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M R; Thiboutot, S; Walsh, M E; Ampleman, G

    2012-06-15

    The expedient field disposal of excess gun propellants on the ground is an integral part of live-fire training in many countries. However, burning excess propellant in the field will leave significant quantities of energetic residues and heavy metals in the environment. Compounds such as dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerin and metals such as lead will leach into the soil column, eventually migrating to groundwater. Contamination of the environment will lead to high remediation costs and the possible loss of the training facility. After investigating the contamination at several propellant disposal sites, a portable propellant burn pan was developed and tested. The pan was transported to training sites where excess propellant was loaded and burned in a controlled manner. Up to 120 kg of excess single-base propellant charges have been burned during two series of tests at a consumption rate of greater than 99.9%. Less than 0.03% of the energetic material was recovered outside the burn pan. Recovered lead is largely contained within the pan. The turnover rate for burns is 15 min. The residues can be collected following cool-down for proper disposal.

  6. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  9. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  10. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  12. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  14. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  15. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  16. Central Greenland Holocene Deuterium Excess Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Jouzel, J.; Falourd, S.; Cattani, O.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Johnsen, S.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; White, J. W. C.

    Water stable isotopes (oxygen 18 and deuterium) have been measured along the Holocene part of two deep ice cores from central Greenland, GRIP and North GRIP. Theoretical studies have shown that the second-order isotopic parameter, the deu- terium excess (d=dD-8d18O), is an indicator of climatic changes at the oceanic mois- ture source reflecting at least partly changes in sea-surface-temperature. The two deu- terium excess records from GRIP and North GRIP show a long term increasing trend already observed in Antarctic deep ice cores and related to changes in the Earth's obliquity during the Holocene : an decreased obliquity is associated with a larger low to high latitude annual mean insolation gradient, warmer tropics, colder poles, and a more intense atmospheric transport from the tropics to the poles, resulting in a higher moisture source temperature and higher deuterium excess values. Superimposed onto this long term trend, central Greenland deuterium excess records also exhibit small abrupt events (8.2 ka BP and 4.5 ka BP) and a high frequency variability.

  17. Why Excess Immigration Damages the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population-Environment Balance

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between excessive immigration and environmental degradation. Explains the position that a stable United States population size is essential in prevention further deterioration of the natural resource base. Maintains that balancing immigration and emigration will be instrumental in balancing population with environment.…

  18. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  19. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  20. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  1. 7 CFR 966.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 966.44 Section 966.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  2. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  3. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  4. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 Studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community and hospital-based investigators, to commence two worldwide clinical observational studies to describe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus activity. The purpose of these two studies was to estimate the percent of adult patients with illness due to laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection that experience clinically significant outcomes and to study factors related to these outcomes. Enrollment commenced in October 2009 and will continue until August 2011: as of the end of 2010, 62 sites in 14 countries in Australasia (12 sites), Europe (37) and North America (13) have enrolled 1365 adult patients, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These “in progress” INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks. PMID:21757105

  5. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) for Early Event Detection of the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    and other respiratory viruses, especially given the fact that our vaccine for H1N1 will be available later in the season. To that end, there have...the code V20 appeared quite often as a catch-all for many seemingly unrelated illnesses (e.g., flu, women’s wellness exams, HPV shots, etc).9 For...Influenza epidemiology and surveillance. Retrieved on August 29, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/ vaccines /recs/acip/downloads/mtg-slides-oct09/12-2- flu

  6. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Methods Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. Results When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting

  7. Melioidosis in a returning traveller

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Alaa; Buckley, Adam; Dubrey, Simon William

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man returned to the UK from Thailand with a 2-week history of new confusion, hallucinations, fever with rigours and productive cough. He had not responded to (unspecified) antibiotic treatment in Thailand. On examination he was afebrile, with an abbreviated mental test score of 8/10 and no other findings on systemic examination. He was treated with ceftriaxone in response to discovery of a Gram-negative organism in blood. This was converted to meropenem on the clinical suspicion of our microbiologist, on the basis of a history of contact with surface water in the Far East. A blood culture subsequently confirmed Burkholderia pseudomallei. His condition remained stable for approximately 4 days, but then deteriorated over the course of the next 2 weeks with pneumonia and subsequent formation of disseminated abscesses. Treatment was withdrawn as his condition deteriorated to the point at which survival was deemed impossible and he subsequently died. PMID:23605844

  8. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  9. Avian influenza and the brain--comments on the occasion of resurrection of the Spanish flu virus.

    PubMed

    Kristensson, Krister

    2006-02-15

    Recent incidences of direct passage of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus strains of the H5N1 and H7N7 subtypes from birds to man have become a major public concern. Although presence of virus in the human brain has not yet been reported in deceased patients, these avian influenza subtypes have the propensity to invade the brain along cranial nerves to target brainstem and diencephalic nuclei following intranasal instillation in mice and ferrets. The associations between influenza and psychiatric disturbances in past epidemics are here commented upon, and the potentials of influenza to cause nervous system dysfunction in experimental infections with a mouse-neuroadapted WSN/33 strain of the virus are reviewed. This virus strain is closely related to the Spanish flu virus, which is characterized as a uniquely high-virulence strain of the H1N1 subtype. The Spanish flu virus has recently been reconstructed in the laboratory and it passed once, most likely, directly from birds to humans to cause the severe 1918-1919 pandemic.

  10. An Assessment of Hickam Air Force Base's Capability to Support Strategic Airlift Throughput when Operating under an Avian Flu Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Campbell, James R.; Doctor, Pamela G.; Johnson, Alan; Coomber, P.

    2006-03-10

    Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii provides an ideal waypoint for U.S. strategic airlift aircraft to refuel and receive other services on their way to Northeast and Southeast Asia from the continental United States. Hickam AFB also serves as a critical aerial port of debarkation (APOD) for deploying U.S. forces and equipment to more distant lands as needed. Making use of the United States Transportation Command’s Aerial Port of Debarkation Plus model, this paper examines the ability of Hickam AFB to serve in its important role as an APOD when operating under the effects of a major avian flu pandemic. In this regard, the major influence on Hickam AFB will be a serious degradation to the number of available personnel to service aircraft and operate Hickam AFB’s aerial port. It is noted that the results presented herein are based on simplistic attrition rate assumptions. Nonetheless, it is envisioned that this work is applicable to more realistic input attrition rates as avian flu epidemiological models are refined, as well as attrition associated with other types of contagious pandemic disease or willful biological warfare attack.

  11. Influenza epidemiology in adults admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Holmes, Mark; Senenayake, Sanjaya; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hewagama, Saliya; Korman, Tony; Irving, Louis; Brown, Simon; Waterer, Grant; Hunter, Cameron; Friedman, N Deborah; Wark, Peter; Simpson, Graham; Upman, John; Bowler, Simon; Macartney, Kristine; Blyth, Christopher; Kotsimbos, Tom; Kelly, Paul

    2015-09-30

    The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all states and territories in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2014 influenza season. In this observational study, cases were defined as patients admitted to one of the sentinel hospitals with an acute respiratory illness with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. During the period 3 April to 31 October 2014 (the 2014 influenza season), 1,692 adult patients (>16 years) were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 15 of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals (excluding 2 paediatric hospitals). Of these, 47% were over 65 years of age, 10% were Indigenous Australians, 3.3% were pregnant and 85% had chronic co-morbidities. The majority of cases were due to influenza A. Influenza B was detected in 7% of patients. There were a large number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2014. These are estimated to represent a national annual burden of around 15,000 admissions and almost 100,000 bed-days nationally.

  12. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Epilepsy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Giorelli, Andre S.; Passos, Pâmela; Carnaval, Thiago; Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sleep complaints are common in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most reported complaints and its impact is still a matter of debate. Objective. Evaluate the relationship between EDS and epilepsy, with emphasis on prevalence, assessment, and causes. Methods. A systematic review on PubMed database in the last 10 years (2002 to 2012). The search returned 53 articles and 34 were considered relevant. After citation analysis, 3 more articles were included. Results. Most studies were cross-sectional and questionnaire based. 14 papers addressed EDS as the primary endpoint. 14 adult and 3 children studies used subjective and objective analysis as methodology. The number of studies increased throughout the decade, with 21 in the last 5 years. Adult studies represent almost three times the number of children studies. EDS prevalence in PWE varies from 10 to 47.5%. Prevalence was higher in developing countries. Conclusion. EDS seems to be related more frequently to undiagnosed sleep disorders than to epilepsy-related factors, and although it affects the quality of life of PWE, it can be improved by treating comorbid primary sleep disorders. PMID:24288600

  13. Excessive daytime sleepiness and epilepsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Giorelli, Andre S; Passos, Pâmela; Carnaval, Thiago; Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sleep complaints are common in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most reported complaints and its impact is still a matter of debate. Objective. Evaluate the relationship between EDS and epilepsy, with emphasis on prevalence, assessment, and causes. Methods. A systematic review on PubMed database in the last 10 years (2002 to 2012). The search returned 53 articles and 34 were considered relevant. After citation analysis, 3 more articles were included. Results. Most studies were cross-sectional and questionnaire based. 14 papers addressed EDS as the primary endpoint. 14 adult and 3 children studies used subjective and objective analysis as methodology. The number of studies increased throughout the decade, with 21 in the last 5 years. Adult studies represent almost three times the number of children studies. EDS prevalence in PWE varies from 10 to 47.5%. Prevalence was higher in developing countries. Conclusion. EDS seems to be related more frequently to undiagnosed sleep disorders than to epilepsy-related factors, and although it affects the quality of life of PWE, it can be improved by treating comorbid primary sleep disorders.

  14. Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Anthony A B; Nicki, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the widespread rise of online poker playing, there is a paucity of research examining potential predictors for excessive poker playing. The aim of this study was to build on recent research examining motives for Texas Hold'em play in students by determining whether predictors of other kinds of excessive gambling apply to Texas Hold'em. Impulsivity, negative mood states, dissociation, and boredom proneness have been linked to general problem gambling and may play a role in online poker. Participants of this study were self-selected online poker players (N = 179) who completed an online survey. Results revealed that participants played an average of 20 hours of online poker a week and approximately 9% of the sample was classified as a problem gambler according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Problem gambling, in this sample, was uniquely predicted by time played, dissociation, boredom proneness, impulsivity, and negative affective states, namely depression, anxiety, and stress.

  15. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  16. Excess junction current of silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, E. Y.; Legge, R. N.; Christidis, N.

    1973-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of n(plus)-p silicon solar cells with 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, and 10 ohm-cm p-type base materials have been examined in detail. In addition to the usual I-V measurements, we have studied the temperature dependence of the slope of the I-V curve at the origin by the lock-in technique. The excess junction current coefficient (Iq) deduced from the slope at the origin depends on the square root of the intrinsic carrier concentration. The Iq obtained from the I-V curve fitting over the entire forward bias region at various temperatures shows the same temperature dependence. This result, in addition to the presence of an aging effect, suggest that the surface channel effect is the dominant cause of the excess junction current.

  17. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  18. [CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF AN EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS COMPLAINT].

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Elisa; Barateau, Lucie; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Excessive sleepiness is a common problem, defined by a complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness almost daily with an inability to stay awake and alert dosing periods at sleep, with episodes of irresistible sleep need or drowsiness or non-intentional sleep, or by a night's sleep time overly extended often associated with sleep inertia. This sleepiness is variable in terms of phenotype and severity to be specified by the out-patient clinic. It is considered to be chronic beyond three months and often responsible for significant functional impairment of school and professional performance, of the accidents and cardiovascular risk. We need to decipher the causes of excessive sleepiness: sleep deprivation, toxic and iatrogenic, psychiatric disorders (including depression), non-psychiatric medical problems (obesity, neurological pathologies...), sleep disorders (as for example the sleep apnea syndrome), and finally the central hypersomnias namely narcolepsy type 1 and 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, and Kleine-Levin syndrome. If careful questioning often towards one of these etiologies, need most of the time a paraclinical balance with a sleep recording to confirm the diagnosis. Patients affected with potential central hypersomnia must be referred to the Sleep Study Centers that have the skills and the appropriate means to achieve this balance sheet.

  19. Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.

    2009-04-23

    The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<>c{sub q}, negativity of the excess noise can occur at finite frequency when the transmission coefficients are energy dependent, i.e. in the presence of Fabry-Perot resonances or band curvature. In the opposite regime c < or approx. c{sub q}, a non trivial voltage dependence of the noise arises even for energy independent transmission coefficients: at zero frequency the noise decreases with voltage as a power law when cexcess noise are present due to Andreev-type resonances.

  20. Submillimeter to centimeter excess emission from the Magellanic Clouds. II. On the nature of the excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bot, C.; Ysard, N.; Paradis, D.; Bernard, J. P.; Lagache, G.; Israel, F. P.; Wall, W. F.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Dust emission at sub-millimeter to centimeter wavelengths is often simply the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of dust particles at thermal equilibrium and is used as a cold mass tracer in various environments, including nearby galaxies. However, well-sampled spectral energy distributions of the nearby, star-forming Magellanic Clouds have a pronounced (sub-)millimeter excess. Aims: This study attempts to confirm the existence of this millimeter excess above expected dust, free-free and synchrotron emission and to explore different possibilities for its origin. Methods: We model near-infrared to radio spectral energy distributions of the Magellanic Clouds with dust, free-free, and synchrotron emission. A millimeter excess emission is confirmed above these components and its spectral shape and intensity are analyzed in light of different scenarios: very cold dust, cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations, a change of the dust spectral index and spinning dust emission. Results: We show that very cold dust or CMB fluctuations are very unlikely explanations for the observed excess in these two galaxies. The excess in the Large Magellanic Cloud can be satisfactorily explained either by a change of the spectral index related to intrinsic properties of amorphous grains, or by spinning dust emission. In the Small Magellanic Cloud, however, the excess is larger and the dust grain model including TLS/DCD effects cannot reproduce the observed emission in a simple way. A possible solution was achieved with spinning dust emission, but many assumptions on the physical state of the interstellar medium had to be made. Conclusions: Further studies, with higher resolution data from Planck and Herschel are needed to probe the origin of this observed submillimeter-centimeter excess more definitely. Our study shows that the different possible origins will be best distinguished where the excess is the highest, as is the case in the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  1. Excess and unlike interaction second virial coefficients and excess enthalpy of mixing of (carbon monoxide + pentane)

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, P.J.; Buchanan, S.

    1995-03-01

    Carbon monoxide and pentane are minor components of natural gas. The excess second virial coefficient of the mixture carbon monoxide + pentane has been determined at 299.5, 313.15, 328.15, and 343.15 K using the pressure change on mixing method. Unlike interaction second virial coefficients were derived and compared with the predictions of the Tsonopoulos correlation. The excess enthalpy of mixing was also estimated.

  2. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... for ``specified tax return preparers'' to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media... individual income tax returns using magnetic media (electronically). Section 17 of the Worker,...

  3. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  4. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  5. Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.

    PubMed

    Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively.

  6. A Unified Theory of Rainfall Extremes, Rainfall Excesses, and IDF Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziano, D.; Yoon, S.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events are a key component of hydrologic risk management and design. Yet, a consistent mathematical theory of such extremes remains elusive. This study aims at laying new statistical foundations for such a theory. The quantities of interest are the distribution of the annual maximum, the distribution of the excess above a high threshold z, and the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Traditionally, the modeling of annual maxima and excesses is based on extreme value (EV) and extreme excess (EE) theories. These theories establish that the maximum of n iid variables is attracted as n →∞ to a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with a certain index k and the distribution of the excess is attracted as z →∞ to a generalized Pareto distribution with the same index. The empirical value of k tends to decrease as the averaging duration d increases. To a first approximation, the IDF intensities scale with d and the return period T . Explanations for this approximate scaling behavior and theoretical predictions of the scaling exponents have emerged over the past few years. This theoretical work has been largely independent of that on the annual maxima and the excesses. Deviations from exact scaling include a tendency of the IDF curves to converge as d and T increase. To bring conceptual clarity and explain the above observations, we analyze the extremes of stationary multifractal measures, which provide good representations of rainfall within storms. These extremes follow from large deviation theory rather than EV/EE theory. A unified framework emerges that (a) encompasses annual maxima, excesses and IDF values without relying on EV or EE asymptotics, (b) predicts the index k and the IDF scaling exponents, (c) explains the dependence of k on d and the deviations from exact scaling of the IDF curves, and (d) explains why the empirical estimates of k tend to be positive (in the Frechet range) while, based on frequently assumed marginal

  7. Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and

  8. Influenza-Like-Illness and Clinically Diagnosed Flu: Disease Burden, Costs and Quality of Life for Patients Seeking Ambulatory Care or No Professional Care at All

    PubMed Central

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011–2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5–6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86–91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51–€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries. PMID:25032688

  9. Influenza H1N1 (swine flu) vaccination: a safety surveillance feasibility study using self-reporting of serious adverse events and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M; Shakir, Saad; Dryburgh, Moira; Mantay, Brian J; McDonnell, Patrick; Layton, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    AIMS During the global H1N1 influenza A (swine flu) pandemic 2009–2010, swine flu vaccines were expeditiously licensed and a mass vaccination programme for high risk groups, including pregnant women, was introduced in the UK. This pilot active safety surveillance study was performed to establish the feasibility of rapidly monitoring the new swine flu vaccines in large patient numbers receiving or offered the vaccination under normal conditions of use within a short time frame. METHODS A cohort design with safety data capture through modern technologies was carried out in Scotland, UK during the winter swine flu vaccination programme 2009–2010 in individuals receiving or offered the swine flu vaccination. The main outcome measures were self-reported serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS The cohort comprised 4066 people; 3754 vaccinated and 312 offered the vaccination but not vaccinated. There were 939 self-reported events (838 different events), 53 judged to fit SAE criteria by the investigators, with nine judged as possibly, probably or definitely vaccine related. None of the seven deaths (six in vaccinees) were judged as vaccine related. One hundred and twenty-eight women reported 130 pregnancies during the study with 117 pregnant at study start. There were reports of four miscarriages in three women and six possible congenital abnormalities in live births. CONCLUSIONS Overall, no significant safety issues were identified. The methodology and use of modern technologies to collect safety data from large numbers of patients was successful and could be used again in similar safety studies. PMID:22082196

  10. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries.

  11. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  12. Mineralocorticoid excess, dietary sodium, and myocardial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brilla, C G; Weber, K T

    1992-12-01

    Unlike the non-renin-dependent hypertension associated with infrarenal aorta banding, an abnormal accumulation of fibrillar collagen occurs within the adventitia of intramural coronary arteries and neighboring interstitial space of the left and right ventricles in arterial hypertension associated with primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism. Based on these findings it was suggested that this interstitial and perivascular fibrosis was mediated by mineralocorticoid excess (i.e., elevated plasma aldosterone relative to dietary sodium) and not ventricular loading. To further address the importance of mineralocorticoid excess, we examined the fibrous tissue response after 8 weeks in the following uninephrectomized rat groups receiving a high-sodium diet: D-aldosterone (ALDO) infusion (0.75 micrograms/hr sc, n = 16); deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) administration (100 mg/kg/wk sc, n = 8); and administration of a mineralocorticoid-like substance, glycyrrhizic acid (GA; 1 gm kg/wk sc, n = 8). Compared with ALDO infusion and sodium deprivation (n = 9), untreated controls (n = 14), and uninephrectomized rats with high dietary sodium and no mineralocorticoid administration (n = 15), we found (1) hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy with all forms of mineralocorticoid excess; (2) a rise in collagen volume fraction with ALDO, and an increase in perivascular collagen with DOCA; and (3) no observance of myocardial fibrosis with GA or experimental controls, including ALDO infusion and sodium deprivation. Thus, in the presence of enhanced sodium intake, chronic administration of ALDO or DOCA are associated with collagen accumulation in the myocardium, whereas with the mineralocorticoid-like compound GA, myocardial fibrosis was not seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    than 4 standard drinks in a day (or more than 14 per week ) and women who drink more than 3 drinks in a day (or more than 7 per week ). Non-civilian...excessive drinking is defined as men who drink more than 4 standard drinks in a day (or more than 14 per week ) and women who drink more than 3 drinks in a...day (or more than 7 per week ). Non-civilian military personnel have been deployed in support of the war efforts in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring

  14. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  15. [Excessive spending by misuse of clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Arvizu, Gamaliel; Novelo-Garza, Bárbara; Mendoza-Valdez, Antonia Lorena; Galván-Cervantes, Jorge; Morales-Rojas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Seventy five percent or more of a diagnosis comes from a proper medical history along with an excellent physical examination. This leaves to the clinical laboratory the function of supporting the findings, determining prognosis, classifying the diseases, monitoring the diseases and, in the minimum of cases, establishing the diagnosis. In recent years there has been a global phenomenon in which the allocation of resources to health care has grown in an excessive way; the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social is not an exception with an increase of 29 % from 2009 to 2011; therefore, it is necessary to set containment and reduction without compromising the quality of patient care.

  16. Subcorneal hematomas in excessive video game play.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Maria; Rizzo, Jason; Lennox, Luke; Rothman, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of subcorneal hematomas caused by excessive video game play in a 19-year-old man. The hematomas occurred in a setting of thrombocytopenia secondary to induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. It was concluded that thrombocytopenia subsequent to prior friction from heavy use of a video game controller allowed for traumatic subcorneal hemorrhage of the hands. Using our case as a springboard, we summarize other reports with video game associated pathologies in the medical literature. Overall, cognizance of the popularity of video games and related pathologies can be an asset for dermatologists who evaluate pediatric patients.

  17. Immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L J; Mansourov, O A

    1999-01-25

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  18. 7 CFR 356.8 - Return procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Return procedure. 356.8 Section 356.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.8 Return procedure. If, at the conclusion...

  19. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  20. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  1. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  2. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  3. 26 CFR 50.7 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.7 Returns. (a) Form of... on which hydraulic mining operations began and ended during the taxable year for which the return is made; (7) The number of cubic yards mined by the hydraulic process at the mine during the taxable...

  4. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  5. The Returns to Quality in Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the monetary return to quality in US graduate education, controlling for cognitive ability and self-selection across award level, program quality, and field-of-study. In most program types, I cannot reject the hypothesis of no returns to either degree completion or program quality. Important exceptions include master's…

  6. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  7. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  8. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  9. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  10. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  11. 27 CFR 41.112 - Tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax return. 41.112 Section 41.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... States Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.112 Tax return. The...

  12. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  13. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  14. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  15. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  16. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or charitable institution documents the return by filling out a credit memo specifying: (1) The name..., health care entity, or charitable institution forwards a copy of each credit memo to the manufacturer and retains a copy of each credit memo for its records; (c) Any drugs returned to a manufacturer or...

  17. Returned Solar Max hardware degradation study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack J.; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission returned with the replaced hardware that had been in low Earth orbit for over four years. The materials of this returned hardware gave the aerospace community an opportunity to study the realtime effects of atomic oxygen, solar radiation, impact particles, charged particle radiation, and molecular contamination. The results of these studies are summarized.

  18. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  19. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  20. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  1. 46 CFR 308.514 - Return premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Return premium. 308.514 Section 308.514 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.514 Return premium. No premium will...

  2. 12 CFR 210.12 - Return of cash items and handling of returned checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Return of cash items and handling of returned checks. 210.12 Section 210.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... FEDWIRE (REGULATION J) Collection of Checks and Other Items By Federal Reserve Banks § 210.12 Return...

  3. Evaluation of the one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR ProFlu-1 assay for detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses and respiratory syncytial viruses in children.

    PubMed

    Legoff, Jérôme; Kara, Rachid; Moulin, Florence; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Krivine, Anne; Bélec, Laurent; Lebon, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated the one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR ProFlu-1 assay for the detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses and respiratory syncytial viruses from 353 pediatric nasopharyngeal aspirates. As assessed by comparison with the results of immunofluorescence testing and cell culture, the specificity and the sensitivity of the ProFlu-1 assay ranged from 97% to 100%. In addition, the ProFlu-1 assay amplified 9% of samples not detected by conventional methods.

  4. Evaluation of the One-Step Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR ProFlu-1 Assay for Detection of Influenza A and Influenza B Viruses and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses in Children▿

    PubMed Central

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Kara, Rachid; Moulin, Florence; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Krivine, Anne; Bélec, Laurent; Lebon, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR ProFlu-1 assay for the detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses and respiratory syncytial viruses from 353 pediatric nasopharyngeal aspirates. As assessed by comparison with the results of immunofluorescence testing and cell culture, the specificity and the sensitivity of the ProFlu-1 assay ranged from 97% to 100%. In addition, the ProFlu-1 assay amplified 9% of samples not detected by conventional methods. PMID:18057126

  5. La Gloria, Mexico: the possible origins and response of a worldwide H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the spread and route of the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 from its possible origin in La Gloria to Mexico City. A lack of health control measures or nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in La Gloria accounts for the unprecedented high basic reproductive number (R0) in that town and a higher incidence of H1N1 flu in Mexico City. We analyzed data collected from Mexican news articles, the Healthmaps dataset, the Google search engine, and telephone interviews with Mexican community physicians and residents. Our article uses a simple Susceptible Infected and Recovered model based on the data collected, to show the relationship between the disease curve and the implementation of NPI use. As a result of this study, we conclude that, with strict government measures to control the disease over an extended period of time, it is possible that many hundreds or even thousands of lives might be saved in the future.

  6. Tolerability of ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol for the treatment of cold and flu symptoms and sore throat pain.

    PubMed

    Moore, N; Le Parc, J M; van Ganse, E; Wall, R; Schneid, H; Cairns, R

    2002-12-01

    This double-blind randomised study compared the tolerability of ibuprofen (up to 1.2 g daily), aspirin and paracetamol (both up to 3 g daily) for up to seven days, in patients with mild to moderate pain resulting from cold/flu symptoms or sore throat (CF/ST) (n = 2,815). The main outcome was the rate of significant adverse events (SGAE). Rates of SGAE for ibuprofen, aspirin and paracetamol were respectively 12.0%, 15.7% and 12.3%. Ibuprofen was significantly better tolerated than aspirin (p = 0.02) and had comparable tolerability with paracetamol. The latter was also true for total digestive system events and for abdominal pain and dyspepsia. In conclusion, in patients with CF/ST, ibuprofen used at over-the-counter doses is as well tolerated as paracetamol and much better tolerated than aspirin.

  7. The effects of fever on hormone ghrelins, immunoglobulins, and heat shock protein 70 expression after swine flu vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Suleyman; Guven, Tumer; Sahin, İbrahim; Aksoy, Aziz; Kendir, Yalçın; İlhan, Mustafa N; Citil, Cihan; Catak, Zekiye; Ustun, Cemal

    2012-10-01

    For analyzing the changes in immunoglobulins, HSP70, ghrelin levels in blood samples were collected from volunteers vaccinated against swine flu before the vaccinations and on days 3, and 15, and 1 and 2 months after the vaccination in the presence or absence of fever associated with the it. The study included 11 subjects having developed a fever, and 13 subjects not having a fever, and 20 control subjects. Immunoglobulins were measured by nephelometry, and HSP70 and ghrelins by appropriate ELISA tests. The level of ghrelin was reduced, while the level of HSP70 was significantly increased in subjects who developed fevers. When temperatures were normalized, both levels were found similar to the control group. These results indicate that the increase in serum immunoglobulins levels associated with vaccinations, along with, elevations in HSP70 and reduced ghrelin levels associated with fever, may be the important parameters in the clinical evaluation and follow-up of treatments with vaccines.

  8. First-principles calculation of structural and electronic properties of memantine (Alzheimer's disease) and adamantane (anti-flu) drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Kirsten; Zhang, Guoping; George, Thomas F.

    2012-02-01

    Memantine is currently used as a treatment for mild to severe Alzheimer's disease, although its functionality is complicated. Using various density functional theory calculations and basis sets, we first examine memantine alone and then add ions which are present in the human body. This provides clues as to how the compound may react in the calcium ion channel, where it is believed to treat the disease. In order to understand the difference between calcium and magnesium ions interacting with memantine, we compute the electron affinity of each complex. We find that memantine is more strongly attracted to magnesium ions than calcium ions within the channel. By observing the HOMO-LUMO gap within memantine in comparison to adamantane, we find that memantine is more excitable than the anti-flu drug. We believe these factors to affect the efficiency of memantine as a treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. [Surveillance measures at joint-stock company "Poultry Farm Lubinskaya" during the period of avian flu epizootia in Omsk region].

    PubMed

    Uskov, P A; Gerasimov, A M; Putiatova, O N; Turchaninov, D V

    2006-01-01

    The organization of sanitary-and-epidemiologic supervision of an integrated poultry farm during epizootia of avian flu is devoted. The unsuccessful situation demands acceptance of additional measures which provided performance antiepizootic, preventive and antiepidemic measures with a view of restriction and distribution of an infection on poultry-farming enterprise. The disinfection barriers of several levels are established. Are organized a sanitary filtrates for the personnel and regular medical supervision over workers of the enterprise and their families. It is carried out the serological control over presence of specific antibodies to a virus of influenza virus among the workers contacting to a bird. Monitoring research of tests of blood of birds on antibodies to the influenza virus was carried out since August, 2005.

  10. "Beauty contest" indicator of cognitive ability and free riding strategies. Results from a scenario experiment about pandemic flu immunization.

    PubMed

    Rönnerstrand, Björn

    2017-03-01

    High immunization coverage rates are desirable in order to reduce total morbidity and mortality rates, but it may also provide an incentive for herd immunity free riding strategies. The aim of this paper was to investigate the link between cognitive ability and vaccination intention in a hypothetical scenario experiment about Avian Flu immunization. A between-subject scenario experiment was utilized to examine the willingness to undergo vaccination when the vaccination coverage was proclaimed to be 36, 62 and 88%. Respondents were later assigned to a "Beauty contest" experiment, an experimental game commonly used to investigate individual's cognitive ability. Results show that there was a significant negative effect of the proclaimed vaccination uptake among others on the vaccination intention. However, there were no significant association between the "Beauty contest" indicator of cognitive ability and the use of herd immunity free riding strategies.

  11. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    PubMed

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology.

  12. Surgery for residual convergence excess esotropia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himanshu I; Dawson, Emma; Lee, John

    2011-12-01

    The outcome of bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures +/- central tenotomy was assessed as a secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia in 11 patients. Ten had previously undergone bilateral medial rectus recessions. One had recess/resect surgery on the deviating eye. The average preoperative near angle was 30 prism diopters with a range of 16 to 45 prism diopters. Eight patients underwent bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with central tenotomy. Two had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures only, and one had bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation suture, a lateral rectus resection, and an inferior oblique disinsertion. The postoperative near angle ranged from 4-30 prism diopters, with mean of 12 prism diopters. Five patients demonstrated some stereopsis preoperatively, all needing bifocals. Postoperatively, nine patients demonstrated an improvement in stereopsis, none needing bifocals. Two showed smaller near angles and better control without bifocals. Final stereopsis ranged from 30 seconds of arc to 800 seconds of arc. We feel that bilateral medial rectus posterior fixation sutures with or without central tenotomy is a viable secondary procedure for residual convergence excess esotropia.

  13. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia.

  14. Narcolepsy and disorders of excessive somnolence.

    PubMed

    Dyken, Mark E; Yamada, Thoru

    2005-06-01

    Recent studies provide valid criteria that help differentiate idiopathic narcolepsy from other disorders of excessive daytime somnolence [3]. Research to date suggests that idiopathic narcolepsy might properly be considered a disorder of excessive sleepiness with dysfunctional REM-sleep mechanisms, clinically evidenced as cataplexy and electrophysiologically recognized as SOREMPs. Given these criteria, a diagnosis can generally be made using a combination of history, PSG, and MSLT. Traditionally, the medical treatment of idiopathic narcolepsy has centered on a two-drug regimen (stimulants for sleepiness and TCAs for cataplexy and auxiliary symptoms). Some newer medications are proving efficacious for sleepiness with minimal adverse effects, whereas others may provide a single-drug regimen that simultaneously addresses sleepiness and cataplexy [18]. New research has allowed some experts to hypothesize that idiopathic narcolepsy may be the result of a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disease [176]. It is possible that aberrant genetic coding of elements in the hypocretin/orexin systems allows a sensitivity to inducible and possibly virally mediated changes, which leave cells in the lateral hypothalamus susceptible to autoimmune attack [96]. As such, genetic screening of high-risk individuals might eventually rationalize the prophylactic use of immunosuppressants in some instances. In the future, for atypical cases(poorly responsive to therapy), genetic, CSF, and brain imaging studies, and possibly even neuronal transplantation may prove beneficial in the assessment and treatment of idiopathic narcolepsy.

  15. A novel system of artificial antigen-presenting cells efficiently stimulates Flu peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hui; Peng, Ji-Run; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Gong, Lei; Qiao, Shi-Shi; Wang, Wen-Zhen; Cui, Zhu-Qingqing; Yu, Xin; Wei, Yu-Hua; Leng, Xi-Sheng

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Adoptive immunotherapy depends on relevant numbers of cytolytic T lymphocytes. {yields} An ideal artificial APCs system was successfully prepared in vivo. {yields} Controlled release of IL-2 leads to much more T-cell expansion. {yields} This system is better than general cellular APCs on T-cell expansion. -- Abstract: Therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors in successful adoptive immunotherapy. However, efficient and reproducible methods to meet the qualification remain poor. To address this issue, we designed the artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) system based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). A modified emulsion method was used for the preparation of PLGA particles encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2). Biotinylated molecular ligands for recognition and co-stimulation of T cells were attached to the particle surface through the binding of avidin-biotin. These formed the aAPC system. The function of aAPCs in the proliferation of specific CTLs against human Flu antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and MTT staining methods. Finally, we successfully prepared this suitable aAPC system. The results show that IL-2 is released from aAPCs in a sustained manner over 30 days. This dramatically improves the stimulatory capacity of this system as compared to the effect of exogenous addition of cytokine. In addition, our aAPCs promote the proliferation of Flu antigen-specific CTLs more effectively than the autologous cellular APCs. Here, this aAPC platform is proved to be suitable for expansion of human antigen-specific T cells.

  16. Evaluation of the Simplexa Flu A/B and RSV test for the rapid detection of influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sun-Young; Jang, Jin Woo; Song, Dae Jin; Lim, Chae Seung; Kim, Woo Joo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, various molecular systems have been introduced for the detection of influenza viruses. Among these, the Simplexa Flu A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test can provide results in approximately 2 hr. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 241 patients (influenza A, n = 81; influenza B, n = 80; influenza A and influenza B mixed, n = 1; influenza A and RSV A mixed, n = 2; and influenza and RSV negative, n = 77) were analyzed using the Simplexa Flu A/B and RSV test, a conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and a real-time RT-PCR assay. Compared to conventional RT-PCR, the Simplexa test had respective sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 100% for influenza A and 100% and 99.4% for influenza B with extracted RNA samples, and 91.7% and 99.4% for influenza A, and 97.5% and 98.1% for influenza B with unprocessed patient specimens. All RSV A specimens were successfully detected by the Simplexa test using both extracted RNA samples and unprocessed patient specimens. The real-time RT-PCR assay had respective sensitivities and specificities of 96.4% and 99.4% for influenza A, and 98.8% and 99.4% for influenza B. The Simplexa test was effective at detecting influenza viruses from extracted RNA samples as well as from unprocessed patient specimens. The assay was not only simple and rapid for influenza detection, but the performance was also comparable to that of other conventional molecular methods.

  17. Molecular simulation of excess isotherm and excess enthalpy change in gas-phase adsorption.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Do, H D; Nicholson, D

    2009-01-29

    We present a new approach to calculating excess isotherm and differential enthalpy of adsorption on surfaces or in confined spaces by the Monte Carlo molecular simulation method. The approach is very general and, most importantly, is unambiguous in its application to any configuration of solid structure (crystalline, graphite layer or disordered porous glass), to any type of fluid (simple or complex molecule), and to any operating conditions (subcritical or supercritical). The behavior of the adsorbed phase is studied using the partial molar energy of the simulation box. However, to characterize adsorption for comparison with experimental data, the isotherm is best described by the excess amount, and the enthalpy of adsorption is defined as the change in the total enthalpy of the simulation box with the change in the excess amount, keeping the total number (gas + adsorbed phases) constant. The excess quantities (capacity and energy) require a choice of a reference gaseous phase, which is defined as the adsorptive gas phase occupying the accessible volume and having a density equal to the bulk gas density. The accessible volume is defined as the mean volume space accessible to the center of mass of the adsorbate under consideration. With this choice, the excess isotherm passes through a maximum but always remains positive. This is in stark contrast to the literature where helium void volume is used (which is always greater than the accessible volume) and the resulting excess can be negative. Our definition of enthalpy change is equivalent to the difference between the partial molar enthalpy of the gas phase and the partial molar enthalpy of the adsorbed phase. There is no need to assume ideal gas or negligible molar volume of the adsorbed phase as is traditionally done in the literature. We illustrate this new approach with adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions.

  18. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-02-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (P<0.001). We identified that deprived nocturnal sleep, an irregular sleep-wake schedule and depression were the risk factors of EDS for both genders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).

  19. Integrating public perspectives in sample return planning.

    PubMed

    Race, M S; MacGregor, D G

    2000-01-01

    Planning for extraterrestrial sample returns--whether from Mars or other solar system bodies--must be done in a way that integrates planetary protection concerns with the usual mission technical and scientific considerations. Understanding and addressing legitimate societal concerns about the possible risks of sample return will be a critical part of the public decision making process ahead. This paper presents the results of two studies, one with lay audiences, the other with expert microbiologists designed to gather information on attitudes and concerns about sample return risks and planetary protection. Focus group interviews with lay subjects, using generic information about Mars sample return and a preliminary environmental impact assessment, were designed to obtain an indication of how the factual content is perceived and understood by the public. A research survey of microbiologists gathered information on experts' views and attitudes about sample return, risk management approaches and space exploration risks. These findings, combined with earlier research results on risk perception, will be useful in identifying levels of concern and potential conflicts in understanding between experts and the public about sample return risks. The information will be helpful in guiding development of the environmental impact statement and also has applicability to proposals for sample return from other solar system bodies where scientific uncertainty about extraterrestrial life may persist at the time of mission planning.

  20. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Robert G.; Thompson, Roger C.; Starchville, Thomas F., Jr.; Adams, C.; Aldo, A.; Dobson, K.; Flotta, C.; Gagliardino, J.; Lear, M.; Mcmillan, C.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1991-92 academic year, the Pennsylvania State University has developed three sample return missions: one to the nucleus of comet Wild 2, one to the asteroid Eros, and one to three asteroids located in the Main Belt. The primary objective of the comet nucleus sample return mission is to rendezvous with a short period comet and acquire a 10 kg sample for return to Earth. Upon rendezvous with the comet, a tethered coring and sampler drill will contact the surface and extract a two-meter core sample from the target site. Before the spacecraft returns to Earth, a monitoring penetrator containing scientific instruments will be deployed for gathering long-term data about the comet. A single asteroid sample return mission to the asteroid 433 Eros (chosen for proximity and launch opportunities) will extract a sample from the asteroid surface for return to Earth. To limit overall mission cost, most of the mission design uses current technologies, except the sampler drill design. The multiple asteroid sample return mission could best be characterized through its use of future technology including an optical communications system, a nuclear power reactor, and a low-thrust propulsion system. A low-thrust trajectory optimization code (QuickTop 2) obtained from the NASA LeRC helped in planning the size of major subsystem components, as well as the trajectory between targets.