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Sample records for reveals dramatic mhc-linked

  1. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Interferometer in West Virginia; the Australia Telescope Compact Array; the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope, also in Australia; the MERLIN array in Britain; the Ratan 600-meter radio telescope in Russia; and radio telescopes at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California. The radio observations also provided the distance measurement for the binary system. The dramatic X-ray flare on Sept. 15 was not the only time V4641 Sgr exploded into activity. Further examination of ASM data revealed a bright flare (about one-third as intense as the brightest flare) on Sept. 14th that lasted between three minutes and three hours. In response to the ASM team's alert, Michael McCollough and Peter Woods, members of the BATSE team at Marshall Space Flight Center, scoured their data for evidence of V4641 Sgr. In addition to the flares seen by the ASM, they found a third rapid flare that peaked two hours after the brightest flare, reaching a peak intensity about half that of the brightest flare. The RXTE Proportional Counter Array (PCA), a very large X-ray telescope, was rapidly reoriented to observe V4641 Sgr about 4.5 hours after the brightest flare. A fourth event, lasting 20 minutes, was recorded by the PCA to reach an intensity of one-sixth that of the brightest flare. The PCA data reveal complex substructure, with luminosity changes by a factor of four within one second, and by a factor of 500 within minutes. No further high-energy emission from V4641 Sgr has been observed with any satellite since the end of the flare seen by the PCA. "Combining the data from all three instruments, we saw four of the most dramatic rapid X-ray intensity changes ever seen from one star," Smith said. "This behavior is new. We've never see anything like it." The proximity of the object "gives us an unusual close-up look at this phenomenon," Hjellming said. If future searches for brief X-ray flares reveal that there are more objects like V4641 Sgr, "we will have a whole new source of information that

  2. Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Aron J.; Mori-Sánchez, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.

  3. Analyses of the Specificity of CD4 T Cells During the Primary Immune Response to Influenza Virus Reveals Dramatic MHC-Linked Asymmetries in Reactivity to Individual Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Jennifer L.; Richards, Katherine A.; Chaves, Francisco A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Influenza is a contagious, acute respiratory disease that is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. CD4 T cells play an important role in the immune response to this pathogen through the secretion of antiviral cytokines, and by providing help to CD8 T cells and B cells to promote the development of immunological memory and neutralizing antibody responses. Despite these well-defined roles in the anti-influenza response, our understanding of CD4 T-cell diversity and specificity remains limited. In the study reported here, overlapping peptides representing 5 different influenza viral proteins were used in EliSpot assays to enumerate and identify the specificity of anti-influenza CD4 T cells directly ex vivo following infection of mice with influenza virus, using two strains that express unrelated MHC class II molecules. These experiments evaluated whether the reactivity of CD4 T cells generally tracked with particular influenza proteins, or whether MHC preferences were the predominant factor dictating anti-CD4 T-cell specificity in the primary immune response. We made the unexpected discovery that the distribution of CD4 T-cell specificities for different influenza proteins varied significantly depending on the single class II molecule expressed in vivo. In SJL mice, the majority of epitopes were specific for the HA protein, while the NP protein dominated the response in C57BL/10 mice. Given the diversity of human MHC class II molecules, these findings have important implications for the ability to rationally design a vaccine that will generate a specific CD4 T-cell immune response that is effective across diverse human populations. PMID:20373997

  4. Characterization of Clustered MHC-Linked Olfactory Receptor Genes in Human and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Younger, Ruth M.; Amadou, Claire; Bethel, Graeme; Ehlers, Anke; Lindahl, Kirsten Fischer; Forbes, Simon; Horton, Roger; Milne, Sarah; Mungall, Andrew J.; Trowsdale, John; Volz, Armin; Ziegler, Andreas; Beck, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Olfactory receptor (OR) loci frequently cluster and are present on most human chromosomes. They are members of the seven transmembrane receptor (7-TM) superfamily and, as such, are part of one of the largest mammalian multigene families, with an estimated copy number of up to 1000 ORs per haploid genome. As their name implies, ORs are known to be involved in the perception of odors and possibly also in other, nonolfaction-related, functions. Here, we report the characterization of ORs that are part of the MHC-linked OR clusters in human and mouse (partial sequence only). These clusters are of particular interest because of their possible involvement in olfaction-driven mate selection. In total, we describe 50 novel OR loci (36 human, 14 murine), making the human MHC-linked cluster the largest sequenced OR cluster in any organism so far. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses confirm the cluster to be MHC-linked but divergent in both species and allow the identification of at least one ortholog that will be useful for future regulatory and functional studies. Quantitative feature analysis shows clear evidence of duplications of blocks of OR genes and reveals the entire cluster to have a genomic environment that is very different from its neighboring regions. Based on in silico transcript analysis, we also present evidence of extensive long-distance splicing in the 5′-untranslated regions and, for the first time, of alternative splicing within the single coding exon of ORs. Taken together with our previous finding that ORs are also polymorphic, the presented data indicate that the expression, function, and evolution of these interesting genes might be more complex than previously thought. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL nucleotide data library under accession nos. Z84475, Z98744, Z98745, AL021807, AL021808, AL022723, AL022727, AL031893, AL035402, AL035542, AL050328, AL050339, AL078630, AL096770, AL121944, AL133160, and AL

  5. MHC-linked susceptibility to a bacterial infection, but no MHC-linked cryptic female choice in whitefish.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, C; Walker, M; Portmann, J; Cenni, B; Müller, R; Binz, T

    2004-01-01

    Non-random gamete fusion is one of several potential cryptic female choice mechanisms that have been postulated and that may enhance the survival probability of the offspring. Previous studies have found that gamete fusion in mice is influenced by genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Here we test (i) whether there is MHC-dependent gamete fusion in whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and (ii) whether there is a link between the MHC and embryo susceptibility to an infection by the bacterium Pseudomonas fuorescens. We experimentally bred whitefish and reared sibships in several batches that either experienced or did not experience strong selection by P. fluorescens. We then determined the MHC class II B1 genotype of 1016 surviving larvae of several full sibships. We found no evidence for MHC-linked gamete fusion. However, in one of seven sibships we found a strong connection between the MHC class II genotype and embryo susceptibility to P. fluorescens. This connection was still significant after correcting for multiple testing. Hence, the MHC class II genotype can considerably influence embryo survival in whitefish, but gamete fusion seems to be random with respect to the MHC.

  6. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli). Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years). However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years), followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years) that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears to be a typical

  7. Role of MHC-Linked Susceptibility Genes in the Pathogenesis of Human and Murine Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Relle, Manfred; Schwarting, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens and a systemic inflammation that can damage a broad spectrum of organs. SLE patients suffer from a wide variety of symptoms, which can affect virtually almost any tissue. As lupus is difficult to diagnose, the worldwide prevalence of SLE can only be roughly estimated to range from 10 and 200 cases per 100,000 individuals with dramatic differences depending on gender, ethnicity, and location. Although the treatment of this disease has been significantly ameliorated by new therapies, improved conventional drug therapy options, and a trained expert eye, the underlying pathogenesis of lupus still remain widely unknown. The complex etiology reflects the complex genetic background of the disease, which is also not well understood yet. However, in the past few years advances in lupus genetics have been made, notably with the publication of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans and the identification of susceptibility genes and loci in mice. This paper reviews the role of MHC-linked susceptibility genes in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:22761632

  8. Genomic architecture of MHC-linked odorant receptor gene repertoires among 16 vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pablo Sandro Carvalho; Kellermann, Thomas; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The recent sequencing and assembly of the genomes of different organisms have shown that almost all vertebrates studied in detail so far have one or more clusters of genes encoding odorant receptors (OR) in close physical linkage to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It has been postulated that MHC-linked OR genes could be involved in MHC-influenced mate choice, comprising both pre- as well as post-copulatory mechanisms. We have therefore carried out a systematic comparison of protein sequences of these receptors from the genomes of man, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, elephant, opossum, frog and zebra fish (amounting to a total of 559 protein sequences) in order to identify OR families exhibiting evolutionarily conserved MHC linkage. In addition, we compared the genomic structure of this region within these 16 species, accounting for presence or absence of OR gene families, gene order, transcriptional orientation and linkage to the MHC or framework genes. The results are presented in the form of gene maps and phylogenetic analyses that reveal largely concordant repertoires of gene families, at least among tetrapods, although each of the eight taxa studied (primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, proboscids, marsupials, amphibians and teleosts) exhibits a typical architecture of MHC (or MHC framework loci)-linked OR genes. Furthermore, the comparison of the genomic organization of this region has implications for phylogenetic relationships between closely related taxa, especially in disputed cases such as the evolutionary history of even- and odd-toed ungulates and carnivores. Finally, the largely conserved linkage between distinct OR genes and the MHC supports the concept that particular alleles within a given haplotype function in a concerted fashion during self-/non-self-discrimination processes in reproduction.

  9. A new MHC-linked susceptibility locus for primary Sjögren's syndrome: MICA.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphael; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Kotova, Irina; Untrau, Meiggie; Michel, Sandra; Naegely, Lydie; Aouadi, Ismail; Kwemou, Marius; Paul, Nicodème; Pichot, Angélique; Locke, James; Bowman, Simon J; Griffiths, Bridget; Sivils, Kathy L; Sibilia, Jean; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Micelli-Richard, Corinne; Nocturne, Gaétane; Ota, Masao; Ng, Wan-Fai; Mariette, Xavier; Bahram, Seiamak

    2017-04-04

    The association of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) with Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) alleles is quintessential of MHC-disease associations. Indeed, although disease associations with classical HLA class I and II alleles/haplotypes are amply documented, further dissection is often prevented by the strong linkage disequilibrium across the entire MHC complex. Here we study the association of pSS, not with HLA genes, but with the non-conventional MHC encoded class I gene, MICA (MHC class I chain-related gene A). MICA is selectively expressed within epithelia, and is the major ligand for the activatory receptor, NKG2D, both attributes relevant to pSS' etiology. MICA-pSS association was studied in two independent (French and UK) cohorts representing a total of 959 cases and 1,043 controls. MICA*008 allele was shown to be significantly associated with pSS (pcor=2.61x10-35). A multivariate logistic regression showed that this association was independent of all major known MHC-linked risk loci/alleles, as well as other relevant candidate loci that are in linkage disequilibrium with MICA*008 i.e. HLA-B*08:01, rs3131619 (T), MICB*008, TNF308A, HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-DRB1*15:01 (p=1.84x10-04). Furthermore, independently of the MICA*008 allele, higher levels of soluble MICA proteins were detected in sera of pSS patients compared to healthy controls. This study hence defines MICA as a new, MHC-linked, yet HLA-independent, pSS risk locus and opens a new front in our understanding of the still enigmatic pathophysiology of this disease. The fact that the soluble MICA protein is further amplified in MICA*008 carrying individuals, might also be relevant in other auto-immune diseases and cancer.

  10. Lipidomics reveals dramatic lipid compositional changes in the maturing postnatal lung

    DOE PAGES

    Dautel, Sydney E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Clair, Geremy; ...

    2017-02-01

    Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the murinemore » lipidome during normal postnatal lung development. Lipidomics analysis of lungs from post-natal day 7, day 14 and 6-8 week mice (adult) identified 928 unique lipids across 21 lipid subclasses, with dramatic alterations in the lipidome across developmental stages. Our data confirmed previously recognized aspects of post-natal lung development and revealed several insights, including in sphingolipid-mediated apoptosis, inflammation and energy storage/usage. Complementary proteomics, metabolomics and chemical imaging corroborated these observations. Finally, this multi-omic view provides a unique resource and deeper insight into normal pulmonary development.« less

  11. Lipidomics reveals dramatic lipid compositional changes in the maturing postnatal lung

    PubMed Central

    Dautel, Sydney E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Clair, Geremy; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weitz, Karl K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Nguyen, Son N.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Luders, Teresa; Frevert, Charles W.; Gharib, Sina A.; Laskin, Julia; Carson, James P.; Metz, Thomas O.; Corley, Richard A.; Ansong, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the murine lipidome during normal postnatal lung development. Lipidomics analysis of lungs from post-natal day 7, day 14 and 6–8 week mice (adult) identified 924 unique lipids across 21 lipid subclasses, with dramatic alterations in the lipidome across developmental stages. Our data confirmed previously recognized aspects of post-natal lung development and revealed several insights, including in sphingolipid-mediated apoptosis, inflammation and energy storage/usage. Complementary proteomics, metabolomics and chemical imaging corroborated these observations. This multi-omic view provides a unique resource and deeper insight into normal pulmonary development. PMID:28145528

  12. Computational mapping reveals dramatic effect of Hoogsteen breathing on duplex DNA reactivity with formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Bohnuud, Tanggis; Beglov, Dmitri; Ngan, Chi Ho; Zerbe, Brandon; Hall, David R.; Brenke, Ryan; Vajda, Sandor; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde has long been recognized as a hazardous environmental agent highly reactive with DNA. Recently, it has been realized that due to the activity of histone demethylation enzymes within the cell nucleus, formaldehyde is produced endogenously, in direct vicinity of genomic DNA. Should it lead to extensive DNA damage? We address this question with the aid of a computational mapping method, analogous to X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for observing weakly specific interactions of small organic compounds with a macromolecule in order to establish important functional sites. We concentrate on the leading reaction of formaldehyde with free bases: hydroxymethylation of cytosine amino groups. Our results show that in B-DNA, cytosine amino groups are totally inaccessible for the formaldehyde attack. Then, we explore the effect of recently discovered transient flipping of Watson–Crick (WC) pairs into Hoogsteen (HG) pairs (HG breathing). Our results show that the HG base pair formation dramatically affects the accessibility for formaldehyde of cytosine amino nitrogens within WC base pairs adjacent to HG base pairs. The extensive literature on DNA interaction with formaldehyde is analyzed in light of the new findings. The obtained data emphasize the significance of DNA HG breathing. PMID:22705795

  13. Benthic surveys of the historic pearl oyster beds of Qatar reveal a dramatic ecological change.

    PubMed

    Smyth, D; Al-Maslamani, I; Chatting, M; Giraldes, B

    2016-12-15

    The study aimed to confirm the presence of historic oyster banks of Qatar and code the biotopes present. The research also collated historical records and scientific publications to create a timeline of fishery activity. The oyster banks where once an extremely productive economic resource however, intense overfishing, extreme environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts caused a fishery collapse. The timeline highlighted the vulnerability of ecosystem engineering bivalves if overexploited. The current status of the oyster banks meant only one site could be described as oyster dominant. This was unexpected as the sites were located in areas which once supported a highly productive oyster fishery. The research revealed the devastating effect that anthropogenic impacts can have on a relatively robust marine habitat like an oyster bed and it is hoped these findings will act as a driver to investigate and map other vulnerable habitats within the region before they too become compromised.

  14. Contrasted patterns of selection on MHC-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the Malagasy plague reservoir.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, Charlotte; Ivanova, Svilena; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Brouat, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of Madagascar. Black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of Madagascar) are susceptible. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in plague resistance. We therefore used the MHC region as a candidate for detecting signatures of plague-mediated selection in Malagasy black rats, by comparing population genetic structures for five MHC-linked microsatellites and neutral markers in two sampling designs. We first compared four pairs of populations, each pair including one population from the plague focus and one from the disease-free zone. Plague-mediated selection was expected to result in greater genetic differentiation between the two zones than expected under neutrality and this was observed for one MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Img2). For this marker as well as for four other MHC-linked loci, a geographic pattern of genetic structure was found at local scale within the plague focus. This pattern would be expected if plague selection pressures were spatially variable. Finally, another MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Rat21) showed evidences of balancing selection, but it seems more likely that this selection would be related to unknown pathogens more widely distributed in Madagascar than plague.

  15. Contrasted Patterns of Selection on MHC-Linked Microsatellites in Natural Populations of the Malagasy Plague Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Tollenaere, Charlotte; Ivanova, Svilena; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Brouat, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of Madagascar. Black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of Madagascar) are susceptible. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in plague resistance. We therefore used the MHC region as a candidate for detecting signatures of plague-mediated selection in Malagasy black rats, by comparing population genetic structures for five MHC-linked microsatellites and neutral markers in two sampling designs. We first compared four pairs of populations, each pair including one population from the plague focus and one from the disease-free zone. Plague-mediated selection was expected to result in greater genetic differentiation between the two zones than expected under neutrality and this was observed for one MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Img2). For this marker as well as for four other MHC-linked loci, a geographic pattern of genetic structure was found at local scale within the plague focus. This pattern would be expected if plague selection pressures were spatially variable. Finally, another MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Rat21) showed evidences of balancing selection, but it seems more likely that this selection would be related to unknown pathogens more widely distributed in Madagascar than plague. PMID:22403713

  16. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Katrina M; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  18. Hitchhiking and recombination in birds: evidence from Mhc-linked and unlinked loci in Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott V; Dillon, Megan

    2004-12-01

    Hitchhiking phenomena and genetic recombination have important consequences for a variety of fields for which birds are model species, yet we know virtually nothing about naturally occurring rates of recombination or the extent of linkage disequilibrium in birds. We took advantage of a previously sequenced cosmid clone from Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) bearing a highly polymorphic Mhc class II gene, Agph-DABI, to measure the extent of linkage disequilibrium across approximately 40 kb of genomic DNA and to determine whether non-coding nucleotide diversity was elevated as a result of physical proximity to a target of balancing selection. Application of coalescent theory predicts that the hitchhiking effect is enhanced by the larger effective population size of blackbirds compared with humans, despite the presumably higher rates of recombination in birds. We surveyed sequence polymorphism at three Mhc-linked loci occurring 1.5-40 kb away from Agph-DAB1 and found that nucleotide diversity was indistinguishable from that found at three presumably unlinked, non-coding introns (beta-actin intron 2, beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and rhodopsin intron 2). Linkage disequilibrium as measured by Lewontin's D' was found only across a few hundred base pairs within any given locus, and was not detectable among any Mhc-linked loci. Estimated rates of the per site recombination rate p derived from three different analytical methods suggest that the amounts of recombination in blackbirds are up to two orders of magnitude higher than in humans, a discrepancy that cannot be explained entirely by the higher effective population size of blackbirds relative to humans. In addition, the ratio of the number of estimated recombination events per mutation frequently exceeds 1, as in Drosophila, again much higher than estimates in humans. Although the confidence limits of the blackbird estimates themselves span an order of magnitude, these data suggest that in blackbirds the

  19. Creative Dramatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Phoebe

    1975-01-01

    Argues that creative dramatics offers many outlets for expression and creative activity to children who are shy, unable to speak up and act out imaginary adventures, or who lack confidence or self-esteem. (RB)

  20. Genetic variability of ten Chinese indigenous goats using MHC-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Ma, Yue-Hui; Na, Ri-Su; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Wu, Xin

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the genetic variability of Chinese indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) was analyzed using the MHC-associated microsatellite markers BF1, BM1818, BM1258, and DYMS1. To examine genetic variability, the levels of heterozigosity, degrees of inbreeding, and genetic differences among the breeds were analyzed. The mean number of alleles ranged from 5.50±3.70 in Enshi black goats (EB) to 11.50±3.70 in the Jianyang big ear (JE) breed. The mean observed heterozygosity and mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.25±0.04 in Jining Qing goats (JQ) to 0.54±0.05 in Chuannan black goats (CN) and from 0.49±0.18 in Hechuan white goats (HW) to 0.78±0.05 in JE, respectively. The mean FIS values ranged from 0.23 in HW to 0.51 in JQ. In addition, the genetic variation among populations and geographic location did indicate a correlation of genetic differences with geographic distance, which was revealed by the phylogenetic network. In conclusion, the high variability and population structure among Chinese native goats in the Major Histocompatibility Complex would be caused by co-evolution between MHC alleles and the epidemic history or pathogens in different agro-ecological zones.

  1. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  2. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  3. Dramatic Teaching for Dramatic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Ressler's "Dramatic Changes" is a powerful guide for anyone brave enough to create a space for young people to discuss sexual orientation and gender identity. Her accessible style and tangible suggestions describe a creative and educationally sound approach to supporting youth in thoughtfully wrestling with one of the most controversial social…

  4. Dramatic loss of glacier accumulation area on the Tibetan Plateau revealed by ice core tritium and mercury records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S.; Wang, F.; Morgenstern, U.; Zhang, Y.; Grigholm, B.; Kaspari, S.; Schwikowski, M.; Ren, J.; Yao, T.; Qin, D.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2015-06-01

    Two ice cores were retrieved from high elevations (~5800 m a.s.l.) at Mt. Nyainqêntanglha and Mt. Geladaindong in the southern and central Tibetan Plateau region. The combined tracer analysis of tritium (3H), 210Pb and mercury, along with other chemical records, provided multiple lines of evidence supporting that the two coring sites had not received net ice accumulation since at least the 1950s and 1980s, respectively. These results implied an annual ice loss rate of more than several hundred millimeter water equivalent over the past 30-60 years. Both mass balance modeling at the sites and in situ data from the nearby glaciers confirmed a continuously negative mass balance (or mass loss) in the region due to dramatic warming in recent decades. Along with a recent report on Naimona'nyi Glacier in the Himalayas, the findings suggest that the loss of accumulation area of glacier is a possibility from the southern to central Tibetan Plateau at high elevations, probably up to about 5800 m a.s.l. This mass loss raises concerns over the rapid rate of glacier ice loss and associated changes in surface glacier runoff, water availability, and sea levels.

  5. 30 years of data reveal dramatic increase in abundance of brown trout following the removal of a small hydrodam.

    PubMed

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin H; Nielsen, Jan; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-09-15

    Humans and freshwater ecosystems have a long history of cohabitation. Today, nearly all major rivers of the world have an in-stream structure which changes water flow, substrate composition, vegetation, and fish assemblage composition. The realization of these effects and their subsequent impacts on population sustainability and conservation has led to a collective effort aimed to find ways to mitigate these impacts. Barrier removal has recently received greater interest as a potential solution to restore river connectivity, and reestablish high quality habitats, suitable for feeding, refuge and spawning of fish. In the present study, we present thirty years of data from electrofishing surveys obtained at two sites, both prior to and following the removal of a small-scale hydropower dam in Central Jutland, Denmark. We demonstrate that the dam removal has led to a dramatic increase in trout density, especially in young of the year. Surprisingly, we found that this increase was not just upstream of the barrier, where the ponded zone previously was, but also downstream of the barrier, despite little changes in habitat in that area. These findings suggest that barrier removal may be the soundest conservation option to reinstate fish population productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low genetic variation in the MHC class II DRB gene and MHC-linked microsatellites in endangered island populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saka, Toshinori; Nishita, Yoshinori; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2017-07-09

    Isolated populations of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) on Tsushima and Iriomote islands in Japan are classified as subspecies P. b. euptilurus and P. b. iriomotensis, respectively. Because both populations have decreased to roughly 100, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential for conservation. We genotyped MHC class II DRB exon 2 and MHC-linked microsatellite loci to evaluate the diversity of MHC genes in the Tsushima and Iriomote cat populations. We detected ten and four DRB alleles in these populations, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis showed DRB alleles from both populations to be closely related to those in other felid DRB lineages, indicating trans-species polymorphism. The MHC-linked microsatellites were more polymorphic in the Tsushima than in the Iriomote population. The MHC diversity of both leopard cat populations is much lower than in the domestic cat populations on these islands, probably due to inbreeding associated with founder effects, geographical isolation, or genetic drift. Our results predict low resistance of the two endangered populations to new pathogens introduced to the islands.

  7. Creative Dramatics Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Early Childhood Programs.

    This handbook on creative dramatics at the elementary school level is primarily intended to assist the teacher who already has some training in creative dramatics. The handbook contains sections on (1) the philosophy and objectives of the program, including a discussion of an affective curriculum; (2) definitions of key concepts, including general…

  8. Creative Dramatics. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Julia; Sidlovskaya, Olga; Stotter, Ruth; Haugen, Kirsten; Leithold, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on using creative dramatics in early childhood education: (1) "Drama: A Rehearsal for Life" (Julia Gabriel); (2) "Fairy Tales Enhance Imagination and Creative Thinking" (Olga Sidlovskaya); (3) "Starting with a Story" (Ruth Stotter); (4) "Using Creative Dramatics to Include All…

  9. Creative Dramatics. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Julia; Sidlovskaya, Olga; Stotter, Ruth; Haugen, Kirsten; Leithold, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on using creative dramatics in early childhood education: (1) "Drama: A Rehearsal for Life" (Julia Gabriel); (2) "Fairy Tales Enhance Imagination and Creative Thinking" (Olga Sidlovskaya); (3) "Starting with a Story" (Ruth Stotter); (4) "Using Creative Dramatics to Include All…

  10. LEARNING THROUGH CREATIVE DRAMATICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOODS, MARGARET S.

    THROUGH INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP EXPERIENCES IN CREATIVE DRAMATICS, CHILDREN CAN DEVELOP SELF-REALIZATION AS THEY BECOME INVOLVED IN THINKING, FEELING, AND EXPERIENCING. CREATIVE DRAMA AFFORDS AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE CONSTRUCTIVE CHANNELING OF EMOTIONS, DEVELOPS APPRECIATION OF THE WONDERS AND BEAUTY OF THE WORLD, PROMOTES THE ACQUISITION AND RETENTION…

  11. A multi-omic analysis of an Enterococcus faecium mutant reveals specific genetic mutations and dramatic changes in mRNA and protein expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For a long time, Enterococcus faecium was considered a harmless commensal of the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract and was used as a probiotic in fermented foods. In recent decades, E. faecium has been recognised as an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases such as neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis and diverticulitis. E. faecium could be taken into space with astronauts and exposed to the space environment. Thus, it is necessary to observe the phenotypic and molecular changes of E. faecium after spaceflight. Results An E. faecium mutant with biochemical features that are different from those of the wild-type strain was obtained from subculture after flight on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. To understand the underlying mechanism causing these changes, the whole genomes of both the mutant and the WT strains were sequenced using Illumina technology. The genomic comparison revealed that dprA, a recombination-mediator gene, and arpU, a gene associated with cell wall growth, were mutated. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses showed that differentially expressed genes or proteins were involved with replication, recombination, repair, cell wall biogenesis, glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, predicted general function and energy production/conversion. Conclusion This study analysed the comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes of an E. faecium mutant from subcultures that were loaded on the SHENZHOU-8 spacecraft. The implications of these gene mutations and expression changes and their underlying mechanisms should be investigated in the future. We hope that the current exploration of multiple “-omics” analyses of this E. faecium mutant will provide clues for future studies on this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:24373636

  12. Judging Dramatic Interpretation: Textual Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Bruce B.

    The recent growth in popularity among college students of dramatic interpretation in forensic competition justifies an examination of textual considerations and resultant criteria important to the evaluation of dramatic literature. The first considerations of the student contemplating the dramatic interpretation event are the selection of material…

  13. Creative Dramatics Handbook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Harriet W., Ed.

    The primary aim of the creative dramatics program detailed in this handbook is to give teachers a new teaching tool. Participants in the 45 staff development workshops during eight years have been classroom teachers, reading teachers, teachers from Head Start, teachers of special education and mathematics, resource teachers, librarians, and…

  14. Dramatizing Nonfiction with Emerging Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    Presents scenarios from a kindergarten classroom in which dramatization is used extensively in conjunction with nonfiction books. Shows how the children acted out topics that ranged from the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving to the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., showing that they were able to develop rich representations of nonfiction materials.…

  15. Dramatizing Nonfiction with Emerging Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    Presents scenarios from a kindergarten classroom in which dramatization is used extensively in conjunction with nonfiction books. Shows how the children acted out topics that ranged from the Pilgrims' first Thanksgiving to the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., showing that they were able to develop rich representations of nonfiction materials.…

  16. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  17. Introducing Dramatic Inquiry as Visual Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Mindi; Daiello, Vittoria S.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines dramatic inquiry, exploring its possible contributions to discourses on subjectivity, embodied pedagogy, and relational knowing in art education. As a communal, ensemble endeavor emerging from the discipline of drama education, dramatic inquiry offers strategies for enhancing arts education's critical inquiries by facilitating…

  18. Dramatic Developments in the Neurosciences Challenge Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Recent dramatic developments in brain research and technology suggest that a comprehensive understanding of how the human brain works may soon be within reach. Just as the ability of the medical profession to treat patients improved dramatically with the advent of effective research skills and technology concerning the structure, biochemistry, and…

  19. Dramatic Developments in the Neurosciences Challenge Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Recent dramatic developments in brain research and technology suggest that a comprehensive understanding of how the human brain works may soon be within reach. Just as the ability of the medical profession to treat patients improved dramatically with the advent of effective research skills and technology concerning the structure, biochemistry, and…

  20. Introducing Dramatic Inquiry as Visual Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Mindi; Daiello, Vittoria S.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines dramatic inquiry, exploring its possible contributions to discourses on subjectivity, embodied pedagogy, and relational knowing in art education. As a communal, ensemble endeavor emerging from the discipline of drama education, dramatic inquiry offers strategies for enhancing arts education's critical inquiries by facilitating…

  1. Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163136.html Abortions in Texas Dropped Dramatically After Restrictions Greater travel ... later declared unconstitutional -- that increased travel distances to abortion clinics in the state seems to have led ...

  2. Dramatic Cataplexy Improvement Following Right Parietal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fam, David J.; Shammi, Prathiba; Mainprize, Todd G.; Murray, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the case of a 34-year-old woman with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy who experienced a dramatic reduction in cataplexy symptoms after resection of a right parietal astrocytoma. The patient underwent detailed neurological exam, neuropsychological testing, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing following surgery. Citation: Fam DJ, Shammi P, Mainprize TG, Murray BJ. Dramatic cataplexy improvement following right parietal surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):829–830. PMID:25902819

  3. Dramatic Ways to Engage Every Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Edmond J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of all teaching should be to help students make neural connections--the basis for all learning. To do that, however, the student has to have engagement and cognition around the material to be learned. At its core, dramatic activities, even when they have nothing to do with performance, have a tremendous ability to foster these…

  4. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  5. The Art of Reading: Dramatizing Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortlieb, Evan; Cramer, Neva; Cheek, Earl, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The art of reading refers to the act of representing and interpreting text through oral dramatic reading. To the dismay of many teachers, reading is becoming a "lost art." Students are expected to apply specific literacy techniques rather than use their imagination to learn to enact text. Based on a study of the reading perceptions of natural oral…

  6. The Psychodrama-Social Dramatics Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepac, Richard L.

    Social dramatics is a therapeutic and educational program that can act as a mirror to reflect images of the self in action with others. It is the modality for experiential learning to correct social dysfunction by providing models for imitation, opportunities to practice and develop individual forms from that model, and risk free environments for…

  7. Back to Basics through Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Janet E.

    In the back to basics era, creative dramatics should still be used in the English classroom because it helps to develop the entire child. For some time, teaching strategies have been directed at the left brain, the hemisphere that deals with logical and linear functions. Recently, however, attention has been given to the right side of the brain,…

  8. Puppetry and Creative Dramatics in Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champlin, Connie

    The 14 units in this book are designed to help teachers and librarians motivate children to express emotions, pantomime characters, and create a full story environment through puppetry and creative dramatics. Each unit is built around a specific piece of literature, and each provides instructions for the educator concerning the necessary…

  9. Puppetry and Creative Dramatics in Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champlin, Connie

    The 14 units in this book are designed to help teachers and librarians motivate children to express emotions, pantomime characters, and create a full story environment through puppetry and creative dramatics. Each unit is built around a specific piece of literature, and each provides instructions for the educator concerning the necessary…

  10. Nietzsche contra Burke: The Melodrama in Dramatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desilet, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Examines Kenneth Burke's and Friedrich Nietzsche's similar understanding of the hortatory nature of language-using, weighed against their radically differing conceptions of the negative, which allows a distinction between two genres of dramatism, and illustrates contrasting orientations toward symbolic activity in general. (SR)

  11. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  12. Dramatic Improvements to Feature Based Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyansky, V. N.; Morris, R. D.; Kuehnel, F. O.; Maluf, D. A.; Cheeseman, P.

    2004-01-01

    The camera registration extracted from feature based stereo is usually considered sufficient to accurately localize the 3D points. However, for natural scenes the feature localization is not as precise as in man-made environments. This results in small camera registration errors. We show that even very small registration errors result in large errors in dense surface reconstruction. We describe a method for registering entire images to the inaccurate surface model. This gives small, but crucially important improvements to the camera parameters. The new registration gives dramatically better dense surface reconstruction.

  13. A method to dramatically improve subcarrier tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J.; Aguirre, S.

    1986-01-01

    A method is presented for achieving a dramatic improvement in phase tracking of square wave subcarriers or other square waves. The method is to set the amplitude of the phase quadrature reference signal to zero except near the zero crossings of the input signal. Without changing the loop bandwidth, the variance of the phase error can be reduced to approximately W sigma(sub 0)(2), were sigma (sub 0)(2) is the phase error variance without windowing, and W is the fraction of cycle in which the reference signal has a nonzero value. Simulation results confirm the analysis and establish minimum W versus signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, the window can be made so narrow as to achieve a phase error variance of 1.5 sigma(sub 0)(4).

  14. A method to dramatically improve subcarrier tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, William J.; Aguirre, Sergio

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented for achieving a dramatic improvement in phase tracking of square wave subcarriers or other square waves. The method is to set the amplitude of the phase quadrature reference signal to zero except near the zero crossings of the input signal. Without changing the loop bandwidth, the variance of the phase error can be reduced to approximately W sigma(sub 0)(2), where sigma (sub 0)(2) is the phase error variance without windowing, and W is the fraction of cycle in which the reference signal has a nonzero value. Simulation results confirm the analysis and establish minimum W versus signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, the window can be made so narrow as to achieve a phase error variance of 1.5 sigma(sub 0)(4).

  15. Ozonated laundering: Radical concept claims dramatic savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.

    1993-12-31

    An innovative commercial laundering technology that uses no hot water and no detergent holds promise of dramatic savings in energy, water, chemicals, labor, and sewage fees. Users report good results, but the conservative laundry industry is likely to be skeptical, especially in light of the powerful role played by chemical and equipment manufacturers. While ozonated laundering technology uses more electricity than conventional approaches in some applications, the reported advantages in terms of overall resource efficiency and cost savings could make it an attractive option from the perspective of end-users and utility companies alike. As yet, there are many unanswered questions about the process. There is no theoretical basis to explain how ozone cleans, and no third-party testing to verify these impressive savings. Reports from installations at two Marriott hotels, however, appear to corroborate the manufacturer`s claims. This report assesses the controversial elements of the ozonated laundering process, compiles users` comments and concerns, and reports on current research about how the process works. More independent study will be needed, however, to provide a basis for acceptance of such a radical divergence from the norm in commercial laundering.

  16. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  17. Freedom and Censorship in Dramatic Television Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Richard A.

    The television writer's creative expression is limited by executive forces, conflicting philosophies, and restrictive regulations. In a 1972 poll by the Writer's Guild Committee on Censorship, it was revealed that an overwhelming majority of television writers felt personally censored by the industry. Although the success of character comedies…

  18. Dramatic effects of stress on metamorphic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, John

    2014-05-01

    controlled by fluid pressure not confining pressure: implications of dehydration experiments with gypsum. Contributions To Mineralogy And Petrology 164, 69-79. Sheldon, H. A. & Wheeler, J. 2003. Influence of pore fluid chemistry on the state of stress in sedimentary basins. Geology 31(1), 59-62. Wheeler, J. 1987. The significance of grain-scale stresses in the kinetics of metamorphism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 97, 397-404. Wheeler, J. 1992. The importance of pressure solution and Coble creep in the deformation of polymineralic rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 4579-4586. Wheeler, J. submitted. Dramatic effects of stress on metamorphic reactions. Geology.

  19. Neurocognitive impairment in dramatic personalities: histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial disorders.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J W

    1992-06-01

    Thirty-seven patients with personalities in the dramatic cluster (DSM-III-R histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial) and 40 controls matched for age and gender were evaluated on 16 neurocognitive variables. The evaluation screened for deficits in functions of attention, memory, language, abstraction, and behavior planning/sequencing. Analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in neurocognitive performance among patients with dramatic personalities, particularly in subtests requiring multi-step, multi-element associative operations.

  20. Perceptual stability during dramatic changes in olfactory bulb activation maps and dramatic declines in activation amplitudes

    PubMed Central

    Homma, R.; Cohen, L. B.; Kosmidis, E. K.; Youngentob, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the concentration dependence of the ability of rats to identify odorants with the calcium signals in the nerve terminals of the olfactory receptor neurons. Although identification performance decreased with concentrations both above and below the training stimuli it remained well above random at all concentrations tested (between 0.0006% and 35% of saturated vapor). In contrast, the calcium signals in the same awake animals were much smaller than their maximum values at odorant concentrations less than 1% of saturated vapor. In addition, maps of activated glomeruli changed dramatically as odorant concentration was reduced. Thus perceptual stability exists in the face of dramatic changes in both the amplitude and the maps of the input to the olfactory bulb. The data for the concentration dependence of the response of the most sensitive glomeruli for each of five odorants was fitted with a Michaelis-Menten (Hill) equation. The fitted curves were extrapolated to odorant concentrations several orders of magnitude lower the smallest observed signals and suggest that the calcium response at low odorant concentrations is more than 1000 times smaller than the response at saturating odorant concentrations. We speculate that only a few spikes in olfactory sensory neurons may be sufficient for correct odorant identification. PMID:19291227

  1. Decidedly Dramatic! The Power of Creative Drama in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieczura, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Creative dramatics, a highly effective method for integrating arts education into core curriculum, produces a positive and lasting impact on student learning, in terms of creative and critical thinking, language development, listening, comprehension, retention, cooperation, and empathy and awareness of others. Creative dramatics not only has the…

  2. The Cultural Content of Dramatic and Sociodramatic Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruth

    This study explored the effects of children's cultural group on the content of their dramatic and sociodramatic play. After defining play, dramatic play, sociodramatic play, and culture, observations were conducted by a preschool teacher of Latino-American and first-generation African-American 4-year-olds over an 8-week period. Play that was…

  3. THE DRAMATIC MODE. LITERATURE CURRICULUM V, TEACHER VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

    DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN THE NARRATIVE AND DRAMATIC MODES CAN BEST BE UNDERSTOOD BY EMPHASIZING WHAT IT MEANS TO THINK AND CREATE DRAMATICALLY. ALTHOUGH BOOKS (WHICH ARE READ) AND PLAYS (WHICH ARE SEEN) TREAT PLOT, CHARACTER, AND SETTING SIMILARLY, CONVENTIONS THAT PARTICULARLY DISTINGUISH THEATRICAL FORM ARE--(1) THE AUTHENTICATING REALITY OF THE…

  4. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  5. Cognitive Psychology and Audience-Oriented Dramatic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, David

    Cognitive psychology's most useful contribution to dramatic theory is the concept of schemata, or the mental structures that make up part of the perceptual cycle. In regard to an audience-oriented dramatic theory, this suggests that analysis of a script ought to identify the sorts of schemata that are to be aroused in the audience's minds and the…

  6. Dramatics in the Classroom: Making Lessons Come Alive. Fastback 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elizabeth Flory

    The contents of this booklet focus on effective techniques for using dramatics in the classroom and are based on the premise that drama can integrate all skills and help to avoid fragmentation in learning. Chapters discuss motivating the dreamers in the classroom, curriculum dramatics--eclectic teaching, training the teacher, transforming the…

  7. Fostering Communication Skills in Young Learners through Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Janet

    Creative dramatics can be used to teach young children a variety of communication skills. Noisy stories help children to learn and make sounds and later can be used for dramatization purposes. Narrative pantomimes can teach children word order, sensory awareness, and nonverbal communication. Phrases, pictures, and props help stimulate imagination,…

  8. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  9. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  10. Writing a Book about Dorothy Heathcote's Dramatic Approach to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Gavin

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of a book about Dorothy Heathcote's dramatic approach to education. Describes a lesson on "bullying" that illustrates an attempt to implement Heathcote's "Mantle of the Expert" method. (RS)

  11. Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162641.html Drug Overdose Deaths Climb Dramatically in U.S. Prescription painkillers and heroin ... TUESDAY, Dec. 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Drug overdose deaths continue to surge in the United States, with ...

  12. Dorsal Raphe Neuroinflammation Promotes Dramatic Behavioral Stress Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Howerton, Alexis R.; Roland, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, and elevated stress responsivity are prominent symptoms of mania, a behavioral state common to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Though inflammatory processes activated within the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of both disorders, the specific mechanisms by which neuroinflammation drives manic behavior are not well understood. Serotonin cell bodies originating within the dorsal raphe (DR) play a major role in the regulation of behavioral features characteristic of mania. Therefore, we hypothesized that the link between neuroinflammation and manic behavior may be mediated by actions on serotonergic neurocircuitry. To examine this, we induced local neuroinflammation in the DR by viral delivery of Cre recombinase into interleukin (IL)-1βXAT transgenic male and female mice, resulting in overexpressing of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. For assertion of brain-region specificity of these outcomes, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as a downstream target of DR serotonergic projections, was also infused. Inflammation within the DR, but not the PFC, resulted in a profound display of manic-like behavior, characterized by increased stress-induced locomotion and responsivity, and reduced risk-aversion/fearfulness. Microarray analysis of the DR revealed a dramatic increase in immune-related genes, and dysregulation of genes important in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission. Behavioral and physiological changes were driven by a loss of serotonergic neurons and reduced output as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating inflammation-induced serotonergic hypofunction. Behavioral changes were rescued by acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment, supporting the hypothesis that serotonin dysregulation stemming from neuroinflammation in the DR underlies manic-like behaviors. PMID:24849347

  13. Building Family and Community Demand for Dramatic Change in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Dana; Steiner, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    District-led, dramatic change efforts in failing schools--including turnarounds and school closures--often face strong resistance from families and communities. Resistance may be based on years of tension and distrust between districts and communities, failed past school improvement efforts, or a lack of understanding about the chasm between a…

  14. The Dramatic Difference: Drama in the Preschool and Kindergarten Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria; Pleydell, Sarah

    Noting that there are few resources available for preschool or kindergarten teachers committed to providing high-quality drama experiences to students, this book explores ways teachers can maximize the drama experience in preschool and kindergarten classrooms. Topics discussed in the book's introduction include dramatic play and early development,…

  15. Piaget in Performance: The Role of "Games" in Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Jean Piaget's theories of child development and the nature of intelligence are adapted to creative dramatics in this description of two games for children aged 6 through 12. The first game discussed incorporates a "touchy-feely box," a cardboard construction with openings on two sides so that a child may reach inside, select, and…

  16. Dramatic interactions: theater work and the formation of learning communities.

    PubMed

    Meath-Lang, B

    1997-04-01

    This article examines the relationship of theater and dramatic study to models of learning communities in promoting identity, diversity, and culture. Theater is an example of how learning community can be achieved and levels of theater use in education are presented as ways in which educators can create ensemble and foster community. Strategies for developing learning communities using the performing arts are provided.

  17. Celebrating Diversity through Northeastern Asian Children's Literature and Dramatic Productions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; And Others

    At the University of South Dakota, as part of a campus-wide celebration of diversity focused on northeastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea), undergraduate and graduate Children's Literature classes participated by locating relevant literature and presenting them dramatically. Students were divided into six small cooperative groups. Each group chose a…

  18. Use of Dramatic Enquiry to Explore Controversies in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Neil; Poad, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing prominence of "How science works" in science courses in England and the imperative of equipping students to engage with the controversies thrown up by the advance of science, science departments need new teaching strategies. Here we describe the application of "Dramatic Enquiry" to GCSE science. The project,…

  19. Dramatizing Aesop's Fables: Creative Scripts for the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Louise

    Designed to be used by teachers with varying degrees of dramatic arts experience and by students with limited English proficiency as well as native English speakers, this clear, simple guide familiarizes teachers and children with classic literature through the narrative-mime approach. The guide contains: (1) eight of Aesop's fables adapted and…

  20. Teaching Creative Dramatics to Young Adults with Williams Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieso, Carol L.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a university affiliated summer program which provided 16 young adults with Williams Syndrome with a creative dramatics program highlighting their language and musical talents. The article discusses the characteristic strengths and weaknesses of people with Williams syndrome, meeting students' interests and learning styles,…

  1. Use of Dramatic Enquiry to Explore Controversies in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Neil; Poad, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing prominence of "How science works" in science courses in England and the imperative of equipping students to engage with the controversies thrown up by the advance of science, science departments need new teaching strategies. Here we describe the application of "Dramatic Enquiry" to GCSE science. The project,…

  2. Shakespeare Answering Machines: A Popular Culture and Creative Dramatics Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for English classes combining elements of popular culture and creative dramatics by having students, after they have read a Shakespeare play, create answering machine messages for the various characters. Notes that other students portraying different characters can leave messages. Shows how this creates opportunities for…

  3. Burke Bingo: Using Active Learning to Introduce Dramatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Kenneth Burke is typically regarded as the single most significant figure in 20th-century rhetorical studies. Undergraduate textbooks in rhetorical criticism, rhetorical theory, and communication theory typically include coverage of Burke's theory of dramatism. In this article, the author describes a classroom activity dubbed "Burke Bingo" that…

  4. North Dakota hospital dramatically reduces security-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Prax, J

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses how his hospital was able to dramatically reduce its security-related injuries and why a Corrective Action Team is so important. Once an effective security program has been established, he says, review it periodically to maintain its effectiveness.

  5. Soaps and Suspicious Activity: Dramatic Experiences in British Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Offers examples of dramatic experiences (student produced soap operas) in two classrooms in British comprehensive secondary schools. Concludes that students in other countries would find such experiences as meaningful and enjoyable as their British counterparts. Notes that the two teachers managed to be flexible, appropriating effective…

  6. On Dramatizing: The Right to Write the Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koste, V. Glasgow

    1995-01-01

    Defines "adaptation" as the transformational process of taking a narrative work and dramatizing it. Stresses the importance of knowing what to leave out and knowing what to leave in. Suggests thinking of "adopting" rather than "adapting." States that artistic freedom is the playwright's right. Emphasizes the…

  7. Windows into Children's Thinking: A Guide to Storytelling and Dramatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cheryl; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Black, Tyler; Burton, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Telling and dramatizing stories is an increasingly popular addition to the preschool curriculum, largely due to the attention this activity has received through the writings of Vivian Paley (Bad guys don't have birthdays: fantasy play at four. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988; The boy who would be a helicopter: the uses of…

  8. Frost Bite: A Dramatic Tale of Research in Aesthetic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article follows the author's research on the integration of an aesthetic arts initiative in a private elementary school with an established traditional arts program. The narrative describes the sequence of events, interpersonal interactions, and learning experiences in the format of a full-length dramatic performance. Informed by Ben Peretz's…

  9. Soaps and Suspicious Activity: Dramatic Experiences in British Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Angela M.

    2001-01-01

    Offers examples of dramatic experiences (student produced soap operas) in two classrooms in British comprehensive secondary schools. Concludes that students in other countries would find such experiences as meaningful and enjoyable as their British counterparts. Notes that the two teachers managed to be flexible, appropriating effective…

  10. Windows into Children's Thinking: A Guide to Storytelling and Dramatization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cheryl; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Black, Tyler; Burton, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Telling and dramatizing stories is an increasingly popular addition to the preschool curriculum, largely due to the attention this activity has received through the writings of Vivian Paley (Bad guys don't have birthdays: fantasy play at four. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1988; The boy who would be a helicopter: the uses of…

  11. Piaget in Performance: The Role of "Games" in Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Jean Piaget's theories of child development and the nature of intelligence are adapted to creative dramatics in this description of two games for children aged 6 through 12. The first game discussed incorporates a "touchy-feely box," a cardboard construction with openings on two sides so that a child may reach inside, select, and…

  12. Frost Bite: A Dramatic Tale of Research in Aesthetic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article follows the author's research on the integration of an aesthetic arts initiative in a private elementary school with an established traditional arts program. The narrative describes the sequence of events, interpersonal interactions, and learning experiences in the format of a full-length dramatic performance. Informed by Ben Peretz's…

  13. Guided Dramatization: Fostering Social Development in Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mac H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes and illustrates a technique for using guided dramatization in intervention with special needs or at-risk children. Discusses social benefits of the technique. Maintains that the technique is useful for helping mainstreamed children socially integrate into the regular classroom. (BG)

  14. Implementing Dramatization as an Effective Storytelling Method To Increase Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biegler, Lucy

    A study examined two different methods used to increase story comprehension. These methods were implemented using two kindergarten classes from the Secaucus New Jersey Public School District during a 4-week instructional period. The students from one classroom listened to stories proceeded by dramatization. Retelling techniques used were role…

  15. Astronaut to Zoologist: Changing the Dramatic Play Area!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouette, Scott J.

    Changing the dramatic play area in a child care setting promotes creativity and gives children the chance to experience a place they may never experience in real life. Whenever possible, the children should be involved in the process of changing the area, by moving furniture and exchanging props, as well as brainstorming ideas for changes. The…

  16. Ibogaine pretreatment dramatically enhances the dynorphin response to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Alburges, M E; Hanson, G R

    1999-11-13

    Ibogaine (Endabuse) is a psychoactive indole alkaloid found in the shrub, Tabernanthe iboga, which has been used to treat stimulant addiction. Because ibogaine influences the activity of neurotensin systems, a dopamine-linked neuropeptide, the present study investigated if ibogaine also influences dynorphin (DYN) pathways. Unlike neurotensin responses, ibogaine alone did not alter DYN levels in the striatum, substantia nigra or nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, ibogaine pretreatment dramatically enhanced cocaine-induced increases in DYN content in these structures.

  17. Dramatic reduction of culture time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodbane, Ramzi; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, a critical technique for routine diagnosis of tuberculosis, takes more than two weeks. Here, step-by-step improvements in the protocol including a new medium, microaerophlic atmosphere or ascorbic-acid supplement and autofluorescence detection dramatically shortened this delay. In the best case, primary culture and rifampicin susceptibility testing were achieved in 72 hours when specimens were inoculated directly on the medium supplemented by antibiotic at the beginning of the culture.

  18. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor

    PubMed Central

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  19. Stuttering therapy in 1837 and a young boy's dramatic experience.

    PubMed

    Preus, A

    1994-01-01

    This is a historical account of the first known case of stuttering therapy in Norway. In his autobiography, school administrator and politician Nils Hertzberg relates how he in 1837 as a 10-year-old boy travelled on horseback, skis and by boat across Norway from west to east and back in order to receive therapy from a travelling German speech teacher C.F. Bansmann. The article provides extracts from the exciting and dramatic journey, describes Bansmann's method and offers some comments on stuttering and stuttering therapy.

  20. A study on the mid-infrared sources that dramatically brightened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozato, Hiroki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Ono, Kenji; Fukagawa, Misato; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2015-06-01

    We present results of near-infrared (NIR) photometric and spectroscopic observations of mid-infrared (MIR) sources that brightened dramatically. Using Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), AKARI, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) point source catalogs, we found that four sources (IRAS 19574+4941, V2494 Cyg, IRAS 22343+7501, and V583 Cas) significantly brightened at MIR wavelengths over a period of 20-30 yr, depending on an interval between two different observation epoch. Little is known about these sources except V2494 Cyg, which is considered as an FU Orionis star. Our observation clearly resolves IRAS 22343+7501 into four stars (2MASS J22352345+7517076, 2MASS J22352442+7517037, [RD95] C, and 2MASS J22352497+7517113) and the first JHKs photometric data for all four sources are obtained. Two of these stars (2MASS J22352442+7517037 and 2MASS J22352497+7517113) are known as T Tau stars. Our spectroscopic observation reveals that IRAS 19574+4941 is an M-type evolved star and V583 Cas a carbon star. 2MASS J22352345+7517076 is probably a young stellar object, judging from our observation showing that it has a featureless NIR spectrum and also showed dramatic brightening in NIR (about 4 mag in the Ks band). Likely reasons for dramatic brightening in MIR are discussed in this paper.

  1. A case of Lewis-Sumner syndrome showing dramatic improvement after plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Eun; Yook, Ji-Won; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2010-07-01

    We report a patient with Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) who showed an improvement only with plasma exchange (PE). The patient, 32-yr old man, had progressive multifocal motor-sensory deficits with persistent, multiple conduction blocks and marked slowing of NCVs. Nerve pathology supported a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy by revealing marked loss of myelinated fibers with inter- and intrafascicular variation. Although the patient was refractory to treatment with corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin, PE produced a dramatic improvement. Our experience strongly proposes that PE should be tried for refractory LSS.

  2. A Case of Lewis-Sumner Syndrome Showing Dramatic Improvement after Plasma Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Eun; Yook, Ji-Won

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) who showed an improvement only with plasma exchange (PE). The patient, 32-yr old man, had progressive multifocal motor-sensory deficits with persistent, multiple conduction blocks and marked slowing of NCVs. Nerve pathology supported a diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy by revealing marked loss of myelinated fibers with inter- and intrafascicular variation. Although the patient was refractory to treatment with corticosteroid and intravenous immunoglobulin, PE produced a dramatic improvement. Our experience strongly proposes that PE should be tried for refractory LSS. PMID:20592909

  3. Dramatic increases in likelihoods of extreme seasonal temperatures since 2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, P.; Christidis, N.; Ciavarella, A.

    2014-12-01

    Severe heatwaves in the last decade like the ones in Russia in 2010, Texas in 2011 and the Australian "angry summer" of 2012-13 were characterised by long duration, large spatial extent and catastrophic impacts. We have updated the analysis that attributed a human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003 and now show that the likelihood of such a summer has increased dramatically since then. Such events are set to become the norm in only a few decades underlining the importance of developing our capacity to adapt to such extremes. In order to meet this developing challenge, a new European initiative, EUCLEIA (EUropean CLimate and weather Events : Inerpretation and Attribution) seeks to lay the groundwork for an operational attribution service for Europe. This will provide updated assessments of the extent to which human and natural drivers of climate have contributed to the magnitude or probability of extreme weather and climate events.

  4. Dramatic improvement of POEMS syndrome following autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rovira, M; Carreras, E; Bladé, J; Graus, F; Valls, J; Fernández-Avilés, F; Montserrat, E

    2001-11-01

    POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, serum monoclonal protein and skin changes) is a rare plasma cell disorder of unknown pathogenesis and is diagnosed by the demonstration of a plasma cell proliferation at the biopsy of an osteoesclerotic lesion. When the lesions are in a limited area, radiation therapy is usually highly effective. Patients with disseminated disease require systemic chemotherapy, which is not effective in most cases. A patient with severe widespread POEMS syndrome resistant to melphalan who experienced a dramatic improvement after high-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is reported. We believe that this is the first reported case of POEMS syndrome treated with AHCT, a procedure that could be considered in similarly affected patients.

  5. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  6. A novel diversion protocol dramatically reduces diversion hours.

    PubMed

    Asamoah, Osei Kwame; Weiss, Steven J; Ernst, Amy A; Richards, Michael; Sklar, David P

    2008-07-01

    Ambulance diversion is a problem in many communities. When patients are diverted prompt and appropriate medical care may be delayed. Compare diversion hours and drop-off times before and after a dramatic change in diversion policy restricting each hospital to 1 hour out of every 8. This study was a retrospective study in a county of 600,000 people and 10 hospitals from September 2004 to February 2006. A countywide diversion protocol was implemented in March 2005 that limited diversion hours to 1 hour out of every 8 (maximum of 90 h/mo). No other changes were implemented during the study period. Pretrial (9/04-2/05), interim (3/05-8/05), and posttrial (9/05-2/06) periods were compared. The main outcome measures were ambulance diversion hours and emergency medical service (EMS) drop-off times. Results were compared using analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc analysis. P < .05 was considered significant. There was no significant difference in the number of monthly transports comparing the posttrial vs pretrial periods; however, a significant decrease in monthly ambulance diversion hours (difference, 251 hours; 95% CI, 136-368) and significant increase in additional time that EMS crews required to transport patients (drop-off times) (difference, 178 hours; 95% CI, 74-283) were observed. Posttrial diversion hours decreased to 18% of the pretrial values (from 305 to 54). This novel ambulance diversion protocol dramatically reduced diversion hours at the cost of increasing EMS drop-off times in a large community.

  7. Dramatic enhancement of enzymatic activity in organic solvents by lyoprotectants

    SciTech Connect

    Dabulis, K.; Klibanov, A.M. )

    1993-03-05

    When seven different hydrolytic enzymes (four proteases and three lipases) were lyophilized from aqueous solution containing a ligand, N-Ac-L-Phe-NH[sub 2], their catalytic activity in anhydrous solvents was far greater (one to two orders of magnitude) than that of the enzymes lyophilized without the ligand. This ligand-induced activation was expressed regardless of whether the substrate employed in organic solvents structurally resembled the ligand. Furthermore, nonligand lyoprotectants [sorbitol, other sugars, and poly(ethylene glycol)] also dramatically enhanced enzymatic activity in anhydrous solvents when present in enzyme aqueous solution prior to lyophilization. The effects of the ligand and of the lyoprotectants were nonadditive, suggesting the same mechanism of action. Excipient-activated and nonactivated enzymes exhibited identical activities in water. Also, addition of the excipients directly to suspensions of nonactivated enzymes in organic solvents had no appreciable effect on catalytic activity. These observations indicate that the mechanism of the excipient-induced activation is based on the ability of the excipients to alleviate reversible denaturation of enzymes upon lyophilization. Activity enhancement induced by the excipients is displayed even after their removal by washing enzymes with anhydrous solvents. Subtilisin Carlsberg, lyophilized with sorbitol, was found to be a much more efficient practical catalyst than its regular' counterpart.

  8. Taming Self-Organization Dynamics to Dramatically Control Porous Architectures.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ronan; Sader, John E; Boland, John J

    2016-03-22

    We demonstrate templating of functional materials with unexpected and intricate micro- and nanostructures by controlling the condensation, packing, and evaporation of water droplets on a polymer solution. Spontaneous evaporation of a polymer solution induces cooling of the liquid surface and water microdroplet condensation from the ambient vapor. These droplets pack together and act as a template to imprint an entangled polymer film. This breath figure (BF) phenomenon is an example of self-organization that involves the long-range ordering of droplets. Equilibrium-based analysis provides many insights into contact angles and drop stability of individual drops, but the BF phenomenon remains poorly understood thus far, preventing translation to real applications. Here we investigate the dynamics of this phenomenon to separate out the competing influences and then introduce a modulation scheme to ultimately manipulate the water vapor-liquid equilibrium independently from the solvent evaporation. This approach to BF control provides insights into the mechanism, a rationale for microstructure design, and evidence for the benefits of dynamical control of self-organization systems. We finally present dramatically different porous architectures from this approach reminiscent of microscale Petri dishes, conical flasks, and test tubes.

  9. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianwen; Zhou, Yuanxiang; Zhou, Zhongliu; Liu, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μ m , while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  10. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  11. Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008) and after the impact (2009-2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change.

  12. Impacts on Coralligenous Outcrop Biodiversity of a Dramatic Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Núria; Casas, Edgar; Cebrián, Emma; Linares, Cristina; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006–2008) and after the impact (2009–2010) at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates) was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change. PMID:23326496

  13. The dramatic increase in social media in urology.

    PubMed

    Matta, Rano; Doiron, Chris; Leveridge, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Social media are established tools for rapid information dissemination to a broad audience. A major use has been the compilation of conference specific messaging known as tweets via preselected hashtags on Twitter. We analyzed Twitter use between consecutive years at the AUA (American Urological Association) and CUA (Canadian Urological Association) annual meetings. Publicly available tweets containing the established meeting hashtags were abstracted from an online archive. Tweets were categorized by author type and by content as informative (based on research presented at the conference) or uninformative (unrelated to presented data) according to an established classification scheme. We analyzed 5,402 tweets during the combined 18 meeting days, of which 4,098 were original and 1,304 were rebroadcast prior tweets. There was a large increase in Twitter use at the 2013 annual meetings compared to the 2012 meetings (4,591 tweets from a total of 540 accounts vs 811 from 134). Biotechnology analysts represented the highest volume of tweets (226 or 28%) in 2012 but in 2013 this majority shifted to urologists (2,765 or 60%). Of the tweets 29% were categorized as informative in 2012, which increased to 41% at the 2013 meetings. Twitter has emerged as a significant communication platform at urological meetings. Use increased dramatically between 2012 and 2013. Urologists have increasingly led this discussion with an increased focus on data arising from meeting proceedings. This adjunct to traditional meeting activity merits the attention of urologists and the professional associations that host such meetings. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MHC-Linked Olfactory Receptor Loci Exhibit Polymorphism and Contribute to Extended HLA/OR-Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Beck, Stephan; Forbes, Simon A.; Trowsdale, John; Volz, Armin; Younger, Ruth; Ziegler, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Clusters of olfactory receptor (OR) genes are found on most human chromosomes. They are one of the largest mammalian multigene families. Here, we report a systematic study of polymorphism of OR genes belonging to the largest fully sequenced OR cluster. The cluster contains 36 OR genes, of which two belong to the vomeronasal 1 (V1-OR) family. The cluster is divided into a major and a minor region at the telomeric end of the HLA complex on chromosome 6. These OR genes could be involved in MHC-related mate preferences. The polymorphism screen was carried out with 13 genes from the HLA-linked OR cluster and three genes from chromosomes 7, 17, and 19 as controls. Ten human cell lines, representing 18 different chromosome 6s, were analyzed. They were from various ethnic origins and exhibited different HLA haplotypes. All OR genes tested, including those not linked to the HLA complex, were polymorphic. These polymorphisms were dispersed along the coding region and resulted in up to seven alleles for a given OR gene. Three polymorphisms resulted either in stop codons (genes hs6M1-4P, hs6M1-17) or in a 16–bp deletion (gene hs6M1-19P), possibly leading to lack of ligand recognition by the respective receptors in the cell line donors. In total, 13 HLA-linked OR haplotypes could be defined. Therefore, allelic variation appears to be a general feature of human OR genes. [The sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to EMBL under accession nos. AC006137, AC004178, AJ132194, AL022727, AL031983, AL035402, AL035542, Z98744, CAB55431, AL050339, AL035402, AL096770, AL133267, AL121944, Z98745, AL021808, and AL021807.] PMID:11116091

  15. Mhc-linked survival and lifetime reproductive success in a wild population of great tits.

    PubMed

    Sepil, Irem; Lachish, Shelly; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes are frequently used as a model for adaptive genetic diversity. Although associations between Mhc and disease resistance are frequently documented, little is known about the fitness consequences of Mhc variation in wild populations. Further, most work to date has involved testing associations between Mhc genotypes and fitness components. However, the functional diversity of the Mhc, and hence the mechanism by which selection on Mhc acts, depends on how genotypes map to the functional properties of Mhc molecules. Here, we test three hypotheses that relate Mhc diversity to fitness: (i) the maximal diversity hypothesis, (ii) the optimal diversity hypothesis and (iii) effect of specific Mhc types. We combine mark-recapture methods with analysis of long-term breeding data to investigate the effects of Mhc class I functional diversity (Mhc supertypes) on individual fitness in a wild great tit (Parus major) population. We found that the presence of three different Mhc supertypes was associated with three different components of individual fitness: survival, annual recruitment and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Great tits possessing Mhc supertype 3 experienced higher survival rates than those that did not, whereas individuals with Mhc supertype 6 experienced higher LRS and were more likely to recruit offspring each year. Conversely, great tits that possessed Mhc supertype 5 had reduced LRS. We found no evidence for a selective advantage of Mhc diversity, in terms of either maximal or optimal supertype diversity. Our results support the suggestion that specific Mhc types are an important determinant of individual fitness.

  16. Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution. Flows within the solutions can be visualized by various means. Previous demonstrations of surface motion…

  17. Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution. Flows within the solutions can be visualized by various means. Previous demonstrations of surface motion…

  18. The Dramatic Effect of Chlorine on Magmatic Phase Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. D.; McBirney, A. R.

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations indicate that some mafic magmas evolve to extreme Cl enrichments. Olivine-hosted silicate melt inclusions from Raivavae in the Austral Islands contain up to 2.5 wt.% Cl (Lassiter and Hauri, 2001), and computations based on apatite-melt partition coefficients indicate that compositionally evolved, late-stage fractions of magma of the Bushveld and Stillwater intrusions may have contained even more Cl (Webster and Mathez, 2001). Recent work on the Skaergaard intrusion indicates that Cl had an important effect on the partitioning of trace elements and on the trend of differentiation of the magma. The role of Cl as a volatile fluxing component in magma and its influence on phase relations in silicate melts are poorly understood. Hydrothermal experiments were conducted with PtCl2 and various mixtures of plagioclase and clinopyroxene (with trace olivine and oxides) from Skaergaard rock samples to determine the influence of Cl on melting behavior and other phase relations at 1500 bars, temperatures of 950\\deg to 1160\\deg C, and under oxidizing conditions. The comparatively dry melts contain 2 to 4 wt.% Cl, and results from these experiments were compared with water-saturated melts for the same P-T conditions. These Cl concentrations dramatically promote melting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and the effect on melting is nearly equivalent to the effect of water during melting at PH2O of 1500 bars. In addition, as run temperatures were lowered and the extent of crystallization increased, the residual fractions of Cl-enriched melt evolved to compositions enriched in (Ca + Mg) relative to (Al + Na + K). In contrast, the water-saturated residual melts generated at the same temperature exhibited significantly lower (Ca + Mg) relative to (Al + Na + K). These observations are consistent with the results of another set of experiments that were conducted to determine the solubility of Cl in 40 comparatively anhydrous, aluminosilicate melts at 2000 bars and

  19. Dramatic inundation changes of China's two largest freshwater lakes linked to the Three Gorges Dam.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lian; Hu, Chuanmin; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhao, Xi

    2013-09-03

    Ever since its planning in the 1990s, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) caused endless debate in China on its potential impacts on the environment and humans. However, to date, synoptic assessment of environmental changes and their potential linkage with the TGD is still lacking. Here, we combine remote sensing, meteorological, and hydrological observations to investigate the potential influence of the TGD on the downstream freshwater lakes. A 10 year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series from 2000 to 2009 revealed significantly decreasing trends (3.3 and 3.6%/year) in the inundation areas of the two largest freshwater lakes of China (Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake) downstream of the TGD since its impoundment in 2003, after which both relative humidity and surface runoff coefficient of the lakes' drainages also dropped dramatically. These environmental changes appear to be linked to the TGD.

  20. Metallurgy. Origin of dramatic oxygen solute strengthening effect in titanium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Qi, Liang; Tsuru, Tomohito; Traylor, Rachel; Rugg, David; Morris, J W; Asta, Mark; Chrzan, D C; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-02-06

    Structural alloys are often strengthened through the addition of solute atoms. However, given that solute atoms interact weakly with the elastic fields of screw dislocations, it has long been accepted that solution hardening is only marginally effective in materials with mobile screw dislocations. By using transmission electron microscopy and nanomechanical characterization, we report that the intense hardening effect of dilute oxygen solutes in pure α-Ti is due to the interaction between oxygen and the core of screw dislocations that mainly glide on prismatic planes. First-principles calculations reveal that distortion of the interstitial sites at the screw dislocation core creates a very strong but short-range repulsion for oxygen that is consistent with experimental observations. These results establish a highly effective mechanism for strengthening by interstitial solutes.

  1. Origin of dramatic oxygen solute strengthening effect in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Qi, Liang; Tsuru, Tomohito; Traylor, Rachel; Rugg, David; Morris, J. W.; Asta, Mark; Chrzan, D. C.; Minor, Andrew M.

    2015-02-01

    Structural alloys are often strengthened through the addition of solute atoms. However, given that solute atoms interact weakly with the elastic fields of screw dislocations, it has long been accepted that solution hardening is only marginally effective in materials with mobile screw dislocations. By using transmission electron microscopy and nanomechanical characterization, we report that the intense hardening effect of dilute oxygen solutes in pure α-Ti is due to the interaction between oxygen and the core of screw dislocations that mainly glide on prismatic planes. First-principles calculations reveal that distortion of the interstitial sites at the screw dislocation core creates a very strong but short-range repulsion for oxygen that is consistent with experimental observations. These results establish a highly effective mechanism for strengthening by interstitial solutes.

  2. Dramatic transcriptional changes in an intracellular parasite enable host switching between plant and insect.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Kenro; Ishii, Yoshiko; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Sugawara, Kyoko; Neriya, Yutaro; Himeno, Misako; Minato, Nami; Miura, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens that have devastating effects on the yields of crops and plants worldwide. They are intracellular parasites of both plants and insects, and are spread among plants by insects. How phytoplasmas can adapt to two diverse environments is of considerable interest; however, the mechanisms enabling the "host switching" between plant and insect hosts are poorly understood. Here, we report that phytoplasmas dramatically alter their gene expression in response to "host switching" between plant and insect. We performed a detailed characterization of the dramatic change that occurs in the gene expression profile of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris OY-M strain (approximately 33% of the genes change) upon host switching between plant and insect. The phytoplasma may use transporters, secreted proteins, and metabolic enzymes in a host-specific manner. As phytoplasmas reside within the host cell, the proteins secreted from phytoplasmas are thought to play crucial roles in the interplay between phytoplasmas and host cells. Our microarray analysis revealed that the expression of the gene encoding the secreted protein PAM486 was highly upregulated in the plant host, which is also observed by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that this protein functions mainly when the phytoplasma grows in the plant host. Additionally, phytoplasma growth in planta was partially suppressed by an inhibitor of the MscL osmotic channel that is highly expressed in the plant host, suggesting that the osmotic channel might play an important role in survival in the plant host. These results also suggest that the elucidation of "host switching" mechanism may contribute to the development of novel pest controls.

  3. Dramatic Transcriptional Changes in an Intracellular Parasite Enable Host Switching between Plant and Insect

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Kenro; Ishii, Yoshiko; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Sugawara, Kyoko; Neriya, Yutaro; Himeno, Misako; Minato, Nami; Miura, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens that have devastating effects on the yields of crops and plants worldwide. They are intracellular parasites of both plants and insects, and are spread among plants by insects. How phytoplasmas can adapt to two diverse environments is of considerable interest; however, the mechanisms enabling the “host switching” between plant and insect hosts are poorly understood. Here, we report that phytoplasmas dramatically alter their gene expression in response to “host switching” between plant and insect. We performed a detailed characterization of the dramatic change that occurs in the gene expression profile of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris OY-M strain (approximately 33% of the genes change) upon host switching between plant and insect. The phytoplasma may use transporters, secreted proteins, and metabolic enzymes in a host-specific manner. As phytoplasmas reside within the host cell, the proteins secreted from phytoplasmas are thought to play crucial roles in the interplay between phytoplasmas and host cells. Our microarray analysis revealed that the expression of the gene encoding the secreted protein PAM486 was highly upregulated in the plant host, which is also observed by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that this protein functions mainly when the phytoplasma grows in the plant host. Additionally, phytoplasma growth in planta was partially suppressed by an inhibitor of the MscL osmotic channel that is highly expressed in the plant host, suggesting that the osmotic channel might play an important role in survival in the plant host. These results also suggest that the elucidation of “host switching” mechanism may contribute to the development of novel pest controls. PMID:21858041

  4. Insights on dramatic radial fluctuations in track formation by energetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Yanwen; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Weber, William J.

    2016-06-01

    We report on unexpected dramatic radial variations in ion tracks formed by irradiation with energetic ions (2.3 GeV 208Pb) at a constant electronic energy-loss (~42 keV/nm) in pyrochlore-structured Gd2TiZrO7. Though previous studies have shown track formation and average track diameter measurements in the Gd2TixZr(1‑x)O7 system, the present work clearly reveals the importance of the recrystallization process in ion track formation in this system, which leads to more morphological complexities in tracks than currently accepted behavior. The ion track profile is usually considered to be diametrically uniform for a constant value of electronic energy-loss. This study reveals the diameter variations to be as large as ~40% within an extremely short incremental track length of ~20 nm. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that these fluctuations in diameter of amorphous core and overall track diameter are attributed to the partial substitution of Ti atoms by Zr atoms, which have a large difference in ionic radii, on the B-site in pyrochlore lattice. This random distribution of Ti and Zr atoms leads to a local competition between amorphous phase formation (favored by Ti atoms) and defect-fluorite phase formation (favored by Zr atoms) during the recrystallization process and finally introduces large radial variations in track morphology.

  5. Insights on dramatic radial fluctuations in track formation by energetic ions

    PubMed Central

    Sachan, Ritesh; Zarkadoula, Eva; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Yanwen; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on unexpected dramatic radial variations in ion tracks formed by irradiation with energetic ions (2.3 GeV 208Pb) at a constant electronic energy-loss (~42 keV/nm) in pyrochlore-structured Gd2TiZrO7. Though previous studies have shown track formation and average track diameter measurements in the Gd2TixZr(1−x)O7 system, the present work clearly reveals the importance of the recrystallization process in ion track formation in this system, which leads to more morphological complexities in tracks than currently accepted behavior. The ion track profile is usually considered to be diametrically uniform for a constant value of electronic energy-loss. This study reveals the diameter variations to be as large as ~40% within an extremely short incremental track length of ~20 nm. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that these fluctuations in diameter of amorphous core and overall track diameter are attributed to the partial substitution of Ti atoms by Zr atoms, which have a large difference in ionic radii, on the B-site in pyrochlore lattice. This random distribution of Ti and Zr atoms leads to a local competition between amorphous phase formation (favored by Ti atoms) and defect-fluorite phase formation (favored by Zr atoms) during the recrystallization process and finally introduces large radial variations in track morphology. PMID:27250764

  6. Dramatic Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsson, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Presents a creative way to teach photosynthesis. Revolves around the growth of a lily planted and stored in the classroom. Combines the concepts of particle theory, transformation, and changes of phase and mass in a holistic approach. The six-step teaching sequence is founded on the notions of challenge, variation, and drama. (Author/NB)

  7. Atomic structure of Hsp90:Cdc37:Cdk4 reveals Hsp90 regulates kinase via dramatic unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Verba, Kliment A.; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Arakawa, Akihiko; Liu, Yanxin; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Agard, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone and its Cdc37 co-chaperone help stabilize and activate over half of the human kinome. However, neither the mechanism by which these chaperones assist their client kinases nor why some kinases are addicted to Hsp90 while closely related family members are independent is known. Missing has been any structural understanding of these interactions, with no full-length structures of human Hsp90, Cdc37 or either of these proteins with a kinase. Here we report a 3.9Å cryoEM structure of the Hsp90:Cdc37:Cdk4 kinase complex. Cdk4 is in a novel conformation, with its two lobes completely separated. Cdc37 mimics part of the kinase N-lobe, stabilizing an open kinase conformation by wedging itself between the two lobes. Finally, Hsp90 clamps around the unfolded kinase β5 strand and interacts with exposed N- and C-lobe interfaces, protecting the kinase in a trapped unfolded state. Based on this novel structure and extensive previous data, we propose unifying conceptual and mechanistic models of chaperone-kinase interactions. PMID:27339980

  8. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators

    PubMed Central

    Delmore, Kira E.; Fox, James W.; Irwin, Darren E.

    2012-01-01

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group. PMID:23015629

  9. Dramatic intraspecific differences in migratory routes, stopover sites and wintering areas, revealed using light-level geolocators.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Fox, James W; Irwin, Darren E

    2012-11-22

    Migratory divides are contact zones between breeding populations that use divergent migratory routes and have been described in a variety of species. These divides are of major importance to evolution, ecology and conservation but have been identified using limited band recovery data and/or indirect methods. Data from band recoveries and mitochondrial haplotypes suggested that inland and coastal Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) form a migratory divide in western North America. We attached light-level geolocators to birds at the edges of this contact zone to provide, to our knowledge, the first direct test of a putative divide using data from individual birds over the entire annual cycle. Coastal thrushes migrated along the west coast to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Some of these birds used multiple wintering sites. Inland thrushes migrated across the Rocky Mountains, through central North America to Columbia and Venezuela. These birds migrated longer distances than coastal birds and performed a loop migration, navigating over the Gulf of Mexico in autumn and around this barrier in spring. These findings support the suggestion that divergent migratory behaviour could contribute to reproductive isolation between migrants, advance our understanding of their non-breeding ecology, and are integral to development of detailed conservation strategies for this group.

  10. RAPID DOPAMINE TRANSMISSION WITHIN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERS FOLLOWING MORPHINE AND OXYCODONE DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Omar S.; Lovic, Vedran; Singer, Bryan F.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    While most drugs of abuse increase dopamine neurotransmission, rapid neurochemical measurements show that different drugs evoke distinct dopamine release patterns within the nucleus accumbens. Rapid changes in dopamine concentration following psychostimulant administration have been well studied; however, such changes have never been examined following opioid delivery. Here, we provide novel measures of rapid dopamine release following intravenous infusion of two opioids, morphine and oxycodone, in drug naïve rats using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and rapid (1 min) microdialysis coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition to measuring rapid dopamine transmission, microdialysis HPLC-MS measures changes in GABA, glutamate, monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and several other neurotransmitters. Although both opioids increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, their patterns of drug-evoked dopamine transmission differed dramatically. Oxycodone evoked a robust and stable increase in dopamine concentration and a robust increase in the frequency and amplitude of phasic dopamine release events. Conversely, morphine evoked a brief (~ 1 min) increase in dopamine that was coincident with a surge in GABA concentration and then both transmitters returned to baseline levels. Thus, by providing rapid measures of neurotransmission, this study reveals previously unknown differences in opioid-induced neurotransmitter signaling. Investigating these differences may be essential for understanding how these two drugs of abuse could differentially usurp motivational circuitry and powerfully influence behavior. PMID:25208732

  11. Globular Clusters as Tracers of Fine Structure in the Dramatic Shell Galaxy NGC 474

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sungsoon; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Fensch, Jérémy; Durrell, Patrick R.; Harris, William E.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Lançon, Ariane; Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben

    2017-02-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are some of the most visible tracers of the merging and accretion histories of galaxy halos. Metal-poor GCs, in particular, are thought to arrive in massive galaxies largely through dry, minor merging events, but it is rare to see a direct connection between GCs and visible stellar streams. NGC 474 is a post-merger early-type galaxy with dramatic fine structures made of concentric shells and radial streams that have been more clearly revealed by deep imaging. We present a study of GCs in NGC 474 to better establish the relationship between merger-induced fine structure and the GC system. We find that many GCs are superimposed on visible streams and shells, and about 35% of GCs outside 3{R}{{e},{galaxy}} are located in regions of fine structure. The spatial correlation between GCs and fine structure is significant at the 99.9% level, which shows that this correlation is not coincidental. The colors of GCs on fine structures are mostly blue, and we also find an intermediate-color population that is dominant in the central region and that will likely passively evolve to have colors consistent with a traditional metal-rich GC population. The association of the blue GCs with fine structures is direct confirmation that many metal-poor GCs are accreted onto massive galaxy halos through merging events and that the progenitors of these mergers are sub-{L}\\star galaxies.

  12. Regulated Breathing Effect of Silicon Negative Electrode for Dramatically Enhanced Performance of Li-Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xingcheng; Zhou, Weidong; Kim, Youngnam; Ryu, Ill; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Gao; Liu, Zhongyi; Gao, Huajian

    2015-03-01

    Si is an attractive negative electrode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high specifi c capacity (≈3600 mAh g –1 ). However, the huge volume swelling and shrinking during cycling, which mimics a breathing effect at the material/electrode/cell level, leads to several coupled issues including fracture of Si particles, unstable solid electrolyte interphase, and low Coulombic effi ciency. In this work, the regulation of the breathing effect is reported by using Si–C yolk–shell nanocomposite which has been well-developed by other researchers. The focus is on understanding how the nanoscaled materials design impacts the mechanical and electrochemical response at electrode level. For the fi rst time, it is possible to observe one order of magnitude of reduction on breathing effect at the electrode level during cycling: the electrode thickness variation reduced down to 10%, comparing with 100% in the electrode with Si nanoparticles as active materials. The Si–C yolk–shell nanocomposite electrode exhibits excellent capacity retention and high cycle effi ciency. In situ transmission electron microscopy and fi nite element simulations consistently reveals that the dramatically enhanced performance is associated with the regulated breathing of the Si in the new composite, therefore the suppression of the overall electrode expansion.

  13. A Poorly Known High-Latitude Parasitoid Wasp Community: Unexpected Diversity and Dramatic Changes through Time

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Caroline; Goulet, Henri; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Smith, Adam C.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will have profound and unanticipated effects on species distributions. The pace and nature of this change is largely unstudied, especially for the most diverse elements of terrestrial communities – the arthropods – here we have only limited knowledge concerning the taxonomy and the ecology of these groups. Because Arctic ecosystems have already experienced significant increases in temperature over the past half century, shifts in community structure may already be in progress. Here we utilise collections of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group – parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera; Braconidae; Microgastrinae) – at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50–70 years ago. Morphological and DNA barcoding results revealed the presence of 79 species of microgastrine wasps in collections from Churchill, but we estimate that 20% of the local fauna awaits detection. Species composition and diversity between the two time periods differ significantly; species that were most common in historic collections were not found in contemporary collections and vice versa. Using barcodes we compared these collections to others from across North America; contemporary Churchill species are most affiliated with more south-western collections, while historic collections were more affiliated with eastern collections. The past five decades has clearly seen a dramatic change of species composition within the area studied coincident with rising temperature. PMID:21897854

  14. Rapid healing of a patient with dramatic subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord: a case report.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Florian C; Wolff, Stephanie

    2017-01-03

    Prevalence of cobalamin deficiency is high especially in older patients and an immediate therapy start is necessary to prevent irreversible neurological damages. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency is difficult and at present, there is no consensus for diagnosis of this deficiency. Therefore, we aim to elucidate a meaningful diagnostic pathway by a case report with an initially misleading medical history. A 57 year-old Caucasian man suffering from dramatic myelosis of the cervical posterior columns. Apart from associated neurological symptoms (tactile hypaesthesia, reduced vibration sensation, loss of stereognosis and of two-point-discrimination) there were no further complaints; especially no gastrointestinal, haematological or psychiatric disorders were provable. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) serum level was normal. The diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord was confirmed by an elevated methylmalonic acid, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Cobalamin deficiency was caused by asymptomatic chronic atrophic inflammation of the stomach with a lack of intrinsic factor producing gland cells. This was revealed by increased gastrin and parietal cell antibodies and finally confirmed by gastroscopy. Parenteral substitution of cobalamin rapidly initiated regeneration. This case demonstrates that normal cobalamin serum levels do not rule out a cobalamin deficiency. In contrast, path-breaking results can be achieved by determining homocysteine, holotranscobalamin, and methylmalonic acid.

  15. Dramatic regression and bleeding of a duodenal GIST during preoperative imatinib therapy: case report and review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. The majority of GISTs is located in the stomach. Only 3-5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as primary manifestation. With response rates of up to 90%, but complications like bleeding due to tumor necrosis in 3%, imatinib mesylate dramatically altered the pre- and postoperative therapy for GIST patients. Case presentation A 58-year-old female patient presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding 2 weeks after a giant GIST of the duodenum had been diagnosed. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy had been initiated to achieve a tumor downsizing prior to surgery. During emergency laparotomy a partial duodenopancreatectomy was performed to achieve a complete resection of the mass. Histology revealed a high-malignancy GIST infiltrating the duodenal wall. Adjuvant imatinib therapy was initiated. At follow-up (19 months) the patient is still alive and healthy. Conclusion Giant GISTs of the duodenum are rare and - in contrast to other localizations - harbour a higher risk of serious bleeding as primary manifestation. Tumor necrosis and tumor bleeding are rare but typical adverse effects of imatinib therapy especially during treatment of high-malignancy GIST. In GIST patients with increased risk of tumor bleeding neoadjuvant imatinib therapy should thoroughly be performed during hospitalization. In cases of duodenal GIST primary surgery should be considered as treatment alternative. PMID:20515511

  16. Dramatically increased rate of observed hot record breaking in recent Australian temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; King, Andrew D.

    2015-09-01

    Persistent extreme temperatures were observed in Australia during 2012-2014. We examine changes in the rate of hot and cold record breaking over the observational record for Australia- and State-wide temperatures. The number of new hot (high-maximum and high-minimum temperatures) temperature records increases dramatically in recent decades, while the number of cold records decreases. In a stationary climate, cold and hot records are expected to occur in equal frequency on longer than interannual time scales; however, during 2000-2014, new hot records outnumber new cold records by 12 to one on average. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 experiments reveal increased hot temperature record breaking occurs in simulations that impose anthropogenic forcings but not in natural forcings-only experiments. This disproportionate hot to cold record breaking rates provides a useful indicator of nonstationarity in temperatures, which is related to the underlying mean observed Australian warming trend of 0.9°C since high-quality records began in 1910.

  17. Guiding the Noticing: Using a Dramatic Performance Experience to Promote Tellability in Narrative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shanetia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her use of dramatic performance to promote tellability in narrative writing within a seventh and eighth grade English and language arts classroom. By experiencing dramatic performance, the students were able to actively and physically perform the writing process: brainstorming, drafting, revising, and editing.…

  18. Incorporating Strategies to Enhance Creative Dramatic Ability of Primary Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Alice S.

    A practicum was conducted by a teacher of gifted students in a rural northeastern state in order to develop, implement, and evaluate developmental strategies enhancing dramatics for gifted students attending primary school. Five creative dramatic classroom activity areas were provided for students. Classroom areas were designated for: (1) rhythmic…

  19. Use of Dramatization to Teach Cardiac Cycle Physiology to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlati, Ehsan; Musick, David W.; Zhang, Lin; Thornton, Katherine; Carvalho, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Part of the educator's mission is to develop new methodologies that promote active learning. This study examines the use of dramatization of the cardiac cycle in medical school. Two groups (n = 42, 21 each) of first-year medical students participated. Group A was initially taught through dramatization alone, while Group B was taught through…

  20. Enhancing Creative Dramatic Play and Story Reenactments in a Primary Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierholt, Carla G.

    A classroom research project in Alaska explored what role dramatic play and story reenactments have as a teaching/learning method for young childrens' development. A review of the literature identified several common elements that helped teachers elicit successful dramatic story reenactments: choosing a familiar book or story; encouraging…

  1. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  2. "I Did Not Wash My Feet with that Woman": Using Dramatic Performance to Teach Biblical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbett, David

    2010-01-01

    The student dramatic performance is an effective way for undergraduates to learn biblical studies. In this article I will give an example of a dramatic performance assignment that I developed over a number of courses and used most recently and most successfully in an undergraduate course in the Hebrew Bible at a small liberal arts college in the…

  3. "I Did Not Wash My Feet with that Woman": Using Dramatic Performance to Teach Biblical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbett, David

    2010-01-01

    The student dramatic performance is an effective way for undergraduates to learn biblical studies. In this article I will give an example of a dramatic performance assignment that I developed over a number of courses and used most recently and most successfully in an undergraduate course in the Hebrew Bible at a small liberal arts college in the…

  4. The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B.

    2006-04-01

    An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.

  5. The dramatic dehospitalization of health services is a prerequisite for a sustainable and effective health system.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Using the general precepts of integration, Lean thinking, and patient centredness, this article highlights the potential for dramatic dehospitalization of health services as a prerequisite for a sustainable and effective health system.

  6. Dramatic remission of hormone refractory prostate cancer achieved with extract of the mushroom, Phellinus linteus.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Susumu; Okugi, Hironobu; Yamanaka, Hidetoshi

    2004-01-01

    At present, there is no distinctly effective treatment for hormone refractory prostate cancer. We describe a hormone refractory prostate cancer patient with rapidly progressive bone metastasis who showed dramatic response to intake of an extract from the mushroom, Phellinus linteus.

  7. New Radar Altimeter Missions are Providing a Dramatically Sharper Image of Global Marine Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Müller, D.; Garcia, E.; Matthews, K. J.; Smith, W. H. F.; Zaron, E.; Zhang, S.; Bassett, D.; Francis, R.

    2015-12-01

    Marine gravity, derived from satellite radar altimetry, is a powerful tool for mapping tectonic structures, especially in the deep ocean basins where the topography remains unmapped by ships or is buried by thick sediment. The ability to infer seafloor tectonics from space was first demonstrated in 1978 using Seasat altimeter data but the spatial coverage was incomplete because of the short three-month lifetime of the satellite. Most ocean altimeters have repeat ground tracks with spacings of hundreds of kilometers so they do not resolve tectonic structures. Adequate altimeter coverage became available in 1995 when the United States Navy declassified the Geosat radar altimeter data and the ERS-1 altimeter completed a 1-year mapping phase. These mid-1990's altimeter-derived images of the ocean basins remained static for 15 years because there were no new non-repeat altimeter missions. This situation changed dramatically in 2010 when CryoSat-2, with its advanced radar altimeter, was launched into a non-repeat orbit and continues to collect data until perhaps 2020. In addition the Jason-1 altimeter was placed into a 14-month geodetic phase at the end of its lifetime. More recently the 1.5 times higher precision measurements from the AltiKa altimeter aboard the SARAL spacecraft began to drift away from its 35-day repeat trackline. The Chinese HY-2 altimeter is scheduled to begin a dense mapping phase in early 2016. Moreover in 2020 we may enjoy significantly higher resolution maps of the ocean basins from the planned SWOT altimeter mission with its advanced swath mapping ability. All of this new data will provide a much sharper image of the tectonics of the deep ocean basins and continental margins. During this talk we will tour of the new tectonic structures revealed by CryoSat-2 and Jason-1 and speculate on the tectonic views of the ocean basins in 2020 and beyond.

  8. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yiu-Keung; Chadha, Manpreet K; Litwin, Alan; Trump, Donald L

    2008-01-01

    Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation. PMID:18986533

  9. Modeling attitude towards drug treament: the role of internal motivation, external pressure, and dramatic relief.

    PubMed

    Conner, Bradley T; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M Douglas

    2009-04-01

    Motivation for change has historically been viewed as the crucial element affecting responsiveness to drug treatment. Various external pressures, such as legal coercion, may engender motivation in an individual previously resistant to change. Dramatic relief may be the change process that is most salient as individuals internalize such external pressures. Results of structural equation modeling on data from 465 drug users (58.9% male; 21.3% Black, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino, and 35.1% White) entering drug treatment indicated that internal motivation and external pressure significantly and positively predicted dramatic relief and that dramatic relief significantly predicted attitudes towards drug treatment: chi (2) = 142.20, df = 100, p < 0.01; Robust Comparative Fit Index = 0.97, Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation = 0.03. These results indicate that when external pressure and internal motivation are high, dramatic relief is also likely to be high. When dramatic relief is high, attitudes towards drug treatment are likely to be positive. The findings indicate that interventions to get individuals into drug treatment should include processes that promote Dramatic Relief. Implications for addictions health services are discussed.

  10. Dramatic Influence of an Anionic Donor on the Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactivity of a MnV–Oxo Complex

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Heather M; Quesne, Matthew G; Yang, Tzuhsiung; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Lancaster, Kyle M; Donohoe, James; DeBeer, Serena; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2014-01-01

    Addition of an anionic donor to an MnV(O) porphyrinoid complex causes a dramatic increase in 2-electron oxygen-atom-transfer (OAT) chemistry. The 6-coordinate [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(CN)]− was generated from addition of Bu4N+CN− to the 5-coordinate MnV(O) precursor. The cyanide-ligated complex was characterized for the first time by Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and gives Mn–O=1.53 Å, Mn–CN=2.21 Å. In combination with computational studies these distances were shown to correlate with a singlet ground state. Reaction of the CN− complex with thioethers results in OAT to give the corresponding sulfoxide and a 2e−-reduced MnIII(CN)− complex. Kinetic measurements reveal a dramatic rate enhancement for OAT of approximately 24 000-fold versus the same reaction for the parent 5-coordinate complex. An Eyring analysis gives ΔH≠=14 kcal mol−1, ΔS≠=−10 cal mol−1 K−1. Computational studies fully support the structures, spin states, and relative reactivity of the 5- and 6-coordinate MnV(O) complexes. PMID:25256417

  11. The effects of everolimus on tuberous sclerosis-associated lesions can be dramatic but may be impermanent.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph M; Wachsman, Ashley; Haker, Katherine; Majlessipour, Fataneh; Danielpour, Moise; Puliyanda, Dechu

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) predisposes to the development of benign lesions within multiple organ systems, including the brain, kidneys, heart, lungs, and skin. Disease mortality is due to space-occupying subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and hemorrhage-prone renal angiomyolipomas. The recent use of mTORC1 inhibitors, such as everolimus, has allowed for direct targeting of TSC-associated mass lesions without apparent effect on surrounding tissues. Because of the mechanism of these drugs, there is reason to believe that these effects are not durable and that there may be need for continued long-term maintenance therapy. We present a case of TSC-associated mass lesions that were ill-suited for definitive surgical therapy. The patient was started on everolimus, however due to a complex social situation treatment was discontinued and ultimately resumed many months later. Radiologic studies acquired before and after each period of therapeutic onset/cessation reveal the dramatic but impermanent effects of mTORC1 inhibition. While everolimus provides a non-invasive way to treat TSC-associated lesions, patients may require lifelong therapy. When termination of therapy is considered, the patient should be made aware of the expectation of potentially dramatic increases in lesion size. If consideration is to be given to definitive surgical therapy, it should be pursued while the patient is still on the medication, or at least soon after treatment is halted.

  12. Molecular pathways undergoing dramatic transcriptomic changes during tumor development in the human colon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The malignant transformation of precancerous colorectal lesions involves progressive alterations at both the molecular and morphologic levels, the latter consisting of increases in size and in the degree of cellular atypia. Analyzing preinvasive tumors of different sizes can therefore shed light on the sequence of these alterations. Methods We used a molecular pathway-based approach to analyze transcriptomic profiles of 59 colorectal tumors representing early and late preinvasive stages and the invasive stage of tumorigenesis. Random set analysis was used to identify biological pathways enriched for genes differentially regulated in tumors (compared with 59 samples of normal mucosa). Results Of the 880 canonical pathways we investigated, 112 displayed significant tumor-related upregulation or downregulation at one or more stages of tumorigenesis. This allowed us to distinguish between pathways whose dysregulation is probably necessary throughout tumorigenesis and those whose involvement specifically drives progression from one stage to the next. We were also able to pinpoint specific changes within each gene set that seem to play key roles at each transition. The early preinvasive stage was characterized by cell-cycle checkpoint activation triggered by DNA replication stress and dramatic downregulation of basic transmembrane signaling processes that maintain epithelial/stromal homeostasis in the normal mucosa. In late preinvasive lesions, there was also downregulation of signal transduction pathways (e.g., those mediated by G proteins and nuclear hormone receptors) involved in cell differentiation and upregulation of pathways governing nuclear envelope dynamics and the G2>M transition in the cell cycle. The main features of the invasive stage were activation of the G1>S transition in the cell cycle, upregulated expression of tumor-promoting microenvironmental factors, and profound dysregulation of metabolic pathways (e.g., increased aerobic glycolysis

  13. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Michel, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly. PMID:27818825

  14. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Daniel F.; Wissler, Lothar; Donahue, Greg; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Helmkampf, Martin; Roux, Julien; Nygaard, Sanne; Glastad, Karl M.; Hagen, Darren E.; Viljakainen, Lumi; Reese, Justin T.; Hunt, Brendan G.; Graur, Dan; Elhaik, Eran; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Wen, Jiayu; Parker, Brian J.; Cash, Elizabeth; Privman, Eyal; Childers, Christopher P.; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Currie, Cameron R.; Elsik, Christine G.; Suen, Garret; Goodisman, Michael A.D.; Keller, Laurent; Liebig, Jürgen; Rawls, Alan; Reinberg, Danny; Smith, Chris D.; Smith, Chris R.; Tsutsui, Neil; Wurm, Yannick; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Berger, Shelley L.; Gadau, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contains ∼4000 novel genes, but only 64 of these genes are conserved among all seven ants. Many gene families have been expanded in ants, notably those involved in chemical communication (e.g., desaturases and odorant receptors). Alignment of the ant genomes revealed reduced purifying selection compared with Drosophila without significantly reduced synteny. Correspondingly, ant genomes exhibit dramatic divergence of noncoding regulatory elements; however, extant conserved regions are enriched for novel noncoding RNAs and transcription factor–binding sites. Comparison of orthologous gene promoters between eusocial and solitary species revealed significant regulatory evolution in both cis (e.g., Creb) and trans (e.g., fork head) for nearly 2000 genes, many of which exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results emphasize that genomic changes can occur remarkably fast in ants, because two recently diverged leaf-cutter ant species exhibit faster accumulation of species-specific genes and greater divergence in regulatory elements compared with other ants or Drosophila. Thus, while the “socio-genomes” of ants and the honeybee are broadly characterized by a pervasive pattern of divergence in gene composition and regulation, they preserve lineage-specific regulatory features linked to eusociality. We propose that changes in gene regulation played a key role in the origins of insect eusociality, whereas changes in gene composition were more relevant for lineage-specific eusocial adaptations. PMID:23636946

  15. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality.

    PubMed

    Simola, Daniel F; Wissler, Lothar; Donahue, Greg; Waterhouse, Robert M; Helmkampf, Martin; Roux, Julien; Nygaard, Sanne; Glastad, Karl M; Hagen, Darren E; Viljakainen, Lumi; Reese, Justin T; Hunt, Brendan G; Graur, Dan; Elhaik, Eran; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Wen, Jiayu; Parker, Brian J; Cash, Elizabeth; Privman, Eyal; Childers, Christopher P; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Currie, Cameron R; Elsik, Christine G; Suen, Garret; Goodisman, Michael A D; Keller, Laurent; Liebig, Jürgen; Rawls, Alan; Reinberg, Danny; Smith, Chris D; Smith, Chris R; Tsutsui, Neil; Wurm, Yannick; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Berger, Shelley L; Gadau, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contains ∼4000 novel genes, but only 64 of these genes are conserved among all seven ants. Many gene families have been expanded in ants, notably those involved in chemical communication (e.g., desaturases and odorant receptors). Alignment of the ant genomes revealed reduced purifying selection compared with Drosophila without significantly reduced synteny. Correspondingly, ant genomes exhibit dramatic divergence of noncoding regulatory elements; however, extant conserved regions are enriched for novel noncoding RNAs and transcription factor-binding sites. Comparison of orthologous gene promoters between eusocial and solitary species revealed significant regulatory evolution in both cis (e.g., Creb) and trans (e.g., fork head) for nearly 2000 genes, many of which exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results emphasize that genomic changes can occur remarkably fast in ants, because two recently diverged leaf-cutter ant species exhibit faster accumulation of species-specific genes and greater divergence in regulatory elements compared with other ants or Drosophila. Thus, while the "socio-genomes" of ants and the honeybee are broadly characterized by a pervasive pattern of divergence in gene composition and regulation, they preserve lineage-specific regulatory features linked to eusociality. We propose that changes in gene regulation played a key role in the origins of insect eusociality, whereas changes in gene composition were more relevant for lineage-specific eusocial adaptations.

  16. Playing around with Improvisation: An Analysis of the Text Creation Processes Used within Preadolescent Dramatic Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Julie

    2008-01-01

    When children come together to play dramatically they are involved in the creation of an improvised text. This text emerges spontaneously via the moment-by-moment contributions of individual players who must operate in a highly collaborative way in order to achieve cohesion. This paper reports on a research project involving several groups of 11-…

  17. Becoming Warriors: Dramatic Inquiry with 11- to 12-Year-Olds in an EBD Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmiston, Brian; Sobjack, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Using a dialogue format, a college professor and a teacher of 11- to 12-year-old children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) report on a case study of four children (three boys and a girl) when over a three-week period dramatic inquiry pedagogy (focused on the meaning for students of fictional violent events depicted in extracts…

  18. The Composition of Dramatic Experience: The Play Element in Student Electronic Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouzie, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes two student group Hypertext projects and a MOO (multiuser domain, object-oriented) project. Finds the play element can enrich readerly experience through the creation of a dramatic experience of information. Suggests that composition instructors need to recognize the play element in computer-based composition and encourage the development…

  19. Design and Implementation of Dramatic Tasks in an English for Academic Purposes Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lorna; Murphy, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Task-based language learning involves the use of authentic tasks with a coherent process and concrete product as a means of planning, delivering and assessing a curriculum. In this article, we draw on our recent use of the descriptive apparatus of the "Common European Framework of Reference" (CEFR) to define and specify a dramatic task…

  20. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  1. "Welcome to Philadelphia": An Original Dramatization of Life in the 1780s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stakes, Mary E.

    Teachers can create an interest in the founding period of U.S. history and present students with an authentic view of this time period through the presentation of this play. The dramatic pretense of the play is that the audience, by their presence, is part of the drama. The audience plays the part of travelers visiting a Philadelphia home in the…

  2. Some Therapeutic Uses of Dramatic Play with the Aggressive Child in the Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginnane, Patrick

    The primary purpose of this master's thesis is to describe some therapeutic uses of dramatic play with the mildly aggressive preschool child. The child for whom the suggested play interventions are considered appropriate is characterized by sociality and attachment to both peers and adults, and is not chronically aggressive. After the first…

  3. How to Know when Dramatic Change Is on Track: Leading Indicators of School Turnarounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Ableidinger, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, national policymakers have placed new emphasis on "school turnarounds" as a strategy for rapid, dramatic improvement in chronically failing schools, calling on education leaders to turn around performance in the 5,000 lowest-achieving schools nationwide. This goal may seem daunting, given the dismal success rates of…

  4. Dramatic Declines in Higher Education Appropriations: State Conditions for Budget Punctuations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Amy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Public colleges and universities depend heavily on state appropriations and legislatures must decide how much to fund higher education. This study applies punctuated equilibrium theory to characterize the distribution of annual changes in higher education appropriations and defines the threshold for a dramatic budget cut. Using data for the 50…

  5. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullo, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  6. Creating Drama with Poetry: Teaching English as a Second Language through Dramatization and Improvisation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasparro, Marie; Falletta, Bernadette

    The use of poetry as drama in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom enables students to explore the linguistic and conceptual aspects of the written text without concentrating on the mechanics of language. Students are able to develop a sense of awareness of self in the target culture through dramatic interpretations of the poems.…

  7. Engaging in Dramatic Activities in English as a Foreign Language Classes at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algarra Carrasco, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how, through dramatic activities, fiction and reality can work together to help the English as a Foreign language learner communicate in a more personal and meaningful way. The kind of activities proposed are designed to help engender a space where students can personally engage with each other in an atmosphere that is…

  8. Athenian and Shakespearean Tragedies in Oceania: Teaching Dramatic Literatures in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anae, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theorised classroom-based narrative discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of English dramatic literatures--in particular, Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth"--to i-Taukei, Indo-Fijian and Pacific Islander tertiary students at a South Pacific university.…

  9. Mantle of the Expert: Integrating Dramatic Inquiry and Visual Arts in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edric C.; Liu, Katrina; Goble, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the social studies field to Dorothy Heatchote's Mantle of Expert (MOE). MOE is a dramatic inquiry approach used in several subject areas and can work at all levels in the social studies curriculum. The authors go into the development of using this approach in an elementary and middle teacher education program. After sharing…

  10. Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Aesthetic Areas: Some Empirical Observations Regarding the Role of Dramatic Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnas, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen sixteen-year-old Fenno-Swedish compulsory school pupils' descriptions and evaluations of significant, i.e. more or less "strong", experiences relating to dramatic art (film, theatre) were analysed and compared with reported experiences in other aesthetic areas (music, nature etc.). The drama area was represented in many…

  11. National Lighting Bureau Reports Dramatic Energy Savings Possible through Minor Lighting Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Dramatic savings are possible by implementing minor modifications including: energy efficient light bulbs and tubes, ballasts, luminaires (fixtures), controls, operating practices, and revised maintenance. Many different changes can be made without affecting productivity, safety and security, visual comfort, aesthetic appeal, consumer discretion,…

  12. Examining Young Children's Perception toward Augmented Reality-Infused Dramatic Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jeonghye; Jo, Miheon; Hyun, Eunja; So, Hyo-jeong

    2015-01-01

    Amid the increasing interest in applying augmented reality (AR) in educational settings, this study explores the design and enactment of an AR-infused robot system to enhance children's satisfaction and sensory engagement with dramatic play activities. In particular, we conducted an exploratory study to empirically examine children's perceptions…

  13. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art; Tecihman, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Presents a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place at the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872 among Sir William Thomson, T.H. Huxley, Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Mantle of the Expert: Integrating Dramatic Inquiry and Visual Arts in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edric C.; Liu, Katrina; Goble, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the social studies field to Dorothy Heatchote's Mantle of Expert (MOE). MOE is a dramatic inquiry approach used in several subject areas and can work at all levels in the social studies curriculum. The authors go into the development of using this approach in an elementary and middle teacher education program. After sharing…

  15. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art; Tecihman, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    Presents a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place at the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872 among Sir William Thomson, T.H. Huxley, Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Effects of Dramatized Depictions of Accidents on Grade School Children's Reception of Safety Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omdahl, Becky L.; Cantor, Joanne

    A study examined a format for fear appeal messages that introduced a threat through one medium (i.e., a segment of dramatic television programming) and the recommended action through another medium (i.e., the verbal presentation of safety guidelines by an adult to a child). Subjects, 138 elementary school children from a middle-class elementary…

  17. Dramatic resuscitation with Intralipid in an epinephrine unresponsive cardiac arrest following overdose of amitriptyline and propranolol.

    PubMed

    Le Fevre, Philippe; Gosling, Mark; Acharya, Keyur; Georgiou, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Amitriptyline and propranolol are life threatening in overdose. The efficacy of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in tricyclic antidepressant and propranolol overdose is unclear. We report a dramatic response to ILE following pulseless electrical activity arrest due to mixed amitriptyline and propranolol overdose.

  18. Architectural Images through the Dual Lens of Picture Books and Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Betty P.; And Others

    Introducing architectural concepts to children is a relatively new area of the curriculum for schools, whether elementary schools or high schools. The use of picture books and creative dramatics to encourage children to think about architecture is explored. In a few hours, a fourth-grade class considered the destruction and rebuilding of a…

  19. Occupational Awareness through Dramatic Play: A Curriculum Guide for Primary Grades: Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Loretta

    Designed for grades K-3, the career education curriculum guide focuses on dramatic play to create an environment which will stimulate children to explore various occupations within the community. At the beginning of the program, the community includes only a few structures. As the students realize the need for more buildings and services, the…

  20. Dramatic Science at Key Stage 1: Modelling Ideas within an Olympics Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Deb; Precious, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Dramatic Science is an approach to teaching science that purposely places the children in thought-provoking situations where they need to apply their scientific understanding to decide how to act. Teachers can then apply drama techniques to help children develop and communicate their ideas. In this article, the authors share how modelling through…

  1. Collaborative College Playwriting and Performance: A Core Course "Trespassing" onto the Dramatic Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedetti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Arts integration is relevant in the context of the increased demand for creative thinkers in a global economy. However, reaching across disciplinary boundaries is less common in higher education. Arts integration is one way that a literature class can "trespass" onto the dramatic arts. This paper reports on a study of integrating the…

  2. Language through the Seasons: Dramatic Play Activities for Early Childhood Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdur, Judith

    This workbook brings together activities to aid in motivating children to concentrate, listen, respond, think, and learn. The activities rely upon play-like tasks involving drama, music, and other forms of creative expression. The activities are organized by the season in which they are appropriate and include songs, dramatic sequences, stories,…

  3. Creative Dramatics in the Language Arts Classroom. ERIC Digest Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    Literature on classroom drama suggests that there is considerable untapped potential for using drama as a teaching method in the English classroom. Studies have shown that high school students using dramatic enactment experienced more instances of higher order thinking, more topic-specific emotions, decreased apprehension, and less…

  4. Producing Multimodal Picture Books and Dramatic Performances in a Core French Classroom: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Margaret; Yeung, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    In a Grade 9 core French class, the teacher designed a multi-stage project in which students composed original children's stories in French; illustrated their stories to produce picture books; then, in groups, adapted one group member's story into a play script; and, finally, dramatized the scripts for children from the local French immersion…

  5. National Lighting Bureau Reports Dramatic Energy Savings Possible through Minor Lighting Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Dramatic savings are possible by implementing minor modifications including: energy efficient light bulbs and tubes, ballasts, luminaires (fixtures), controls, operating practices, and revised maintenance. Many different changes can be made without affecting productivity, safety and security, visual comfort, aesthetic appeal, consumer discretion,…

  6. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  7. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullo, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  8. Examining Young Children's Perception toward Augmented Reality-Infused Dramatic Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jeonghye; Jo, Miheon; Hyun, Eunja; So, Hyo-jeong

    2015-01-01

    Amid the increasing interest in applying augmented reality (AR) in educational settings, this study explores the design and enactment of an AR-infused robot system to enhance children's satisfaction and sensory engagement with dramatic play activities. In particular, we conducted an exploratory study to empirically examine children's perceptions…

  9. The Impact of an Improvisational Dramatics Program on School Attitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourgey, Annette F.; And Others

    An improvisational dramatics program was developed to improve the reading achievement and school attitudes of disadvantaged elementary school children. The program, based on the rationale that encouraging self-awareness and creative self-expression will improve communication skills, reading achievement, and attitudes, was used with 141 fourth,…

  10. Design and Implementation of Dramatic Tasks in an English for Academic Purposes Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lorna; Murphy, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Task-based language learning involves the use of authentic tasks with a coherent process and concrete product as a means of planning, delivering and assessing a curriculum. In this article, we draw on our recent use of the descriptive apparatus of the "Common European Framework of Reference" (CEFR) to define and specify a dramatic task…

  11. The Accessibility of Socio-Dramatic Play to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Australian Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrafton, Eleanor; Whitington, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Socio-dramatic play is preschool children's leading learning activity (Karpov 2005; Vygotsky 1978). Yet entering play often poses challenges (Corsaro 2003), particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) children (Hruska 2007). At preschool four-year-old CALD children are both acquiring a new language, and learning new rules, social…

  12. Didactique du francais langue seconde, dramatisation, et theatre (French Second Language Teaching, Dramatization, and Theater).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancy, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Use of dramatics in French second language education is advocated with theoretical and practical arguments, and a four-stage approach to language acquisition through theater is proposed. The approach is based on activities of a bilingual theater troupe that offers Mount Allison University (New Brunswick) students an opportunity to participate in…

  13. The Accessibility of Socio-Dramatic Play to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Australian Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrafton, Eleanor; Whitington, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Socio-dramatic play is preschool children's leading learning activity (Karpov 2005; Vygotsky 1978). Yet entering play often poses challenges (Corsaro 2003), particularly for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) children (Hruska 2007). At preschool four-year-old CALD children are both acquiring a new language, and learning new rules, social…

  14. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  15. [I was born a woman, the life of Mame: the dramatization of intergenerational inclusion].

    PubMed

    Lasheras Amat, M del Pilar; Muriel Fernández, Rafael; Llamas Martínez, M Victoria; Hallaga Messari, Asmaa; Bitoden Yaka, Albert; Ndour, Mame Awa; Dieng, Ousseynou; Márquez Bernal, Victoriano; Sevillano, Manuel Garrido

    2010-01-01

    I was born a woman, the life of Mame is the dramatization a fictitious intergenerational story. However, the story is based on true events and the feelings of real immigrant women. The dramatization narrates the life of a woman, from the time her parents-who had recently emigrated from Senegal-settled in Andalusia, up to the adolescence of Mame's own daughter. The story is told with one person on stage who, through the use of three costume changes, plays three different generations of women: mother, daughter and granddaughter, with the video-recorded testimonies of other characters (a teacher and a midwife), who express their views of the host society against a background of African music and pictures of their native country. The present article describes their goals, such as communication in conferences, and includes a concise summary of the script, reflections on the process of integrating, and the evaluation made after a performance.

  16. Polymeric-lens-embedded 2D/3D switchable display with dramatically reduced crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Xu, Su; Hong, Qi; Wu, Shin-Tson; Lee, Chiayu; Yang, Chih-Ming; Lo, Chang-Cheng; Lien, Alan

    2014-03-01

    A two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) display system is presented based on a twisted-nematic cell integrated polymeric microlens array. This device structure has the advantages of fast response time and low operation voltage. The crosstalk of the system is analyzed in detail and two approaches are proposed to reduce the crosstalk: a double lens system and the prism approach. Illuminance distribution analysis proves these two approaches can dramatically reduce crosstalk, thus improving image quality.

  17. An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    FINAL REPORT An EM System With Dramatic Multi-Axis Transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer Receiver SERDP Project MR-1534 JUNE 2011 David C...Technical 2006-20 10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An EM System with Dynamic Multi-Axis transmitter and Tensor Gradiometer W912HQ-06-C-0050...ANSI Std. Z39. 18 EM Tensor Gradiometer SERDP MM-1532 i Contents Contents

  18. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Roger J R

    2014-01-01

    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression.

  19. [A case of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with dramatic improvement in consciousness immediately after intravenous infusion of thiamine].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, A; Chida, K; Misu, T; Okita, N; Nomura, H; Konno, H; Takase, S; Takeda, A; Itoyama, Y

    2000-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was hospitalized on March 4, 1998 for disturbances in consciousness. In 1995, he had received proximal subtotal gastrectomy and reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition for gastric cancer. Thereafter he had been taking enough food without the habit of taking liquor. In October 1997, his short term memory was becoming gradually worse. On February 12, 1998, he suffered from numbness in the feet, and then dysphagia, unsteady gait, and diplopia developed gradually. On February 26, brain MRI showed no abnormalities. On March 3, he had a fever of 38.5 degrees C and his consciousness became unclear. Neurological examination revealed semi-coma, total ophthalmoplegia, and absence of doll's eye movement. Deep tendon reflexes were absent. The serum thiamine level was 9 ng/ml (normal range: 20-50). Brain MRI demonstrated symmetrical high intensity lesions in the periaqueductal area of the midbrain, dorsomedial nuclei of bilateral thalami, and vestibular nuclei. About 30 seconds after intravenous infusion of thiamine, his consciousness improved dramatically, but returned to semi-coma after about two minutes. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome usually occurs acutely. In the present case, however, the disease showed slow onset, chronic progression, and then rapid worsening after fever. Reconstructive surgery of the jejunal interposition might have caused the slow onset of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, and fever might have facilitated the rapid progression of the disease. An immediate high concentration of thiamine modifies the kinetics of acetylcholine receptor ion channels, thereby maintaining wakefulness, and the level of consciousness may change dramatically.

  20. Dramatic decline of unionid bivalves in offshore waters of western Lake Erie after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.

    1994-01-01

    Unionid bivalves and attached epizoic zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected at one index station in 1989, 1990, and 1991 and at 17 stations in 1991 in offshore waters of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sampling at the index station revealed that the proportion of live unionids declined from 53% in September 1989 to 17% in May–June 1990 and to 0% in September 1990: this 100% mortality coincided with heavy infestation by zebra mussels. Quantitative sampling with a Ponar grab at the 17 stations in 1991 revealed a widespread and dramatic reduction in unionid populations. In 1982, five unionid species occurred at 35% of the stations at a density of 4/m2, whereas in 1991, no live unionid species were found. Qualitative sampling with an epibenthic sled at the 17 stations in 1991 yielded only 4 live specimens of 2 species (Amblema plicata plicata and Fusconaia flava) and 187 dead specimens of 10 species. These and other results indicate that unionid populations are being negatively affected by zebra mussels in the Great Lakes. Similar impacts on unionids are expected to occur where zebra mussels become abundant throughout North America.

  1. Viability effects and not meoitic drive cause dramatic departures from Mendelian inheritance for malic enzyme in hybrids of Tigriopus californicus populations.

    PubMed

    Willett, C S; Berkowitz, J N

    2007-05-01

    The genetic basis of post-zygotic reproductive isolation is beginning to be untangled in closely related species, but less is known about the genetics of reproductive isolation between divergent populations. Here, two genes encoding malic enzyme (ME) are isolated from the copepod Tigriopus californicus and their influence upon lowered viability in F(2) hybrids of genetically divergent populations is determined. Each ME gene has diverged extensively between T. californicus populations and one gene shows evidence for a recent selective sweep. Segregation patterns of genotypes for both ME genes in adult F(2) hybrids reveal dramatic departures from Mendelian inheritance, deviations that are not seen in F(2) nauplii implying that selection is acting during development based upon the genotype at these ME genes. These results imply that selection against deleterious gene combinations and not aberrant segregation (i.e. meiotic drive) is likely to lead to dramatic departures from Mendelian inheritance observed in these crosses.

  2. Filarial huge splenomegaly dramatically regressed by anti-filarial medication: A rare clinical scenario.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ayan; Kumar, Arvind; Manchanda, Smita; Wig, Naveet

    2017-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Lymphatic filariasis is a spectrum of illness and can manifest as, asymptomatic microfilaraemia, acute lymphatic filariasis (lymphangitis and lymphoedema), chronic lymphoedema, elephantiasis, hydrocele, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia and some systemic manifestations which involves joint, heart, kidney, nerve, etc. We here present a case of huge splenomegaly caused by lymphatic filariasis which is a rare presentation and only few cases had been reported in the world literature so far. After treatment of filariasis spleen size was reduced dramatically and patient is doing well even after 6 months of follow up after therapy.

  3. Dramatic mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus (Crustacea, anomura).

    PubMed

    Hickerson, M J; Cunningham, C W

    2000-04-01

    The entire mitochondrial gene order of the crustacean Pagurus longicarpus was determined by sequencing all but approximately 300 bp of the mitochondrial genome. We report the first major gene rearrangements found in the clade including Crustacea and Insecta. At least eight mitochondrial gene rearrangements have dramatically altered the gene order of the hermit crab P. longicarpus relative to the putatively ancestral crustacean gene order. These include two rearrangements of protein-coding genes, the first reported for any nonchelicerate arthropod. Codon usage and amino acid sequences do not deviate substantially from those reported for other crustaceans. Investigating the phylogenetic distribution of these eight rearrangements will add additional characters to help resolve decapod phylogeny.

  4. Fuller Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign has enabled imaging of Fuller crater (named after American architect Buckminster Fuller) in greater detail than previously possible. The top left panel shows an image of Fuller, with the crater rim outlined in pink and the edge of a low-altitude broadband MDIS image in green. The large panel applies a different stretch to the same MDIS broadband image in the first panel, revealing details of the shadowed surface inside Fuller! In particular, as highlighted with yellow arrows in the bottom left panel, the image reveals a region inside Fuller that is lower in reflectance. The edge of the low-reflectance region has a sharp and well-defined boundary, even when imaged at 46 m/pixel, suggesting that the low-reflectance material is sufficiently young to have preserved a sharp boundary against lateral mixing by impact cratering. Models for surface and near-surface temperature within Fuller crater predict a region that is sufficiently cold to host long-lived water ice beneath the surface but too hot to support water ice at the surface. The low-reflectance region revealed in the images matches the thermal characteristics expected for a lag deposit of volatile, organic-rich material that overlies the water ice. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19244

  5. A dramatic increase of C1q protein in the CNS during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Alexander H; Madison, Daniel V; Mateos, José María; Fraser, Deborah A; Lovelett, Emilie A; Coutellier, Laurence; Kim, Leo; Tsai, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Eric J; Rowitch, David H; Berns, Dominic S; Tenner, Andrea J; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Barres, Ben A

    2013-08-14

    The decline of cognitive function has emerged as one of the greatest health threats of old age. Age-related cognitive decline is caused by an impacted neuronal circuitry, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible are unknown. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade and powerful effector of the peripheral immune response, mediates synapse elimination in the developing CNS. Here we show that C1q protein levels dramatically increase in the normal aging mouse and human brain, by as much as 300-fold. This increase was predominantly localized in close proximity to synapses and occurred earliest and most dramatically in certain regions of the brain, including some but not all regions known to be selectively vulnerable in neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., the hippocampus, substantia nigra, and piriform cortex. C1q-deficient mice exhibited enhanced synaptic plasticity in the adult and reorganization of the circuitry in the aging hippocampal dentate gyrus. Moreover, aged C1q-deficient mice exhibited significantly less cognitive and memory decline in certain hippocampus-dependent behavior tests compared with their wild-type littermates. Unlike in the developing CNS, the complement cascade effector C3 was only present at very low levels in the adult and aging brain. In addition, the aging-dependent effect of C1q on the hippocampal circuitry was independent of C3 and unaccompanied by detectable synapse loss, providing evidence for a novel, complement- and synapse elimination-independent role for C1q in CNS aging.

  6. Conditioning Method Dramatically Alters the Role of Amygdala in Taste Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schafe, Glenn E.; Thiele, Todd E.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    1998-01-01

    Although an important role for the amygdala in taste aversion learning has been suggested by work in a number of laboratories, results have been inconsistent and interpretations varied. The present series of studies reevaluated the role of the amygdala in taste aversion learning by examining the extent to which conditioning methods, testing methods and lesioning methods, influence whether amygdala lesions dramatically affect conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. Results indicated that when animals are conditioned with an intraoral (I/O) taste presentation, lesions of amygdala eliminate evidence of conditioning whether animals are tested intraorally or with a two-bottle solution presentation. Dramatic effects of amygdala lesions on CTA learning were seen whether lesions were made electrolytically or using an excitotoxin. In contrast, when animals were conditioned using bottle presentation of the taste, electrolytic lesions attenuated CTAs but did not eliminate them, and excitotoxic lesions had no effect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neural structures critical for CTA learning may differ depending on the extent to which the method of conditioned stimulus delivery incorporates a response component. PMID:10489263

  7. Conditioning method dramatically alters the role of amygdala in taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Schafe, G E; Thiele, T E; Bernstein, I L

    1998-01-01

    Although an important role for the amygdala in taste aversion learning has been suggested by work in a number of laboratories, results have been inconsistent and interpretations varied. The present series of studies reevaluated the role of the amygdala in taste aversion learning by examining the extent to which conditioning methods, testing methods and lesioning methods, influence whether amygdala lesions dramatically affect conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. Results indicated that when animals are conditioned with an intraoral (I/O) taste presentation, lesions of amygdala eliminate evidence of conditioning whether animals are tested intraorally or with a two-bottle solution presentation. Dramatic effects of amygdala lesions on CTA learning were seen whether lesions were made electrolytically or using an excitotoxin. In contrast, when animals were conditioned using bottle presentation of the taste, electrolytic lesions attenuated CTAs but did not eliminate them, and excitotoxic lesions had no effect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neural structures critical for CTA learning may differ depending on the extent to which the method of conditioned stimulus delivery incorporates a response component.

  8. Dramatic Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With AV Delay Optimization in Narrow QRS Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Rikitake; Nakai, Toshiko; Ikeya, Yukitoshi; Mano, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Naoko; Iso, Kazuki; Okumura, Yasuo; Ohkubo, Kimie; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for heart failure. However, as outlined in the AHA/ACC/HRS Appropriate Use Criteria, CRT is not strongly recommended for patients with a narrow QRS complex. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and narrow QRS complex in which we obtained a dramatic response to CRT by optimizing the atrioventricular (AV) delay. The patient was a 61-year-old man with intractable heart failure. Echocardiography showed a low ejection fraction of 22% but no dyssynchrony. Because he had been hospitalized many times for congestive heart failure despite β-blocker and diuretic treatment, we decided to use CRT. However, after implantation of the CRT device, the QRS complex widened abnormally, and his symptoms worsened. He was re-admitted 2 months after CRT implantation. We examined the pacemaker status and optimized the AV delay to obtain a "narrow" QRS complex. The patient's condition improved dramatically after the AV delay optimization. His clinical status has been good, and there has been no subsequent hospitalization. Our case points to the effectiveness of CRT in patients with a narrow QRS complex and to the importance of AV optimization for successful CRT.

  9. Dramatic Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Presentations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: Three Cases and a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Stary, Joel M.; Wang, Bonnie H.; Moon, Seong-Jin; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) refers to a number of disorders characterized by severe and sudden-onset (“thunderclap”) headaches and angiographic features of reversible, segmental, multifocal vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. Although RCVS generally resolves without significant sequelae, a rare and possibly underrecognized hemorrhagic presentation has a worse potential course. We report three cases of hemorrhagic RCVS and review the literature. Three females (42, 54, and 33 years old, resp.) presented with severe headache, neurological deficits, and dramatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patient 1 presented comatose with a 9 × 4 × 6.6 cm left deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) and 1 cm midline shift. She underwent emergent surgical intervention. Patient 2 had a 3.3 × 1.5 cm left superior frontal IPH that enlarged to 4 × 2.5 cm within 12 hours with worsening headache and neurological deficits. She was successfully managed nonoperatively. Patient 3, after uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery, presented with a 1.5 cm left superior parietal IPH on postpartum day 7. Two days later, she acutely developed right hemiplegia. Repeat CT demonstrated a new 3.3 × 1.7 cm left frontal IPH. She was also successfully managed nonoperatively. Many diverse conditions are grouped within the category of RCVS. Dramatic ICH remains a rare and possibly underrecognized presenting feature. Prompt diagnosis and management are essential for obtaining the best outcome. PMID:24707417

  10. Molecular mechanisms in the dramatic enhancement of HIV-1 Tat transduction by cationic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guan-Han; Li, Wenxue; Mumper, Russell J.; Nath, Avindra

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein possesses a unique membrane-transduction property. Interestingly, Tat transduction could be dramatically increased 1000-fold based on LTR-transactivation assay when complexed with cationic liposomes (lipo-Tat), compared with Tat alone. Therefore, underlining mechanisms were explored further. Microscopy and flow cytometry showed that this effect was associated with enhanced membrane binding, large particle formation (1–2 μm) and increased intracellular uptake of Tat fluorescent proteins. Using pharmacological assays and immune colocalizations, it was found that lipid raft-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis were major pathways involved in lipo-Tat uptake, and actin-filaments played a major role in intracellular trafficking of lipo-Tat to the nucleus. Furthermore, we found that the Tat hydrophobic domain (aa 36–47) mediated formation of two positively charged molecules into lipo-Tat complexes via hydrophobic bonds, based on LTR-transactivation inhibition assay. Thus, the hydrophobic domain may play an important role in Tat protein uptake and be useful for intracellular delivery of biomacromolecules if coupled together with Tat basic peptide, a cell-penetrating peptide.—Li, G.-H., Li, W., Mumper, R. J., Nath, A. Molecular mechanisms in the dramatic enhancement of HIV-1 Tat transduction by cationic liposomes. PMID:22447980

  11. Tuber-specific cytosolic expression of a bacterial phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) dramatically alters carbon partitioning.

    PubMed

    Lytovchenko, Anna; Schauer, Nicolas; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-04-01

    Constitutive antisense inhibition of the cytosolic isoform of phosphoglucomutase in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) results in restriction of photosynthesis, growth inhibition and modified tuber morphology, and a severe restriction of tuber starch synthesis. Here we describe the consequences of the tuber-specific expression of an Escherichia coli phosphoglucomutase in the cytosol. Analysis of [14C]glucose metabolism by tuber discs isolated from wild type and transformants revealed that the rates of sucrose and starch synthesis were unaltered but that the rate of glycolysis was depressed in the transgenics. The transformant tubers also contained dramatically reduced amino acid content and significantly higher levels of ADP, but were characterized by elevated levels of Krebs cycle intermediates and an unaltered rate of respiration. In addition to these metabolic consequences of the overexpression of the E. coli enzyme, we observed morphological changes in tubers, with the transformants having a smaller number of larger tubers which exhibited delayed rates of sprouting with respect to the wild type. These results are discussed with respect to current models of the regulation of central plant metabolism and tuber dormancy.

  12. The incomprehensible injury--interpretations of patients' narratives concerning experiences with an acute and dramatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lohne, Vibeke

    2009-03-01

    Spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating incidents that can occur to an individual as it results in life being suddenly, dramatically, radically and long lastingly changed. Different studies show that a spinal cord injury is a stressful event, leading to physiological dependence, psychological and social illness and suffering, although the situation tends to improve over time. This study is a part of a larger longitudinal study. The aim of this study was to explore and interpret 10 individuals' experiences in connection with their acute and unexpected spinal cord injury. This qualitative study has a descriptive and explorative design and is a part of a larger study. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur was used to extract the meaningful content of the patients' narratives. In this study, the findings revealed three main themes: (I) 'the incomprehensible shock', (II) 'brave survivors' and (III) 'miracles, luck or coincidences?' The incomprehensible spinal cord injury was often experienced as a dramatic and unexpected shock in the middle of a pleasant occasion, and every participant felt immediately overwhelmed by emotional suffering, such as despair and panic, but also anxiety, confusion, sorrow, guilt, shame, fear, aggression or depression at the moment of injury. Some individuals immediately understood that they had become completely paralysed and that something was seriously wrong with their body. Many also experienced guilt or shame because of choices or decisions made immediately before the injury. Several of the narratives were illuminating participants that had been brave survivors and heroes and saved others (passengers or friends) during the injury, by preventing the car form driving out or by softening the fall of co-passengers, which also entailed more serious injuries to themselves. However, the fact of having survived was experienced as 'being lucky, after all'. They all repeatedly reflected on the accident, and their

  13. DNA fingerprinting on trial: the dramatic early history of a new forensic technique.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jay D

    2005-09-01

    The early history of "DNA fingerprinting" in the UK might have been different were it not for the accounts of two dramatic courtroom trials, made by the participants and the media, in the mid-1980s. But these reports, which misrepresented the importance DNA evidence had in the trials, left a strong impression on the British public and on judges on both sides of the Atlantic. These trials, widely considered to be the first "victories" for DNA fingerprinting, have been frequently cited as proof of the utility and reliability of the technique, in both the UK and beyond. But in reality, it was the threat of DNA evidence being used rather than the integrity or validity of it that resolved these cases. At that time, DNA fingerprinting was still in its infancy, an untried and untested technology.

  14. Non-Markovian Infection Spread Dramatically Alters the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Epidemic Threshold in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Mieghem, P.; van de Bovenkamp, R.

    2013-03-01

    Most studies on susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics in networks implicitly assume Markovian behavior: the time to infect a direct neighbor is exponentially distributed. Much effort so far has been devoted to characterize and precisely compute the epidemic threshold in susceptible-infected-susceptible Markovian epidemics on networks. Here, we report the rather dramatic effect of a nonexponential infection time (while still assuming an exponential curing time) on the epidemic threshold by considering Weibullean infection times with the same mean, but different power exponent α. For three basic classes of graphs, the Erdős-Rényi random graph, scale-free graphs and lattices, the average steady-state fraction of infected nodes is simulated from which the epidemic threshold is deduced. For all graph classes, the epidemic threshold significantly increases with the power exponents α. Hence, real epidemics that violate the exponential or Markovian assumption can behave seriously differently than anticipated based on Markov theory.

  15. Dramatic Improvement of Diabetes Mellitus Following the Treatment of Coexisting Acromegaly and Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Kyongyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases are frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus and treatment of an underlying endocrine disease often improves glucose control. The co-occurrence of acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome is extremely rare. We herein describe a patient who showed a dramatic improvement in glucose control following treatment for co-existing acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome. An adrenal mass was incidentally discovered during a routine evaluation of a 56-year-old woman who was subsequently diagnosed with acromegaly and a unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma. Her blood glucose was poorly controlled despite receiving high-dose insulin therapy. After undergoing adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome, her insulin dosage was decreased by almost 50%. The insulin treatment was discontinued following the treatment of acromegaly.

  16. Emulating a crowded intracellular environment in vitro dramatically improves RT-PCR performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lareu, Ricky R.; Harve, Karthik S.; Raghunath, Michael

    2007-11-09

    The polymerase chain reaction's (PCR) phenomenal success in advancing fields as diverse as Medicine, Agriculture, Conservation, or Paleontology is based on the ability of using isolated prokaryotic thermostable DNA polymerases in vitro to copy DNA irrespective of origin. This process occurs intracellularly and has evolved to function efficiently under crowded conditions, namely in an environment packed with macromolecules. However, current in vitro practice ignores this important biophysical parameter of life. In order to more closely emulate conditions of intracellular biochemistry in vitro we added inert macromolecules into reverse transcription (RT) and PCR. We show dramatic improvements in all parameters of RT-PCR including 8- to 10-fold greater sensitivity, enhanced polymerase processivity, higher specific amplicon yield, greater primer annealing and specificity, and enhanced DNA polymerase thermal stability. The faster and more efficient reaction kinetics was a consequence of the cumulative molecular and thermodynamic effects of the excluded volume effect created by macromolecular crowding.

  17. Selections of reality: applying Burke's dramatism to a harm reduction program.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Miller, Gale

    2014-09-01

    Kenneth Burke's dramatistic perspective is applied to accounts told by staff members working in methadone maintenance treatment centres in Copenhagen, Denmark. As a harm reduction strategy, methadone maintenance is designed to reduce the costs and dangers of chronic long-term drug use by providing substitution (methadone) treatment to users. Burke's dramatistic perspective calls attention to the recurring relationships among rhetorical elements within accounts of social reality. The elements form a pentad: scene, purpose, agent, agency and acts. Our analysis examines how the ideal of governmentality is constructed by staff members to justify and criticize the operations of the Copenhagen methadone maintenance program. For Burke, social criticism involves rearranging pentadic elements to produce new meanings and justify alternative actions. We discuss how Burke's perspective might be developed by sociologists as a critical dramatism of social policies and programs.

  18. Gorham-Stout Disease of the Skull Base With Hearing Loss: Dramatic Recovery and Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akifumi; Ozeki, Michio; Kuze, Bunya; Asano, Takahiko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We present a 6-year-old male with GSD involving the skull base who presented with recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, severe hearing loss, and facial palsy secondary to cerebellar herniation into the internal auditory canal. After 2 months of treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b (50 μg/week), his hearing recovered dramatically. Two years later, new bone formation appeared radiologically and IFN was switched to sirolimus. One year after the switch, CSF rhinorrhea disappeared. Antiangiogenic therapy might inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in osteolytic lesions and lead to new bone formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species

    PubMed Central

    Alström, Per; Jønsson, Knud A.; Fjeldså, Jon; Ödeen, Anders; Ericson, Per G. P.; Irestedt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has diverged mainly in plumage, which may be the result of selection for improved camouflage in its new arboreal niche, while selection pressures for other morphological changes have probably been weak owing to preadaptations for the novel niche. By contrast, we suggest that Amaurocichla's niche change has led to divergence in both structure and plumage. PMID:26064613

  20. Dramatic Response to Cisplatin Window Therapy in a Boy With Advanced Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Trizzino, Antonino; Ziino, Ottavio; Parafioriti, Antonina; Podda, Marta; Tropia, Serena; Luksch, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most common type of primary bone malignancy, and retains a high propensity to metastasize; the prognosis of patients with disseminated disease is very poor, with an event-free survival rate of <20%. Current multimodality treatment for ES consists of combined chemotherapy before and concurrent with surgery and local radiotherapy for the involved bone. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of bone tumors in children, but is not currently used in ES. We describe a child with multifocal ES, treated with a phase II trial including a single-drug window therapy, which displayed a dramatic response to 2 courses of cisplatin and had a favorable outcome. PMID:23892353

  1. Intractable chronic motor tics dramatically respond to Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pi-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2009-07-01

    Tics are characterized by involuntary, sudden, rapid, repetitive, nonrhythmic, stereotyped movements or phonic productions. Those who suffer from either motor or phonic tics, but not both, for more than 1 year are diagnosed with chronic tic disorder. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed for the treatment of tic disorder. Dopamine D2 receptor blockers and dopamine depletors are thought to be the most effective ones clinically. However, such treatments are suboptimal in terms of effectiveness and side effects, such as body weight gain and extrapyramidal symptoms. We report on a 13-year-old girl, with chronic motor tic disorder refractory to multiple anti-tic therapies, who showed dramatic improvement and remission after taking the crude leaf extract of Clerodendrum inerme (L) Gaertn. No side effects were observed during a follow-up of more than 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-tic effect of Clerodendrum inerme.

  2. Dramatic improvement of pyoderma gangrenosum with infliximab in a patient with PAPA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stichweh, Dorothee S; Punaro, Marilynn; Pascual, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Infliximab, a chimeric antitumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody (anti-TNF alpha), has been recently shown to have a beneficial effect on pyoderma gangrenosum associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with the syndromic triad of pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne, an autoinflammatory process caused by mutations in the CD2 binding protein-1 (CD2BP1) gene, can have severe pyoderma gangrenosum. We describe a 14-year-old patient with this syndrome who was unresponsive to multiple therapies. A dramatic improvement in his pyoderma gangrenosum was observed after one infusion of infliximab, and a second infusion led to its resolution. Our observation extends the therapeutic use of infliximab to this component of PAPA syndrome.

  3. Federal Support for Family Planning Clinics Associated with Dramatic Gains in Cervical Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Nikpay, Sayeh S

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, policymakers have successfully increased cervical cancer screening through federal and state public policies. However, the most dramatic gains in Pap smear use occurred in the 1960's and 70's, during the establishment of federal support for family planning clinics through the War on Poverty and Title X. This study estimated the effect of this support on cervical cancer screening, and quantified its role in dramatic increases in Pap smear use. Using a natural experiment in the timing and receipt of federal family planning grants, the screening behavior of women who did and did not have access to a federally funded family planning clinic were analyzed. Cross-sectional probability models of annual and lifetime Pap smear use using the 1970 National Fertility Survey were estimated and linked to administrative data on grant timing and receipt between 1964 and 1973. Federal support for family planning clinics was associated with a 7-percentage point increase in annual use (p < .01), and a 5-percentage point decrease in never use of the Pap smear (p < .001). Scaled by the fraction of women who used funded clinics, federal support for family planning was associated with a roughly 70% increase in Pap smear use. Estimates suggest that the establishment of federal support could explain as much as 15% of the national increase in Pap smear use between 1966 and 1973. Federal support for family planning played an important--and previously unacknowledged--role in promoting cervical cancer screening and investments in future health. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Revealing Rembrandt

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our results emphasized the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt's portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings. PMID:24795552

  5. Nitric oxide increases dramatically in air exhaled from lung regions with occluded vessels.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mondéjar, E; Hambraeus-Jonzon, K; Ronéus, A; Hedenstierna, G

    2003-03-01

    We observed dramatic changes in exhaled nitric oxide concentration (DeltaNOE) during wedge measurements, and hypothesised that occlusion and redistribution of pulmonary blood flow affects NOE. We inflated the balloon of the pulmonary artery catheter and measured NOE and central hemodynamics in closed chest anesthetised pigs (n = 11) ventilated with hyperoxic gas (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.5), before and during lung injury, and in open chest anesthetised pigs (n = 17) before and during left lower lobar (LLL) hypoxia (FIO2 0.05), and during hyperoxic (FIO2 0.8) ventilation of the other lung regions (HL). In the closed chest pigs NOE increased from 2.0 (0.9) to 3.4 (2.0) p.p.b. (P < 0.001) during wedge, and returned to 2.0 (1.0) p.p.b. when the balloon was deflated. The increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPaP) during wedge was small and insignificant (P > 0.07). When the balloon was inflated in the right pulmonary artery in the open chest pigs, the perfusion of the HL decreased from 2.57 (0.58) to 2.34 (0.55) l min(-1) (P < 0.001), and NOEHL increased from 2.5 (0.9) to 6.2 (3.2) p.p.b. (P < 0.001). The perfusion of the LLL increased from 0.33 (0.26) to 0.54 (0.34) l min(-1) (P < 0.001), and NOELLL decreased from 1.7 (0.6) to 1.5 (0.5) p.p.b. (P < 0.001). Neither lung injury nor LLL hypoxia had any influence on DeltaNOE (P > 0.07) during wedge. The correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.66 between changes in regional blood flow and DeltaNOE, and 0.37 between changes in MPaP and DeltaNOE. Nitric oxide concentration increases dramatically from lung regions with occluded vessels, whereas changes in MPaP have minor effects on NOE. This is an important fact to consider when comparing NOE within or between studies, and indicates a possible marker of diseases with occluded lung vessels.

  6. The Climate Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William

    1999-10-01

    El Niño, La Niña, global warming--terms that crop up frequently in current media coverage of anomalous weather conditions: a spring thaw in January in New York City...a snowstorm in Bakersfield, California...winterlike temperatures in Miami. Such phenomena as these and reports of devastating droughts, floods, and storms around the world bring home the fact of how deeply climate affects our daily lives--and of our inability to control the consequences of climatic events. Extraordinarily timely, The Climate Revealed explores the human-climate "relationship" in all its fascinating complexity. Packed with 250 beautiful, full-color photographs, the volume travels the globe to provide a detailed portrait of individual climate zones from the polar icecaps to the fiercest deserts. The expert and highly accessible text uncovers the essential elements--earth, air, fire and water--that make up the world's various climates. William Burroughs reveals the dramatic discoveries and techniques of historians and archaeologists in their search to understand climates of the past. In the book's conclusion he considers the future and presents every facet of the current environmental debate. With its detailed coverage of the past, present, and future, this marvelous work is essential reading for all those who want to understand one of the most critical facets of life, climate. William Burroughs is a well known and successful science author who has written four books on the weather including Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997), Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary (1992), and Watching the World's Weather (1991), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  7. Altering Antimalarial Drug Regimens May Dramatically Enhance and Restore Drug Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable concern that malaria parasites are starting to evolve resistance to the current generation of antimalarial drugs, the artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). We use pharmacological modeling to investigate changes in ACT effectiveness likely to occur if current regimens are extended from 3 to 5 days or, alternatively, given twice daily over 3 days. We show that the pharmacology of artemisinins allows both regimen changes to substantially increase the artemisinin killing rate. Malaria patients rarely contain more than 1012 parasites, while the standard dosing regimens allow approximately 1 in 1010 parasites to survive artemisinin treatment. Parasite survival falls dramatically, to around 1 in 1017 parasites if the dose is extended or split; theoretically, this increase in drug killing appears to be more than sufficient to restore failing ACT efficacy. One of the most widely used dosing regimens, artemether-lumefantrine, already successfully employs a twice-daily dosing regimen, and we argue that twice-daily dosing should be incorporated into all ACT regimen design considerations as a simple and effective way of ensuring the continued long-term effectiveness of ACTs. PMID:26239993

  8. Zeolite molecular sieves have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Nuno; Partridge, Johann; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2002-02-05

    Zeolite molecular sieves very commonly are used as in situ drying agents in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. They often affect enzyme behavior, and this has been interpreted in terms of altered hydration. Here, we show that zeolites can also have dramatic acid-base effects on enzymes in low water media, resulting from their cation-exchange ability. Initial rates of transesterification catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin were compared in supercritical ethane, hexane, and acetonitrile with water activity fixed by pre-equilibration. Addition of zeolite NaA (4 A powder) still caused remarkable rate enhancements (up to 20-fold), despite the separate control of hydration. In the presence of excess of an alternative solid-state acid-base buffer, however, zeolite addition had no effect. The more commonly used Merck molecular sieves (type 3 A beads) had similar but somewhat smaller effects. All zeolites have ion-exchange ability and can exchange H+ for cations such as Na+ and K+. These exchanges will tend to affect the protonation state of acidic groups in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. Zeolites pre-equilibrated in aqueous suspensions of varying pH-pNa gave very different enzyme activities. Their differing basicities were demonstrated directly by equilibration with an indicator dissolved in toluene. The potential of zeolites as acid-base buffers for low-water media is discussed, and their ability to overcome pH memory is demonstrated.

  9. Insights on dramatic radial fluctuations in track formation by energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sachan, Ritesh; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Yanwen; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Weber, William J.; Zarkadoula, Eva

    2016-06-02

    We discuss the insights on the unexpected dramatic radial variations in the ion tracks formed by energetic ion (2.3 GeV 208Pb) irradiation at a constant electronic energy-loss (~42 keV/nm) in pyrochlore structured Gd2TiZrO7. Though previous studies have shown track formation and average track diameter measurements, this work brings further clarity on why quantitative analysis of ion track formation in Gd2TixZr(1-x)O7 systems can be more complicated than the currently accepted behavior for ion tracks. The ion track profile is usually considered to be diametrically uniform at constant values of the electronic energy-loss. This study shows the diameter variations to be as large as ~40% within an extremely short incremental track length of ~20 nm. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that these fluctuations in diameter of amorphous core and overall track diameter are attributed to (i) the stochastic nature of inelastic energy loss along the track and (ii) the random substitution of Ti atoms by Zr atoms on the B-site in the pyrochlore lattice. Furthermore, the partial substitution of Ti by Zr increases the favorability of the defect-fluorite structure formation over amorphous phase stochastically, by introducing localized inhomogeneity in atomic structure, density and strain.

  10. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce.

    PubMed

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  11. Platinum and Palladium Overlayers Dramatically Enhance the Activity of Ruthenium Nanotubes for Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    St. John, Samuel; Atkinson, Robert W.; Unocic, Kinga A.; ...

    2015-10-18

    Templated vapor synthesis and thermal annealing were used to synthesize unsupported metallic Ru nanotubes with Pt or Pd overlayers. By controlling the elemental composition and thickness of these overlayers, we obtain nanostructures with very high alkaline hydrogen oxidation activity. For nanotubes with a nominal atomic composition of Ru0.90Pt0.10 display a surface-specific activity (2.4 mA/cm2) that is 35 times greater than that of pure Ru nanotubes at a 50 mV overpotential and 2.5 times greater than that of pure Pt nanotubes (0.98 mA/cm2). The surface-segregated structure also confers dramatically increased Pt utilization efficiency. We find a platinum-mass-specific activity of 1240 A/gPtmore » for the optimized nanotube versus 280 A/gPt for carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles and 109 A/gPt for monometallic Pt nanotubes. Here, we attribute the enhancement of both area- and platinum-mass-specific activity to the atomic-scale homeomorphism of the nanotube form factor with adlayer-modified polycrystals. Subsurface ligand and bifunctional effects previously observed on segregated, adlayer-modified polycrystals are translated to nanoscale catalysts.« less

  12. Platinum and Palladium Overlayers Dramatically Enhance the Activity of Ruthenium Nanotubes for Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, Samuel; Atkinson, Robert W.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Papandrew, Alexander B.

    2015-10-18

    Templated vapor synthesis and thermal annealing were used to synthesize unsupported metallic Ru nanotubes with Pt or Pd overlayers. By controlling the elemental composition and thickness of these overlayers, we obtain nanostructures with very high alkaline hydrogen oxidation activity. For nanotubes with a nominal atomic composition of Ru0.90Pt0.10 display a surface-specific activity (2.4 mA/cm2) that is 35 times greater than that of pure Ru nanotubes at a 50 mV overpotential and 2.5 times greater than that of pure Pt nanotubes (0.98 mA/cm2). The surface-segregated structure also confers dramatically increased Pt utilization efficiency. We find a platinum-mass-specific activity of 1240 A/gPt for the optimized nanotube versus 280 A/gPt for carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles and 109 A/gPt for monometallic Pt nanotubes. Here, we attribute the enhancement of both area- and platinum-mass-specific activity to the atomic-scale homeomorphism of the nanotube form factor with adlayer-modified polycrystals. Subsurface ligand and bifunctional effects previously observed on segregated, adlayer-modified polycrystals are translated to nanoscale catalysts.

  13. Living on the Edge: Parasite Prevalence Changes Dramatically across a Range Edge in an Invasive Gecko.

    PubMed

    Coates, Andrew; Barnett, Louise K; Hoskin, Conrad; Phillips, Ben L

    2017-02-01

    Species interactions can determine range limits, and parasitism is the most intimate of such interactions. Intriguingly, the very conditions on range edges likely change host-parasite dynamics in nontrivial ways. Range edges are often associated with clines in host density and with environmental transitions, both of which may affect parasite transmission. On advancing range edges, founder events and fitness/dispersal costs of parasitism may also cause parasites to be lost on range edges. Here we examine the prevalence of three species of parasite across the range edge of an invasive gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, in northeastern Australia. The gecko's range edge spans the urban-woodland interface at the edge of urban areas. Across this edge, gecko abundance shows a steep decline, being lower in the woodland. Two parasite species (a mite and a pentastome) are coevolved with H. frenatus, and these species become less prevalent as the geckos become less abundant. A third species of parasite (another pentastome) is native to Australia and has no coevolutionary history with H. frenatus. This species became more prevalent as the geckos become less abundant. These dramatic shifts in parasitism (occurring over 3.5 km) confirm that host-parasite dynamics can vary substantially across the range edge of this gecko host.

  14. A DRAMATICALLY REDUCED SIZE IN THE GANTRY DESIGN FOR THE PROTON-CARBON THERAPY.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC, D.; GUPTA, R.; PARKER, B.; KEIL, E.; SESSLER, A.M.

    2006-06-23

    Gantries in the proton/carbon cancer therapy machines represent the major cost and are of the largest size. This report explains a new way to the gantry design. The size and cost of the gantries are reduced and their use is simplified by using the fixed magnetic field. The ''new'' gantry is made of a very large momentum acceptance non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) quarter and half arc beam lines. The gantry is made of combined function magnets with a very strong focusing and small dispersion function. Additional magnets with a fast response are required to allow adjustments of the beam position for different energies at the beginning of the gantry. Additional strong focusing magnets following the gantry have also to be adjustable to provide required spot size and radial scanning above the patients. The fixed field combined function magnets could be made of small permanent magnets for the proton machine, or of the high temperature superconductors or superconductors for the carbon machine, reducing dramatically the size.

  15. Samuel Beckett's "Rockaby": dramatizing the plight of the solitary elderly at life's end.

    PubMed

    Groninger, Hunter; Childress, Marcia Day

    2007-01-01

    Irish playwright Samuel Beckett's spare, compact, and provocative play Rockaby (1981) is a study in old age, isolation, and disengagement from life. In it, an elderly woman rocks in a chair while the audience hears a distant voice remembering her lifelong search for human contact or communion. The play dramatizes the woman's intense physical and psychological isolation and the last sputterings of her impulse to narrate. Such radical isolation may be a necessary precondition for a person relinquishing the narrating that Beckett equates with being, and surrendering unto death. Despite its apparent simplicity, the play powerfully explores the nature of aging in contemporary society, quality-of-life issues for the frail, solitary elderly in our communities and health-care institutions, and how the elderly prepare for life's end in a death-denying culture. Rockaby is thus a text that can help clinicians and other caregivers appreciate the predicament of solitary elderly persons nearing life's end and better understand how we all must manage one day the lonely, self-abnegating yet also paradoxically self-assertive act of dying.

  16. Dramatic regulation of heparanase activity and angiogenesis gene expression in synovium from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Rachel W; Freeman, Craig; Yu, Di; Hindmarsh, Elizabeth J; Tymms, Kathleen E; Parish, Christopher R; Smith, Paul N

    2008-06-01

    Although heparanase is recognized as a proangiogenic factor, the involvement of heparanase in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. In this study, we assessed heparanase activity in synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA), and analyzed the expression of angiogenic pathway-focused genes in ST from RA and OA patients. SF and ST were obtained from the knees of patients with either RA or OA and from asymptomatic donors with no documented history of degenerative or inflammatory joint diseases. Heparanase activity was determined by an enzymatic assay using a radiolabeled substrate, and the presence of heparanase in ST was demonstrated by Western blotting. The expression of angiogenesis genes, including heparanase, in ST was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Heparanase activity was dramatically higher (>100-fold) in SF and ST from RA patients than in SF and ST from OA patients and asymptomatic donors. Active heparanase enzyme was detected and heparanase messenger RNA was up-regulated in ST from RA patients. We also found that angiogenesis gene expression was significantly regulated in RA synovium, and was correlated with heparanase activity. These findings are novel and contribute to our understanding of joint destruction in RA, suggesting that heparanase may be a reliable prognostic factor for RA progression and an attractive target for the treatment of RA.

  17. Dramatic reduction of chemical sputtering of graphite under intercalation of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, H.; Toyoda, H.; Sugai, H.

    2003-03-01

    In previous studies, in situ deposition of a lithium thin layer onto graphite was found to considerably suppress physical sputtering of graphite, owing to rapid diffusion of Li into graphite bulk (so-called intercalation). This paper reports that the Li intercalation dramatically reduces graphite chemical sputtering as well, once the Li-deposited surface is cleaned by hydrogen plasma. This is evidenced in a small-scale plasma experiment on the Li-deposited graphite in hydrogen glow, comparing with an ultra-high-vacuum beam experiment. In the latter experiment, energy-controlled H 2+ beam is irradiated on a Li-deposited graphite sample where methane yield is measured together with in situ surface analysis of graphite by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both the plasma experiment and the beam experiment showed similar temporal variations of methane yield after the hydrogen exposure of the Li-deposited graphite. Namely, the methane yield gradually decreases down to a negligible level compared with the pure graphite case. The XPS analysis of surface atoms (O, C, Li) suggests that the hydrogen plasma exposure gives rise to removal of Li-containing impurities on the graphite surface. As a consequence, the hydrogen glow conditioning results in an almost complete suppression of chemical erosion of graphite below 500 K.

  18. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Bullous Pemphigoid with Dramatic Response to Dapsone

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Maria Cristina; Corsello, Giovanni; Prinzi, Eugenia; Cimaz, Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 11 Final Diagnosis: Bullous pemphigoid in systemic lupus erythematosus Symptoms: Bullous lupus • photosensitive rash • synovitis Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Pharmacological treatment Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering disease, with relapses, isolated or associated with other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Joint manifestations rapidly respond to small or moderate doses of corticosteroids, whereas skin manifestations usually respond to antimalarial drugs. Case Report: We describe the clinical case of an 11-year-old girl with SLE. She showed bullous skin lesions with arthralgia, mild proteinuria, resolved after steroid treatment. At the tapering of her prednisone dose, the patient had new skin lesions requiring an increased dose of prednisone. She started dapsone at the dosage of 1 mg/kg/day, maintaining low dose prednisone; this treatment was successfully followed by the dramatic disappearance of skin lesions and limb pain. Conclusions: Bullous skin lesions can represent the first clinical presentation of pediatric SLE and could influence the treatment and the outcome of these patients. This case showed an atypical course as both skin manifestations and arthritis promptly and persistently resolved with dapsone without the use of high-dose glucocorticoids. Only a few cases of patients with SLE associated with bullous pemphigoid have been reported in the literature, and very few in the pediatric population. PMID:28352068

  19. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. PMID:27501943

  20. Response Assessment in Myeloma: Practical Manual on Consistent Reporting in an Era of Dramatic Therapeutic Advances.

    PubMed

    Garderet, Laurent; D'Souza, Anita; Jacobs, Paulette; van Biezen, Anja; Schönland, Stefan; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Morris, Curly; Hari, Parameswaran

    2017-03-08

    The understanding and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have dramatically improved in recent years. However, accurate assessment of the response of myeloma to therapy and its subsequent relapse remains a difficult task. Criteria have changed over time and new parameters have recently been incorporated to evaluate minimal residual disease status. We present a practical approach to assess response and relapse/progression in myeloma in the context of its treatment. A robust reporting schema is crucial to correctly evaluate any treatment protocol and compare results across trials. MM is a highly heterogeneous disease with multifarious manifestations. To assess the tumor load decline after treatment and its increase during relapse/progression, numerous parameters need to be taken into account. As our ability and the tools to measure low levels of disease have improved over time, so have the accepted definitions of response, most recently in August 2016. The goal of this article is to define, describe, and clarify the practical methodological aspects of disease evaluation in response to therapy and in progression or relapse. We expect this practical manual will help myeloma professionals and research workers in data collection for registries and databases and clinical trial reporting.

  1. Leaks can dramatically decrease FiO2 on home ventilators: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Goutorbe, Philippe; Daranda, Erwan; Asencio, Yves; Esnault, Pierre; Prunet, Bertrand; Bordes, Julien; Palmier, Bruno; Meaudre, Eric

    2013-07-21

    Long term oxygen therapy improves survival in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because pressure support ventilation with a home care ventilator is largely unsupervised, there is considerable risk of leakage occurring, which could affect delivered FiO2. We have therefore conducted a bench study in order to measure the effect of different levels of O2 supply and degrees of leakage on delivered FiO2. Ventilator tested: Legendair® (Airox™, Pau, France). Thirty-six measures were performed in each four ventilators with zero, 5 and 10 l.min-1 leakage and 1,2,4 and 8 l O2 flow. FiO2 decreased significantly with 5 l.min-1 leakage for all O2 flow rates, and with 10 l.min-1 at 4 and 8 l.min-1 O2. During application of NIV on home ventilators, leakage can dramatically decrease inspired FiO2 making it less effective. It is important to know the FiO2 dispensed when NIV is used for COPD at home. We would encourage industry to develop methods for FiO2 regulation Chronic use of NIV for COPD with controlled FiO2 or SpO2 requires further studys.

  2. Leaks can dramatically decrease FiO2 on home ventilators: a bench study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long term oxygen therapy improves survival in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because pressure support ventilation with a home care ventilator is largely unsupervised, there is considerable risk of leakage occurring, which could affect delivered FiO2. We have therefore conducted a bench study in order to measure the effect of different levels of O2 supply and degrees of leakage on delivered FiO2. Ventilator tested: Legendair® (Airox™, Pau, France). Thirty-six measures were performed in each four ventilators with zero, 5 and 10 l.min-1 leakage and 1,2,4 and 8 l O2 flow. Findings FiO2 decreased significantly with 5 l.min-1 leakage for all O2 flow rates, and with 10 l.min-1 at 4 and 8 l.min-1 O2. Conclusion During application of NIV on home ventilators, leakage can dramatically decrease inspired FiO2 making it less effective. It is important to know the FiO2 dispensed when NIV is used for COPD at home. We would encourage industry to develop methods for FiO2 regulation Chronic use of NIV for COPD with controlled FiO2 or SpO2 requires further studys. PMID:23870165

  3. Multi-Wavelength Analysis of the Quasar CTA102 during a Dramatic Outburst in 2016 December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Williamson, Karen E.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Smith, Paul S.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Lahteenmaki, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Abstract: The quasar CTA102 underwent a dramatic outburst from gamma-ray toradio wavelengths in late 2016. The gamma-ray emission at 0.1-200 GeV roseup to (12.1+-0.7)x10^{-6} phot/s/cm^2, with a significant flattening of the spectral index. The blazar reached an optical brightness level never observed previously, < 11 mag in R band, and an increase of the radio flux density at millimeter wavelengths with flattening of the radio spectrum was observed as well.We present analysis of multi-wavelength data during the event obtained at gamma-rays with the Fermi Large Area telescope, at X-rays provided by the NuStar X-ray telescope and Swift XRT and UVOT, in optical bands measured at different telescopes around the world along with polarimetric observations, and at mm-waves obtained at Metsahovi Radio Observatory and SubMillimeter Array, along with imaging of theparsec-scale jet of the quasar with the VLBA at 43 GHz. This research is funded in part by NASA through Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX14AQ58G and by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-1615796.

  4. Redirecting intracellular trafficking and the secretion pattern of FSH dramatically enhances ovarian function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huizhen; Larson, Melissa; Jablonka-Shariff, Albina; Pearl, Christopher A.; Miller, William L.; Conn, P. Michael; Boime, Irving; Kumar, T. Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted constitutively or in pulses, respectively, from pituitary gonadotropes in many vertebrates, and regulate ovarian function. The molecular basis for this evolutionarily conserved gonadotropin-specific secretion pattern is not understood. Here, we show that the carboxyterminal heptapeptide in LH is a gonadotropin-sorting determinant in vivo that directs pulsatile secretion. FSH containing this heptapeptide enters the regulated pathway in gonadotropes of transgenic mice, and is released in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, similar to LH. FSH released from the LH secretory pathway rescued ovarian defects in Fshb-null mice as efficiently as constitutively secreted FSH. Interestingly, the rerouted FSH enhanced ovarian follicle survival, caused a dramatic increase in number of ovulations, and prolonged female reproductive lifespan. Furthermore, the rerouted FSH vastly improved the in vivo fertilization competency of eggs, their subsequent development in vitro and when transplanted, the ability to produce offspring. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to fine-tune the target tissue responses by modifying the intracellular trafficking and secretory fate of a pituitary trophic hormone. The approach to interconvert the secretory fate of proteins in vivo has pathophysiological significance, and could explain the etiology of several hormone hyperstimulation and resistance syndromes. PMID:24706813

  5. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500–2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change. PMID:27524983

  6. Linkage engineering in hosts for dramatic efficiency enhancement of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaochao; Wei, Ying; Ding, Dongxue; Xu, Hui

    2015-05-18

    Higher triplet energy and balanced charge mobility is two key factors for high-efficiency host materials of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLED), which are integrated in a carbazole-diphenylene-fluorene hybrid FDPCz2 (9,9'-(4',4"-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(biphenyl-4',4-diyl))bis(9H-carbazole)) on the basis of indirect linkage strategy. Owing to rationally spatial allocation of conjugation blocking and extension for diphenylene linkages, FDPCz2 achieves both high triplet energy of 2.97 eV and favorable charge mobility by order of 6.3 × 10(-6) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Compared to conventional hosts and a short-conjugated analogue FPCz2 (9,9'-(4,4'-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene)) bis(9H-carbazole)), FDPCz2 dramatically elevated device efficiencies with peak values of 40.6 cd A(-1) and 20.2% for blue PhOLEDs.

  7. Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, V.; Verfaillie, D.; Berthier, E.; Menegoz, M.; Jomelli, V.; Kay, J. E.; Ducret, L.; Malbéteau, Y.; Brunstein, D.; Gallée, H.; Park, Y.-H.; Rinterknecht, V.

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers at southern sub-polar latitudes is particularly rapid and widespread. Akin to northern sub-polar latitudes, this retreat is generally assumed to be linked to warming. However, no long-term and well-constrained glacier modeling has ever been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Here, we model the Cook Ice Cap mass balance on the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Indian Ocean, 49°S) since the 1850s. We show that glacier wastage during the 2000s in the Kerguelen was among the most dramatic on Earth. We attribute 77% of the increasingly negative mass balance since the 1960s to atmospheric drying associated with a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm track. Because precipitation modeling is very challenging for the current generation of climate models over the study area, models incorrectly simulate the climate drivers behind the recent glacier wastage in the Kerguelen. This suggests that future glacier wastage projections should be considered cautiously where changes in atmospheric circulation are expected.

  8. Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Favier, V; Verfaillie, D; Berthier, E; Menegoz, M; Jomelli, V; Kay, J E; Ducret, L; Malbéteau, Y; Brunstein, D; Gallée, H; Park, Y-H; Rinterknecht, V

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers at southern sub-polar latitudes is particularly rapid and widespread. Akin to northern sub-polar latitudes, this retreat is generally assumed to be linked to warming. However, no long-term and well-constrained glacier modeling has ever been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Here, we model the Cook Ice Cap mass balance on the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Indian Ocean, 49°S) since the 1850s. We show that glacier wastage during the 2000s in the Kerguelen was among the most dramatic on Earth. We attribute 77% of the increasingly negative mass balance since the 1960s to atmospheric drying associated with a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm track. Because precipitation modeling is very challenging for the current generation of climate models over the study area, models incorrectly simulate the climate drivers behind the recent glacier wastage in the Kerguelen. This suggests that future glacier wastage projections should be considered cautiously where changes in atmospheric circulation are expected.

  9. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  10. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500-2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change.

  11. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  12. Dramatic neuronal rescue with prolonged selective head cooling after ischemia in fetal lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, A J; Gunn, T R; de Haan, H H; Williams, C E; Gluckman, P D

    1997-01-01

    Hypothermia has been proposed as a neuroprotective strategy. However, short-term cooling after hypoxia-ischemia is effective only if started immediately during resuscitation. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged head cooling, delayed into the late postinsult period, improves outcome from severe ischemia. Unanesthetized near term fetal sheep were subject to 30 min of cerebral ischemia. 90 min later they were randomized to either cooling (n = 9) or sham cooling (n = 7) for 72 h. Intrauterine cooling was induced by a coil around the fetal head, leading initially to a fall in extradural temperature of 5-10 degrees C, and a fall in esophageal temperature of 1.5-3 degrees C. Cooling was associated with mild transient systemic metabolic effects, but not with hypotension or altered fetal heart rate. Cerebral cooling reduced secondary cortical cytotoxic edema (P < 0.001). After 5 d of recovery there was greater residual electroencephalogram activity (-5.2+/-1.6 vs. -15.5+/-1.5 dB, P < 0.001) and a dramatic reduction in the extent of cortical infarction and neuronal loss in all regions assessed (e.g., 40 vs. 99% in the parasagittal cortex, P < 0.001). Selective head cooling, maintained throughout the secondary phase of injury, is noninvasive and safe and shows potential for improving neonatal outcome after perinatal asphyxia. PMID:9005993

  13. Dramatic Inhibition of Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization by Oral Administration of a Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Man Seong; Kwak, Nohoon; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Haruhiko; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Yamada, Eri; Fabbro, Doriano; Hofmann, Francesco; Wood, Jeanette M.; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The most common cause of new blindness in young patients is retinal neovascularization, and in the elderly is choroidal neovascularization. Therefore, there has been a great deal of attention focused on the development of new treatments for these disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated partial inhibition of retinal neovascularization in animal models using antagonists of vascular endothelial growth factor or other signaling molecules implicated in the angiogenesis cascade. These studies have indicated potential for drug treatment, but have left many questions unanswered. Is it possible to completely inhibit retinal neovascularization using drug treatment with a mode of administration that is feasible to use in patients? Do agents that inhibit retinal neovascularization have any effect on choroidal neovascularization? In this study, we demonstrate complete inhibition of retinal neovascularization in mice with oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy by oral administration of a partially selective kinase inhibitor that blocks several members of the protein kinase C family, along with vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The drug also blocks normal vascularization of the retina during development but has no identifiable adverse effects on mature retinal vessels. In addition, the kinase inhibitor causes dramatic inhibition of choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced murine model. These data provide proof of concept that pharmacological treatment is a viable approach for therapy of both retinal and choroidal neovascularization. PMID:10362799

  14. Dramatic Expression in Opera, and Its Implications for Conversational Agents. Chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    This article has discussed principles, techniques, and methods of dramatic portrayal in opera, and their application to the development of embodied conversational agents. Investigations such as this complement studies of natural human behavior, and offer insights as to how to make such behavior understandable and interesting when adapted for use by embodied conversational agents. However, one should use caution in applying such lessons. The unique characteristics of computer-based media are still being identified and explored. In any case, one must always be careful about applying principles blindly to any artistic form. Such principles are post-hoc analysis of the intuitive skill of great artists; this was as true in Aristotle's day as it is today. We should not let structural principles stand in the way of injecting creativity into the design of ECAs. Opera at its best possesses an element of magic that is difficult to describe, much less analytically reconstruct. We can only hope to achieve a similar result with conversational agents.

  15. Dramatic enhancement of superconductivity in single-crystalline nanowire arrays of Sn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wong, Chi Ho; Shen, Junying; Sze, Sin Ting; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Haijing; Dong, Yan; Xu, Hui; Yan, Zifeng; Li, Yingying; Hu, Xijun; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Sn is a classical superconductor on the border between type I and type II with critical temperature of 3.7 K. We show that its critical parameters can be dramatically increased if it is brought in the form of loosely bound bundles of thin nanowires. The specific heat displays a pronounced double phase transition at 3.7 K and 5.5 K, which we attribute to the inner ‘bulk’ contribution of the nanowires and to the surface contribution, respectively. The latter is visible only because of the large volume fraction of the surface layer in relation to the bulk volume. The upper transition coincides with the onset of the resistive transition, while zero resistance is gradually approached below the lower transition. In contrast to the low critical field Hc = 0.03 T of Sn in its bulk form, a magnetic field of more than 3 T is required to fully restore the normal state. PMID:27595646

  16. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    SciTech Connect

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-15

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., 'Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology'] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140 mm and maximum current from 3.5 to 5 MA. 700 to 800 ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3 TW radial total power, 100-300 kJ total yield, and 20-30 kJ energy above 1 keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima {approx}10 kA and 50 {mu}s. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse.

  17. Stabilizing Cloud Feedback Dramatically Expands the Habitable Zone of Tidally Locked Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2013-07-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phenomenon a stabilizing climate feedback. Substellar clouds also effectively block outgoing radiation from the surface, reducing or even completely reversing the thermal emission contrast between dayside and nightside. The presence of substellar water clouds and the resulting clement surface conditions will therefore be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Analyzing phorbol ester effects on gap junctional communication: a dramatic inhibition of assembly

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The effect of 12-O-tetradeconylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on gap junction assembly between Novikoff hepatoma cells was examined. Cells were dissociated with EDTA to single cells and then reaggregated to form new junctions. When TPA (25 nM) was added to the cells at the onset of the 60-min reaggregation, dye transfer was detected at only 0.6% of the cell-cell interfaces compared to 72% for the untreated control and 74% for 4-alpha TPA, an inactive isomer of TPA. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of reaggregated control cells showed interfaces containing an average of more than 600 aggregated intramembranous gap junction particles, while TPA-treated cells had no gap junctions. However, Lucifer yellow dye transfer between nondissociated cells via gap junctions was unaffected by 60 min of TPA treatment. Therefore, TPA dramatically inhibited gap junction assembly but did not alter channel gating nor enhance disassembly of preexisting gap junction structures. Short term TPA treatment (< 30 min) increased phosphorylation of the gap junction protein molecular weight of 43,000 (Cx43), but did not change the cellular level of Cx43. Cell surface biotinylation experiments suggested that TPA did not substantially reduce the plasma membrane concentration of Cx43. Therefore, the simple presence of Cx43 in the plasma membrane is not sufficient for gap junction assembly, and protein kinase C probably exerts an effect on assembly of gap junctions at the plasma membrane level. PMID:7806568

  20. Combination of clopidogrel and everolimus dramatically reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine aortic allografts.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Sebastian; Heim, Christian; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Hoffmann, Julia; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2010-09-01

    Our group has shown that platelet inhibition with clopidogrel, an antagonist of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets, reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of cyclosporin or everolimus with clopidogrel has a beneficial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched C57Bl/6 (H2(b)) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2(k)) recipients and mice received either clopidogrel alone (1 mg/kg/day) or in combination with cyclosporin (2 mg/kg/day) or everolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day). Grafts were analysed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation. In mice treated with clopidogrel alone, transplant arteriosclerosis was significantly reduced [intima proliferation 56 +/- 11% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Daily application of everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis compared with untreated controls [intima proliferation of 29 +/- 9% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Strikingly, combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis [intima proliferation: 11 +/- 8% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. By contrast, combination of cyclosporin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone showed no additive effect. These results demonstrate that combination of platelet- and mammalian target of Rapamycin-inhibition can dramatically reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  1. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and Accutase dramatically increase mouse embryonic stem cell derivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Chunchao; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been 30 yr since the development of derivation methods for mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, the biology of derivation of ES cells is poorly understood and the efficiency varies dramatically between cell lines. Recently, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the cell dissociation reagent Accutase were reported to significantly inhibit apoptosis of human ES cells during passaging. Therefore, in the current study, C57BL/6×129/Sv mouse blastocysts were used to evaluate the effect of the combination of the two reagents instead of using the conventional 129 line in mouse ES cell derivation. The data presented in this study suggests that the combination of Y-27632 and Accutase significantly increases the efficiency of mouse ES cell derivation; furthermore, no negative side effects were observed with Y-27632 and Accutase treatment. The newly established ES cell lines retain stable karyotype, surface markers expression, formed teratomas, and contributed to viable chimeras and germline transmission by tetraploid complementation assay. In addition, Y-27632 improved embryoid body formation of ES cells. During ES cell microinjection, Y-27632 prevented the formation of dissociation-induced cell blebs and facilitates the selection and the capture of intact cells. The methods presented in this study clearly demonstrate that inhibition of Rho kinase with Y-27632 and Accutase dissociation improve the derivation efficiently and reproducibility of mouse ES cell generation which is essential for reducing variability in the results obtained from different cell lines.

  2. mTOR Inhibition Elicits a Dramatic Response in PI3K-Dependent Colon Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Dustin A.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Nettekoven, Laura; Clipson, Linda; Albrecht, Dawn; Washington, Mary Kay; Sullivan, Ruth; Weichert, Jamey P.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is critical for multiple cellular functions including metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, and is the most commonly altered pathway in human cancers. Recently, we developed a novel mouse model of colon cancer in which tumors are initiated by a dominant active PI3K (FC PIK3ca*). The cancers in these mice are moderately differentiated invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas of the proximal colon that develop by 50 days of age. Interestingly, these cancers form without a benign intermediary or aberrant WNT signaling, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumorigenesis. Since these tumors are dependent upon the PI3K pathway, we investigated the potential for tumor response by the targeting of this pathway with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. A cohort of FC PIK3ca* mice were treated with rapamycin at a dose of 6 mg/kg/day or placebo for 14 days. FDG dual hybrid PET/CT imaging demonstrated a dramatic tumor response in the rapamycin arm and this was confirmed on necropsy. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment with rapamycin demonstrated increased pERK1/2 or persistent phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), indicating potential resistance mechanisms. This unique model will further our understanding of human disease and facilitate the development of therapeutics through pharmacologic screening and biomarker identification. PMID:23593290

  3. Fatal Haemoptysis Associated with Dramatic Response to Crizotinib in an ALK-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mussat, Elodie; Giraud, Violaine; Julie, Catherine; Chinet, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) rearrangement is a rare molecular feature in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC), and concerns mainly non- or light smokers, young patients, with adenocarcinoma histological type. These tumours are particularly sensitive to Alk-targeted therapies, as crizotinib. Crizotinib is usually well-tolerated. We report a case of fatal haemoptysis associated with dramatic response to crizotinib in a patient with an ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma. The patient presented a mediastinal invasion with tracheal involvement and compression of the right pulmonary artery. The initial evolution under crizotinib was good with tumour response. At 6 weeks of crizotinib the patient presented a massive haemoptysis with a tracheobronchial fistula and pneumomediastinum. She died of acute respiratory failure. Our case is the first to report a fatal effect of crizotinib associated with tumour necrosis and good tumour response on a massive mediastinal infiltration. Precautions are recommended with the use of crizotinib in proximal lung tumours with vascular invasion. PMID:27134984

  4. STABILIZING CLOUD FEEDBACK DRAMATICALLY EXPANDS THE HABITABLE ZONE OF TIDALLY LOCKED PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2013-07-10

    The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phenomenon a stabilizing climate feedback. Substellar clouds also effectively block outgoing radiation from the surface, reducing or even completely reversing the thermal emission contrast between dayside and nightside. The presence of substellar water clouds and the resulting clement surface conditions will therefore be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  5. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Marshall, N. Justin; Osorio, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence—that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light—which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display. PMID:21159676

  6. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER MS

    2007-12-05

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site.

  7. Lord Kelvin and the Age-of-the-Earth Debate: A Dramatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art; Teichmann, Jürgen

    This is a dramatization of a fictitious debate about the age of the earth that takes place in the Royal Institution, London, England, in the year 1872. The debate is among Sir William Thomson (later Kelvin), T.H. Huxley (Darwin's Bulldog), Sir Charles Lyell, and Hermann von Helmholtz. In 1862 Thomson published his celebrated and widely studied The Secular Cooling of the Earth that raised the post-Darwinian debate of the age of the earth above the level of popular controversy. He entered the debate with all the arrogance of a newly established science of the century, namely the recently drafted laws of thermodynamics. The debate is partly based on a lively exchange of comments and arguments that occurred between T.H. Huxley and William Thomson, starting in 1868, when Thomson addressed the Glasgow Geological Society. This long public discussion also involved the ideas and the work of geologist Charles Lyell and those of the celebrated German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz. The confrontation is between the unyielding physicists and the insecure biologists and geologists who required a much longer time for the age of the earth than the physicists were prepared to give them. However, the debate ends on a conciliatory note, suggesting that perhaps Sir William's storehouse of creation may contain a hereto undiscovered source of energy that is more bountiful than gravitational energy.

  8. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramatically lower than previously predicted

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  9. Dramatic variations in emergent wetland area in China's largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Chen, Jiyu

    2016-10-01

    Freshwater wetlands are important ecosystems experiencing rapid degradation around the world. As much as 64% of world's wetland area has been lost since 1900; the situation is even more serious in Asia, where land reclamation and anthropogenic modifications of rivers are increasing the rate of wetland disappearance. In this study, we provide a first complete estimation of daily Emergent Wetland Area (EWA) in Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, from 1955 to 2012. A wavelet analysis indicates a strong periodicity in the monthly EWA time series with two oscillations having a period of 12 and 60-72 months, respectively. A dramatic increase in mean annual EWA is detected since 2003, when the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) was completed, mainly due to the seasonal drying of 1078 km2 of wetlands in October. It is found that the timing of wetland emergence during the dry season has been anticipated of one month, from November to October, since the establishment of TGD. It is argued that a significant increase in wetland exposure and an observable shift in the seasonal timing of flooding and drying will seriously degrade the wetland system and threaten the endangered migratory birds that inhabit it unless effective countermeasures are implemented.

  10. Mammalian Brain Development is Accompanied by a Dramatic Increase in Bipolar DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming-an; Sun, Zhixiong; Wu, Xiaowei; Rajaram, Veena; Keimig, David; Lim, Jessica; Zhu, Hongxiao; Xie, Hehuang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism critical for tissue development and cell specification. Mammalian brains consist of many different types of cells with assumedly distinct DNA methylation profiles, and thus some genomic loci may demonstrate bipolar DNA methylation pattern, i.e. hypermethylated in one cell subset but hypomethylated in others. Currently, how extensive methylation patterns vary among brain cells is unknown and bipolar methylated genomic loci remain largely unexplored. In this study, we implemented a procedure to infer cell-subset specific methylated (CSM) loci from the methylomes of human and mouse frontal cortices at different developmental stages. With the genome-scale hairpin bisulfite sequencing approach, we demonstrated that the majority of CSM loci predicted likely resulted from the methylation differences among brain cells rather than from asymmetric DNA methylation between DNA double strands. Correlated with enhancer-associated histone modifications, putative CSM loci increased dramatically during early stages of brain development and were enriched for GWAS variants associated with neurological disorder-related diseases/traits. Altogether, this study provides a procedure to identify genomic regions showing methylation differences in a mixed cell population and our results suggest that a set of cis-regulatory elements are primed in early postnatal life whose functions may be compromised in human neurological disorders. PMID:27585862

  11. Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Favier, V.; Verfaillie, D.; Berthier, E.; Menegoz, M.; Jomelli, V.; Kay, J. E.; Ducret, L.; Malbéteau, Y.; Brunstein, D.; Gallée, H.; Park, Y.-H.; Rinterknecht, V.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers at southern sub-polar latitudes is particularly rapid and widespread. Akin to northern sub-polar latitudes, this retreat is generally assumed to be linked to warming. However, no long-term and well-constrained glacier modeling has ever been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Here, we model the Cook Ice Cap mass balance on the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Indian Ocean, 49°S) since the 1850s. We show that glacier wastage during the 2000s in the Kerguelen was among the most dramatic on Earth. We attribute 77% of the increasingly negative mass balance since the 1960s to atmospheric drying associated with a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm track. Because precipitation modeling is very challenging for the current generation of climate models over the study area, models incorrectly simulate the climate drivers behind the recent glacier wastage in the Kerguelen. This suggests that future glacier wastage projections should be considered cautiously where changes in atmospheric circulation are expected. PMID:27580801

  12. Patterns and Potential Drivers of Dramatic Changes in Tibetan Lakes, 1972–2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia. PMID:25372787

  13. Insights on dramatic radial fluctuations in track formation by energetic ions

    DOE PAGES

    Sachan, Ritesh; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina; ...

    2016-06-02

    We discuss the insights on the unexpected dramatic radial variations in the ion tracks formed by energetic ion (2.3 GeV 208Pb) irradiation at a constant electronic energy-loss (~42 keV/nm) in pyrochlore structured Gd2TiZrO7. Though previous studies have shown track formation and average track diameter measurements, this work brings further clarity on why quantitative analysis of ion track formation in Gd2TixZr(1-x)O7 systems can be more complicated than the currently accepted behavior for ion tracks. The ion track profile is usually considered to be diametrically uniform at constant values of the electronic energy-loss. This study shows the diameter variations to be asmore » large as ~40% within an extremely short incremental track length of ~20 nm. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that these fluctuations in diameter of amorphous core and overall track diameter are attributed to (i) the stochastic nature of inelastic energy loss along the track and (ii) the random substitution of Ti atoms by Zr atoms on the B-site in the pyrochlore lattice. Furthermore, the partial substitution of Ti by Zr increases the favorability of the defect-fluorite structure formation over amorphous phase stochastically, by introducing localized inhomogeneity in atomic structure, density and strain.« less

  14. Clinical simulation with dramatization: gains perceived by students and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Negri, Elaine Cristina; Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Pereira, Gerson Alves; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães Dos Santos; Pedersoli, César Eduardo

    2017-08-03

    to identify in the literature the gains health students and professionals perceive when using clinical simulation with dramatization resources. integrative literature review, using the method proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A search was undertaken in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online. 53 studies were analyzed, which complied with the established inclusion criteria. Among the different gains obtained, satisfaction, self-confidence, knowledge, empathy, realism, reduced level of anxiety, comfort, communication, motivation, capacity for reflection and critical thinking and teamwork stand out. the evidence demonstrates the great possibilities to use dramatization in the context of clinical simulation, with gains in the different health areas, as well as interprofessional gains. identificar na literatura quais os ganhos percebidos pelos estudantes e profissionais da área de saúde, utilizando-se da simulação clínica realizada com recursos da dramatização. revisão integrativa da literatura, com a metodologia proposta pelo Instituto Joanna Briggs (JBI), com busca nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online. foram analisados 53 estudos, que atenderam os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos. Entre os diversos ganhos obtidos, destaca-se a satisfação, autoconfiança, conhecimento, empatia, realismo, diminuição do nível de ansiedade, conforto, comunicação, motivação, capacidade de reflexão e de pensamento crítico e trabalho em equipe. as evidências demonstram a ampla possibilidade de uso da dramatização no contexto de

  15. Dramatic Decomposition Weakening of Simulated Faults in Carrara Marble at Seismic Slip-rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.; Hirose, T.; Ree, J.

    2005-12-01

    Evolution of fault-zone strength and its weakening mechanisms during an earthquake are critical for understanding of earthquake rupture process. We report dramatic weakening of dry simulated faults in Carrara marble at seismic slip-rates, with frictional coefficient as low as 0.04 (probably the lowest record as rock friction). Calcite decomposition was confirmed by in-situ CO2 detection and other methods and the weakening may require new weakening mechanisms other than currently suggested ones such as frictional melting, thermal pressurization and silica gel formation. We conducted rotary-shear friction experiments on Carrara marble at slip-rates (V) of 0.09-1.24 m/s and normal stresses (σn) of 2.5-13.4 MPa. For preventing a thermal fracturing and applying a high normal load, we used solid cylindrical specimens jacketed with aluminum tubes. Narrow gap was left between the two aluminum tubes to avoid metal-to-metal contact. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (1) Slip weakening occurs in all experiments except for the runs at the lowest V (0.09 m/s); (2) Steady-state friction coefficient (μss) decreases as slip-rate and normal load increase; (3) At the highest V (1.13-1.24 m/s) and σn = 7.3 MPa, the average friction coefficient of initial peak friction (μp) is 0.61 (± 0.02), but the average μss is 0.04! (± 0.01) which is much lower than μp; (4) Decrease in average temperature of sliding surfaces corresponds to increase in friction, and strength recovery occurs very rapidly and completely upon cooling of specimens; (5) XRD and EPMA data show that the gouge for the specimens at V > 0.09 m/s is composed of calcite, lime (CaO) and/or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2); (6) CO2 gas was detected with sensors during the weakening; (7) Decomposed calcite forms a fault zone consisting of ultrafine-grained gouge, but no melt or amorphous material was identified by optical microscopy or XRD analysis. Calcite decomposition clearly indicates that temperature in the fault

  16. Dramatic decrease in muscular fitness in the Czech schoolchildren over the Last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Dana; Langmajerová, Jana; Sedláček, Pavel; Dvořáková, Jana; Hirschner, Tomáš; Weber, Zdeněk; Müller, Luděk; Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity had already reached epidemic, becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the current level and a nearly three decades' trend of muscular fitness (MF) and the nutritional state of Czech children. In 2013, cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in schoolchildren with examination of the anthropometric characteristics and measured MF using a UNIFIT test, which normative for MF categories was given as results of national monitoring data collected in 1987. In total 896 current schoolchildren (472 aged 8-9 years and 424 aged 12-13 years) were examined from selected children through stratified sampling from the Czech Republic. Against 31% of children from 1986 there were 74% of current children classified as "poor" or "below normal" in the MF category (p<0.001). MF was inversely associated with BMI. Poor posture was diagnosed in 24% of children, more frequently in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) children in comparison to normal body weight children (p<0.001). In comparison to 10% of OW and OB children in 1991, using these cut-off points for body mass index references, the current prevalence of OW and OB doubled (19.8%). Current Czech schoolchildren showed a doubled prevalence of OW and OB during the last two decades and simultaneously during nearly three decades there were more than doubled prevalence of "poor" or "under normal" MF of children, with overall dramatic decrease of MF in current schoolchildren. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  17. Intracellular Ca2+ buffers can dramatically affect Ca2+ conductances in hair cells.

    PubMed

    Martini, Marta; Rispoli, Giorgio; Farinelli, Federica; Fesce, Riccardo; Rossi, Maria Lisa

    2004-09-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous Ca(2+) buffers on Ca(2+) current kinetics have been investigated by patch clamp in hair cells mechanically isolated from frog semicircular canals. This preparation displays at least three different Ca(2+) channel types: transient currents flow through a drug-resistant channel ("R1"), while non-inactivating channels sustain a steady, plateau current comprised of a large L component and a small drug-resistant fraction ("R2"). In the perforated-patch condition a large and stable Ca(2+) current was recorded, with all three components. In whole-cell, a buffer-free pipette solution did not prevent a complete Ca(2+) response. The size of the transient and plateau current fractions were greatly reduced, but the ratio between the two fractions, as well as the activation, inactivation and deactivation kinetics, were substantially unmodified. Current amplitude partially recovered with 5 mM EGTA in the pipette solution. With 50 mM EGTA all the kinetic parameters were slowed down and the transient component, but not the plateau component, markedly increased in size. Response kinetics slowed down even more with 30 mM Cs-BAPTA and the Ca(2+) waveform was substantially modified. The transient component was very large and inactivated slowly; the remaining very small plateau fraction deactivated along a slow, single exponential time. Under this condition nifedipine (10 microM) produced a great reduction of the transient current, leaving plateau and deactivation phase unaltered. This suggests that only R2 channels were still active at the end of the test and that the minor remaining transient component flowed through slowly but completely inactivating R1 channels. These results confirm the presence of several channel types in semicircular canal receptors, at difference with cochlear hair cells, and highlight a dramatic alteration of L-type channel behavior when intracellular Ca(2+) buffers are sufficiently concentrated and fast to interfere

  18. Dramatic reduction of dimensionality in large biochemical networks owing to strong pair correlations

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Michael; Mukherjee, Sayak; Jayaprakash, Ciriyam; Das, Jayajit

    2012-01-01

    Large multi-dimensionality of high-throughput datasets pertaining to cell signalling and gene regulation renders it difficult to extract mechanisms underlying the complex kinetics involving various biochemical compounds (e.g. proteins and lipids). Data-driven models often circumvent this difficulty by using pair correlations of the protein expression levels to produce a small number (fewer than 10) of principal components, each a linear combination of the concentrations, to successfully model how cells respond to different stimuli. However, it is not understood if this reduction is specific to a particular biological system or to nature of the stimuli used in these experiments. We study temporal changes in pair correlations, described by the covariance matrix, between concentrations of different molecular species that evolve following deterministic mass-action kinetics in large biologically relevant reaction networks and show that this dramatic reduction of dimensions (from hundreds to less than five) arises from the strong correlations between different species at any time and is insensitive to the form of the nonlinear interactions, network architecture, and to a wide range of values of rate constants and concentrations. We relate temporal changes in the eigenvalue spectrum of the covariance matrix to low-dimensional, local changes in directions of the system trajectory embedded in much larger dimensions using elementary differential geometry. We illustrate how to extract biologically relevant insights such as identifying significant timescales and groups of correlated chemical species from our analysis. Our work provides for the first time, to our knowledge, a theoretical underpinning for the successful experimental analysis and points to a way to extract mechanisms from large-scale high-throughput datasets. PMID:22378749

  19. Chemical modification of lysine residues in lysozyme may dramatically influence its amyloid fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2010-04-01

    Studies on the aggregation of mutant proteins have provided new insights into the genetics of amyloid diseases and the role of the net charge of the protein on the rate, extent, and type of aggregate formation. In the present work, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was employed as the model protein. Acetylation and (separately) citraconylation were employed to neutralize the charge on lysine residues. Acetylation of the lysine residues promoted amyloid formation, resulting in more pronounced fibrils and a dramatic decline in the nucleation time. In contrast, citraconylation produced the opposite effect. In both cases, native secondary and tertiary structures appeared to be retained. Studies on the effect of pH on aggregation suggested greater possibilities for amorphous aggregate formation rather than fibrillation at pH values closer to neutrality, in which the protein is known to take up a conformation more similar to its native form. This is in accord with reports in the literature suggesting that formation of amorphous aggregates is more favored under relatively more native conditions. pH 5 provided a critical environment in which a mixture of amorphous and fibrillar structures were observed. Use of Tango and Aggrescan software which describe aggregation tendencies of different parts of a protein structure suggested critical importance of some of the lysine residues in the aggregation process. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of the net charge in control of protein-protein interactions leading to aggregate formation and possible specific roles of lysine residues 96 and 97. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  1. Dramatic changes in Fis levels upon nutrient upshift in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, C A; Osuna, R; Ferguson, K C; Johnson, R C

    1992-01-01

    Fis is a small basic DNA-binding protein from Escherichia coli that was identified because of its role in site-specific DNA recombination reactions. Recent evidence indicates that Fis also participates in essential cell processes such as rRNA and tRNA transcription and chromosomal DNA replication. In this report, we show that Fis levels vary dramatically during the course of cell growth and in response to changing environmental conditions. When stationary-phase cells are subcultured into a rich medium, Fis levels increase from less than 100 to over 50,000 copies per cell prior to the first cell division. As cells enter exponential growth, nascent synthesis is largely shut off, and intracellular Fis levels decrease as a function of cell division. Fis synthesis also transiently increases when exponentially growing cells are shifted to a richer medium. The magnitude of the peak of Fis synthesis appears to reflect the extent of the nutritional upshift. fis mRNA levels closely resemble the protein expression pattern, suggesting that regulation occurs largely at the transcriptional level. Two RNA polymerase-binding sites and at least six high-affinity Fis-binding sites are present in the fis promoter region. We show that expression of the fis operon is negatively regulated by Fis in vivo and that purified Fis can prevent stable complex formation by RNA polymerase at the fis promoter in vitro. However, autoregulation only partially accounts for the expression pattern of Fis. We suggest that the fluctuations in Fis levels may serve as an early signal of a nutritional upshift and may be important in the physiological roles Fis plays in the cell. Images PMID:1459953

  2. A Dramatic Increase in Tongue Tie-Related Articles: A 67 Years Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bin-Nun, Alona; Kasirer, Yair M; Mimouni, Francis B

    2017-09-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia articles are recorded in the Medline since 1949. To study trends in yearly number of tongue tie or ankyloglossia publications. Medline search engine was used to determine the yearly number of published consensus statements from 1949 to 2016. Keywords of tongue tie OR ankyloglossia OR frenotomy OR frenulotomy were used for the search. Articles were classified as case reports (or series), reviews, editorials (or opinions), cohort studies, clinical trials (nonrandomized), randomized controlled trials (RCT), and systematic reviews (SR). Linear or polynomial regression was used to determine trends. We also systematically summarized all RCTs published to date. The total number of yearly published articles increased in a cubic fashion (r(2) = 82.6%, p < 0.0001) over time (0-7 per year from 1949 to 1989, and up to 27-44 in the last 5 years). In terms of strength of evidence hierarchy, most articles belonged to low hierarchy categories (case reports 37.9%, reviews 15.4%, and editorials/opinions 13.4%), with only 8 RCTs and 10 SRs (all of them published during the last 10 years of the study period). The yearly number of tongue tie or ankyloglossia-related articles has increased dramatically in past few years. Most articles bring little evidence, but the past few years have witnessed publication of few RCTs and SRs. If this trend continues, much more solid evidence should accumulate about diagnosis and management of tongue tie, as it relates to breastfeeding and other outcomes.

  3. Dramatic Differences in the Roles in Lipid Metabolism Of Two Isoforms of Diacylglycerol Kinase†

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Stephen B.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Armstrong, Michelle D.; Myers, David S.; Lubarda, Jovana; Shulga, Yulia V.; Topham, Matthew K.; Brown, H. Alex; Epand, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid species change for SV40 transformed fibroblasts from wild-type or from diacylglycerol kinase-ε (DGKε) or diacylglycerol kinase-α (DGKα) knock out mice, were determined for glycerophospholipids, poly-phosphatidylinositides (GPInsPn), and diacylglycerol (DAG) using direct infusion mass spectrometry. Dramatic differences in arachidonate (20:4 fatty acid)-containing lipids were observed for multiple classes of glycerophospholipids and polyphosphatidylinositides between wild-type and DGKε knock out cells. However, no difference was observed in either the amount or the acyl chain composition of DAG between DGKε knock out and wild-type cells, suggesting that DGKε catalyzed the phosphorylation of a minor fraction of the DAG in these cells. The differences in arachidonate content between the two cell lines were greatest for the GPInsPn lipids and least for DAG. These findings indicate that DGKε plays a significant role in determining the enrichment of GPInsPn with 20:4 and that there is a pathway for the selective translocation of arachidonoyl-phosphatidic acid from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, no substantial difference was observed in the acyl chain composition of any class of glycerophospholipid or diacylglycerol between lipid extracts from fibroblasts from wild-type mice or from DGKα knock out mice. However, the cells from the DGKα knock out mice had a higher concentration of DAG, consistent with the lack of down regulation of the major fraction of DAG by DGKα, in contrast with DGKε that is primarily responsible for enrichment of GPInsPn with arachidonoyl acyl chains. PMID:18702510

  4. Dramatic effects of a new antimicrobial stewardship program in a rural community hospital.

    PubMed

    Libertin, Claudia R; Watson, Stephanie H; Tillett, William L; Peterson, Joy H

    2017-09-01

    New Joint Commission antimicrobial stewardship requirements took effect on January 1, 2017, promoted as a central strategy for coping with the emerging problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile infection. Our objective was to measure the effects of a new antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in a rural community hospital with no prior ASP, in the context of having a new infectious disease specialist on staff. An ASP team was formed to implement a prospective audit with health care provider feedback and targeting 12 antimicrobial agents in a rural hospital in Georgia. An educational grand rounds lecture series was provided before implementation of the ASP to all prescribers. After implementation, algorithms to aid the selection of empirical antibiotics for specific infectious disease syndromes based on local antibiograms were provided to prescribers to improve this selection. Rates of C difficile infections, total targeted antimicrobial costs, and drug utilization rates were calculated for 1 year pre-ASP implementation (2013) and 1 year post-ASP implementation (October 2014-December 2015). The patient safety metric of C difficile infections decreased from 3.35 cases per 1,000 occupied bed days (OBDs) in 2013 to 1.35 cases per 1,000 OBDs in 2015. Total targeted antimicrobial costs decreased 50% from $16.93 per patient day in 2013 to $8.44 per patient day in 2015. Overall antimicrobial use decreased 10% from before the ASP initiative to 1 year after it. Annualized savings were $280,000 in 1 year, based on drug savings only. Judicious use of antimicrobials and resources can improve a patient safety metric and decrease costs dramatically in rural institutions where the average hospital census is <100 patients per day. The savings would allow the institutions to spend better while improving the use of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. On the Dramatic Spin-up/Spin-Down Torque Reversals in Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Finger, Mark H.; Koh, Danny T.; Prince, Thomas A.; Rubin, Bradley C.; Scott, D. Mathew; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    Dramatic torque reversals between spin-up and spin-down have been observed in half of the persistent X-ray pulsars monitored by the Burst and Transient Space Experiment (BATSE) all-sky monitor on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Theoretical models developed to explain early pulsar timing data can explain spin-down torques via a disk-magnetosphere interaction if the star nearly corotates with the inner accretion disk. To produce the observed BATSE torque reversals, however, these equilibrium models require the disk to alternate between two mass accretion rates, with M+/- producing accretion torques of similar magnitude but always of opposite sign. Moreover, in at least one pulsar (GX 1+4) undergoing secular spin-down, the neutron star spins down faster during brief (approximately 20 day) hard X-ray flares-this is opposite the correlation expected from standard theory, assuming that BATSE pulsed flux increases with mass accretion rate. The 10 day to 10 yr intervals between torque reversals in these systems are much longer than any characteristic magnetic or viscous timescale near the inner disk boundary and are more suggestive of a global disk phenomenon. We discuss possible explanations of the observed torque behavior. Despite the preferred sense of rotation defined by the binary orbit, the BATSE observations are surprisingly consistent with an earlier suggestion for GX 1+4: the disks in these systems somehow alternate between episodes of prograde and retrograde rotation. We are unaware of any mechanism that could produce a stable retrograde disk in a binary undergoing Roche lobe overflow, but such flip-flop behavior does occur in numerical simulations of wind-fed systems. One possibility is that the disks in some of these binaries are fed by an X-ray-excited wind.

  6. Dramatic recovery in acute ischemic stroke is associated with arterial recanalization grade and speed.

    PubMed

    Mazighi, Mikael; Meseguer, Elena; Labreuche, Julien; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Lavallée, Philippa C; Cabrejo, Lucie; Guidoux, Céline; Lapergue, Bertrand; Klein, Isabelle F; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Desilles, Jean-Philippe; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Amarenco, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Dramatic recovery (DR) is a predictor of stroke outcome among others. However, after successful recanalization, systematic favorable outcome is not the rule. We sought to analyze the impact of recanalization on DR in patients with acute ischemic stroke eligible for any revascularization strategies (either intravenous or endovascular). We analyzed data collected between April 2007 and May 2011 in our prospective clinical registry. All patients with acute ischemic stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≥10 at admission and an identification of arterial status before treatment were included. DR was defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale≤3 at 24 hours or a decrease of ≥10 points within 24 hours. DR occurred in 75 of 255 patients with acute ischemic stroke (29.4%). Patients with persistent occlusion had a low DR rate (11.1%) than those with no documented occlusion (36.5%) and those with occlusion followed by recanalization (35.3%; both P<0.001). Among patients with recanalization monitored by angiography, DR was higher among patients with complete recanalization than among those with partial recanalization (46.8% versus 14.3%; P<0.001) and increased with tertiles of time to recanalization (Ptrend=0.002). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, grade and time to recanalization appeared independently associated with DR; the adjusted ORs were 4.17 (95% CI, 1.61-10.77) for complete recanalization and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.48) for each 30-minute time decrease. Patients with versus without DR more frequently had modified Rankin Scale≤1 (67.6% versus 9.0%; P<0.001) and less frequently had hemorrhage (17.3% versus 33.9%; P=0.024). DR is strongly associated with favorable clinical outcome and is dependent on complete recanalization and time to recanalization.

  7. Learning to Lead against the Grain: Dramatizing the Emotional Toll of Teacher Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Jerome; Kusanovich, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous research on teacher leadership over the last decade has revealed both the prevalence of and the imperatives for a model teaching force that can actively participate in school improvement (Harrison & Killion, 2007; Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2001; Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). The highly participative teacher leader paradigm is so…

  8. Learning to Lead against the Grain: Dramatizing the Emotional Toll of Teacher Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Jerome; Kusanovich, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous research on teacher leadership over the last decade has revealed both the prevalence of and the imperatives for a model teaching force that can actively participate in school improvement (Harrison & Killion, 2007; Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2001; Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). The highly participative teacher leader paradigm is so…

  9. Dramatic mica porphyroblast development history revealed by joint metamorphic and chronological constraints, and implications on kinematics of the active Taiwan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T.; Lo, C. H.; Chan, Y. C.; Lu, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Mica porphyroblasts, a common metamorphic microstructure, are analyzed in the slate belt of northern Taiwan where large fish-like growths are found within a meta-pyroclastics. A complete rock time-temperature history is deduced from formation/deposition by zircon U-Pb dating, peak metamorphic temperature by Raman spectrometry of carbonaceous materials (RSCM), exhumation by apatite fission track, and growth history by in-situ 40Ar/39Ar laser microprobe dating. directly on muscovite and corrensite fibers of the mm-scale mica porphyroblasts grown on a pressure-solution seam. As the peak state and the porphyroblast formation condition ( 250°C) remained far below the closure temperature of the K-Ar radioisotope system in muscovite, and the absence of muscovite in the mafic protolith, the Ar-Ar ages document the growth of the mica porphyroblast fabrics. The area mapping of the Ar-Ar ages across the porphyroblasts suggests that syntaxial crack-seal following tensile micro-boudinage was chiefly responsible for the development of the fish-like microstructures, and the host rock underwent continuous deformation during the earlier two-thirds of the Taiwan Orogeny.

  10. Dramatic improvement of the solubility of pseudolaric acid B by cyclodextrin complexation: preparation, characterization and validation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Liandi; Liu, Ruihao; Guo, Tao; Wang, Manli; Liao, Zuhua; Wu, Li; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Deling; Zhang, Jiwen

    2015-02-20

    As one of the most important technologies to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, the solubilization effects of cyclodextrins (CDs) complexation are, on occasions, not as large as expected, which tends to detract from the wider application of CDs. In this study, a dramatic improvement of the solubility of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) by CDs has been found with a 600 fold increase by HP-β-CD complexation. In addition, the solubility enhancement of PAB by various CDs, including α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, HP-β-CD and SBE-β-CD was investigated by phase solubility studies. The inclusion complex of PAB/HP-β-CD was prepared by different methods and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) together with molecular simulation. The results indicated that the solubility of PAB was increased to 15.78mgmL(-1) in the presence of 30% HP-β-CD, which is a 600 fold increase compared with that in pure water. And the chemical stability of PAB in PBS (pH 7.4) can be enhanced. The results of DSC and XRD showed the absence of crystallinity in the PAB/HP-β-CD inclusion complex prepared by the saturated water solution method. The results of (1)H NMR together with molecular simulation indicated the conjugated diene side-chain of PAB was included into the cavity of HP-β-CD, with the free energy of -20.34±4.69kJmol(-1). While the enzymatic degradation site of the carboxyl polar bond is located in the hydrophilic outer of HP-β-CD resulted in no significant difference for the enzymatic degradation rate between PAB and PAB/HP-β-CD complexes in rat plasma. In summary, the PAB/HP-β-CD inclusion complex prepared in this study can greatly improve the solubility and chemical stability of PAB, which will result in the in vivo administration of PAB as a liquid solution.

  11. Intestinal Calcium Absorption Decreases Dramatically After Gastric Bypass Surgery Despite Optimization of Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Anne L; Weaver, Connie M; Black, Dennis M; Wheeler, Amber L; Chang, Hanling; Szefc, Gina V; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Carter, Jonathan T; Posselt, Andrew M; Shoback, Dolores M; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has negative effects on bone, mediated in part by effects on nutrient absorption. Not only can RYGB result in vitamin D malabsorption, but the bypassed duodenum and proximal jejunum are also the predominant sites of active, transcellular, 1,25(OH)2D-mediated calcium (Ca) uptake. However, Ca absorption occurs throughout the intestine, and those who undergo RYGB might maintain sufficient Ca absorption, particularly if vitamin D status and Ca intake are robust. We determined the effects of RYGB on intestinal fractional Ca absorption (FCA) while maintaining ample 25OHD levels (goal ≥30 ng/mL) and Ca intake (1200 mg daily) in a prospective cohort of 33 obese adults (BMI 44.7 ± 7.4 kg/m2). FCA was measured preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively with a dual stable isotope method. Other measures included calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and BMD by DXA and QCT. Mean 6-month weight loss was 32.5 ± 8.4 kg (25.8% ± 5.2% of preoperative weight). FCA decreased from 32.7% ± 14.0% preoperatively to 6.9% ± 3.8% postoperatively (p < 0.0001), despite median (interquartile range) 25OHD levels of 41.0 (33.1 to 48.5) and 36.5 (28.8 to 40.4) ng/mL, respectively. Consistent with the FCA decline, 24-hour urinary Ca decreased, PTH increased, and 1,25(OH)2D increased (p ≤ 0.02). Bone turnover markers increased markedly, areal BMD decreased at the proximal femur, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine (p < 0.001). Those with lower postoperative FCA had greater increases in serum CTx (ρ = −0.43, p = 0.01). Declines in FCA and BMD were not correlated over the 6 months. In conclusion, FCA decreased dramatically after RYGB, even with most 25OHD levels ≥30 ng/mL and with recommended Ca intake. RYGB patients may need high Ca intake to prevent perturbations in Ca homeostasis, although the approach to Ca supplementation needs further study. Decline in FCA could contribute to the decline in BMD after RYGB, and strategies to

  12. Non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by dramatic changes in phospholipid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Eyra; Meister, Michael; Muley, Thomas; Fieuws, Steffen; Bordel, Sergio; Derua, Rita; Spraggins, Jeffrey; Van de Plas, Raf; Dehairs, Jonas; Wouters, Jens; Bagadi, Muralidhararao; Dienemann, Hendrik; Thomas, Michael; Schnabel, Philipp A; Caprioli, Richard M; Waelkens, Etienne; Swinnen, Johannes V

    2015-01-01

    of phospholipid profiles uncovered dramatic differences between NSCLC and normal lung tissue. The differences were confirmed via 2D-imaging lipidomics in tissue sections. Lipid markers capable of discriminating between tumor and normal tissue and between different NSCLC subtypes were identified. The observed alterations in NSCLC phospholipid profiles may be biologically significant. PMID:25784292

  13. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  14. Correcting Inadequate Model Snow Process Descriptions Dramatically Improves Mountain Hydrology Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Fang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The vast effort in hydrology devoted to parameter calibration as a means to improve model performance assumes that the models concerned are not fundamentally wrong. By focussing on finding optimal parameter sets and ascribing poor model performance to parameter or data uncertainty, these efforts may fail to consider the need to improve models with more intelligent descriptions of hydrological processes. To test this hypothesis, a flexible physically based hydrological model including a full suite of snow hydrology processes as well as warm season, hillslope and groundwater hydrology was applied to Marmot Creek Research Basin, Canadian Rocky Mountains where excellent driving meteorology and basin biophysical descriptions exist. Model parameters were set from values found in the basin or from similar environments; no parameters were calibrated. The model was tested against snow surveys and streamflow observations. The model used algorithms that describe snow redistribution, sublimation and forest canopy effects on snowmelt and evaporative processes that are rarely implemented in hydrological models. To investigate the contribution of these processes to model predictive capability, the model was "falsified" by deleting parameterisations for forest canopy snow mass and energy, blowing snow, intercepted rain evaporation, and sublimation. Model falsification by ignoring forest canopy processes contributed to a large increase in SWE errors for forested portions of the research basin with RMSE increasing from 19 to 55 mm and mean bias (MB) increasing from 0.004 to 0.62. In the alpine tundra portion, removing blowing processes resulted in an increase in model SWE MB from 0.04 to 2.55 on north-facing slopes and -0.006 to -0.48 on south-facing slopes. Eliminating these algorithms degraded streamflow prediction with the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency dropping from 0.58 to 0.22 and MB increasing from 0.01 to 0.09. These results show dramatic model improvements by including snow

  15. Intestinal Calcium Absorption Decreases Dramatically After Gastric Bypass Surgery Despite Optimization of Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Anne L; Weaver, Connie M; Black, Dennis M; Wheeler, Amber L; Chang, Hanling; Szefc, Gina V; Stewart, Lygia; Rogers, Stanley J; Carter, Jonathan T; Posselt, Andrew M; Shoback, Dolores M; Sellmeyer, Deborah E

    2015-08-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has negative effects on bone, mediated in part by effects on nutrient absorption. Not only can RYGB result in vitamin D malabsorption, but the bypassed duodenum and proximal jejunum are also the predominant sites of active, transcellular, 1,25(OH)2 D-mediated calcium (Ca) uptake. However, Ca absorption occurs throughout the intestine, and those who undergo RYGB might maintain sufficient Ca absorption, particularly if vitamin D status and Ca intake are robust. We determined the effects of RYGB on intestinal fractional Ca absorption (FCA) while maintaining ample 25OHD levels (goal ≥30 ng/mL) and Ca intake (1200 mg daily) in a prospective cohort of 33 obese adults (BMI 44.7 ± 7.4 kg/m(2)). FCA was measured preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively with a dual stable isotope method. Other measures included calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and BMD by DXA and QCT. Mean 6-month weight loss was 32.5 ± 8.4 kg (25.8% ± 5.2% of preoperative weight). FCA decreased from 32.7% ± 14.0% preoperatively to 6.9% ± 3.8% postoperatively (p < 0.0001), despite median (interquartile range) 25OHD levels of 41.0 (33.1 to 48.5) and 36.5 (28.8 to 40.4) ng/mL, respectively. Consistent with the FCA decline, 24-hour urinary Ca decreased, PTH increased, and 1,25(OH)2 D increased (p ≤ 0.02). Bone turnover markers increased markedly, areal BMD decreased at the proximal femur, and volumetric BMD decreased at the spine (p < 0.001). Those with lower postoperative FCA had greater increases in serum CTx (ρ = -0.43, p = 0.01). Declines in FCA and BMD were not correlated over the 6 months. In conclusion, FCA decreased dramatically after RYGB, even with most 25OHD levels ≥30 ng/mL and with recommended Ca intake. RYGB patients may need high Ca intake to prevent perturbations in Ca homeostasis, although the approach to Ca supplementation needs further study. Decline in FCA could contribute to

  16. Stabilizing Cloud Feedback Dramatically Expands the Habitable Zone of Tidally Locked Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.; Yang, J.; Cowan, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Habitable Zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phenomenon a stabilizing climate feedback. Substellar clouds also effectively block outgoing radiation from the surface, reducing or even completely reversing the thermal emission contrast between dayside and nightside. The presence of substellar water clouds and the resulting clement surface conditions will therefore be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope. Climates of tidally locked and non-tidally locked terrestrial planets. (a) global-mean surface temperature (K), (b) stratospheric H2O volume mixing ratio at the substellar point, (c) planetary albedo and (d) global-mean greenhouse effect (K). The upper horizontal axis is the corresponding semimajor axis between an M-star with 2.3% solar luminosity and the planet. 1:1 denotes a tidally locked state, and 2:1 and 6:1 denote 2 or 6 rotations per orbit, respectively. For "no cloud" cases, all clouds are set to zero. The stellar spectrum is for an M-star or a K-star. Results for HD85512b are represented by

  17. Dramatic escalation in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in a Chinese population experiencing rapid economic development.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Ma, Wen Jun; Sobko, Tanja; Zhang, Yong Hui; Xu, Yan Jun; Xu, Xiao Jun; Yu, Dong Mei; Nie, Shao Ping; Cai, Qiu Mao; Wei, Xiao Lin; Xia, Liang; Wong, Martin Chi-Sang

    2014-09-20

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Information on changes in prevalence of MetSyn in developing countries is limited. This study aims to compare MetSyn prevalence and its associated vascular risk over the period between 2002 and 2010 in a population which has had the world's fastest economic development over the past three decades. Two health surveys were conducted by using the multistage cluster random sampling method in a Chinese population of 85 million in southern China. The participants received a full medical check-up, including measurement of blood pressure (BP), obesity indices, fasting lipids and glucose levels. Data describing socio-economic status and lifestyle factors were also collected through interview. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. A total of 3,561 participants from Survey 2010 were included in the data analysis. Women had a significantly higher prevalence of MetSyn than men. Comparison between the two surveys shows that age-standardized prevalence of MetSyn increased fourfold (from 5.4% in 2002 to 21.3% in 2010) in those ≧ 20 years. Among the MetSyn components, prevalence of hyperglycaemia has increased most (from 9.1% to 53.1%). The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and low HDL-cholesterol increased from 13.5% to 25.4%, from 23.6% to 40.8%, from 12.1% to 17.4% and from 32.1% to 71.1%, respectively. Differences between rural and urban residents in the prevalence in MetSyn and its components narrowed in 2010. Cardiovascular risk escalated dramatically in this population between 2002 and 2010. The escalation may relate to the rapid economic development, which led to accelerating changes in nutrition, lifestyle, and socio-economic status. Our findings suggest that health transition in rapidly developing second- and third-world countries may be much faster than what has been observed in

  18. Dramatic declines in mussel bed community diversity: response to climate change?

    PubMed

    Smith, Jayson R; Fong, Peggy; Ambrose, Richard F

    2006-05-01

    Mussel beds along the wave-exposed coast of the eastern North Pacific Ocean serve as an important habitat, harboring a high diversity of species. A comparison of California mussel bed community diversity in 2002 to historical data (1960s to 1970s) revealed large declines (mean loss 58.9%), including some declines >141 species (approximately 80% loss). Concurrent work revealed inconsistent changes in mussel populations (biomass and bed thickness) along the California coast, suggesting that diversity declines may be related to large-scale processes rather than local habitat destruction. Potential factors causing declines in mussel community diversity are discussed, with regional climate change associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and climate change induced alterations of ecological interactions and biological processes suggested as likely causes. Although extensive literature has predicted the potential effects of climate change on global diversity, this study is one of the few examples of declines attributed to climate change.

  19. Dramatical Impact Of Low Amounts of Swelling Clays On The Rheology Of Alpine Debris Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardou, E.; Bowen, P.; Banfill, P. G.; Boivin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Field observations show that the role and amount of swelling clays in the complex hard suspensions of alpine debris flow type were underestimated (see Boivin et al., this session). This work aims at exploring to which extent the swelling clay content influences the global rheology of a flow of rock grains from which the size spectrum extends from clays to gravel. We made a sample from calibrated materials with a grain size distribution similar to that of a viscoplastic debris flow (Bardou et al., 2003). Four replicates were made with the same grading curve. The clay content of the samples was 2% dry weight only, and different 2:1 swelling clay to 1:1 clay ratio were used. The swelling clay ratio (SCR) was calculated as the percentage of 2:1 clay in the clay fraction of the bulk samples. The 1:1 clay was (industrial) kaolinite and the 2:1 clay was a natural soil smectite. The smectite content in the bulk sample ranged from 0% to 2% dry weight, corresponding to SCR ranging from 0 to 80%. The four prepared samples were sheared in the large-size apparatus fully described in Tattersall and Banfill (1983). This apparatus is based on the measure of the torque necessary to rotate an impeller immersed in the sample. The impeller has the form of an "H" and moves in a plane according to two parallel axes. The observed behaviour were very contrasted. The sample with SCR=0 was poorly sensitive to changes in the solid concentration, in contrast to the three samples with SCR>0. Moreover, a small change in the SCR of the clay fraction induced a dramatic change of the behaviour of the mixture. For SCR=0, only little changes in the rheological parameters of the bulk samples were observed with respect to changes in the solid concentration. On the contrary the rheological parameters of the bulk samples with SCR>0, apparently followed a power law according to solid concentration. These tests carried out in the laboratory accord with observations realised on natural debris flow material

  20. Amundsen, Nansen, and the question of science: dramatizing historical research on the polar heroic.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Robert Marc

    2011-12-01

    Recent historical research reveals a much greater role than previously assumed for science in the polar activities of Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen. Science-based polar exploration was what first linked these two men; Amundsen's subsequent turn to sport and sensation dampened their relationship. These insights and other new perspectives about heroic period of polar exploration are being transformed by the author into a drama for stage that will have its world premier in Norway in December 2011. The play attempts to use imaginatively the art and craft of theatre to diffuse insight from historical scholarship.

  1. The homozygous VHL(D126N) missense mutation is associated with dramatically elevated erythropoietin levels, consequent polycythemia, and early onset severe pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Susmita; Lanikova, Lucie; Kapralova, Katarina; Acharya, Suchitra; Swierczek, Sabina; Lipton, Jeffrey M; Wolfe, Lawrence; Prchal, Josef T

    2014-11-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia sensing mediated by transcription factors. Mutations in exon 3 of the VHL gene lead to Chuvash (VHL(R200W)) and Croatian (VHL(H191D)) polycythemias. Here, we describe an infant of Bangladesh ethnicity with a novel homozygous VHL(D126N) mutation with congenital polycythemia and dramatically elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, who developed severe fatal pulmonary hypertension. In contrast to Chuvash polycythemia, erythroid progenitors (BFU-Es) did not reveal a marked EPO hypersensitivity. Further, NF-E2 and RUNX1 transcripts that correlate with BFU-Es EPO hypersensitivity in polycythemic mutations were not elevated.

  2. Learning Form and Function by Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends to Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Phyllis; Rule, Audrey C.; Kirkland Holmes, Gloria; Logan, Stephanie R.; Alert, Andrea L.; Mason, Cynthia A.

    This study examined the self-efficacy in science, art, dance, and music; attitudes concerning contributions of people of various ethnic/cultural groups; and science learning of students involved in an after-school arts-integrated science enrichment project. Students dramatized three traditional animal legends from African, Native American, and…

  3. A Rural School/Community: A Case Study of a Dramatic Turnaround & Its Implications for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    This paper presents a case study of a rural community exhibiting a dramatic turnaround in community support for a new school bond issue. Demographic change was partly responsible for the change in community attitudes, with two waves of immigration altering the long-term conservative orientation of this community. After a series of failed…

  4. The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

  5. The Development of Evaluation Model for Internal Quality Assurance System of Dramatic Arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinthukhot, Kittisak; Srihamongkol, Yannapat; Luanganggoon, Nuchwana; Suwannoi, Paisan

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose was to develop an evaluation model for the internal quality assurance system of the dramatic arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute. The Research and Development method was used as research methodology which was divided into three phases; "developing the model and its guideline", "trying out the actual…

  6. Dramatic volume reduction of a large GH/TSH secreting pituitary tumor with short term Octreotide therapy.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John L D; Abboud, Charles F; Lane, John I

    2005-01-01

    A case is presented of a huge GH/TSH secreting tumor and marked volumetric reduction in size with only one week of Octreotide therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of such a dramatic volumetric response to short-term Octreotide therapy.

  7. A Rural School/Community: A Case Study of a Dramatic Turnaround & Its Implications for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    This paper presents a case study of a rural community exhibiting a dramatic turnaround in community support for a new school bond issue. Demographic change was partly responsible for the change in community attitudes, with two waves of immigration altering the long-term conservative orientation of this community. After a series of failed…

  8. Is there a morphological or physiological explanation for the dramatic increase in hybridization between loblolly and shortleaf pine?

    Treesearch

    Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; John F. Stewart; C. Dana Nelson; Charles G. Taue

    2015-01-01

    Hybrids between shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) have dramatically increased since the 1950s (Stewart and others 2012). Fire suppression, planting nonnative seed sources, and other anthropogenic activities have the potential to break down ecological barriers that previously kept these species from interbreeding (Tauer and others...

  9. The Big Glamorous Monster (or Lady Gaga's Adventures at Sea): Improving Student Writing through Dramatic Approaches in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bridget Kiger; Enciso, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on assets-oriented, sociocultural theories of imagination and learning, the authors argue that the improvisational qualities and expanded resources of dramatic approaches to teaching make a positive difference in the quality of and persistence in students' story writing. The authors describe findings from a controlled quasi-experimental…

  10. Dramatic regression of persistent tunica vasculosa lentis associated with retinopathy of prematurity following treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Darin R; Baumal, Caroline R

    2013-06-04

    The authors describe a preterm infant who developed advanced retinopathy of prematurity bilaterally with a prominent tunica vasculosa lentis. Treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab resulted in regression of the tunica vasculosa lentis and posterior manifestations of the retinopathy of prematurity. RetCam imaging (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) of the anterior segment was used to document the dramatic tunica vasculosa lentis resolution.

  11. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Treesearch

    Melissa Braham; Tricia Miller; Adam E. Duerr; Michael Lanzone; Amy Fesnock; Larry LaPre; Daniel Driscoll; Todd. Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system-global system for mobile...

  12. Dramatic effects of speech task on motor and linguistic planning in severely dysfluent parkinsonian speech

    PubMed Central

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Cameron, Krista; Sidtis, John J.

    2015-01-01

    In motor speech disorders, dysarthric features impacting intelligibility, articulation, fluency, and voice emerge more saliently in conversation than in repetition, reading, or singing. A role of the basal ganglia in these task discrepancies has been identified. Further, more recent studies of naturalistic speech in basal ganglia dysfunction have revealed that formulaic language is more impaired than novel language. This descriptive study extends these observations to a case of severely dysfluent dysarthria due to a parkinsonian syndrome. Dysfluencies were quantified and compared for conversation, two forms of repetition, reading, recited speech, and singing. Other measures examined phonetic inventories, word forms, and formulaic language. Phonetic, syllabic, and lexical dysfluencies were more abundant in conversation than in other task conditions. Formulaic expressions in conversation were reduced compared to normal speakers. A proposed explanation supports the notion that the basal ganglia contribute to formulation of internal models for execution of speech. PMID:22774929

  13. Dramatic High-Speed Velocity Dependence of Quartz Friction Without Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Di Toro, G.; Goldsby, D. L.; Tullis, T. E.

    2001-12-01

    A series of large displacement, ambient pressure friction experiments on a monominerallic quartz rock has been conducted to supplement our previous experiments at high confining pressure. Ambient pressure tests are conducted at higher sliding velocities, up to 100 mm/s, than presently can be obtained at high pressure, ~3 mm/s. The 1-atm. rotary shear apparatus allows only ~40 mm of unidirectional sliding displacement; large displacements of many meters are accumulated by repeatedly reversing the sliding direction. Time-dependent finite-element heat-flow analyses were performed to estimate temperatures generated by sliding. These FEM results were verified with temperature measurements made below the slip surface. Results obtained at ambient pressure are consistent with those obtained at high pressure at 3 mm/s. Both tests reveal an extraordinary reduction in friction coefficient with increasing sliding displacement and velocity, from initial values of 0.6 to 0.8 down to a relatively steady-state value of 0.2 to 0.4. Once the friction coefficient has decreased to a relatively steady-state low level, a pause in sliding or an interval of slow sliding results in an increase in the friction coefficient to values of 0.6 to 0.8. A return to high velocity causes a decrease in friction over ~0.5 m of slip back to the quasi-steady-state level. The velocity dependence of friction revealed by these experiments is striking. On a plot of friction coefficient versus log slip velocity, friction decreases only slightly with increasing slip velocity below 1 mm/s, as for typical rate and state friction data. Between ~3 and 100 mm/s, however, the linear trend of friction versus log velocity extrapolates to zero at 300 mm/s. The observed frictional weakening cannot be caused by melting; average fault surface temperatures are < 150° C, and flash temperatures at asperity contacts are < 900° C. Weakening may be due to a lubricating layer of hydrated amorphous silica produced on the

  14. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Ingvar Hellgren, Lars; Ruhdal Jensen, Peter; Solem, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is essential for most cheese making, and this mesophilic bacterium has its growth optimum around 30 °C. We have, through adaptive evolution, isolated a mutant TM29 that grows well up to 39 °C, and continuous growth at 40 °C is possible if pre-incubated at a slightly lower temperature. At the maximal permissive temperature for the wild-type, 38 °C, TM29 grows 33% faster and has a 12% higher specific lactate production rate than its parent MG1363, which results in fast lactate accumulation. Genome sequencing was used to reveal the mutations accumulated, most of which were shown to affect thermal tolerance. Of the mutations with more pronounced effects, two affected expression of single proteins (chaperone; riboflavin transporter), two had pleiotropic effects (RNA polymerase) which changed the gene expression profile, and one resulted in a change in the coding sequence of CDP-diglyceride synthase. A large deletion containing 10 genes was also found to affect thermal tolerance significantly. With this study we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain non-GMO derivatives of the important L. lactis that possess properties desirable by the industry, e.g. thermal robustness and increased rate of acidification. The mutations we have identified provide a genetic basis for further investigation of thermal tolerance. PMID:26388459

  15. Dramatic response to climate change in the Southwest: Robert Whittaker's 1963 Arizona Mountain plant transect revisited

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, Richard C; Wiens, John F; Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeff; Franklin, Kim; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Moore, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Models analyzing how Southwestern plant communities will respond to climate change predict that increases in temperature will lead to upward elevational shifts of montane species. We tested this hypothesis by reexamining Robert Whittaker's 1963 plant transect in the Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona, finding that this process is already well underway. Our survey, five decades after Whittaker's, reveals large changes in the elevational ranges of common montane plants, while mean annual rainfall has decreased over the past 20 years, and mean annual temperatures increased 0.25°C/decade from 1949 to 2011 in the Tucson Basin. Although elevational changes in species are individualistic, significant overall upward movement of the lower elevation boundaries, and elevational range contractions, have occurred. This is the first documentation of significant upward shifts of lower elevation range boundaries in Southwestern montane plant species over decadal time, confirming that previous hypotheses are correct in their prediction that mountain communities in the Southwest will be strongly impacted by warming, and that the Southwest is already experiencing a rapid vegetation change. PMID:24223270

  16. High-intensity urban light installation dramatically alters nocturnal bird migration.

    PubMed

    Van Doren, Benjamin M; Horton, Kyle G; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klinck, Holger; Elbin, Susan B; Farnsworth, Andrew

    2017-10-02

    Billions of nocturnally migrating birds move through increasingly photopolluted skies, relying on cues for navigation and orientation that artificial light at night (ALAN) can impair. However, no studies have quantified avian responses to powerful ground-based light sources in urban areas. We studied effects of ALAN on migrating birds by monitoring the beams of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum's "Tribute in Light" in New York, quantifying behavioral responses with radar and acoustic sensors and modeling disorientation and attraction with simulations. This single light source induced significant behavioral alterations in birds, even in good visibility conditions, in this heavily photopolluted environment, and to altitudes up to 4 km. We estimate that the installation influenced ≈1.1 million birds during our study period of 7 d over 7 y. When the installation was illuminated, birds aggregated in high densities, decreased flight speeds, followed circular flight paths, and vocalized frequently. Simulations revealed a high probability of disorientation and subsequent attraction for nearby birds, and bird densities near the installation exceeded magnitudes 20 times greater than surrounding baseline densities during each year's observations. However, behavioral disruptions disappeared when lights were extinguished, suggesting that selective removal of light during nights with substantial bird migration is a viable strategy for minimizing potentially fatal interactions among ALAN, structures, and birds. Our results also highlight the value of additional studies describing behavioral patterns of nocturnally migrating birds in powerful lights in urban areas as well as conservation implications for such lighting installations.

  17. Dramatic declines in neotropical salamander populations are an important part of the global amphibian crisis

    PubMed Central

    Rovito, Sean M.; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Vásquez-Almazán, Carlos R.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Wake, David B.

    2009-01-01

    We document major declines of many species of salamanders at several sites in Central America and Mexico, with emphasis on the San Marcos region of Guatemala, one of the best studied and most diverse salamander communities in the Neotropics. Profound declines of several formerly abundant species, including 2 apparent extinctions, are revealed. Terrestrial microhabitat specialists at mid- to high elevations have declined more than microhabitat generalists. These terrestrial microhabitat specialists have largely disappeared from multiple sites in western Guatemala, including in well-protected areas, suggesting that the phenomenon cannot be explained solely by localized habitat destruction. Major declines in southern Mexican plethodontid salamanders occurred in the late 1970s to early 1980s, concurrent with or preceding many reported frog declines. The species in decline comprise several major evolutionary lineages of tropical salamanders, underscoring that significant portions of the phylogenetic diversity of Neotropical salamanders are at risk. Our results highlight the urgent need to document and understand Neotropical salamander declines as part of the larger effort to conserve global amphibian diversity. PMID:19204286

  18. Grafting Charged Species to Membrane-Embedded Scaffolds Dramatically Increases the Rate of Bilayer Flipping

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The cell membrane is a barrier to the passive diffusion of charged molecules due to the chemical properties of the lipid bilayer. Surprisingly, recent experiments have identified processes in which synthetic and biological charged species directly transfer across lipid bilayers on biologically relevant time scales. In particular, amphiphilic nanoparticles have been shown to insert into lipid bilayers, requiring the transport of charged species across the bilayer. The molecular factors facilitating this rapid insertion process remain unknown. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the free energy barrier associated with “flipping” charged species across a lipid bilayer for species that are grafted to a membrane-embedded scaffold, such as a membrane-embedded nanoparticle. We find that the free energy barrier for flipping a grafted ligand can be over 7 kcal/mol lower than the barrier for translocating an isolated, equivalent ion, yielding a 5 order of magnitude decrease in the corresponding flipping time scale. Similar results are found for flipping charged species grafted to either nanoparticle or protein scaffolds. These results reveal new mechanistic insight into the flipping of charged macromolecular components that might play an important, yet overlooked, role in signaling and charge transport in biological settings. Furthermore, our results suggest guidelines for the design of synthetic materials capable of rapidly flipping charged moieties across the cell membrane. PMID:28386596

  19. Dramatic improvement of membrane performance for microalgae harvesting with a simple bubble-generator plate.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Taewoon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Bohwa; Han, Jong-In

    2015-06-01

    To overcome fouling issue in membrane-based algae harvesting and thus make an otherwise promising harvesting option more competitive, a bubble-generator plate was developed. According to computational fluid dynamics analysis, the plate generated substantial hydrodynamic power in terms of high pressure, velocity, and shear stress. When installed in a membrane filtration system with membranes of different surface and structural characteristics (one prepared by the phase inversion method, and a commercial one) the bubble-generator was indeed effective in reducing fouling. Without the plate, the much cheaper homemade membrane had the similar performance as the commercial one. Use of the bubble-generator considerably improved the performance of both membranes, and revealed a valuable synergy with the asymmetrical structure of the homemade membrane. This result clearly showed that the ever-problematic fouling could be mitigated in a rather easy manner, and in so doing, that membrane technology could indeed become a practical option for algae harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Ingvar Hellgren, Lars; Ruhdal Jensen, Peter; Solem, Christian

    2015-09-21

    Lactococcus lactis is essential for most cheese making, and this mesophilic bacterium has its growth optimum around 30 °C. We have, through adaptive evolution, isolated a mutant TM29 that grows well up to 39 °C, and continuous growth at 40 °C is possible if pre-incubated at a slightly lower temperature. At the maximal permissive temperature for the wild-type, 38 °C, TM29 grows 33% faster and has a 12% higher specific lactate production rate than its parent MG1363, which results in fast lactate accumulation. Genome sequencing was used to reveal the mutations accumulated, most of which were shown to affect thermal tolerance. Of the mutations with more pronounced effects, two affected expression of single proteins (chaperone; riboflavin transporter), two had pleiotropic effects (RNA polymerase) which changed the gene expression profile, and one resulted in a change in the coding sequence of CDP-diglyceride synthase. A large deletion containing 10 genes was also found to affect thermal tolerance significantly. With this study we demonstrate a simple approach to obtain non-GMO derivatives of the important L. lactis that possess properties desirable by the industry, e.g. thermal robustness and increased rate of acidification. The mutations we have identified provide a genetic basis for further investigation of thermal tolerance.

  1. Dramatic response to climate change in the Southwest: Robert Whittaker's 1963 Arizona Mountain plant transect revisited.

    PubMed

    Brusca, Richard C; Wiens, John F; Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeff; Franklin, Kim; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Moore, Wendy

    2013-09-01

    Models analyzing how Southwestern plant communities will respond to climate change predict that increases in temperature will lead to upward elevational shifts of montane species. We tested this hypothesis by reexamining Robert Whittaker's 1963 plant transect in the Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona, finding that this process is already well underway. Our survey, five decades after Whittaker's, reveals large changes in the elevational ranges of common montane plants, while mean annual rainfall has decreased over the past 20 years, and mean annual temperatures increased 0.25°C/decade from 1949 to 2011 in the Tucson Basin. Although elevational changes in species are individualistic, significant overall upward movement of the lower elevation boundaries, and elevational range contractions, have occurred. This is the first documentation of significant upward shifts of lower elevation range boundaries in Southwestern montane plant species over decadal time, confirming that previous hypotheses are correct in their prediction that mountain communities in the Southwest will be strongly impacted by warming, and that the Southwest is already experiencing a rapid vegetation change.

  2. A neuronal population in hypothalamus that dramatically resists acute ischemic injury compared to neocortex.

    PubMed

    Brisson, C Devin; Andrew, R David

    2012-07-01

    Pyramidal neurons (PyNs) of the cortex are highly susceptible to acute stroke damage, yet "lower" brain regions like hypothalamus and brain stem better survive global ischemia. Here we show for the first time that a "lower" neuron population intrinsically resists acute strokelike injury. In rat brain slices deprived of oxygen and glucose (OGD), we imaged anoxic depolarization (AD) as it propagated through neocortex or hypothalamus. AD, the initial electrophysiological event of stroke, is a front of depolarization that drains residual energy in compromised gray matter. The extent of AD reliably determines ensuing cortical damage, but do all CNS neurons generate a robust AD? During 10 min of OGD, PyNs depolarize without functional recovery. In contrast, magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) in hypothalamus under identical stress generate a weak and delayed AD, resist complete depolarization, and rapidly repolarize when oxygen and glucose are restored. They recover their membrane potential, input resistance, and spike amplitude and can survive multiple OGD exposures. Two-photon microscopy in slices derived from a fluorescent mouse line confirms this protection, revealing PyN swelling and dendritic beading after OGD, whereas MNCs are not injured. Exposure to the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain (100 μM) induces AD similar to OGD in both cell types. Moreover, elevated extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) evokes spreading depression (SD), a milder version of AD, in PyNs but not MNCs. Therefore overriding the pump by OGD, ouabain, or elevated [K(+)](o) evokes a propagating depolarization in higher gray matter but not in MNCs. We suggest that variation in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump efficiency during ischemia injury determines whether a neuronal type succumbs to or resists stroke.

  3. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004-2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon's frog diversity.

  4. Dramatic activities of vanadate intercalated bismuth doped LDH for solar light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Lagnamayee; Parida, K M

    2014-08-28

    To harvest solar energy efficiently, a series of Zn/Bi layered double hydroxide (LDH) photocatalysts with different molar ratios of Zn/Bi (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1) has been synthesized by a coprecipitation method at constant pH. All the Bi doped LDH samples displayed hydrotalcite-like structure with interlayer carbonate, in which crystallinity decreases as the bismuth content increases. The Zn/Bi (4 : 1) LDH with a small amount of bismuth in the brucite layer and possessing high crystallinity was further modified hydrothermally by intercalating decavanadate and it showed high photochemical stability and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of different organic pollutants for practical applications under solar light irradiation. The structural integrity of the materials has been successfully characterized by studying their structural, morphological, electronic and optical properties by various physico-chemical techniques. The present study provided an insight into oxo-bridged MMCT of the LDH and established that the Zn(II)-O-Bi(III) units resulted in the generation of superoxide radicals which is clearly observed by the EPR technique. The ˙OH radicals formed during photocatalysis were revealed by means of the terephthalic acid fluorescence probe method. The photoelectrochemical measurement confirmed that the intercalated vanadate anion was crucial to obtain an optimal synergistic effect for the degradation of organic pollutants. The prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and improved charge transfer capability were confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence emission spectra. Furthermore, a detailed mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity was discussed.

  5. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004–2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon’s frog diversity. PMID:27149624

  6. Dramatically enhanced oxygen uptake and ionization yield of positive secondary ions with C60+ sputtering.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua-Yang; Tsai, Meng-Hung; You, Yun-Wen; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chieh; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2012-04-03

    To explore C(60)(+) sputtering beyond low-damage depth profiling of organic materials, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to examine metallic surfaces during and after C(60)(+) sputtering. During C(60)(+) sputtering, XPS spectra indicated that the degrees of carbon deposition were different for different metallic surfaces. Moreover, for some metals (e.g., Al, W, Ta, Ti, and Mo), the intensity of the O 1s photoelectron increased significantly during C(60)(+) sputtering, even though the instrument was under ultrahigh vacuum (<5 × 10(-7) Pa). This result indicated that the rate of oxygen uptake was greater than the rate of C(60)(+) sputtering. This behavior was not observed with the commonly used Ar(+) sputtering. To measure the oxygen uptake kinetics, pure oxygen was leaked into the chamber to maintain a 5 × 10(-6) Pa oxygen environment. The C(60)(+)-sputtered surface had a clearly increased rate of oxygen uptake than the Ar(+)-sputtered surface, even for moderately reactive metals such as Fe and Ni. For relatively nonreactive metals such as Cu and Au, a small amount of carbon was implanted and no oxygen uptake was observed. High-resolution XPS spectra revealed the formation of metal carbides on these reactive metals, and the carbon deposition and enhanced uptake of oxygen correlated to the carbide formation. Because oxygen enhances the secondary ion yield through surface passivation, the enhanced oxygen uptake due to C(60)(+) sputtering could be beneficial for SIMS analysis. To examine this hypothesis, C(60)(+) and Ar(+) were used as primary ions, and it was found that the intensity enhancement (because of the oxygen flooding at 5 × 10(-6) Pa) was much higher with C(60)(+) than with Ar(+). Therefore, oxygen flooding during C(60)(+) sputtering has a great potential for enhancing the detection limit due to the enhanced oxygen uptake.

  7. Using Creative Dramatics to Foster Conceptual Learning in a Science Enrichment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Rebecca Compton

    This study made analysis of how the integration of creative drama into a science enrichment program enhanced the learning of elementary school students' understanding of sound physics and solar energy. The study also sought to determine if student attitudes toward science could be improved with the inclusion of creative drama as an extension to a well-known science inquiry program. The qualitative portion of this study explored the treatment groups' perceptions of how the use of creative drama helped them to learn science. A treatment group of fourth and fifth grade students were taught using the Full Option Science System (FOSS) kit in sound physics and solar energy with the inclusion of creative drama, while a control group of fourth and fifth grade students were taught using only the FOSS kit. The quantitative data analysis revealed that the students who were taught science with the inclusion of creative drama showed greater understanding of the science content than the students in the control group taught without the inclusion of creative drama. Both groups and grade levels in this study showed a slight decline in science attitudes from pre to post survey. Although the overall change was small it was statistically significant. The conclusion from this data is that the inclusion of creative drama in a science inquiry science program does not increase student's attitudes toward learning science any better than inquiry based instruction without creative drama. The drama treatment group students reported that they enjoyed participating in creative drama activities and generally viewed the creative drama intervention as a fun way to learn more about science. The students indicated that the creative drama activities helped them to remember and think about science. The researcher concluded that creative drama when used as an extension to an inquiry science program increases student understanding of science content better than the use of a science inquiry program alone

  8. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Menger, Katja E; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Harbour, Michael E; Chouchani, Edward T; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P

    2015-06-30

    Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  9. Socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention for adolescents with asperger syndrome & high functioning autism: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called 'socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention' (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit among this population. SDARI was administered as a six-week summer program in a community human service agency. Nine SDARI participants and eight age- and diagnosis-group matched adolescents not receiving SDARI were compared on child- and parent-report of social functioning at three week intervals beginning six weeks prior to intervention and ending six weeks post-intervention. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to estimate growth trends between groups to assess treatment outcomes and post-treatment maintenance. Results indicated significant improvement and post-treatment maintenance among SDARI participants on several measures of child social functioning. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  10. Carbon nanotubes are able to penetrate plant seed coat and dramatically affect seed germination and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Khodakovskaya, Mariya; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Mahmood, Meena; Xu, Yang; Li, Zhongrui; Watanabe, Fumiya; Biris, Alexandru S

    2009-10-27

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to penetrate tomato seeds and affect their germination and growth rates. The germination was found to be dramatically higher for seeds that germinated on medium containing CNTs (10-40 mug/mL) compared to control. Analytical methods indicated that the CNTs are able to penetrate the thick seed coat and support water uptake inside seeds, a process which can affect seed germination and growth of tomato seedlings.

  11. Pathological concentration of zinc dramatically accelerates abnormal aggregation of full-length human Tau and thereby significantly increases Tau toxicity in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji-Ying; Zhang, De-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Li, Xue-Shou; Cheng, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jie; Du, Hai-Ning; Liang, Yi

    2017-02-01

    A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles mainly composed of bundles of fibrils formed by microtubule-associated protein Tau. Here we study the effects of Zn(2+) on abnormal aggregation and cytotoxicity of a pathological mutant ΔK280 of full-length human Tau. As revealed by Congo red binding assays, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) dramatically accelerates the fibrillization of ΔK280 both in vitro and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. As evidenced by annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection assay and MTT reduction assay, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) remarkably enhances ΔK280 fibrillization-induced apoptosis and toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Substitution of Cys-291 and Cys-322 with Ala, however, essentially eliminates such enhancing effects of Zn(2+) on the fibrillization and the consequent cytotoxicity of ΔK280. Furthermore, Zn(2+) is co-localized with and highly enriched in amyloid fibrils formed by ΔK280 in SH-SY5Y cells. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that Zn(2+) binds to full-length human Tau by interacting with Cys-291 and Cys-322, forming a 1:1 Zn(2+)-Tau complex. Our data demonstrate that zinc dramatically accelerates abnormal aggregation of human Tau and significantly increases Tau toxicity in neuronal cells mainly via bridging Cys-291 and Cys-322. Our findings could explain how pathological zinc regulates Tau aggregation and toxicity associated with Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A young-onset frontal dementia with dramatic calcifications due to a novel CSF1R mutation.

    PubMed

    Gore, Ethan; Manley, Andrew; Dees, Daniel; Appleby, Brian S; Lerner, Alan J

    2016-06-01

    Neuroimaging and genomic analysis greatly aid in the identification of young-onset dementia antemortem. We present the case of a 33-year-old female with a 2-year rapid decline to dementia and immobility marked by personality change, executive deficits including compulsions, attention deficit, apraxia, Parkinsonism, and pyramidal signs. She had unique and dramatic calcifications and confluent white matter changes on imaging and was found to have a novel mutation in the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor gene causing adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP). Here, we review ALSP and briefly discuss differential diagnoses.

  13. Dramatic Response of a Large, 10 Cm Hepatocellular Carcinoma to Monotherapy with Yttrium-90 Based Selective Internal Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Diwanji, Tejan; Dong, Tuo; Moeslein, Fred; Chuong, Michael

    2015-12-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is predominantly diagnosed in advanced stages and not amenable to surgical resection and transplantation. Systemic therapies have had a limited efficacy in treating HCC. Although HCC is a radiosensitive tumor, treatments with external-beam radiation are limited by radiosensitivity of normal liver tissue and surrounding organs-at-risk, i.e. bowel, stomach, and kidney. Several large retrospective series have demonstrated a modest effect of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres in unresectable HCC, both in terms of tumor response and survival. The authors present a patient with an extremely large, multifocal, unresectable HCC who achieved a dramatic response with SIRT treatment.

  14. Dramatizing Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilberwasser, Simona; Dar, Etti; Livny, Michal; Shotts, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project that dealt with two short stories in a different way. The stories were part of the Oral Bagrut exam for Grade 11 students. The stories were taught in English class and concentrated on theme and vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  15. Creative Sound Dramatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sound propagation is not easy for children to understand because of its abstract nature, often best represented by models such as wave drawings and particle dots. Teachers Rebecca Hendrix and Charles Eick wondered how science inquiry, when combined with an unlikely discipline like drama, could produce a better understanding among their…

  16. Gullies with Dramatic Lighting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-21

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft was acquired to look for frost on these generally equator-facing slopes on Mars, which are visible in the shadows after enhancing the brightness levels.

  17. Creative Sound Dramatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sound propagation is not easy for children to understand because of its abstract nature, often best represented by models such as wave drawings and particle dots. Teachers Rebecca Hendrix and Charles Eick wondered how science inquiry, when combined with an unlikely discipline like drama, could produce a better understanding among their…

  18. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article describes the construction and use of an inexpensive hand-held pneumatic lift to demonstrate the same principle.

  19. A Dramatic Demo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, George; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program for students or science teachers to integrate demonstrations into the science curriculum. Uses the idea of a chemical genie with numerous demonstrations to illustrate that science can be fun, to learn some indicators of a chemical reaction, and to discover factors that affect reaction rates. (MVL)

  20. Children and Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscup, Richard

    This book embodies the concept that the dynamic interplay of experiences and activities remains part of the child's functioning throughout life and that it is the role of adults to establish, where they can, the forms of activity in which children will engage. The chapters describe various contents for such activities and discuss how adults can…

  1. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article…

  2. Dramatic Stained Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  3. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Katja E.; James, Andrew M.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Harbour, Michael E.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  4. Phosphorylation-related modification at the dimer interface of 14-3-3ω dramatically alters monomer interaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Denison, Fiona C; Gökirmak, Tufan; Ferl, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are generally believed to function as dimers in a broad range of eukaryotic signaling pathways. The consequences of altering dimer stability are not fully understood. Phosphorylation at Ser58 in the dimer interface of mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms has been reported to destabilise dimers. An equivalent residue, Ser62, is present across most Arabidopsis isoforms but the effects of phosphorylation have not been studied in plants. Here, we assessed the effects of phosphorylation at the dimer interface of Arabidopsis 14-3-3ω. Protein kinase A phosphorylated 14-3-3ω at Ser62 and also at a previously unreported residue, Ser67, resulting in a monomer-sized band on native-PAGE. Phosphorylation at Ser62 alone, or with additional Ser67 phosphorylation, was investigated using phosphomimetic versions of 14-3-3ω. In electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses, these mutants showed mobilities intermediate between dimers and monomers. Mobility was increased by detergents, by reducing protein concentration, or by increasing pH or temperature. Urea gradient gels showed complex structural transitions associated with alterations of dimer stability, including a previously unreported 14-3-3 aggregation phenomenon. Overall, our analyses showed that dimer interface modifications such as phosphorylation reduce dimer stability, dramatically affecting the monomer-dimer equilibrium and denaturation trajectory. These findings may have dramatic implications for 14-3-3 structure and function in vivo.

  5. CathepsinKCre mediated deletion of βcatenin results in dramatic loss of bone mass by targeting both osteoclasts and osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Paula; Martin-Millan, Marta; Gonzalez-Martin, M C; Almeida, Maria; González-Macias, Jesús; Ros, Maria A

    2016-11-02

    It is well established that activation of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in the osteoblast lineage leads to an increase in bone mass through a dual mechanism: increased osteoblastogenesis and decreased osteoclastogenesis. However, the effect of this pathway on the osteoclast lineage has been less explored. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in mature osteoclasts by generating mice lacking βcatenin in CathepsinK-expressing cells (Ctnnb1(f/f);CtsKCre mice). These mice developed a severe low-bone-mass phenotype with onset in the second month and in correlation with an excessive number of osteoclasts, detected by TRAP staining and histomorphometric quantification. We found that WNT3A, through the canonical pathway, promoted osteoclast apoptosis and therefore attenuated the number of M-CSF and RANKL-derived osteoclasts in vitro. This reveals a cell-autonomous effect of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in controlling the life span of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, bone Opg expression in Ctnnb1(f/f);CtsKCre mice was dramatically decreased pointing to an additional external activation of osteoclasts. Accordingly, expression of CathepsinK was detected in TRAP-negative cells of the inner periosteal layer also expressing Col1. Our results indicate that the bone phenotype of Ctnnb1(f/f);CtsKCre animals combines a cell-autonomous effect in the mature osteoclast with indirect effects due to the additional targeting of osteoblastic cells.

  6. Ultrathin barrier AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown at a dramatically reduced growth temperature by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, JunShuai Zhang, JinCheng Hao, Yue

    2015-07-27

    Ultrathin-barrier AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD) using indium as a surfactant at a dramatically reduced growth temperature of 830 °C. Upon optimization of growth parameters, an electron mobility of 1398 cm{sup 2}/V s together with a two-dimensional-electron-gas density of 1.3 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} was obtained for a 4 nm thick AlN barrier. The grown structures featured well-ordered parallel atomic steps with a root-mean-square roughness of 0.15 nm in a 5 × 5 μm{sup 2} area revealed by atomic-force-microscopic image. Finally, the potential of such structures for device application was demonstrated by fabricating and testing under dc operation AlN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors. These results indicate that this low temperature PMOCVD growth technique is promising for the fabrication of GaN-based electronic devices.

  7. A rare case and a rapid tumor response to therapy: dramatic reduction in tumor size during octreotide treatment in a patient with TSH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Erem, Cihangir; Hacihasanoglu, Arif; Sari, Ahmet; Onder Ersöz, Halil; Ukinç, Kubilay; Fidan, Sami

    2004-11-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are the less frequent form of presentation of pituitary tumors. The presence of somatostatin receptors on TSH-secreting adenomas allows treatment of central hyperthyroidism with somatostatin analogs. We report a 21-yr-old woman with TSH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma, who was diagnosed based on the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, the lack of inhibition of serum TSH despite an increased serum free thyroxine (FT4), a low response of serum TSH to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and a pituitary tumor as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging. The treatment with the somatostatin analog octreotid resulted in inhibition of serum TSH and FT4 to euthyroid levels with concomitant clinical improvements such as the disappearance of sweating, tachycardia, and finger tremors within 7 d. The tumor size diminished dramatically within 6 wk during treatment of one monthly im injection of 20 mg octreotide-LAR. These effects were continued over 2 yr after the start of octreotide-LAR therapy. Therefore, octreotide-LAR appears to be a useful therapeutic tool to facilitate the medical treatment of TSH-secreting pituitary tumors.

  8. A dramatic shift in CO and CH4 levels at urban locations in Korea after the implementation of the Natural Gas Vehicle Supply (NGVS) program.

    PubMed

    Thi Nguyen, Hang; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, C-J; Cho, S-J; Ryeul Sohn, Jong

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH(4)) in air were measured at both urban roadside (U-RS) and urban background (U-BG) stations in Seoul, Korea over an 11 yr period (1996-2006). The overall mean values of CO were 1.16+/-0.63 (U-RS) and 1.08+/-0.77 ppm (U-BG), while those of CH(4) were 2.24+/-0.42 (U-RS) and 2.06+/-0.31 ppm (U-BG). The diurnal patterns of CO tended to peak near rush hour, while those of CH(4) showed increases at night. An examination of the seasonal data showed that the CO values were consistently higher during winter, while CH(4) values were highly variable across seasons with relatively large spatial variations. Because of the noticeable change in air quality parameters after the year 2000, the mean data for both compounds were examined between 1996-2000 (period I) and 2001-2006 (period II). The analysis of long-term trends revealed that the concentrations of both compounds decreased very rapidly during period I, while changes were not significant during period II. The results of this comparative study confirm that both urban locations have experienced dramatic changes in the major pollutant levels, particularly in CO after the implementation of the Natural Gas Vehicle Supply (NGVS) program. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The changes in mycolic acid structures caused by hadC mutation have a dramatic effect on the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Slama, Nawel; Jamet, Stevie; Frigui, Wafa; Pawlik, Alexandre; Bottai, Daria; Laval, Françoise; Constant, Patricia; Lemassu, Anne; Cam, Kaymeuang; Daffé, Mamadou; Brosch, Roland; Eynard, Nathalie; Quémard, Annaïk

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the molecular strategies used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to invade and persist within the host is of paramount importance to tackle the tuberculosis pandemic. Comparative genomic surveys have revealed that hadC, encoding a subunit of the HadBC dehydratase, is mutated in the avirulent M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain. We show here that mutation or deletion of hadC affects the biosynthesis of oxygenated mycolic acids, substantially reducing their production level. Additionally, it causes the loss of atypical extra-long mycolic acids, demonstrating the involvement of HadBC in the late elongation steps of mycolic acid biosynthesis. These events have an impact on the morphotype, cording capacity and biofilm growth of the bacilli as well as on their sensitivity to agents such as rifampicin. Furthermore, deletion of hadC leads to a dramatic loss of virulence: an almost 4-log drop of the bacterial load in the lungs and spleens of infected immunodeficient mice. Both its unique function and importance for M. tuberculosis virulence make HadBC an attractive therapeutic target for tuberculosis drug development.

  10. CathepsinKCre mediated deletion of βcatenin results in dramatic loss of bone mass by targeting both osteoclasts and osteoblastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Paula; Martin-Millan, Marta; Gonzalez-Martin, M. C.; Almeida, Maria; González-Macias, Jesús; Ros, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that activation of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in the osteoblast lineage leads to an increase in bone mass through a dual mechanism: increased osteoblastogenesis and decreased osteoclastogenesis. However, the effect of this pathway on the osteoclast lineage has been less explored. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in mature osteoclasts by generating mice lacking βcatenin in CathepsinK-expressing cells (Ctnnb1f/f;CtsKCre mice). These mice developed a severe low-bone-mass phenotype with onset in the second month and in correlation with an excessive number of osteoclasts, detected by TRAP staining and histomorphometric quantification. We found that WNT3A, through the canonical pathway, promoted osteoclast apoptosis and therefore attenuated the number of M-CSF and RANKL-derived osteoclasts in vitro. This reveals a cell-autonomous effect of Wnt/βcatenin signaling in controlling the life span of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, bone Opg expression in Ctnnb1f/f;CtsKCre mice was dramatically decreased pointing to an additional external activation of osteoclasts. Accordingly, expression of CathepsinK was detected in TRAP-negative cells of the inner periosteal layer also expressing Col1. Our results indicate that the bone phenotype of Ctnnb1f/f;CtsKCre animals combines a cell-autonomous effect in the mature osteoclast with indirect effects due to the additional targeting of osteoblastic cells. PMID:27804995

  11. What's in a Name? An Exploration of the Origins and Implications of the Terms "Creative Dramatics" and "Creative Drama" in the United States: 1950s to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examines the development of the Children's Theatre Conference's 1956 definition statement, which names the word "creative dramatics." Turns to the 1978 Children's Theatre Association of America position paper, which explicitly moves away from the term "creative dramatics" and advocates, "creative drama." Concludes…

  12. Biostratigraphic evidence of dramatic Holocene uplift of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Ridge, SE Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, P.; Le Roux, J. P.; Lara, L. E.; Orozco, G.; Astudillo, V.

    2014-09-01

    A study of the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of Holocene deposits on Robinson Crusoe Island (RCI) on the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) indicates that a~dramatic but localized uplift occurred since 8000 BP, at a rate of about 8.5 mm yr-1. In fact, supratidal flats and sand layers with marine gastropods (mostly Nerita sp.) are now exposed ca. 70 m a.s.l., and covered by transitional dunes. The last volcanic activity on RCI occurred at ca. 0.8 Ma (active hotspot located 280 km further west) and there is no sign of a compensating bulge that explains this uplift, isobaths of the sea floor instead suggesting general subsidence. However, modeling indicates that large-scale landslides followed by isostatic rebound are a viable explanation, partially reflected in the low-resolution bathymetry of the area.

  13. Inclusion of Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions Unlikely to Dramatically Improve Risk Prediction for Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aschard, Hugues; Chen, Jinbo; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of common genetic variants associated with the risk of multifactorial diseases. However, their impact on discrimination and risk prediction is limited. It has been suggested that the identification of gene-gene (G-G) and gene-environment (G-E) interactions would improve disease prediction and facilitate prevention. We conducted a simulation study to explore the potential improvement in discrimination if G-G and G-E interactions exist and are known. We used three diseases (breast cancer, type 2 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis) as motivating examples. We show that the inclusion of G-G and G-E interaction effects in risk-prediction models is unlikely to dramatically improve the discrimination ability of these models. PMID:22633398

  14. Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty in Super-obese Patients: Dramatically Higher Postoperative Complication Rates Even Compared to Revision Surgery.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brian C; Evans, Cody L; Carothers, Joshua T; Browne, James A

    2015-05-01

    This study utilized a national database to evaluate 90 day postoperative complication rates after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in super obese (BMI > 50 kg/m(2)) patients (n = 7666) compared to non-obese patients (n = 1,212,793), obese patients (n = 291,914), morbidly obese patients (n = 169,308) and revision TKA patients (n = 28,812). Super obese patients had significantly higher rates of local and systemic complications compared to all other BMI groups as well as those undergoing revision TKA with higher rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), infection, and medical complications. Super obesity is associated with dramatically increased rates of postoperative complications after TKA compared to non-obese, obese, and morbidly obese patients as well as those undergoing revision TKA.

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of zeolite-entrapped bisterpyridine ruthenium(II). Dramatic consequences of ligand-field-state destabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuiyan, A.A.; Kincaid, J.R.

    1998-05-18

    A bisterpyridine complex of ruthenium(II) (Ru(tpy){sub 2}{sup 2+}) has been prepared in zeolite Y supercages and investigated by electronic absorption, electronic emission, and resonance Raman spectroscopy. In free solution this complex is practically nonluminescent, having a very short excited-state lifetime (250 ps) at room temperature. However, entrapment within the zeolite supercage results in dramatic increases in emission intensity and excited-state lifetime (140 ns) at room temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the excited-state lifetime has been modeled by a kinetic equation with two thermal terms corresponding to the so-called fourth {sup 3}MLCT state and ligand-field state (LF), respectively. It is shown that the increased lifetime of the entrapped complex results from zeolite-induced destabilization of the LFe state, a conclusion which is in agreement with results obtained for a number of other zeolite-entrapped ruthenium(II)polypyridine complexes.

  16. The dramatic effect of small pH changes on the properties of chitosan hydrogels crosslinked with genipin.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Keren; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2015-01-01

    We report on intriguing new phenomena related to the creation of chitosan hydrogels crosslinked with genipin. We found that the reaction between chitosan and genipin is very slow, sometimes requiring more than four days until completed. Further, we discovered that altering the pH within the small range of 4.00-5.50 dramatically affects the reaction, leading to hydrogels differing both in appearance and in properties. Increasing the pH by 1.5 units led to an almost fourfold decrease in the gelation time and more than tenfold equilibrium swelling. A correlation between the percentage of unreacted genipin molecules and the hydrogel properties was identified. The strong pH dependency was attributed to the degree of chitosan protonation and to the inability of protonated chitosan to react with genipin. This research shows, for the first time, that minor changes in the pH can lead to substantially different hydrogels.

  17. FGF-21, a novel metabolic regulator, has a robust neuroprotective role and is dramatically elevated in neurons by mood stabilizers

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yan; Wang, Zhifei; Tsai, Li-Kai; Leeds, Peter; Fessler, Emily Bame; Wang, Junyu; Chuang, De-Maw

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a new member of the FGF super-family and an important endogenous regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. It has been proposed as a therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Its function in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that aging primary neurons are more vulnerable to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, and that co-treatment with the mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) induces synergistic neuroprotective effects. This study sought to identify molecule(s) involved in these synergistic effects. We found that FGF-21 mRNA was selectively and dramatically elevated by co-treatment with lithium and VPA in primary rat brain neurons. FGF-21 protein levels were also robustly increased in neuronal lysates and culture medium following lithium-VPA co-treatment. Combining glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors with VPA or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with lithium synergistically increased FGF-21 mRNA levels, supporting that synergistic effects of lithium and VPA are mediated via GSK-3 and HDAC inhibition, respectively. Exogenous FGF-21 protein completely protected aging neurons from glutamate challenge. This neuroprotection was associated with enhanced Akt-1 activation and GSK-3 inhibition. Lithium-VPA co-treatment dramatically prolonged lithium-induced Akt-1 activation and augmented GSK-3 inhibition. Akt-1 knockdown markedly decreased FGF-21 mRNA levels, and reduced the neuroprotection induced by FGF-21 or lithium-VPA co-treatment. In addition, FGF-21 knockdown reduced lithium-VPA co-treatment-induced Akt-1 activation and neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. Together, our novel results suggest that FGF-21 is a key mediator of the effects of these mood stabilizers, and a potential new therapeutic target for CNS disorders. PMID:24468826

  18. Dramatic secretion of recombinant protein expressed in tobacco cells with a designer glycopeptide tag is highly impacted by medium composition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Dolan, Maureen; Wu, Di; Phillips, Gregory C; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    Cell growth medium composition has profound impacts on the O -glycosylation of a "designer" arabinogalactan protein-based module; full glycosylation is essential in directing efficient extracellular secretion of the tagged recombinant protein. Expression of recombinant proteins in plant cells as fusion with a de novo designed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptide (HypGP) tag, termed HypGP engineering technology, resulted in dramatically increased secreted protein yields. This is due to the function of the HypGP tag as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of conjoined proteins into culture media. To optimize the cell culture to achieve the best secreted protein yields, the medium effects on the cell growth and protein secretion were investigated using as a model system the tobacco BY-2 cell expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fused with a (SP)32 tag (32 tandem repeats of "Ser-Pro" motif). The (SP)32 tag was found to undergo two-stage Hyp-O-glycosylation in plant cells with the dramatic secretion of the conjoined EGFP correlating with the triggering of the second-stage glycosylation. The BY-2 cell culture in SH medium generated a high secreted protein yield (125 mg/L) with a low cell biomass accumulation (~7.5 gDW/L). In contrast, very low secreted protein yields (~1.5 mg/L) with a high cell biomass accumulation (13.5 gDW/L) were obtained in MS medium. The macronutrients, specifically, the nitrogen supply greatly impacted the glycosylation of the (SP)32 tag and subsequent protein secretion. Modified MS medium with reduced nitrogen levels boosted the secreted EGFP yields to 168 mg/L. This study demonstrates the profound impacts of medium composition on the secreted yields of a HypGP-tagged protein, and provides a basis for medium design to achieve the highest productivity of the HypGP engineering technology.

  19. Small molecules that dramatically alter multidrug resistance phenotype by modulating the substrate specificity of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kondratov, Roman V.; Komarov, Pavel G.; Becker, Yigal; Ewenson, Ariel; Gudkov, Andrei V.

    2001-01-01

    By screening a chemical library for the compounds protecting cells from adriamycin (Adr), a series of small molecules was isolated that interfered with the accumulation of Adr in mouse fibroblasts by enhancing efflux of the drug. Isolated compounds also stimulated efflux of Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), another substrate of multidrug transporters. Stimulation of drug efflux was detectable in the cells expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but not in their P-gp-negative variants, and was completely reversible by the P-gp inhibitors. A dramatic stimulation of P-gp activity against Adr and Rho-123 by the identified compounds was accompanied by suppression of P-gp-mediated efflux of other substrates, such as Taxol (paclitaxel) or Hoechst 33342, indicating that they act as modulators of substrate specificity of P-gp. Consistently, P-gp modulators dramatically altered the pattern of cross-resistance of P-gp-expressing cells to different P-gp substrates: an increase in resistance to Adr, daunorubicin, and etoposide was accompanied by cell sensitization to Vinca alkaloids, gramicidin D, and Taxol with no effect on cell sensitivity to colchicine, actinomycin D, puromycin, and colcemid, as well as to several non-P-gp substrates. The relative effect of P-gp modulators against different substrates varied among the isolated compounds that can be used as fine tools for analyzing mechanisms of drug selectivity of P-gp. These results raise the possibility of a rational control over cell sensitivity to drugs and toxins through modulation of P-gp activity by small molecules. PMID:11707575

  20. Arthroscopy and the Dramatic Increase in Frequency of Anterior Acromioplasty from 1980 to 2005: An Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Elizabeth; Cil, Akin; Harmsen, William Scott; Schleck, Cathy; Sperling, John W.; Cofield, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand the utilization of anterior acromioplasty over time – in the absence of rotator cuff repair, to examine the relationship to patient characteristics (age, sex) and types of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial thickness tearing, full thickness tearing undergoing debridement), and to assess the utilization of arthroscopy in this procedure. Methods Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, cataloging medical records of residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota, we identified 246 patients who underwent anterior acromioplasty between 1980 and 2005. It has previously been shown that rarely does a resident of Olmsted County undergo an orthopedic procedure at a facility outside the county. Results The incidence of anterior acromioplasty increased over time (p<0.001) with the crude rate of 3.3 per 100,000 in 1980 to 1985 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2000 to 2005. Sex, age, and types of rotator cuff pathology did not significantly change over the twenty-six year period. There was a dramatic shift from use of the open to the arthroscopic approach over this time period (p<0.001) and a decrease in the concomitant performance of distal clavicle resection (p<0.001). Conclusions The frequency of anterior acromioplasty has dramatically increased over time. Increasing knowledge about this syndrome, including better imaging, has facilitated patient treatment for a stable spectrum of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial thickness tearing, full thickness tearing undergoing debridement), as has the application of endoscopic surgery. PMID:20691562

  1. Arthroscopy and the dramatic increase in frequency of anterior acromioplasty from 1980 to 2005: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elizabeth; Cil, Akin; Harmsen, William Scott; Schleck, Cathy; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert H

    2010-09-01

    The purposes of this study was to better understand the utilization of anterior acromioplasty over time, in the absence of rotator cuff repair; to examine the relation to patient characteristics (age, sex) and types of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial-thickness tearing, full-thickness tearing undergoing debridement); and to assess the utilization of arthroscopy in this procedure. Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, cataloging medical records of residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota, we identified 246 patients who underwent anterior acromioplasty between 1980 and 2005. It has previously been shown that rarely does a resident of Olmsted County undergo an orthopaedic procedure at a facility outside the county. The incidence of anterior acromioplasty increased over time (P < .001), with crude rates of 3.3 per 100,000 persons in 1980 to 1985 and 19.0 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 2005. Sex, age, and types of rotator cuff pathology did not significantly change over the 26-year period. There was a dramatic shift from use of the open approach to the arthroscopic approach over this time period (P < .001) and a decrease in the concomitant performance of distal clavicle resection (P < .001). The frequency of anterior acromioplasty has dramatically increased over time. Increasing knowledge about this syndrome, including better imaging, has facilitated patient treatment for a stable spectrum of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial-thickness tearing, full-thickness tearing undergoing debridement), as has the application of endoscopic surgery. Level III, epidemiologic study.

  2. Papain-templated Cu nanoclusters: assaying and exhibiting dramatic antibacterial activity cooperating with H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Hong; Zhong, Dan; Zhou, Zinan; Yang, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to &z.rad;OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising antibacterial material.Herein, papain-functionalized Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs@Papain) were originally synthesized in aqueous solution together with a quantum yield of 14.3%, and showed obviously red fluorescence at 620 nm. Meanwhile, their corresponding fluorescence mechanism was fully elucidated by fluorescence spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. Subsequently, the as-prepared CuNCs were employed as probes for detecting H2O2. Using CuNCs as probes, H2O2 was determined in the range from 1 μM to 50 μM based on a linear decrease of fluorescence intensity as well as a detection limit of 0.2 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. More significantly, it has been proved that CuNCs could convert H2O2 to &z.rad;OH, which exhibited dramatic antibacterial activity. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to validate their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive/negative bacteria and actual wound infection, suggesting their potential for serving as one type of promising

  3. Dramatic Contrasts in Arctic vs Antarctic Sea Ice Trends in 3-D Visualizations and Compilations of Monthly Record Highs and Lows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2016-01-01

    New visualizations dramatically display the decreases in Arctic sea ice coverage over the years 1979-2015, apparent in each month of the year, with not a single record high in ice extents occurring in any month since 1986, a time period with 75 monthly record lows. Results are less dramatic in the Antarctic, but intriguingly in the opposite direction, with only 6 record lows since 1986 and 45 record highs.

  4. Intact neurobehavioral development and dramatic impairments of procedural-like memory following neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Lecourtier, L; Antal, M-C; Cosquer, B; Schumacher, A; Samama, B; Angst, M-J; Ferrandon, A; Koning, E; Cassel, J-C; Nehlig, A

    2012-04-05

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) in rats are considered a potent developmental model of schizophrenia. After NVHL, rats appear normal during their preadolescent time, whereas in early adulthood, they develop behavioral deficits paralleling symptomatic aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, hypersensitivity to amphetamine (AMPH), prepulse and latent inhibition deficits, reduced social interactions, and spatial working and reference memory alterations. Surprisingly, the question of the consequences of NVHL on postnatal neurobehavioral development has not been addressed. This is of particular importance, as a defective neurobehavioral development could contribute to impairments seen in adult rats. Therefore, at several time points of the early postsurgical life of NVHL rats, we assessed behaviors accounting for neurobehavioral development, including negative geotaxis and grip strength (PD11), locomotor coordination (PD21), and open-field (PD25). At adulthood, the rats were tested for anxiety levels, locomotor activity, as well as spatial reference memory performance. Using a novel task, we also investigated the consequences of the lesions on procedural-like memory, which had never been tested following NVHL. Our results point to preserved neurobehavioral development. They also confirm the already documented locomotor hyperactivity, spatial reference memory impairment, and hyperresponsiveness to AMPH. Finally, our rseults show for the first time that NVHL disabled the development of behavioral routines, suggesting dramatic procedural memory deficits. The presence of procedural memory deficits in adult rats subjected to NHVL suggests that the lesions lead to a wider range of cognitive deficits than previously shown. Interestingly, procedural or implicit memory impairments have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

  5. Application of subcutaneous talc in hernia repair and wide subcutaneous dissection dramatically reduces seroma formation and postoperative wound complications.

    PubMed

    Klima, David A; Brintzenhoff, Rita A; Tsirline, Victor B; Belyansky, Igor; Lincourt, Amy E; Getz, Stanley; Heniford, B Todd

    2011-07-01

    Wound complications after large ventral hernia repairs when combined with wide subcutaneous dissection (OVHR/WSD) are common (33 to 66%). We evaluate a novel technique of applying talc to wound subcutaneous tissues to decrease wound complications. We accessed our prospectively collected surgical outcomes database for OVHR/WSD procedures performed. Patients were divided into those that did and did not receive subcutaneous talc (TALC vs NOTALC). Demographics intraoperative and outcomes data were collected and analyzed. The study included 180 patients (n = 74 TALC, n = 106 NOTALC). Demographics were all similar, but hernias were larger in the TALC group. TALC patients had their drains removed earlier (14.6 vs 25.6 days; P < 0.001) with dramatic reduction in postoperative seromas requiring intervention (20.8 to 2.7%; P < 0.001) and cellulitis (39.0 to 20.6%; P = 0.007). Short-term follow-up demonstrates significantly higher recurrence rates in the NOTALC group with each recurrence related to infection. The use of talc in the subcutaneous space of OVHR/WSD results in significantly earlier removal of subcutaneous drains, fewer wound complications, and a decrease in early hernia recurrence. Use of talc in the subcutaneous space at the time of wound closure is an excellent technique to decrease wound complications in large subcutaneous dissections.

  6. Dramatic decrease of pelagic carbonate production by nannoplankton across the Early Toarcian anoxic event (T-OAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Emanuela; Pittet, Bernard; Petitpierre, Laurent; Mailliot, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    In this account we present estimates of nannofossil fluxes in four sections and one borehole all belonging to the Early Jurassic western Tethys. This study aims to map the distribution of pelagic carbonate production across the Early Toarcian anoxic event (T-OAE), and to understand which environmental parameters did control such production. Our results indicate important changes in carbonate production by nannoplankton occurring within the western Tethys and its variations through time. Nannofossil fluxes (specimens per m 2 per year) are extremely low during the T-OAE in all the studied settings. Higher fluxes are encountered in the westernmost part of the Tethys Ocean before the T-OAE, whilst pelagic carbonate production shifted towards the northern margin of the Tethys after the recovery from anoxic conditions. The dramatic decrease in nannoplankton production during the T-OAE has been interpreted in previous works as a biocalcification crisis related to high pCO 2 in the atmosphere/hydrosphere system. Although a high pCO 2 may have lowered the carbonate saturation state of Early Jurassic oceans and finally hampered biocalcification, we speculate that the most important effects of CO 2 increase were indirect, and affected pelagic producers via changes on climate and sea-level. Namely, it seems that precipitation/evaporation budgets and continental runoff that controlled nutrient levels and salinity in surface oceanic waters were important factors for pelagic biocalcifiers.

  7. A life-threatening case of TAFRO syndrome with dramatic response to tocilizumab, rituximab, and pulse steroids

    PubMed Central

    José, Fabio Freire; Kerbauy, Lucila Nassif; Perini, Guilherme Fleury; Blumenschein, Danielle Isadora; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Malheiros, Denise Maria Avancini Costa; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; de Souza Santos, Fabio Pires; Piovesan, Ronaldo; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: This is the report of the first case of TAFRO syndrome (Thrombocytopenia, Anasarca, myelofibrosis, Renal dysfunction, Organomegaly) in Latin America. Patient concerns: The patient was a 61-year-old white woman of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, who presented with a history of 8 days of nausea, vomiting, and fever; severe pitting edema in both legs, ascites, splenomegaly, and palpable axillary lymph nodes. Diagnoses: Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral pleural effusion and retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement. Interventions: Anasarca and worsening of renal function led to admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, requiring mechanical ventilation, vasopressor medications, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Diagnosis of TAFRO syndrome was made on day 18 after admission, based on clinical findings and results of bone marrow and lymph node biopsies. She was treated with methylprednisolone, tocilizumab, and rituximab. One week after the first tocilizumab dose, she had dramatic improvements in respiratory and hemodynamic status, and was weaned from ventilator support and vasopressor medications. Outcomes: After 2 weeks of therapy, CRRT was switched to intermittent hemodialysis. On day 46, the patient was discharged from the ICU to the general ward, and 3 months after admission, she went home. Lessons: Provided the interleukin-6 measurement is available, this approach is suggested in cases of TAFRO syndrome, in order to customize the treatment. PMID:28353560

  8. Monitoring of a Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-BAL in the Quasar HS1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, M.; Charlton, J. C.; Kashikawa, N.

    2006-12-01

    We present eight high-resolution spectra of an optically bright quasar, HS1603+3820 (z_em=2.542), taken over an interval of 4.2 years (1.2 years in the quasar rest frame) with Subaru Telescope and Hobby-Eberly Telescope, for the purpose of monitoring absorption lines that are physically associated to the quasar. Among eight C IV absorption systems in this quasar spectrum, only one mini-BAL system at z_abs 2.43, which was already identified as an intrinsic system based on partial coverage analysis (Misawa et al. 2003,2005), showed dramatic time variability. We fitted Voigt profiles to the mini-BAL, and found that there were no clear correlations between the fit parameters such as the column density, Doppler parameter, and coverage fraction. This result suggests that the mini-BAL absorber has an inhomogeneous internal structure. Another important observational clue is that all absorption components in the system varied in concert, which suggests the observed time variability was due to a change of the ionization conditions (not due to the gas motion) in the mini-BAL absorber. Because such rapid UV continuum variability is not expected in luminous quasars such as our target, we suggest that a variable screen of material between the quasar continuum source and the absorber is the cause of the changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL system. We acknowledge support from NASA grant NAG5-10817.

  9. Integration Strategy Is a Key Step in Network-Based Analysis and Dramatically Affects Network Topological Properties and Inferring Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nana; Wu, Deng; Gong, Yonghui; Bi, Xiaoman; Jiang, Hong; Li, Kongning; Wang, Qianghu

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of experiments have been designed to detect intracellular and intercellular molecular interactions. Based on these molecular interactions (especially protein interactions), molecular networks have been built for using in several typical applications, such as the discovery of new disease genes and the identification of drug targets and molecular complexes. Because the data are incomplete and a considerable number of false-positive interactions exist, protein interactions from different sources are commonly integrated in network analyses to build a stable molecular network. Although various types of integration strategies are being applied in current studies, the topological properties of the networks from these different integration strategies, especially typical applications based on these network integration strategies, have not been rigorously evaluated. In this paper, systematic analyses were performed to evaluate 11 frequently used methods using two types of integration strategies: empirical and machine learning methods. The topological properties of the networks of these different integration strategies were found to significantly differ. Moreover, these networks were found to dramatically affect the outcomes of typical applications, such as disease gene predictions, drug target detections, and molecular complex identifications. The analysis presented in this paper could provide an important basis for future network-based biological researches. PMID:25243127

  10. Dramatic Changes in Thermoelectric Power of Germanium under Pressure: Printing n-p Junctions by Applied Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobeinikov, Igor V.; Morozova, Natalia V.; Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.

    2017-03-01

    Controlled tuning the electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical and other characteristics of the leading semiconducting materials is one of the primary technological challenges. Here, we demonstrate that the electronic transport properties of conventional single-crystalline wafers of germanium may be dramatically tuned by application of moderate pressures. We investigated the thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient) of p- and n-type germanium under high pressure to 20 GPa. We established that an applied pressure of several GPa drastically shifts the electrical conduction to p-type. The p-type conduction is conserved across the semiconductor-metal phase transition at near 10 GPa. Upon pressure releasing, germanium transformed to a metastable st12 phase (Ge-III) with n-type semiconducting conductivity. We proposed that the unusual electronic properties of germanium in the original cubic-diamond-structured phase could result from a splitting of the “heavy” and “light” holes bands, and a related charge transfer between them. We suggested new innovative applications of germanium, e.g., in technologies of printing of n-p and n-p-n junctions by applied stress. Thus, our work has uncovered a new face of germanium as a ‘smart’ material.

  11. Opioid prescriptions for pain and epidemic of overdose death: can the dramatic reduction in anesthesia mortality serve as an example?

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The annual number of US deaths from prescription-opioid overdose quadrupled between 1999 and 2010 and in 2010 alone reached 16,651. Deaths from opioid overdose have now surpassed the historic death toll from another drug-related epidemic – anesthesia mortality. In 1954, Beecher and Todd published reliable data on anesthesia-related mortality in the US, estimating the annual number of deaths to be nearly 5,000. Presently anesthesia/anesthetics are reported as the underlying cause in approximately 34 deaths in the US annually. This spectacular decline in anesthesia-related mortality could serve as an example for attempts to curb the epidemic of opioid overdose death. The main reason that led to the dramatic decline in anesthesia-related mortality is the context in which anesthetics are used. It includes training of the anesthesia providers, the introduction of specific standards of patient safety, and anesthesia monitoring. I suggest that the introduction of a similar multifactorial proper context for the use of opioids in the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain might be the same “game changer” it was for safety in anesthesia. PMID:27418852

  12. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list.

  13. Dramatic Changes in Thermoelectric Power of Germanium under Pressure: Printing n–p Junctions by Applied Stress

    PubMed Central

    Korobeinikov, Igor V.; Morozova, Natalia V.; Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled tuning the electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical and other characteristics of the leading semiconducting materials is one of the primary technological challenges. Here, we demonstrate that the electronic transport properties of conventional single-crystalline wafers of germanium may be dramatically tuned by application of moderate pressures. We investigated the thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient) of p– and n–type germanium under high pressure to 20 GPa. We established that an applied pressure of several GPa drastically shifts the electrical conduction to p–type. The p–type conduction is conserved across the semiconductor-metal phase transition at near 10 GPa. Upon pressure releasing, germanium transformed to a metastable st12 phase (Ge-III) with n–type semiconducting conductivity. We proposed that the unusual electronic properties of germanium in the original cubic-diamond-structured phase could result from a splitting of the “heavy” and “light” holes bands, and a related charge transfer between them. We suggested new innovative applications of germanium, e.g., in technologies of printing of n–p and n–p–n junctions by applied stress. Thus, our work has uncovered a new face of germanium as a ‘smart’ material. PMID:28290495

  14. The copy number of chloroplast gene minicircles changes dramatically with growth phase in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum.

    PubMed

    Koumandou, V L; Howe, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The chloroplast genome of algae and plants typically comprises a circular DNA molecule of 100-200kb, which harbours approximately 120 genes, and is present in 50-100 copies per chloroplast. However, in peridinin dinoflagellates, an ecologically important group of unicellular algae, the chloroplast genome is fragmented into plasmid-like 'minicircles', each of 2-3kb. Furthermore, the chloroplast gene content of dinoflagellates is dramatically reduced. Only 14 genes have been found on dinoflagellate minicircles, and recent evidence from EST studies suggests that most of the genes typically located in the chloroplast in other algae and plants are located in the nucleus. In this study, Southern blot analysis was used to estimate the copy number per cell of a variety of minicircles during different growth stages in the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum. It was found that minicircle copy number is low during the exponential growth stage but increases during the later growth phase to resemble the situation seen in other plants and algae. The control of minicircle replication is discussed in the light of these findings.

  15. Linkage between Three Gorges Dam impacts and the dramatic recessions in China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Du, Jinzhou; Chen, Jiyu

    2015-12-01

    Despite comprising a small portion of the earth’s surface, lakes are vitally important for global ecosystem cycling. However, lake systems worldwide are extremely fragile, and many are shrinking due to changing climate and anthropogenic activities. Here, we show that Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced a dramatic and prolonged recession, which began in late September of 2003. We further demonstrate that abnormally low levels appear during October, 28 days ahead of the normal initiation of the dry season, which greatly imperiled the lake’s wetland areas and function as an ecosystem for wintering waterbirds. An increase in the river-lake water level gradient induced by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) altered the lake balance by inducing greater discharge into the Changjiang River, which is probably responsible for the current lake shrinkage. Occasional episodes of arid climate, as well as local sand mining, will aggravate the lake recession crisis. Although impacts of TGD on the Poyang Lake recession can be overruled by episodic extreme droughts, we argue that the average contributions of precipitation variation, human activities in the Poyang Lake catchment and TGD regulation to the Poyang Lake recession can be quantified as 39.1%, 4.6% and 56.3%, respectively.

  16. Nonlinear response properties of ultralarge hyperpolarizability twisted pi-system donor-acceptor chromophores. Dramatic environmental effects on response.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric C; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2008-01-10

    State-average complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) calculations are performed on the energetically lowest two electronic states of a novel alkyl-substituted 4-quinopyran twisted pi-system electro-optic chromophore. In the gas phase, the ground-state electronic configuration is diradicaloid (D), and the first excited state is zwitterionic (Z). When an external dipolar field is applied to simulate polar solvation, the relative energies of D and Z are dramatically perturbed. At sufficient field strengths, the relative ordering of the states is inverted so that Z becomes the ground state. As the energy difference between the D and Z states falls, the magnitudes of the longitudinal static polarizability (alpha) and hyperpolarizability (beta) increase appreciably--in certain cases, by 2 orders of magnitude. These computational results are interpreted and supported by qualitative state correlation diagrams constructed from qualitative molecular orbital theory and are in agreement with recent experimental results on twisted pi-system electro-optic chromophores (Kang, H. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 3267). The computational results also suggest that changing the environmental polarity is a promising strategy for tuning alpha and beta in such types of chromophores, which experimentally exhibit large nonlinear optical response.

  17. The hormonal response to stress is not modified by the dramatic decrease in prolactin plasma concentration during surgery for microprolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guieu, R; Dufour, H; Devaux, C; Brue, T; Rosso, J; Grisoli, F; Grino, M; Enjalbert, A; Begoud, D; Broder, N; Rochat, H; Jaquet, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIIVES—To determine the endocrine response to surgical stress in a homogeneous population of 36 women with microprolactinomas, particularly to evaluate the effect of the sharp decrease in plasma prolactin on stress induced hormonal secretion. In addition, the effects of exogenous opiates on prolactin secretion were studied.
METHODS—The plasma kinetics of cortisol, prolactin, ACTH, GH, and β-endorphin like immunoreactivity (β-ELI) were analysed by including patients operated on with strict anaesthetic and surgical protocols, and by sampling blood every 10 minutes, starting at premedication up to 3 hours after induction.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS—(a) Surgical stress or opiate administration did not induce prolactin release in patients with microprolactinoma. (b) The dramatic decrease in prolactin concentrations have apparently no effect on the release of other hormones involved in stress. (c) The existence of an early GH peak, independently of any surgical procedure, strongly suggests that GH is released by surgical stress whereas β-endorphin is secreted in response to pain. Thus GH may be a useful marker of surgical stress.

 PMID:9771773

  18. Honokiol nanosuspensions: preparation, increased oral bioavailability and dramatically enhanced biodistribution in the cardio-cerebro-vascular system.

    PubMed

    Han, Meihua; Yu, Xin; Guo, Yifei; Wang, Yanhong; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2014-04-01

    Honokiol is a phytochemical component with multiple pharmacological activities, but Honokiol's wider use has been restricted by its poor solubility. Using bovine serum albumin and polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilisers in a solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method, Honokiol nanosuspensions were prepared with a mean particle size of 116.2 nm (±2 nm), a zeta potential of -44.7 mV (±1.7 mV) and a high drug payload of 50.4 ± 0.6% (w/w). X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that Honokiol was in an amorphous state in the nanosuspensions, in contrast with bulk Honokiol powder. Honokiol was released faster in vitro from nanosuspensions with no burst release, and the highest 98% cumulative release was after 60 h. Honokiol nanosuspensions improved the oral bioavailability of Honokiol in in vivo studies in rats with a 3.94-fold Cmax and a 2.2-fold AUC(0-t). Remarkably, in contrast to oral administration, intraperitoneal administration of Honokiol nanosuspensions could dramatically alter the biodistribution of Honokiol, resulting in a much higher drug level and tissue bioavailability in the blood, heart and brain, benefitting the treatment of cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids in membrane glycerolipids is associated with dramatic alterations in plant morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, A A; Wrischer, M; Kunst, L

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 gene under the control of the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus accumulated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) throughout the plant. In some transformants, C20 and C22 VLCFAs accounted for >30% of the total fatty acids, accumulating at the expense of C16 and C18 fatty acids. These C20 and C22 fatty acids were incorporated into all of the major membrane glycerolipid classes. Plants with a high VLCFA content displayed a dramatically altered morphology, which included the failure of flowering shoots to elongate, a modified spatial pattern of siliques, an altered floral phenotype, and a large accumulation of anthocyanins. In addition, these plants also exhibited a unique alteration of the chloroplast membrane structure. We discuss a possible role for VLCFAs in establishing the shape/curvature of the membranes, which in turn may affect the shape of the cell and ultimately that of the whole plant. PMID:9811796

  20. Satellite monitoring of dramatic changes at Hawai'i's only alpine lake: Lake Waiau on Mauna Kea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Waiau is a small, typically 100-meter-long lake, located near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi. It is Hawaiʻi’s only alpine lake and is considered sacred in Hawaiian cultural tradition. Over the past few years, the lake has diminished in size, and, by October 2013, surface water had almost completely disappeared from the lake. In this study, we use high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs to document recent changes at the lake. Based on our reconstructions covering the past 200 years, the historical lake surface area has typically ranged from 5,000 to 7,000 square meters, but in 2010 a dramatic plunge in lake area ensued. The lake area rebounded significantly in early 2014, following heavy winter storms. This near disappearance of the lake, judging from analysis of visitor photographs and field reports, appears to be highly unusual, if not unprecedented, in the historical record. The unusually low water levels in the lake are consistent with a recent severe drought in Hawaiʻi.

  1. Home in the heat: dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  2. Cell fusion mediates dramatic alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, and E-cadherin in trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Atsuko; Omata, Waka; Ackerman, William E; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Vandré, Dale D; Robinson, John M

    2014-04-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is a unique epithelia structure with millions of nuclei sharing a common cytoplasm. The syncytiotrophoblast forms by cell-cell fusion of cytotrophoblasts (CTB), the mononuclear precursor cells. The trophoblastic BeWo cell line has been used as a surrogate for CTB since they can be induced to fuse, and subsequently display numerous syncytiotrophoblast differentiation markers following syncytial formation. In this study, we have focused on alterations in the cell-adhesion molecule E-cadherin, actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesions following BeWo cell fusion, since these entities may be interrelated. There was a dramatic reorganization of the distribution of E-cadherin as well as a reduction in the amount of E-cadherin following cell fusion. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was also observed, which was associated with a change in the globular actin (G-actin)/filamentous actin (F-actin) ratio. Concomitantly, the morphology of focal adhesions was altered, but this occurred without a corresponding change in the levels of focal adhesion marker proteins. Thus, extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions accompanies cell fusion and differentiation and appears related to alterations in E-cadherin in trophoblastic cells.

  3. Menu modeling with MyPyramid food patterns: incremental dietary changes lead to dramatic improvements in diet quality of menus.

    PubMed

    Hornick, Betsy A; Krester, Alison J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2008-12-01

    The MyPyramid food guidance system provides recommended food intake patterns for members of each sex at various age and activity levels. These food intake patterns are based on recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Actual consumption patterns of American adults compared to MyPyramid recommendations indicate that substantial changes are needed to meet the goals of MyPyramid. One method for encouraging dietary change, known as the small steps approach, involves small, gradual changes to meet a desired endpoint. Menu modeling was used to evaluate the effects of gradual dietary changes on diet quality. Seven days of baseline menus were developed to model the intake of adult women aged 31 to 50 years. Incremental changes were made to each baseline menu to create a series of three transitional menus and a final target menu. Target menus met MyPyramid energy and nutrient intake goals. Diet quality was measured for each baseline, transitional, and target menu using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. The average Healthy Eating Index-2005 score for baseline menus compared to target menus increased by more than 50 points with incremental increases observed for each transitional menu. This analysis demonstrates that small, practical changes in food choices that bring consumers closer to meeting MyPyramid recommendations result in gradual and dramatic improvements in diet quality. Food and nutrition professionals can use menu modeling to provide concrete examples and specific guidance for making progressive changes in food selections to meet current dietary recommendations.

  4. Therapeutic agents with dramatic antiretroviral activity and little toxicity at effective doses: aromatic polycyclic diones hypericin and pseudohypericin.

    PubMed Central

    Meruelo, D; Lavie, G; Lavie, D

    1988-01-01

    Two aromatic polycyclic diones hypericin and pseudohypericin have potent antiretroviral activity; these substances occur in plants of the Hypericum family. Both compounds are highly effective in preventing viral-induced manifestations that follow infections with a variety of retroviruses in vivo and in vitro. Pseudohypericin and hypericin probably interfere with viral infection and/or spread by direct inactivation of the virus or by preventing virus shedding, budding, or assembly at the cell membrane. These compounds have no apparent activity against the transcription, translation, or transport of viral proteins to the cell membrane and also no direct effect on the polymerase. This property distinguishes their mode of action from that of the major antiretro-virus group of nucleoside analogues. Hypericin and pseudohypericin have low in vitro cytotoxic activity at concentrations sufficient to produce dramatic antiviral effects in murine tissue culture model systems that use radiation leukemia and Friend viruses. Administration of these compounds to mice at the low doses sufficient to prevent retroviral-induced disease appears devoid of undesirable side effects. This lack of toxicity at therapeutic doses extends to humans, as these compounds have been tested in patients as antidepressants with apparent salutary effects. Our observations to date suggest that pseudohypericin and hypericin could become therapeutic tools against retroviral-induced diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Images PMID:2839837

  5. Linkage between Three Gorges Dam impacts and the dramatic recessions in China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Du, Jinzhou; Chen, Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    Despite comprising a small portion of the earth’s surface, lakes are vitally important for global ecosystem cycling. However, lake systems worldwide are extremely fragile, and many are shrinking due to changing climate and anthropogenic activities. Here, we show that Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced a dramatic and prolonged recession, which began in late September of 2003. We further demonstrate that abnormally low levels appear during October, 28 days ahead of the normal initiation of the dry season, which greatly imperiled the lake’s wetland areas and function as an ecosystem for wintering waterbirds. An increase in the river-lake water level gradient induced by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) altered the lake balance by inducing greater discharge into the Changjiang River, which is probably responsible for the current lake shrinkage. Occasional episodes of arid climate, as well as local sand mining, will aggravate the lake recession crisis. Although impacts of TGD on the Poyang Lake recession can be overruled by episodic extreme droughts, we argue that the average contributions of precipitation variation, human activities in the Poyang Lake catchment and TGD regulation to the Poyang Lake recession can be quantified as 39.1%, 4.6% and 56.3%, respectively. PMID:26657816

  6. Bariatric Surgery Prior to Total Joint Arthroplasty May Not Provide Dramatic Improvements In Post Arthroplasty Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Elizabeth W.; Fisher, David; Li, Robert A.; Barber, Thomas C.; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgical outcomes of patients who had bariatric surgery prior to TJA to TJA patients who were candidates but did not have bariatric surgery. Patients were retrospectively grouped into: Group 1 (n=69), those with bariatric surgery >2 years prior to TJA, Group 2 (n=102), those with surgery within 2 years of TJA, and Group 3 (n=11,032), those without bariatric surgery. In Group 1, 2.9% (95%CI 0.0–6.9%) had complications within 1 year compared to 5.9% (95%CI 1.3–10.4%) in Group 2, and 4.1% (95%CI 3.8–4.5%) in Group 3. 90-day readmission (7.2%, 95%CI 1.1–13.4%) and revision density (3.4/100 years of observation) was highest in Group 1. Bariatric surgery prior to TJA may not provide dramatic improvements in post-operative TJA surgical outcomes. PMID:24674730

  7. Two centuries of the Scandinavian wolf population: patterns of genetic variability and migration during an era of dramatic decline.

    PubMed

    Flagstad, Ø; Walker, C W; Vilà, C; Sundqvist, A-K; Fernholm, B; Hufthammer, A K; Wiig, Ø; Koyola, I; Ellegren, H

    2003-04-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) was numerous on the Scandinavian peninsula in the early 19th century. However, as a result of intense persecution, the population declined dramatically and was virtually extinct from the peninsula by the 1960s. We examined historical patterns of genetic variability throughout the period of decline, from 1829 to 1979. Contemporary Finnish wolves, considered to be representative of a large eastern wolf population, were used for comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability among historical Scandinavian wolves was significantly lower than in Finland while Y chromosome variability was comparable between the two populations. This may suggest that long-distance migration from the east has been male-biased. Importantly though, as the historical population was significantly differentiated from contemporary Finnish wolves, the overall immigration rate to the Scandinavian peninsula appears to have been low. Levels of variability at autosomal microsatellite loci were high by the early 1800s but declined considerably towards the mid-20th century. At this time, approximately 40% of the allelic diversity and 30% of the heterozygosity had been lost. After 1940, however, there is evidence of several immigration events, coinciding with episodes of marked population increase in Russian Karelia and subsequent westwards migration.

  8. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  9. Optical properties of high aspect ratio plasma etched silicon nanowires: fabrication-induced variability dramatically reduces reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrnakis, A.; Almpanis, E.; Constantoudis, V.; Papanikolaou, N.; Gogolides, E.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we investigate both experimentally and theoretically the optical properties of aligned, perpendicular to the substrate, high aspect ratio (AR), plasma etched Si nanowires (SiNWs) with controlled variability. We focus on the role of imperfections in fabrication, which manifest themselves as dimensional variability of SiNW, lattice defects or positional randomization. SiNW arrays are fabricated by e-beam lithography (perfectly ordered array) or colloidal particle self-assembly (quasi-ordered array) followed by cryogenic Si plasma etching, which offers fast etch rate (up to 3 μm min-1) combined with clean, smooth, and controllable sidewall profile, but induces some dimensional variability on the diameters of the SiNWs. Sub-200 nm diameter SiNWs having AR as high as 37:1 are demonstrated. The total reflectance of SiNWs is below 2% in a wide range of the optical spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate improved light absorption when moving from a perfectly ordered (after e-beam lithography) to a defective and quasi-ordered (after colloidal self-assembly) SiNW array. In addition our measured reflectivity (for both ordered and quasi-ordered SiNWs) is much lower compared to the one predicted theoretically for a perfect SiNWs array, using full-electrodynamic calculations with the layer-multiple-scattering method. To explain such low reflectivity, we model the influence of disorder using the average T-matrix approximation and show that even small dimensional variability (10-20%) leads to dramatic reduction of the reflectance (matching the experimental results) and increased light trapping inside the SiNW justifying their possible application in photovoltaic devices.

  10. Barremian-Aptian rudist shells record dramatic shallow-water sea-surface temperature changes in the Tethyan Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The dramatic and stepwise emplacement of large igneous provinces is generally accepted as primary driver of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Although excess output of volcanically induced greenhouse gases should have promoted "super greenhouse phases", several studies provide evidence for transient Cretaceous "cold snaps", particularly during the Barremian-Aptian stage. To date, reconstructions of Cretaceous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predominantly based either on δ18O analyses of pristine foraminiferal calcite or on crenarchaeotal membrane lipid distributions (TEX86) in pelagic deposits. Both types of proxies provide at best estimates of mean annual SSTs of open ocean settings. In order to better understand the dynamics of Cretaceous global warmth and the impact of fluctuating SSTs on carbonate platform ecosystems, the current study aims at reconstructing the stratigraphic and spatial evolution of subtropical shallow-marine sea-surface temperatures. Well-preserved low-Mg calcite rudist shells hold a strong potential to act as archives for the reconstruction of Cretaceous palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions, as ontogenetic isotopic and trace element variability of these shells also resolve sub-annual (seasonal) temperature fluctuations (Steuber et al., 2005). In the context of the current study, high-resolution sclerochemistry (δ18O, Mg contents) has been performed on rudists derived from chemostratigraphically (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C) well-constrained Barremian-Aptian carbonate platform settings in the subtropical Tethyan realm (France, Croatia, Spain, Portugal). The outcome of this work will be of significance both for those studying the triggering factors of oceanic anoxic events and the palaeoecology of rudist bivalves. Steuber, T., Rauch, M., Masse, J.-P., Graaf, J., Malkoc, M. (2005) Low-latitude seasonality of Cretaceous temperatures in warm and cold episodes. Nature 437: 1341-1344.

  11. Biostratigraphic evidence for dramatic Holocene uplift of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Ridge, SE Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, P.; Le Roux, J. P.; Lara, L. E.; Orozco, G.; Astudillo, V.

    2015-03-01

    Hotspot oceanic islands typically experience subsidence due to several processes related to migration of the oceanic plate away from the mantle plume and surface flexural loading. However, many other processes can interrupt subsidence, some of which may be associated with catastrophic events. A study of the biostratigraphy and sedimentology of Holocene deposits on Robinson Crusoe Island (RCI) on the Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) indicated that dramatic uplift has occurred since 8000 years BP, at a rate of about 8.5mm yr-1. This is evidenced by supratidal flats with tepee structures and sand layers containing marine gastropods (mostly Nerita sp.) that are now exposed ca. 70 m a.s.l. The active hotspot is located 280 km further west and the last volcanic activity on RCI occurred at ca. 800 000 years BP. Long-term subsidence is evidenced by deep submerged marine abrasion terraces at RCI. As no direct evidence was found for the existence of a compensating bulge generated by the present hotspot upon which RCI would be situated, it must be concluded that subsidence in the wake of the mantle plume beneath the migrating plate was interrupted by very rapid uplift, but on a scale that did not fully compensate for the previous subsidence. This can be attributed to large-scale landslides followed by isostatic rebound, although this is only vaguely reflected in the low-resolution bathymetry of the area. To determine if this mechanism produced the uplift, a detailed bathymetric survey of the area will be required. If such a survey confirms this hypothesis, it may have implications for the short-term dynamics of vertical variations of oceanic edifices and their related effects on ecosystems and human population.

  12. New evidence for a dramatic rise in atmosphere oxygen ca. 1,900 m.y. ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, H. D.; Macfarlane, A. W.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of geologic evidence have pointed to a significant increase in P sub O2 about 2,000 m.y. ago, but the magnitude of P sub O2 before and after that time has been quite uncertain. The data that we have recently accumulated suggest that P sub O2 was approximately less than 2 x 10 (exp -3) atm more than 2,000 m.y. ago, and approximately greater than 0.03 atm more recently than ca. 1,900 m.y. ago. These estimates are based on the behavior of iron in Precambrian weathering horizons. More than ca. 2,000 m.y. ago, Fe(+2), released during the weathering of basalts was not oxidized to Fe(+3), and was removed in ground water from the upper layers of soil horizons. More recently than ca. 1,850 m.y. ago, Fe(+2) was oxidized to Fe(+3) and precipitated as iron oxides and hydroxides in such soil horizons and in the weathering products of a carbonate facies banded iron formation in Griqualand West, South Africa. The O2 content of the atmosphere must have increased dramatically about 1,900 m.y. ago to explain these observations. The reasons for the increase are still obscure, but are probably related to changes in the biologic productivity of the oceans. Eukaryotes appear to have developed shortly after the increase in P sub O2, perhaps in response to the subsequent increase in the supply of nitrate from the atmosphere to the oceans.

  13. ADNP/NAP dramatically increase microtubule end-binding protein-Tau interaction: a novel avenue for protection against tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Ivashko-Pachima, Y; Sayas, C Laura; Malishkevich, A; Gozes, I

    2017-01-24

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), vital for brain formation and cognitive function, is mutated in autism and linked to neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases. An eight-amino-acid peptide snippet of ADNP, NAP (NAPVSIPQ), identified as a smallest active fragment, includes the SxIP microtubule (MT) end-binding protein (EB) association motif, and enhances ADNP-EB3 interaction. Depletion of EB1 or EB3 abolishes NAP protection against zinc intoxication. Furthermore, NAP enhances Tau-MT interaction, and Tau regulates the localization and function of EB1 and EB3 in developing neuronal cells. Here, we asked how NAP (ADNP) enhances Tau-MT interactions and whether this is mediated by EBs. We showed, for we believe the first time, that NAP augmented endogenous EB1 comet density in the N1E-115 neuroblastoma neuronal model. This finding was substantiated by cell transfection with fluorescent EB1 and live cell imaging. NAP increased comet amounts, length and speed. At the molecular level, NAP enhanced EB3 homodimer formation, while decreasing EB1-EB3 heterodimer content and driving EB1- and EB3-Tau interactions (dramatic 20-fold increases), leading to recruitment of EB1/EB3 and Tau to MTs under zinc intoxication. Our previous results showed that while NAP protected neuronal-like cells against oxidative stress, it did not protect NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Here, NAP did not protect NIH3T3 cells against zinc intoxication, unless these cells were transfected with Tau. Interestingly, other MT associated proteins (MAPs) may replace Tau, thus, EB-Tau (MAPs) interaction is identified as a novel target for endogenous ADNP neuroprotection, and a future target for drug development, with NAP as a prototype.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.255.

  14. Demand management by electronic gatekeeping of test requests does not influence requesting behaviour or save costs dramatically.

    PubMed

    Pema, Aarti K; Kiabilua, Olivia; Pillay, Tahir S

    2017-01-01

    Background Healthcare budgets face constraints, and laboratories have developed strategies to adapt to the concomitant increase in workload. Some of the tests (7.4%) may be attributed to unnecessary repeat testing. Electronic gatekeeping has been implemented at selected laboratories in South Africa to limit unnecessary repeat testing. We performed a study of chemistry tests subjected to electronic gatekeeping to determine its effectiveness as a sustainable demand management tool. Methods A 22-month retrospective study of chemistry test requests at a Pretoria hospital was performed. Tests violating electronic gatekeeping rules were rejected upon registration before analysis, and cost-savings were estimated from electronic gatekeeping-held tests. The impact of electronic gatekeeping on the test requesting pattern of clinicians was derived from the percentage cost of electronic gatekeeping-held tests. Results The total savings generated from electronic gatekeeping test rejections amounted to $84,380. Greatest savings were generated from high-cost tests: glycated haemoglobin ($14,139), urea ($8661) and thyroid-stimulating hormone ($7514). The average number of electronic gatekeeping-held tests as a percentage of their total requested number over 22 months was 3.18%. Discussion The savings from electronic gatekeeping-held tests were not as dramatic as anticipated, but were modest and may have some impact in a cost-constrained setting. Electronic gatekeeping was concluded not to have a substantial effect on the clinician test requesting pattern, demonstrated by the largely unchanged monthly percentage of electronic gatekeeping-held tests. As a solitary demand management strategy, electronic gatekeeping does not appear to be as effective as anticipated or as demonstrated in other studies.

  15. ECG-triggered 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of the rat heart is dramatically enhanced by acipimox.

    PubMed

    Poussier, Sylvain; Maskali, Fatiha; Tran, Nguyen; Person, Christophe; Maureira, Pablo; Boutley, Henri; Karcher, Gilles; Lacolley, Patrick; Régnault, Véronique; Fay, Renaud; Marie, Pierre Yves

    2010-08-01

    18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging, provided by current positron emission tomography (PET) systems dedicated to small animals,might provide a precise functional assessment of the left ventricle (LV) in rats, although conventional metabolic conditioning by hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamping is not well adapted to this setting. This study was aimed at assessing cardiac FDG PET in rats premedicated with acipimox, a potent nicotinic acid derivative yielding comparable image quality to clamping in man. Metabolic conditioning was compared in Wistar rats between a conventional oral glucose loading (1.5 mg/kg) and acipimox, which was given at high but well tolerated doses subcutaneously (25 mg/kg) or orally (50 mg/kg). Myocardial to blood (M/B) activity ratio and myocardial signal to noise (S/N) ratio were analysed on gated FDG PET images. The S/N ratio of the gated cardiac images evolved in parallel with the M/B activity ratio and these two ratios were independently enhanced by glucose loading and acipimox. However, these enhancements were: (1) dramatic for acipimox, especially for the high oral dose of 50 mg/kg (from 2.85 +/- 0.57 to 10.73 +/- 0.54 for the M/B ratio of rats with or without glucose loading; p<0.0001) and (2) much more limited for glucose loading (from 6.61 +/- 0.49 to 7.89 +/- 0.41 for the M/B ratio of rats with or without acipimox administration; p=0.049). With the high oral dose of acipimox, the gated cardiac FDG PET images had very high S/N ratios, at least equivalent to those currently documented in man. Metabolic conditioning by oral doses of acipimox is highly efficient for experimental studies planned with cardiac FDG PET in rats.

  16. Dramatic mass loss in extreme high-elevation areas of a western Himalayan glacier: observations and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabiao; Yang, Wei; Yao, Tandong; Tian, Lide; Xu, Baiqing

    2016-01-01

    Rapid climate change at high elevations has accelerated glacier retreat in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. However, due to the lack of long-term glaciological measurements, there are still uncertainties regarding when the mass loss began and what the magnitude of mass loss is at such high elevations. Based on in situ glaciological observations during the past 9 years and a temperature-index mass balance model, this study investigates recent mass loss of the Naimona’nyi Glacier in the western Himalayas and reconstructs a 41-year (1973/74–2013/14) equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and glacier-wide mass loss. The result indicates that even at 6000 m above sea level (a.s.l.), the annual mass loss reaches ~0.73 m water equivalent (w.e.) during the past 9 years. Concordant with the abrupt climate shift in the end of 1980s, the ELA has dramatically risen from ~5969 ± 73 m a.s.l. during 1973/74–1988/89 to ~6193 ± 75 m a.s.l. during 1989/90–2013/14, suggesting that future ice cores containing uninterrupted climate records could only be recovered at least above 6200 m a.s.l. in the Naimona’nyi region. The glacier-wide mass balance over the past 41 years is averaged to be approximately −0.40 ± 0.17 m w.e., exhibiting a significant increase in the decadal average from −0.01 ± 0.15 to −0.69 ± 0.21 m w.e. PMID:27561411

  17. Dramatic mass loss in extreme high-elevation areas of a western Himalayan glacier: observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huabiao; Yang, Wei; Yao, Tandong; Tian, Lide; Xu, Baiqing

    2016-08-01

    Rapid climate change at high elevations has accelerated glacier retreat in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. However, due to the lack of long-term glaciological measurements, there are still uncertainties regarding when the mass loss began and what the magnitude of mass loss is at such high elevations. Based on in situ glaciological observations during the past 9 years and a temperature-index mass balance model, this study investigates recent mass loss of the Naimona’nyi Glacier in the western Himalayas and reconstructs a 41-year (1973/74–2013/14) equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and glacier-wide mass loss. The result indicates that even at 6000 m above sea level (a.s.l.), the annual mass loss reaches ~0.73 m water equivalent (w.e.) during the past 9 years. Concordant with the abrupt climate shift in the end of 1980s, the ELA has dramatically risen from ~5969 ± 73 m a.s.l. during 1973/74–1988/89 to ~6193 ± 75 m a.s.l. during 1989/90–2013/14, suggesting that future ice cores containing uninterrupted climate records could only be recovered at least above 6200 m a.s.l. in the Naimona’nyi region. The glacier-wide mass balance over the past 41 years is averaged to be approximately ‑0.40 ± 0.17 m w.e., exhibiting a significant increase in the decadal average from ‑0.01 ± 0.15 to ‑0.69 ± 0.21 m w.e.

  18. Dramatic variability of the carbonate system of the coastal ocean is regulated by physical and biogeochemical processes on multiple timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Z. I.; Hunt, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments with potentially dramatic implications for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, at the same time there is substantial spatial and temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already exceed long term projected pH changes, suggesting that short-term variability is an important layer of complexity on top of long term acidification. Thus, in order to develop predictions of future climate change impacts including ocean acidification, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and variability of the marine CO2 system and the mechanisms responsible for this variability. Here we examine pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) variability at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year in a dynamic coastal marine system to quantify variability of the carbon system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variability of the carbon system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency variability (hours to days) is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides) and stochastic events (e.g. storms). Both annual variability (~0.3 units) and diurnal variability (~0.1 units) in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to long term projections associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 and their drivers highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system (and not just pH). Short term variability of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and complexity, including extreme values, on

  19. Recent and dramatic changes in Pacific storm trajectories recorded in δ18O from Bristlecone Pine tree ring cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkelhammer, Max B.; Stott, Lowell D.

    2008-04-01

    A 300-year stratigraphy of annual cellulosic δ18OVSMOW is presented for the long-lived Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva) from the White Mountains of California. The δ18OVSMOW stratigraphy exhibits two distinctive characteristics: a bidecadal oscillation during the 20th century with peak excursions of 4‰ and a dramatic 9‰ shift in mean δ18O values in the mid-19th century. The bidecadal δ18O variability during the 20th century does not correlate well with the bidecadal pattern of drought recurrence as reflected in the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Geochemical modeling of the cellulose δ18OVSMOW indicates local climate conditions, particularly humidity and rainfall amount, should have been important influences on the cellulose δ18O variability, but these influences cannot explain the larger bidecadal excursions or the shift in values during the mid-19th century. The large isotope variations must reflect sustained shifts in the frequency of subtropical versus polar storms that affect the isotopic composition of rainfall at the site. The mid-19th century isotopic shift correlates with the major climate shift across the northern hemisphere as documented in a wide range of proxy records. We hypothesize that the large isotopic shift in the 19th century represents the hydrologic response to a regime shift in mean wintertime atmospheric circulation that changed storm trajectories brought about by a more southerly position of the midlatitude jet, increased trade wind strength, and a change in the frequency of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The extent to which the hydrologic changes influenced the growth behavior of the high-altitude Bristlecone Pine in the White Mountains remains an important unanswered question.

  20. Addition of a cholesterol group to an HIV-1 peptide fusion inhibitor dramatically increases its antiviral potency

    PubMed Central

    Ingallinella, Paolo; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Ladwa, Neal A.; Wang, Ying-Jie; Hrin, Renee; Veneziano, Maria; Bonelli, Fabio; Ketas, Thomas J.; Moore, John P.; Miller, Michael D.; Pessi, Antonello

    2009-01-01

    Peptides derived from the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) region of the HIV fusogenic protein gp41 are potent inhibitors of viral infection, and one of them, enfuvirtide, is used for the treatment of therapy-experienced AIDS patients. The mechanism of action of these peptides is binding to a critical intermediate along the virus–cell fusion pathway, and accordingly, increasing the affinity for the intermediate yields more potent inhibitors. We took a different approach, namely to increase the potency of the HR2 peptide inhibitor C34 by targeting it to the cell compartment where fusion occurs, and we show here that a simple, yet powerful way to accomplish this is attachment of a cholesterol group. C34 derivatized with cholesterol (C34-Chol) shows dramatically increased antiviral potency on a panel of primary isolates, with IC90 values 15- to 300-fold lower than enfuvirtide and the second-generation inhibitor T1249, making C34-Chol the most potent HIV fusion inhibitor to date. Consistent with its anticipated mechanism of action, the antiviral activity of C34-Chol is unusually persistent: washing target cells after incubation with C34-Chol, but before triggering fusion, increases IC50 only 7-fold, relative to a 400-fold increase observed for C34. Moreover, derivatization with cholesterol extends the half-life of the peptide in vivo. In the mouse, s.c. administration of 3.5 mg/kg C34-Chol yields a plasma concentration 24 h after injection >300-fold higher than the measured IC90 values. Because the fusion machinery targeted by C34-Chol is similar in several other enveloped viruses, we believe that these findings may be of general utility. PMID:19297617

  1. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, Florian; Steimer, Werner; Nitzsche, Thomas; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Müller, Christine; Schlapschy, Martin; Zilker, Thomas; Skerra, Arne

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  2. Why did watermills not have a dramatic effect on the Anthropocene sediment record of the Zwalm River, Belgium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; D'Haese, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Different studies demonstrated the dramatic effects of watermills on fluvial geomorphology in the Eastern US. Damming of floodplains and milldam lakes increased sediment deposition. Several authors attribute most of the so called post settlement legacy sediment to those milldam lakes. In Europe the role of milldams in the anthropogenic increased floodplain deposition rates during the last 1000 to 2000 years has gotten little attention until now. Therefore we studied the influence of watermills on Holocene floodplain deposition in the Zwalm catchment, Belgium. The Zwalm River is located in western part of the Belgian loess belt in an undulating landscape that had intensive agriculture for most of the last 2000 years. In total 9 watermills were present along the 17 km long main channel during the 19th century, while many were also present on tributaries. Historical records date several of the mills to the 10th century AD, although they might be older, and most of them remain to some degree active today. The influence of watermills on floodplain deposits was tested through coring transects of the Holocene deposits. Detailed transects were performed pairwise upstream and downstream 5 watermills. Samples were taken for grain size analysis using laser diffraction. A possible influence on floodplain topography was tested on a 5 m resolution DTM. Holocene floodplain architecture is similar to other floodplains in the region: a basal early to mid-Holocene peat and gyttja layer is covered by a fine grained sediment layer of more than 5 m thickness. The change between both can be attributed to increased soil erosion due to human land use, and can be considered to be the local legacy sediment. Comparison of transects upstream and downstream mills shows no significant difference in total Holocene or legacy sediment thickness. Texture analysis indicates that floodplain sediments are significant coarser downstream the mills.F Floodplains are not significant steeper around mills

  3. Revealing Optical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Optical Vector Analyzer (OVA) 1550 significantly reduces the time and cost of testing sophisticated optical components. The technology grew from the research Luna Technologies' Dr. Mark Froggatt conducted on optical fiber strain measurement while working at Langley Research Center. Dr. Froggatt originally developed the technology for non- destructive evaluation testing at Langley. The new technique can provide 10,000 independent strain measurements while adding less than 10 grams to the weight of the vehicle. The OVA is capable of complete linear characterization of single-mode optical components used in high- bit-rate applications. The device can test most components over their full range in less than 30 seconds, compared to the more than 20 minutes required by other testing methods. The dramatically shortened measurement time results in increased efficiency in final acceptance tests of optical devices, and the comprehensive data produced by the instrument adds considerable value for component consumers. The device eliminates manufacturing bottlenecks, while reducing labor costs and wasted materials during production.

  4. Dramatic Evolution of the Disk-shaped Secondary in the Orion Trapezium Star θ1 Ori B1 (BM Ori): MOST Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windemuth, Diana; Herbst, William; Tingle, Evan; Fuechsl, Rachel; Kilgard, Roy; Pinette, Melanie; Templeton, Matthew; Henden, Arne

    2013-05-01

    The eclipsing binary θ1 Orionis B1, variable star designation BM Ori, is the faintest of the four well-known Trapezium stars at the heart of the Orion Nebula. The primary is a B3 star (~6 M ⊙) but the nature of the secondary (~2 M ⊙) has long been mysterious, since the duration and shape of primary eclipse are inappropriate for any sort of ordinary star. Here we report nearly continuous photometric observations obtained with the MOST satellite over ~4 cycles of the 6.47 d binary period. The light curve is of unprecedented quality, revealing a deep, symmetric primary eclipse as well as a clear reflection effect and secondary eclipse. In addition, there are other small disturbances, some of which repeat at the same phase over the four cycles monitored. The shape of the primary light curve has clearly evolved significantly over the past 40 years. While its overall duration and depth have remained roughly constant, the slopes of the descent and ascent phases are significantly shallower now than in the past and its distinctive flat-bottomed "pseudo-totality" is much less obvious or even absent in the most recent data. We further demonstrate that the primary eclipse was detected at X-ray wavelengths during the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) study. The light curve continues to be well modeled by a self-luminous and reflective disk-shaped object seen nearly edge-on orbiting the B3 primary. The dramatic change in shape over four decades is modeled as an opacity variation in a tenuous outer envelope or disk of the secondary object. We presume that the secondary is an extremely young protostar at an earlier evolutionary phase than can be commonly observed elsewhere in the Galaxy and that the opacity variations observed are related to its digestion of some accreted matter over the last 50-100 years. Indeed, this object deserves continued observational and theoretical attention as the youngest known eclipsing binary system.

  5. DRAMATIC EVOLUTION OF THE DISK-SHAPED SECONDARY IN THE ORION TRAPEZIUM STAR {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 1} (BM Ori): MOST SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Windemuth, Diana; Herbst, William; Tingle, Evan; Fuechsl, Rachel; Kilgard, Roy; Pinette, Melanie; Templeton, Matthew; Henden, Arne

    2013-05-01

    The eclipsing binary {theta}{sup 1} Orionis B{sub 1}, variable star designation BM Ori, is the faintest of the four well-known Trapezium stars at the heart of the Orion Nebula. The primary is a B3 star ({approx}6 M{sub Sun }) but the nature of the secondary ({approx}2 M{sub Sun }) has long been mysterious, since the duration and shape of primary eclipse are inappropriate for any sort of ordinary star. Here we report nearly continuous photometric observations obtained with the MOST satellite over {approx}4 cycles of the 6.47 d binary period. The light curve is of unprecedented quality, revealing a deep, symmetric primary eclipse as well as a clear reflection effect and secondary eclipse. In addition, there are other small disturbances, some of which repeat at the same phase over the four cycles monitored. The shape of the primary light curve has clearly evolved significantly over the past 40 years. While its overall duration and depth have remained roughly constant, the slopes of the descent and ascent phases are significantly shallower now than in the past and its distinctive flat-bottomed ''pseudo-totality'' is much less obvious or even absent in the most recent data. We further demonstrate that the primary eclipse was detected at X-ray wavelengths during the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) study. The light curve continues to be well modeled by a self-luminous and reflective disk-shaped object seen nearly edge-on orbiting the B3 primary. The dramatic change in shape over four decades is modeled as an opacity variation in a tenuous outer envelope or disk of the secondary object. We presume that the secondary is an extremely young protostar at an earlier evolutionary phase than can be commonly observed elsewhere in the Galaxy and that the opacity variations observed are related to its digestion of some accreted matter over the last 50-100 years. Indeed, this object deserves continued observational and theoretical attention as the youngest known eclipsing

  6. US weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

    1993-03-01

    Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

  7. An Investigation Into the Effects of Background Music in a Dramatic Television Presentation on University Students' Perception and Retention of Cognitive Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Otho P.

    To investigate the effects of background music on perception and retention of a dramatic television presentation's cognitive content, 107 English literature students were randomly assigned to one of five background treatments for a play. Four of the videotaped presentations included background music; Shostakovich's Symphony No. 6; Japanese jazz;…

  8. Data Representation with a Dramatic Difference: Negotiating the Methodological Tensions and Contradictions in Qualitative Inquiry. Confessions of a Budding Playwright …

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Based on the need to address the empirical reticence in the leadership literature revolving around networking dynamics in school governance, I conducted a case study of a Maltese multi-site school collaborative, the findings of which are represented in a semi-fictionalized narrative dramatization. This article focuses on the crafting of this…

  9. John Steinbeck: "The Pearl," Adapted by Warren Frost and Dramatized for the Kennedy Center by Nick Olcott. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, John C.

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "The Pearl" by John Steinbeck, adapted by Warren Frost and dramatized for the Kennedy Center by Nick Olcott. It is in the form of a Director's Notebook--a scrapbook/journal of clippings, memos, lists, illustrations, notes, and other…

  10. Data Representation with a Dramatic Difference: Negotiating the Methodological Tensions and Contradictions in Qualitative Inquiry. Confessions of a Budding Playwright …

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Based on the need to address the empirical reticence in the leadership literature revolving around networking dynamics in school governance, I conducted a case study of a Maltese multi-site school collaborative, the findings of which are represented in a semi-fictionalized narrative dramatization. This article focuses on the crafting of this…

  11. Catalytic Friedel-Crafts C-H Borylation of Electron-Rich Arenes: Dramatic Rate Acceleration by Added Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qin; Klare, Hendrik F T; Oestreich, Martin

    2017-03-20

    In the electrophilic C-H borylation of electron-rich aromatic compounds with catecholborane, the catalytic generation of the boron electrophile is initiated by heterolysis of the B-H bond by various Lewis and Brønsted acids, with a boronium ion formed exclusively. After ligand dissociation, the corresponding borenium ion undergoes regioselective electrophilic aromatic substitution on aniline derivatives as well as nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The catalysis is optimized using B(C6 F5 )3 as the initiator and proceeds without the addition of an external base or dihydrogen acceptor. Temperatures above 80 °C are generally required to secure efficient turnover in these Friedel-Crafts-type reactions. Mechanistic experiments reveal that regeneration of the boronium/borenium ion with dihydrogen release is rate-determining. This finding finally led to the discovery that, with added alkenes, catalytic C-H borylations can, for the first time, be carried out at room temperature.

  12. Optical Variability of the Blazar 3C 454.3: Long-term Behavior and the Dramatic 2005 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Gadway, B.; Mullan, B.; Wortel, S.; Pierkowski, D.; Forsyth, C.

    2006-06-01

    In May of 2005, observations at R, V, and I with the Foggy Bottom Observatory 16-inch Cassegrain reflecting telescope at Colgate University revealed an unprecedented outburst in the blazar type quasar 3C 454.3. At its peak, R 11.9, the blazar was four times brighter than during any previously observed period in our seventeen-year blazar monitoring program. This object had undergone only relatively mild flaring amid low-level optical meandering in the past. The blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits a variety of variability timescales (from hours to years) in which there is a discernible correlation between the brightness and optical color indices. A two-component model (with distinct variable and non-variable components) to the blazar optical variations can account for the general trends seen in the color (spectral index) and brightness variations.

  13. Cavity filling mutations at the thyroxine-binding site dramatically increase transthyretin stability and prevent its aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Ricardo; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Varejāo, Nathalia; Gallego, Pablo; Esperante, Sebastian; Ferreira, Priscila; Pereira-Henriques, Alda; Palhano, Fernando L; de Carvalho, Mamede; Foguel, Debora; Reverter, David; Saraiva, Maria João; Ventura, Salvador

    2017-03-24

    More than a hundred different Transthyretin (TTR) mutations are associated with fatal systemic amyloidoses. They destabilize the protein tetrameric structure and promote the extracellular deposition of TTR as pathological amyloid fibrils. So far, only mutations R104H and T119M have been shown to stabilize significantly TTR, acting as disease suppressors. We describe a novel A108V non-pathogenic mutation found in a Portuguese subject. This variant is more stable than wild type TTR both in vitro and in human plasma, a feature that prevents its aggregation. The crystal structure of A108V reveals that this stabilization comes from novel intra and inter subunit contacts involving the thyroxine (T4) binding site. Exploiting this observation, we engineered a A108I mutation that fills the T4 binding cavity, as evidenced in the crystal structure. This synthetic protein becomes one of the most stable TTR variants described so far, with potential application in gene and protein replacement therapies.

  14. Graphene oxides prepared by Hummers', Hofmann's, and Staudenmaier's methods: dramatic influences on heavy-metal-ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Khezri, Bahareh; Webster, Richard D; Pumera, Martin

    2014-10-06

    Graphene oxide (GO), an up-and-coming material rich in oxygenated groups, shows much promise in pollution management. GO is synthesised using several synthetic routes, and the adsorption behaviour of GO is investigated to establish its ability to remove the heavy-metal pollutants of lead and cadmium ions. The GO is synthesised by Hummers' (HU), Hofmann's (HO) and Staudenmaier's (ST) methodologies. Characterisation of GO is performed before and after adsorption experiments to investigate the structure-function relationship by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with elemental detection spectroscopy is used to investigate morphological changes and heavy-metal content in the adsorbed GO. The filtrate, collected after adsorption, is analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, through which the efficiency and adsorption capacity of each GO for heavy-metal-ion removal is obtained. Spectroscopic analysis and characterisation reveal that the three types of GO have different compositions of oxygenated carbon functionalities. The trend in the affinity towards both Pb(II) and Cd(II) is HU GO>HO GO>ST GO. A direct correlation between the number of carboxyl groups present and the amount of heavy-metal ions adsorbed is established. The highest efficiency and highest adsorption capacity of heavy-metal ions is achieved with HU, in which the relative abundance of carboxyl groups is highest. The embedded systematic study reveals that carboxyl groups are the principal functionality responsible for heavy-metal-ion removal in GO. The choice of synthesis methodology for GO has a profound influence on heavy-metal-ion adsorption. A further enrichment of the carboxyl groups in GO will serve to enhance the role of GO as an adsorbent for environmental clean-up. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dramatic beneficial effect of interleukin-1 inhibitor treatment in patients with familial Mediterranean fever complicated with amyloidosis and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Stankovic Stojanovic, Katia; Delmas, Yahsou; Torres, Pablo Ureña; Peltier, Julie; Pelle, Gaëlle; Jéru, Isabelle; Colombat, Magali; Grateau, Gilles

    2012-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder, for which systemic AA amyloidosis is the major complication revealed most of the time by renal abnormalities. Current treatment is daily colchicine that prevents both recurrent inflammatory attacks and amyloidosis deposition in most patients. However, some patients still develop amyloidosis and renal failure. Functional studies suggest that interleukin (IL)-1 is implicated in the inflammatory reaction in FMF and therefore, IL-1 inhibitors could be a new approach to treat FMF. The aim of this series study was to evaluate anakinra in patients with FMF complicated with amyloidosis and renal failure. We studied a series of adult patients with FMF complicated with amyloidosis and treated with anakinra in one reference centre were reviewed. A search for published patients with FMF associated amyloidosis treated with anakinra was performed by screening PubMed. We report four cases of patients with FMF-associated amyloidosis treated with anakinra and discuss the clinical pertinence of its use in these particular clinical settings. Anakinra has a strong effect on both inflammatory attacks and general status in patients with FMF-associated amyloidosis. It may contribute to changing the prognosis of these patients. Long-term studies are needed to appreciate the effect of anakinra or other IL-1 inhibitors on the natural history of amyloidosis in these patients.

  16. Cavity filling mutations at the thyroxine-binding site dramatically increase transthyretin stability and prevent its aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Ricardo; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Varejāo, Nathalia; Gallego, Pablo; Esperante, Sebastian; Ferreira, Priscila; Pereira-Henriques, Alda; Palhano, Fernando L.; de Carvalho, Mamede; Foguel, Debora; Reverter, David; Saraiva, Maria João; Ventura, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    More than a hundred different Transthyretin (TTR) mutations are associated with fatal systemic amyloidoses. They destabilize the protein tetrameric structure and promote the extracellular deposition of TTR as pathological amyloid fibrils. So far, only mutations R104H and T119M have been shown to stabilize significantly TTR, acting as disease suppressors. We describe a novel A108V non-pathogenic mutation found in a Portuguese subject. This variant is more stable than wild type TTR both in vitro and in human plasma, a feature that prevents its aggregation. The crystal structure of A108V reveals that this stabilization comes from novel intra and inter subunit contacts involving the thyroxine (T4) binding site. Exploiting this observation, we engineered a A108I mutation that fills the T4 binding cavity, as evidenced in the crystal structure. This synthetic protein becomes one of the most stable TTR variants described so far, with potential application in gene and protein replacement therapies. PMID:28338000

  17. Training method dramatically affects the acquisition of a place response in rats with neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan M J

    2002-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have demonstrated that hippocampal damage impairs the acquisition of a place response in rats. In Experiment 1, using a four-arm plus-shaped maze, we replicated this finding. Experiment 2 showed, however, that hippocampally damaged rats can learn a place response just as well as control rats when, during the training, a salient intramaze landmark indicates the position of the goal (the west arm). After reaching criterion, the hippocampal and control groups performed the task with the same degree of mastery during a transfer test in which the intramaze signal used during the acquisition was removed. In Experiment 3, the intramaze cue was substituted by an egocentric cue. The results revealed that both control and lesioned subjects learned the spatial problem well. However, a transfer test showed that control rats learned the task using a place response strategy but hippocampally lesioned animals used a rigid, hyperspecific strategy. Taken together, these results suggest that special training procedures which encourage variability in response versus perseveration make it possible to overcome the acquisition deficit normally observed in hippocampal rats. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science.

  18. Rational design of translational pausing without altering the amino acid sequence dramatically promotes soluble protein expression: a strategic demonstration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Jin, Jingjie; Gu, Wei; Wei, Bo; Lei, Yun; Xiong, Sheng; Zhang, Gong

    2014-11-10

    The production of many pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in prokaryotic hosts is hindered by the insolubility of industrial expression products resulting from misfolding. Even with a correct primary sequence, an improper translation elongation rate in a heterologous expression system is an important cause of misfolding. In silico analysis revealed that most of the endogenous Escherichia coli genes display translational pausing sites that promote correct folding, and almost 1/5 genes have pausing sites at the 3'-termini of their coding sequence. Therefore, we established a novel strategy to efficiently promote the expression of soluble and active proteins without altering the amino acid sequence or expression conditions. This strategy uses the rational design of translational pausing based on structural information solely through synonymous substitutions, i.e. no change on the amino acids sequence. We demonstrated this strategy on a promising antiviral candidate, Cyanovirin-N (CVN), which could not be efficiently expressed in any previously reported system. By introducing silent mutations, we increased the soluble expression level in E. coli by 2000-fold without altering the CVN protein sequence, and the specific activity was slightly higher for the optimized CVN than for the wild-type variant. This strategy introduces new possibilities for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pancreatic triglyceride lipase deficiency minimally affects dietary fat absorption but dramatically decreases dietary cholesterol absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Kevin W; Camarota, Lisa M; Howles, Philip N; Hui, David Y

    2003-10-31

    This study generated pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL)-null mice to test the hypothesis that PTL-mediated hydrolysis of dietary triglyceride is necessary for efficient dietary cholesterol absorption. The PTL-/- mice grew normally and displayed similar body weight as their PTL+/+ littermates. Plasma lipid levels between animals of various PTL genotypes were similar when they were maintained on either a basal low fat diet or a western-type high fat/high cholesterol diet. Although the lack of a functional PTL delayed fat absorption during the initial hour of feeding a bolus load of olive oil containing [3H]triolein and [14C]cholesterol, the rate of [3H]triolein absorption was similar between PTL+/+ and PTL-/- mice after the initial 1-h period. Importantly, comparison of fecal fat content revealed similar overall fat absorption efficiency between PTL+/+ and PTL-/- mice. In contrast, the PTL-/- mice displayed significant decrease in both the rate and the amount of cholesterol absorbed after a single meal. The plasma appearance of [14C]cholesterol was found to be 75% lower (p < 0.0005) in PTL-/- mice compared with PTL+/+ mice after 4 h. The total amount of [14C]cholesterol excreted in the feces was 45% higher (p < 0.0004) in PTL-/- mice compared with PTL+/+ mice over a 24-h period. These results indicate that the delayed fat digestion due to PTL deficiency results in a significant reduction in cholesterol absorption, although other enzymes in the digestive tract may compensate for the lack of PTL in PTL-/- mice in fat digestion and absorption.

  20. Dramatic enhancement of 1.54 μm emission in Er doped GaN quantum well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Al tahtamouni, T. M.; Stachowicz, M.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2015-03-23

    Erbium (Er) doped III-nitride materials have attracted much attention due to their capability to provide highly thermal stable optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safer 1540 nm wavelength window. There is a continued need to exploring effective mechanisms to further improve the quantum efficiency (QE) of the 1.54 μm emission in Er-doped III-nitrides. GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells (MQWs:Er) have been synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and explored as an effective means to improve the QE of the 1.54 μm emission via carrier confinement and strain engineering. The 1.54 μm emission properties from MQWs:Er were probed by photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. It was found that the emission intensity from MQWs:Er is 9 times higher than that of GaN:Er epilayers with a comparable Er active layer thickness. The influences of the well and barrier width on the PL emission at 1.54 μm were studied. The results revealed that MQWs:Er consisting of well width between 1 and 1.5 nm and the largest possible barrier width before reaching the critical thickness provide the largest boost in QE of the 1.54 μm emission. These results demonstrate that MQWs:Er provide a basis for efficient photonic devices active at 1.54 μm.

  1. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  2. The presence of nitrate dramatically changed the predominant microbial community in perchlorate degrading cultures under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Tran, Quyen; Rojas, Mark; Willson, Richard C; Fofanov, Yuriy; Fox, George E; Roberts, Deborah J

    2014-09-07

    study is significant in that it reveals the existence of a novel group of organisms that play a role in the reduction of perchlorate under saline conditions. These Rhodobacteraceae especially, as well as other organisms present in these communities may be a promising source of unique salt-tolerant enzymes for perchlorate reduction.

  3. Dramatic increase of central venous catheter-related infections associated with a high turnover of the nursing team.

    PubMed

    Mirabel-Chambaud, Eléa; N'Guyen, Michael; Valdeyron, Marie-Laure; Quessada, Thierry; Goudable, Joelle; Loras-Duclaux, Irene; Marotte, Stephanie; Heissat, Sophie; Restier, Lioara; Lachaux, Alain; Peretti, Noel

    2016-04-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the impact of new organization during the moving to a new university pediatric hospital on the incidence of central catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs) among children on long-term parenteral nutrition. The study ran from April 2007 to March 2014, starting a year prior to reorganisation of the department of pediatric Hepato-Gastroenterology and Nutrition associated to moving the children to a new hospital in April 2008, and continuing for 6 years following the move. During this time, data from all children hospitalized in this department who received parenteral nutrition (PN) for more than 15 days were analysed. During this 7-years study, 183 children aged 4.6 ± 0.5 years received prolonged PN. Intestinal diseases were the main aetiologies (89%), primarily short bowel syndrome (18.4%), Hirschsprung disease and CIPO (13.5%) and inflammatory bowel disease (13.8%). The mean durations of hospitalization and of PN during hospitalization were, respectively, 70 ± 2.1 and 55.7 ± 3.6 days. During the study period, 151 CRBSIs occurred in 77 children (42% of all patients), i.e. 14.8 septic episodes/1000 PN days and 12.0 septic episodes/1000 CVC days. No patient died of a central venous catheter-related infection. However, following the move from the older hospital to the newer one, the rate of CRBSIs significantly doubled, from 3.9/1000 to 8.8/1000 CVC days (p = 0.02). During the following 4 years, the incidence of CRBSIs tended to increase between the 2nd and the 5th year after the move: 11.3 (p = NS); 21.4 (p = 0.01); 17.3 (p = NS), 20.3/1000 (p = NS) CVC days. We also observed that after evaluations by the Department of Infection Control, nurse training and stabilization of the nursing team, the incidence decreased significantly from 20.3 to 11.1/1000 CVC days during the 6th year after the move (p = 0.01). Our results reveal the deleterious impact of the reorganization during the hospital moving on the

  4. Calcium isotope evidence for dramatic increase of continental weathering during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (Early Jurassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Jean-Michel; Suan, Guillaume; Tacail, Théo; Simon, Laurent; Martin, Jeremy E.; Mattioli, Emanuela; Balter, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    The early Toarcian was punctuated by pulses of massive carbon injection that are thought to have triggered, through increased greenhouse conditions, elevated continental discharge and nutrient input, marine anoxia, seawater acidification and species extinctions. Nevertheless, the mode and tempo of changes in continental weathering across this interval remains highly debated, leading to considerable uncertainty about the main causes of these perturbations. In this study we present calcium isotope measurements (δ44/40Ca) of well-preserved brachiopods and bulk rock samples from the hemipelagic strata of Pliensbachian-Toarcian age of Peniche in Portugal in order to constrain changes in the calcium cycle and hence changes in continental weathering during the early Toarcian. The data reveal a similar trend as carbon isotope data from the same section and show negative excursions of about 0.5‰ at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition (Pl-To) and at the base of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) interval. The comparison of δ44/40Ca ratios recorded in brachiopods and bulk rock corrected for variable dolomite contribution indicates that these excursions reflect changes in the global isotopic composition of seawater rather than changes in the dominant mineralogy of calcifying organisms or in hydrological budget of the considered basin. Box modeling results suggest that the Pl-To and T-OAE δ44/40Ca excursions can be explained by a transient 90% decrease of carbonate accumulation due to seawater acidification followed by a 500% increase in continental weathering rates. The sharp increases in continental weathering inferred from the δ44/40Ca ratios seem overall consistent with lower Toarcian sedimentological and biotic records that document rapid crises in carbonate production followed by episodes of increased calcium carbonate burial. Nevertheless, the maximum of carbonate burial recorded by most NW European basinal successions occurs several hundreds of kyrs after

  5. The Universe Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Pam

    1998-10-01

    The Universe is a bewildering place to the uninitiated. The concepts and theories that govern space seem complex and often contradictory. The Universe Revealed provides the keys to unlocking the wonders of the cosmos. Elegantly written and lavishly illustrated, it begins with the Sun and stretches through our solar system into deepest space. Lucid prose, written by many of the people who have shaped our current thinking on space, and spectacular photographs make the physics of the Universe accessible and provide a solid background for understanding the most recent astronomical discoveries. Covering the most intriguing features of the cosmos, the topics discussed range from the Earth and global warming to cosmic collisions and the size of the Universe. Major sections examine the Solar System, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and the observational techniques used by astronomers, both amateur and professional. The Universe Revealed represents the collaboration of internationally renowned experts in astronomy and cosmology, with contributions from authors including David Malin, F. Duccio Macchetto, Iain Nicholson, Neil Bone, Ian Ridpath, Seth Shostak, Mike Lancaster, Steve Miller, Ken Croswell, Geoff McNamara, and Steven Young. This extraordinary blend of astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology, will appeal to amateur and armchair astronomers alike.

  6. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-11

    This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together. Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07220

  7. Dramatically Enhanced Visible Light Response of Monolayer ZrS2 via Non-covalent Modification by Double-Ring Tubular B20 Cluster.

    PubMed

    Si, Yuan; Wu, Hong-Yu; Yang, Hao-Ming; Huang, Wei-Qing; Yang, Ke; Peng, Ping; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2016-12-01

    The ability to strongly absorb light is central to solar energy conversion. We demonstrate here that the hybrid of monolayer ZrS2 and double-ring tubular B20 cluster exhibits dramatically enhanced light absorption in the entire visible spectrum. The unique near-gap electronic structure and large built-in potential at the interface will lead to the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers in the hybrid. Interestingly, some Zr and S atoms, which are catalytically inert in isolated monolayer ZrS2, turn into catalytic active sites. The dramatically enhanced absorption in the entire visible light makes the ZrS2/B20 hybrid having great applications in photocatalysis or photodetection.

  8. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Orion, Camille; Sfecci, Alicia; Tisseau, Laurent; Darrieux, Laure; Safa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG) is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea. PMID:27920676

  9. Dramatic water-level fluctuations in lakes under intense human impact: modelling the effect of vegetation, climate and hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lakes form a highly important ecosystem in the glacial terrain of northern Europe and America, but their hydrology remains understudied. When the water-level of a lake drops significantly and rises again in a time span of half a century and the widespread explanation of the fluctuations seems insufficient, then it raises a question: how do different anthropogenic and natural processes actually affect the formation of a lakes' water body. The abovementioned scenario applies to three small closed-basin Estonian lakes (L. Ahnejärv, L. Kuradijärv and L. Martiska) analysed in the current study. These lakes suffered a major water-level drop (up to 3.8 m) between 1946 and 1987 and a major rise between 1987 and 2010, from 1 m (L. Ahnejärv) to 2.5 m (L. Kuradijärv). Decreasing and increasing groundwater abstraction near the lakes has been widely considered to be the only reason for the fluctuations. It is true that the most severe drop in the lake levels did occur after 1972 when groundwater abstraction for drinking water started in the vicinity of the lakes. However, the lake levels started to fall before the groundwater abstraction began and for the time being the lake levels have risen to a higher level than in the 1970s when the quantity of annually abstracted groundwater was similar to nowadays. Therefore the processes affecting the formation of the lakes' water body prove to be more complex than purely the hydrogeological change caused by groundwater abstraction. A new deterministic water balance model (where the evaporation from the lake surface was calculated by Penman equation and the catchment runoff by Thornthwaite-Mather soil-moisture model), compiled for the study, coupled with LiDAR-based GIS-modelling of the catchments was used to identify the different factors influencing the lakes' water level. The modelling results reveal that the moderate drop in lake water levels before the beginning of groundwater abstraction was probably caused by the growth of a

  10. Local thermal pressurization triggered by flash heating causes dramatic weakening in water-saturated gouges at subseismic slip rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Togo, Tetsuhiro; Chen, Jianye; Kitajima, Hiroko; Wang, Yu; He, Honglin

    2017-04-01

    increasing from 10 μm/s to 100 mm/s. At V =0.4 and 1.0 m/s, the evolutions of friction are characterized by sharp weakening, quick strengthening and slight weakening as slip proceeds. It is noteworthy that the sharp initial weakening is always accompanied by a contemporaneous axial dilatancy of 10-20 μm for both gouges, and the latter friction evolutions are accompanied by axial shortening for the granular gouge and by further dilatancy for the clay-rich gouge. Moreover, microstructure observations reveal that only 40% of the gouge layer was involved in shear deformation for the granular gouge at V =10-100 mm/s, as compared to distributed shear over the entire clay-rich gouge layer at all the tested velocities. The observed data, microstructures and modeling results suggest that flash heating probably triggers thermal pressurization at asperity-contacts or within extremely localized slip zones, causing the sudden initial weakening and contemporaneous dilatancy. The difference in the efficiency of flash heating could explain the different frictional behaviors of the two gouges. Given the extremely fast weakening caused by flash heating and the resulting local thermal pressurization, seismic faults could be weakened more rapidly at much lower slip rates below characteristic weakening velocities previously recognized.

  11. Gusev's Rim Revealed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image on sol 91 (April 5, 2004). Spirit is looking to the southeast, and through the martian haze has captured the rim of Gusev Crater approximately 80 kilometers (49.7 miles) away on the horizon.

    The right side of this image reveals the portion of the crater edge that descends into the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis, a channel that opens into Gusev Crater. Spirit is currently traveling toward the informally named 'Columbia Hills,' which lie to the left of the region pictured here.

    This image is similar to a panoramic camera image taken on sol 68, but Gusev's ridge is more visible here because the atmospheric dust caused by winter dust storms has settled. Scientists expect to get even clearer images than this one in upcoming sols.

    This image has been modified to make the crater rim more visible.

  12. Ancient River revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent flights of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) mission aboard the space shuttle Endeavour discovered a previously unknown branch of an ancient river. The images, released at AGU's Spring Meeting, show the river channel buried under thousands of years worth of windblown sand in a region of North Africa's Sahara Desert near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3°N latitude, 22.9°E longitude. The image from the flight last October reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called “paleodrainage systems,” which carried running water northward across the Sahara during periods of wetter climate.

  13. The Aesthetics of Representation: Dramatic Texts and Dramatic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    There are several ways in which aesthetic discourses might be positioned in the field of drama education. While some might locate "aesthetics" in the cognitive or interpretive realm of learning, and others the affective or philosophical realm. In this article, the author has chosen to speak of the discourses of aesthetics as they relate…

  14. Targeted disruption of BMP signaling through type IA receptor (BMPR1A) in osteocyte suppresses SOST and RANKL, leading to dramatic increase in bone mass, bone mineral density and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Shuxian, Lin; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Phipps, Matthew; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Yuan, Hui; Kim, Harry K W; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest a critical role of osteocytes in controlling skeletal development and bone remodeling although the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study investigated BMP signaling in osteocytes by disrupting Bmpr1a under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed a striking osteosclerotic phenotype with increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and mineral density as assessed by X-ray and micro-CT. The bone histomorphometry, H&E, and TRAP staining revealed a dramatic increase in trabecular and cortical bone masses but a sharp reduction in osteoclast number. Moreover, there was an increase in BrdU positive osteocytes (2-5-fold) and osteoid volume (~4-fold) but a decrease in the bone formation rate (~85%) in the cKO bones, indicating a defective mineralization. The SEM analysis revealed poorly formed osteocytes: a sharp increase in cell numbers, a great reduction in cell dendrites, and a remarkable change in the cell distribution pattern. Molecular studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the Sost mRNA levels in bone (>95%), and the SOST protein levels in serum (~85%) and bone matrices. There was a significant increase in the β-catenin (>3-fold) mRNA levels as well as its target genes Tcf1 (>6-fold) and Tcf3 (~2-fold) in the cKO bones. We also showed a significant decrease in the RANKL levels of serum proteins (~65%) and bone mRNA (~57%), and a significant increase in the Opg mRNA levels (>20-fold) together with a significant reduction in the Rankl/Opg ratio (>95%), which are responsible for a sharp reduction in the cKO osteoclasts. The values of mechanical strength were higher in cKO femora (i.e. max force, displacement, and work failure). These results suggest that loss of BMP signaling specifically in osteocytes dramatically increases bone mass presumably through simultaneous inhibition of RANKL and SOST, leading to osteoclast inhibition and Wnt activation together. Finally, a working hypothesis is

  15. Dramatic response in the dependency to transfusion after low doses of lenalidomide treatment in a 5q-syndrome patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Sari, Ismail; Hacioglu, Sibel; Keskin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    5q-syndrome is a special subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome in terms of follow-up and treatment. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that is frequently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Some clinical studies have shown that lenalidomide treatment is effective in 5q syndrome and significantly decreases the transfusion dependency in these patients. In this paper, we would like to share a dramatic response of lowered transfusion dependency after treatment with low-dose lenalidomide in a patient who received myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis and isolated 5q anomaly in our clinic.

  16. Dramatic response in the dependency to transfusion after low doses of lenalidomide treatment in a 5q-syndrome patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Sari, Ismail; Hacioglu, Sibel; Keskin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    5q-syndrome is a special subgroup of myelodysplastic syndrome in terms of follow-up and treatment. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that is frequently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Some clinical studies have shown that lenalidomide treatment is effective in 5q syndrome and significantly decreases the transfusion dependency in these patients. In this paper, we would like to share a dramatic response of lowered transfusion dependency after treatment with low-dose lenalidomide in a patient who received myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis and isolated 5q anomaly in our clinic. PMID:28058331

  17. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy leading to dramatic improvement in a patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and severe pericarditis resistant to steroid pulse therapy.

    PubMed

    Aizawa-Yashiro, Tomomi; Oki, Eishin; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Nakahata, Tohru; Ito, Etsuro; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    A 7-year-old Japanese boy with a 4-month history of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) experienced disease flare with spiking fever, exanthema and arthralgia. He then developed progressive dyspnea due to severe pericarditis, and proinflammatory hypercytokinemia was suspected. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was ineffective and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion had persisted. Alternatively, subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the pericardial effusion, and his general condition significantly improved within a few days. This case report may lend further support the use of IVIG for selected patients with s-JIA and severe pericarditis.

  18. Simple maintenance for dramatic effect.

    PubMed

    Wells, Scott; Collen, Mark

    2012-08-01

    In an article which first appeared in print in the March 2012 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, based on a presentation given at the Institute of Hospital Engineering Australia's 2009 National Conference, Scott Wells, energy manager, Engineering & Building Services, at Royal Brisbane Women's Hospital, and Mark Collen, a district account manager, Engineering and Process Development Division, at water treatment specialist, Nalco, discuss how sound, regular, and thorough, maintenance and cleaning of hospital air-handing units will not only enhance their operating efficiency, but will also help reduce airborne infection risk in the healthcare facilities they serve. They also detail practical measures taken at hospitals in Queensland to reduce the energy consumption of air-handling equipment.

  19. Dramatization of Salem Witch Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorak, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson which can provide elementary students with an opportunity to compare fair and unfair trials. Stating that the lesson works best if an attorney is used as a resource person, the plan includes a short play about a Salem, Massachusetts witch trial and follow-up questions to stimulate student discussion. (GEA)

  20. Dramatic Booktalks (for the Untheatrical).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kent W.

    1993-01-01

    A young adult librarian offers tips on book talks which exclude the use of props, costumes, or acting. Using a book's plot point to highlight one portion of a novel to convince teenagers to go to the library, check out, and read the book is explained. A model talk of "Jurassic Park" is included. (EAM)

  1. Dramatic change at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-04-01

    T Plant (221-T) was the first and largest of the early chemical separations plants at the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW), the name for the Hanford Site during World War II. Officially designated as a Cell Building by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) of the Army Corps of Engineers (agency responsible for HEW), T Plant served as the headquarters of chemical processing operations at Hanford from its construction until the opening of the Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Plant in January 1952. T Plant performed the third step in plutonium production operations, following the steps of uranium fuel manufacture and then irradiation in defense production reactors. The fissionable core (plutonium) used in the world`s first atomic explosion, the Trinity bomb test held at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, was processed in T Plant. Likewise, the fissionable core of the weapon dropped over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945, was processed in T Plant. Because it formed a crucial link in the first full-scale plutonium production operations in world history, T Plant meets criteria established in the National Historic Preservation Act of 19661 as a Historic Place.

  2. A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney

    2001-01-01

    Flame tests are used for demonstration of atomic structure. Describes a demonstration that uses spray bottles filled with methanol and a variety of salts to produce a brilliantly colored flame. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  3. A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney

    2001-01-01

    Flame tests are used for demonstration of atomic structure. Describes a demonstration that uses spray bottles filled with methanol and a variety of salts to produce a brilliantly colored flame. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  4. The (dramatic) process of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zeig, Jeffrey K

    2008-07-01

    Psychotherapy can be conceived as a symbolic drama in which patients can experientially realize their capacity to change. Methods derived from hypnosis can empower therapy without the use of formal trance. A case conducted by Milton Erickson is presented and deconstructed in order to illuminate Erickson's therapeutic patterns. A model is offered for adding drama to therapy, and the model is placed into a larger model of choice points in psychotherapy.

  5. Dramatization of Salem Witch Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorak, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson which can provide elementary students with an opportunity to compare fair and unfair trials. Stating that the lesson works best if an attorney is used as a resource person, the plan includes a short play about a Salem, Massachusetts witch trial and follow-up questions to stimulate student discussion. (GEA)

  6. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Dramatic parasomnias: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stores, Gregory

    2010-09-01

    As each of the many parasomnias requires its own specific treatment, confusion between them can have serious consequences. By recognizing their distinctive features, misdiagnosis can be avoided and the appropriate management decided.

  8. C6 ceramide dramatically increases vincristine sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro, involving AMP-activated protein kinase-p53 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Bin; Jiang, Qin; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yan; He, Bang-shun; Wei, Mu-Xin; Lu, Jian-Wei; Ji, Yong; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Use of the conventional cancer chemotherapy (i.e. vincristine) is limited in tumor cells exhibiting pre-existing or acquired resistance. Here, we found that C6 ceramide (C6) dramatically sensitized vincristine's activity. In vitro, C6 and vincristine coadministration induced substantial necrosis and apoptosis in multiple human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, subsequent p53 activation, mTORC1 inactivation and Bcl-2/HIF-1α downregulation. Such synergistic effects were attenuated by AMPK inactivation through genetic mutation or short hairpin RNA silencing. Coadministration-activated p53 translocated to mitochondria, and formed a complex with cyclophilin-D, leading to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and cell necrosis. Disrupting p53-Cyp-D complexation through pharmacological or genetic means reduced costimulation-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, a liposomal C6 was synthesized, which dramatically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of vincristine on HCT-116 or A2780 xenografts. Together, C6 sensitizes vincristine-induced anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro, involving activating AMPK-p53 signaling.

  9. Fat and fibre interfere with the dramatic effect that nanoemulsified d-limonene has on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Maté, Javier; Periago, Paula M; Ros-Chumillas, María; Grullón, Coralin; Huertas, Juan Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    The application of d-limonene in form of nanoemulsion has been proved to reduce dramatically the thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in culture media. The present research shows very promising results on the application in food products. The thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was reduced 90 times when 0.5 mM nanoemulsified d-limonene was added to apple juice. This is the biggest reduction in the heat resistance of a microorganism caused by an antimicrobial described ever. However, no effect was found in carrot juice. A carrot juice system was prepared in an attempt to unravel which juice constituents were responsible for the lack of effect. When fat and fibre were not included in the carrot juice system formulation, the thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was, again, dramatically reduced in presence of nanoemulsified d-limonene, so these components were shown to interfere with the effect. Once this interaction with food constituents becomes solved, the addition of nanoemulsified antimicrobials would allow to reduce greatly the intensity of the thermal treatments currently applied in the food processing industry.

  10. Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure.

    PubMed

    Rosvall, Martin; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2008-01-29

    To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce an information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. We use the probability flow of random walks on a network as a proxy for information flows in the real system and decompose the network into modules by compressing a description of the probability flow. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of >6,000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network-including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine-information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.

  11. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  12. Hubble reveals heart of Lagoon Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Image release date September 22, 2010 To view a video of this image go here: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/5014452203 Caption: A spectacular new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals the heart of the Lagoon Nebula. Seen as a massive cloud of glowing dust and gas, bombarded by the energetic radiation of new stars, this placid name hides a dramatic reality. The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured a dramatic view of gas and dust sculpted by intense radiation from hot young stars deep in the heart of the Lagoon Nebula (Messier 8). This spectacular object is named after the wide, lagoon-shaped dust lane that crosses the glowing gas of the nebula. This structure is prominent in wide-field images, but cannot be seen in this close-up. However the strange billowing shapes and sandy texture visible in this image make the Lagoon Nebula’s watery name eerily appropriate from this viewpoint too. Located four to five thousand light-years away, in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer), Messier 8 is a huge region of star birth that stretches across one hundred light-years. Clouds of hydrogen gas are slowly collapsing to form new stars, whose bright ultraviolet rays then light up the surrounding gas in a distinctive shade of red. The wispy tendrils and beach-like features of the nebula are not caused by the ebb and flow of tides, but rather by ultraviolet radiation’s ability to erode and disperse the gas and dust into the distinctive shapes that we see. In recent years astronomers probing the secrets of the Lagoon Nebula have found the first unambiguous proof that star formation by accretion of matter from the gas cloud is ongoing in this region. Young stars that are still surrounded by an accretion disc occasionally shoot out long tendrils of matter from their poles. Several examples of these jets, known as Herbig-Haro objects, have been found in this nebula in the last five years, providing strong support for

  13. Revealing the Beast Within

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  14. Massive formation of square array junctions dramatically alters cell shape but does not cause lens opacity in the cav1-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sondip K; Brako, Lawrence; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2014-08-01

    The wavy square array junctions are composed of truncated aquaporin-0 (AQP0) proteins typically distributed in the deep cortical and nuclear fibers in wild-type lenses. These junctions may help maintain the narrowed extracellular spaces between fiber cells to minimize light scattering. Herein, we investigate the impact of the cell shape changes, due to abnormal formation of extensive square array junctions, on the lens opacification in the caveolin-1 knockout mice. The cav1-KO and wild-type mice at age 1-22 months were used. By light microscopy examinations, cav1-KO lenses at age 1-18 months were transparent in both cortical and nuclear regions, whereas some lenses older than 18 months old exhibited nuclear cataracts. Scanning EM consistently observed the massive formation of ridge-and-valley membrane surfaces in young fibers at approximately 150 μm deep in all cav1-KO lenses studied. In contrast, the typical ridge-and-valleys were only seen in mature fibers deeper than 400 μm in wild-type lenses. The resulting extensive ridge-and-valleys dramatically altered the overall cell shape in cav1-KO lenses. Remarkably, despite dramatic shape changes, these deformed fiber cells remained intact and made close contact with their neighboring cells. By freeze-fracture TEM, ridge-and-valleys exhibited the typical orthogonal arrangement of 6.6 nm square array intramembrane particles and displayed the narrowed extracellular spaces. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP0 C-terminus labeling was significantly decreased in outer cortical fibers in cav1-KO lenses. However, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling showed that the AQP0 C-terminus antibody was sparsely distributed on the wavy square array junctions, suggesting that the cleavage of AQP0 C-termini might not yet be complete. The cav1-KO lenses with nuclear cataracts showed complete cellular breakdown and large globule formation in the lens nucleus. This study suggests that despite dramatic cell shape changes, the

  15. Massive formation of square array junctions dramatically alters cell shape but does not cause lens opacity in the cav1-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sondip K.; Brako, Lawrence; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    The wavy square array junctions are composed of truncated aquaporin-0 (AQP0) proteins typically distributed in the deep cortical and nuclear fibers in wild-type lenses. These junctions may help maintain the narrowed extracellular spaces between fiber cells to minimize light scattering. Herein, we investigate the impact of the cell shape changes, due to abnormal formation of extensive square array junctions, on the lens opacification in the caveolin-1 knockout mice. The cav1-KO and wild-type mice at age 1 to 22 months were used. By light microscopy examinations, cav1-KO lenses at age 1 to 18 months were transparent in both cortical and nuclear regions, whereas some lenses older than 18 months old exhibited nuclear cataracts. Scanning EM consistently observed the massive formation of ridge-and-valley membrane surfaces in young fibers at approximately 150 μm deep in all cav1-KO lenses studied. In contrast, the typical ridge-and-valleys were only seen in mature fibers deeper than 400 μm in wild-type lenses. The resulting extensive ridge-and-valleys dramatically altered the overall cell shape in cav1-KO lenses. Remarkably, despite dramatic shape changes, these deformed fiber cells remained intact and made close contact with their neighboring cells. By freeze-fracture TEM, ridge-and-valleys exhibited the typical orthogonal arrangement of 6.6 nm square array intramembrane particles and displayed the narrowed extracellular spaces. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP0 C-terminus labeling was significantly decreased in outer cortical fibers in cav1-KO lenses. However, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling showed that the AQP0 C-terminus antibody was sparsely distributed on the wavy square array junctions, suggesting that the cleavage of AQP0 C-termini might not yet be complete. The cav1-KO lenses with nuclear cataracts showed complete cellular breakdown and large globule formation in the lens nucleus. This study suggests that despite dramatic cell shape changes, the

  16. ZnO Nanocomposites Modified by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Silanes with Dramatically Enhanced Tunable Fluorescence and Aqueous Ultrastability toward Biological Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuying; Sun, Zongzhao; Li, Rui; Dong, Minmin; Zhang, Liyan; Qi, Wei; Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Multicolor ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and further modified with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then hydrophilic aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) bilayers, resulting in amine-functionalized ZnO@HDS@APS nanocomposites with tunable fluorescence from blue to green yellow. Systematic investigations verify that the resulting ZnO@HDS@APS could display extremely high stability in aqueous media and unexpectedly, dramatically-enhanced fluorescence intensities, which are about 10-fold higher than those of bare ZnO QDs. The feasibility of the as-prepared ZnO nanocomposites for blood, cell, and tissue imaging was preliminarily demonstrated, promising the wide bio-applications for cell or tissue imaging, proteome analysis, drug delivery, and molecular labeling.

  17. A Dramatic Regime Shift in Rainfall Predictability Related to the Ningaloo Niño/Niña in the Late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, T.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    The global warming and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) started influencing the coastal ocean off Western Australia, leading to a dramatic change in the regional climate predictability. The warmed ocean started driving rainfall regionally there after the late 1990s. Because of this, rainfall predictability off Western Australia on a seasonal time scale was drastically enhanced in the late 1990s; it is significantly predictable 5 months ahead after the late 1990s. The high prediction skill of the rainfall in recent decades encourages development of an early warning system of Ningaloo Niño/Niña events to mitigate possible societal as well as agricultural impacts in the granary.

  18. Beyond social and temporal comparisons: the role of temporal inter-group comparisons in the context of dramatic social change in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Tougas, Francine; Perenlei, Onon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the target of comparison should be taken into consideration when evaluating the associated outcomes of negative comparisons in the context of dramatic social change. To achieve this general goal, we considered five distinct targets of comparison: social (my group versus another group), temporal (my group across time), and temporal inter-group (my group versus another group across time). We hypothesised that in times of constant social change, two points of anchors (social and temporal) are simultaneously needed to evaluate one's position. A total of 236 high school and university students from Mongolia participated in the study. We used hierarchical regression analysis to test our hypotheses. As predicted, we found that temporal inter-group comparisons are better predictor of collective esteem than their social and temporal counterparts. Moreover, the link from past and future temporal inter-group comparisons to collective esteem was negative as hypothesized. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications.

  19. The absent kidney in 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram: a dramatic reversible consequence of contrast nephrotoxicity superimposed on renal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kayani, I; Groves, A M; Syed, R; Nagabushan, N; Pakzad, F; Prvulovich, E M; Bomanji, J B

    2005-04-01

    99Tcm-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renogram is a robust imaging technique used to delineate upper urinary tract obstruction. The changes observed on the renogram are often reversible on relief of obstruction. We present two cases illustrating the extreme consequence of contrast nephrotoxicity on pre-existing obstructed kidneys. In one case, this led to severe impairment of perfusion and uptake observed on 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram and in the second case virtual non-visualization of the obstructed kidney. Subsequent treatment of obstruction, led to dramatic improvement in renal function. It is important for clinicians, nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists to be aware of the potential of contrast nephrotoxicity in obstructed kidneys.

  20. Dramatically enhanced non-Ohmic properties and maximum stored energy density in ceramic-metal nanocomposites: CaCu3Ti4O12/Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuichai, Wattana; Somjid, Saowalak; Putasaeng, Bundit; Yamwong, Teerapon; Chompoosor, Apiwat; Thongbai, Prasit; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-11-01

    Non-Ohmic and dielectric properties of a novel CaCu3Ti4O12/Au nanocomposite were investigated. Introduction of 2.5 vol.% Au nanoparticles in CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics significantly reduced the loss tangent while its dielectric permittivity remained unchanged. The non-Ohmic properties of CaCu3Ti4O12/Au (2.5 vol.%) were dramatically improved. A nonlinear coefficient of ≈ 17.7 and breakdown electric field strength of 1.25 × 104 V/m were observed. The maximum stored energy density was found to be 25.8 kJ/m3, which is higher than that of pure CaCu3Ti4O12 by a factor of 8. Au addition at higher concentrations resulted in degradation of dielectric and non-Ohmic properties, which is described well by percolation theory.

  1. Dramatic enhancement of organics degradation and electricity generation via strengthening superoxide radical by using a novel 3D AQS/PPy-GF cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Jinhua; Bai, Jing; Li, Linsen; Xia, Ligang; Chen, Shuai; Zhou, Baoxue

    2017-08-24

    A dramatic enhancement of organics degradation and electricity generation has been achieved in a wastewater fuel cell (WFC) system via strengthening superoxide radical with radical chain reaction by using a novel 3D anthraquinone/polypyrrole modified graphite felt (AQS/PPy-GF) cathode. The AQS/PPy-GF was synthesized by one-pot electrochemical polymerization method and used to in-situ generate superoxide radical by reducing oxygen under self-imposed electric field. Results showed that methyl orange (MO) were effectively degraded in AQS/PPy-GF/Fe(2+) system with a high apparent rate constant (0.0677 min(-1)), which was 3.9 times that (0.0174 min(-1)) in the Pt/Fe(2+) system and even 9.4 times that (0.0072 min(-1)) in the traditional WFC system (without Fe(2+)). Meanwhile, it showed a superior performance for electricity generation and the maximum power density output (1.130 mW cm(-2)) was nearly 3.3 times and 5.0 times higher, respectively, when compared with the Pt/Fe(2+) system and traditional WFC. This dramatic advance was attributed to 3D AQS/PPy-GF cathode which produces more O2(-) via one-electron reduction process. The presence of O2(-) cannot only directly contribute to MO degradation, but also promotes the final complete mineralization by turning itself to OH. Additionally, O2(-) accelerates the Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) couple cycling, thus avoiding continuous addition of any external ferrous ions. Inhibition and probe studies were conducted to ascertain the role of several radicals (OH and O2(-)) on the MO degradation. Superoxide radicals were considered as the primary reactive oxidants, and the degradation mechanism of MO was proposed. The proposed WFC system provides a more economical and efficient way for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. On the Dramatic Increase ofDitrupa arietina O.F. Müller (Annelida: Polychaeta) Along Both the French and the Spanish Catalan Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grémare, A.; Sardá, R.; Medernach, L.; Jordana, E.; Pinedo, S.; Amouroux, J. M.; Martin, D.; Nozais, C.; Charles, F.

    1998-10-01

    The distribution and population structure of the serpulid polychaete Ditrupa arietinawere assessed along the section of the Mediterranean coast between Barcelona and Montpellier. The study combined: (1) the analysis of the existing historical data referring to the period before the 1970s; (2) the results of impact assessment surveys carried out in the late 1980s and the 1990s; and (3) the results of two surveys carried out in the Bay of Blanes and along the coast between Cape Cerbère and Port-la-Nouvelle during 1996. The results of the surveys carried out in the 1990s show the occurrence of high densities (i.e. >1000 ind m -2) of Ditrupa arietinaat all the sites sampled. These results can be compared with the few reports of this species before 1970, leading to the conclusion that D. arietinahas recently increased all along the Catalan coast. Ditrupa arietinais preferentially found between 20 and 30 m depth, which mostly corresponds to well-sorted fine sands and muddy sands. Both the results of population monitoring and the heterogeneity of population structure at small spatial scale show that the dynamics of this species is unstable. The observed distribution pattern is therefore interpreted as resulting from a response to both wide-scale environmental parameters (accounting for the dramatic increase of the species at a wide geographical scale), and to local environmental factors (accounting for small-scale heterogeneity in population structure). Analysis of the relationship between sedimentary data and densities of D. arietinasuggests that this species is highly sensitive to the presence of fine sediments. However, because of the regional importance of the phenomenon, it is concluded that the dramatic increase of D. arietinaalong both the Spanish and the French Catalan coast does not result from sediment instability.

  3. Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pettifer, Robert F; Collins, Stephen P; Laundy, David

    2008-07-10

    The Borrmann effect-a dramatic increase in transparency to X-ray beams-is observed when X-rays satisfying Bragg's law diffract through a perfect crystal. The minimization of absorption seen in the Borrmann effect has been explained by noting that the electric field of the X-ray beam approaches zero amplitude at the crystal planes, thus avoiding the atoms. Here we show experimentally that under conditions of absorption suppression, the weaker electric quadrupole absorption transitions are effectively enhanced to such a degree that they can dominate the absorption spectrum. This effect can be exploited as an atomic spectroscopy technique; we show that quadrupole transitions give rise to additional structure at the L(1), L(2) and L(3) absorption edges of gadolinium in gadolinium gallium garnet, which mark the onset of excitations from 2s, 2p(1/2) and 2p(3/2) atomic core levels, respectively. Although the Borrmann effect served to underpin the development of the theory of X-ray diffraction, this is potentially the most important experimental application of the phenomenon since its first observation seven decades ago. Identifying quadrupole features in X-ray absorption spectroscopy is central to the interpretation of 'pre-edge' spectra, which are often taken to be indicators of local symmetry, valence and atomic environment. Quadrupolar absorption isolates states of different symmetries to that of the dominant dipole spectrum, and typically reveals orbitals that dominate the electronic ground-state properties of lanthanides and 3d transition metals, including magnetism. Results from our Borrmann spectroscopy technique feed into contemporary discussions regarding resonant X-ray diffraction and the nature of pre-edge lines identified by inelastic X-ray scattering. Furthermore, because the Borrmann effect has been observed in photonic materials, it seems likely that the quadrupole enhancement reported here will play an important role in modern optics.

  4. γδ T-cell killing of primary follicular lymphoma cells is dramatically potentiated by GA101, a type II glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Braza, Mounia Sabrina; Klein, Bernard; Fiol, Geneviève; Rossi, Jean-François

    2011-03-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are major therapeutic agents for patients with follicular lymphoma and work through complement-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Optimization of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, in particular by amplifying its effectors, could further increase the efficacy of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. We investigated the cytotoxic activity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells against follicular lymphoma cells and whether this killing could be increased by promoting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, in particular a type-II glycoengineered anti-CD20. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were expanded in vitro in the presence of bromohydrin pyrophosphate (Phosphostim) and interleukin-2 and their ability to kill follicular lymphoma primary cells or cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assays in the presence or absence of three anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies: the afucosylated GA101, the chimeric rituximab or the humanized ofatumumab. The ability of these cells to release perforin/granzyme and secrete interferon-γ when co-cultured with follicular lymphoma primary cells or cell lines in the presence or not of the three anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies was also evaluated by CD107a staining and Elispot assays. Phosphostim and interleukin-2 expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were cytotoxic to primary follicular lymphoma cells and their cytotoxic potential was dramatically increased by GA101, a type II glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, and to a lesser extent, by rituximab and ofatumumab. The increased cytotoxicity was associated with increased secretion of perforin/granzyme and interferon-γ. In-vitro expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells efficiently kill primary follicular lymphoma cells and express CD16; anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, in particular GA101, dramatically increase the cytotoxic activity of expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. These preclinical results prompt the development

  5. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-enhanced replication (AER) of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2) strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED) was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C) or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E) glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD50) of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from i) dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii) some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii) copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv) some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v) DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human “severe dengue” cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  6. Dramatic Increase in Incidence of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease (1988-2011): A Population-Based Study of French Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ghione, Silvia; Sarter, Hélène; Fumery, Mathurin; Armengol-Debeir, Laura; Savoye, Guillaume; Ley, Delphine; Spyckerelle, Claire; Pariente, Benjamin; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Turck, Dominique; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne

    2017-08-15

    Few data are available to describe the changes in incidence of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to describe changes in incidence and phenotypic presentation of pediatric-onset IBD in northern France during a 24-year period. Pediatric-onset IBD (<17 years) was issued from a population-based IBD study in France between 1988 and 2011. Age groups and digestive location were defined according to the Paris classification. 1,350 incident cases were recorded (8.3% of all IBD) including 990 Crohn's disease (CD), 326 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 34 IBD unclassified (IBDU). Median age at diagnosis was similar in CD (14.4 years (Q1=11.8-Q3=16.0)) and UC (14.0 years (11.0-16.0)) and did not change over time. There were significantly more males with CD (females/males=0.82) than UC (females/males=1.25) (P=0.0042). Median time between onset of symptoms and IBD diagnosis was consistently 3 months (1-6). Mean incidence was 4.4/10(5) for IBD overall (3.2 for CD, 1.1 for UC and 0.1 for IBDU). From 1988-1990 to 2009-2011, a dramatic increase in incidences of both CD and UC were observed in adolescents (10-16 years): for CD from 4.2 to 9.5/10(5) (+126%; P<0.001) and for UC, from 1.6 to 4.1/10(5) (+156%; P<0.001). No modification in age or location at diagnosis was observed in either CD or UC. In this population-based study, CD and UC incidences increased dramatically in adolescents across a 24-year span, suggesting that one or more strong environmental factors may predispose this population to IBD.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 15 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.228.

  7. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Constant, A; Salmi, L R; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their attitudes towards traffic safety using the same self-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were also available. The mean change in scores analysis showed that support for relaxing existing regulations decreased significantly during this period, while support for heightened enforcement and stricter regulations showed some decrease but remained high overall, especially concerning blood alcohol content and speed controls. Multivariate analyses suggest that highly educated drivers changed their attitudes towards road safety regulations more than other categories. Our results suggest that increased traffic law enforcement measures led to increasing support for current restrictions. Even if support for additional traffic law enforcement began to wane slightly in 2004, a large part of our population remained in favour of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving.

  8. Female Listeners’ Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners’ respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners’ respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners’ heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions. PMID:26925009

  9. Female Listeners' Autonomic Responses to Dramatic Shifts Between Loud and Soft Music/Sound Passages: A Study of Heavy Metal Songs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tzu-Han; Tsai, Chen-Gia

    2016-01-01

    Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners' respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners' respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listeners' heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research on the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  10. Transgenic upregulation of the condensed tannin pathway in poplar leads to a dramatic shift in leaf palatability for two tree-feeding Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Boeckler, G Andreas; Towns, Megan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Mellway, Robin D; Yip, Lynn; Hilke, Ines; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Constabel, C Peter

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) overexpressing the MYB134 tannin regulatory gene show dramatically enhanced condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) levels, as well as shifts in other phenolic metabolites. A series of insect bioassays with forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars was carried out to determine how this metabolic shift affects food preference and performance of generalist tree-feeding lepidopterans. Both species showed a distinct preference for the high-tannin MYB134 overexpressor plants, and L. dispar performance was enhanced relative to controls. L. dispar reached greater pupal weight and showed reduced time to pupation when reared on the MYB134 overexpressing poplar. These results were unexpected since enhanced condensed tannin levels were predicted to act as feeding deterrents. However, the data may be explained by the observed decrease in the salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) salicortin and tremulacin that accompanied the upregulation of the condensed tannins in the transgenics. We conclude that for these two lepidopteran species, condensed tannin levels are unlikely to be a major determinant of caterpillar food preference or performance. However, our experiments show that overexpression of a single regulatory gene in transgenic aspen can have a significant impact on herbivorous insects.

  11. A new treatment protocol using photobiomodulation and muscle/bone/joint recovery techniques having a dramatic effect on a stroke patient's recovery: a new weapon for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Boonswang, N Ab; Chicchi, Mary; Lukachek, Adele; Curtiss, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this case study is a 29-year-old woman who suffered a brainstem stroke. She remained severely dizzy, had a non-functional left hand secondary to weakness, severe spasticity in the right hand, a right lateral sixth nerve palsy and was unable to ambulate on presentation. The stroke occurred 2 years before presentation. The subject had been treated for 21 months at two different stroke rehabilitation centres before presentation. Our stroke protocol includes photobiomodulation administered with the XR3T-1 device and ‘muscle/bone/joint/soft tissue’ recovery techniques. The patient was seen once a week for 8 weeks and treatment sessions lasted approximately 60 min. The results were dramatic: after 8 weeks of implementation of our protocol, the patient demonstrated positive change in every area of her deficits as determined by improvements in physical examination findings. The gains achieved at 8 weeks have been maintained to this day and she continues to be treated once every 4 weeks. PMID:22967677

  12. Combined administration of oseltamivir and hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41) dramatically decreases the viral load in lungs of senescence-accelerated mice during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ohgitani, Eriko; Kita, Masakazu; Mazda, Osam; Imanishi, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    To enhance the effect of anti-influenza-virus agent treatment, the effect of combined administration of oseltamivir phosphate and hochu-ekki-to (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, HET) on early viral clearance was examined. Senescence-accelerated mice were given HET in drinking water for 2 weeks, followed by intranasal infection with influenza A virus strain PR8. After 4 hours of infection, oseltamivir was administered orally for 5 days. The viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving combined treatment were dramatically lower when compared with the viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving oseltamivir alone. HET significantly increased the induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in the lungs of PR8-infected mice and stimulated alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. From these results, we conclude that these functions may be responsible the increased effect on viral load reduction. Here, we show that the combined administration of oseltamivir and HET is very useful for influenza treatment in senescence-accelerated mice.

  13. Dramatic Decrease in Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and New Insights Into Intestinal Protozoa in Children Living in the Chaco Region, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2–12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. PMID:25711609

  14. CHARACTERIZING A DRAMATIC ΔV ∼ –9 FLARE ON AN ULTRACOOL DWARF FOUND BY THE ASAS-SN SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Jencson, J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Basu, U.; Beacom, John F.; Prieto, Jose L.; Morrell, Nidia; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Szczygieł, D. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Brimacombe, J.; Dubberley, M.; Elphick, M.; Foale, S.; Hawkins, E.; Mullins, D.; Rosing, W.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We analyze a ΔV ∼ –9 magnitude flare on the newly identified M8 dwarf SDSS J022116.84+194020.4 (hereafter SDSSJ0221) detected as part of the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae. Using infrared and optical spectra, we confirm that SDSSJ0221 is a relatively nearby (d ∼ 76 pc) M8 dwarf with strong quiescent Hα emission. Based on kinematics and the absence of features consistent with low-gravity (young) ultracool dwarfs, we place a lower limit of 200 Myr on the age of SDSSJ0221. When modeled with a simple, classical flare light curve, this flare is consistent with a total U-band flare energy E{sub U} ∼ 10{sup 34} erg, confirming that the most dramatic flares are not limited to warmer, more massive stars. Scaled to include a rough estimate of the emission line contribution to the V band, we estimate a blackbody filling factor of ∼10%-30% during the flare peak and ∼0.5%-1.6% during the flare decay phase. These filling factors correspond to flare areas that are an order of magnitude larger than those measured for most mid-M dwarf flares.

  15. Side-to-side duodeno-colic anastomosis provides dramatic weight loss. A potentially strong anti-diabetic operation for type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gagner, Michel

    2017-06-01

    Incomplete bypass of the intestines provides weight loss by hypoabsorption of nutrients and hormonal changes. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a side-to-side duodeno-colic anastomosis (DCA) in the short term. Seven <50 kg swine were allocated to a DCA, and compared to a sham group. Weights were recorded for 8 weeks and duodenoscopies performed at 8 and 28 days. Complete blood count and basic biochemistry profiles were taken at baseline, day 3 and 56. At necropsy, macroscopic and histological changes of the liver, duodenum and colon samples were analyzed. The DCA group has shown a weight loss of 18.2%, while the control group gained 33.2% more weight at 56 days, for a dramatic difference of 51.4% between the 2 groups (P<0.05). Duodenoscopies demonstrated normal patent anastomosis and adequate lumen without abnormalities at 28 days. Histological anastomosis examination at 56 days showed normal healing, with absence of severe liver toxicity. In this mammal model with short follow-up, a side-to-side duodeno-colic anastomosis provided rapid efficacious weight loss in the short term.

  16. DISCOVERY OF DRAMATIC OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN SDSS J1100+4421: A PECULIAR RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Kikuchi, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Saito, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Stawarz, Łukasz; Gandhi, Poshak; Ali, Gamal; Essam, Ahmad; Hamed, Gamal; Aoki, Tsutomu; Contreras, Carlos; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Iwata, Ikuru; and others

    2014-10-01

    We present our discovery of dramatic variability in SDSS J1100+4421 by the high-cadence transient survey Kiso Supernova Survey. The source brightened in the optical by at least a factor of three within about half a day. Spectroscopic observations suggest that this object is likely a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) at z = 0.840, however, with unusually strong narrow emission lines. The estimated black hole mass of ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} implies bolometric nuclear luminosity close to the Eddington limit. SDSS J1100+4421 is also extremely radio-loud, with a radio loudness parameter of R ≅ 4 × 10{sup 2}-3 × 10{sup 3}, which implies the presence of relativistic jets. Rapid and large-amplitude optical variability of the target, reminiscent of that found in a few radio- and γ-ray-loud NLS1s, is therefore produced most likely in a blazar-like core. The 1.4 GHz radio image of the source shows an extended structure with a linear size of about 100 kpc. If SDSS J1100+4421 is a genuine NLS1, as suggested here, this radio structure would then be the largest ever discovered in this type of active galaxies.

  17. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Novoa, D.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-12-01

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers.

  18. Discovery of Dramatic Optical Variability in SDSS J1100+4421: A Peculiar Radio-loud Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Saito, Yoshihiko; Stawarz, Łukasz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Gandhi, Poshak; Ali, Gamal; Aoki, Tsutomu; Contreras, Carlos; Doi, Mamoru; Essam, Ahmad; Hamed, Gamal; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kuroda, Daisuke; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Emiko; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mori, Kensho; Moritani, Yuki; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Morrell, Nidia; Nagao, Tohru; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Nakata, Fumiaki; Noma, Chinami; Ohsuga, Ken; Okada, Norio; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Richmond, Michael W.; Sahu, Devendra; Sako, Shigeyuki; Sarugaku, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Soyano, Takao; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takey, Ali; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-10-01

    We present our discovery of dramatic variability in SDSS J1100+4421 by the high-cadence transient survey Kiso Supernova Survey. The source brightened in the optical by at least a factor of three within about half a day. Spectroscopic observations suggest that this object is likely a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) at z = 0.840, however, with unusually strong narrow emission lines. The estimated black hole mass of ~107 M ⊙ implies bolometric nuclear luminosity close to the Eddington limit. SDSS J1100+4421 is also extremely radio-loud, with a radio loudness parameter of R ~= 4 × 102-3 × 103, which implies the presence of relativistic jets. Rapid and large-amplitude optical variability of the target, reminiscent of that found in a few radio- and γ-ray-loud NLS1s, is therefore produced most likely in a blazar-like core. The 1.4 GHz radio image of the source shows an extended structure with a linear size of about 100 kpc. If SDSS J1100+4421 is a genuine NLS1, as suggested here, this radio structure would then be the largest ever discovered in this type of active galaxies.

  19. Dramatic Enhancement in Photoresponse of β-In2S3 through Suppression of Dark Conductivity by Synthetic Control of Defect-Induced Carrier Compensation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Nilima; Mandal, Lily; Game, Onkar; Warule, Sambhaji; Phase, Deodatta; Jadkar, Sandesh; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2015-08-19

    We report on the synthesis of dense and faceted indium sulfide (β-In2S3) nano-octahedron films on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by the hydrothermal method and their photoresponse properties in a flip chip device configuration. We have examined the temporal evolution of the phase constitution, morphology, and optoelectronic properties for films obtained after growth interruption at specific intervals. It is noted that, initially, an In(OH)3 film forms, which is gradually transformed to the β-In2S3 phase over time. In the case of the film wherein most, but not all, of In(OH)3 is consumed, an exceptionally large photoresponse (light to dark current ratio) of ∼10(4) and response time(s) (rise/fall) of ∼88/280 ms are realized. This superior performance is attributed to nearly complete carrier compensation achievable in the system under high pressure growth leading to dramatic reduction of dark conductivity. It is argued that the temporally growth-controlled equilibrium between quasi-In interstitials and cation vacancies dictates the optoelectronic properties.

  20. Dramatically enhanced non-Ohmic properties and maximum stored energy density in ceramic-metal nanocomposites: CaCu3Ti4O12/Au nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Non-Ohmic and dielectric properties of a novel CaCu3Ti4O12/Au nanocomposite were investigated. Introduction of 2.5 vol.% Au nanoparticles in CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics significantly reduced the loss tangent while its dielectric permittivity remained unchanged. The non-Ohmic properties of CaCu3Ti4O12/Au (2.5 vol.%) were dramatically improved. A nonlinear coefficient of ≈ 17.7 and breakdown electric field strength of 1.25 × 104 V/m were observed. The maximum stored energy density was found to be 25.8 kJ/m3, which is higher than that of pure CaCu3Ti4O12 by a factor of 8. Au addition at higher concentrations resulted in degradation of dielectric and non-Ohmic properties, which is described well by percolation theory. PMID:24257060

  1. It IS worth the effort: Patient knowledge of reproductive aspects of inflammatory bowel disease improves dramatically after a single group education session.

    PubMed

    Mountifield, Réme; Andrews, Jane M; Bampton, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have poor knowledge regarding the implications of disease for fertility and pregnancy. Previous studies suggest that this poor knowledge adversely influences reproductive decision making. To examine the effect of a single group education session on IBD-specific reproductive knowledge in subjects with IBD. People with IBD attending an educational event were invited to complete the CCPKnow questionnaire, testing reproductive knowledge in IBD, before and after an evidenced based presentation on this topic delivered by a Gastroenterologist. Of 248 attendees, 155 participated; 69% female, mean age 40.3years. CCPKnow scores (maximum 17) were low at baseline and increased significantly post education (mean 5.4 pre vs. 14.5 post education; p<0.0001). A large majority (65.1%) of subjects had "poor" (score <8) knowledge at baseline, compared with only 1.9% after education (p<0.0001). Whilst all subareas of knowledge improved after education, the most important improvement was in attitudes toward medication use in pregnancy: 33.5% of subjects indicated at baseline that women should avoid all drugs in pregnancy compared with only 1.2% post education (p<0.0001). A single group-delivered education event focussed on reproductive issues in IBD can dramatically improve patient knowledge. This has the potential to change reproductive behaviour and may reduce voluntary childlessness resulting from misperceptions amongst individuals with IBD. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Helical Conformation of the SEVI Precursor Peptide PAP248-286, a Dramatic Enhancer of HIV Infectivity, Promotes Lipid Aggregation and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Hartman, Kevin; Gottler, Lindsey M.; Cavitt, Marchello E.; Youngstrom, Daniel W.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2009-01-01

    In previous in vivo studies, amyloid fibers formed from a peptide ubiquitous in human seminal fluid (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI)) were found to dramatically enhance the infectivity of the HIV virus (3–5 orders of magnitude by some measures). To complement those studies, we performed in vitro assays of PAP248-286, the most active precursor to SEVI, and other polycationic polymers to investigate the physical mechanisms by which the PAP248-286 promotes the interaction with lipid bilayers. At acidic (but not at neutral) pH, freshly dissolved PAP248-286 catalyzes the formation of large lipid flocculates in a variety of membrane compositions, which may be linked to the promotion of convective transport in the vaginal environment rather than transport by a random Brownian motion. Furthermore, PAP248-286 is itself fusiogenic and weakens the integrity of the membrane in such a way that may promote fusion by the HIV gp41 protein. An α-helical conformation of PAP248-286, lying parallel to the membrane surface, is implicated in promoting bridging interactions between membranes by the screening of the electrostatic repulsion that occurs when two membranes are brought into close contact. This suggests that nonspecific binding of monomeric or small oligomeric forms of SEVI in a helical conformation to lipid membranes may be an additional mechanism by which SEVI enhances the infectivity of the HIV virus. PMID:19883590

  3. Dramatic increase in the relative abundance of large male dungeness crabs Cancer magister following closure of commercial fishing in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The size structure of the population of the Dungeness crab Cancer magister was studied at six sites in or near Glacier Bay, Alaska, before and after the closure of commercial fishing. Seven years of preclosure and 4 years of postclosure data are presented. After the closure of Glacier Bay to commercial fishing, the number and size of legal-sized male Dungeness crabs increased dramatically at the experimental sites. Female and sublegal-sized male crabs, the portions of the population not directly targeted by commercial fishing, did not increase in size or abundance following the closure. There was not a large shift in the size-abundance distribution of male crabs at the control site that is still open to commercial fishing. Marine protected areas are being widely promoted as effective tools for managing fisheries while simultaneously meeting marine conservation goals and maintaining marine biodiversity. Our data demonstrate that the size of male Dungeness crabs can markedly increase in a marine reserve, which supports the concept that marine reserves could help maintain genetic diversity in Dungeness crabs and other crab species subjected to size-limit fisheries and possibly increase the fertility of females. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  4. Dramatic change in a young woman's perception of her diabetes and remarkable reduction in HbA1c after an individual course of Guided Self-Determination.

    PubMed

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe

    2015-07-06

    A 24-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes participated in a randomised controlled trial proving effectiveness of a flexible Guided Self-Determination (GSD) intervention. She had for 10 years been living with a complex situation of eating disorder, poor glycaemic control, non-attendance and psychosocial distress. She managed to change her perception of diabetes dramatically and improved her glycaemic control. Considering the complexity of her case, we explored how she achieved these changes. A GSD-trained nurse delivered the intervention, which involves reflection sheets and advanced professional communication. Glycated hemoglobin was reported in the patient's record and an interview conducted by external interviewers was analysed thematically, indicating that a four-stage process of empowerment had taken place: 'focusing on life prior to numbers', 'unpacking a heavy burden', 'breaking out of isolation through communication' and 'finding strength within oneself'. The article emphasises that GSD works by breaking isolation through communication as an appropriate way to achieve good diabetes control.

  5. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. [Nephrocutaneous fistula revealing xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Scotté, M; Sibert, L; Soury, P; Lebret, T; Gobet, F; Grise, P; Tenière, P

    1993-01-01

    A patient presented with a reno-cutaneous fistula revealing a xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis secondary to staghorn calculus. Total nephrectomy was necessary because of renal destruction. This treatment allowed closure of the fistula and a good clinical result.

  7. Peatland restoration measures may have dramatic consequences - Greenhouse gas exchange and peat properties in a coastal fen in the first year after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Hahn, Juliane; Köhler, Stefan; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    190-times increase in CH4 compared to pre-flooding conditions. Highest GHG fluxes occurred in sedge stands that suffered from the heaviest die-back due to water level rise. None of the recorded environmental variables showed consistent correlation with the amounts of CH4 and CO2 exchanged. In the short term perspective covered in this study, rewetting by flooding did not - especially due to the dramatic increase in CH4 emissions - decrease GHG emissions. Furthermore, we observed an overall destabilization of the ecosystem functioning: The environmental parameters that are commonly used to explain variation in GHG exchange did not show any consistent correlation and some showed dramatic changes when comparing pre- and post-flooding. Our results suggest that rewetting projects should be monitored not only with regard to vegetation development but also with respect to biogeochemical conditions. Further, high CH4 emissions that likely occur directly after rewetting by flooding should be considered when forecasting the overall effect of rewetting on GHG exchange of a particular site.

  8. A point mutation in the [2Fe–2S] cluster binding region of the NAF-1 protein (H114C) dramatically hinders the cluster donor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Sagi; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael; Conlan, Andrea R.; Stofleth, Jason T.; Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Mittler, Ron; Jennings, Patricia A.; Livnah, Oded Nechushtai, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    NAF-1 has been shown to be related with human health and disease, is upregulated in epithelial breast cancer and suppression of its expression significantly suppresses tumor growth. It is shown that replacement of the single His ligand with Cys resulted in dramatic changes to the properties of its 2Fe-2S clusters without any global crystal structural changes. NAF-1 is an important [2Fe–2S] NEET protein associated with human health and disease. A mis-splicing mutation in NAF-1 results in Wolfram Syndrome type 2, a lethal childhood disease. Upregulation of NAF-1 is found in epithelial breast cancer cells, and suppression of NAF-1 expression by knockdown significantly suppresses tumor growth. Key to NAF-1 function is the NEET fold with its [2Fe–2S] cluster. In this work, the high-resolution structure of native NAF-1 was determined to 1.65 Å resolution (R factor = 13.5%) together with that of a mutant in which the single His ligand of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, His114, was replaced by Cys. The NAF-1 H114C mutant structure was determined to 1.58 Å resolution (R factor = 16.0%). All structural differences were localized to the cluster binding site. Compared with native NAF-1, the [2Fe–2S] clusters of the H114C mutant were found to (i) be 25-fold more stable, (ii) have a redox potential that is 300 mV more negative and (iii) have their cluster donation/transfer function abolished. Because no global structural differences were found between the mutant and the native (wild-type) NAF-1 proteins, yet significant functional differences exist between them, the NAF-1 H114C mutant is an excellent tool to decipher the underlying biological importance of the [2Fe–2S] cluster of NAF-1 in vivo.

  9. A Dramatic Difference in Global Gene Expression between TCDD-Treated Atlantic Tomcod Larvae from the Resistant Hudson River and a Nearby Sensitive Population

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stuart M.; Heguy, Adriana; Zappile, Paul; Chen, Hao; Goradia, Aayush; Wang, Yilan; Hao, Yuhan; Roy, Nirmal K.; Vitale, Kristy; Chambers, R. Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Atlantic tomcod in the Hudson River Estuary bioaccumulate high hepatic burdens of environmental toxicants. Previously, we demonstrated that Hudson River tomcod developed resistance to TCDD and PCB toxicity probably through strong natural selection during their early life-stages for a variant of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor2 (AHR2). Here, we evaluated the genomic consequences of the resistant genotype by comparing global gene expression in larval tomcod from the Hudson River with expression in larvae from a nearby sensitive population (Shinnecock Bay). We developed an annotated draft tomcod genome to explore the effects of multigenerational exposure to toxicants and a functionally impaired AHR2 on the transcriptome. We used the tomcod genome as a reference in RNA-Seq to compare global gene expression in tomcod larvae from the Hudson River and Shinnecock Bay after experimental exposure of larvae to graded doses of TCDD. We found dramatic differences between offspring from the two populations in the number of genes that were differentially expressed at all doses (0.01, 0.1, and 1 ppb) and even in the vehicle controls. At the two lowest TCDD doses, 250 and 1,141 genes were differentially expressed in Shinnecock Bay larvae compared with 14 and 12, respectively, in Hudson River larvae. At the highest dose (1.0 ppb), 934 genes were differentially expressed in Shinnecock Bay larvae and 173 in Hudson River larvae, but only 28 (16%) of affected genes were shared among both populations. Given the large difference between the two populations in the number and identity of differentially expressed genes, it is likely that the AHR2 pathway interacts directly or indirectly with many genes beyond those known in the AHR2 battery and that other regulatory systems may also respond to TCDD exposure. The effects of chronic multi-generational exposure to environmental toxicants on the genome of Hudson River tomcod are much greater than previously expected.

  10. Dramatic reduction of liver cancer incidence in young adults: 28 year follow-up of etiological interventions in an endemic area of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zongtang; Chen, Taoyang; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Zhan, Qimin; Chen, Jianguo; Park, Ju-Hyun; Lu, Peixin; Hsia, Chu Chieh; Wang, Nengjin; Xu, Libin; Lu, Lingling; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yuanrong; Lu, Jianhua; Ni, Zhengping; Zhang, Qinan; Wu, Yuying; Liu, Guoting; Wu, Zhiyuan; Qu, Chunfeng; Gail, Mitchell H

    2013-08-01

    Qidong City, China, has had high liver cancer incidence from endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and dietary exposure to aflatoxin. Based on etiologic studies, we began interventions in 1980 to reduce dietary aflatoxin and initiate neonatal HBV vaccination. We studied trends in liver cancer incidence rates in the 1.1 million inhabitants of Qidong and examined trends in aflatoxin exposure, staple food consumption, HBV infection markers and annual income. Aflatoxin exposure declined greatly in association with economic reform, increased earnings and educational programs to shift staple food consumption in the total population from moldy corn to fresh rice. A controlled neonatal HBV vaccination trial began in 1983 and ended in November, 1990, when vaccination was expanded to all newborns. Liver cancer incidence fell dramatically in young adults. Compared with 1980-83, the age-specific liver cancer incidence rates in 2005-08 significantly decreased 14-fold at ages 20-24, 9-fold at ages 25-29, 4-fold at ages 30-34, 1.5-fold at ages 35-39, 1.2-fold at ages 40-44 and 1.4-fold at ages 45-49, but increased at older ages. The 14-fold reduction at ages 20-24 might reflect the combined effects of reduced aflatoxin exposure and partial neonatal HBV vaccination. Decrease incidence in age groups >25 years could mainly be attributable to rapid aflatoxin reduction. Compared with 1980-83, liver cancer incidence in 1990-93 significantly decreased 3.4-fold at ages 20-24, and 1.9-fold at ages 25-29 when the first vaccinees were <11 years old.

  11. DRAMATIC INFRARED VARIABILITY OF WISE J1810-3305: CATCHING EARLY-TIME DUST EJECTION DURING THE THERMAL PULSE OF AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Poshak; Yamamura, Issei; Takita, Satoshi

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of a source with broadband infrared photometric characteristics similar to Sakurai's object. WISE J180956.27-330500.2 (hereafter J1810-3305) shows very red WISE colors, but a very blue 2MASS [K] versus WISE [W1 (3.4 {mu}m)] color. It was not visible during the IRAS era, but now has a 12 {mu}m flux well above the IRAS point-source catalog detection limit. There are also indications of variability in historical optical photographic plates as well as in multi-epoch AKARI mid-infrared measurements. The broadband infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shape, post-IRAS brightening, and multiwavelength variability are all characteristics also shared by Sakurai's object-a post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star which underwent a late thermal pulse and recently ejected massive envelopes of dust that are currently expanding and cooling. Optical progenitor colors suggest that J1810-3305 may have been of late spectral class. Its dramatic infrared brightening and the detection of a late-type optical counterpart are consistent with a scenario in which we have caught an extremely massive dust ejection event (in 1998 or shortly before) during the thermal pulse of an AGB star, thus providing a unique opportunity to observe stellar evolution in this phase. J1810-3305 is the only source in the entire WISE preliminary data release with similar infrared SED and variability, emphasizing the rarity of such sources. Confirmation of its nature is of great importance.

  12. Optimized Protocols for In Vitro Maturation of Rat Oocytes Dramatically Improve Their Developmental Competence to a Level Similar to That of Ovulated Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Cui, Wei; Yang, Rui; Lin, Juan; Gong, Shuai; Lian, Hua-Yu; Sun, Ming-Ju; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-02-01

    The developmental capacity of in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes is markedly lower than that of their in vivo-matured (IVO) counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVM protocols in different species. There are few studies on IVM of rat oocytes, and there are even fewer attempts to improve ooplasmic maturation compared to those reported in other species. Furthermore, rat oocytes are well known to undergo spontaneous activation (SA) after leaving the oviduct; however, whether IVM rat oocytes have lower SA rates than IVO oocytes and can potentially be used for nuclear transfer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of maturation protocols on cytoplasmic maturation of IVM rat oocytes and observed the possibility to reduce SA by using IVM rat oocytes. Ooplasmic maturation was assessed using multiple markers, including pre- and postimplantation development, meiotic progression, CG redistribution, redox state, and the expression of developmental potential- and apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the best protocol consisting of modified Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM-199) supplemented with cysteamine/cystine and the cumulus cell monolayer dramatically improved the developmental competence of rat oocytes and supported both pre- and postimplantation development and other ooplasmic maturation makers to levels similar to that observed in ovulated oocytes. Rates of SA were significantly lower in IVM oocytes than in IVO oocytes when observed at the same intervals after nuclear maturation. In conclusion, we have optimized protocols for IVM of rat oocytes that sustain ooplasmic maturation to a level similar to ovulated oocytes. The results suggest that IVM rat oocytes might be used to reduce SA for rat cloning.

  13. Time from HIV diagnosis to commencement of antiretroviral therapy as an indicator to supplement the HIV cascade: Dramatic fall from 2011 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Medland, Nicholas A; Chow, Eric P F; McMahon, James H; Elliott, Julian H; Hoy, Jennifer F; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-01-01

    The HIV care cascade is increasingly used to evaluate HIV treatment programs at the population level. However, the cascade indicators lack the ability to show changes over time, which reduces their utility to guide health policy. Alternatives have been proposed but are complex or result in a delay in results. We propose a new indicator of ART uptake, the time from HIV diagnosis to commencement of ART, and compare it to the existing cascade indicator of proportion of patients on treatment and the WHO proposed cohort cascade indicator of proportion of patients on treatment within one year of diagnosis. Records from patients from the two largest HIV treatment centres in the state of Victoria, Australia (Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and The Alfred Hospital Department of Infectious Diseases) from 2011 to 2015 were extracted. The intervals between date of diagnosis, entry into care and initiation of ART were compared. From 2011 to 2015 the proportion of in-care patients who were on ART rose from 87% to 93% (p<0.0001). From 2011 to 2014, the proportion of patients in care and on ART within one year of diagnosis increased from 43.4% to 78.9% (p = 0.001). The median time from diagnosis to ART fell from 418 days (IQR: 91-1176) to 77 days (IQR: 39-290)(p<0.001) by calendar year in which ART was commenced. From 2011 to 2015 there were substantial and clinically important falls in the median time from diagnosis to commencing ART in those that commenced ART. The size of this dramatic change was not apparent when only reporting the proportion of patients on ART. Time to ART is a useful indicator and can be used to supplement existing cascade indicators in measuring progress toward universal ART coverage.

  14. Dramatic reduction of liver cancer incidence in young adults: 28 year follow-up of etiological interventions in an endemic area of China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zongtang

    2013-01-01

    Qidong City, China, has had high liver cancer incidence from endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and dietary exposure to aflatoxin. Based on etiologic studies, we began interventions in 1980 to reduce dietary aflatoxin and initiate neonatal HBV vaccination. We studied trends in liver cancer incidence rates in the 1.1 million inhabitants of Qidong and examined trends in aflatoxin exposure, staple food consumption, HBV infection markers and annual income. Aflatoxin exposure declined greatly in association with economic reform, increased earnings and educational programs to shift staple food consumption in the total population from moldy corn to fresh rice. A controlled neonatal HBV vaccination trial began in 1983 and ended in November, 1990, when vaccination was expanded to all newborns. Liver cancer incidence fell dramatically in young adults. Compared with 1980–83, the age-specific liver cancer incidence rates in 2005–08 significantly decreased 14-fold at ages 20–24, 9-fold at ages 25–29, 4-fold at ages 30–34, 1.5-fold at ages 35–39, 1.2-fold at ages 40–44 and 1.4-fold at ages 45–49, but increased at older ages. The 14-fold reduction at ages 20–24 might reflect the combined effects of reduced aflatoxin exposure and partial neonatal HBV vaccination. Decrease incidence in age groups >25 years could mainly be attributable to rapid aflatoxin reduction. Compared with 1980–83, liver cancer incidence in 1990–93 significantly decreased 3.4-fold at ages 20–24, and 1.9-fold at ages 25–29 when the first vaccinees were <11 years old. PMID:23322152

  15. A paleoweathering profile from Griqualand West, South Africa: evidence for a dramatic rise in atmospheric oxygen between 2.2 and 1.9 bybp.

    PubMed

    Holland, H D; Beukes, N J

    1990-01-01

    A core drilled near Wolhaarkop in Griqualand West, South Africa, intersected highly oxidized Kuruman Iron Formation below red beds of the Gamagara Formation. The lateral equivalents of the Kuruman Iron Formation in this drill hole consist largely of siderite, ankerite, magnetite, greenalite, and quartz. The oxidation of the Kuruman Iron Formation in WOL 2 occurred almost certainly during weathering prior to the deposition of the Gamagara Formation. The date of this weathering episode is bracketed between about 2.2 and 1.9 bybp by the age of the Ongeluk lavas in the Transvaal sequence below the unconformity and by the age of the Hartley lavas in the Olifantshoek Group above the unconformity. The ratio of iron to SiO2 in the several facies of the weathered Kuruman Iron Formation in WOL 2 is nearly the same as that in their unweathered equivalents. Since SiO2 loss during weathering was almost certainly minor, the similarity of the Fe/SiO2 ratio in the weathered and unweathered BIF indicates that nearly all the "FeO" in the Kuruman Iron Formation was oxidized and retained as FeO3 during weathering. Such a high degree of iron retention is best explained by an O2 content of the atmosphere > or = 0.03 atm at the time of weathering. Such an O2 pressure is very much greater than that suggested by the composition of paleosols developed on basalt > or = 2.2 bybp but is consistent with the highly oxidized nature of the 1.85 by Flin Flon paleosol. The new data suggest that PO2 rose dramatically from about 1 percent PAL (present atmospheric level) to > or = 15 percent PAL between 2.2 and 1.9 bybp.

  16. Dramatic variability of the carbonate system at a temperate coastal ocean site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA) is regulated by physical and biogeochemical processes on multiple timescales.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zackary I; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Blinebry, Sara K; Carlson, Christina M; Ward, Christopher S; Hunt, Dana E

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments resulting in potentially dramatic consequences for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, there is also substantial temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already experience change that exceeds long-term projected trends in pH. This points to short-term dynamics as an important layer of complexity on top of long-term trends. Thus, in order to predict future climate change impacts, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and dynamics of the marine carbonate system and the mechanisms responsible for observed variability. Here, we present pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year from a dynamic, coastal, temperate marine system (Beaufort Inlet, Beaufort NC USA) to characterize the carbonate system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variation of the carbonate system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency change (hours to days) is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides) and stochastic events (e.g. storms). Both annual (~0.3 units) and diurnal (~0.1 units) variability in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to 50 year projections of ocean acidity associated with increasing atmospheric CO2. The environmental variables driving these changes highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system rather than just pH. Short-term dynamics of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and complexity, including

  17. IL-6 loss causes ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, reduced capillary density, and dramatically alters the cell populations of the developing and adult heart

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indroneal; Fuseler, John W.; Intwala, Arti R.; Baudino, Troy A.

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine responsible for many different processes including the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, differentiation, and survival in various cell types and organs, including the heart. Recent studies have indicated that IL-6 is a critical component in the cell-cell communication between myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-6 deficiency on the cardiac cell populations, cardiac function, and interactions between the cells of the heart, specifically cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes. To examine the effects of IL-6 loss on cardiac function, we used the IL-6−/− mouse. IL-6 deficiency caused severe cardiac dilatation, increased accumulation of interstitial collagen, and altered expression of the adhesion protein periostin. In addition, flow cytometric analyses demonstrated dramatic alterations in the cardiac cell populations of IL-6−/− mice compared with wild-type littermates. We observed a marked increase in the cardiac fibroblast population in IL-6−/− mice, whereas a concomitant decrease was observed in the other cardiac cell populations examined. Moreover, we observed increased cell proliferation and apoptosis in the developing IL-6−/− heart. Additionally, we observed a significant decrease in the capillary density of IL-6−/− hearts. To elucidate the role of IL-6 in the interactions between cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes, we performed in vitro studies and demonstrated that IL-6 deficiency attenuated the activation of the STAT3 pathway and VEGF production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a loss of IL-6 causes cardiac dysfunction by shifting the cardiac cell populations, altering the extracellular matrix, and disrupting critical cell-cell interactions. PMID:19234091

  18. Dramatic Variability of the Carbonate System at a Temperate Coastal Ocean Site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA) Is Regulated by Physical and Biogeochemical Processes on Multiple Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Blinebry, Sara K.; Carlson, Christina M.; Ward, Christopher S.; Hunt, Dana E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments resulting in potentially dramatic consequences for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, there is also substantial temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already experience change that exceeds long-term projected trends in pH. This points to short-term dynamics as an important layer of complexity on top of long-term trends. Thus, in order to predict future climate change impacts, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and dynamics of the marine carbonate system and the mechanisms responsible for observed variability. Here, we present pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year from a dynamic, coastal, temperate marine system (Beaufort Inlet, Beaufort NC USA) to characterize the carbonate system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variation of the carbonate system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency change (hours to days) is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides) and stochastic events (e.g. storms). Both annual (~0.3 units) and diurnal (~0.1 units) variability in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to 50 year projections of ocean acidity associated with increasing atmospheric CO2. The environmental variables driving these changes highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system rather than just pH. Short-term dynamics of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and complexity, including

  19. [Vulvar oedema revealing systemic mastocytosis].

    PubMed

    Deveza, E; Locatelli, F; Girardin, M; Valmary-Degano, S; Daguindau, E; Aubin, F; Humbert, P; Pelletier, F

    2015-11-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterised by abnormal proliferation of mast cells in various organs. We report an original case of systemic mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema. A 24-year-old patient was examined in the dermatology department for vulvar oedema appearing during sexual intercourse. She presented vasomotor dysfunction of the lower limbs, urticaria on the trunk on exertion, diarrhoea and bone pains. Laboratory tests showed serum tryptase of 29.7μg and plasma histamine at twice the normal value. Myelogram results showed infiltration by dysmorphic mast cells. Screening for c-kit D816V mutation was positive. Duodenal biopsies revealed mast-cell clusters with aggregation involving over 15 mast cells. CD2 staining was inconclusive and CD25 staining could not be done. Trabecular osteopenia was found, and we thus made a diagnosis of indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM variant Ia) as per the WHO 2008 criteria. Symptomatic treatment was initiated (antiH1, H2, antileukotrienes) and clinical and laboratory follow-up was instituted. The cutaneous signs leading to diagnosis in this patient of systemic mastocytosis involving several organs were seemingly minimal signs associated with mastocyte degranulation. This is the third recorded case of mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema and the first case revealing systemic involvement. The two previously reported cases of vulvar oedema revealed cutaneous mastocytosis alone. Mastocytosis, whether systemic or cutaneous, must be included among the differential diagnoses considered in the presence of vulvar oedema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Ischemic Colitis Revealing Polyarteritis Nodosa

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, Amira; Litaiem, Noureddine; Smiti Khanfir, M.; Ayadi, Sofiene; Nfoussi, Haifa; Houman, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is one of the most common intestinal ischemic injuries. It results from impaired perfusion of blood to the bowel and is rarely caused by vasculitis. We report a case of ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in a 55-year-old man. Histological examination of the resected colon led to the diagnosis of PAN. PMID:24382967