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Sample records for reveals functional divergence

  1. Quantitative Protein Localization Signatures Reveal an Association between Spatial and Functional Divergences of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Laksameethanasan, Danai; Tung, Yi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization is a major determinant of protein function. However, this important protein feature is often described in terms of discrete and qualitative categories of subcellular compartments, and therefore it has limited applications in quantitative protein function analyses. Here, we present Protein Localization Analysis and Search Tools (PLAST), an automated analysis framework for constructing and comparing quantitative signatures of protein subcellular localization patterns based on microscopy images. PLAST produces human-interpretable protein localization maps that quantitatively describe the similarities in the localization patterns of proteins and major subcellular compartments, without requiring manual assignment or supervised learning of these compartments. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we show that PLAST is more accurate than existing, qualitative protein localization annotations in identifying known co-localized proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLAST can reveal protein localization-function relationships that are not obvious from these annotations. First, we identified proteins that have similar localization patterns and participate in closely-related biological processes, but do not necessarily form stable complexes with each other or localize at the same organelles. Second, we found an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins during evolution. Surprisingly, as proteins with common ancestors evolve, they tend to develop more diverged subcellular localization patterns, but still occupy similar numbers of compartments. This suggests that divergence of protein localization might be more frequently due to the development of more specific localization patterns over ancestral compartments than the occupation of new compartments. PLAST enables systematic and quantitative analyses of protein localization-function relationships, and will be useful to elucidate protein

  2. Quantitative protein localization signatures reveal an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins.

    PubMed

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Laksameethanasan, Danai; Tung, Yi-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Protein subcellular localization is a major determinant of protein function. However, this important protein feature is often described in terms of discrete and qualitative categories of subcellular compartments, and therefore it has limited applications in quantitative protein function analyses. Here, we present Protein Localization Analysis and Search Tools (PLAST), an automated analysis framework for constructing and comparing quantitative signatures of protein subcellular localization patterns based on microscopy images. PLAST produces human-interpretable protein localization maps that quantitatively describe the similarities in the localization patterns of proteins and major subcellular compartments, without requiring manual assignment or supervised learning of these compartments. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we show that PLAST is more accurate than existing, qualitative protein localization annotations in identifying known co-localized proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLAST can reveal protein localization-function relationships that are not obvious from these annotations. First, we identified proteins that have similar localization patterns and participate in closely-related biological processes, but do not necessarily form stable complexes with each other or localize at the same organelles. Second, we found an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins during evolution. Surprisingly, as proteins with common ancestors evolve, they tend to develop more diverged subcellular localization patterns, but still occupy similar numbers of compartments. This suggests that divergence of protein localization might be more frequently due to the development of more specific localization patterns over ancestral compartments than the occupation of new compartments. PLAST enables systematic and quantitative analyses of protein localization-function relationships, and will be useful to elucidate protein

  3. The Structure of Treponema pallidum Tp0624 Reveals a Modular Assembly of Divergently Functionalized and Previously Uncharacterized Domains

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, Charmaine; Cameron, Caroline E.

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a chronic, multistage, systemic infection that remains a major global health concern. The molecular mechanisms underlying T. pallidum pathogenesis are incompletely understood, partially due to the phylogenetic divergence of T. pallidum. One aspect of T. pallidum that differentiates it from conventional Gram-negative bacteria, and is believed to play an important role in pathogenesis, is its unusual cell envelope ultrastructure; in particular, the T. pallidum peptidoglycan layer is chemically distinct, thinner and more distal to the outer membrane. Established functional roles for peptidoglycan include contributing to the structural integrity of the cell envelope and stabilization of the flagellar motor complex, which are typically mediated by the OmpA domain-containing family of proteins. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern peptidoglycan binding and cell envelope biogenesis in T. pallidum we report here the structural characterization of the putative OmpA-like domain-containing protein, Tp0624. Analysis of the 1.70 Å resolution Tp0624 crystal structure reveals a multi-modular architecture comprised of three distinct domains including a C-terminal divergent OmpA-like domain, which we show is unable to bind the conventional peptidoglycan component diaminopimelic acid, and a previously uncharacterized tandem domain unit. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analysis indicates that the three domains together are found in all orthologs from pathogenic treponemes, but are not observed together in genera outside Treponema. These findings provide the first structural insight into a multi-modular treponemal protein containing an OmpA-like domain and its potential role in peptidoglycan coordination and stabilization of the T. pallidum cell envelope. PMID:27832149

  4. Playing RNase P evolution: swapping the RNA catalyst for a protein reveals functional uniformity of highly divergent enzyme forms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christoph; Hartig, Andreas; Hartmann, Roland K; Rossmanith, Walter

    2014-08-01

    The RNase P family is a diverse group of endonucleases responsible for the removal of 5' extensions from tRNA precursors. The diversity of enzyme forms finds its extremes in the eukaryal nucleus where RNA-based catalysis by complex ribonucleoproteins in some organisms contrasts with single-polypeptide enzymes in others. Such structural contrast suggests associated functional differences, and the complexity of the ribonucleoprotein was indeed proposed to broaden the enzyme's functionality beyond tRNA processing. To explore functional overlap and differences between most divergent forms of RNase P, we replaced the nuclear RNase P of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a 10-subunit ribonucleoprotein, with Arabidopsis thaliana PRORP3, a single monomeric protein. Surprisingly, the RNase P-swapped yeast strains were viable, displayed essentially unimpaired growth under a wide variety of conditions, and, in a certain genetic background, their fitness even slightly exceeded that of the wild type. The molecular analysis of the RNase P-swapped strains showed a minor disturbance in tRNA metabolism, but did not point to any RNase P substrates or functions beyond that. Altogether, these results indicate the full functional exchangeability of the highly dissimilar enzymes. Our study thereby establishes the RNase P family, with its combination of structural diversity and functional uniformity, as an extreme case of convergent evolution. It moreover suggests that the apparently gratuitous complexity of some RNase P forms is the result of constructive neutral evolution rather than reflecting increased functional versatility.

  5. Genomic Dissection and Expression Profiling Revealed Functional Divergence in Triticum aestivum Leucine Rich Repeat Receptor Like Kinases (TaLRRKs).

    PubMed

    Shumayla; Sharma, Shailesh; Kumar, Rohit; Mendu, Venugopal; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK) constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK), which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains, and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought, and salt) stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat.

  6. Functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs revealed in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root cell development.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fenni; Li, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Nina; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-04-01

    In GhCFE5 homoeologs, GhCFE5D interacted with more actin homologs and stronger interaction activity than GhCFE5A. GhCFE5D - but not GhCFE5A -overexpression severely disrupted actin cytoskeleton organization and significantly suppressed cell elongation. Homoeologous genes are common in polyploid plants; however, their functional divergence is poorly elucidated. Allotetraploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) is the most widely cultivated cotton; accounting for more than 90 % of the world's cotton production. Here, we characterized GhCFE5A and GhCFE5D homoeologs from G. hirsutum acc TM-1. GhCFE5 homoeologs are expressed preferentially in fiber cells; and a significantly greater accumulation of GhCFE5A mRNA than GhCFE5D mRNA was found in all tested tissues. Overexpression of GhCFE5D but not GhCFE5A seriously inhibits the Arabidopsis hypocotyl and root cell elongation. Yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis showed that compared with GhCFE5A, GhCFE5D interacts with more actin homologs and has a stronger interaction activity both from Arabidopsis and Upland cotton. Interestingly, subcellular localization showed that GhCFE5 resides on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and is colocalized with actin cables. The interaction activities between GhCFE5 homoeologs and actin differ in their effects on F-actin structure in transgenic Arabidopsis root cells. The F-actin changed direction from vertical to lateral, and the actin cytoskeleton organization was severely disrupted in GhCFE5D-overexpressing root cells. These data support the functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs in the actin cytoskeleton structure and cell elongation, implying an important role for GhCFE5 in the evolution and selection of cotton fiber.

  7. Genomic Dissection and Expression Profiling Revealed Functional Divergence in Triticum aestivum Leucine Rich Repeat Receptor Like Kinases (TaLRRKs)

    PubMed Central

    Shumayla; Sharma, Shailesh; Kumar, Rohit; Mendu, Venugopal; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh K.

    2016-01-01

    The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK) constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK), which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains, and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought, and salt) stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat. PMID:27713749

  8. Molecular evolution analysis of WUSCHEL-related homeobox transcription factor family reveals functional divergence among clades in the homeobox region.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Thompson, Claudia E; Freitas, Loreta B

    2016-07-01

    Gene families have been shown to play important roles in plant evolution and are associated with diversification and speciation. Genes of WUSCHEL-related homeobox family of transcription factors have important functions in plant development and are correlated with the appearance of evolutionary novelties. There are several published studies related to this family, but little is known about the relationships among the main clades in the phylogeny and the molecular evolution of the family. In this study, we obtained a well-resolved Bayesian phylogenetic tree establishing the relationships among the main clades and determining the position of Selaginella moellendorffii WOX genes. Moreover, a correlation was identified between the number of genes in the genomes and the events of whole-genome duplications. The intron-exon structure is more consistent across the modern clade, which appeared more recently in the WOX evolutionary history, and coincides with the development of higher complexity in plant species. No positive selection was detected among sites through the branches in the tree. However, with regard to the main clades, functional divergence among certain amino acids in the homeodomain region was found. Relaxed purifying selection could be the main driving force in the evolution of these genes and in agreement with some genes have been demonstrated to be functionally redundant.

  9. Functional divergence of the glutathione S-transferase supergene family in Physcomitrella patens reveals complex patterns of large gene family evolution in land plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2013-02-01

    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants.

  10. Reconstitution of Protein Translation of Mycobacterium Reveals Functional Conservation and Divergence with the Gram-Negative Bacterium Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aashish; Asahara, Haruichi; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Haiying; Cui, Sheng; Jin, Qi; Chong, Shaorong

    2016-01-01

    Protein translation is essential for all bacteria pathogens. It has also been a major focus of structural and functional studies and an important target of antibiotics. Here we report our attempts to biochemically reconstitute mycobacterial protein translation in vitro from purified components. This mycobacterial translation system consists of individually purified recombinant translation factors from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), purified tRNAs and ribosomes from Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis), and an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) mixture from the cell-extract of M. smegmatis. We demonstrate that such mycobacterial translation system was efficient in in vitro protein synthesis, and enabled functional comparisons of translational components between the gram-positive Mycobacterium and the gram-negative E. coli. Although mycobacterial translation factors and ribosomes were highly compatible with their E. coli counterparts, M. smegmatis tRNAs were not properly charged by the E. coli AARSs to allow efficient translation of a reporter. In contrast, both E. coli and M. smegmatis tRNAs exhibited similar activity with the semi-purified M. smegmatis AARSs mixture for in vitro translation. We further demonstrated the use of both mycobacterial and E. coli translation systems as comparative in vitro assays for small-molecule antibiotics that target protein translation. While mycobacterial and E. coli translation were both inhibited at the same IC50 by the antibiotic spectinomycin, mycobacterial translation was preferentially inhibited by the antibiotic tetracycline, suggesting that there may be structural differences at the antibiotic binding sites between the ribosomes of Mycobacterium and E. coli. Our results illustrate an alternative approach for antibiotic discovery and functional studies of protein translation in mycobacteria and possibly other bacterial pathogens. PMID:27564552

  11. Contribution of divergent thinking to community functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Kashima, Haruo; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2007-03-30

    Fluency deficits have been associated with poor community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. In our previous study we demonstrated that the ability to generate higher-quality responses on tasks of divergent thinking as measured by several fluency tests was impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the deficits in divergent thinking to community dysfunction in schizophrenia. Forty Japanese outpatients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy control subjects were recruited for this study and assessed over a broad spectrum of the neurocognitive domain. Their capacity for divergent thinking was assessed by idea, design, and word fluency tests. Community functioning was assessed by using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Life Assessment Scale for the Mentally Ill (LASMI), and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). The results confirmed the qualitative deficits of divergent thinking in schizophrenia. Stepwise multiple regressions using neurocognitive and demographic/clinical variables as predictors revealed that the higher-quality response scores on the tasks of divergent thinking significantly contributed to community functioning. Moreover, the deficit on the verbal task of divergent thinking significantly contributed to impairment in the area of daily living, and the deficit on the nonverbal task of divergent thinking significantly contributed to impairment in the area of interpersonal relations. The results of this study reveal the importance and the possibility of cognitive remediation and cognitive training with strategies that target capacity for divergent thinking to improve community functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Functional and evolutionary analysis of flatfish gonadotropin receptors reveals cladal- and lineage-level divergence of the teleost glycoprotein receptor family.

    PubMed

    Chauvigné, François; Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Agulleiro, María J; Calusinska, Magdalena; Gómez, Ana; Finn, Roderick Nigel; Cerdà, Joan

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) act via their cognate glycoprotein hormone receptors (GpHRs), FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) to regulate gonad physiology. Here, we show that the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) expresses functional isoforms of fshr and lhcgr, but the genomic origin, ligand activation, and tissue distribution of the receptor transcripts are more complex than expected. By integrating the molecular phylogeny of GpHRs with the syntenic loci of vertebrate orthologs, and by subsequently characterizing the physical maps with the phylogeny of flanking genes, we found that vertebrate GpHRs have undergone a divergent evolution. In Teleostei, fshr genes have a common descent and can be classified as fshra, whereas lhcgrb genes exist as alternatively coded genes even in closely related species. Structural analyses of the receptors revealed that Fshra has an elongated ligand-binding domain, containing an extra leucine-rich repeat that specifically arose in the Acanthomorpha because of exon duplication. Ectopic expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that sole Fshra responded to piscine Fsh and Lh, whereas Lhcgrba was preferentially activated by its cognate hormone. The expression pattern of sole fshra and lhcgrba in gonads during the reproductive cycle was consistent with earlier observations wherein Fshra regulates ovarian growth and spermatogenesis and Lhcgrb triggers gamete maturation, respectively. However, contrary to observations in other teleosts, fshra was localized exclusively in Sertoli cells of the testis, whereas lhcgrba was expressed in Leydig cells as well as in spermatids. These results demonstrate the presence of alternatively coded lhcgr isoforms (lhcgrba and lhcgrbb) in teleosts and suggest a role of the lhcgrba receptor in the differentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa in Senegalese sole.

  13. Humanized SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 Transgenic Mice Reveal Functional Divergence of SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Guo, Xiaoxuan; DiAngelo, Susan; Thomas, Neal J.; Floros, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a role in lung innate immunity and surfactant-related functions. Two functional genes, SP-A1 (SFTPA1) and SP-A2 (SFTPA2), are present in humans and primates (rodents have one gene). Single gene SP-A1 or SP-A2 proteins expressed in vitro are functional. To study their role in vivo, we generated humanized transgenic (hTG) C57BL/6 mice, SP-A1(6A4) and SP-A2(1A3). The SP-A cDNA in experimental constructs was driven by the 3.7-kb SP-C promoter. Positive hTG mice were bred with SP-A knock-out mice to generate F8 offspring for study. Epithelial alveolar type II cells were SP-A-positive, and Clara cells were negative by immunohistochemistry in hTG mice. The levels of SP-A in lungs of two hTG lines used were comparable with those in human lungs. Southern blot analysis indicated that two cDNA copies of either SP-A1(6A4) or SP-A2(1A3) were integrated as a concatemer into the genome of each of the two hTG lines. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that hTG mice with a single SP-A1(6A4) or SP-A2(1A3) gene product lacked tubular myelin (TM), but hTG mice carrying both had TM. Furthermore, TM was observed in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid only if both SP-A1 and SP-A2 gene products were present and not in those containing primarily (>99.7%) either SP-A1 or SP-A2 gene products. In vivo rescue study confirmed that TM can only be restored after administering exogenous SP-A containing both SP-A1 and SP-A2 into the lungs of SP-A knock-out mice. These observations indicate that SP-A1 and SP-A2 diverged functionally at least in terms of TM formation. PMID:20048345

  14. Functional Complementation Analyses Reveal that the Single PRAT Family Protein of Trypanosoma brucei Is a Divergent Homolog of Tim17 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Weems, Ebony; Singha, Ujjal K.; Hamilton, VaNae; Smith, Joseph T.; Waegemann, Karin; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protozoan that causes African trypanosomiasis, possesses a single member of the presequence and amino acid transporter (PRAT) protein family, which is referred to as TbTim17. In contrast, three homologous proteins, ScTim23, ScTim17, and ScTim22, are found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that TbTim17 cannot rescue Tim17, Tim23, or Tim22 mutants of S. cerevisiae. We expressed S. cerevisiae Tim23, Tim17, and Tim22 in T. brucei. These heterologous proteins were properly imported into mitochondria in the parasite. Further analysis revealed that although ScTim23 and ScTim17 were integrated into the mitochondrial inner membrane and assembled into a protein complex similar in size to TbTim17, only ScTim17 was stably associated with TbTim17. In contrast, ScTim22 existed as a protease-sensitive soluble protein in the T. brucei mitochondrion. In addition, the growth defect caused by TbTim17 knockdown in T. brucei was partially restored by the expression of ScTim17 but not by the expression of either ScTim23 or ScTim22, whereas the expression of TbTim17 fully complemented the growth defect caused by TbTim17 knockdown, as anticipated. Similar to the findings for cell growth, the defect in the import of mitochondrial proteins due to depletion of TbTim17 was in part restored by the expression of ScTim17 but was not complemented by the expression of either ScTim23 or ScTim22. Together, these results suggest that TbTim17 is divergent compared to ScTim23 but that its function is closer to that of ScTim17. In addition, ScTim22 could not be sorted properly in the T. brucei mitochondrion and thus failed to complement the function of TbTim17. PMID:25576485

  15. Target-cell-dependent plasticity within the mossy fibre-CA3 circuit reveals compartmentalized regulation of presynaptic function at divergent release sites.

    PubMed

    Pelkey, Kenneth A; McBain, Chris J

    2008-03-15

    Individual axons of central neurons innervate a large number of distinct postsynaptic targets belonging to divergent functional categories such as glutamatergic principal cells and inhibitory interneurons. While each bouton along a common axon should experience the same activity pattern in response to action potential firing within the parent presynaptic neuron, accumulating evidence suggests that neighbouring boutons contacting functionally distinct postsynaptic targets regulate their release properties independently, despite being separated by only a few microns. This target-cell-specific autonomy of presynaptic function can greatly expand the computational prowess of central axons to allow for precise coordination of large neuronal ensembles within a given circuit. An excellent example of target-cell-specific presynaptic mechanisms occurs in the CA3 hippocampus where mossy fibre (MF) axons of dentate gyrus granule cells target both principal cells and local circuit inhibitory interneurons via both anatomically and functionally specialized terminals. Of particular interest, mechanisms of both short- and long-term plasticity remain autonomous at these divergent release sites due to an anatomical and biochemical segregation of discrete molecular signalling cascades. Here we review roughly a decades worth of research on the MF-CA3 pathway to showcase the target-cell dependence of presynaptically expressed NMDA receptor-independent synaptic plasticity.

  16. Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Expressing Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA) Reveals both Functional Conservation and Divergence in LANA Homologs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arundhati; Oldenburg, Darby G; Salinas, Eduardo; White, Douglas W; Forrest, J Craig

    2017-10-01

    Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a multifunctional protein encoded by members of the Rhadinovirus genus of gammaherpesviruses. Studies using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) demonstrated that LANA is important for acute replication, latency establishment, and reactivation in vivo Despite structural similarities in their DNA-binding domains (DBDs), LANA homologs from Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and MHV68 exhibit considerable sequence divergence. We sought to determine if KSHV and MHV68 LANA homologs are functionally interchangeable. We generated an MHV68 virus that encodes KSHV LANA (kLANA) in place of MHV68 LANA (mLANA) and evaluated the virus's capacity to replicate, establish and maintain latency, and reactivate. kLANA knock-in (KLKI) MHV68 was replication competent in vitro and in vivo but exhibited slower growth kinetics and lower titers than wild-type (WT) MHV68. Following inoculation of mice, KLKI MHV68 established and maintained latency in splenocytes and peritoneal cells but did not reactivate efficiently ex vivo kLANA repressed the MHV68 promoter for ORF50, the gene that encodes the major lytic transactivator protein RTA, while mLANA did not, suggesting a likely mechanism for the KLKI MHV68 phenotypes. Bypassing this repression by providing MHV68 RTA in trans rescued KLKI MHV68 replication in tissue culture and enabled detection of KLKI MHV68 reactivation ex vivo These data demonstrate that kLANA and mLANA are functionally interchangeable for establishment and maintenance of latency and suggest that repression of lytic replication by kLANA, as previously shown with KSHV, is a kLANA-specific function that is transferable to MHV68.IMPORTANCE Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) are members of the Rhadinovirus genus of gammaherpesviruses. These viruses establish lifelong infections that place their respective human and murine hosts at risk for cancer. Latency-associated nuclear

  17. Genome-wide identification of the MADS-box transcription factor family in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) reveals evolution and functional divergence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaming; Shi, Dongqing; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Zhang, Shaoling

    2017-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play significant roles in plant developmental processes such as floral organ conformation, flowering time, and fruit development. Pear (Pyrus), as the third-most crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced. However, there is limited information about the MADS family and its functional divergence in pear. In this study, a total of 95 MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome, and classified into two types by phylogenetic analysis. Type I MADS-box genes were divided into three subfamilies and type II genes into 14 subfamilies. Synteny analysis suggested that whole-genome duplications have played key roles in the expansion of the MADS family, followed by rearrangement events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving MADS-box gene evolution in pear, and one gene pairs presented three codon sites under positive selection. Full-scale expression information for PbrMADS genes in vegetative and reproductive organs was provided and proved by transcriptional and reverse transcription PCR analysis. Furthermore, the PbrMADS11(12) gene, together with partners PbMYB10 and PbbHLH3 was confirmed to activate the promoters of the structural genes in anthocyanin pathway of red pear through dual luciferase assay. In addition, the PbrMADS11 and PbrMADS12 were deduced involving in the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis response to light and temperature changes. These results provide a solid foundation for future functional analysis of PbrMADS genes in different biological processes, especially of pigmentation in pear. PMID:28924499

  18. Clock gene evolution and functional divergence.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Eran; Last, Kim S; Olive, Peter J W; Kyriacou, C P

    2004-10-01

    In considering the impact of the earth's changing geophysical conditions during the history of life, it is surprising to learn that the earth's rotational period may have been as short as 4 h, as recently as 1900 million years ago (or 1.9 billion years ago). The implications of such figures for the origin and evolution of clocks are considerable, and the authors speculate on how this short rotational period might have influenced the development of the "protoclock" in early microorganisms, such as the Cyanobacteria, during the geological periodsin which they arose and flourished. They then discuss the subsequent duplication of clock genes that took place around and after the Cambrian period, 543 million years ago, and its consequences. They compare the relative divergences of the canonical clock genes, which reveal the Per family to be the most rapidly evolving. In addition, the authors use a statistical test to predict which residues within the PER and CRY families may have undergone functional specialization.

  19. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden (malgo.vidal@pal.uu.se) Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body

  20. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes.

  1. Functional Conservation and Divergence of Four Ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS–Box Genes Revealed by Analysis of Their Expression and Protein–Protein Interaction, and Ectopic Expression of AhFUL Gene in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juanjuan; Sun, Wei; Xia, Kuaifei; Liao, Jingping; Zhang, Mingyong

    2014-01-01

    Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger–lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS–box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS–box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6–like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL–AhSEP4, AhFUL–AhAGL6–like, AhFUL–AhSEP3b, AhSEP4–AhAGL6–like, AhSEP4–AhSEP3b, AhAGL6–like–AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b–AhSEP3b) were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal–like or leaf–like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS–box genes. PMID:25461565

  2. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Brachypodium distachyon L. Cystatin Genes Reveal High Evolutionary Conservation and Functional Divergence in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Zhu, Dong; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2017-01-01

    Cystatin is a class of proteins mainly involved in cysteine protease inhibition and plant growth and development, as well as tolerance under various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed the first comprehensive analysis of the molecular characterization and expression profiling in response to various abiotic stresses of the cystatin gene family in Brachypodium distachyon, a novel model plant for Triticum species with huge genomes. Comprehensive searches of the Brachypodium genome database identified 25 B. distachyon cystatin (BdC) genes that are distributed unevenly on chromosomes; of these, nine and two were involved in tandem and segmental duplication events, respectively. All BdC genes had similar exon/intron structural organization, with three conserved motifs similar to those from other plant species, indicating their high evolutionary conservation. Expression profiling of 10 typical BdC genes revealed ubiquitous expression in different organs at varying expression levels. BdC gene expression in seedling leaves was particularly highly induced by various abiotic stresses, including the plant hormone abscisic acid and various environmental cues (cold, H2O2, CdCl2, salt, and drought). Interestingly, most BdC genes were significantly upregulated under multiple abiotic stresses, including BdC15 under all stresses, BdC7-2 and BdC10 under five stresses, and BdC7-1, BdC2-1, BdC14, and BdC12 under four stresses. The putative metabolic pathways of cytastin genes in response to various abiotic stresses mainly involve the aberrant protein degradation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered programmed cell death signaling pathways. These observations provide a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of the plant cystatin gene family. PMID:28536593

  3. Functional basis of ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of ecological divergence in closely related species is a key component of adaptive radiation. However, in most examples of adaptive radiation the mechanistic basis of ecological divergence remains unclear. A classic example is seen in the young benthic and limnetic stickleback species pairs of British Columbia. In each pair the benthic species feeds on littoral macroinvertebrates whereas the limnetic feeds on pelagic zooplankton. Previous studies indicate that in both short-term feeding trials and long-term enclosure studies, benthics and limnetics exhibit enhanced performance on their own resource but fare more poorly on the other species’ resource. We examined the functional basis of ecological divergence in the stickleback species pair from Paxton Lake, BC, using biomechanical models of fish feeding applied to morphological traits. We examined the consequences of morphological differences using high speed video of feeding fish. Results Benthic stickleback possess morphological traits that predict high suction generation capacity, including greatly hypertrophied epaxial musculature. In contrast, limnetic stickleback possess traits thought to enhance capture of evasive planktonic prey, including greater jaw protrusion than benthics and greater displacement advantage in both the lower jaw-opening lever system and the opercular four-bar linkage. Kinematic data support the expectations from the morphological analysis that limnetic stickleback exhibit faster strikes and greater jaw protrusion than benthic fish, whereas benthics exert greater suction force on attached prey. Conclusions We reveal a previously unknown suite of complex morphological traits that affect rapid ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback. These results indicate that postglacial divergence in stickleback involves many functional systems and shows the value of investigating the functional consequences of phenotypic divergence in adaptive radiation. PMID:24380474

  4. Establishment of transgenic lines to monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity in zebrafish reveals both evolutionarily conserved and divergent functions of the Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Miesfeld, Joel B.; Link, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of Hippo pathway signaling during vertebrate development transgenic zebrafish lines were generated and validated to dynamically monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity. Spatial and temporal analysis of Yap/Taz-Tead activity suggested the importance of Hippo signaling during cardiac precursor migration and other developmental processes. When the transcriptional co-activators, Yap and Taz were restricted from interacting with DNA-binding Tead transcription factors through expression of a dominant negative transgene, cardiac precursors failed to migrate completely to the midline resulting in strong cardia bifida. Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters also allowed us to investigate upstream and downstream factors known to regulate Hippo signaling output in Drosophila. While Crumbs mutations in Drosophila eye disc epithelia increase nuclear translocation and activity of Yorkie (the fly homolog of Yap/Taz), zebrafish crb2a mutants lacked nuclear Yap positive cells and down-regulated Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters in the eye epithelia, despite the loss of apical-basal cell polarity in those cells. However, as an example of evolutionary conservation, the Tondu-domain containing protein Vestigial-like 4b (Vgll4b) was found to down-regulate endogenous Yap/Taz-Tead activity in the retinal pigment epithelium, similar to Drosophila Tgi in imaginal discs. In conclusion, the Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters revealed the dynamics of Yap/Taz-Tead signaling and novel insights into Hippo pathway regulation for vertebrates. These studies highlight the utility of this transgenic tool-suite for ongoing analysis into the mechanisms of Hippo pathway regulation and the consequences of signaling output. PMID:24560909

  5. Establishment of transgenic lines to monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity in zebrafish reveals both evolutionarily conserved and divergent functions of the Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Miesfeld, Joel B; Link, Brian A

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the role of Hippo pathway signaling during vertebrate development transgenic zebrafish lines were generated and validated to dynamically monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity. Spatial and temporal analysis of Yap/Taz-Tead activity suggested the importance of Hippo signaling during cardiac precursor migration and other developmental processes. When the transcriptional co-activators, Yap and Taz were restricted from interacting with DNA-binding Tead transcription factors through expression of a dominant negative transgene, cardiac precursors failed to migrate completely to the midline resulting in strong cardia bifida. Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters also allowed us to investigate upstream and downstream factors known to regulate Hippo signaling output in Drosophila. While Crumbs mutations in Drosophila eye disc epithelia increase nuclear translocation and activity of Yorkie (the fly homolog of Yap/Taz), zebrafish crb2a mutants lacked nuclear Yap positive cells and down-regulated Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters in the eye epithelia, despite the loss of apical-basal cell polarity in those cells. However, as an example of evolutionary conservation, the Tondu-domain containing protein Vestigial-like 4b (Vgll4b) was found to down-regulate endogenous Yap/Taz-Tead activity in the retinal pigment epithelium, similar to Drosophila Tgi in imaginal discs. In conclusion, the Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters revealed the dynamics of Yap/Taz-Tead signaling and novel insights into Hippo pathway regulation for vertebrates. These studies highlight the utility of this transgenic tool-suite for ongoing analysis into the mechanisms of Hippo pathway regulation and the consequences of signaling output. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy

    PubMed Central

    Halley, Yvette A.; Oldeschulte, David L.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P.; Johnson, Charles D.; Presley, Steven M.; Ruzicka, Rebekah E.; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J.; Murphy, William J.; Seabury, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences) versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA). Median joining (MJ) haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete) mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples. Notably, discordant demographic inferences were observed when mismatch distributions of partial (i.e., partial D-Loop) versus complete mitogenome sequences were compared, with the reduction in mitochondrial genomic information content observed to encourage spurious inferences in our samples. A probabilistic approach to variant prediction for the complete bobwhite mitogenomes revealed 344 segregating sites corresponding to 347 total mutations, including 49 putative nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) distributed across 12 protein coding genes. Evidence of gross heteroplasmy was observed for 13 bobwhites, with 10 of the 13 heteroplasmies involving one moderate to high frequency SNV. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analyses for the complete bobwhite mitogenome sequences revealed two divergent maternal lineages (dXY = 0.00731; FST = 0.849; P < 0.05), thereby supporting the potential for two putative subspecies. However, the diverged lineage (n = 103 variants) almost exclusively involved bobwhites geographically classified as Colinus virginianus texanus, which is discordant with the expectations of previous geographic subspecies designations. Tests of adaptive evolution for functional divergence (MKT), frequency distribution tests (D, FS) and phylogenetic analyses (RAxML) provide no evidence for positive selection or hybridization with the sympatric scaled quail (Callipepla

  7. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

    PubMed

    Halley, Yvette A; Oldeschulte, David L; Bhattarai, Eric K; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Presley, Steven M; Ruzicka, Rebekah E; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J; Murphy, William J; Seabury, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences) versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA). Median joining (MJ) haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete) mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples. Notably, discordant demographic inferences were observed when mismatch distributions of partial (i.e., partial D-Loop) versus complete mitogenome sequences were compared, with the reduction in mitochondrial genomic information content observed to encourage spurious inferences in our samples. A probabilistic approach to variant prediction for the complete bobwhite mitogenomes revealed 344 segregating sites corresponding to 347 total mutations, including 49 putative nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) distributed across 12 protein coding genes. Evidence of gross heteroplasmy was observed for 13 bobwhites, with 10 of the 13 heteroplasmies involving one moderate to high frequency SNV. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analyses for the complete bobwhite mitogenome sequences revealed two divergent maternal lineages (dXY = 0.00731; FST = 0.849; P < 0.05), thereby supporting the potential for two putative subspecies. However, the diverged lineage (n = 103 variants) almost exclusively involved bobwhites geographically classified as Colinus virginianus texanus, which is discordant with the expectations of previous geographic subspecies designations. Tests of adaptive evolution for functional divergence (MKT), frequency distribution tests (D, FS) and phylogenetic analyses (RAxML) provide no evidence for positive selection or hybridization with the sympatric scaled quail (Callipepla

  8. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  9. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  10. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  11. Geographic Impact on Genomic Divergence as Revealed by Comparison of Nine Citromicrobial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanting; Jeanthon, Christian; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Wenxin; Yao, Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are thought to be important players in oceanic carbon and energy cycling in the euphotic zone of the ocean. The genus Citromicrobium, widely found in oligotrophic oceans, is a member of marine alphaproteobacterial AAPB. Nine Citromicrobium strains isolated from the South China Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, or the tropical South Atlantic Ocean were found to harbor identical 16S rRNA sequences. The sequencing of their genomes revealed high synteny in major regions. Nine genetic islands (GIs) involved mainly in type IV secretion systems, flagellar biosynthesis, prophage, and integrative conjugative elements, were identified by a fine-scale comparative genomics analysis. These GIs played significant roles in genomic evolution and divergence. Interestingly, the coexistence of two different photosynthetic gene clusters (PGCs) was not only found in the analyzed genomes but also confirmed, for the first time, to our knowledge, in environmental samples. The prevalence of the coexistence of two different PGCs may suggest an adaptation mechanism for Citromicrobium members to survive in the oceans. Comparison of genomic characteristics (e.g., GIs, average nucleotide identity [ANI], single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], and phylogeny) revealed that strains within a marine region shared a similar evolutionary history that was distinct from that of strains isolated from other regions (South China Sea versus Mediterranean Sea). Geographic differences are partly responsible for driving the observed genomic divergences and allow microbes to evolve through local adaptation. Three Citromicrobium strains isolated from the Mediterranean Sea diverged millions of years ago from other strains and evolved into a novel group. IMPORTANCE Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a widespread functional group in the upper ocean, and their abundance could be up to 15% of the total heterotrophic bacteria. To date, a great number of

  12. Collective Dynamics Differentiates Functional Divergence in Protein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Glembo, Tyler J.; Farrell, Daniel W.; Gerek, Z. Nevin; Thorpe, M. F.; Ozkan, S. Banu

    2012-01-01

    Protein evolution is most commonly studied by analyzing related protein sequences and generating ancestral sequences through Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods, and/or by resurrecting ancestral proteins in the lab and performing ligand binding studies to determine function. Structural and dynamic evolution have largely been left out of molecular evolution studies. Here we incorporate both structure and dynamics to elucidate the molecular principles behind the divergence in the evolutionary path of the steroid receptor proteins. We determine the likely structure of three evolutionarily diverged ancestral steroid receptor proteins using the Zipping and Assembly Method with FRODA (ZAMF). Our predictions are within ∼2.7 Å all-atom RMSD of the respective crystal structures of the ancestral steroid receptors. Beyond static structure prediction, a particular feature of ZAMF is that it generates protein dynamics information. We investigate the differences in conformational dynamics of diverged proteins by obtaining the most collective motion through essential dynamics. Strikingly, our analysis shows that evolutionarily diverged proteins of the same family do not share the same dynamic subspace, while those sharing the same function are simultaneously clustered together and distant from those, that have functionally diverged. Dynamic analysis also enables those mutations that most affect dynamics to be identified. It correctly predicts all mutations (functional and permissive) necessary to evolve new function and ∼60% of permissive mutations necessary to recover ancestral function. PMID:22479170

  13. Analysis of phylogenetic and functional diverge in plant nine-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene family.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-07-01

    During different environmental stress conditions, plant growth is regulated by the hormone abscisic acid (an apocarotenoid). In the biosynthesis of abscisic acid, the oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoid catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the crucial step. The NCED genes were isolated in numerous plant species and those genes were phylogenetically investigated to understand the evolution of NCED genes in various plant lineages comprising lycophyte, gymnosperm, dicot and monocot. A total of 93 genes were obtained from 48 plant species to statistically estimate their sequence conservation and functional divergence. Selaginella moellendorffii appeared to be evolutionarily distinct from those of the angiosperms, insisting the substantial influence of natural selection pressure on NCED genes. Further, using exon-intron structure analysis, the gene structures of NCED were found to be conserved across some species. In addition, the substitution rate ratio of non-synonymous (Ka) versus synonymous (Ks) mutations using the Bayesian inference approach, depicted the critical amino acid residues for functional divergence. A significant functional divergence was found between some subgroups through the co-efficient of type-I functional divergence. Our results suggest that the evolution of NCED genes occurred by duplication, diversification and exon intron loss events. The site-specific profile and functional diverge analysis revealed NCED genes might facilitate the tissue-specific functional divergence in NCED sub-families, that could combat different environmental stress conditions aiding plant survival.

  14. Structural Analysis of an Evolved Transketolase Reveals Divergent Binding Modes.

    PubMed

    Affaticati, Pierre E; Dai, Shao-Bo; Payongsri, Panwajee; Hailes, Helen C; Tittmann, Kai; Dalby, Paul A

    2016-10-21

    The S385Y/D469T/R520Q variant of E. coli transketolase was evolved previously with three successive smart libraries, each guided by different structural, bioinformatical or computational methods. Substrate-walking progressively shifted the target acceptor substrate from phosphorylated aldehydes, towards a non-phosphorylated polar aldehyde, a non-polar aliphatic aldehyde, and finally a non-polar aromatic aldehyde. Kinetic evaluations on three benzaldehyde derivatives, suggested that their active-site binding was differentially sensitive to the S385Y mutation. Docking into mutants generated in silico from the wild-type crystal structure was not wholly satisfactory, as errors accumulated with successive mutations, and hampered further smart-library designs. Here we report the crystal structure of the S385Y/D469T/R520Q variant, and molecular docking of three substrates. This now supports our original hypothesis that directed-evolution had generated an evolutionary intermediate with divergent binding modes for the three aromatic aldehydes tested. The new active site contained two binding pockets supporting π-π stacking interactions, sterically separated by the D469T mutation. While 3-formylbenzoic acid (3-FBA) preferred one pocket, and 4-FBA the other, the less well-accepted substrate 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA) was caught in limbo with equal preference for the two pockets. This work highlights the value of obtaining crystal structures of evolved enzyme variants, for continued and reliable use of smart library strategies.

  15. Structural Analysis of an Evolved Transketolase Reveals Divergent Binding Modes

    PubMed Central

    Affaticati, Pierre E.; Dai, Shao-Bo; Payongsri, Panwajee; Hailes, Helen C.; Tittmann, Kai; Dalby, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The S385Y/D469T/R520Q variant of E. coli transketolase was evolved previously with three successive smart libraries, each guided by different structural, bioinformatical or computational methods. Substrate-walking progressively shifted the target acceptor substrate from phosphorylated aldehydes, towards a non-phosphorylated polar aldehyde, a non-polar aliphatic aldehyde, and finally a non-polar aromatic aldehyde. Kinetic evaluations on three benzaldehyde derivatives, suggested that their active-site binding was differentially sensitive to the S385Y mutation. Docking into mutants generated in silico from the wild-type crystal structure was not wholly satisfactory, as errors accumulated with successive mutations, and hampered further smart-library designs. Here we report the crystal structure of the S385Y/D469T/R520Q variant, and molecular docking of three substrates. This now supports our original hypothesis that directed-evolution had generated an evolutionary intermediate with divergent binding modes for the three aromatic aldehydes tested. The new active site contained two binding pockets supporting π-π stacking interactions, sterically separated by the D469T mutation. While 3-formylbenzoic acid (3-FBA) preferred one pocket, and 4-FBA the other, the less well-accepted substrate 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA) was caught in limbo with equal preference for the two pockets. This work highlights the value of obtaining crystal structures of evolved enzyme variants, for continued and reliable use of smart library strategies. PMID:27767080

  16. Genome sequences reveal divergence times of malaria parasite lineages

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, JOANA C.; EGAN, AMY; FRIEDMAN, ROBERT; MUNRO, JAMES B.; CARLTON, JANE M.; HUGHES, AUSTIN L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The evolutionary history of human malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) has long been a subject of speculation and controversy. The complete genome sequences of the two most widespread human malaria parasites, P. falciparum and P. vivax, and of the monkey parasite P. knowlesi are now available, together with the draft genomes of the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi, three rodent parasites, P. yoelii yoelli, P. berghei and P. chabaudi chabaudi, and one avian parasite, P. gallinaceum. Methods We present here an analysis of 45 orthologous gene sequences across the eight species that resolves the relationships of major Plasmodium lineages, and provides the first comprehensive dating of the age of those groups. Results Our analyses support the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of P. falciparum and the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi occurred around the time of the human-chimpanzee divergence. P. falciparum infections of African apes are most likely derived from humans and not the other way around. On the other hand, P. vivax, split from the monkey parasite P. knowlesi in the much more distant past, during the time that encompasses the separation of the Great Apes and Old World Monkeys. Conclusion The results support an ancient association between malaria parasites and their primate hosts, including humans. PMID:21118608

  17. Proteome-wide analysis of functional divergence in bacteria: exploring a host of ecological adaptations.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Brian E; Williams, Tom A; Jiang, Xiaowei; Toft, Christina; Hokamp, Karsten; Fares, Mario A

    2012-01-01

    Functional divergence is the process by which new genes and functions originate through the modification of existing ones. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the evolution of new functions, including gene duplication or changes in the ecological requirements of an organism. Novel functions emerge at the expense of ancestral ones and are generally accompanied by changes in the selective forces at constrained protein regions. We present software capable of analyzing whole proteomes, identifying putative amino acid replacements leading to functional change in each protein and performing statistical tests on all tabulated data. We apply this method to 750 complete bacterial proteomes to identify high-level patterns of functional divergence and link these patterns to ecological adaptations. Proteome-wide analyses of functional divergence in bacteria with different ecologies reveal a separation between proteins involved in information processing (Ribosome biogenesis etc.) and those which are dependent on the environment (energy metabolism, defense etc.). We show that the evolution of pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria is constrained by their association with the host, and also identify unusual events of functional divergence even in well-studied bacteria such as Escherichia coli. We present a description of the roles of phylogeny and ecology in functional divergence at the level of entire proteomes in bacteria.

  18. RPK2 functions in diverged CLE signaling.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Shinichiro; Tabata, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Shoot apical meristem is a well organized undifferentiated tissue which produces plant body. CLV3 peptide hormone regulates SAM homeostasis, and is perceived by several receptor complexes, CLV1, CLV2-SOL2/CRN, and RPK2. CLV1 homologues are encoded in various plants genome. However CLV2 and SOL2/CRN homologues are found only in higher plants. Here we show that the RPK2 homologues were found not only in moss, Physcomitrella patens, but also in liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Although CLV2-SOL2/CRN might have specific function in SAM homeostasis, CLV1 and RPK2 may regulate various plant physiological events during plant evolution.

  19. RPK2 functions in diverged CLE signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Shoot apical meristem is a well organized undifferentiated tissue which produces plant body. CLV3 peptide hormone regulates SAM homeostasis, and is perceived by several receptor complexes, CLV1, CLV2-SOL2/CRN and RPK2. CLV1 homologues are encoded in various plants genome. However CLV2 and SOL2/CRN homologues are found only in higher plants. Here we show that the RPK2 homologues were found not only in moss, Physcomitrella patens, but also in liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Although CLV2-SOL2/CRN might have specific function in SAM homeostasis, CLV1 and RPK2 may regulate various plant physiological events during plant evolution. PMID:21301217

  20. Barcoding Beetles: A Regional Survey of 1872 Species Reveals High Identification Success and Unusually Deep Interspecific Divergences

    PubMed Central

    Pentinsaari, Mikko; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    With 400 K described species, beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) represent the most diverse order in the animal kingdom. Although the study of their diversity currently represents a major challenge, DNA barcodes may provide a functional, standardized tool for their identification. To evaluate this possibility, we performed the first comprehensive test of the effectiveness of DNA barcodes as a tool for beetle identification by sequencing the COI barcode region from 1872 North European species. We examined intraspecific divergences, identification success and the effects of sample size on variation observed within and between species. A high proportion (98.3%) of these species possessed distinctive barcode sequence arrays. Moreover, the sequence divergences between nearest neighbor species were considerably higher than those reported for the only other insect order, Lepidoptera, which has seen intensive analysis (11.99% vs up to 5.80% mean NN divergence). Although maximum intraspecific divergence increased and average divergence between nearest neighbors decreased with increasing sampling effort, these trends rarely hampered identification by DNA barcodes due to deep sequence divergences between most species. The Barcode Index Number system in BOLD coincided strongly with known species boundaries with perfect matches between species and BINs in 92.1% of all cases. In addition, DNA barcode analysis revealed the likely occurrence of about 20 overlooked species. The current results indicate that DNA barcodes distinguish species of beetles remarkably well, establishing their potential to provide an effective identification tool for this order and to accelerate the discovery of new beetle species. PMID:25255319

  1. Divergence in function and expression of the NOD26-like intrinsic proteins in plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingpo; Wang, Huasen; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wu, Jiasheng; Feng, Ying; Zhu, Zhujun

    2009-01-01

    Background NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) that belong to the aquaporin superfamily are plant-specific and exhibit a similar three-dimensional structure. Experimental evidences however revealed that functional divergence should have extensively occurred among NIP genes. It is therefore intriguing to further investigate the evolutionary mechanisms being responsible for the functional diversification of the NIP genes. To better understand this process, a comprehensive analysis including the phylogenetic, positive selection, functional divergence, and transcriptional analysis was carried out. Results The origination of NIPs could be dated back to the primitive land plants, and their diversification would be no younger than the emergence time of the moss P. patens. The rapid proliferation of NIPs in plants may be primarily attributed to the segmental chromosome duplication produced by polyploidy and tandem duplications. The maximum likelihood analysis revealed that NIPs should have experienced strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution after gene duplication and/or speciation, prompting the formation of distinct NIP groups. Functional divergence analysis at the amino acid level has provided strong statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rate and/or radical change of the physiochemical properties of amino acids after gene duplication, and DIVERGE2 has identified the critical amino acid sites that are thought to be responsible for the divergence for further investigation. The expression of plant NIPs displays a distinct tissue-, cell-type-, and developmental specific pattern, and their responses to various stress treatments are quite different also. The differences in organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions may partially explain their distinction in expression. Conclusion A number of analyses both at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels have provided strong evidences that plant NIPs have suffered a high divergence in

  2. Functional divergence in tandemly duplicated Arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, M J; Mitchell-Olds, T

    2004-01-01

    In multigene families, variation among loci and alleles can contribute to trait evolution. We explored patterns of functional and genetic variation in six duplicated Arabidopsis thaliana trypsin inhibitor (ATTI) loci. We demonstrate significant variation in constitutive and herbivore-induced transcription among ATTI loci that show, on average, 65% sequence divergence. Significant variation in ATTI expression was also found between two molecularly defined haplotype classes. Population genetic analyses for 17 accessions of A. thaliana showed that six ATTI loci arranged in tandem within 10 kb varied 10-fold in nucleotide diversity, from 0.0009 to 0.0110, and identified a minimum of six recombination events throughout the tandem array. We observed a significant peak in nucleotide and indel polymorphism spanning ATTI loci in the interior of the array, due primarily to divergence between the two haplotype classes. Significant deviation from the neutral equilibrium model for individual genes was interpreted within the context of intergene linkage disequilibrium and correlated patterns of functional differentiation. In contrast to the outcrosser Arabidopsis lyrata for which recombination is observed even within ATTI loci, our data suggest that response to selection was slowed in the inbreeding, annual A. thaliana because of interference among functionally divergent ATTI loci. PMID:15082560

  3. RAD sequencing reveals genomewide divergence between independent invasions of the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; DiBacco, Claudio; Van Wyngaarden, Mallory; Hamilton, Lorraine C; Stanley, Ryan R E; Bernier, Renée; FitzGerald, Jennifer; Matheson, K; McKenzie, C H; Nadukkalam Ravindran, Praveen; Beiko, Robert; Bradbury, Ian R

    2017-04-01

    Genomic studies of invasive species can reveal both invasive pathways and functional differences underpinning patterns of colonization success. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) was initially introduced to eastern North America nearly 200 years ago where it expanded northwards to eastern Nova Scotia. A subsequent invasion to Nova Scotia from a northern European source allowed further range expansion, providing a unique opportunity to study the invasion genomics of a species with multiple invasions. Here, we use restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing-derived SNPs to explore fine-scale genomewide differentiation between these two invasions. We identified 9137 loci from green crab sampled from 11 locations along eastern North America and compared spatial variation to mitochondrial COI sequence variation used previously to characterize these invasions. Overall spatial divergence among invasions was high (pairwise FST ~0.001 to 0.15) and spread across many loci, with a mean FST ~0.052 and 52% of loci examined characterized by FST values >0.05. The majority of the most divergent loci (i.e., outliers, ~1.2%) displayed latitudinal clines in allele frequency highlighting extensive genomic divergence among the invasions. Discriminant analysis of principal components (both neutral and outlier loci) clearly resolved the two invasions spatially and was highly correlated with mitochondrial divergence. Our results reveal extensive cryptic intraspecific genomic diversity associated with differing patterns of colonization success and demonstrates clear utility for genomic approaches to delineating the distribution and colonization success of aquatic invasive species.

  4. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of the metallothionein gene family in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Serén, Nina; Glaberman, Scott; Carretero, Miguel A; Chiari, Ylenia

    2014-04-01

    The metallothionein (MT) gene superfamily consists of metal-binding proteins involved in various metal detoxification and storage mechanisms. The evolution of this gene family in vertebrates has mostly been studied in mammals using sparse taxon or gene sampling. Genomic databases and available data on MT protein function and expression allow a better understanding of the evolution and functional divergence of the different MT types. We recovered 77 MT coding sequences from 20 representative vertebrates with annotated complete genomes. We found multiple MT genes, also in reptiles, which were thought to have only one MT type. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate the existence of a eutherian MT1 and MT2, a tetrapod MT3, an amniote MT4, and fish MT. The optimal gene-tree/species-tree reconciliation analyses identified the best root in the fish clade. Functional analyses reveal variation in hydropathic index among protein domains, likely correlated with their distinct flexibility and metal affinity. Analyses of functional divergence identified amino acid sites correlated with functional divergence among MT types. Uncovering the number of genes and sites possibly correlated with functional divergence will help to design cost-effective MT functional and gene expression studies. This will permit further understanding of the distinct roles and specificity of these proteins and to properly target specific MT for different types of functional studies. Therefore, this work presents a critical background on the molecular evolution and functional divergence of vertebrate MTs to carry out further detailed studies on the relationship between heavy metal metabolism and tolerances among vertebrates.

  5. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences reveal recent divergence in morphologically indistinguishable petrels.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Yoshida, Allison A; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-04-01

    Often during the process of divergence, genetic markers will only gradually obtain the signal of isolation. Studies of recently diverged taxa utilizing both mitochondrial and nuclear data sets may therefore yield gene trees with differing levels of phylogenetic signal as a result of differences in coalescence times. However, several factors can lead to this same pattern, and it is important to distinguish between them to gain a better understanding of the process of divergence and the factors driving it. Here, we employ three nuclear intron loci in addition to the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene to investigate the magnitude and timing of divergence between two endangered and nearly indistinguishable petrel taxa: the Galapagos (GAPE) and Hawaiian (HAPE) petrels (Pterodroma phaeopygia and P. sandwichensis). Phylogenetic analyses indicated reciprocal monophyly between these two taxa for the mitochondrial data set, but trees derived from the nuclear introns were unresolved. Coalescent analyses revealed effectively no migration between GAPE and HAPE over the last 100,000 generations and that they diverged relatively recently, approximately 550,000 years ago, coincident with a time of intense ecological change in both the Galapagos and Hawaiian archipelagoes. This indicates that recent divergence and incomplete lineage sorting are causing the difference in the strength of the phylogenetic signal of each data set, instead of insufficient variability or ongoing male-biased dispersal. Further coalescent analyses show that gene flow is low even between islands within each archipelago suggesting that divergence may be continuing at a local scale. Accurately identifying recently isolated taxa is becoming increasingly important as many clearly recognizable species are already threatened by extinction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Common Garden Experiment Reveals Genetic Control of Phenotypic Divergence between Swamp Sparrow Subspecies That Lack Divergence in Neutral Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ballentine, Barbara; Greenberg, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background Adaptive divergence between populations in the face of strong selection on key traits can lead to morphological divergence between populations without concomitant divergence in neutral DNA. Thus, the practice of identifying genetically distinct populations based on divergence in neutral DNA may lead to a taxonomy that ignores evolutionarily important, rapidly evolving, locally-adapted populations. Providing evidence for a genetic basis of morphological divergence between rapidly evolving populations that lack divergence in selectively neutral DNA will not only inform conservation efforts but also provide insight into the mechanisms of the early processes of speciation. The coastal plain swamp sparrow, a recent colonist of tidal marsh habitat, differs from conspecific populations in a variety of phenotypic traits yet remains undifferentiated in neutral DNA. Methods and Principal Findings Here we use an experimental approach to demonstrate that phenotypic divergence between ecologically separated populations of swamp sparrows is the result of local adaptation despite the lack of divergence in neutral DNA. We find that morphological (bill size and plumage coloration) and life history (reproductive effort) differences observed between wild populations were maintained in laboratory raised individuals suggesting genetic divergence of fitness related traits. Conclusions and Significance Our results support the hypothesis that phenotypic divergence in swamps sparrows is the result of genetic differentiation, and demonstrate that adaptive traits have evolved more rapidly than neutral DNA in these ecologically divergent populations that may be in the early stages of speciation. Thus, identifying evolutionarily important populations based on divergence in selectively neutral DNA could miss an important level of biodiversity and mislead conservation efforts. PMID:20419104

  7. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a) African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a) visual pigment protein (opsin) in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Results Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω) following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Conclusions Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African cichlid RH2a opsins. At

  8. Complex patterns of divergence among green-sensitive (RH2a) African cichlid opsins revealed by Clade model analyses.

    PubMed

    Weadick, Cameron J; Chang, Belinda S W

    2012-10-18

    Gene duplications play an important role in the evolution of functional protein diversity. Some models of duplicate gene evolution predict complex forms of paralog divergence; orthologous proteins may diverge as well, further complicating patterns of divergence among and within gene families. Consequently, studying the link between protein sequence evolution and duplication requires the use of flexible substitution models that can accommodate multiple shifts in selection across a phylogeny. Here, we employed a variety of codon substitution models, primarily Clade models, to explore how selective constraint evolved following the duplication of a green-sensitive (RH2a) visual pigment protein (opsin) in African cichlids. Past studies have linked opsin divergence to ecological and sexual divergence within the African cichlid adaptive radiation. Furthermore, biochemical and regulatory differences between the RH2aα and RH2aβ paralogs have been documented. It thus seems likely that selection varies in complex ways throughout this gene family. Clade model analysis of African cichlid RH2a opsins revealed a large increase in the nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution rate ratio (ω) following the duplication, as well as an even larger increase, one consistent with positive selection, for Lake Tanganyikan cichlid RH2aβ opsins. Analysis using the popular Branch-site models, by contrast, revealed no such alteration of constraint. Several amino acid sites known to influence spectral and non-spectral aspects of opsin biochemistry were found to be evolving divergently, suggesting that orthologous RH2a opsins may vary in terms of spectral sensitivity and response kinetics. Divergence appears to be occurring despite intronic gene conversion among the tandemly-arranged duplicates. Our findings indicate that variation in selective constraint is associated with both gene duplication and divergence among orthologs in African cichlid RH2a opsins. At least some of this variation may

  9. Investigations of fine-scale phylogeography in Tigriopus californicus reveal historical patterns of population divergence.

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher S; Ladner, Jason T

    2009-06-23

    The intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus is a model for studying the process of genetic divergence in allopatry and for probing the nature of genetic changes that lead to reproductive isolation. Although previous studies have revealed a pattern of remarkably high levels of genetic divergence between the populations of this species at several spatial scales, it is not clear what types of historical processes are responsible. Particularly lacking are data that can yield insights into population history from the finest scales of geographic resolution. Sequence variation in both cytochrome b (CYTB, mtDNA) and the rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP, nuclear) are examined at a fine scale within four different regions for populations of T. californicus. High levels of genetic divergence are seen for both genes at the broader scale, and genetic subdivision is apparent at nearly all scales in these populations for these two genes. Patterns of polymorphism and divergence in both CYTB and RISP suggest that selection may be leading to non-neutral evolution of these genes in several cases but a pervasive pattern of neither selection nor coadaptation is seen for these markers. The use of sequence data at a fine-scale of resolution in this species has provided novel insights into the processes that have resulted in the accumulation of genetic divergence among populations. This divergence is likely to result from an interplay between a limited dispersal ability for this copepod and the temporal instability of copepod habitat. Both shorter-term processes such as the extinction/recolonization dynamics of copepod pools and longer-term processes such as geological uplift of coastline and sea level changes appear to have impacted the patterns of differentiation. Some patterns of sequence variation are consistent with selection acting upon the loci used in this study; however, it appears that most phylogeographic patterns are the result of history and not selection on these genes in

  10. Investigations of fine-scale phylogeography in Tigriopus californicus reveal historical patterns of population divergence

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Christopher S; Ladner, Jason T

    2009-01-01

    Background The intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus is a model for studying the process of genetic divergence in allopatry and for probing the nature of genetic changes that lead to reproductive isolation. Although previous studies have revealed a pattern of remarkably high levels of genetic divergence between the populations of this species at several spatial scales, it is not clear what types of historical processes are responsible. Particularly lacking are data that can yield insights into population history from the finest scales of geographic resolution. Results Sequence variation in both cytochrome b (CYTB, mtDNA) and the rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP, nuclear) are examined at a fine scale within four different regions for populations of T. californicus. High levels of genetic divergence are seen for both genes at the broader scale, and genetic subdivision is apparent at nearly all scales in these populations for these two genes. Patterns of polymorphism and divergence in both CYTB and RISP suggest that selection may be leading to non-neutral evolution of these genes in several cases but a pervasive pattern of neither selection nor coadaptation is seen for these markers. Conclusion The use of sequence data at a fine-scale of resolution in this species has provided novel insights into the processes that have resulted in the accumulation of genetic divergence among populations. This divergence is likely to result from an interplay between a limited dispersal ability for this copepod and the temporal instability of copepod habitat. Both shorter-term processes such as the extinction/recolonization dynamics of copepod pools and longer-term processes such as geological uplift of coastline and sea level changes appear to have impacted the patterns of differentiation. Some patterns of sequence variation are consistent with selection acting upon the loci used in this study; however, it appears that most phylogeographic patterns are the result of history and

  11. Functional genetic divergence in high CO2 adapted Emiliania huxleyi populations.

    PubMed

    Lohbeck, Kai T; Riebesell, Ulf; Collins, Sinéad; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2013-07-01

    Predicting the impacts of environmental change on marine organisms, food webs, and biogeochemical cycles presently relies almost exclusively on short-term physiological studies, while the possibility of adaptive evolution is often ignored. Here, we assess adaptive evolution in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a well-established model species in biological oceanography, in response to ocean acidification. We previously demonstrated that this globally important marine phytoplankton species adapts within 500 generations to elevated CO2 . After 750 and 1000 generations, no further fitness increase occurred, and we observed phenotypic convergence between replicate populations. We then exposed adapted populations to two novel environments to investigate whether or not the underlying basis for high CO2 -adaptation involves functional genetic divergence, assuming that different novel mutations become apparent via divergent pleiotropic effects. The novel environment "high light" did not reveal such genetic divergence whereas growth in a low-salinity environment revealed strong pleiotropic effects in high CO2 adapted populations, indicating divergent genetic bases for adaptation to high CO2 . This suggests that pleiotropy plays an important role in adaptation of natural E. huxleyi populations to ocean acidification. Our study highlights the potential mutual benefits for oceanography and evolutionary biology of using ecologically important marine phytoplankton for microbial evolution experiments.

  12. Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Bianca; Leslie, Andrew B; Wüest, Rafael O; Litsios, Glenn; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2017-04-04

    The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence dates of pines based on a large number of fossils (21) evenly distributed across all major clades, in combination with applying both node and tip dating methods. We present a range of molecular phylogenetic trees of Pinus generated within a Bayesian framework. We find the origin of crown Pinus is likely up to 30 Myr older (Early Cretaceous) than inferred in most previous studies (Late Cretaceous) and propose generally older divergence times for major clades within Pinus than previously thought. Our age estimates vary significantly between the different dating approaches, but the results generally agree on older divergence times. We present a revised list of 21 fossils that are suitable to use in dating or comparative analyses of pines. Reliable estimates of divergence times in pines are essential if we are to link diversification processes and functional adaptation of this genus to geological events or to changing climates. In addition to older divergence times in Pinus, our results also indicate that node age estimates in pines depend on dating approaches and the specific fossil sets used, reflecting inherent differences in various dating approaches. The sets of dated phylogenetic trees of pines presented here provide a way to account for uncertainties in age estimations when applying comparative phylogenetic methods.

  13. Delineation of plant caleosin residues critical for functional divergence, positive selection and coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The caleosin genes encode proteins with a single conserved EF hand calcium-binding domain and comprise small gene families found in a wide range of plant species. These proteins may be involved in many cellular and biological processes coupled closely to the synthesis, degradation, or stability of oil bodies. Although previous studies of this protein family have been reported for Arabidopsis and other species, understanding of the evolution of the caleosin gene family in plants remains inadequate. Results In this study, comparative genomic analysis was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary history, functional divergence, positive selection, and coevolution of caleosins. First, 84 caleosin genes were identified from five main lineages that included 15 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these caleosins into five distinct subfamilies (sub I–V), including two subfamilies that have not been previously identified. Among these subfamilies, sub II coincided with the distinct P-caleosin isoform recently identified in the pollen oil bodies of lily; caleosin genes from the same lineage tended to be clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. A special motif was determined to be related with the classification of caleosins, which may have resulted from a deletion in sub I and sub III occurring after the evolutionary divergence of monocot and dicot species. Additionally, several segmentally and tandem-duplicated gene pairs were identified from seven species, and further analysis revealed that caleosins of different species did not share a common expansion model. The ages of each pair of duplications were calculated, and most were consistent with the time of genome-wide duplication events in each species. Functional divergence analysis showed that changes in functional constraints have occurred between subfamilies I/IV, II/IV, and II/V, and some critical amino acid sites were identified during the functional divergence. Additional

  14. Variational divergence in wave scattering theory with Kirchhoffean trial functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study of variational improvement of the Kirchhoff approximation for electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces, a key ingredient in the variational principle was found to diverge for important configurations (e.g., backscatter) if the polarization had any vertical component. The cause and a cure of this divergence are discussed here. The divergence is demonstrated to occur for arbitrary perfectly conducting scatterers and its universal characterstics are determined, by means of a general divergence criterion that is derived. A variational cure for the divergence is prescribed, and it is tested successfully on a standard scattering model.

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group) are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence) have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt) genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp) were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here. PMID:23405960

  16. Extensive Local Gene Duplication and Functional Divergence among Paralogs in Atlantic Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Ciborowski, Kate L.; Casadei, Elisa; Hazlerigg, David G.; Martin, Sam; Jordan, William C.; Sumner, Seirian

    2014-01-01

    Many organisms can generate alternative phenotypes from the same genome, enabling individuals to exploit diverse and variable environments. A prevailing hypothesis is that such adaptation has been favored by gene duplication events, which generate redundant genomic material that may evolve divergent functions. Vertebrate examples of recent whole-genome duplications are sparse although one example is the salmonids, which have undergone a whole-genome duplication event within the last 100 Myr. The life-cycle of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, depends on the ability to produce alternating phenotypes from the same genome, to facilitate migration and maintain its anadromous life history. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that genome-wide and local gene duplication events have contributed to the salmonid adaptation. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the transcriptomes of three key organs involved in regulating migration in S. salar: Brain, pituitary, and olfactory epithelium. We identified over 10,000 undescribed S. salar sequences and designed an analytic workflow to distinguish between paralogs originating from local gene duplication events or from whole-genome duplication events. These data reveal that substantial local gene duplications took place shortly after the whole-genome duplication event. Many of the identified paralog pairs have either diverged in function or become noncoding. Future functional genomics studies will reveal to what extent this rich source of divergence in genetic sequence is likely to have facilitated the evolution of extreme phenotypic plasticity required for an anadromous life-cycle. PMID:24951567

  17. Extensive local gene duplication and functional divergence among paralogs in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Ciborowski, Kate L; Casadei, Elisa; Hazlerigg, David G; Martin, Sam; Jordan, William C; Sumner, Seirian

    2014-06-19

    Many organisms can generate alternative phenotypes from the same genome, enabling individuals to exploit diverse and variable environments. A prevailing hypothesis is that such adaptation has been favored by gene duplication events, which generate redundant genomic material that may evolve divergent functions. Vertebrate examples of recent whole-genome duplications are sparse although one example is the salmonids, which have undergone a whole-genome duplication event within the last 100 Myr. The life-cycle of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, depends on the ability to produce alternating phenotypes from the same genome, to facilitate migration and maintain its anadromous life history. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that genome-wide and local gene duplication events have contributed to the salmonid adaptation. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the transcriptomes of three key organs involved in regulating migration in S. salar: Brain, pituitary, and olfactory epithelium. We identified over 10,000 undescribed S. salar sequences and designed an analytic workflow to distinguish between paralogs originating from local gene duplication events or from whole-genome duplication events. These data reveal that substantial local gene duplications took place shortly after the whole-genome duplication event. Many of the identified paralog pairs have either diverged in function or become noncoding. Future functional genomics studies will reveal to what extent this rich source of divergence in genetic sequence is likely to have facilitated the evolution of extreme phenotypic plasticity required for an anadromous life-cycle.

  18. Divergent environmental filters drive functional segregation of European peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robroek, B.; Jassey, V.; Bragazza, L.; Buttler, A.

    2015-12-01

    Plant communities are largely shaped by prevailing climatic conditions. As a result, environmental change is expected to alter the (functional) composition in plant communities. Because plants, and particularly the composition of plant species, play an important role in driving ecosystem processes, it is crucial that we improve our understanding on which environmental factors are most important in shaping plant communities. Here we presnt the results for a cross-Eurpean study, were we assessed the role of environmnetal conditions on plant community composition in 56 peatlands. We show that plant species richness and diversity are relatively stable across the main environmental gradients. Nevertheless, we observe large changes in the plant community structure. In other words, species turnover increased with increasing differences in environmental viariables. Such turnover in the community composition is largely associated to gradients temperature and precipitation, whilst nutrients -often reported as major driver for changes in peatland ecosystems- were only important at the end of the gradient of current deposition levels in Europe. Using a combination of species distribution modelling and species co-occurence patterns, we identified two spatially non-exclusive groups of plant species. Species within a distinct group responded similarly to bioclimatic variables and nutrient deposition levels, whilst between group response was mirrored. These results suggest that these two groups of plants are subjected to divergent environmental filters. Additionally, European peatlands aggregate into two distinct clusters based on plant functional trait composition. Each cluster was dominated by plant species from either one of the two co-response groups. Overall, our results demonstrate that environmental change results in a gradual replacement of plant species from two divergent groups, consequently affecting the functional trait composition in peatlands.

  19. Endothelial MAPKs Direct ICAM-1 Signaling to Divergent Inflammatory Functions

    PubMed Central

    Dragoni, Silvia; Hudson, Natalie; Kenny, Bridget-Ann; Burgoyne, Thomas; McKenzie, Jenny A.; Gill, Yadvinder; Blaber, Robert; Futter, Clare E.; Adamson, Peter; Greenwood, John

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is critically dependent on intraendothelial signaling triggered by adhesion to ICAM-1. Here we show that endothelial MAPKs ERK, p38, and JNK mediate diapedesis-related and diapedesis-unrelated functions of ICAM-1 in cerebral and dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs). All three MAPKs were activated by ICAM-1 engagement, either through lymphocyte adhesion or Ab-mediated clustering. MAPKs were involved in ICAM-1–dependent expression of TNF-α in cerebral and dermal MVECs, and CXCL8, CCL3, CCL4, VCAM-1, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in cerebral MVECs. Endothelial JNK and to a much lesser degree p38 were the principal MAPKs involved in facilitating diapedesis of CD4+ lymphocytes across both types of MVECs, whereas ERK was additionally required for TEM across dermal MVECs. JNK activity was critical for ICAM-1–induced F-actin rearrangements. Furthermore, activation of endothelial ICAM-1/JNK led to phosphorylation of paxillin, its association with VE-cadherin, and internalization of the latter. Importantly ICAM-1–induced phosphorylation of paxillin was required for lymphocyte TEM and converged functionally with VE-cadherin phosphorylation. Taken together we conclude that during lymphocyte TEM, ICAM-1 signaling diverges into pathways regulating lymphocyte diapedesis, and other pathways modulating gene expression thereby contributing to the long-term inflammatory response of the endothelium. PMID:28373581

  20. Functional divergence of the circadian clock proteins in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Dvornyk, Volodymyr; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2005-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are only prokaryotes known so far to have a circadian system. It may be based either on two (kaiB and kaiC) or three (kaiA, kaiB and kaiC) circadian genes. The homologs of two circadian proteins, KaiB and KaiC, form four major subfamilies (K1-K4) and also occur in some other prokaryotes. Using the likelihood-ratio tests, we studied a rate shift at the functional divergence of the proteins from the different subfamilies. It appears that only two of the subfamilies (K1 and K2) perform circadian functions. We identified in total 92 sites that have significantly different rates of evolution between the clades K1/K2 and K3/K4; 67 sites (15 in KaiB and 52 in KaiC) been evolving significantly slower in K1/K2 than the overall average for the entire sequence. Many critical sites are located in the identified functionally important motifs and regions, e.g. one of the Walker's motif As, DXXG motif, and two KaiA-binding domains of KaiC. There are also 36 sites (approximately 5%) with rate shift between K1 and K2. The rate shift at these sites may be related to the interaction with KaiA. Rate shift analyses have identified residues whose manipulation in the Kai proteins may lead to better understanding of their functions in the two different types of the cyanobacterial circadian system.

  1. Reciprocal osmotic challenges reveal mechanisms of divergence in phenotypic plasticity in the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Reid S; Galvez, Fernando; Whitehead, Andrew

    2015-04-15

    The killifish Fundulus heteroclitus is an estuarine species with broad physiological plasticity, enabling acclimation to diverse stressors. Previous work suggests that freshwater populations expanded their physiology to accommodate low salinity environments; however, it is unknown whether this compromises their tolerance to high salinity. We used a comparative approach to investigate the mechanisms of a derived freshwater phenotype and the fate of an ancestral euryhaline phenotype after invasion of a freshwater environment. We compared physiological and transcriptomic responses to high- and low-salinity stress in fresh and brackish water populations and found an enhanced plasticity to low salinity in the freshwater population coupled with a reduced ability to acclimate to high salinity. Transcriptomic data identified genes with a conserved common response, a conserved salinity-dependent response and responses associated with population divergence. Conserved common acclimation responses revealed stress responses and alterations in cell-cycle regulation as important mechanisms in the general osmotic response. Salinity-specific responses included the regulation of genes involved in ion transport, intracellular calcium, energetic processes and cellular remodeling. Genes diverged between populations were primarily those showing salinity-specific expression and included those regulating polyamine homeostasis and the cell cycle. Additionally, when populations were matched with their native salinity, expression patterns were consistent with the concept of 'transcriptomic resilience', suggesting local adaptation. These findings provide insight into the fate of a plastic phenotype after a shift in environmental salinity and help to reveal mechanisms allowing for euryhalinity.

  2. Nucleotide sequence divergence and functional constraint in mRNA evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, T; Yasunaga, T; Nishida, T

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of about 50 pairs of homologous nucleotide sequences for different genes revealed that the substitutions between synonymous codons occurred at much higher rates than did amino acid substitutions. Furthermore, five pairs of mRNA sequences for different genes were compared in species that had diverged at the same time. The evolutionary rate of synonymous substitution was estimated to be 5.1 X 10(-9) per site per year on the average and is approximately constant among different genes. It also is suggested that this property would be suitable for a molecular clock to determine the evolutionary relationships and branching order of duplicated genes. Each functional block of the noncoding region evolves with a rate that is almost constant, regardless of the types of genes. The intervening sequence and the 5' portion of the 3' noncoding region show considerable divergence, the extent of which is almost comparable to that in the synonymous codon sites, whereas the other blocks consisting of the 5' noncoding region and the 3' portion of the 3' noncoding region are strongly conserved, showing approximatley half of the divergence of the synonymous sites. This strong sequence preservation might be due to the functional requirements for transcription and modification of mRNA. PMID:6938980

  3. Analysis of intestinal microbiota in hybrid house mice reveals evolutionary divergence in a vertebrate hologenome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Kalyan, Shirin; Steck, Natalie; Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina; Künzel, Sven; Vallier, Marie; Häsler, Robert; Franke, Andre; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Ibrahim, Saleh M; Grassl, Guntram A; Kabelitz, Dieter; Baines, John F

    2015-03-04

    Recent evidence suggests that natural selection operating on hosts to maintain their microbiome contributes to the emergence of new species, that is, the 'hologenomic basis of speciation'. Here we analyse the gut microbiota of two house mice subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, across their Central European hybrid zone, in addition to hybrids generated in the lab. Hybrid mice display widespread transgressive phenotypes (that is, exceed or fall short of parental values) in a variety of measures of bacterial community structure, which reveals the importance of stabilizing selection operating on the intestinal microbiome within species. Further genetic and immunological analyses reveal genetic incompatibilities, aberrant immune gene expression and increased intestinal pathology associated with altered community structure among hybrids. These results provide unique insight into the consequences of evolutionary divergence in a vertebrate 'hologenome', which may be an unrecognized contributing factor to reproductive isolation in this taxonomic group.

  4. Analysis of intestinal microbiota in hybrid house mice reveals evolutionary divergence in a vertebrate hologenome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Kalyan, Shirin; Steck, Natalie; Turner, Leslie M.; Harr, Bettina; Künzel, Sven; Vallier, Marie; Häsler, Robert; Franke, Andre; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Grassl, Guntram A.; Kabelitz, Dieter; Baines, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that natural selection operating on hosts to maintain their microbiome contributes to the emergence of new species, that is, the ‘hologenomic basis of speciation’. Here we analyse the gut microbiota of two house mice subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, across their Central European hybrid zone, in addition to hybrids generated in the lab. Hybrid mice display widespread transgressive phenotypes (that is, exceed or fall short of parental values) in a variety of measures of bacterial community structure, which reveals the importance of stabilizing selection operating on the intestinal microbiome within species. Further genetic and immunological analyses reveal genetic incompatibilities, aberrant immune gene expression and increased intestinal pathology associated with altered community structure among hybrids. These results provide unique insight into the consequences of evolutionary divergence in a vertebrate ‘hologenome’, which may be an unrecognized contributing factor to reproductive isolation in this taxonomic group. PMID:25737238

  5. Functional Divergence of Two Secreted Immune Proteases of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hörger, Anja C; Bozkurt, Tolga O; van den Burg, Harrold A; Kaschani, Farnusch; Kaiser, Markus; Belhaj, Khaoula; Smoker, Matthew; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Kamoun, Sophien; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2015-08-31

    Rcr3 and Pip1 are paralogous secreted papain-like proteases of tomato. Both proteases are inhibited by Avr2 from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, but only Rcr3 acts as a co-receptor for Avr2 recognition by the tomato Cf-2 immune receptor. Here, we show that Pip1-depleted tomato plants are hyper-susceptible to fungal, bacterial, and oomycete plant pathogens, demonstrating that Pip1 is an important broad-range immune protease. By contrast, in the absence of Cf-2, Rcr3 depletion does not affect fungal and bacterial infection levels but causes increased susceptibility only to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Rcr3 and Pip1 reside on a genetic locus that evolved over 36 million years ago. These proteins differ in surface-exposed residues outside the substrate-binding groove, and Pip1 is 5- to 10-fold more abundant than Rcr3. We propose a model in which Rcr3 and Pip1 diverged functionally upon gene duplication, possibly driven by an arms race with pathogen-derived inhibitors or by coevolution with the Cf-2 immune receptor detecting inhibitors of Rcr3, but not of Pip1.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Wolbachia Genomes Reveals Streamlining and Divergence of Minimalist Two-Component Systems

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Steen; Serbus, Laura Renee

    2015-01-01

    Two-component regulatory systems are commonly used by bacteria to coordinate intracellular responses with environmental cues. These systems are composed of functional protein pairs consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and cognate response regulator. In contrast to the well-studied Caulobacter crescentus system, which carries dozens of these pairs, the streamlined bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis encodes only two pairs: CckA/CtrA and PleC/PleD. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to compare characterized two-component system relays from C. crescentus, the related Anaplasmataceae species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and 12 sequenced Wolbachia strains. We found the core protein pairs and a subset of interacting partners to be highly conserved within Wolbachia and these other Anaplasmataceae. Genes involved in two-component signaling were positioned differently within the various Wolbachia genomes, whereas the local context of each gene was conserved. Unlike Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, Wolbachia two-component genes were more consistently found clustered with metabolic genes. The domain architecture and key functional residues standard for two-component system proteins were well-conserved in Wolbachia, although residues that specify cognate pairing diverged substantially from other Anaplasmataceae. These findings indicate that Wolbachia two-component signaling pairs share considerable functional overlap with other α-proteobacterial systems, whereas their divergence suggests the potential for regulatory differences and cross-talk. PMID:25809075

  7. Comparative analysis of wolbachia genomes reveals streamlining and divergence of minimalist two-component systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Steen; Serbus, Laura Renee

    2015-03-24

    Two-component regulatory systems are commonly used by bacteria to coordinate intracellular responses with environmental cues. These systems are composed of functional protein pairs consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and cognate response regulator. In contrast to the well-studied Caulobacter crescentus system, which carries dozens of these pairs, the streamlined bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis encodes only two pairs: CckA/CtrA and PleC/PleD. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to compare characterized two-component system relays from C. crescentus, the related Anaplasmataceae species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and 12 sequenced Wolbachia strains. We found the core protein pairs and a subset of interacting partners to be highly conserved within Wolbachia and these other Anaplasmataceae. Genes involved in two-component signaling were positioned differently within the various Wolbachia genomes, whereas the local context of each gene was conserved. Unlike Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, Wolbachia two-component genes were more consistently found clustered with metabolic genes. The domain architecture and key functional residues standard for two-component system proteins were well-conserved in Wolbachia, although residues that specify cognate pairing diverged substantially from other Anaplasmataceae. These findings indicate that Wolbachia two-component signaling pairs share considerable functional overlap with other α-proteobacterial systems, whereas their divergence suggests the potential for regulatory differences and cross-talk. Copyright © 2015 Christensen and Serbus.

  8. Evolutionary divergence of intrinsic and trans-regulated nucleosome positioning sequences reveals plastic rules for chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Tsankov, Alex; Yanagisawa, Yoshimi; Rhind, Nicholas; Regev, Aviv; Rando, Oliver J.

    2011-01-01

    The packaging of eukaryotic genomes into nuclesomes plays critical roles in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that nucleosome occupancy is partially encoded by intrinsic antinucleosomal DNA sequences, such as poly(A) sequences, as well as by binding sites for trans-acting factors that can evict nucleosomes, such as Reb1 and the Rsc3/30 complex. Here, we use genome-wide nucleosome occupancy maps in 13 Ascomycota fungi to discover large-scale evolutionary reprogramming of both intrinsic and trans determinants of chromatin structure. We find that poly(G)s act as intrinsic antinucleosomal sequences, comparable to the known function of poly(A)s, but that the abundance of poly(G)s has diverged greatly between species, obscuring their antinucleosomal effect in low-poly(G) species such as S. cerevisiae. We also develop a computational method that uses nucleosome occupancy maps for discovering trans-acting general regulatory factor (GRF) binding sites. Our approach reveals that the specific sequences bound by GRFs have diverged substantially across evolution, corresponding to a number of major evolutionary transitions in the repertoire of GRFs. We experimentally validate a proposed evolutionary transition from Cbf1 as a major GRF in pre-whole-genome duplication (WGD) yeasts to Reb1 in post-WGD yeasts. We further show that the mating type switch-activating protein Sap1 is a GRF in S. pombe, demonstrating the general applicability of our approach. Our results reveal that the underlying mechanisms that determine in vivo chromatin organization have diverged and that comparative genomics can help discover new determinants of chromatin organization. PMID:21914852

  9. Recent dermatophyte divergence revealed by comparative and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Yang, Fan; Liu, Tao; Leng, Wenchuan; Chu, Yonglie; Jin, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial infections of the skin, hair, and nails. They are the most common agents of fungal infections worldwide. Dermatophytic fungi constitute three genera, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, and the evolutionary relationships between these genera are epidemiologically important. Mitochondria are considered to be of monophyletic origin and mitochondrial sequences offer many advantages for phylogenetic studies. However, only one complete dermatophyte mitochondrial genome (E. floccosum) has previously been determined. Results The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of five dermatophyte species, T. rubrum (26,985 bp), T. mentagrophytes (24,297 bp), T. ajelloi (28,530 bp), M. canis (23,943 bp) and M. nanum (24,105 bp) were determined. These were compared to the E. floccosum sequence. Mitochondrial genomes of all 6 species were found to harbor the same set of genes arranged identical order indicating that these dermatophytes are closely related. Genome size differences were largely due to variable lengths of non-coding intergenic regions and the presence/absence of introns. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes reveals that the divergence of the dermatophyte clade was later than of other groups of pathogenic fungi. Conclusion This is the first systematic comparative genomic study on dermatophytes, a highly conserved and recently-diverged lineage of ascomycota fungi. The data reported here provide a basis for further exploration of interrelationships between dermatophytes and will contribute to the study of mitochondrial evolution in higher fungi. PMID:19457268

  10. Probing functional divergence of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hasik

    The conversion of AIR to CAIR catalyzed by AIR carboxylase represents the only carbon-carbon bond formation step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Prokaryotic and most eukaryotic AIR carboxylases utilize two proteins, PurK and PurE to accomplish the conversion of AIR to CAIR via N5-CAIR from AIR, ATP, and bicarbonate. In vertebrates, AIR carboxylases utilizes AIR and CO2 directly to produce CAIR without a free intermediate. NAIR is a slow-tight binding inhibitor for G. gallus AIR carboxylase while this compound is a simple competitive inhibitor in the case of the Escherichia coli system. The tight binding nature of NAIR suggested that this compound represents a transition state analog. A structure- activity study was extended in order to understand the role of ring electronics and substituents of NAIR for the tight-binding phenomenon. The analysis of inhibition data of azole nucleotide inhibitors was summarized as follows; (1) N3 of NAIR is not critical for binding, (2) ring electronics are important for binding in the nitro azole derivatives while they are not critical in the series of carboxy amino azole nucleotides, (3) the nitro group is a critical binding element for the tight-binding of NAIR, (4) the exocyclic amino group contributes to the optimum display of charge density of NAIR for tight-binding, (5) the carboxyl group of CAIR plays an import role for initial binding through electrostatic interactions. The fact that the gene for AIR carboxylase from both avian and methanogen can functionally complement E. coli purK and purE mutants despite the lack of any sequence homology with purK raised questions about the divergent functions of AIR carboxylases. The M. thermoautotrophicum AIR carboxylase was overexpressed and the catalytic function was established. Based on the stoichimetry of the ATP consumption, substrate specificities, and NAIR inhibition pattern, the methanogen AIR carboxylase is proposed to be distinctive from the E. coli and vertebrate forms and

  11. Evolutionary comparison reveals that diverging CTCF sites are signatures of ancestral topological associating domains borders

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marín, Carlos; Tena, Juan J.; Acemel, Rafael D.; López-Mayorga, Macarena; Naranjo, Silvia; de la Calle-Mustienes, Elisa; Maeso, Ignacio; Beccari, Leonardo; Aneas, Ivy; Vielmas, Erika; Bovolenta, Paola; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Carvajal, Jaime; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the last years indicates that the vast amount of regulatory information contained in mammalian genomes is organized in precise 3D chromatin structures. However, the impact of this spatial chromatin organization on gene expression and its degree of evolutionary conservation is still poorly understood. The Six homeobox genes are essential developmental regulators organized in gene clusters conserved during evolution. Here, we reveal that the Six clusters share a deeply evolutionarily conserved 3D chromatin organization that predates the Cambrian explosion. This chromatin architecture generates two largely independent regulatory landscapes (RLs) contained in two adjacent topological associating domains (TADs). By disrupting the conserved TAD border in one of the zebrafish Six clusters, we demonstrate that this border is critical for preventing competition between promoters and enhancers located in separated RLs, thereby generating different expression patterns in genes located in close genomic proximity. Moreover, evolutionary comparison of Six-associated TAD borders reveals the presence of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) sites with diverging orientations in all studied deuterostomes. Genome-wide examination of mammalian HiC data reveals that this conserved CTCF configuration is a general signature of TAD borders, underscoring that common organizational principles underlie TAD compartmentalization in deuterostome evolution. PMID:26034287

  12. The Highly Similar Arabidopsis Homologs of Trithorax ATX1 and ATX2 Encode Proteins with Divergent Biochemical Functions[W

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Abdelaty; Alvarez-Venegas, Raul; Yilmaz, Mehtap; Oahn-Le; Hou, Guichuan; Sadder, Monther; Al-Abdallat, Ayed; Xia, Yuannan; Lu, Guoqinq; Ladunga, Istvan; Avramova, Zoya

    2008-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional specialization is a potent force in the evolution of biological diversity. A comparative study of two highly conserved duplicated genes, ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-LIKE PROTEIN1 (ATX1) and ATX2, revealed features of both partial redundancy and of functional divergence. Although structurally similar, their regulatory sequences have diverged, resulting in distinct temporal and spatial patterns of expression of the ATX1 and ATX2 genes. We found that ATX2 methylates only a limited fraction of nucleosomes and that ATX1 and ATX2 influence the expression of largely nonoverlapping gene sets. Even when coregulating shared targets, ATX1 and ATX2 may employ different mechanisms. Most remarkable is the divergence of their biochemical activities: both proteins methylate K4 of histone H3, but while ATX1 trimethylates it, ATX2 dimethylates it. ATX2 and ATX1 provide an example of separated K4 di from K4 trimethyltransferase activity. PMID:18375658

  13. Chromosomal structures and repetitive sequences divergence in Cucumis species revealed by comparative cytogenetic mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunxia; Cheng, Chunyan; Li, Ji; Yang, Shuqiong; Wang, Yunzhu; Li, Ziang; Chen, Jinfeng; Lou, Qunfeng

    2015-09-25

    Differentiation and copy number of repetitive sequences affect directly chromosome structure which contributes to reproductive isolation and speciation. Comparative cytogenetic mapping has been verified an efficient tool to elucidate the differentiation and distribution of repetitive sequences in genome. In present study, the distinct chromosomal structures of five Cucumis species were revealed through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique and comparative cytogenetic mapping of major satellite repeats. Chromosome structures of five Cucumis species were investigated using GISH and comparative mapping of specific satellites. Southern hybridization was employed to study the proliferation of satellites, whose structural characteristics were helpful for analyzing chromosome evolution. Preferential distribution of repetitive DNAs at the subtelomeric regions was found in C. sativus, C hystrix and C. metuliferus, while majority was positioned at the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in C. melo and C. anguria. Further, comparative GISH (cGISH) through using genomic DNA of other species as probes revealed high homology of repeats between C. sativus and C. hystrix. Specific satellites including 45S rDNA, Type I/II, Type III, Type IV, CentM and telomeric repeat were then comparatively mapped in these species. Type I/II and Type IV produced bright signals at the subtelomeric regions of C. sativus and C. hystrix simultaneously, which might explain the significance of their amplification in the divergence of Cucumis subgenus from the ancient ancestor. Unique positioning of Type III and CentM only at the centromeric domains of C. sativus and C. melo, respectively, combining with unique southern bands, revealed rapid evolutionary patterns of centromeric DNA in Cucumis. Obvious interstitial telomeric repeats were observed in chromosomes 1 and 2 of C. sativus, which might provide evidence of the fusion hypothesis of chromosome evolution from x = 12 to x = 7 in

  14. Positive selection and functional divergence of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jieying; Liu, Yong; Chao, Naixia; Ma, Chengtong; Chen, Qicong; Sun, Jian; Wu, Yaosheng

    2017-02-04

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) belongs to the short-chain prenyltransferase family, and it performs a conserved and essential role in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, its classification, evolutionary history, and the forces driving the evolution of FPS genes in plants remain poorly understood. Phylogeny and positive selection analysis was used to identify the evolutionary forces that led to the functional divergence of FPS in plants, and recombinant detection was undertaken using the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD) method. The dataset included 68 FPS variation pattern sequences (2 gymnosperms, 10 monocotyledons, 54 dicotyledons, and 2 outgroups). This study revealed that the FPS gene was under positive selection in plants. No recombinant within the FPS gene was found. Therefore, it was inferred that the positive selection of FPS had not been influenced by a recombinant episode. The positively selected sites were mainly located in the catalytic center and functional areas, which indicated that the 98S and 234D were important positively selected sites for plant FPS in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. They were located in the FPS conserved domain of the catalytic site. We inferred that the diversification of FPS genes was associated with functional divergence and could be driven by positive selection. It was clear that protein sequence evolution via positive selection was able to drive adaptive diversification in plant FPS proteins. This study provides information on the classification and positive selection of plant FPS genes, and the results could be useful for further research on the regulation of triterpenoid biosynthesis.

  15. Revealing divergent evolution, identifying circular permutations and detecting active-sites by protein structure comparison.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luonan; Wu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2006-09-02

    Protein structure comparison is one of the most important problems in computational biology and plays a key role in protein structure prediction, fold family classification, motif finding, phylogenetic tree reconstruction and protein docking. We propose a novel method to compare the protein structures in an accurate and efficient manner. Such a method can be used to not only reveal divergent evolution, but also identify circular permutations and further detect active-sites. Specifically, we define the structure alignment as a multi-objective optimization problem, i.e., maximizing the number of aligned atoms and minimizing their root mean square distance. By controlling a single distance-related parameter, theoretically we can obtain a variety of optimal alignments corresponding to different optimal matching patterns, i.e., from a large matching portion to a small matching portion. The number of variables in our algorithm increases with the number of atoms of protein pairs in almost a linear manner. In addition to solid theoretical background, numerical experiments demonstrated significant improvement of our approach over the existing methods in terms of quality and efficiency. In particular, we show that divergent evolution, circular permutations and active-sites (or structural motifs) can be identified by our method. The software SAMO is available upon request from the authors, or from http://zhangroup.aporc.org/bioinfo/samo/ and http://intelligent.eic.osaka-sandai.ac.jp/chenen/samo.htm. A novel formulation is proposed to accurately align protein structures in the framework of multi-objective optimization, based on a sequence order-independent strategy. A fast and accurate algorithm based on the bipartite matching algorithm is developed by exploiting the special features. Convergence of computation is shown in experiments and is also theoretically proven.

  16. Sympatric Asian felid phylogeography reveals a major Indochinese-Sundaic divergence.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Warren E; Miao, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Antunes, Agostinho; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic geological and climatological history of Southeast Asia has spawned a complex array of ecosystems and 12 of the 37 known cat species, making it the most felid-rich region in the world. To examine the evolutionary histories of these poorly studied fauna, we compared phylogeography of six species (leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis, fishing cat P. viverrinus, Asiatic golden cat Pardofelis temminckii, marbled cat P. marmorata, tiger Panthera tigris and leopard P. pardus) by sequencing over 5 kb of DNA each from 445 specimens at multiple loci of mtDNA, Y and X chromosomes. All species except the leopard displayed significant phylogenetic partitions between Indochina and Sundaland, with the central Thai-Malay Peninsula serving as the biogeographic boundary. Concordant mtDNA and nuclear DNA genealogies revealed deep Indochinese-Sundaic divergences around 2 MYA in both P. bengalensis and P. marmorata comparable to previously described interspecific distances within Felidae. The divergence coincided with serial sea level rises during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, and was probably reinforced by repeated isolation events associated with environmental changes throughout the Pleistocene. Indochinese-Sundaic differentiations within P. tigris and P. temminckii were more recent at 72-108 and 250-1570 kya, respectively. Overall, these results illuminate unexpected, deep vicariance events in Southeast Asian felids and provide compelling evidence of species-level distinction between the Indochinese and Sundaic populations in the leopard cat and marbled cat. Broader sampling and further molecular and morphometric analyses of these species will be instrumental in defining conservation units and effectively preserving Southeast Asian biodiversity.

  17. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  18. Compound liquid crystal microlens array with convergent and divergent functions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shengwu; Zhang, Xinyu

    2016-04-20

    Based on the common liquid crystal microlens, a new compound structure for a liquid crystal (LC) microlens array is proposed. The structure consists of two sub LC microlens arrays with properties of light divergence and convergence. The structure has two LC layers: one to form the positive sub lens, one for the negative. The patterned electrode and plane electrode are used in both sub microlens arrays. When two sub microlens arrays are electrically controlled separately, they can diverge or converge the incident light, respectively. As two sub microlens arrays are both applied on the voltage, the focal length of the compound LC microlens becomes larger than that of the LC microlens with a single LC layer. Another feature of a compound LC microlens array is that it can make the target contour become visible under intense light. The mechanisms are described in detail, and the experimental data are given.

  19. Structural and Functional Divergence of the Aldolase Fold in Toxoplasma gondii

    DOE PAGES

    Tonkin, Michelle L.; Halavaty, Andrei S.; Ramaswamy, Raghavendran; ...

    2014-10-02

    Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa are highly successful pathogens of humans and animals worldwide. As obligate intracellular parasites, they have significant energy requirements for invasion and gliding motility that are supplied by various metabolic pathways. Aldolases have emerged as key enzymes involved in these pathways, and all apicomplexans express one or both of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16BP) aldolase and 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (dR5P) aldolase (DERA). Intriguingly, Toxoplasma gondii, a highly successful apicomplexan parasite, expresses F16BP aldolase (TgALD1), d5RP aldolase (TgDERA), and a divergent dR5P aldolase-like protein (TgDPA) exclusively in the latent bradyzoite stage. While the importance of TgALD1 in glycolysis is wellmore » established and TgDERA is also likely to be involved in parasite metabolism, the detailed function of TgDPA remains elusive. Here, to gain mechanistic insight into the function of different T. gondii aldolases, we first determined the crystal structures of TgALD1 and TgDPA. Structural analysis revealed that both aldolases adopt a TIM barrel fold accessorized with divergent secondary structure elements. Structural comparison of TgALD1 and TgDPA with members of their respective enzyme families revealed that, while the active-site residues are conserved in TgALD1, key catalytic residues are absent in TgDPA. Consistent with this observation, biochemical assays showed that, while TgALD1 was active on F16BP, TgDPA was inactive on dR5P. In conclusion, intriguingly, both aldolases are competent to bind polymerized actin in vitro. Altogether, structural and biochemical analyses of T. gondii aldolase and aldolase-like proteins reveal diverse functionalization of the classic TIM barrel aldolase fold.« less

  20. Structural and Functional Divergence of the Aldolase Fold in Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkin, Michelle L.; Halavaty, Andrei S.; Ramaswamy, Raghavendran; Ruan, Jiapeng; Igarashi, Makoto; Ngô, Huân M.; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2014-10-02

    Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa are highly successful pathogens of humans and animals worldwide. As obligate intracellular parasites, they have significant energy requirements for invasion and gliding motility that are supplied by various metabolic pathways. Aldolases have emerged as key enzymes involved in these pathways, and all apicomplexans express one or both of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16BP) aldolase and 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (dR5P) aldolase (DERA). Intriguingly, Toxoplasma gondii, a highly successful apicomplexan parasite, expresses F16BP aldolase (TgALD1), d5RP aldolase (TgDERA), and a divergent dR5P aldolase-like protein (TgDPA) exclusively in the latent bradyzoite stage. While the importance of TgALD1 in glycolysis is well established and TgDERA is also likely to be involved in parasite metabolism, the detailed function of TgDPA remains elusive. Here, to gain mechanistic insight into the function of different T. gondii aldolases, we first determined the crystal structures of TgALD1 and TgDPA. Structural analysis revealed that both aldolases adopt a TIM barrel fold accessorized with divergent secondary structure elements. Structural comparison of TgALD1 and TgDPA with members of their respective enzyme families revealed that, while the active-site residues are conserved in TgALD1, key catalytic residues are absent in TgDPA. Consistent with this observation, biochemical assays showed that, while TgALD1 was active on F16BP, TgDPA was inactive on dR5P. In conclusion, intriguingly, both aldolases are competent to bind polymerized actin in vitro. Altogether, structural and biochemical analyses of T. gondii aldolase and aldolase-like proteins reveal diverse functionalization of the classic TIM barrel aldolase fold.

  1. New computational methods reveal tRNA identity element divergence between Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Freyhult, Eva; Cui, Yuanyuan; Nilsson, Olle; Ardell, David H

    2007-10-01

    There are at least 21 subfunctional classes of tRNAs in most cells that, despite a very highly conserved and compact common structure, must interact specifically with different cliques of proteins or cause grave organismal consequences. Protein recognition of specific tRNA substrates is achieved in part through class-restricted tRNA features called tRNA identity determinants. In earlier work we used TFAM, a statistical classifier of tRNA function, to show evidence of unexpectedly large diversity among bacteria in tRNA identity determinants. We also created a data reduction technique called function logos to visualize identity determinants for a given taxon. Here we show evidence that determinants for lysylated isoleucine tRNAs are not the same in Proteobacteria as in other bacterial groups including the Cyanobacteria. Consistent with this, the lysylating biosynthetic enzyme TilS lacks a C-terminal domain in Cyanobacteria that is present in Proteobacteria. We present here, using function logos, a map estimating all potential identity determinants generally operational in Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria. To further isolate the differences in potential tRNA identity determinants between Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, we created two new data reduction visualizations to contrast sequence and function logos between two taxa. One, called Information Difference logos (ID logos), shows the evolutionary gain or retention of functional information associated to features in one lineage. The other, Kullback-Leibler divergence Difference logos (KLD logos), shows recruitments or shifts in the functional associations of features, especially those informative in both lineages. We used these new logos to specifically isolate and visualize the differences in potential tRNA identity determinants between Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Our graphical results point to numerous differences in potential tRNA identity determinants between these groups. Although more differences in

  2. Metabolomic profiling reveals deep chemical divergence between two morphotypes of the zoanthid Parazoanthus axinellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachet, Nadja; Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Sinniger, Frédéric; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry; Thomas, Olivier P.

    2015-02-01

    Metabolomics has recently proven its usefulness as complementary tool to traditional morphological and genetic analyses for the classification of marine invertebrates. Among the metabolite-rich cnidarian order Zoantharia, Parazoanthus is a polyphyletic genus whose systematics and phylogeny remain controversial. Within this genus, one of the most studied species, Parazoanthus axinellae is prominent in rocky shallow waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the NE Atlantic Ocean. Although different morphotypes can easily be distinguished, only one species is recognized to date. Here, a metabolomic profiling approach has been used to assess the chemical diversity of two main Mediterranean morphotypes, the ``slender'' and ``stocky'' forms of P. axinellae. Targeted profiling of their major secondary metabolites revealed a significant chemical divergence between the morphotypes. While zoanthoxanthin alkaloids and ecdysteroids are abundant in both morphs, the ``slender'' morphotype is characterized by the presence of additional and bioactive 3,5-disubstituted hydantoin derivatives named parazoanthines. The absence of these specific compounds in the ``stocky'' morphotype was confirmed by spatial and temporal monitoring over an annual cycle. Moreover, specimens of the ``slender'' morphotype are also the only ones found as epibionts of several sponge species, particularly Cymbaxinella damicornis thus suggesting a putative ecological link.

  3. Sex reversal assessments reveal different vulnerability to endocrine disruption between deeply diverged anuran lineages

    PubMed Central

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors cause worldwide amphibian declines. Among several poorly investigated causes is global pollution of aquatic ecosystems with endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These substances interfere with the endocrine system and can affect the sexual development of vertebrates including amphibians. We test the susceptibility to an environmentally relevant contraceptive, the artificial estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), simultaneously in three deeply divergent systematic anuran families, a model-species, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), and two non-models, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae). Our new approach combines synchronized tadpole exposure to three EE2-concentrations (50, 500, 5,000 ng/L) in a flow-through-system and pioneers genetic and histological sexing of metamorphs in non-model anurans for EDC-studies. This novel methodology reveals striking quantitative differences in genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversal in non-model vs. model species. Our findings qualify molecular sexing in EDC-analyses as requirement to identify sex reversals and state-of-the-art approaches as mandatory to detect species-specific vulnerabilities to EDCs in amphibians. PMID:27029458

  4. Sex reversal assessments reveal different vulnerability to endocrine disruption between deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    PubMed

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-03-31

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors cause worldwide amphibian declines. Among several poorly investigated causes is global pollution of aquatic ecosystems with endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These substances interfere with the endocrine system and can affect the sexual development of vertebrates including amphibians. We test the susceptibility to an environmentally relevant contraceptive, the artificial estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), simultaneously in three deeply divergent systematic anuran families, a model-species, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), and two non-models, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae). Our new approach combines synchronized tadpole exposure to three EE2-concentrations (50, 500, 5,000 ng/L) in a flow-through-system and pioneers genetic and histological sexing of metamorphs in non-model anurans for EDC-studies. This novel methodology reveals striking quantitative differences in genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversal in non-model vs. model species. Our findings qualify molecular sexing in EDC-analyses as requirement to identify sex reversals and state-of-the-art approaches as mandatory to detect species-specific vulnerabilities to EDCs in amphibians.

  5. Comparative genomics reveals surprising divergence of two closely related strains of uncultivated UCYN-A cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bombar, Deniz; Heller, Philip; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Carter, Brandon J; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria capable of fixing molecular nitrogen (termed 'diazotrophs') are key in biogeochemical cycling, and the nitrogen fixed is one of the major external sources of nitrogen to the open ocean. Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium known for its widespread geographic distribution in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic oceans, unusually reduced genome and symbiosis with a single-celled prymnesiophyte alga. Recently a novel strain of this organism was also detected in coastal waters sampled from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography pier. We analyzed the metagenome of this UCYN-A2 population by concentrating cells by flow cytometry. Phylogenomic analysis provided strong bootstrap support for the monophyly of UCYN-A (here called UCYN-A1) and UCYN-A2 within the marine Crocosphaera sp. and Cyanothece sp. clade. UCYN-A2 shares 1159 of the 1200 UCYN-A1 protein-coding genes (96.6%) with high synteny, yet the average amino-acid sequence identity between these orthologs is only 86%. UCYN-A2 lacks the same major pathways and proteins that are absent in UCYN-A1, suggesting that both strains can be grouped at the same functional and ecological level. Our results suggest that UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 had a common ancestor and diverged after genome reduction. These two variants may reflect adaptation of the host to different niches, which could be coastal and open ocean habitats.

  6. Comparative genomics reveals surprising divergence of two closely related strains of uncultivated UCYN-A cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bombar, Deniz; Heller, Philip; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Carter, Brandon J; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria capable of fixing molecular nitrogen (termed ‘diazotrophs') are key in biogeochemical cycling, and the nitrogen fixed is one of the major external sources of nitrogen to the open ocean. Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium known for its widespread geographic distribution in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic oceans, unusually reduced genome and symbiosis with a single-celled prymnesiophyte alga. Recently a novel strain of this organism was also detected in coastal waters sampled from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography pier. We analyzed the metagenome of this UCYN-A2 population by concentrating cells by flow cytometry. Phylogenomic analysis provided strong bootstrap support for the monophyly of UCYN-A (here called UCYN-A1) and UCYN-A2 within the marine Crocosphaera sp. and Cyanothece sp. clade. UCYN-A2 shares 1159 of the 1200 UCYN-A1 protein-coding genes (96.6%) with high synteny, yet the average amino-acid sequence identity between these orthologs is only 86%. UCYN-A2 lacks the same major pathways and proteins that are absent in UCYN-A1, suggesting that both strains can be grouped at the same functional and ecological level. Our results suggest that UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 had a common ancestor and diverged after genome reduction. These two variants may reflect adaptation of the host to different niches, which could be coastal and open ocean habitats. PMID:25226029

  7. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT.

  8. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Qiao, Lei; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Xu, Mengsi; Yao, Xiaonan; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions) involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus), inhibition function, and divergent thinking (DT) in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV) in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher DT. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and DT. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences DT. PMID:27752250

  9. A systems biology approach using metabolomic data reveals genes and pathways interacting to modulate divergent growth in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systems biology enables the identification of gene networks that modulate complex traits. Comprehensive metabolomic analyses provide innovative phenotypes that are intermediate between the initiator of genetic variability, the genome, and raw phenotypes that are influenced by a large number of environmental effects. The present study combines two concepts, systems biology and metabolic analyses, in an approach without prior functional hypothesis in order to dissect genes and molecular pathways that modulate differential growth at the onset of puberty in male cattle. Furthermore, this integrative strategy was applied to specifically explore distinctive gene interactions of non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG) and myostatin (GDF8), known modulators of pre- and postnatal growth that are only partially understood for their molecular pathways affecting differential body weight. Results Our study successfully established gene networks and interacting partners affecting growth at the onset of puberty in cattle. We demonstrated the biological relevance of the created networks by comparison to randomly created networks. Our data showed that GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signaling is associated with divergent growth at the onset of puberty and revealed two highly connected hubs, BTC and DGKH, within the network. Both genes are known to directly interact with the GnRH signaling pathway. Furthermore, a gene interaction network for NCAPG containing 14 densely connected genes revealed novel information concerning the functional role of NCAPG in divergent growth. Conclusions Merging both concepts, systems biology and metabolomic analyses, successfully yielded new insights into gene networks and interacting partners affecting growth at the onset of puberty in cattle. Genetic modulation in GnRH signaling was identified as key modifier of differential cattle growth at the onset of puberty. In addition, the benefit of our innovative concept without prior

  10. Genomewide Spatial Correspondence Between Nonsynonymous Divergence and Neutral Polymorphism Reveals Extensive Adaptation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. Michael; Sella, Guy; Davis, Jerel C.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of recurrent selective sweeps is a spatially heterogeneous reduction in neutral polymorphism throughout the genome. The pattern of reduction depends on the selective advantage and recurrence rate of the sweeps. Because many adaptive substitutions responsible for these sweeps also contribute to nonsynonymous divergence, the spatial distribution of nonsynonymous divergence also reflects the distribution of adaptive substitutions. Thus, the spatial correspondence between neutral polymorphism and nonsynonymous divergence may be especially informative about the process of adaptation. Here we study this correspondence using genomewide polymorphism data from Drosophila simulans and the divergence between D. simulans and D. melanogaster. Focusing on highly recombining portions of the autosomes, at a spatial scale appropriate to the study of selective sweeps, we find that neutral polymorphism is both lower and, as measured by a new statistic QS, less homogeneous where nonsynonymous divergence is higher and that the spatial structure of this correlation is best explained by the action of strong recurrent selective sweeps. We introduce a method to infer, from the spatial correspondence between polymorphism and divergence, the rate and selective strength of adaptation. Our results independently confirm a high rate of adaptive substitution (∼1/3000 generations) and newly suggest that many adaptations are of surprisingly great selective effect (∼1%), reducing the effective population size by ∼15% even in highly recombining regions of the genome. PMID:18073425

  11. The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analyses.

    PubMed

    Hey, Jody

    2010-04-01

    The divergence of bonobos and three subspecies of the common chimpanzee was examined under a multipopulation isolation-with-migration (IM) model with data from 73 loci drawn from the literature. A benefit of having a full multipopulation model, relative to conducting multiple pairwise analyses between sampled populations, is that a full model can reveal historical gene flow involving ancestral populations. An example of this was found in which gene flow is indicated between the western common chimpanzee subspecies and the ancestor of the central and the eastern common chimpanzee subspecies. The results of a full analysis on all four populations are strongly consistent with analyses on pairs of populations and generally similar to results from previous studies. The basal split between bonobos and common chimpanzees was estimated at 0.93 Ma (0.68-1.54 Ma, 95% highest posterior density interval), with the split among the ancestor of three common chimpanzee populations at 0.46 Ma (0.35-0.65), and the most recent split between central and eastern common chimpanzee populations at 0.093 Ma (0.041-0.157). Population size estimates mostly fell in the range from 5,000 to 10,000 individuals. The exceptions are the size of the ancestor of the common chimpanzee and the bonobo, at 17,000 (8,000-28,000) individuals, and the central common chimpanzee and its immediate ancestor with the eastern common chimpanzee, which have effective size estimates at 27,000 (16,000-44,000) and 32,000 (19,000-54,000) individuals, respectively.

  12. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal population history and adaptive divergence in wild guppies.

    PubMed

    Willing, Eva-Maria; Bentzen, Paul; van Oosterhout, Cock; Hoffmann, Margarete; Cable, Joanne; Breden, Felix; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2010-03-01

    Adaptation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to contrasting upland and lowland habitats has been extensively studied with respect to behaviour, morphology and life history traits. Yet population history has not been studied at the whole-genome level. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant form of variation in many genomes and consequently very informative for a genome-wide picture of standing natural variation in populations, genome-wide SNP data are rarely available for wild vertebrates. Here we use genetically mapped SNP markers to comprehensively survey genetic variation within and among naturally occurring guppy populations from a wide geographic range in Trinidad and Venezuela. Results from three different clustering methods, Neighbor-net, principal component analysis (PCA) and Bayesian analysis show that the population substructure agrees with geographic separation and largely with previously hypothesized patterns of historical colonization. Within major drainages (Caroni, Oropouche and Northern), populations are genetically similar, but those in different geographic regions are highly divergent from one another, with some indications of ancient shared polymorphisms. Clear genomic signatures of a previous introduction experiment were seen, and we detected additional potential admixture events. Headwater populations were significantly less heterozygous than downstream populations. Pairwise F(ST) values revealed marked differences in allele frequencies among populations from different regions, and also among populations within the same region. F(ST) outlier methods indicated some regions of the genome as being under directional selection. Overall, this study demonstrates the power of a genome-wide SNP data set to inform for studies on natural variation, adaptation and evolution of wild populations.

  13. Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici isolates revealed by the comparative gene co-expression network and genome analyses.

    PubMed

    Rutter, William B; Salcedo, Andres; Akhunova, Alina; He, Fei; Wang, Shichen; Liang, Hanquan; Bowden, Robert L; Akhunov, Eduard

    2017-04-12

    Two opposing evolutionary constraints exert pressure on plant pathogens: one to diversify virulence factors in order to evade plant defenses, and the other to retain virulence factors critical for maintaining a compatible interaction with the plant host. To better understand how the diversified arsenals of fungal genes promote interaction with the same compatible wheat line, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of two North American isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). The patterns of inter-isolate divergence in the secreted candidate effector genes were compared with the levels of conservation and divergence of plant-pathogen gene co-expression networks (GCN) developed for each isolate. Comprative genomic analyses revealed substantial level of interisolate divergence in effector gene complement and sequence divergence. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses of the conserved and unique parts of the isolate-specific GCNs identified a number of conserved host pathways targeted by both isolates. Interestingly, the degree of inter-isolate sub-network conservation varied widely for the different host pathways and was positively associated with the proportion of conserved effector candidates associated with each sub-network. While different Pgt isolates tended to exploit similar wheat pathways for infection, the mode of plant-pathogen interaction varied for different pathways with some pathways being associated with the conserved set of effectors and others being linked with the diverged or isolate-specific effectors. Our data suggest that at the intra-species level pathogen populations likely maintain divergent sets of effectors capable of targeting the same plant host pathways. This functional redundancy may play an important role in the dynamic of the "arms-race" between host and pathogen serving as the basis for diverse virulence strategies and creating conditions where mutations in certain effector groups will not have a major effect on the pathogen

  14. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A.; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2–0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be

  15. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-22

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2-0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be an

  16. The WD-repeat protein superfamily in Arabidopsis: conservation and divergence in structure and function

    PubMed Central

    van Nocker, Steven; Ludwig, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Background The WD motif (also known as the Trp-Asp or WD40 motif) is found in a multitude of eukaryotic proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Where studied, repeated WD motifs act as a site for protein-protein interaction, and proteins containing WD repeats (WDRs) are known to serve as platforms for the assembly of protein complexes or mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, members of this superfamily are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of plant-specific developmental events. Results We analyzed the predicted complement of WDR proteins from Arabidopsis, and compared this to those from budding yeast, fruit fly and human to illustrate both conservation and divergence in structure and function. This analysis identified 237 potential Arabidopsis proteins containing four or more recognizable copies of the motif. These were classified into 143 distinct families, 49 of which contained more than one Arabidopsis member. Approximately 113 of these families or individual proteins showed clear homology with WDR proteins from the other eukaryotes analyzed. Where conservation was found, it often extended across all of these organisms, suggesting that many of these proteins are linked to basic cellular mechanisms. The functional characterization of conserved WDR proteins in Arabidopsis reveals that these proteins help adapt basic mechanisms for plant-specific processes. Conclusions Our results show that most Arabidopsis WDR proteins are strongly conserved across eukaryotes, including those that have been found to play key roles in plant-specific processes, with diversity in function conferred at least in part by divergence in upstream signaling pathways, downstream regulatory targets and /or structure outside of the WDR regions. PMID:14672542

  17. Analyses of mitochondrial genes reveal two sympatric but genetically divergent lineages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kanduma, Esther G; Mwacharo, Joram M; Githaka, Naftaly W; Kinyanjui, Peter W; Njuguna, Joyce N; Kamau, Lucy M; Kariuki, Edward; Mwaura, Stephen; Skilton, Robert A; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-06-22

    The ixodid tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus transmits the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Theileria parva, which causes East coast fever (ECF), the most economically important cattle disease in eastern and southern Africa. Recent analysis of micro- and minisatellite markers showed an absence of geographical and host-associated genetic sub-structuring amongst field populations of R. appendiculatus in Kenya. To assess further the phylogenetic relationships between field and laboratory R. appendiculatus tick isolates, this study examined sequence variations at two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and the nuclear encoded ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the rRNA gene, respectively. The analysis of 332 COI sequences revealed 30 polymorphic sites, which defined 28 haplotypes that were separated into two distinct haplogroups (A and B). Inclusion of previously published haplotypes in our analysis revealed a high degree of phylogenetic complexity never reported before in haplogroup A. Neither haplogroup however, showed any clustering pattern related to either the geographical sampling location, the type of tick sampled (laboratory stocks vs field populations) or the mammalian host species. This finding was supported by the results obtained from the analysis of 12S rDNA sequences. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90.8 % of the total genetic variation was explained by the two haplogroups, providing further support for their genetic divergence. These results were, however, not replicated by the nuclear transcribed ITS2 sequences likely because of recombination between the nuclear genomes maintaining a high level of genetic sequence conservation. COI and 12S rDNA are better markers than ITS2 for studying intraspecific diversity. Based on these genes, two major genetic groups of R. appendiculatus that have gone through a demographic expansion exist in Kenya. The two groups show no

  18. Divergent Functions Through Alternative Splicing: The Drosophila CRMP Gene in Pyrimidine Metabolism, Brain, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Deanna H.; Dubnau, Josh; Park, Jae H.; Rawls, John M.

    2012-01-01

    DHP and CRMP proteins comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that perform divergent functions, DHP in pyrimidine catabolism in most organisms and CRMP in neuronal dynamics in animals. In vertebrates, one DHP and five CRMP proteins are products of six genes; however, Drosophila melanogaster has a single CRMP gene that encodes one DHP and one CRMP protein through tissue-specific, alternative splicing of a pair of paralogous exons. The proteins derived from the fly gene are identical over 90% of their lengths, suggesting that unique, novel functions of these proteins derive from the segment corresponding to the paralogous exons. Functional homologies of the Drosophila and mammalian CRMP proteins are revealed by several types of evidence. Loss-of-function CRMP mutation modifies both Ras and Rac misexpression phenotypes during fly eye development in a manner that is consistent with the roles of CRMP in Ras and Rac signaling pathways in mammalian neurons. In both mice and flies, CRMP mutation impairs learning and memory. CRMP mutant flies are defective in circadian activity rhythm. Thus, DHP and CRMP proteins are derived by different processes in flies (tissue-specific, alternative splicing of paralogous exons of a single gene) and vertebrates (tissue-specific expression of different genes), indicating that diverse genetic mechanisms have mediated the evolution of this protein family in animals. PMID:22649077

  19. Differences in divergent thinking as a function of handedness and sex.

    PubMed

    Coren, S

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between handedness and divergent thinking was explored in four studies. Experiment 1 (N = 556) used the Alternate Uses Test, Experiment 2 (N = 941) tested object synthesis, and Experiment 3 (N = 965) tested ideational flexibility. No difference as a function of handedness was found in Experiment 1, but in Experiments 2 and 3 divergent thinking was significantly related to handedness in males. Left-handed males had higher divergent thinking scores, and the scores rose systematically with increasing sinistrality. Handedness was not related to divergent thinking ability in females. Experiment 4 (N = 1,548) showed that these differences were not associated with superiority by left-handed individuals in convergent thinking. Interpretations based on altered neurological development due to factors such as fetal testosterone exposure are discussed.

  20. Functional Promiscuity of Two Divergent Paralogs of Type III Plant Polyketide Synthases1

    PubMed Central

    Pandith, Shahzad A.; Dhar, Niha; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P.; Shah, Manzoor A.; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Plants effectively defend themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses by synthesizing diverse secondary metabolites, including health-protective flavonoids. These display incredible chemical diversity and ubiquitous occurrence and confer impeccable biological and agricultural applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS), a type III plant polyketide synthase, is critical for flavonoid biosynthesis. It catalyzes acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to synthesize naringenin chalcone through a polyketidic intermediate. The functional divergence among the evolutionarily generated members of a gene family is pivotal in driving the chemical diversity. Against this backdrop, this study was aimed to functionally characterize members of the CHS gene family from Rheum emodi, an endangered and endemic high-altitude medicinal herb of northwestern Himalayas. Two full-length cDNAs (1,179 bp each), ReCHS1 and ReCHS2, encoding unique paralogs were isolated and characterized. Heterologous expression and purification in Escherichia coli, bottom-up proteomic characterization, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and enzyme kinetic studies using five different substrates confirmed their catalytic potential. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of higher synonymous mutations in the intronless divergents of ReCHS. ReCHS2 displayed significant enzymatic efficiency (Vmax/Km) with different substrates. There were significant spatial and altitudinal variations in messenger RNA transcript levels of ReCHSs correlating positively with metabolite accumulation. Furthermore, the elicitations in the form of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, ultraviolet B light, and wounding, chosen on the basis of identified cis-regulatory promoter elements, presented considerable differences in the transcript profiles of ReCHSs. Taken together, our results demonstrate differential propensities of CHS paralogs in terms of the accumulation of flavonoids and

  1. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of α-gliadin gene sequences reveals significant genomic divergence in Triticeae species.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Rong; Lang, Tao; Yang, En-Nian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Zu-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Although the unique properties of wheat α-gliadin gene family are well characterized, little is known about the evolution and genomic divergence of α-gliadin gene family within the Triticeae. We isolated a total of 203 α-gliadin gene sequences from 11 representative diploid and polyploid Triticeae species, and found 108 sequences putatively functional. Our results indicate that α-gliadin genes may have possibly originated from wild Secale species, where the sequences contain the shortest repetitive domains and display minimum variation. A miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion is reported for the first time in α-gliadin gene sequence of Thinopyrum intermedium in this study, indicating that the transposable element might have contributed to the diversification of α-gliadin genes family among Triticeae genomes. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the α-gliadin gene sequences of Dasypyrum, Australopyrum, Lophopyrum, Eremopyrum and Pseudoroengeria species have amplified several times. A search for four typical toxic epitopes for celiac disease within the Triticeae α-gliadin gene sequences showed that the α-gliadins of wild Secale, Australopyrum and Agropyron genomes lack all four epitopes, while other Triticeae species have accumulated these epitopes, suggesting that the evolution of these toxic epitopes sequences occurred during the course of speciation, domestication or polyploidization of Triticeae.

  2. Functional divergence in the Arabidopsis LOB-domain gene family

    PubMed Central

    Mangeon, Amanda; Lin, Wan-ching; Springer, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis LOB-domain (LBD) gene family is composed by 43 members divided in two classes based on amino acid conservation within the LOB-domain. The LOB domain is known to be responsible for DNA binding and protein-protein interactions. There is very little functional information available for most genes in the LBD family and many lbd single mutants do not exhibit conspicuous phenotypes. One plausible explanation for the limited loss-of-function phenotypes observed in this family is that LBD genes exhibit significant functional redundancy. Here we discuss an example of one phylogenetic subgroup of the LBD family, in which genes that are closely related based on phylogeny exhibit distinctly different expression patterns and do not have overlapping functions. We discuss the challenges of using phylogenetic analyses to predict redundancy in gene families. PMID:23073009

  3. Functionally conserved enhancers with divergent sequences in distant vertebrates

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Song; Oksenberg, Nir; Takayama, Sachiko; ...

    2015-10-30

    To examine the contributions of sequence and function conservation in the evolution of enhancers, we systematically identified enhancers whose sequences are not conserved among distant groups of vertebrate species, but have homologous function and are likely to be derived from a common ancestral sequence. In conclusion, our approach combined comparative genomics and epigenomics to identify potential enhancer sequences in the genomes of three groups of distantly related vertebrate species.

  4. Functionally conserved enhancers with divergent sequences in distant vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Song; Oksenberg, Nir; Takayama, Sachiko; Heo, Seok -Jin; Poliakov, Alexander; Ahituv, Nadav; Dubchak, Inna; Boffelli, Dario

    2015-10-30

    To examine the contributions of sequence and function conservation in the evolution of enhancers, we systematically identified enhancers whose sequences are not conserved among distant groups of vertebrate species, but have homologous function and are likely to be derived from a common ancestral sequence. In conclusion, our approach combined comparative genomics and epigenomics to identify potential enhancer sequences in the genomes of three groups of distantly related vertebrate species.

  5. Intraspecific Polymorphism, Interspecific Divergence, and the Origins of Function-Altering Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Lanier, Hayley C.; Wolf, Cole J.; Cheviron, Zachary A.; Spangler, Matthew L.; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Major challenges for illuminating the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution are to identify causative mutations, to quantify their functional effects, to trace their origins as new or preexisting variants, and to assess the manner in which segregating variation is transduced into species differences. Here, we report an experimental analysis of genetic variation in hemoglobin (Hb) function within and among species of Peromyscus mice that are native to different elevations. A multilocus survey of sequence variation in the duplicated HBA and HBB genes in Peromyscus maniculatus revealed that function-altering amino acid variants are widely shared among geographically disparate populations from different elevations, and numerous amino acid polymorphisms are also shared with closely related species. Variation in Hb-O2 affinity within and among populations of P. maniculatus is attributable to numerous amino acid mutations that have individually small effects. One especially surprising feature of the Hb polymorphism in P. maniculatus is that an appreciable fraction of functional standing variation in the two transcriptionally active HBA paralogs is attributable to recurrent gene conversion from a tandemly linked HBA pseudogene. Moreover, transpecific polymorphism in the duplicated HBA genes is not solely attributable to incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization; instead, it is mainly attributable to recurrent interparalog gene conversion that has occurred independently in different species. Partly as a result of concerted evolution between tandemly duplicated globin genes, the same amino acid changes that contribute to variation in Hb function within P. maniculatus also contribute to divergence in Hb function among different species of Peromyscus. In the case of function-altering Hb mutations in Peromyscus, there is no qualitative or quantitative distinction between segregating variants within species and fixed differences between species. PMID:25556236

  6. Intraspecific polymorphism, interspecific divergence, and the origins of function-altering mutations in deer mouse hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Hoffmann, Federico G; Lanier, Hayley C; Wolf, Cole J; Cheviron, Zachary A; Spangler, Matthew L; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F

    2015-04-01

    Major challenges for illuminating the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution are to identify causative mutations, to quantify their functional effects, to trace their origins as new or preexisting variants, and to assess the manner in which segregating variation is transduced into species differences. Here, we report an experimental analysis of genetic variation in hemoglobin (Hb) function within and among species of Peromyscus mice that are native to different elevations. A multilocus survey of sequence variation in the duplicated HBA and HBB genes in Peromyscus maniculatus revealed that function-altering amino acid variants are widely shared among geographically disparate populations from different elevations, and numerous amino acid polymorphisms are also shared with closely related species. Variation in Hb-O2 affinity within and among populations of P. maniculatus is attributable to numerous amino acid mutations that have individually small effects. One especially surprising feature of the Hb polymorphism in P. maniculatus is that an appreciable fraction of functional standing variation in the two transcriptionally active HBA paralogs is attributable to recurrent gene conversion from a tandemly linked HBA pseudogene. Moreover, transpecific polymorphism in the duplicated HBA genes is not solely attributable to incomplete lineage sorting or introgressive hybridization; instead, it is mainly attributable to recurrent interparalog gene conversion that has occurred independently in different species. Partly as a result of concerted evolution between tandemly duplicated globin genes, the same amino acid changes that contribute to variation in Hb function within P. maniculatus also contribute to divergence in Hb function among different species of Peromyscus. In the case of function-altering Hb mutations in Peromyscus, there is no qualitative or quantitative distinction between segregating variants within species and fixed differences between species. © The Author

  7. Mitogenome Sequencing in the Genus Camelus Reveals Evidence for Purifying Selection and Long-term Divergence between Wild and Domestic Bactrian Camels.

    PubMed

    Mohandesan, Elmira; Fitak, Robert R; Corander, Jukka; Yadamsuren, Adiya; Chuluunbat, Battsetseg; Abdelhadi, Omer; Raziq, Abdul; Nagy, Peter; Stalder, Gabrielle; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Burger, Pamela A

    2017-08-30

    The genus Camelus is an interesting model to study adaptive evolution in the mitochondrial genome, as the three extant Old World camel species inhabit hot and low-altitude as well as cold and high-altitude deserts. We sequenced 24 camel mitogenomes and combined them with three previously published sequences to study the role of natural selection under different environmental pressure, and to advance our understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus Camelus. We confirmed the heterogeneity of divergence across different components of the electron transport system. Lineage-specific analysis of mitochondrial protein evolution revealed a significant effect of purifying selection in the concatenated protein-coding genes in domestic Bactrian camels. The estimated dN/dS < 1 in the concatenated protein-coding genes suggested purifying selection as driving force for shaping mitogenome diversity in camels. Additional analyses of the functional divergence in amino acid changes between species-specific lineages indicated fixed substitutions in various genes, with radical effects on the physicochemical properties of the protein products. The evolutionary time estimates revealed a divergence between domestic and wild Bactrian camels around 1.1 [0.58-1.8] million years ago (mya). This has major implications for the conservation and management of the critically endangered wild species, Camelus ferus.

  8. Chironomus riparius (Diptera) genome sequencing reveals the impact of minisatellite transposable elements on population divergence.

    PubMed

    Oppold, Ann-Marie; Schmidt, Hanno; Rose, Marcel; Hellmann, Sören Lukas; Dolze, Florian; Ripp, Fabian; Weich, Bettina; Schmidt-Ott, Urs; Schmidt, Erwin; Kofler, Robert; Hankeln, Thomas; Pfenninger, Markus

    2017-03-18

    Active transposable elements (TEs) may result in divergent genomic insertion and abundance patterns among conspecific populations. Upon secondary contact, such divergent genetic backgrounds can theoretically give rise to classical Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI), thus contributing to the evolution of endogenous genetic barriers and eventually cause population divergence. We investigated differential TE abundance among conspecific populations of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and evaluated their potential role in causing endogenous genetic incompatibilities between these populations. We focussed on a Chironomus-specific TE, the minisatellite-like Cla-element, whose activity is associated with speciation in the genus. Using a newly generated and annotated draft genome for a genomic study with five natural C. riparius populations, we found highly population-specific TE insertion patterns with many private insertions. A significant correlation of the pairwise FST estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the FST estimated from TEs, is consistent with drift as the major force driving TE population differentiation. However, the significantly higher Cla-element FST level due to a high proportion of differentially fixed Cla-element insertions also indicates selection against segregating (i.e. heterozygous) insertions. With reciprocal crossing experiments and fluorescent in-situ hybridisation of Cla-elements to polytene chromosomes, we documented phenotypic effects on female fertility and chromosomal mispairings. We propose that the inferred negative selection on heterozygous Cla-element insertions may cause endogenous genetic barriers and therefore acts as DMI among C. riparius populations. The intrinsic genomic turnover exerted by TEs may thus have a direct impact on population divergence that is operationally different from drift and local adaptation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of morphological and genetic analyses reveals cryptic divergence and morphological plasticity in Stylophora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, F.; Yang, S.-Y.; Pichon, M.; Galli, P.; Chen, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A combined morphological and genetic study of the coral genus Stylophora investigated species boundaries in the Gulf of Aden, Yemen. Two mitochondrial regions, including the hypervariable IGS9 spacer and the control region, and a fragment of rDNA were used for phylogenetic analysis. Results were compared by multivariate analysis on the basis of branch morphology and corallite morphometry. Two species were clearly discriminated by both approaches. The first species was characterised by small corallites and a low morphological variability and was ascribed to a new geographical record of Stylophora madagascarensis on the basis of its phylogenetic distinction and its morphological similarity to the type material. The second species was characterised by larger corallite size and greater morphological variability and was ascribed to Stylophora pistillata. The analysis was extended to the intrageneric level for other S. pistillata populations from the Red Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Strong internal divergence was evident in the genus Sty lophora. S. pistillata populations were split into two highly divergent Red Sea/Gulf of Aden and western Pacific lineages with significant morphological overlap, which suggests they represent two distinct cryptic species. The combined use of morphological and molecular approaches, so far proved to be a powerful tool for the re-delineation of species boundaries in corals, provided novel evidence of cryptic divergence in this group of marine metazoans.

  10. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    PubMed

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.

  11. Functional Redundancy and Divergence within the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED Gene Family1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Esteve-Bruna, David; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Caldana, Camila; Hannah, Matthew A.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibit leaf reticulation, having green veins that stand out against paler interveinal tissues, fewer cells in the interveinal mesophyll, and normal perivascular bundle sheath cells. Here, to examine the basis of leaf reticulation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED (RER) gene family, several members of which cause leaf reticulation when mutated. Although transcripts of RE, RER1, and RER3 were mainly detected in the bundle sheath cells of expanded leaves, functional RER3:GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN was visualized in the chloroplast membranes of all photosynthetic cells. Leaf reticulation in the re and rer3 loss-of-function mutants occurred, along with accumulation of reactive oxygen species, in a photoperiod-dependent manner. A comparison of re and rer3 leaf messenger RNA expression profiles showed more than 200 genes were similarly misexpressed in both mutants. In addition, metabolic profiles of mature leaves revealed that several biosynthetic pathways downstream of pyruvate are altered in re and rer3. Double mutant analysis showed that only re rer1 and rer5 rer6 exhibited synergistic phenotypes, indicating functional redundancy. The redundancy between RE and its closest paralog, RER1, was confirmed by overexpressing RER1 in re mutants, which partially suppressed leaf reticulation. Our results show that RER family members can be divided into four functional modules with divergent functions. Moreover, these results provide insights into the origin of the reticulated phenotype, suggesting that the RER proteins functionally interconnect photoperiodic growth, amino acid homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism during Arabidopsis leaf growth. PMID:23596191

  12. Allozyme Variation of Populations of Castanopsis carlesii (Fagaceae) Revealing the Diversity Centres and Areas of the Greatest Divergence in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, YU-PIN; HWANG, SHIH-YING; CHIOU, WEN-LIANG; LIN, TSAN-PIAO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The genetic variation and divergence estimated by allozyme analysis were used to reveal the evolutionary history of Castanopsis carlesii in Taiwan. Two major questions were discussed concerning evolutionary issues: where are the diversity centres, and where are the most genetically divergent sites in Taiwan? • Methods Twenty-two populations of C. carlesii were sampled throughout Taiwan. Starch gel electrophoresis was used to assay allozyme variation. Genetic parameters and mean FST values of each population were analysed using the BIOSYS-2 program. Mean FST values of each population against the remaining populations, considered as genetic divergence, were estimated using the FSTAT program. • Key Results Average values of genetic parameters describing the within-population variation, the average number of alleles per locus (A = 2·5), the effective number of alleles per locus (Ae = 1·38), the allelic richness (Ar = 2·38), the percentage of polymorphic loci (P = 69 %), and the expected heterozygosity (He = 0·270) were estimated. High levels of genetic diversity were found for C. carlesii compared with other local plant species. Genetic differentiation between populations was generally low. • Conclusions From the data of expected heterozygosity, one major diversity centre was situated in central Taiwan corroborating previous reports for other plant species. According to the mean FST value of each population, the most divergent populations were situated in two places. One includes populations located in north central Taiwan between 24·80°N and 24·20°N. The other is located in south-eastern Taiwan between 22·40°N and 23·10°N. These two regions are approximately convergent with the most divergent locations determined for several other plant species using chloroplast DNA markers published previously. An important finding obtained from this study is that unordered markers like allozymes can be used to infer past population

  13. Coevolution Pattern and Functional Conservation or Divergence of miR167s and their targets across Diverse Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Suvakanta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sarkar Das, Shabari; Yadav, Sandeep; Gautam, Vibhav; Singh, Archita; Singh, Sharmila; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenously produced small non-coding RNAs of 20–21 nt length, processed from precursor miRNAs, regulate many developmental processes by negatively regulating the target genes in both animals and plants. The coevolutionary pattern of a miRNA family and their targets underscores its functional conservation or diversification. The miR167 regulates various aspects of plant development in Arabidopsis by targeting ARF6 and ARF8. The evolutionary conservation or divergence of miR167s and their target genes are poorly understood till now. Here we show the evolutionary relationship among 153 MIR167 genes obtained from 33 diverse plant species. We found that out of the 153 of miR167 sequences retrieved from the “miRBase”, 27 have been annotated to be processed from the 3′ end, and have diverged distinctively from the other miR167s produced from 5′ end. Our analysis reveals that gma-miR167h/i and mdm-miR167a are processed from 3′ end and have evolved separately, diverged most resulting in novel targets other than their known ones, and thus led to functional diversification, especially in apple and soybean. We also show that mostly conserved miR167 sequences and their target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) have gone through parallel evolution leading to functional diversification among diverse plant species. PMID:26459056

  14. Coevolution Pattern and Functional Conservation or Divergence of miR167s and their targets across Diverse Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Barik, Suvakanta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sarkar Das, Shabari; Yadav, Sandeep; Gautam, Vibhav; Singh, Archita; Singh, Sharmila; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2015-10-13

    microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenously produced small non-coding RNAs of 20-21 nt length, processed from precursor miRNAs, regulate many developmental processes by negatively regulating the target genes in both animals and plants. The coevolutionary pattern of a miRNA family and their targets underscores its functional conservation or diversification. The miR167 regulates various aspects of plant development in Arabidopsis by targeting ARF6 and ARF8. The evolutionary conservation or divergence of miR167s and their target genes are poorly understood till now. Here we show the evolutionary relationship among 153 MIR167 genes obtained from 33 diverse plant species. We found that out of the 153 of miR167 sequences retrieved from the "miRBase", 27 have been annotated to be processed from the 3' end, and have diverged distinctively from the other miR167s produced from 5' end. Our analysis reveals that gma-miR167h/i and mdm-miR167a are processed from 3' end and have evolved separately, diverged most resulting in novel targets other than their known ones, and thus led to functional diversification, especially in apple and soybean. We also show that mostly conserved miR167 sequences and their target AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) have gone through parallel evolution leading to functional diversification among diverse plant species.

  15. Adaptive phylogeography: functional divergence between haemoglobins derived from different glacial refugia in the bank vole

    PubMed Central

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Vojtek, Libor; Stratil, Antonín; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Hyršl, Pavel; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, researchers have used presumptively neutral molecular variation to infer the origins of current species' distributions in northern latitudes (especially Europe). However, several reported examples of genic and chromosomal replacements suggest that end-glacial colonizations of particular northern areas may have involved genetic input from different source populations at different times, coupled with competition and selection. We investigate the functional consequences of differences between two bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) haemoglobins deriving from different glacial refugia, one of which partially replaced the other in Britain during end-glacial climate warming. This allows us to examine their adaptive divergence and hence a possible role of selection in the replacement. We determine the amino acid substitution Ser52Cys in the major expressed β-globin gene as the allelic difference. We use structural modelling to reveal that the protein environment renders the 52Cys thiol a highly reactive functional group and we show its reactivity in vitro. We demonstrate that possessing the reactive thiol in haemoglobin increases the resistance of bank vole erythrocytes to oxidative stress. Our study thus provides striking evidence for physiological differences between products of genic variants that spread at the expense of one another during colonization of an area from different glacial refugia. PMID:24827438

  16. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cryptochrome genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Jia; Qu, Chunxiang; Wang, Lin; Huang, Guodong; Niu, Pengfei; Zhong, Zhaomin; Hong, Fashui; Wang, Guanghui; Postlethwait, John H.; Wang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Cryptochromes function in animal circadian regulation. Zebrafish are known to have six cryptochrome (cry) genes but their evolutionary relationships are not yet fully resolved. Here, comparative genomic analyses revealed that a local duplication of ancestral chordate Cry occurred likely before the first round of vertebrate genome duplication (VGD); following two successive rounds of VGD and subsequent gene losses, coelacanths retained cry1a, cry1b, cry2 and cry3; and following the third-round teleost genome duplication (TGD) and subsequent gene losses, zebrafish retained six cry genes, renamed as cry1aa (zcry1a in the old nomenclature), cry1ab (zcry1b), cry1ba (zcry2a), cry1bb (zcry2b), cry2 (zcry3) and cry3 (zcry4). Molecular evolutionary analyses suggested that zebrafish cry genes have evolved divergent functions, which is further supported by their distinct and rhythmic expression patterns as shown by both in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Systematic cell transfection assays divided six Cry proteins into repressive Cry1aa, Cry1ab, Cry1ba and Cry1bb, and non-repressive Cry2 and Cry3. Cry2 is non-repressive because it lacks an effective protein-protein interaction domain although it does possess a nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif, whilst Cry3 lacks both an NLS motif and a protein-protein interaction domain. These findings provide a better understanding of evolution of zebrafish cry genes. PMID:25630924

  17. Common functional targets of adaptive micro- and macro-evolutionary divergence in killifish.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Zhang, Shujun; Roach, Jennifer L; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-07-01

    Environmental salinity presents a key barrier to dispersal for most aquatic organisms, and adaptation to alternate osmotic environments likely enables species diversification. Little is known of the functional basis for derived tolerance to environmental salinity. We integrate comparative physiology and functional genomics to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of evolved variation in osmotic plasticity within and among two species of killifish; Fundulus majalis harbours the ancestral mainly salt-tolerant phenotype, whereas Fundulus heteroclitus harbours a derived physiology that retains extreme salt tolerance but with expanded osmotic plasticity towards the freshwater end of the osmotic continuum. Common-garden comparative hypo-osmotic challenge experiments show that F. heteroclitus is capable of remodelling gill epithelia more quickly and at more extreme osmotic challenge than F. majalis. We detect an unusual pattern of baseline transcriptome divergence, where neutral evolutionary processes appear to govern expression divergence within species, but patterns of divergence for these genes between species do not follow neutral expectations. During acclimation, genome expression profiling identifies mechanisms of acclimation-associated response that are conserved within the genus including regulation of paracellular permeability. In contrast, several responses vary among species including those putatively associated with cell volume regulation, and these same mechanisms are targets for adaptive physiological divergence along osmotic gradients within F. heteroclitus. As such, the genomic and physiological mechanisms that are associated with adaptive fine-tuning within species also contribute to macro-evolutionary divergence as species diversify across osmotic niches.

  18. Conservation patterns in different functional sequence categoriesof divergent Drosophila species

    SciTech Connect

    Papatsenko, Dmitri; Kislyuk, Andrey; Levine, Michael; Dubchak, Inna

    2005-10-01

    We have explored the distributions of fully conservedungapped blocks in genome-wide pairwise alignments of recently completedspecies of Drosophila: D.yakuba, D.ananassae, D.pseudoobscura, D.virilisand D.mojavensis. Based on these distributions we have found that nearlyevery functional sequence category possesses its own distinctiveconservation pattern, sometimes independent of the overall sequenceconservation level. In the coding and regulatory regions, the ungappedblocks were longer than in introns, UTRs and non-functional sequences. Atthe same time, the blocks in the coding regions carried 3N+2 signaturecharacteristic to synonymic substitutions in the 3rd codon positions.Larger block sizes in transcription regulatory regions can be explainedby the presence of conserved arrays of binding sites for transcriptionfactors. We also have shown that the longest ungapped blocks, or'ultraconserved' sequences, are associated with specific gene groups,including those encoding ion channels and components of the cytoskeleton.We discussed how restrained conservation patterns may help in mappingfunctional sequence categories and improving genomeannotation.

  19. Functional and Phylogenetic Divergence of Fungal Adenylate-Forming Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Daniel; Lackner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    A key step in fungal l-lysine biosynthesis is catalyzed by adenylate-forming l-α-aminoadipic acid reductases, organized in domains for adenylation, thiolation, and the reduction step. However, the genomes of numerous ascomycetes and basidiomycetes contain an unexpectedly large number of additional genes encoding similar but functionally distinct enzymes. Here, we describe the functional in vitro characterization of four reductases which were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli. The Ceriporiopsis subvermispora serine reductase Nps1 features a terminal ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) domain and thus belongs to a hitherto undescribed class of fungal multidomain enzymes. The second major class is characterized by the canonical terminal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain and represented by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora Nps3 as the first biochemically characterized l-α-aminoadipic acid reductase of basidiomycete origin. Aspergillus flavus l-tyrosine reductases LnaA and LnbA are members of a distinct phylogenetic clade. Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that fungal adenylate-forming reductases are more diverse than previously recognized and belong to four distinct classes. PMID:25085485

  20. Functional Conservation and Divergence of daf-22 Paralogs in Pristionchus pacificus Dauer Development.

    PubMed

    Markov, Gabriel V; Meyer, Jan M; Panda, Oishika; Artyukhin, Alexander B; Claaßen, Marc; Witte, Hanh; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-10-01

    Small-molecule signaling in nematode dauer formation has emerged as a major model to study chemical communication in development and evolution. Developmental arrest as nonfeeding and stress-resistant dauer larvae represents the major survival and dispersal strategy. Detailed studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus revealed that small-molecule communication changes rapidly in evolution resulting in extreme structural diversity of small-molecule compounds. In C. elegans, a blend of ascarosides constitutes the dauer pheromone, whereas the P. pacificus dauer pheromone includes additional paratosides and integrates building blocks from diverse primary metabolic pathways. Despite this complexity of small-molecule structures and functions, little is known about the biosynthesis of small molecules in nematodes outside C. elegans Here, we show that the genes encoding enzymes of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway involved in small-molecule biosynthesis evolve rapidly, including gene duplications and domain switching. The thiolase daf-22, the most downstream factor in C. elegans peroxisomal β-oxidation, has duplicated in P. pacificus, resulting in Ppa-daf-22.1, which still contains the sterol-carrier-protein (SCP) domain that was lost in C. elegans daf-22, and Ppa-daf-22.2. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we induced mutations in both P. pacificus daf-22 genes and identified an unexpected complexity of functional conservation and divergence. Under well-fed conditions, ascaroside biosynthesis proceeds exclusively via Ppa-daf-22.1 In contrast, starvation conditions induce Ppa-daf-22.2 activity, resulting in the production of a specific subset of ascarosides. Gene expression studies indicate a reciprocal up-regulation of both Ppa-daf-22 genes, which is, however, independent of starvation. Thus, our study reveals an unexpected functional complexity of dauer development and evolution.

  1. Imbalanced positive selection maintains the functional divergence of duplicated DIHYDROKAEMPFEROL 4-REDUCTASE genes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Chen, Yi-Wen; Huang, Chia-Lung; Gao, Jian; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication could be beneficial by functional division but might increase the risk of genetic load. The dynamics of duplicated paralogs number could involve recombination, positive selection, and functional divergence. Duplication of DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE (DFR) has been reported in several organisms and may have been retained by escape from adaptive conflict (EAC). In this study, we screened the angiosperm DFR gene focusing on a diversified genus Scutellaria to investigate how these duplicated genes are retained. We deduced that gene duplication involved multiple independent events in angiosperms, but the duplication of DFR was before the divergence of Scutellaria. Asymmetric positive selective pressures resulted in different evolutionary rates between the duplicates. Different numbers of regulatory elements, differential codon usages, radical amino acid changes, and differential gene expressions provide evidences of functional divergence between the two DFR duplicates in Scutellaria, implying adaptive subfunctionalization between duplicates. The discovery of pseudogenes accompanying a reduced replacement rate in one DFR paralogous gene suggested possibly leading to “loss of function” due to dosage imbalance after the transient adaptive subfunctionalization in the early stage of duplication. Notwithstanding, episodic gene duplication and functional divergence may be relevant to the diversification of ecological function of DFR gene in Scutellaria. PMID:27966614

  2. Molecular selection and functional divergence of HIF-α proteins in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangzhe; Wang, Minghui; Tan, Guifang; Wang, Qishan; Zhao, Hongbo; Pan, Yuchun

    2010-12-01

    HIF-α transcription factors, as key master regulators of oxygen homeostasis, constitute a subgroup of the large bHLH-PAS transcription factor family and have been identified in many vertebrates. Although the amino acid sequences of bHLH-PAS domain are conserved, the physiological and pathological roles of this family are variable. They also have different patterns of expression. It is possible that the HIF-α copies have been retained as a consequence of adaptive amino acid replacements or relaxed selective constraint which have conferred subtle changes in function after duplications. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that at least two major duplications had occurred early in the vertebrate lineages. Analyses of the ratios of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates revealed that relaxation of selective constraints might play important roles over evolutionary time and shape variation in some members of the family. The coefficients of functional divergence (θ) estimated between pairwise comparisons of gene groups from HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and HIF-3α indicated statistically significant site-specific shift of evolutionary rates between them, suggesting that altered functional constraints may have taken place at some amino acid residues after their duplications. Moreover, we also mapped sites identified to have been relaxed from purifying selection onto the three-dimensional structure of human HIF-2α. Overall, our study demonstrated that the functional diversity of HIF-αs members may be caused by relaxed negative selection on the N-terminal transactivation domains after HIF-αs duplications, which recruited new partners leading to functional specificity.

  3. Local phylogenetic divergence and global evolutionary convergence of skull function in reef fishes of the family Labridae.

    PubMed

    Westneat, Mark W; Alfaro, Michael E; Wainwright, Peter C; Bellwood, David R; Grubich, Justin R; Fessler, Jennifer L; Clements, Kendall D; Smith, Lydia L

    2005-05-22

    The Labridae is one of the most structurally and functionally diversified fish families on coral and rocky reefs around the world, providing a compelling system for examination of evolutionary patterns of functional change. Labrid fishes have evolved a diverse array of skull forms for feeding on prey ranging from molluscs, crustaceans, plankton, detritus, algae, coral and other fishes. The species richness and diversity of feeding ecology in the Labridae make this group a marine analogue to the cichlid fishes. Despite the importance of labrids to coastal reef ecology, we lack evolutionary analysis of feeding biomechanics among labrids. Here, we combine a molecular phylogeny of the Labridae with the biomechanics of skull function to reveal a broad pattern of repeated convergence in labrid feeding systems. Mechanically fast jaw systems have evolved independently at least 14 times from ancestors with forceful jaws. A repeated phylogenetic pattern of functional divergence in local regions of the labrid tree produces an emergent family-wide pattern of global convergence in jaw function. Divergence of close relatives, convergence among higher clades and several unusual 'breakthroughs' in skull function characterize the evolution of functional complexity in one of the most diverse groups of reef fishes.

  4. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning.

    PubMed

    Rudall, Paula J; Knowles, Emma V W

    2013-10-01

    Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, 'squared' pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional 'giant' stomata. Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2012-03-01

    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  6. High-dimensional variance partitioning reveals the modular genetic basis of adaptive divergence in gene expression during reproductive character displacement.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Elizabeth A; Ye, Yixin H; Foley, Brad; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Higgie, Megan; Hine, Emma; Blows, Mark W

    2011-11-01

    Although adaptive change is usually associated with complex changes in phenotype, few genetic investigations have been conducted on adaptations that involve sets of high-dimensional traits. Microarrays have supplied high-dimensional descriptions of gene expression, and phenotypic change resulting from adaptation often results in large-scale changes in gene expression. We demonstrate how genetic analysis of large-scale changes in gene expression generated during adaptation can be accomplished by determining high-dimensional variance partitioning within classical genetic experimental designs. A microarray experiment conducted on a panel of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) generated from two populations of Drosophila serrata that have diverged in response to natural selection, revealed genetic divergence in 10.6% of 3762 gene products examined. Over 97% of the genetic divergence in transcript abundance was explained by only 12 genetic modules. The two most important modules, explaining 50% of the genetic variance in transcript abundance, were genetically correlated with the morphological traits that are known to be under selection. The expression of three candidate genes from these two important genetic modules was assessed in an independent experiment using qRT-PCR on 430 individuals from the panel of RILs, and confirmed the genetic association between transcript abundance and morphological traits under selection.

  7. Acid stress mediated adaptive divergence in ion channel function during embryogenesis in Rana arvalis

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Longfei; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels and pumps are responsible for ion flux in cells, and are key mechanisms mediating cellular function. Many environmental stressors, such as salinity and acidification, are known to severely disrupt ionic balance of organisms thereby challenging fitness of natural populations. Although ion channels can have several vital functions during early life-stages (e.g. embryogenesis), it is currently not known i) how developing embryos maintain proper intracellular conditions when exposed to environmental stress and ii) to what extent environmental stress can drive intra-specific divergence in ion channels. Here we studied the moor frog, Rana arvalis, from three divergent populations to investigate the role of different ion channels and pumps for embryonic survival under acid stress (pH 4 vs 7.5) and whether populations adapted to contrasting acidities differ in the relative role of different ion channel/pumps. We found that ion channels that mediate Ca2+ influx are essential for embryonic survival under acidic pH, and, intriguingly, that populations differ in calcium channel function. Our results suggest that adaptive divergence in embryonic acid stress tolerance of amphibians may in part be mediated by Ca2+ balance. We suggest that ion flux may mediate adaptive divergence of natural populations at early life-stages in the face of environmental stress. PMID:26381453

  8. Molecular phylogeny, long-term evolution, and functional divergence of flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da Cheng; Chen, Shi Lin; Mu, Jun; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2009-11-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) metabolize xenobiotic compounds, many of which are clinically important, as well as endogenous substrates as part of a discrete physiological process. The FMO gene family is conserved and ancient with representatives present in all phyla so far examined. However, there is a lack of information regarding the long-term evolution and functional divergence of these proteins. This study represents the first attempt to characterize the long-term evolution followed by the members of this family. Our analysis shows that there is extensive silent divergence at the nucleotide level suggesting that this family has been subject to strong purifying selection at the protein level. Invertebrate FMOs have a polyphyletic origin. The functional divergence of FMOs 1-5 started before the split between amphibians and mammals. The vertebrate FMO5 is more ancestral than other four FMOs. Moreover, the existence of higher levels of codon bias was detected at the N-terminal ends, which can be ascribed to the critical role played by the FAD binding motif in this region. Finally, critical amino acid residues for FMO functional divergence (type I & II) after gene duplication were detected and characterized.

  9. DNA barcoding reveals species level divergence between populations of the microhylid frog genus Arcovomer (Anura: Microhylidae) in the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jennings, W Bryan; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos; Salles, Rodrigo de O L; Buckup, Paulo A

    2016-09-01

    The microhylid frogs belonging to the genus Arcovomer have been reported from lowland Atlantic Rainforest in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Here, we use DNA barcoding to assess levels of genetic divergence between apparently isolated populations in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Our mtDNA data consisting of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences reveals 13.2% uncorrected and 30.4% TIM2 + I + Γ corrected genetic divergences between these two populations. This level of divergence exceeds the suggested 10% uncorrected divergence threshold for elevating amphibian populations to candidate species using this marker, which implies that the Espírito Santo population is a species distinct from Arcovomer passarellii. Calibration of our model-corrected sequence divergence estimates suggests that the time of population divergence falls between 12 and 29 million years ago.

  10. Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors. PMID:25319996

  11. In Silico Characterization of Functional Divergence of Two Cathelicidin Variants in Indian Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Kamaljeet K; Arora, Jaspreet S; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra S; Dubey, Prem P

    2015-01-01

    The present work focuses on the in silico characterization of functional divergence of two ovine cathelicidin coding sequence (cds) variants (ie, Cath1 and Cath2) of Indian sheep. Overlapping partial cds of both the cathelicidin variants were cloned in pJet1.2/blunt vector and sequenced. Evolutionary analysis of the Cath2 and Cath1 indicated that the mammalian cathelicidins clustered separately from avian fowlicidins. The avian fowlicidins, which are very different from mammalian cathelicidins (Caths), clearly displayed signatures of purifying selection. The pairwise sequence alignments of translated amino acid sequences of these two sheep cathelicidins showed gaps in the antimicrobial domain of Cath1 variant; however, the amino terminal cathelin regions of both the Caths were conserved. Amino acid sequence analysis of full-length cathelicidins available at public database revealed that Cath1, Cath2, and Cath7 of different ruminant species (including our Cath1 and Cath2 variants) formed individual clads, suggesting that these types have evolved to target specific types of microbes. In silico analysis of Cath1 and Cath2 peptide sequences indicated that the C-terminal antimicrobial peptide domain of Cath2 is more immunogenic than that of the ovine Cath1 due to its higher positive antigenic index, making Cath1 a promising antigen for production of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26380546

  12. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Soluble Starch Synthase Genes in Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Shuhui; Xu, Chenwu; Yan, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    Soluble starch synthases (SSs) are major enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics, which should be influenced by the evolution of SS genes in this starchy root crop. In this work, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of the soluble starch synthases in cassava. Genome-wide identification showed that there are 9 genes encoding soluble starch synthases in cassava. All of the soluble starch synthases encoded by these genes contain both Glyco_transf_5 and Glycos_transf_1 domains, and a correlation analysis showed evidence of coevolution between these 2 domains in cassava SS genes. The SS genes in land plants can be divided into 6 subfamilies that were formed before the origin of seed plants, and species-specific expansion has contributed to the evolution of this family in cassava. A functional divergence analysis for this family provided statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rates between the subfamilies of land plant soluble starch synthases. Although the main selective pressure acting on land plant SS genes was purifying selection, our results also revealed that point mutation with positive selection contributed to the evolution of 2 SS genes in cassava. The remarkable cassava starch characteristics might be the result of both the duplication and adaptive selection of SS genes. PMID:23888108

  13. Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A; Blobel, Gerd A; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A; Hardison, Ross C; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors.

  14. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains. PMID:27548157

  15. Comparative Genomics of the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Reveals Intraspecific Divergence and Niche Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Feng, Xue; Tao, Jiemeng; Ma, Liyuan; Xiao, Yunhua; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-08-19

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans known for its ubiquity in diverse acidic and sulfur-bearing environments worldwide was used as the research subject in this study. To explore the genomic fluidity and intraspecific diversity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans) species, comparative genomics based on nine draft genomes was performed. Phylogenomic scrutiny provided first insights into the multiple groupings of these strains, suggesting that genetic diversity might be potentially correlated with their geographic distribution as well as geochemical conditions. While these strains shared a large number of common genes, they displayed differences in gene content. Functional assignment indicated that the core genome was essential for microbial basic activities such as energy acquisition and uptake of nutrients, whereas the accessory genome was thought to be involved in niche adaptation. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted central metabolism revealed that few differences were observed among these strains. Further analyses showed evidences of relevance between environmental conditions and genomic diversification. Furthermore, a diverse pool of mobile genetic elements including insertion sequences and genomic islands in all A. thiooxidans strains probably demonstrated the frequent genetic flow (such as lateral gene transfer) in the extremely acidic environments. From another perspective, these elements might endow A. thiooxidans species with capacities to withstand the chemical constraints of their natural habitats. Taken together, our findings bring some valuable data to better understand the genomic diversity and econiche adaptation within A. thiooxidans strains.

  16. Nascent RNA sequencing reveals widespread pausing and divergent initiation at human promoters.

    PubMed

    Core, Leighton J; Waterfall, Joshua J; Lis, John T

    2008-12-19

    RNA polymerases are highly regulated molecular machines. We present a method (global run-on sequencing, GRO-seq) that maps the position, amount, and orientation of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases genome-wide. In this method, nuclear run-on RNA molecules are subjected to large-scale parallel sequencing and mapped to the genome. We show that peaks of promoter-proximal polymerase reside on approximately 30% of human genes, transcription extends beyond pre-messenger RNA 3' cleavage, and antisense transcription is prevalent. Additionally, most promoters have an engaged polymerase upstream and in an orientation opposite to the annotated gene. This divergent polymerase is associated with active genes but does not elongate effectively beyond the promoter. These results imply that the interplay between polymerases and regulators over broad promoter regions dictates the orientation and efficiency of productive transcription.

  17. Microdiffraction: X-rays as a probe to reveal flux divergences ininterconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Most reliability issues in interconnect systems occur at a local scale and many of them include the local build-up of stresses. Typical failure mechanisms are electromigration and stress voiding in interconnect lines and fatigue in surface acoustic wave devices. Thus a local probe is required for the investigation of these phenomena. In this paper the application of the Laue microdiffraction technique to investigate flux divergences in interconnect systems will be described. The deviatoric strain tensor of single grains can be correlated with the local microstructure, orientation and defect density. Especially the latter led to recent results about the correlation of stress build-up and orientation in Cu lines and electromigration-induced grain rotation in Cu and Al lines.

  18. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning

    PubMed Central

    Rudall, Paula J.; Knowles, Emma V. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. Methods We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Key Results Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, ‘squared’ pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional ‘giant’ stomata. Conclusions Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways. PMID:23969762

  19. Recurrent tandem gene duplication gave rise to functionally divergent genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuanzhu; Chen, Ying; Long, Manyuan

    2008-07-01

    Tandem gene duplication is one of the major gene duplication mechanisms in eukaryotes, as illustrated by the prevalence of gene family clusters. Tandem duplicated paralogs usually share the same regulatory element, and as a consequence, they are likely to perform similar biological functions. Here, we provide an example of a newly evolved tandem duplicate acquiring novel functions, which were driven by positive selection. CG32708, CG32706, and CG6999 are 3 clustered genes residing in the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. CG6999 and CG32708 have been examined for their molecular population genetic properties (Thornton and Long 2005). We further investigated the evolutionary forces acting on these genes with greater sample sizes and a broader approach that incorporate between-species divergence, using more variety of statistical methods. We explored the possible functional implications by characterizing the tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns of these genes. Sequence comparison of species within D. melanogaster subgroup reveals that this 3-gene cluster was created by 2 rounds of tandem gene duplication in the last 5 Myr. Based on phylogenetic analysis, CG32708 is clearly the parental copy that is shared by all species. CG32706 appears to have originated in the ancestor of Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster about 5 Mya, and CG6999 is the newest duplicate that is unique to D. melanogaster. All 3 genes have different expression profiles, and CG6999 has in addition acquired a novel transcript. Biased polymorphism frequency spectrum, linkage disequilibrium, nucleotide substitution, and McDonald-Kreitman analyses suggested that the evolution of CG6999 and CG32706 were driven by positive Darwinian selection.

  20. Inferring functional constraints and divergence in protein families using 3D mapping of phylogenetic information

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Christian; Boucher, Yan; Roger, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis has been used to study specific questions about the structure and function of proteins for many years. Here we propose a knowledge-based framework in which the maximum likelihood rate of evolution is used to quantify the level of constraint on the identity of a site. We demonstrate that site-rate mapping on 3D structures using datasets of rhodopsin-like G-protein receptors and α- and β-tubulins provides an excellent tool for pinpointing the functional features shared between orthologous and paralogous proteins. In addition, functional divergence within protein families can be inferred by examining the differences in the site rates, the differences in the chemical properties of the side chains or amino acid usage between aligned sites. Two novel analytical methods are introduced to characterize rate- independent functional divergence. These are tested using a dataset of two classes of HMG-CoA reductases for which only one class can perform both the forward and reverse reaction. We show that functionally divergent sites occur in a cluster of sites interacting with the catalytic residues and that this information should facilitate the design of experimental strategies to directly test functional properties of residues. PMID:12527789

  1. Inferring functional constraints and divergence in protein families using 3D mapping of phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Christian; Boucher, Yan; Roger, Andrew J

    2003-01-15

    Comparative sequence analysis has been used to study specific questions about the structure and function of proteins for many years. Here we propose a knowledge-based framework in which the maximum likelihood rate of evolution is used to quantify the level of constraint on the identity of a site. We demonstrate that site-rate mapping on 3D structures using datasets of rhodopsin-like G-protein receptors and alpha- and beta-tubulins provides an excellent tool for pinpointing the functional features shared between orthologous and paralogous proteins. In addition, functional divergence within protein families can be inferred by examining the differences in the site rates, the differences in the chemical properties of the side chains or amino acid usage between aligned sites. Two novel analytical methods are introduced to characterize rate- independent functional divergence. These are tested using a dataset of two classes of HMG-CoA reductases for which only one class can perform both the forward and reverse reaction. We show that functionally divergent sites occur in a cluster of sites interacting with the catalytic residues and that this information should facilitate the design of experimental strategies to directly test functional properties of residues.

  2. Predicting functional and regulatory divergence of a drug resistance transporter gene in the human malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Siwo, Geoffrey H; Tan, Asako; Button-Simons, Katrina A; Samarakoon, Upeka; Checkley, Lisa A; Pinapati, Richard S; Ferdig, Michael T

    2015-02-22

    The paradigm of resistance evolution to chemotherapeutic agents is that a key coding mutation in a specific gene drives resistance to a particular drug. In the case of resistance to the anti-malarial drug chloroquine (CQ), a specific mutation in the transporter pfcrt is associated with resistance. Here, we apply a series of analytical steps to gene expression data from our lab and leverage 3 independent datasets to identify pfcrt-interacting genes. Resulting networks provide insights into pfcrt's biological functions and regulation, as well as the divergent phenotypic effects of its allelic variants in different genetic backgrounds. To identify pfcrt-interacting genes, we analyze pfcrt co-expression networks in 2 phenotypic states - CQ-resistant (CQR) and CQ-sensitive (CQS) recombinant progeny clones - using a computational approach that prioritizes gene interactions into functional and regulatory relationships. For both phenotypic states, pfcrt co-expressed gene sets are associated with hemoglobin metabolism, consistent with CQ's expected mode of action. To predict the drivers of co-expression divergence, we integrate topological relationships in the co-expression networks with available high confidence protein-protein interaction data. This analysis identifies 3 transcriptional regulators from the ApiAP2 family and histone acetylation as potential mediators of these divergences. We validate the predicted divergences in DNA mismatch repair and histone acetylation by measuring the effects of small molecule inhibitors in recombinant progeny clones combined with quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This work demonstrates the utility of differential co-expression viewed in a network framework to uncover functional and regulatory divergence in phenotypically distinct parasites. pfcrt-associated co-expression in the CQ resistant progeny highlights CQR-specific gene relationships and possible targeted intervention strategies. The approaches outlined here can be

  3. A profile-based method for identifying functional divergence of orthologous genes in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Nicole E; Barquist, Lars; Kingsley, Robert A; Gardner, Paul P

    2016-12-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided us with a wealth of information on genetic variation, but predicting the functional significance of this variation is a difficult task. While many comparative genomics studies have focused on gene flux and large scale changes, relatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels on protein function, particularly in bacterial genomics. We present a hidden Markov model based approach we call delta-bitscore (DBS) for identifying orthologous proteins that have diverged at the amino acid sequence level in a way that is likely to impact biological function. We benchmark this approach with several widely used datasets and apply it to a proof-of-concept study of orthologous proteomes in an investigation of host adaptation in Salmonella enterica We highlight the value of the method in identifying functional divergence of genes, and suggest that this tool may be a better approach than the commonly used dN/dS metric for identifying functionally significant genetic changes occurring in recently diverged organisms. A program implementing DBS for pairwise genome comparisons is freely available at: https://github.com/UCanCompBio/deltaBS CONTACT: nicole.wheeler@pg.canterbury.ac.nz or lars.barquist@uni-wuerzburg.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. A profile-based method for identifying functional divergence of orthologous genes in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Nicole E.; Barquist, Lars; Kingsley, Robert A.; Gardner, Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Next generation sequencing technologies have provided us with a wealth of information on genetic variation, but predicting the functional significance of this variation is a difficult task. While many comparative genomics studies have focused on gene flux and large scale changes, relatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels on protein function, particularly in bacterial genomics. Results: We present a hidden Markov model based approach we call delta-bitscore (DBS) for identifying orthologous proteins that have diverged at the amino acid sequence level in a way that is likely to impact biological function. We benchmark this approach with several widely used datasets and apply it to a proof-of-concept study of orthologous proteomes in an investigation of host adaptation in Salmonella enterica. We highlight the value of the method in identifying functional divergence of genes, and suggest that this tool may be a better approach than the commonly used dN/dS metric for identifying functionally significant genetic changes occurring in recently diverged organisms. Availability and Implementation: A program implementing DBS for pairwise genome comparisons is freely available at: https://github.com/UCanCompBio/deltaBS. Contact: nicole.wheeler@pg.canterbury.ac.nz or lars.barquist@uni-wuerzburg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27503221

  5. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in old and new worlds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew–Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Louis; Wing, Rod; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Planted on only 5% of the total vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil, and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8 gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators1, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the S. American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n=32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis2, but appears to have diverged in the new world. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations which restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings3, and thus helps achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

  6. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-08-15

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.

  7. Multiple functionally divergent and conserved copies of alpha tubulin in bdelloid rotifers.

    PubMed

    Eyres, Isobel; Frangedakis, Eftychios; Fontaneto, Diego; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Boschetti, Chiara; Carr, Adrian; Micklem, Gos; Tunnacliffe, Alan; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2012-08-17

    Bdelloid rotifers are microscopic animals that have apparently survived without sex for millions of years and are able to survive desiccation at all life stages through a process called anhydrobiosis. Both of these characteristics are believed to have played a role in shaping several unusual features of bdelloid genomes discovered in recent years. Studies into the impact of asexuality and anhydrobiosis on bdelloid genomes have focused on understanding gene copy number. Here we investigate copy number and sequence divergence in alpha tubulin. Alpha tubulin is conserved and normally present in low copy numbers in animals, but multiplication of alpha tubulin copies has occurred in animals adapted to extreme environments, such as cold-adapted Antarctic fish. Using cloning and sequencing we compared alpha tubulin copy variation in four species of bdelloid rotifers and four species of monogonont rotifers, which are facultatively sexual and cannot survive desiccation as adults. Results were verified using transcriptome data from one bdelloid species, Adineta ricciae. In common with the typical pattern for animals, monogonont rotifers contain either one or two copies of alpha tubulin, but bdelloid species contain between 11 and 13 different copies, distributed across five classes. Approximately half of the copies form a highly conserved group that vary by only 1.1% amino acid pairwise divergence with each other and with the monogonont copies. The other copies have divergent amino acid sequences that evolved significantly faster between classes than within them, relative to synonymous changes, and vary in predicted biochemical properties. Copies of each class were expressed under the laboratory conditions used to construct the transcriptome. Our findings are consistent with recent evidence that bdelloids are degenerate tetraploids and that functional divergence of ancestral copies of genes has occurred, but show how further duplication events in the ancestor of bdelloids

  8. Comparative Genomics of Early-Diverging Brucella Strains Reveals a Novel Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wattam, Alice R.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Williams, Kelly P.; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Shukla, Maulik; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Dickerman, Allan W.; Mason, Steven; Moriyón, Ignacio; O’Callaghan, David; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Sobral, Bruno W.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Frace, Michael A.; De Castro, Cristina; Molinaro, Antonio; Boyle, Stephen M.; De, Barun K.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella species are Gram-negative bacteria that infect mammals. Recently, two unusual strains (Brucella inopinata BO1T and B. inopinata-like BO2) have been isolated from human patients, and their similarity to some atypical brucellae isolated from Australian native rodent species was noted. Here we present a phylogenomic analysis of the draft genome sequences of BO1T and BO2 and of the Australian rodent strains 83-13 and NF2653 that shows that they form two groups well separated from the other sequenced Brucella spp. Several important differences were noted. Both BO1T and BO2 did not agglutinate significantly when live or inactivated cells were exposed to monospecific A and M antisera against O-side chain sugars composed of N-formyl-perosamine. While BO1T maintained the genes required to synthesize a typical Brucella O-antigen, BO2 lacked many of these genes but still produced a smooth LPS (lipopolysaccharide). Most missing genes were found in the wbk region involved in O-antigen synthesis in classic smooth Brucella spp. In their place, BO2 carries four genes that other bacteria use for making a rhamnose-based O-antigen. Electrophoretic, immunoblot, and chemical analyses showed that BO2 carries an antigenically different O-antigen made of repeating hexose-rich oligosaccharide units that made the LPS water-soluble, which contrasts with the homopolymeric O-antigen of other smooth brucellae that have a phenol-soluble LPS. The results demonstrate the existence of a group of early-diverging brucellae with traits that depart significantly from those of the Brucella species described thus far. PMID:22930339

  9. Atlantic salmon populations reveal adaptive divergence of immune related genes - a duplicated genome under selection.

    PubMed

    Kjærner-Semb, Erik; Ayllon, Fernando; Furmanek, Tomasz; Wennevik, Vidar; Dahle, Geir; Niemelä, Eero; Ozerov, Mikhail; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Kevin A; Rubin, Carl J; Wargelius, Anna; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-08-11

    Populations of Atlantic salmon display highly significant genetic differences with unresolved molecular basis. These differences may result from separate postglacial colonization patterns, diversifying natural selection and adaptation, or a combination. Adaptation could be influenced or even facilitated by the recent whole genome duplication in the salmonid lineage which resulted in a partly tetraploid species with duplicated genes and regions. In order to elucidate the genes and genomic regions underlying the genetic differences, we conducted a genome wide association study using whole genome resequencing data from eight populations from Northern and Southern Norway. From a total of ~4.5 million sequencing-derived SNPs, more than 10 % showed significant differentiation between populations from these two regions and ten selective sweeps on chromosomes 5, 10, 11, 13-15, 21, 24 and 25 were identified. These comprised 59 genes, of which 15 had one or more differentiated missense mutation. Our analysis showed that most sweeps have paralogous regions in the partially tetraploid genome, each lacking the high number of significant SNPs found in the sweeps. The most significant sweep was found on Chr 25 and carried several missense mutations in the antiviral mx genes, suggesting that these populations have experienced differing viral pressures. Interestingly the second most significant sweep, found on Chr 5, contains two genes involved in the NF-KB pathway (nkap and nkrf), which is also a known pathogen target that controls a large number of processes in animals. Our results show that natural selection acting on immune related genes has contributed to genetic divergence between salmon populations in Norway. The differences between populations may have been facilitated by the plasticity of the salmon genome. The observed signatures of selection in duplicated genomic regions suggest that the recently duplicated genome has provided raw material for evolutionary adaptation.

  10. Mitogenomics of 'Old World Acraea' butterflies reveals a highly divergent 'Bematistes'.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, M J T N; Lees, D C; Thompson, M J; Sáfián, Sz; Brattström, O

    2016-04-01

    Afrotropical Acraeini butterflies provide a fascinating potential model system to contrast with the Neotropical Heliconiini, yet their phylogeny remains largely unexplored by molecular methods and their generic level nomenclature is still contentious. To test the potential of mitogenomes in a simultaneous analysis of the radiation, we sequenced the full mitochondrial genomes of 19 African species. Analyses show the potential of mitogenomic phylogeny reconstruction in this group. Inferred relationships are largely congruent with a previous multilocus study. We confirm a monophyletic Telchinia to include the Asiatic Pareba with a complicated paraphylum, traditional (sub)genus Acraea, toward the base. The results suggest that several proposed subgenera and some species groups within Telchinia are not monophyletic, while two other (sub)genera could possibly be combined. Telchinia was recovered without strong support as sister to the potentially interesting system of distasteful model butterflies known as Bematistes, a name that is suppressed in some treatments. Surprisingly, we find that this taxon has remarkably divergent mitogenomes and unexpected synapomorphic tRNA rearrangements. These gene order changes, combined with evidence for deviating dN/dS ratios and evidence for episodal diversifying selection, suggest that the ancestral Bematistes mitogenome has had a turbulent past. Our study adds genetic support for treating this clade as a distinct genus, while the alternative option, adopted by some authors, of Acraea being equivalent to Acraeini merely promotes redundancy. We pave the way for more detailed mitogenomic and multi-locus molecular analyses which can determine how many genera are needed (possibly at least six) to divide Acraeini into monophyletic groups that also facilitate communication about their biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Hai-Ling; Li, Yue; Kang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Yang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants. PMID:26684301

  12. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Hai-Ling; Li, Yue; Kang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Yang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants.

  13. Rapid Expansion and Functional Divergence of Subtelomeric Gene Families in Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chris A.; Murray, Andrew W.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Subtelomeres, regions proximal to telomeres, exhibit characteristics unique to eukaryotic genomes. Genes residing in these loci are subject to epigenetic regulation and elevated rates of both meiotic and mitotic recombination. However, most genome sequences do not contain assembled subtelomeric sequences, and, as a result, subtelomeres are often overlooked in comparative genomics. Results We study the evolution and functional divergence of subtelomeric gene families in the yeast lineage. Our computational results show that subtelomeric families are evolving and expanding much faster than families that do not contain subtelomeric genes. Focusing on three related subtelomeric MAL gene families involved in disaccharide metabolism that show typical patterns of rapid expansion and evolution, we show experimentally how frequent duplication events followed by functional divergence yields novel alleles that allow metabolism of different carbohydrates. Conclusions Taken together, our computational and experimental analyses show that the extraordinary instability of eukaryotic subtelomeres supports rapid adaptation to novel niches by promoting gene recombination and duplication followed by functional divergence of the alleles. PMID:20471265

  14. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every cellular process mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. As results from ENCODE show, open chromatin assays can efficiently integrate across diverse regulatory elements, revealing functional non-coding genome. In this study, we use a MNase hypersensitivity assay to discover o...

  15. Acupuncture Induces Divergent Alterations of Functional Connectivity within Conventional Frequency Bands: Evidence from MEG Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    As an ancient Chinese healing modality which has gained increasing popularity in modern society, acupuncture involves stimulation with fine needles inserted into acupoints. Both traditional literature and clinical data indicated that modulation effects largely depend on specific designated acupoints. However, scientific representations of acupoint specificity remain controversial. In the present study, considering the new findings on the sustained effects of acupuncture and its time-varied temporal characteristics, we employed an electrophysiological imaging modality namely magnetoencephalography with a temporal resolution on the order of milliseconds. Taken into account the differential band-limited signal modulations induced by acupuncture, we sought to explore whether or not stimulation at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) and a nearby non-meridian point (NAP) would evoke divergent functional connectivity alterations within delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Whole-head scanning was performed on 28 healthy participants during an eyes-closed no-task condition both preceding and following acupuncture. Data analysis involved calculation of band-limited power (BLP) followed by pair-wise BLP correlations. Further averaging was conducted to obtain local and remote connectivity. Statistical analyses revealed the increased connection degree of the left temporal cortex within delta (0.5–4 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–48 Hz) bands following verum acupuncture. Moreover, we not only validated the closer linkage of the left temporal cortex with the prefrontal and frontal cortices, but further pinpointed that such patterns were more extensively distributed in the ST36 group in the delta and beta bands compared to the restriction only to the delta band for NAP. Psychophysical results for significant pain threshold elevation further confirmed the analgesic effect of acupuncture at ST36. In conclusion, our findings may provide a new perspective to lend support for

  16. Detecting Functional Divergence after Gene Duplication through Evolutionary Changes in Posttranslational Regulatory Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Ba, Alex N.; Strome, Bob; Hua, Jun Jie; Desmond, Jonathan; Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle; Weiss, Eric L.; Landry, Christian R.; Moses, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important evolutionary mechanism that can result in functional divergence in paralogs due to neo-functionalization or sub-functionalization. Consistent with functional divergence after gene duplication, recent studies have shown accelerated evolution in retained paralogs. However, little is known in general about the impact of this accelerated evolution on the molecular functions of retained paralogs. For example, do new functions typically involve changes in enzymatic activities, or changes in protein regulation? Here we study the evolution of posttranslational regulation by examining the evolution of important regulatory sequences (short linear motifs) in retained duplicates created by the whole-genome duplication in budding yeast. To do so, we identified short linear motifs whose evolutionary constraint has relaxed after gene duplication with a likelihood-ratio test that can account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary process by using a non-central chi-squared null distribution. We find that short linear motifs are more likely to show changes in evolutionary constraints in retained duplicates compared to single-copy genes. We examine changes in constraints on known regulatory sequences and show that for the Rck1/Rck2, Fkh1/Fkh2, Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, they are associated with previously characterized differences in posttranslational regulation. Finally, we experimentally confirm our prediction that for the Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, Cbk1 regulated localization was lost along the lineage leading to SWI5 after gene duplication. Our analysis suggests that changes in posttranslational regulation mediated by short regulatory motifs systematically contribute to functional divergence after gene duplication. PMID:25474245

  17. Detecting functional divergence after gene duplication through evolutionary changes in posttranslational regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Ba, Alex N; Strome, Bob; Hua, Jun Jie; Desmond, Jonathan; Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle; Weiss, Eric L; Landry, Christian R; Moses, Alan M

    2014-12-01

    Gene duplication is an important evolutionary mechanism that can result in functional divergence in paralogs due to neo-functionalization or sub-functionalization. Consistent with functional divergence after gene duplication, recent studies have shown accelerated evolution in retained paralogs. However, little is known in general about the impact of this accelerated evolution on the molecular functions of retained paralogs. For example, do new functions typically involve changes in enzymatic activities, or changes in protein regulation? Here we study the evolution of posttranslational regulation by examining the evolution of important regulatory sequences (short linear motifs) in retained duplicates created by the whole-genome duplication in budding yeast. To do so, we identified short linear motifs whose evolutionary constraint has relaxed after gene duplication with a likelihood-ratio test that can account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary process by using a non-central chi-squared null distribution. We find that short linear motifs are more likely to show changes in evolutionary constraints in retained duplicates compared to single-copy genes. We examine changes in constraints on known regulatory sequences and show that for the Rck1/Rck2, Fkh1/Fkh2, Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, they are associated with previously characterized differences in posttranslational regulation. Finally, we experimentally confirm our prediction that for the Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, Cbk1 regulated localization was lost along the lineage leading to SWI5 after gene duplication. Our analysis suggests that changes in posttranslational regulation mediated by short regulatory motifs systematically contribute to functional divergence after gene duplication.

  18. LncRNA profiling of human lymphoid progenitors reveals transcriptional divergence of B and T lineages

    PubMed Central

    Casero, David; Sandoval, Salemiz; Seet, Christopher S.; Scholes, Jessica; Zhu, Yuhua; Ha, Vi Luan; Luong, Annie; Parekh, Chintan; Crooks, Gay M.

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the transcriptional landscape that regulates human lymphoid commitment during postnatal life, we used RNA sequencing to assemble the long non-coding transcriptome across human bone marrow and thymic progenitors spanning the earliest stages of B and T lymphoid specification. Over 3000 novel long non-coding RNA genes (lncRNAs) were revealed through the analysis of these rare populations. Lymphoid commitment was characterized by lncRNA expression patterns that were highly stage-specific and more lineage-specific than protein coding patterns. Protein-coding genes co-expressed with neighboring lncRNA genes were enriched for ontologies related to lymphoid differentiation. The exquisite cell-type specificity of global lncRNA expression patterns independently revealed new developmental relationships between the earliest progenitors in the human bone marrow and thymus. PMID:26502406

  19. Interspecies cathelicidin comparison reveals divergence in antimicrobial activity, TLR modulation, chemokine induction and regulation of phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Coorens, Maarten; Scheenstra, Maaike R.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    Cathelicidins are short cationic peptides initially described as antimicrobial peptides, which can also modulate the immune system. Because most findings have been described in the context of human LL-37 or murine CRAMP, or have been investigated under varying conditions, it is unclear which functions are cathelicidin specific and which functions are general cathelicidin properties. This study compares 12 cathelicidins from 6 species under standardized conditions to better understand the conservation of cathelicidin functions. Most tested cathelicidins had strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli and/or MRSA. Interestingly, while more physiological culture conditions limit the antimicrobial activity of almost all cathelicidins against E. coli, activity against MRSA is enhanced. Seven out of 12 cathelicidins were able to neutralize LPS and another 7 cathelicidins were able to neutralize LTA; however, there was no correlation found with LPS neutralization. In contrast, only 4 cathelicidins enhanced DNA-induced TLR9 activation. In conclusion, these results provide new insight in the functional differences of cathelicidins both within and between species. In addition, these results underline the importance not to generalize cathelicidin functions and indicates that caution should be taken in extrapolating results from LL-37- or CRAMP-related studies to other animal settings. PMID:28102367

  20. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of tubulin superfamily in the fungal tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Liu, Huiquan; Luo, Yongping; Zhou, Shanyue; An, Lin; Wang, Chenfang; Jin, Qiaojun; Zhou, Mingguo; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are essential for various cellular activities and β-tubulins are the target of benzimidazole fungicides. However, the evolution and molecular mechanisms driving functional diversification in fungal tubulins are not clear. In this study, we systematically identified tubulin genes from 59 representative fungi across the fungal kingdom. Phylogenetic analysis showed that α-/β-tubulin genes underwent multiple independent duplications and losses in different fungal lineages and formed distinct paralogous/orthologous clades. The last common ancestor of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes likely possessed two paralogs of α-tubulin (α1/α2) and β-tubulin (β1/β2) genes but α2-tubulin genes were lost in basidiomycetes and β2-tubulin genes were lost in most ascomycetes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that α1, α2, and β2-tubulins have been under strong divergent selection and adaptive positive selection. Many positively selected sites are at or adjacent to important functional sites and likely contribute to functional diversification. We further experimentally confirmed functional divergence of two β-tubulins in Fusarium and identified type II variations in FgTub2 responsible for function shifts. In this study, we also identified δ-/ε-/η-tubulins in Chytridiomycetes. Overall, our results illustrated that different evolutionary mechanisms drive functional diversification of α-/β-tubulin genes in different fungal lineages, and residues under positive selection could provide targets for further experimental study. PMID:25339375

  1. Individual differences in children's innovative problem-solving are not predicted by divergent thinking or executive functions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of children's tool innovation have revealed that there is variation in children's success in middle-childhood. In two individual differences studies, we sought to identify personal characteristics that might predict success on an innovation task. In Study 1, we found that although measures of divergent thinking were related to each other they did not predict innovation success. In Study 2, we measured executive functioning including: inhibition, working memory, attentional flexibility and ill-structured problem-solving. None of these measures predicted innovation, but, innovation was predicted by children's performance on a receptive vocabulary scale that may function as a proxy for general intelligence. We did not find evidence that children's innovation was predicted by specific personal characteristics. PMID:26926280

  2. Individual differences in children's innovative problem-solving are not predicted by divergent thinking or executive functions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sarah R; Williams, Clare; Cutting, Nicola; Apperly, Ian A; Chappell, Jackie

    2016-03-19

    Recent studies of children's tool innovation have revealed that there is variation in children's success in middle-childhood. In two individual differences studies, we sought to identify personal characteristics that might predict success on an innovation task. In Study 1, we found that although measures of divergent thinking were related to each other they did not predict innovation success. In Study 2, we measured executive functioning including: inhibition, working memory, attentional flexibility and ill-structured problem-solving. None of these measures predicted innovation, but, innovation was predicted by children's performance on a receptive vocabulary scale that may function as a proxy for general intelligence. We did not find evidence that children's innovation was predicted by specific personal characteristics. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-06

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening.

  4. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Anna V.; Boykin, Laura M.; Howell, Katharine A.; Nevill, Paul G.; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 158,724 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 25,925 bp and single-copy regions of 88,576 bp and 18,298 bp. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex. PMID:25955637

  5. Divergent whole-genome methylation maps of human and chimpanzee brains reveal epigenetic basis of human regulatory evolution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jia; Konopka, Genevieve; Hunt, Brendan G; Preuss, Todd M; Geschwind, Dan; Yi, Soojin V

    2012-09-07

    DNA methylation is a pervasive epigenetic DNA modification that strongly affects chromatin regulation and gene expression. To date, it remains largely unknown how patterns of DNA methylation differ between closely related species and whether such differences contribute to species-specific phenotypes. To investigate these questions, we generated nucleotide-resolution whole-genome methylation maps of the prefrontal cortex of multiple humans and chimpanzees. Levels and patterns of DNA methylation vary across individuals within species according to the age and the sex of the individuals. We also found extensive species-level divergence in patterns of DNA methylation and that hundreds of genes exhibit significantly lower levels of promoter methylation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain. Furthermore, we investigated the functional consequences of methylation differences in humans and chimpanzees by integrating data on gene expression generated with next-generation sequencing methods, and we found a strong relationship between differential methylation and gene expression. Finally, we found that differentially methylated genes are strikingly enriched with loci associated with neurological disorders, psychological disorders, and cancers. Our results demonstrate that differential DNA methylation might be an important molecular mechanism driving gene-expression divergence between human and chimpanzee brains and might potentially contribute to the evolution of disease vulnerabilities. Thus, comparative studies of humans and chimpanzees stand to identify key epigenomic modifications underlying the evolution of human-specific traits.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  7. The Complete Sequence of the Acacia ligulata Chloroplast Genome Reveals a Highly Divergent clpP1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Boykin, Laura M; Howell, Katharine A; Nevill, Paul G; Small, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are a highly diverse angiosperm family that include many agriculturally important species. To date, 21 complete chloroplast genomes have been sequenced from legume crops confined to the Papilionoideae subfamily. Here we report the first chloroplast genome from the Mimosoideae, Acacia ligulata, and compare it to the previously sequenced legume genomes. The A. ligulata chloroplast genome is 174,233 bp in size, comprising inverted repeats of 38,225 bp and single-copy regions of 92,798 bp and 4,985 bp [corrected]. Acacia ligulata lacks the inversion present in many of the Papilionoideae, but is not otherwise significantly different in terms of gene and repeat content. The key feature is its highly divergent clpP1 gene, normally considered essential in chloroplast genomes. In A. ligulata, although transcribed and spliced, it probably encodes a catalytically inactive protein. This study provides a significant resource for further genetic research into Acacia and the Mimosoideae. The divergent clpP1 gene suggests that Acacia will provide an interesting source of information on the evolution and functional diversity of the chloroplast Clp protease complex.

  8. Identification of selective sweeps reveals divergent selection between Chinese Holstein and Simmental cattle populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minhui; Pan, Dunfei; Ren, Hongyan; Fu, Jinluan; Li, Junya; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Aiguo; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2016-10-06

    The identification of signals left by recent positive selection provides a feasible approach for targeting genomic variants that underlie complex traits and fitness. A better understanding of the selection mechanisms that occurred during the evolution of species can also be gained. In this study, we simultaneously detected the genome-wide footprints of recent positive selection that occurred within and between Chinese Holstein and Simmental populations, which have been subjected to artificial selection for distinct purposes. We conducted analyses using various complementary approaches, including LRH, XP-EHH and FST, based on the Illumina 770K high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, to enable more comprehensive detection. We successfully constructed profiles of selective signals in both cattle populations. To further annotate these regions, we identified a set of novel functional genes related to growth, reproduction, immune response and milk production. There were no overlapping candidate windows between the two breeds. Finally, we investigated the distribution of SNPs that had low FST values across five distinct functional regions in the genome. In the low-minor allele frequency bin, we found a higher proportion of low-FST SNPs in the exons of the bovine genome, which indicates strong purifying selection of the exons. The selection signatures identified in these two populations demonstrated positive selection pressure on a set of important genes with potential functions that are involved in many biological processes. We also demonstrated that in the bovine genome, exons were under strong purifying selection. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of artificial selection and will facilitate follow-up functional studies of potential candidate genes that are related to various economically important traits in cattle.

  9. The complete primary structure of Cw*1701 reveals a highly divergent HLA class I molecule.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M J; Vilches, C; de Pablo, R; Puente, S; Kreisler, M

    1997-03-01

    Genotyping of the HLA-C locus by PCR-SSP has previously shown 100% association of B41 and B42 with a new allelic variant. Partial sequencing studies (exons 2-4) demonstrated that this PCR-SSP variant corresponded to the new allele Cw*1701. In this study we have characterized the whole coding region of Cw*1701 from a Bubi individual of Equatorial Guinea. Our results partially confirm the previously reported sequence and reveal that Cw*1701 has many new polymorphisms at several exons, including a 18-bp insertion in exon 5. Cw*1701 is thus a most unusual HLA-C molecule defining a third allelic lineage of this locus.

  10. Comparative evolutionary histories of kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptors in vertebrates reveal both parallel and divergent features.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jérémy; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Tostivint, Hervé; Vaudry, Hubert; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, the kisspeptin system has been identified in various vertebrates, leading to the discovery of multiple genes encoding both peptides (Kiss) and receptors (Kissr). The investigation of recently published genomes from species of phylogenetic interest, such as a chondrichthyan, the elephant shark, an early sarcopterygian, the coelacanth, a non-teleost actinopterygian, the spotted gar, and an early teleost, the European eel, allowed us to get new insights into the molecular diversity and evolution of both Kiss and Kissr families. We identified four Kissr in the spotted gar and coelacanth genomes, providing the first evidence of four Kissr genes in vertebrates. We also found three Kiss in the coelacanth and elephant shark genomes revealing two new species, in addition to Xenopus, presenting three Kiss genes. Considering the increasing diversity of kisspeptin system, phylogenetic, and synteny analyses enabled us to clarify both Kiss and Kissr classifications. We also could trace back the evolution of both gene families from the early steps of vertebrate history. Four Kissr and four Kiss paralogs may have arisen via the two whole genome duplication rounds (1R and 2R) in early vertebrates. This would have been followed by multiple independent Kiss and Kissr gene losses in the sarcopterygian and actinopterygian lineages. In particular, no impact of the teleost-specific 3R could be recorded on the numbers of teleost Kissr or Kiss paralogs. The origin of their diversity via 1R and 2R, as well as the subsequent occurrence of multiple gene losses, represent common features of the evolutionary histories of Kiss and Kissr families in vertebrates. In contrast, comparisons also revealed un-matching numbers of Kiss and Kissr genes in some species, as well as a large variability of Kiss/Kissr couples according to species. These discrepancies support independent features of the Kiss and Kissr evolutionary histories across vertebrate radiation.

  11. Training your brain to be more creative: brain functional and structural changes induced by divergent thinking training.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangzhou; Chen, Qunlin; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Yadan; Li, Haijiang; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Creativity is commonly defined as the ability to produce something both novel and useful. Stimulating creativity has great significance for both individual success and social improvement. Although increasing creative capacity has been confirmed to be possible and effective at the behavioral level, few longitudinal studies have examined the extent to which the brain function and structure underlying creativity are plastic. A cognitive stimulation (20 sessions) method was used in the present study to train subjects and to explore the neuroplasticity induced by training. The behavioral results revealed that both the originality and the fluency of divergent thinking were significantly improved by training. Furthermore, functional changes induced by training were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and posterior brain regions. Moreover, the gray matter volume (GMV) was significantly increased in the dACC after divergent thinking training. These results suggest that the enhancement of creativity may rely not only on the posterior brain regions that are related to the fundamental cognitive processes of creativity (e.g., semantic processing, generating novel associations), but also on areas that are involved in top-down cognitive control, such as the dACC and DLPFC. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3375-3387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Divergent signalling mechanisms for venous versus arterial contraction as revealed by Endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Tykocki, Nathan R; Wu, BinXi; Jackson, William F; Watts, Stephanie W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Venous function is underappreciated in its role in blood pressure determination, a physiological parameter normally ascribed to changes in arterial function. Significant evidence points to the hormone endothelin-1 (ET-1) as being important to venous contributions to blood pressure. We hypothesized that the artery and vein should similarly depend on the signaling pathways stimulated by ET-1, specifically phospholipase C (PLC) activation. This produces two functional arms of signaling: diacylglycerol (DAG; protein kinase C activation) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production (intracellular calcium release). Methods The model was the male Sprague Dawley rat. Isolated tissue baths were used to measure isometric contraction. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses measured the magnitude of expression and site of expression, respectively, of IP3 receptors in smooth muscle/tissue. Pharmacological methods were used to modify phospholipase C activity and signaling elements downstream of phospholipase C (IP3 receptors, protein kinase C). Results ET-1-induced contraction was phospholipase C-dependent in both tissues as the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 significantly reduced contraction in aorta (86±4% of control, P<.05) and vena cava (49±11% of control, P<.05). However, ET-1-induced contraction was not significantly inhibited by the IP3 receptor inhibitor 2-APB (100 μM) in vena cava (82±8% of control, P=.23) but was in the aorta (55±4% of control, P<.05). All three IP3 receptor isoforms were located in venous smooth muscle. IP3 receptors were functional in both tissues as the novel membrane-permeable IP3 analogue (Bt-IP3; 10μM) contracted aorta and vena cava. Similarly, while the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (10μM) attenuated ET-1-induced contraction in vena cava and aorta (5±2% and 50±5% of control, respectively; P<.05), only the vena cava contracted to the DAG analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Conclusions These findings suggest that

  13. Functional organization of different brain areas during convergent and divergent thinking: an EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Razoumnikova, O M

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the task-related changes in EEG patterns during the experimental condition of convergent and divergent thinking in 36 healthy male subjects. EEG was recorded from 16 sites (10/20 system). After FFT a power was calculated for all 16 loci, and a coherence was estimated for all 120 electrode pairs in six frequency bands (4-30 Hz). Different patterns of the significant changes for the obtained EEG parameters were found during the two thinking types. When compared with the rest, both mental experiences produced the significant desynchronization of alpha1,2 rhythms. At the same time, the convergent thinking induced coherence increases in the θ1 band that were more caudal and right-sided, whereas divergent thinking showed mainly amplitude decreases in the caudal regions of the cortex in theta1,2 bands and the massive increases of a amplitude and coherence in the beta2 indicating a close interaction between both hemispheres. Distinct task-related discrepancies of EEG pattern in the beta2 band between the subjects divided into groups of good and bad performers of divergent thinking are also found. Good performance is related to the special organization of the cerebral areas in the beta2 band: (i) increased functional connectivity of central-parietal areas of both hemispheres; and (ii) greater ipsilateral connections between the cortex regions of the right hemisphere.

  14. Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype I), the Americas (phylotype IIA and IIB), Africa (phylotype III) and Indonesia (phylotype IV). Comparison of genome sequences strains representative of this phylogenetic diversity can help determine which traits allow this bacterium to be such a pathogen of so many different plant species and how the bacteria survive in many different habitats. Results The genomes of three tomato bacterial wilt pathogens, CFBP2957 (phy. IIA), CMR15 (phy. III) and PSI07 (phy. IV) were sequenced and manually annotated. These genomes were compared with those of three previously sequenced R. solanacearum strains: GMI1000 (tomato, phy. I), IPO1609 (potato, phy. IIB), and Molk2 (banana, phy. IIB). The major genomic features (size, G+C content, number of genes) were conserved across all of the six sequenced strains. Despite relatively high genetic distances (calculated from average nucleotide identity) and many genomic rearrangements, more than 60% of the genes of the megaplasmid and 70% of those on the chromosome are syntenic. The three new genomic sequences revealed the presence of several previously unknown traits, probably acquired by horizontal transfers, within the genomes of R. solanacearum, including a type IV secretion system, a rhi-type anti-mitotic toxin and two small plasmids. Genes involved in virulence appear to be evolving at a faster rate than the genome as a whole. Conclusions Comparative analysis of genome sequences and gene content confirmed the differentiation of R. solanacearum species complex strains into four phylotypes. Genetic

  15. Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence.

    PubMed

    Remenant, Benoît; Coupat-Goutaland, Bénédicte; Guidot, Alice; Cellier, Gilles; Wicker, Emmanuel; Allen, Caitilyn; Fegan, Mark; Pruvost, Olivier; Elbaz, Mounira; Calteau, Alexandra; Salvignol, Gregory; Mornico, Damien; Mangenot, Sophie; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Prior, Philippe

    2010-06-15

    The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype I), the Americas (phylotype IIA and IIB), Africa (phylotype III) and Indonesia (phylotype IV). Comparison of genome sequences strains representative of this phylogenetic diversity can help determine which traits allow this bacterium to be such a pathogen of so many different plant species and how the bacteria survive in many different habitats. The genomes of three tomato bacterial wilt pathogens, CFBP2957 (phy. IIA), CMR15 (phy. III) and PSI07 (phy. IV) were sequenced and manually annotated. These genomes were compared with those of three previously sequenced R. solanacearum strains: GMI1000 (tomato, phy. I), IPO1609 (potato, phy. IIB), and Molk2 (banana, phy. IIB). The major genomic features (size, G+C content, number of genes) were conserved across all of the six sequenced strains. Despite relatively high genetic distances (calculated from average nucleotide identity) and many genomic rearrangements, more than 60% of the genes of the megaplasmid and 70% of those on the chromosome are syntenic. The three new genomic sequences revealed the presence of several previously unknown traits, probably acquired by horizontal transfers, within the genomes of R. solanacearum, including a type IV secretion system, a rhi-type anti-mitotic toxin and two small plasmids. Genes involved in virulence appear to be evolving at a faster rate than the genome as a whole. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and gene content confirmed the differentiation of R. solanacearum species complex strains into four phylotypes. Genetic distances between strains, in

  16. Heterologous expression of mammalian Plk1 in Drosophila reveals divergence from Polo during late mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, John . E-mail: jrobpea@upo.es; Godinho, Susana A.; Tavares, Alvaro; Glover, David M.

    2006-04-01

    Drosophila Polo kinase is the founder member of a conserved kinase family required for multiple stages of mitosis. We assessed the ability of mouse Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) to perform the multiple mitotic functions of Polo kinase, by expressing a Plk1-GFP fusion in Drosophila. Consistent with the previously reported localization of Polo kinase, Plk1-GFP was strongly localized to centrosomes and recruited to the centromeric regions of condensing chromosomes during early mitosis. However, in contrast to a functional Polo-GFP fusion, Plk1-GFP failed to localize to the central spindle midzone in both syncytial embryo mitosis and the conventional mitoses of cellularized embryos and S2 cells. Moreover, unlike endogenous Polo kinase and Polo-GFP, Plk1-GFP failed to associate with the contractile ring. Expression of Plk1-GFP enhanced the lethality of hypomorphic polo mutants and disrupted the organization of the actinomyosin cytoskeleton in a dominant-negative manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endogenous Polo kinase has specific roles in regulating actinomyosin rearrangements during Drosophila mitoses that its mammalian counterpart, Plk1, cannot fulfill. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed defects in the cortical recruitment of myosin and myosin regulatory light chain in Polo deficient cells.

  17. First DNA sequences from Asian cave bear fossils reveal deep divergences and complex phylogeographic patterns.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michael; Rohland, Nadin; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Sher, Andrei; Nagel, Doris; Rabeder, Gernot; Pinhasi, Ron; Schmidt, Heiko A; Hofreiter, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Until recently, cave bears were believed to have only inhabited Europe. However, recent morphological evidence suggests that cave bears' geographic range extended as far east as Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia. These Asian cave bears were morphologically distinct from European cave bears. However, how they related to European lineages remains unclear, stressing the need to assess the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationship between Asian cave bears and their European relatives. In this work, we address this issue using a 227 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region obtained from nine fossil bone samples from eight sites from the Urals, Caucasus, Altai Mountains, Ukraine and Yana River region in Eastern Siberia. Results of the phylogenetic analyses indicate that (i) the cave bear from the Yana River is most closely related to cave bears from the Caucasus region; (ii) the Caucasus/Yana group of bears is genetically very distinct from both European cave bears and brown bears, suggesting that these bears could represent an independent species; and (iii) the Western European cave bear lineage reached at least temporarily to the Altai Mountains, 7000 km east of their known centre of distribution. These results suggest that the diversity of cave bears was greater than previously believed, and that they could survive in a much wider range of ecological conditions than previously assumed. They also agree with recent studies on other extinct and extant species, such as wolves, hyenas and steppe bison, which have also revealed higher genetic and ecological diversity in Pleistocene populations than previously known.

  18. Pax3/7 genes reveal conservation and divergence in the arthropod segmentation hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregory K; D'Alessio, Joseph A; Patel, Nipam H

    2005-09-01

    Several features of Pax3/7 gene expression are shared among distantly related insects, including pair-rule, segment polarity, and neural patterns. Recent data from arachnids imply that roles in segmentation and neurogenesis are likely to be played by Pax3/7 genes in all arthropods. To further investigate Pax3/7 genes in non-insect arthropods, we isolated two monoclonal antibodies that recognize the products of Pax3/7 genes in a wide range of taxa, allowing us to quickly survey Pax3/7 expression in all four major arthropod groups. Epitope analysis reveals that these antibodies react to a small subset of Paired-class homeodomains, which includes the products of all known Pax3/7 genes. Using these antibodies, we find that Pax3/7 genes in crustaceans are expressed in an early broad and, in one case, dynamic domain followed by segmental stripes, while myriapods and chelicerates exhibit segmental stripes that form early in the posterior-most part of the germ band. This suggests that Pax3/7 genes acquired their role in segmentation deep within, or perhaps prior to, the arthropod lineage. However, we do not detect evidence of pair-rule patterning in either myriapods or chelicerates, suggesting that the early pair-rule expression pattern of Pax3/7 genes in insects may have been acquired within the crustacean-hexapod lineage.

  19. NGS population genetics analyses reveal divergent evolution of a Lyme Borreliosis agent in Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Gatzmann, Fanny; Metzler, Dirk; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Sing, Andreas; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fingerle, Volker; Margos, Gabriele; Becker, Noémie S

    2015-04-01

    Borrelia bavariensis is a recently described agent of Lyme disease within the B. burgdorferi sensu lato species complex and exhibits a strong capacity for human pathogenicity. B. bavariensis strains are widely distributed in Eurasia spanning the distribution range of the tick vectors Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus. It has been suggested that B. bavariensis forms two populations, one of which arose through vector adaptation and geographic expansion. We have performed phylogenetic and population genetic analyses with next-generation sequencing data of 26 strains of B. bavariensis targeting the main linear chromosome and two plasmids (lp54, cp26). A very low number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was found in the European population and a deep branching pattern between European and Asian B. bavariensis was observed in all phylogenies. The results confirm the population structure of B. bavariensis and strongly support the hypothesis of clonal expansion of the European population of B. bavariensis. In addition, signals of positive selection identified in the populations further support the hypothesis that the European population of B. bavariensis likely underwent vector adaptation in its recent evolutionary history. Identified genes represent promising candidates for experimental vector adaptation studies. Thus, this species forms a very good model to study vector adaptation, which is known to play an important role in the geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi. Analysis of well known virulence determinants that are attributed to severity of clinical manifestation in B. burgdorferi s.s. revealed no variation within the European population of B. bavariensis, underlining the importance of including various Borrelia species into investigations that aim to understand the pathogenesis of Lyme disease agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  1. Comparison of phylogenetically distinct Histoplasma strains reveals evolutionarily divergent virulence strategies.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Victoria E; Williams, Corinne L; Goldman, William E

    2014-07-01

    dependent on the presence of cell wall α-(1,3)-glucan. Surprisingly, comparison of WU24 with two previously characterized isolates revealed that many conclusions regarding relative strain virulence and certain hallmarks of histoplasmosis are dependent on the inoculum size.

  2. Diverging drought resistance of Scots pine provenances revealed by infrared thermography and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming and more frequent and severe drought events will alter the adaptedness and fitness of tree species. Especially, Scots pine forests have been affected above average by die-off events during the last decades. Assisted migration of adapted provenances might help alleviating impacts by recent climate change and successfully regenerating forests. However, the identification of suitable provenances based on established ecophysiological methods is time consuming, sometimes invasive, and data on provenance-specific mortality are lacking. We studied the performance, stress and survival of potted Scots pine seedlings from 12 European provenances grown in a greenhouse experiment with multiple drought and warming treatments. In this paper, we will present results of drought stress impacts monitored with four different thermal indices derived from infrared thermography imaging as well as an ample mortality study. Percent soil water deficit (PSWD) was shown to be the main driver of drought stress response in all thermal indices. In spite of wet and dry reference surfaces, however, fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly in terms of air temperature and humidity, altered the measured stress response. In linear mixed-effects models, besides PSWD and meteorological covariates, the factors provenance and provenance - PSWD interactions were included. The explanatory power of the models (R2) ranged between 0.51 to 0.83 and thus, provenance-specific responses to strong and moderate drought and subsequent recovery were revealed. However, obvious differences in the response magnitude of provenances to drought were difficult to explicitly link to general features such Mediterranean - continental type or climate at the provenances' origin. We conclude that seedlings' drought resistance may be linked to summer precipitation and their experienced stress levels are a.o. dependent on their above ground dimensions under given water supply. In respect to mortality, previous

  3. Virome Analysis of Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis Ticks Reveals Novel Highly Divergent Vertebrate and Invertebrate Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon Hedley; Sameroff, Stephen; Sanchez Leon, Maria; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wide range of bacterial pathogens have been identified in ticks, yet the diversity of viruses in ticks is largely unexplored. In the United States, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis are among the principal tick species associated with pathogen transmission. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the viromes of these tick species and identified the presence of Powassan virus and eight novel viruses. These included the most divergent nairovirus described to date, two new clades of tick-borne phleboviruses, a mononegavirus, and viruses with similarity to plant and insect viruses. Our analysis revealed that ticks are reservoirs for a wide range of viruses and suggests that discovery and characterization of tick-borne viruses will have implications for viral taxonomy and may provide insight into tick-transmitted diseases. IMPORTANCE Ticks are implicated as vectors of a wide array of human and animal pathogens. To better understand the extent of tick-borne diseases, it is crucial to uncover the full range of microbial agents associated with ticks. Our current knowledge of the diversity of tick-associated viruses is limited, in part due to the lack of investigation of tick viromes. In this study, we examined the viromes of three tick species from the United States. We found that ticks are hosts to highly divergent viruses across several taxa, including ones previously associated with human disease. Our data underscore the diversity of tick-associated viruses and provide the foundation for further studies into viral etiology of tick-borne diseases. PMID:25056893

  4. Species-specific separation of lake plankton reveals divergent food assimilation patterns in rotifers

    PubMed Central

    Burian, Alfred; Kainz, Martin J; Schagerl, Michael; Yasindi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    1. The analysis of functional groups with a resolution to the individual species level is a basic requirement to better understand complex interactions in aquatic food webs. Species-specific stable isotope analyses are currently applied to analyse the trophic role of large zooplankton or fish species, but technical constraints complicate their application to smaller-sized plankton. 2. We investigated rotifer food assimilation during a short-term microzooplankton bloom in the East African soda lake Nakuru by developing a method for species-specific sampling of rotifers. 3. The two dominant rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus dimidiatus, were separated to single-species samples (purity >95%) and significantly differed in their isotopic values (4.1‰ in δ13C and 1.5‰ in δ15N). Bayesian mixing models indicated that isotopic differences were caused by different assimilation of filamentous cyanobacteria and particles <2 μm and underlined the importance of species-specific sampling of smaller plankton compartments. 4. A main difference was that the filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis, which frequently forms blooms in African soda lakes, was an important food source for the larger-sized B. plicatilis (48%), whereas it was hardly ingested by B. dimidiatus. Overall, A. fusiformis was, relative to its biomass, assimilated to small extents, demonstrating a high grazing resistance of this species. 5. In combination with high population densities, these results demonstrate a strong potential of rotifer blooms to shape phytoplankton communities and are the first in situ demonstration of a quantitatively important direct trophic link between rotifers and filamentous cyanobacteria. PMID:25866422

  5. Predicting functional divergence in protein evolution by site-specific rate shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaucher, Eric A.; Gu, Xun; Miyamoto, Michael M.; Benner, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    Most modern tools that analyze protein evolution allow individual sites to mutate at constant rates over the history of the protein family. However, Walter Fitch observed in the 1970s that, if a protein changes its function, the mutability of individual sites might also change. This observation is captured in the "non-homogeneous gamma model", which extracts functional information from gene families by examining the different rates at which individual sites evolve. This model has recently been coupled with structural and molecular biology to identify sites that are likely to be involved in changing function within the gene family. Applying this to multiple gene families highlights the widespread divergence of functional behavior among proteins to generate paralogs and orthologs.

  6. Predicting functional divergence in protein evolution by site-specific rate shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaucher, Eric A.; Gu, Xun; Miyamoto, Michael M.; Benner, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    Most modern tools that analyze protein evolution allow individual sites to mutate at constant rates over the history of the protein family. However, Walter Fitch observed in the 1970s that, if a protein changes its function, the mutability of individual sites might also change. This observation is captured in the "non-homogeneous gamma model", which extracts functional information from gene families by examining the different rates at which individual sites evolve. This model has recently been coupled with structural and molecular biology to identify sites that are likely to be involved in changing function within the gene family. Applying this to multiple gene families highlights the widespread divergence of functional behavior among proteins to generate paralogs and orthologs.

  7. DNA barcoding of bark and ambrosia beetles reveals excessive NUMTs and consistent east-west divergence across Palearctic forests.

    PubMed

    Jordal, Bjarte H; Kambestad, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive DNA barcoding library is very useful for rapid identification and detection of invasive pest species. We tested the performance of species identification in the economically most damaging group of wood-boring insects - the bark and ambrosia beetles - with particular focus on broad geographical sampling across the boreal Palearctic forests. Neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from 151 species in 40 genera revealed high congruence between morphology-based identification and sequence clusters. Inconsistencies with morphological identifications included the discovery of a likely cryptic Nearctic species of Dryocoetes autographus, the possible hybrid origin of shared mitochondrial haplotypes in Pityophthorus micrographus and P. pityographus, and a possible paraphyletic Xyleborinus saxeseni. The first record of Orthotomicus suturalis in North America was confirmed by DNA barcoding. The mitochondrial data also revealed consistent divergence across the Palearctic or Holarctic, confirmed in part by data from the large ribosomal subunit (28S). Some populations had considerable variation in the mitochondrial barcoding marker, but were invariant in the nuclear ribosomal marker. These findings must be viewed in light of the high number of nuclear insertions of mitochondrial DNA (NUMTs) detected in eight bark beetle species, suggesting the possible presence of additional cryptic NUMTs. The occurrence of paralogous COI copies, hybridization or cryptic speciation demands a stronger focus on data quality assessment in the construction of DNA barcoding databases.

  8. Comparative analysis of SET domain proteins in maize and Arabidopsis reveals multiple duplications preceding the divergence of monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M; Napoli, Carolyn A; Selinger, David A; Pandey, Ritu; Cone, Karen C; Chandler, Vicki L; Kaeppler, Heidi F; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2003-06-01

    Histone proteins play a central role in chromatin packaging, and modification of histones is associated with chromatin accessibility. SET domain [Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax] proteins are one class of proteins that have been implicated in regulating gene expression through histone methylation. The relationships of 22 SET domain proteins from maize (Zea mays) and 32 SET domain proteins from Arabidopsis were evaluated by phylogenetic analysis and domain organization. Our analysis reveals five classes of SET domain proteins in plants that can be further divided into 19 orthology groups. In some cases, such as the Enhancer of zeste-like and trithorax-like proteins, plants and animals contain homologous proteins with a similar organization of domains outside of the SET domain. However, a majority of plant SET domain proteins do not have an animal homolog with similar domain organization, suggesting that plants have unique mechanisms to establish and maintain chromatin states. Although the domains present in plant and animal SET domain proteins often differ, the domains found in the plant proteins have been generally implicated in protein-protein interactions, indicating that most SET domain proteins operate in complexes. Combined analysis of the maize and Arabidopsis SET domain proteins reveals that duplication of SET domain proteins in plants is extensive and has occurred via multiple mechanisms that preceded the divergence of monocots and dicots.

  9. Functional divergence and convergence between the transcript network and gene network in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Min-Kung; Pan, Chia-Lin; Chen, Feng-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative RNA splicing is a critical regulatory mechanism during tumorigenesis. However, previous oncological studies mainly focused on the splicing of individual genes. Whether and how transcript isoforms are coordinated to affect cellular functions remain underexplored. Also of great interest is how the splicing regulome cooperates with the transcription regulome to facilitate tumorigenesis. The answers to these questions are of fundamental importance to cancer biology. Results Here, we report a comparative study between the transcript-based network (TN) and the gene-based network (GN) derived from the transcriptomes of paired tumor–normal tissues from 77 lung adenocarcinoma patients. We demonstrate that the two networks differ significantly from each other in terms of patient clustering and the number and functions of network modules. Interestingly, the majority (89.5%) of multi-transcript genes have their transcript isoforms distributed in at least two TN modules, suggesting regulatory and functional divergences between transcript isoforms. Furthermore, TN and GN modules share onlŷ50%–60% of their biological functions. TN thus appears to constitute a regulatory layer separate from GN. Nevertheless, our results indicate that functional convergence and divergence both occur between TN and GN, implying complex interactions between the two regulatory layers. Finally, we report that the expression profiles of module members in both TN and GN shift dramatically yet concordantly during tumorigenesis. The mechanisms underlying this coordinated shifting remain unclear yet are worth further explorations. Conclusion We show that in lung adenocarcinoma, transcript isoforms per se are coordinately regulated to conduct biological functions not conveyed by the network of genes. However, the two networks may interact closely with each other by sharing the same or related biological functions. Unraveling the effects and mechanisms of such interactions will

  10. Structural basis for the divergence of substrate specificity and biological function within HAD phosphatases in lipopolysaccharide and sialic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Daughtry, Kelly D; Huang, Hua; Malashkevich, Vladimir; Patskovsky, Yury; Liu, Weifeng; Ramagopal, Udupi; Sauder, J Michael; Burley, Stephen K; Almo, Steven C; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Allen, Karen N

    2013-08-13

    The haloacid dehalogenase enzyme superfamily (HADSF) is largely composed of phosphatases that have been particularly successful at adaptating to novel biological functions relative to members of other phosphatase families. Herein, we examine the structural basis for the divergence of function in two bacterial homologues: 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphohydrolase (KDO8P phosphatase, KDO8PP) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-9-O-phosphonononic acid phosphohydrolase (KDN9P phosphatase, KDN9PP). KDO8PP and KDN9PP catalyze the final step in KDO and KDN synthesis, respectively, prior to transfer to CMP to form the activated sugar nucleotide. KDO8PP and KDN9PP orthologs derived from an evolutionarily diverse collection of bacterial species were subjected to steady-state kinetic analysis to determine their specificities toward catalyzed KDO8P and KDN9P hydrolysis. Although each enzyme was more active with its biological substrate, the degree of selectivity (as defined by the ratio of kcat/Km for KDO8P vs KDN9P) varied significantly. High-resolution X-ray structure determination of Haemophilus influenzae KDO8PP bound to KDO/VO3(-) and Bacteriodes thetaiotaomicron KDN9PP bound to KDN/VO3(-) revealed the substrate-binding residues. The structures of the KDO8PP and KDN9PP orthologs were also determined to reveal the differences in their active-site structures that underlie the variation in substrate preference. Bioinformatic analysis was carried out to define the sequence divergence among KDN9PP and KDO8PP orthologs. The KDN9PP orthologs were found to exist as single-domain proteins or fused with the pathway nucleotidyl transferases; the fusion of KDO8PP with the transferase is rare. The KDO8PP and KDN9PP orthologs share a stringently conserved Arg residue that forms a salt bridge with the substrate carboxylate group. The split of the KDN9PP lineage from the KDO8PP orthologs is easily tracked by the acquisition of a Glu/Lys pair that supports KDN9P binding. Moreover

  11. Effects of transient temperature conditions on the divergence of activated sludge bacterial community structure and function.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nalina; Allen, D Grant; Fulthorpe, Roberta R

    2007-06-01

    The effect of temperature fluctuations on bacterial community structure and function in lab-scale sequencing batch reactors treating bleached kraft mill effluent was investigated. An increase in temperature from 30 to 45 degrees C caused shifts in both bacterial community structure and function. Triplicate reactors were highly similar for 40 days following startup. After the temperature shift, their community structure and function started to diverge from each other and from the control. A multi-response permutation procedure confirmed that the variability in community structure between transient and control reactors were greater than that among the triplicate transient reactors. The fact that these disturbances manifest themselves in different ways in apparently identical reactors suggests a high degree of variability between replicate systems.

  12. Innate-like functions of natural killer T cell subsets result from highly divergent gene programs.

    PubMed

    Engel, Isaac; Seumois, Grégory; Chavez, Lukas; Samaniego-Castruita, Daniela; White, Brandie; Chawla, Ashu; Mock, Dennis; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2016-06-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the immune response that can be attributed in part to the existence of functional subsets of NKT cells. These subsets have been characterized only on the basis of the differential expression of a few transcription factors and cell-surface molecules. Here we have analyzed purified populations of thymic NKT cell subsets at both the transcriptomic level and epigenomic level and by single-cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicated that despite their similar antigen specificity, the functional NKT cell subsets were highly divergent populations with many gene-expression and epigenetic differences. Therefore, the thymus 'imprints' distinct gene programs on subsets of innate-like NKT cells that probably impart differences in proliferative capacity, homing, and effector functions.

  13. Innate-like functions of natural killer T cell subsets result from highly divergent gene programs

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Isaac; Seumois, Grégory; Chavez, Lukas; Samaniego-Castruita, Daniela; White, Brandie; Chawla, Ashu; Mock, Dennis; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the immune response that can be attributed in part to the existence of functional subsets of NKT cells. These subsets have been characterized only on the basis of the differential expression of a few transcription factors and cell-surface molecules. Here we have analyzed purified populations of thymic NKT cell subsets at both the transcriptomic level and epigenomic level and by single-cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicated that despite their similar antigen specificity, the functional NKT cell subsets were highly divergent populations with many gene-expression and epigenetic differences. Therefore, the thymus ‘imprints’ distinct gene programs on subsets of innate-like NKT cells that probably impart differences in proliferative capacity, homing, and effector functions. PMID:27089380

  14. Positive selection and functional divergence of R2R3-MYB paralogous genes expressed in inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Pang, Erli; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cao, Huifen; Ruan, Yu; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-03-13

    Anthocyanin is the main pigment forming floral diversity. Several transcription factors that regulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes belong to the R2R3-MYB family. Here we examined the transcriptomes of inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (skullcaps), identified the expression R2R3-MYBs, and detected the genetic signatures of positive selection for adaptive divergence across the rapidly evolving skullcaps. In the inflorescence buds, seven R2R3-MYBs were identified. MYB11 and MYB16 were detected to be positively selected. The signature of positive selection on MYB genes indicated that species diversification could be affected by transcriptional regulation, rather than at the translational level. When comparing among the background lineages of Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, and Amborella, heterogeneous evolutionary rates were detected among MYB paralogs, especially between MYB13 and MYB19. Significantly different evolutionary rates were also evidenced by type-I functional divergence between MYB13 and MYB19, and the accelerated evolutionary rates in MYB19, implied the acquisition of novel functions. Another paralogous pair, MYB2/7 and MYB11, revealed significant radical amino acid changes, indicating divergence in the regulation of different anthocyanin-biosynthetic enzymes. Our findings not only showed that Scutellaria R2R3-MYBs are functionally divergent and positively selected, but also indicated the adaptive relevance of regulatory genes in floral diversification.

  15. Assessing functional divergence in EF-1α and its paralogs in eukaryotes and archaebacteria

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuji; Blouin, Christian; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of methods have recently been published that use phylogenetic information extracted from large multiple sequence alignments to detect sites that have changed properties in related protein families. In this study we use such methods to assess functional divergence between eukaryotic EF-1α (eEF-1α), archaebacterial EF-1α (aEF-1α) and two eukaryote-specific EF-1α paralogs—eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3) and Hsp70 subfamily B suppressor 1 (HBS1). Overall, the evolutionary modes of aEF-1α, HBS1 and eRF3 appear to significantly differ from that of eEF-1α. However, functionally divergent (FD) sites detected between aEF-1α and eEF-1α only weakly overlap with sites implicated as putative EF-1β or aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding residues in EF-1α, as expected based on the shared ancestral primary translational functions of these two orthologs. In contrast, FD sites detected between eEF-1α and its paralogs significantly overlap with the putative EF-1β and/or aa-tRNA binding sites in EF-1α. In eRF3 and HBS1, these sites appear to be released from functional constraints, indicating that they bind neither eEF-1β nor aa-tRNA. These results are consistent with experimental observations that eRF3 does not bind to aa-tRNA, but do not support the ‘EF-1α-like’ function recently proposed for HBS1. We re-assess the available genetic data for HBS1 in light of our analyses, and propose that this protein may function in stop codon-independent peptide release. PMID:12853641

  16. Assessing functional divergence in EF-1alpha and its paralogs in eukaryotes and archaebacteria.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Yuji; Blouin, Christian; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J

    2003-07-15

    A number of methods have recently been published that use phylogenetic information extracted from large multiple sequence alignments to detect sites that have changed properties in related protein families. In this study we use such methods to assess functional divergence between eukaryotic EF-1alpha (eEF-1alpha), archaebacterial EF-1alpha (aEF-1alpha) and two eukaryote-specific EF-1alpha paralogs-eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3) and Hsp70 subfamily B suppressor 1 (HBS1). Overall, the evolutionary modes of aEF-1alpha, HBS1 and eRF3 appear to significantly differ from that of eEF-1alpha. However, functionally divergent (FD) sites detected between aEF-1alpha and eEF-1alpha only weakly overlap with sites implicated as putative EF-1beta or aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding residues in EF-1alpha, as expected based on the shared ancestral primary translational functions of these two orthologs. In contrast, FD sites detected between eEF-1alpha and its paralogs significantly overlap with the putative EF-1beta and/or aa-tRNA binding sites in EF-1alpha. In eRF3 and HBS1, these sites appear to be released from functional constraints, indicating that they bind neither eEF-1beta nor aa-tRNA. These results are consistent with experimental observations that eRF3 does not bind to aa-tRNA, but do not support the 'EF-1alpha-like' function recently proposed for HBS1. We re-assess the available genetic data for HBS1 in light of our analyses, and propose that this protein may function in stop codon-independent peptide release.

  17. Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Almeida, Aldo; Davenport, Brittany; Davidson, Joshua; Reddy, C V Chandra Mohan; Hankins, Gerald; Ebert, Andreas; Choi, Doil; Stommel, John; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST ) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9-2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers.

  18. Genome-Wide Divergence and Linkage Disequilibrium Analyses for Capsicum baccatum Revealed by Genome-Anchored Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Abburi, Venkata L.; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Almeida, Aldo; Davenport, Brittany; Davidson, Joshua; Reddy, C. V. Chandra Mohan; Hankins, Gerald; Ebert, Andreas; Choi, Doil; Stommel, John; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9–2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers. PMID:27857720

  19. Humanized H19/Igf2 locus reveals diverged imprinting mechanism between mouse and human and reflects Silver–Russell syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Stella K.; Freschi, Andrea; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Thorvaldsen, Joanne L.; Luense, Lacey J.; Weller, Angela H.; Berger, Shelley L.; Cerrato, Flavia; Riccio, Andrea; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals, such that they are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin–specific manner. These genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), cis-regulatory elements that exhibit allele-specific differential DNA methylation. Although genomic imprinting is conserved in mammals, ICRs are genetically divergent across species. This raises the fundamental question of whether the ICR plays a species-specific role in regulating imprinting at a given locus. We addressed this question at the H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted locus, the misregulation of which is associated with the human imprinting disorders Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). We generated a knock-in mouse in which the endogenous H19/Igf2 ICR (mIC1) is replaced by the orthologous human ICR (hIC1) sequence, designated H19hIC1. We show that hIC1 can functionally replace mIC1 on the maternal allele. In contrast, paternally transmitted hIC1 leads to growth restriction, abnormal hIC1 methylation, and loss of H19 and Igf2 imprinted expression. Imprint establishment at hIC1 is impaired in the male germ line, which is associated with an abnormal composition of histone posttranslational modifications compared with mIC1. Overall, this study reveals evolutionarily divergent paternal imprinting at IC1 between mice and humans. The conserved maternal imprinting mechanism and function at IC1 demonstrates the possibility of modeling maternal transmission of hIC1 mutations associated with BWS in mice. In addition, we propose that further analyses in the paternal knock-in H19+/hIC1 mice will elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie SRS. PMID:27621468

  20. Functional convergence and divergence of mating-type genes fulfilling in Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuzhen; Xia, Yongliang; Luo, Feifei; Dong, Caihong; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-03-01

    Fungal sexual lives are considerably diversified in terms of the types of mating systems and mating-control gene functions. Sexual fruiting bodies of the ascomycete fungus Cordyceps militaris have been widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushrooms, whereas the regulation of fruiting-body development and sex in this fungus remain elusive. Herein, we performed the comprehensive functional analyses of mating-type (MAT) genes in C. militaris. Interspecies functional convergence was evident that MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 null mutants were sterile and lost the ability to produce stromata in outcrosses with the opposite mating-type partner. In contrast to other fungal species, functional divergence of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-2 was also observed that ΔMAT1-1-1 produced barren stromata in outcrosses, whereas ΔMAT1-1-2 generated fruiting bodies morphologically similar to that of the parental strain but with sterile perithecia. The homothallic-like transformants MAT1-2::MAT1-1-1 (haploidic MAT1-2 isolate transformed with the MAT1-1-1 gene) produced sterile stromata, whereas the MAT1-1::MAT1-2-1 (haploidic MAT1-1 isolate transformed with the MAT1-2-1 gene) mutant was determined to be completely fruitless. The findings relating to the fully fertile gene-complementation mutants suggest that the genomic location is not essential for the MAT genes to fulfill their functions in C. militaris. Comparison of the production of bioactive constituents cordycepin and adenosine provides experimental support that the fungal sexual cycle is an energy consuming process. The results of the present study enrich our knowledge of both convergent and divergent controls of fungal sex.

  1. Genetic divergence and evolutionary relationships in six species of genera Hoplobatrachus and Euphlyctis (Amphibia: Anura) from Bangladesh and other Asian countries revealed by mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Igawa, Takeshi; Khan, Md Mukhlesur Rahman; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Kuramoto, Mitsuru; Matsui, Masafumi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Sumida, Masayuki

    2008-08-01

    To elucidate the species composition, genetic divergence, evolutionary relationships, and divergence time of Hoplobatrachus and Euphlyctis frogs (subfamily Dicroglossinae, family Ranidae) in Bangladesh and other Asian countries, we analyzed the mitochondrial Cyt b, 12S, and 16S rRNA genes of 252 specimens. Our phylogenetic analyses showed 13 major clades corresponding to several cryptic species as well as to nominal species in the two genera. The results suggested monophyly of Asian Hoplobatrachus species, but the position of African Hoplobatrachus occipitalis was not clarified. Nucleotide divergence and phylogenetic data suggested the presence of allopatric cryptic species allied to Euphlyctis hexadactylus in Sundarban, Bangladesh and several parapatric cryptic species in the Western Ghats, India. The presence of at least two allopatric cryptic species among diverged Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka was also suggested. In some cases, our estimated divergence times matched the paleogeological events of South and Southeast Asian regions that may have led to the divergence of Hoplobatrachus and Euphlyctis taxa. Especially, land formation at Bangladesh (15-10Ma) may have allowed the spread of these frog taxa to Southeast Asian areas, and the aridification of central India (5.1-1.6Ma) might have affected the gene flow of widely distributed species. The present study revealed prior underestimation of the richness of the amphibian fauna in this region, indicating the possible occurrence of many cryptic species among these groups.

  2. Rumen cellulosomics: divergent fiber-degrading strategies revealed by comparative genome-wide analysis of six ruminococcal strains.

    PubMed

    Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Ruimy-Israeli, Vered; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Morrison, Mark; Mosoni, Pascale; Yeoman, Carl J; White, Bryan A; Bayer, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    A complex community of microorganisms is responsible for efficient plant cell wall digestion by many herbivores, notably the ruminants. Understanding the different fibrolytic mechanisms utilized by these bacteria has been of great interest in agricultural and technological fields, reinforced more recently by current efforts to convert cellulosic biomass to biofuels. Here, we have used a bioinformatics-based approach to explore the cellulosome-related components of six genomes from two of the primary fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen: Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1, 007c and 17) and Ruminococcus albus (strains 7, 8 and SY3). The genomes of two of these strains are reported for the first time herein. The data reveal that the three R. flavefaciens strains encode for an elaborate reservoir of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins, whereas the three R. albus strains are cohesin-deficient and encode mainly dockerins and a unique family of cell-anchoring carbohydrate-binding modules (family 37). Our comparative genome-wide analysis pinpoints rare and novel strain-specific protein architectures and provides an exhaustive profile of their numerous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. This work provides blueprints of the divergent cellulolytic systems in these two prominent fibrolytic rumen bacterial species, each of which reflects a distinct mechanistic model for efficient degradation of cellulosic biomass.

  3. Transcriptome profiling reveals divergent expression shifts in brown and white adipose tissue from long-lived GHRKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu; Rohde, Kyle; List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kopchick, John J.; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO) exhibit improved lifespan and healthspan due to loss of growth hormone signaling. Both the distribution and activity of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) are altered in GHRKO mice, but the contribution of each tissue to age-related phenotypes has remained unclear. We therefore used whole-genome microarrays to evaluate transcriptional differences in BAT and WAT depots between GHRKO and normal littermates at six months of age. Our findings reveal a unique BAT transcriptome as well as distinctive responses of BAT to Ghr ablation. BAT from GHRKO mice exhibited elevated expression of genes associated with mitochondria and metabolism, along with reduced expression of genes expressed by monocyte-derived cells (dendritic cells [DC] and macrophages). Largely the opposite was observed in WAT, with increased expression of DC-expressed genes and reduced expression of genes associated with metabolism, cellular respiration and the mitochondrial inner envelope. These findings demonstrate divergent response patterns of BAT and WAT to loss of GH signaling in GHRKO mice. These patterns suggest both BAT and WAT contribute in different ways to phenotypes in GHRKO mice, with Ghr ablation blunting inflammation in BAT as well as cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT. PMID:26436954

  4. Rumen Cellulosomics: Divergent Fiber-Degrading Strategies Revealed by Comparative Genome-Wide Analysis of Six Ruminococcal Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dassa, Bareket; Borovok, Ilya; Ruimy-Israeli, Vered; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Morrison, Mark; Mosoni, Pascale; Yeoman, Carl J.; White, Bryan A.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A complex community of microorganisms is responsible for efficient plant cell wall digestion by many herbivores, notably the ruminants. Understanding the different fibrolytic mechanisms utilized by these bacteria has been of great interest in agricultural and technological fields, reinforced more recently by current efforts to convert cellulosic biomass to biofuels. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have used a bioinformatics-based approach to explore the cellulosome-related components of six genomes from two of the primary fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen: Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1, 007c and 17) and Ruminococcus albus (strains 7, 8 and SY3). The genomes of two of these strains are reported for the first time herein. The data reveal that the three R. flavefaciens strains encode for an elaborate reservoir of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins, whereas the three R. albus strains are cohesin-deficient and encode mainly dockerins and a unique family of cell-anchoring carbohydrate-binding modules (family 37). Conclusions/Significance Our comparative genome-wide analysis pinpoints rare and novel strain-specific protein architectures and provides an exhaustive profile of their numerous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. This work provides blueprints of the divergent cellulolytic systems in these two prominent fibrolytic rumen bacterial species, each of which reflects a distinct mechanistic model for efficient degradation of cellulosic biomass. PMID:24992679

  5. Inter-species activity correlations reveal functional correspondences between monkey and human brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. In cases where functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assess similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by means of temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we reveal regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This novel framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models. PMID:22306809

  6. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  7. Reevaluation of a classic phylogeographic barrier: new techniques reveal the influence of microgeographic climate variation on population divergence

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Centeno, J Angel; Barrow, Lisa N; Allen, Julie M; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the mtDNA divergence and relationships within Geomys pinetis to assess the status of formerly recognized Geomys taxa. Additionally, we integrated new hypothesis-based tests in ecological niche models (ENM) to provide greater insight into causes for divergence and potential barriers to gene flow in Southeastern United States (Alabama, Florida, and Georgia). Our DNA sequence dataset confirmed and strongly supported two distinct lineages within G. pinetis occurring east and west of the ARD. Divergence date estimates showed that eastern and western lineages diverged about 1.37 Ma (1.9 Ma–830 ka). Predicted distributions from ENMs were consistent with molecular data and defined each population east and west of the ARD with little overlap. Niche identity and background similarity tests were statistically significant suggesting that ENMs from eastern and western lineages are not identical or more similar than expected based on random localities drawn from the environmental background. ENMs also support the hypothesis that the ARD represents a ribbon of unsuitable climate between more suitable areas where these populations are distributed. The estimated age of divergence between eastern and western lineages of G. pinetis suggests that the divergence was driven by climatic conditions during Pleistocene glacial–interglacial cycles. The ARD at the contact zone of eastern and western lineages of G. pinetis forms a significant barrier promoting microgeographic isolation that helps maintain ecological and genetic divergence. PMID:23789071

  8. Efficient projection and backprojection scheme for spherically symmetric basis functions in divergent beam geometry.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andy; Köhler, Thomas; Nielsen, Tim; Proksa, Roland

    2006-12-01

    In cone-beam transmission tomography the measurements are performed with a divergent beam of x-rays. The reconstruction with iterative methods is an approach that offers the possibility to reconstruct the corresponding images directly from these measurements. Another approach based on spherically symmetric basis functions (blobs) has been reported with results demonstrating a better image quality for iterative reconstruction algorithms. When combining the two approaches (i.e., using blobs in iterative cone-beam reconstruction of divergent rays) the problem of blob sampling without introducing aliasing must be addressed. One solution to this problem is to select a blob size large enough to ensure a sufficient sampling, but this prevents a high resolution reconstruction, which is not desired. Another solution is a heuristic low-pass filtering, which removes this aliasing, but neglects the different contributions of blobs to the absorption depending on the spatial position in the volume and, therefore, cannot achieve the best image quality. This article presents a model of sampling the blobs which is motivated by the beam geometry. It can be used for high resolution reconstruction and can be implementedefficiently.

  9. Automated hierarchical classification of protein domain subfamilies based on functionally-divergent residue signatures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The NCBI Conserved Domain Database (CDD) consists of a collection of multiple sequence alignments of protein domains that are at various stages of being manually curated into evolutionary hierarchies based on conserved and divergent sequence and structural features. These domain models are annotated to provide insights into the relationships between sequence, structure and function via web-based BLAST searches. Results Here we automate the generation of conserved domain (CD) hierarchies using a combination of heuristic and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling procedures and starting from a (typically very large) multiple sequence alignment. This procedure relies on statistical criteria to define each hierarchy based on the conserved and divergent sequence patterns associated with protein functional-specialization. At the same time this facilitates the sequence and structural annotation of residues that are functionally important. These statistical criteria also provide a means to objectively assess the quality of CD hierarchies, a non-trivial task considering that the protein subgroups are often very distantly related—a situation in which standard phylogenetic methods can be unreliable. Our aim here is to automatically generate (typically sub-optimal) hierarchies that, based on statistical criteria and visual comparisons, are comparable to manually curated hierarchies; this serves as the first step toward the ultimate goal of obtaining optimal hierarchical classifications. A plot of runtimes for the most time-intensive (non-parallelizable) part of the algorithm indicates a nearly linear time complexity so that, even for the extremely large Rossmann fold protein class, results were obtained in about a day. Conclusions This approach automates the rapid creation of protein domain hierarchies and thus will eliminate one of the most time consuming aspects of conserved domain database curation. At the same time, it also facilitates protein domain

  10. Molecular determinants for the thermodynamic and functional divergence of uniporter GLUT1 and proton symporter XylE.

    PubMed

    Ke, Meng; Yuan, Yafei; Jiang, Xin; Yan, Nieng; Gong, Haipeng

    2017-06-01

    GLUT1 facilitates the down-gradient translocation of D-glucose across cell membrane in mammals. XylE, an Escherichia coli homolog of GLUT1, utilizes proton gradient as an energy source to drive uphill D-xylose transport. Previous studies of XylE and GLUT1 suggest that the variation between an acidic residue (Asp27 in XylE) and a neutral one (Asn29 in GLUT1) is a key element for their mechanistic divergence. In this work, we combined computational and biochemical approaches to investigate the mechanism of proton coupling by XylE and the functional divergence between GLUT1 and XylE. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we evaluated the free energy profiles of the transition between inward- and outward-facing conformations for the apo proteins. Our results revealed the correlation between the protonation state and conformational preference in XylE, which is supported by the crystal structures. In addition, our simulations suggested a thermodynamic difference between XylE and GLUT1 that cannot be explained by the single residue variation at the protonation site. To understand the molecular basis, we applied Bayesian network models to analyze the alteration in the architecture of the hydrogen bond networks during conformational transition. The models and subsequent experimental validation suggest that multiple residue substitutions are required to produce the thermodynamic and functional distinction between XylE and GLUT1. Despite the lack of simulation studies with substrates, these computational and biochemical characterizations provide unprecedented insight into the mechanistic difference between proton symporters and uniporters.

  11. Sequencing of Pax6 Loci from the Elephant Shark Reveals a Family of Pax6 Genes in Vertebrate Genomes, Forged by Ancient Duplications and Divergences

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Philippe; Loosli, Felix; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tay, Alice; Murdoch, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro; van Heyningen, Veronica; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

    2013-01-01

    Pax6 is a developmental control gene essential for eye development throughout the animal kingdom. In addition, Pax6 plays key roles in other parts of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. In mammals a single Pax6 gene encoding multiple isoforms delivers these pleiotropic functions. Here we provide evidence that the genomes of many other vertebrate species contain multiple Pax6 loci. We sequenced Pax6-containing BACs from the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and found two distinct Pax6 loci. Pax6.1 is highly similar to mammalian Pax6, while Pax6.2 encodes a paired-less Pax6. Using synteny relationships, we identify homologs of this novel paired-less Pax6.2 gene in lizard and in frog, as well as in zebrafish and in other teleosts. In zebrafish two full-length Pax6 duplicates were known previously, originating from the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) and expressed in divergent patterns due to paralog-specific loss of cis-elements. We show that teleosts other than zebrafish also maintain duplicate full-length Pax6 loci, but differences in gene and regulatory domain structure suggest that these Pax6 paralogs originate from a more ancient duplication event and are hence renamed as Pax6.3. Sequence comparisons between mammalian and elephant shark Pax6.1 loci highlight the presence of short- and long-range conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). Functional analysis demonstrates the ancient role of long-range enhancers for Pax6 transcription. We show that the paired-less Pax6.2 ortholog in zebrafish is expressed specifically in the developing retina. Transgenic analysis of elephant shark and zebrafish Pax6.2 CNEs with homology to the mouse NRE/Pα internal promoter revealed highly specific retinal expression. Finally, morpholino depletion of zebrafish Pax6.2 resulted in a “small eye” phenotype, supporting a role in retinal development. In summary, our study reveals that the pleiotropic functions of Pax6 in vertebrates are served by a divergent

  12. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of the Ca(2+) sensor protein in store-operated Ca(2+) entry: stromal interaction molecule.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xinjiang

    2007-07-11

    Receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in many non-excitable cells initially induces Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, followed by Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. Recent findings have suggested that stromal interaction molecules (STIMs) function as the Ca(2+) sensor to detect changes of Ca(2+) content in the intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Human STIMs and invertebrate STIM share several functionally important protein domains, but diverge significantly in the C-terminus. To better understand the evolutionary significance of STIM activity, phylogenetic analysis of the STIM protein family was conducted after extensive database searching. Results from phylogeny and sequence analysis revealed early adaptation of the C-terminal divergent domains in Urochordata, before the expansion of STIMs in Vertebrata. STIMs were subsequently subjected to one round of gene duplication as early as in the Euteleostomi lineage in vertebrates, with a second round of fish-specific gene duplication. After duplication, STIM-1 and STIM-2 molecules appeared to have undergone purifying selection indicating strong evolutionary constraints within each group. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the EF-hand Ca(2+) binding domain and the SAM domain, together with functional divergence studies, identified critical regions/residues likely underlying functional changes, and provided evidence for the hypothesis that STIM-1 and STIM-2 might have developed distinct functional properties after duplication.

  13. Taxonomic and functional divergence of tree assemblages in a fragmented tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Sfair, Julia C; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Santos, Bráulio A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Tropical forests are being exposed to increasing levels of habitat loss and fragmentation, threatening the maintenance of global biodiversity. However, the effect that land-use change may have on the spatial dissimilarities in taxonomic and functional composition of remaining assemblages (i.e., taxonomic/functional β-diversity) remains poorly understood. We examined a large vegetation database from an old and severely fragmented Atlantic forest landscape to test two alternative hypotheses: (1) tree assemblages experience a taxonomic and functional homogenization (reduced β-diversity) between forest fragments and along forest edges, or alternatively, (2) these edge-affected forests show increased taxonomic and functional differentiation (increased β-diversity) when compared to forest interior (reference) stands. Taxonomic and functional β-diversity were examined via novel abundance-based metrics and considering functional traits related to plant dispersion, recruitment, and growth. Overall, taxonomic β-diversity among fragments was significantly higher than among edge and reference plots. Edge plots also showed higher β-diversity than reference plots, but only when considering dominant species. In functional terms, β-diversity among reference plots was also lower than among forest fragments and among edge plots. These patterns support the landscape-divergence hypothesis, which postulates that variable human disturbances among forest fragments and along forest edges can lead to contrasting trajectories of vegetation changes, thus increasing the compositional and functional differentiation of tree communities in these emerging environments. Our results also show that such differentiation can preserve landscape-wide biodiversity, thus overriding negative effects of habitat fragmentation on local (α) diversity. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that forest fragments and forest edges can be more valuable for maintaining species diversity and ecosystem function

  14. Phylogeography of Australia's king brown snake (Pseudechis australis) reveals Pliocene divergence and Pleistocene dispersal of a top predator.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Ulrich; Keogh, J Scott; Weigel, John; Smith, Laurie A; Mebs, Dietrich

    2005-03-01

    King brown snakes or mulga snakes (Pseudechis australis) are the largest and among the most dangerous and wide-ranging venomous snakes in Australia and New Guinea. They occur in diverse habitats, are important predators, and exhibit considerable morphological variation. We infer the relationships and historical biogeography of P. australis based on phylogenetic analysis of 1,249 base pairs from the mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 and three adjacent tRNA genes using Bayesian, maximum-likelihood, and maximum-parsimony methods. All methods reveal deep phylogenetic structure with four strongly supported clades comprising snakes from New Guinea (I), localities all over Australia (II), the Kimberleys of Western Australia (III), and north-central Australia (IV), suggesting a much more ancient radiation than previously believed. This conclusion is robust to different molecular clock estimations indicating divergence in Pliocene or Late Miocene, after landbridge dispersal to New Guinea had occurred. While members of clades I, III and IV are medium-sized, slender snakes, those of clade II attain large sizes and a robust build, rendering them top predators in their ecosystems. Genetic differentiation within clade II is low and haplotype distribution largely incongruent with geography or colour morphs, suggesting Pleistocene dispersal and recent ecomorph evolution. Significant haplotype diversity exists in clades III and IV, implying that clade IV comprises two species. Members of clade II are broadly sympatric with members of both northern Australian clades. Thus, our data support the recognition of at least five species from within P. australis (auct.) under various criteria. We discuss biogeographical, ecological and medical implications of our findings.

  15. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Prox1-EGFP Transgenic Mouse Gonads Reveals Divergent Modes of Lymphangiogenesis in the Testis and Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Svingen, Terje; François, Mathias; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature forms a specialized part of the circulatory system, being essential for maintaining tissue fluid homeostasis and for transport of hormones, macromolecules, and immune cells. Although lymphatic vessels are assumed to play an important role in most tissues, their morphogenesis and function in the gonads remains poorly understood. Here we have exploited a lymphatic-specific Prox1-EGFP reporter mouse model and optical projection tomography technology to characterize both the temporal and spatial development of the lymphatic vessel network in mouse testes and ovaries. We find that lymphangiogenesis in the testis is initiated during late gestation, but in contrast to other organs, lymphatic vessels remain confined to the testis cap and, unlike blood vessels, do not infiltrate the entire organ. Conversely, lymphatic vessels invade the ovarian tissue, beginning postnatally, and sprouting from preexisting lymphatic vessels at the extraovarian rete. The ovary develops a rich network of lymphatic vessels, extending from the medulla into the surrounding cortex adjacent to developing follicles. This study reveals distinct patterns of lymphangiogenesis in the testes and ovaries and will serve as the basis for the identification of the divergent molecular pathways that control morphogenesis and the function of the lymphatic vasculature in these two organs. PMID:23285114

  16. Functional tradeoffs underpin salinity-driven divergence in microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Chris L; Larsson, John; Yooseph, Shibu; Ininbergs, Karolina; Goll, Johannes; Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; McCrow, John P; Celepli, Narin; Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ekman, Martin; Lucas, Andrew J; Hagström, Åke; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brindefalk, Björn; Richter, Alexander R; Andersson, Anders F; Tenney, Aaron; Lundin, Daniel; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Nylander, Johan A A; Brami, Daniel; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E; Rusch, Douglas B; Hoffman, Jeff; Norrby, Erling; Friedman, Robert; Pinhassi, Jarone; Venter, J Craig; Bergman, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity.

  17. Functional Tradeoffs Underpin Salinity-Driven Divergence in Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yooseph, Shibu; Ininbergs, Karolina; Goll, Johannes; Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; McCrow, John P.; Celepli, Narin; Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ekman, Martin; Lucas, Andrew J.; Hagström, Åke; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Brindefalk, Björn; Richter, Alexander R.; Andersson, Anders F.; Tenney, Aaron; Lundin, Daniel; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Nylander, Johan A. A.; Brami, Daniel; Badger, Jonathan H.; Allen, Andrew E.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Hoffman, Jeff; Norrby, Erling; Friedman, Robert; Pinhassi, Jarone; Venter, J. Craig; Bergman, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity. PMID:24586863

  18. A Trans-Amazonian Screening of mtDNA Reveals Deep Intraspecific Divergence in Forest Birds and Suggests a Vast Underestimation of Species Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S.; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B.; Baker, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  19. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    PubMed

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  20. Functional and population genomic divergence within and between two species of killifish adapted to different osmotic niches.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Genevieve M; Brennan, Reid S; Berdan, Emma L; Fuller, Rebecca C; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to salinity affects species distributions, promotes speciation, and guides many evolutionary patterns in fishes. To uncover the basis of a complex trait like osmoregulation, genome-level analyses are sensible. We combine population genomic scans with genome expression profiling to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with divergence between osmotic environments. We compared transcriptome sequence divergence between multiple freshwater and saltwater populations of the rainwater killifish, Lucania parva. We also compared sequence divergence between L. parva and its sister species, Lucania goodei, a freshwater specialist. We found highly differentiated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between freshwater and saltwater L. parva populations in cell junction and ion transport genes, including V-type H(+) ATPase. Between species, we found divergence in reproduction and osmotic stress genes. Genes that were differentially expressed between species during osmotic acclimation included genes involved in ion transport and cell volume regulation. Gene sets that were divergent in coding sequence and divergent in expression did not overlap, although they did converge in function. Like many studies using genomic scans, our approach may miss some loci that contribute to adaptation but have complicated patterns of allelic variation. Our study suggests that gene expression and coding sequence may evolve independently as populations adapt to a complex physiological challenge.

  1. Genomic and Metabolic Profiling of Nonulosonic Acids in Vibrionaceae Reveal Biochemical Phenotypes of Allelic Divergence in Vibrio vulnificus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Amanda L.; Lubin, Jean-Bernard; Argade, Shilpa; Naidu, Natasha; Choudhury, Biswa; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2011-01-01

    Nonulosonic acids (NulOs) encompass a large group of structurally diverse nine-carbon backbone α-keto sugars widely distributed among the three domains of life. Mammals express a specialized version of NulOs called sialic acids, which are displayed in prominent terminal positions of cell surface and secreted glycoconjugates. Within bacteria, the ability to synthesize NulOs has been demonstrated in a number of human pathogens and is phylogenetically widespread. Here we examine the distribution, diversity, evolution, and function of NulO biosynthesis pathways in members of the family Vibrionaceae. Among 27 species of Vibrionaceae examined at the genomic level, 12 species contained nab gene clusters. We document examples of duplication, divergence, horizontal transfer, and recombination of nab gene clusters in different Vibrionaceae lineages. Biochemical analyses, including mass spectrometry, confirmed that many species do, in fact, produce di-N-acetylated NulOs. A library of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio vulnificus served as a model for further investigation of nab allele genotypes and levels of NulO expression. The data show that lineage I isolates produce about 20-fold higher levels of NulOs than lineage II isolates. Moreover, nab gene alleles found in a subset of V. vulnificus clinical isolates express 40-fold higher levels of NulOs than nab alleles associated with environmental isolates. Taken together, the data implicate the family Vibrionaceae as a “hot spot” of NulO evolution and suggest that these molecules may have diverse roles in environmental persistence and/or animal virulence. PMID:21724895

  2. Functional and Structural Divergence of an Unusual LTR Retrotransposon Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Aiko; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTRs) more than 3 kb are not frequent in most eukaryotic genomes. Rice LTR retrotransposon, Retrosat2, has LTRs greater than 3.2 kb and two open reading frames (ORF): ORF1 encodes enzymes for retrotransposition whereas no function can be assigned to ORF0 as it is not found in any other organism. A variety of experimental and in silico approaches were used to determine the origin of Retrosat2 and putative function of ORF0. Our data show that not only is Retrosat2 highly abundant in the Oryza genus, it may yet be active in rice. Homologs of Retrosat2 were identified in maize, sorghum, Arabidopsis and other plant genomes suggesting that the Retrosat2 family is of ancient origin. Several putatively cis-acting elements, some multicopy, that regulate retrotransposon replication or responsiveness to environmental factors were found in the LTRs of Retrosat2. Unlike the ORF1, the ORF0 sequences from Retrosat2 and homologs are divergent at the sequence level, 3D-structures and predicted biological functions. In contrast to other retrotransposon families, Retrosat2 and its homologs are dispersed throughout genomes and not concentrated in the specific chromosomal regions, such as centromeres. The genomic distribution of Retrosat2 homologs varies across species which likely reflects the differing evolutionary trajectories of this retrotransposon family across diverse species. PMID:23119066

  3. Functional Divergence of a Syntenic Invertase Gene Family in Tomato, Potato, and Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Fridman, Eyal; Zamir, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Comparative analysis of complex developmental pathways depends on our ability to resolve the function of members of gene families across taxonomic groups. LIN5, which belongs to a small gene family of apoplastic invertases in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), is a quantitative trait locus that modifies fruit sugar composition. We have compared the genomic organization and expression of this gene family in the two distantly related species: tomato and Arabidopsis. Invertase family members reside on segmental duplications in the near-colinear genomes of tomato and potato (Solanum tuberosum). These chromosomal segments are syntenically duplicated in the model plant Arabidopsis. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of genes in the microsyntenic region, we conclude that these segmental duplications arose independently after the separation of the tomato/potato clade from Arabidopsis. Rapid regulatory divergence is characteristic of the invertase family. Interestingly, although the processes of gene duplication and specialization of expression occurred separately in the two species, synteny-based orthologs from both clades acquired similar organ-specific expression. This similar expression pattern of the genes is evidence of comparable evolutionary constraints (parallel evolution) rather than of functional orthology. The observation that functional orthology cannot be identified through analysis of expression similarity highlights the caution that needs to be exercised in extrapolating developmental networks from a model organism. PMID:12586884

  4. Differential Selection within the Drosophila Retinal Determination Network and Evidence for Functional Divergence between Paralog Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rhea R.; Cruickshank, Tami; Kumar, Justin P.

    2011-01-01

    The retinal determination (RD) network in Drosophila comprises fourteen known nuclear proteins that include DNA binding proteins, transcriptional co-activators, kinases and phosphatases. The composition of the network varies considerably throughout the animal kingdom, with the network in several basal insects having fewer members and with vertebrates having potentially significantly higher numbers of retinal determination genes. One important contributing factor for the variation in gene number within the network is gene duplication. For example, ten members of the RD network in Drosophila are derived from duplication events. Here we present an analysis of the coding regions of the five pairs of duplicate genes from within the retinal determination network of several different Drosophila species. We demonstrate that there is differential selection across the coding regions of all RD genes. Additionally, some of the most significant differences in ratios of non-silent to silent site substitutions (dN/dS) between paralog pairs are found within regions that have no ascribed function. Previous structure/function analyses of several duplicate genes have identified areas within one gene that contain novel activities when compared to its paralog. The evolutionary analysis presented here identifies these same areas in the paralogs as being under high levels of relaxed selection. We suggest that sequence divergence between paralogs and selection signatures can be used as a reasonable predictor of functional changes in rapidly evolving motifs. PMID:21210943

  5. Divergent functional profiles of acidic and basic phospholipases A2 in the venom of the snake Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Charris, Eliécer; Montealegre-Sánchez, Leonel; Solano-Redondo, Luis; Castro-Herrera, Fernando; Fierro-Pérez, Leonardo; Lomonte, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    The Lansberg's hognose pitviper, Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii, inhabits northern Colombia. A recent proteomic characterization of its venom (J. Proteomics [2015] 114, 287-299) revealed the presence of phospholipases A2 (PLA2) accounting for 16.2% of its proteins. The two most abundant PLA2s were biochemically and functionally characterized. Pllans-I is a basic, dimeric enzyme with a monomer mass of 14,136 Da, while Pllans-II is an acidic, monomeric enzyme of 13,901 Da. Both have Asp49 in their partial amino acid sequences and, accordingly, are catalytically active upon natural or synthetic substrates. Nevertheless, these two enzymes differ markedly in their bioactivities. Pllans-I induces myonecrosis, edema, and is lethal by intracerebro-ventricular injection in mice, as well as cytolytic and anticoagulant in vitro. In contrast, Pllans-II is devoid of these effects, except for the induction of a moderate edema. In spite of lacking myotoxicity, Pllans-II enhances the muscle damaging action of Pllans-I in vivo. Altogether, results further illustrate the divergent functional profiles of basic and acidic PLA2s in viperid venoms, and suggest that Pllans-I plays a myotoxic role in envenomings by P. l. lansbergii, whereas Pllans-II, apparently devoid of toxicity, enhances muscle damage caused by Pllans-I. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular evolution accompanying functional divergence of duplicated genes along the plant starch biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Nougué, Odrade; Corbi, Jonathan; Ball, Steven G; Manicacci, Domenica; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2014-05-15

    Starch is the main source of carbon storage in the Archaeplastida. The starch biosynthesis pathway (sbp) emerged from cytosolic glycogen metabolism shortly after plastid endosymbiosis and was redirected to the plastid stroma during the green lineage divergence. The SBP is a complex network of genes, most of which are members of large multigene families. While some gene duplications occurred in the Archaeplastida ancestor, most were generated during the sbp redirection process, and the remaining few paralogs were generated through compartmentalization or tissue specialization during the evolution of the land plants. In the present study, we tested models of duplicated gene evolution in order to understand the evolutionary forces that have led to the development of SBP in angiosperms. We combined phylogenetic analyses and tests on the rates of evolution along branches emerging from major duplication events in six gene families encoding sbp enzymes. We found evidence of positive selection along branches following cytosolic or plastidial specialization in two starch phosphorylases and identified numerous residues that exhibited changes in volume, polarity or charge. Starch synthases, branching and debranching enzymes functional specializations were also accompanied by accelerated evolution. However, none of the sites targeted by selection corresponded to known functional domains, catalytic or regulatory. Interestingly, among the 13 duplications tested, 7 exhibited evidence of positive selection in both branches emerging from the duplication, 2 in only one branch, and 4 in none of the branches. The majority of duplications were followed by accelerated evolution targeting specific residues along both branches. This pattern was consistent with the optimization of the two sub-functions originally fulfilled by the ancestral gene before duplication. Our results thereby provide strong support to the so-called "Escape from Adaptive Conflict" (EAC) model. Because none of the

  7. Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function in Nellore cattle divergently ranked on residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Baldi, Fernando; de Souza, Fábio Ricardo Pablos; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2015-02-01

    Several measures have been proposed to investigate and improve feed efficiency in cattle. One of the most commonly used measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI), which is estimated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake based on the animal's average live weight. This measure permits to identify and select the most efficient animals without selecting for higher mature weight. Mitochondrial function has been indicated as a major factor that influences RFI. The analysis of genes involved in mitochondrial function is therefore an alternative to identify molecular markers associated with higher feed efficiency. This study analyzed the expression of PGC1α, TFAM, UCP2 and UCP3 genes by quantitative real-time PCR in liver and muscle tissues of two groups of Nellore cattle divergently ranked on RFI values in order to evaluate the relationship of these genes with RFI. In liver tissue, higher expression of TFAM and UCP2 genes was observed in the negative RFI group. Expression of PGC1α gene did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas UCP3 gene was not expressed in liver tissue. In muscle tissue, higher expression of TFAM gene was observed in the positive RFI group. Expression of PGC1α, UCP2 and UCP3 genes did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggest the use of TFAM and UCP2 as possible candidate gene markers in breeding programs designed to increase the feed efficiency of Nellore cattle.

  8. Duplicated CFTR isoforms in eels diverged in regulatory structures and osmoregulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty Kwok-Shing; Pipil, Supriya; Kato, Akira; Takei, Yoshio

    2016-09-01

    Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isoforms, CFTRa and CFTRb, were cloned in Japanese eel and their structures and functions were studied in different osmoregulatory tissues in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) eels. Molecular phylogenetic results suggested that the CFTR duplication in eels occurred independently of the duplication event in salmonid. CFTRa was expressed in the intestine and kidney and downregulated in both tissues in SW eels, while CFTRb was specifically expressed in the gill and greatly upregulated in SW eels. Structurally, the CFTR isoforms are similar in most functional domains except the regulatory R domain, where the R domain of CFTRa is similar to that of human CFTR but the R domain of CFTRb is unique in having high intrinsic negative charges and fewer phosphorylation sites, suggesting divergence of isoforms in terms of gating properties and hormonal regulation. Immunohistochemical results showed that CFTR was localized on the apical regions of SW ionocytes, suggesting a Cl(-) secretory role as in other teleosts. In intestine and kidney, however, immunoreactive CFTR was mostly found in the cytosolic vesicles in FW eels, indicating that Cl(-) channel activity could be low at basal conditions, but could be rapidly increased by membrane insertion of the stored channels. Guanylin (GN), a known hormone that increases CFTR activity in mammalian intestine, failed to redistribute CFTR and to affect its expression in eel intestine. The results suggested that GN-independent CFTR regulation is present in eel intestine and kidney.

  9. Massive expansion and functional divergence of innate immune genes in a protostome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Guo, Ximing; Litman, Gary W.; Dishaw, Larry J.; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    The molecules that mediate innate immunity are encoded by relatively few genes and exhibit broad specificity. Detailed annotation of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) genome, a protostome invertebrate, reveals large-scale duplication and divergence of multigene families encoding molecules that effect innate immunity. Transcriptome analyses indicate dynamic and orchestrated specific expression of numerous innate immune genes in response to experimental challenge with pathogens, including bacteria, and a pathogenic virus. Variable expression of individual members of the multigene families encoding these genes also occurs during different types of abiotic stress (environmentally-equivalent conditions of temperature, salinity and desiccation). Multiple families of immune genes are responsive in concert to certain biotic and abiotic challenges. Individual members of expanded families of immune genes are differentially expressed under both biotic challenge and abiotic stress conditions. Members of the same families of innate immune molecules also are transcribed in developmental stage- and tissue-specific manners. An integrated, highly complex innate immune system that exhibits remarkable discriminatory properties and responses to different pathogens as well as environmental stress has arisen through the adaptive recruitment of tandem duplicated genes. The co-adaptive evolution of stress and innate immune responses appears to have an ancient origin in phylogeny. PMID:25732911

  10. Recurrent functional divergence of early tetrapod keratins in amphibian toe pads and mammalian hair

    PubMed Central

    Vandebergh, Wim; Maex, Margo; Bossuyt, Franky; Van Bocxlaer, Ines

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians have invaded arboreal habitats multiple times independently during their evolution. Adaptation to these habitats was nearly always accompanied by the presence or appearance of toe pads, flattened enlargements on tips of fingers and toes that provide adhesive power in these environments. The strength and elasticity of the toe pad relies on polygonal arrayed cells ending in nanoscale projections, which are densely packed with cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we characterized and determined the evolutionary origin of these proteins in the toe pad of the tree frog Hyla cinerea. We created a subtracted cDNA library enriching genes that are expressed in the toe pad, but nowhere else in the toe. Our analyses revealed five alpha keratins as main structural proteins of the amphibian toe pad. Phylogenetic analyses show that these proteins belong to different keratin lineages that originated in an early tetrapod ancestor and in mammals evolved to become the major keratin types of hair. The ancestral keratins were probably already expressed in areas that required skin reinforcement in early tetrapods, and subsequently diverged to support fundamentally different adaptive structures in amphibians and mammals. PMID:23485876

  11. Evolutionary Divergence of the C-terminal Domain of Complexin Accounts for Functional Disparities between Vertebrate and Invertebrate Complexins

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, Rachel T.; Parisotto, Daniel A.; Li, Zhenlong; Terakawa, Mayu S.; Snead, David; Basu, Ishani; Weinstein, Harel; Eliezer, David; Dittman, Jeremy S.

    2017-01-01

    Complexin is a critical presynaptic protein that regulates both spontaneous and calcium-triggered neurotransmitter release in all synapses. Although the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is highly conserved and required for all known complexin functions, the remainder of the protein has profoundly diverged across the animal kingdom. Striking disparities in complexin inhibitory activity are observed between vertebrate and invertebrate complexins but little is known about the source of these differences or their relevance to the underlying mechanism of complexin regulation. We found that mouse complexin 1 (mCpx1) failed to inhibit neurotransmitter secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions lacking the worm complexin 1 (CPX-1). This lack of inhibition stemmed from differences in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of mCpx1. Previous studies revealed that the CTD selectively binds to highly curved membranes and directs complexin to synaptic vesicles. Although mouse and worm complexin have similar lipid binding affinity, their last few amino acids differ in both hydrophobicity and in lipid binding conformation, and these differences strongly impacted CPX-1 inhibitory function. Moreover, function was not maintained if a critical amphipathic helix in the worm CPX-1 CTD was replaced with the corresponding mCpx1 amphipathic helix. Invertebrate complexins generally shared more C-terminal similarity with vertebrate complexin 3 and 4 isoforms, and the amphipathic region of mouse complexin 3 significantly restored inhibitory function to worm CPX-1. We hypothesize that the CTD of complexin is essential in conferring an inhibitory function to complexin, and that this inhibitory activity has been attenuated in the vertebrate complexin 1 and 2 isoforms. Thus, evolutionary changes in the complexin CTD differentially shape its synaptic role across phylogeny. PMID:28603484

  12. Divergent Functional Properties of the Ribosome-Associated Molecular Chaperone Ssb Compared with Other Hsp70s

    PubMed Central

    Pfund, Christine; Huang, Peggy; Lopez-Hoyo, Nelson; Craig, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Ssbs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are ribosome-associated molecular chaperones, which can be cross-linked to nascent polypeptide chains. Because Ssbs are members of a divergent subclass of Hsp70s found thus far only in fungi, we asked if the structural requirements for in vivo function were similar to those of “classic” Hsp70s. An intact peptide-binding domain is essential and an alteration of a conserved residue in the peptide-binding cleft (V442) affects function. However, Ssb tolerates a number of alterations in the peptide-binding cleft, revealing a high degree of flexibility in its functional requirements. Because binding of Ssb to peptide substrates in vitro was undetectable, we assessed the importance of substrate binding using the chimera BAB, in which the peptide binding domain of Ssb is exchanged for the analogous domain of the more “classical” Hsp70, Ssa. BAB, which binds peptide substrates in vitro, can substitute for Ssb in vivo. Alteration of a residue in the peptide-binding cleft of BAB creates a protein with a reduced affinity for peptide and altered ribosome binding that is unable to substitute for Ssb in vivo. These results indicate that Ssb's ability to bind unfolded polypeptides is likely critical for its function. This binding accounts, in part, for its stable interaction with translating ribosomes, even although it has a low affinity for peptides that detectably bind to other Hsp70s in vitro. These unusual properties may allow Ssb to function efficiently as a chaperone for ribosome-bound nascent chains. PMID:11739779

  13. Direct Comparison of Mice Null for Liver or Intestinal Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Reveals Highly Divergent Phenotypic Responses to High Fat Feeding*

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Angela M.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B.; Fried, Susan K.; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP−/− and LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP−/− mice, whereas LFABP−/− mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP−/− mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP−/− mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP−/− mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP−/−, perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP−/− mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  14. Conserved and divergent features of the structure and function of La and La-related proteins (LARPs).

    PubMed

    Bayfield, Mark A; Yang, Ruiqing; Maraia, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Genuine La proteins contain two RNA binding motifs, a La motif (LAM) followed by a RNA recognition motif (RRM), arranged in a unique way to bind RNA. These proteins interact with an extensive variety of cellular RNAs and exhibit activities in two broad categories: i) to promote the metabolism of nascent pol III transcripts, including precursor-tRNAs, by binding to their common, UUU-3'OH containing ends, and ii) to modulate the translation of certain mRNAs involving an unknown binding mechanism. Characterization of several La-RNA crystal structures as well as biochemical studies reveal insight into their unique two-motif domain architecture and how the LAM recognizes UUU-3'OH while the RRM binds other parts of a pre-tRNA. Recent studies of members of distinct families of conserved La-related proteins (LARPs) indicate that some of these harbor activity related to genuine La proteins, suggesting that their UUU-3'OH binding mode has been appropriated for the assembly and regulation of a specific snRNP (e.g., 7SK snRNP assembly by hLARP7/PIP7S). Analyses of other LARP family members suggest more diverged RNA binding modes and specialization for cytoplasmic mRNA-related functions. Thus it appears that while genuine La proteins exhibit broad general involvement in both snRNA-related and mRNA-related functions, different LARP families may have evolved specialized activities in either snRNA or mRNA-related functions. In this review, we summarize recent progress that has led to greater understanding of the structure and function of La proteins and their roles in tRNA processing and RNP assembly dynamics, as well as progress on the different LARPs.

  15. Conserved and divergent features of the structure and function of La and La-related proteins (LARPs)

    PubMed Central

    Bayfield, Mark A.; Yang, Ruiqing; Maraia, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Genuine La proteins contain two RNA binding motifs, a La motif (LAM) followed by a RNA recognition motif (RRM), arranged in a unique way to bind RNA. These proteins interact with an extensive variety of cellular RNAs and exhibit activities in two broad categories: i) to promote the metabolism of nascent pol III transcripts, including precursor-tRNAs, by binding to their common, UUU-3’OH containing ends, and ii) to modulate the translation of certain mRNAs involving an unknown binding mechanism. Characterization of several La-RNA crystal structures as well as biochemical studies reveal insight into their unique two-motif domain architecture and how the LAM recognizes UUU-3’OH while the RRM binds other parts of a pre-tRNA. Recent studies of members of distinct families of conserved La-related proteins (LARPs) indicate that some of these harbor activity related to genuine La proteins, suggesting that their UUU-3’OH binding mode has been appropriated for the assembly and regulation of a specific snRNP (e.g., 7SK snRNA assembly by hLARP7/PIP7S). Analyses of other LARP family members (i.e., hLARP4, hLARP6) suggest more diverged RNA binding modes and specialization for cytoplasmic mRNA-related functions. Thus it appears that while genuine La proteins exhibit broad general involvement in both snRNA-related and mRNA-related functions, different LARP families may have evolved specialized activities in either snRNA or mRNA related functions. In this review, we summarize recent progress that has led to greater understanding of the structure and function of La proteins and their roles in tRNA processing and RNP assembly dynamics, as well as progress on the different LARPs. PMID:20138158

  16. SERPINA2 Is a Novel Gene with a Divergent Function from SERPINA1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Manuella; Figueiredo, Joana; Silva, Diana Isabel; Castro, Patrícia; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Simões-Correia, Joana; Seixas, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs) are a superfamily of highly conserved proteins that play a key role in controlling the activity of proteases in diverse biological processes. The SERPIN cluster located at the 14q32.1 region includes the gene coding for SERPINA1, and a highly homologous sequence, SERPINA2, which was originally thought to be a pseudogene. We have previously shown that SERPINA2 is expressed in different tissues, namely leukocytes and testes, suggesting that it is a functional SERPIN. To investigate the function of SERPINA2, we used HeLa cells stably transduced with the different variants of SERPINA2 and SERPINA1 (M1, S and Z) and leukocytes as the in vivo model. We identified SERPINA2 as a 52 kDa intracellular glycoprotein, which is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), independently of the variant analyzed. SERPINA2 is not significantly regulated by proteasome, proposing that ER localization is not due to misfolding. Specific features of SERPINA2 include the absence of insoluble aggregates and the insignificant response to cell stress, suggesting that it is a non-polymerogenic protein with divergent activity of SERPINA1. Using phylogenetic analysis, we propose an origin of SERPINA2 in the crown of primates, and we unveiled the overall conservation of SERPINA2 and A1. Nonetheless, few SERPINA2 residues seem to have evolved faster, contributing to the emergence of a new advantageous function, possibly as a chymotrypsin-like SERPIN. Herein, we present evidences that SERPINA2 is an active gene, coding for an ER-resident protein, which may act as substrate or adjuvant of ER-chaperones. PMID:23826168

  17. Mutations in PLCδ1 associated with hereditary leukonychia display divergent PIP2 hydrolytic function.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, Michail; Thanassoulas, Angelos; Beck, Konrad; Theodoridou, Maria; Kew, Jasmine; Kashir, Junaid; Calver, Brian L; Matthews, Emily; Rizkallah, Pierre; Sideratou, Zili; Nounesis, George; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Hereditary leukonychia is a rare genetic nail disorder characterized by distinctive whitening of the nail plate of all 20 nails. Hereditary leukonychia may exist as an isolated feature, or in simultaneous occurrence with other cutaneous or systemic pathologies. Associations between hereditary leukonychia and mutations in the gene encoding phospholipase C delta-1 (PLCδ1) have previously been identified. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PLCδ1 mutations and hereditary leukonychia remain uncharacterized. In the present study, we introduced hereditary leukonychia-linked human PLCδ1 mutations (C209R, A574T and S740R) into equivalent residues of rat PLCδ1 (C188R, A553T and S719R), and investigated their effect on the biophysical and biochemical properties of the PLCδ1 protein. Our data suggest that these PLCδ1 mutations associated with hereditary leukonychia do not uniformly alter the enzymatic ability of this protein leading to loss/gain of function, but result in significantly divergent enzymatic properties. We demonstrate here for the first time the importance of PLC-mediated calcium (Ca(2+) ) signalling within the manifestation of hereditary leukonychia. PLCδ1 is almost ubiquitous in mammalian cells, which may explain why hereditary leukonychia manifests in association with other systemic pathologies relating to keratin expression. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Neural convergence and divergence in the mammalian cerebral cortex: from experimental neuroanatomy to functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Man, Kingson; Kaplan, Jonas; Damasio, Hanna; Damasio, Antonio

    2013-12-15

    A development essential for understanding the neural basis of complex behavior and cognition is the description, during the last quarter of the twentieth century, of detailed patterns of neuronal circuitry in the mammalian cerebral cortex. This effort established that sensory pathways exhibit successive levels of convergence, from the early sensory cortices to sensory-specific and multisensory association cortices, culminating in maximally integrative regions. It was also established that this convergence is reciprocated by successive levels of divergence, from the maximally integrative areas all the way back to the early sensory cortices. This article first provides a brief historical review of these neuroanatomical findings, which were relevant to the study of brain and mind-behavior relationships and to the proposal of heuristic anatomofunctional frameworks. In a second part, the article reviews new evidence that has accumulated from studies of functional neuroimaging, employing both univariate and multivariate analyses, as well as electrophysiology, in humans and other mammals, that the integration of information across the auditory, visual, and somatosensory-motor modalities proceeds in a content-rich manner. Behaviorally and cognitively relevant information is extracted from and conserved across the different modalities, both in higher order association cortices and in early sensory cortices. Such stimulus-specific information is plausibly relayed along the neuroanatomical pathways alluded to above. The evidence reviewed here suggests the need for further in-depth exploration of the intricate connectivity of the mammalian cerebral cortex in experimental neuroanatomical studies.

  19. The integration of locomotion and prey capture in divergent cottid fishes: functional disparity despite morphological similarity.

    PubMed

    Kane, Emily A; Higham, Timothy E

    2011-04-01

    Many mobile animals rely on the integration of locomotion and feeding to capture prey. Fishes commonly swim up to a prey item and utilize a combination of ram and suction feeding for prey capture. Marine cottids represent a diverse and abundant lineage of fishes that exhibit variation in feeding mode that is related to their mouth morphology. However, little is known regarding the integration of the locomotor and feeding systems during prey capture. We quantified the feeding kinematics, feeding performance and integration of locomotion and feeding in two species of divergent cottids: Blepsias cirrhosus (silver-spotted sculpin) and Oligocottus maculosus (tidepool sculpin). Individuals were caught from sympatric habitats near the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island and filmed with a high-speed video camera (500 Hz) while feeding on amphipod prey. Two principal component axes summarize differences in integration and feeding mode despite similarity in attack velocity and feeding morphology (peak gape, peak cranial elevation and peak jaw protrusion). A greater number of correlations between locomotor and feeding variables in B. cirrhosus, compared with O. maculosus, indicate greater integration. We conclude that traditional measures of attack kinematics do not capture functionally and ecologically relevant differences between species. The mechanisms underlying differences in locomotor strategy likely result from unexplored morphological or ecological differences between species. In cottids, integration is apparent in more basal, subtidal species such as B. cirrhosus, and the need for integration may be superceded by demands from the habitat in more derived, shallow-water species such as O. maculosus.

  20. The dual role of Andean topography in primary divergence: functional and neutral variation among populations of the hummingbird, Metallura tyrianthina.

    PubMed

    Benham, Phred M; Witt, Christopher C

    2016-01-22

    The ridges and valleys of the Andes create physical barriers that limit animal dispersal and cause deterministic local variation in rainfall. This has resulted in physical isolation of animal populations and variation in habitats, each of which has likely contributed to the evolution of high species diversity in the region. However, the relative influences of geographic isolation, ecoclimatic conditions, and their potential interactions remain poorly understood. To address this, we compared patterns of genetic and morphological diversity in Peruvian populations of the hummingbird Metallura tyrianthina. Phylogenetic and variation partitioning analyses showed that geographic isolation rather than climatic dissimilarity explained the greatest proportion of genetic variance. In contrast, bill length variation was explained by climatic seasonality, but not by genetic divergence. We found that mutation-scaled migration rate (m) between persistently humid and semi-humid environments was nearly 20 times higher when the habitats were contiguous (m = 39.9) than when separated by a barrier, the Cordillera de Vilcanota (m = 2.1). Moreover, the population experiencing more gene flow exhibited a lesser degree of bill length divergence despite similar differences in climate. Geographic isolation is necessary for genetic divergence. Ecological differences, represented here by climate characteristics, are necessary for functional divergence. Gene flow appears to hinder the evolution of functional traits toward local adaptive optima. This suggests that functional diversification requires geographic isolation followed or accompanied by a shift in ecological conditions. Andean topography causes both isolation and climatic variation, underscoring its dual role in biotic diversification.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Bo; Li, Chang-Fu; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    As part of the efforts to understand isoflavonoid metabolism in Pueraria lobata at the molecular level, the cDNAs encoding two divergent 4-coumarate : coenzyme A ligases (4CLs, designated Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2, respectively) were isolated from P. lobata roots. Sequence analysis revealed that Pl4CL1 had an N-terminal extension of twenty-one amino acid residues compared to Pl4CL2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pl4CL1 and Pl4CL2 fell into angiosperm Class II and Class I, respectively. Through in vitro biochemical assays, both Pl4CLs were found to have the capacity to utilize 4-coumarate and trans-cinnamate as substrates, while neither of them could convert sinapate. Pl4CL2 had a broader substrate specificity than Pl4CL1. The affinity of Pl4CL1 for 4-coumarate was 2.6-fold higher than that of Pl4CL2 (with the Km values of 3.5 µM and 9.1 µM, respectively). Combining the dataset including gene expression profiles, metabolites measurements, and biochemical properties, our results indicated that Pl4CL1, just as other angiosperm Class II 4CLs, might play a role in isoflavone biosynthesis in P. lobata, while Pl4CL2 belongs to angiosperm Class I, and may function as a housekeeping enzyme concerning lignification.

  2. Recent Duplication and Functional Divergence in Parasitic Nematode Levamisole-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duguet, Thomas B.; Charvet, Claude L.; Forrester, Sean G.; Wever, Claudia M.; Dent, Joseph A.; Neveu, Cedric; Beech, Robin N.

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species. The pentameric levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has been characterized from C. elegans, comprised of five different subunits. More recently, cognate receptors have been reconstituted from multiple parasitic nematodes that are found to vary in subunit composition. In order to understand the implications of receptor composition change and the origins of potentially novel drug targets, we investigated a specific example of subunit duplication based on analysis of genome data for 25 species from the 50 helminth genome initiative. We found multiple independent duplications of the unc-29, acetylcholine receptor subunit, where codon substitution rate analysis identified positive, directional selection acting on amino acid positions associated with subunit assembly. Characterization of four gene copies from a model parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, demonstrated that each copy has acquired unique functional characteristics based on phenotype rescue of transgenic C. elegans and electrophysiology of receptors reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found evidence that a specific incompatibility has evolved for two subunits co-expressed in muscle. We demonstrated that functional divergence of acetylcholine receptors, driven by directional selection, can occur more rapidly than previously thought and may be mediated by alteration of receptor assembly. This phenomenon is common among the clade V parasitic

  3. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Trace Amine–Associated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Eyun, Seong-il; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Moriyama, Etsuko N.

    2016-01-01

    Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are known to be expressed in olfactory sensory neurons. A limited number of molecular evolutionary studies have been done for TAARs so far. To elucidate how lineage-specific evolution contributed to their functional divergence, we examined 30 metazoan genomes. In total, 493 TAAR gene candidates (including 84 pseudogenes) were identified from 26 vertebrate genomes. TAARs were not identified from non-vertebrate genomes. An ancestral-type TAAR-like gene appeared to have emerged in lamprey. We found four therian-specific TAAR subfamilies (one eutherian-specific and three metatherian-specific) in addition to previously known nine subfamilies. Many species-specific TAAR gene duplications and losses contributed to a large variation of TAAR gene numbers among mammals, ranging from 0 in dolphin to 26 in flying fox. TAARs are classified into two groups based on binding preferences for primary or tertiary amines as well as their sequence similarities. Primary amine-detecting TAARs (TAAR1-4) have emerged earlier, generally have single-copy orthologs (very few duplication or loss), and have evolved under strong functional constraints. In contrast, tertiary amine-detecting TAARs (TAAR5-9) have emerged more recently and the majority of them experienced higher rates of gene duplications. Protein members that belong to the tertiary amine-detecting TAAR group also showed the patterns of positive selection especially in the area surrounding the ligand-binding pocket, which could have affected ligand-binding activities and specificities. Expansions of the tertiary amine-detecting TAAR gene family may have played important roles in terrestrial adaptations of therian mammals. Molecular evolution of the TAAR gene family appears to be governed by a complex, species-specific, interplay between environmental and evolutionary factors. PMID:26963722

  4. The Active Site of a Carbohydrate Esterase Displays Divergent Catalytic and Noncatalytic Binding Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Virginia M. R; Flint, James E; Pinheiro, Benedita A; Goyal, Arun; Prates, José A. M; Izumi, Atsushi; Stålbrand, Henrik; Morland, Carl; Cartmell, Alan; Kolenova, Katarina; Topakas, Evangelos; Dodson, Eleanor J; Bolam, David N; Davies, Gideon J; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A; Gilbert, Harry J

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional proteins, which play a critical role in many biological processes, have typically evolved through the recruitment of different domains that have the required functional diversity. Thus the different activities displayed by these proteins are mediated by spatially distinct domains, consistent with the specific chemical requirements of each activity. Indeed, current evolutionary theory argues that the colocalization of diverse activities within an enzyme is likely to be a rare event, because it would compromise the existing activity of the protein. In contrast to this view, a potential example of multifunctional recruitment into a single protein domain is provided by CtCel5C-CE2, which contains an N-terminal module that displays cellulase activity and a C-terminal module, CtCE2, which exhibits a noncatalytic cellulose-binding function but also shares sequence identity with the CE2 family of esterases. Here we show that, unlike other CE2 members, the CtCE2 domain displays divergent catalytic esterase and noncatalytic carbohydrate binding functions. Intriguingly, these diverse activities are housed within the same site on the protein. Thus, a critical component of the active site of CtCE2, the catalytic Ser-His dyad, in harness with inserted aromatic residues, confers noncatalytic binding to cellulose whilst the active site of the domain retains its esterase activity. CtCE2 catalyses deacetylation of noncellulosic plant structural polysaccharides to deprotect these substrates for attack by other enzymes. Yet it also acts as a cellulose-binding domain, which promotes the activity of the appended cellulase on recalcitrant substrates. The CE2 family encapsulates the requirement for multiple activities by biocatalysts that attack challenging macromolecular substrates, including the grafting of a second, powerful and discrete noncatalytic binding functionality into the active site of an enzyme. This article provides a rare example of “gene sharing

  5. Functional Divergence of APETALA1 and FRUITFULL is due to Changes in both Regulation and Coding Sequence

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W.; Mohamed, Abeer; Litt, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications are prevalent in plants, and functional divergence subsequent to duplication may be linked with the occurrence of novel phenotypes in plant evolution. Here, we examine the functional divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL), which arose via a duplication correlated with the origin of the core eudicots. Both AP1 and FUL play a role in floral meristem identity, but AP1 is required for the formation of sepals and petals whereas FUL is involved in cauline leaf and fruit development. AP1 and FUL are expressed in mutually exclusive domains but also differ in sequence, with unique conserved motifs in the C-terminal domains of the proteins that suggest functional differentiation. To determine whether the functional divergence of AP1 and FUL is due to changes in regulation or changes in coding sequence, we performed promoter swap experiments, in which FUL was expressed in the AP1 domain in the ap1 mutant and vice versa. Our results show that FUL can partially substitute for AP1, and AP1 can partially substitute for FUL; thus, the functional divergence between AP1 and FUL is due to changes in both regulation and coding sequence. We also mutated AP1 and FUL conserved motifs to determine if they are required for protein function and tested the ability of these mutated proteins to interact in yeast with known partners. We found that these motifs appear to play at best a minor role in protein function and dimerization capability, despite being strongly conserved. Our results suggest that the functional differentiation of these two paralogous key transcriptional regulators involves both differences in regulation and in sequence; however, sequence changes in the form of unique conserved motifs do not explain the differences observed. PMID:26697035

  6. Adaptive genomic divergence under high gene flow between freshwater and brackish-water ecotypes of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) revealed by Pool-Seq.

    PubMed

    Dennenmoser, Stefan; Vamosi, Steven M; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an abundant euryhaline fish in northwestern North America, high genetic connectivity among brackish-water (estuarine) and freshwater (tributary) habitats of coastal rivers does not preclude the build-up of neutral genetic differentiation and emergence of different life history strategies. Because these two habitats present different osmotic niches, we predicted high genetic differentiation at known teleost candidate genes underlying salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. We applied whole-genome sequencing of pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) to explore adaptive divergence between two estuarine and two tributary habitats. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped against genomic contigs of European Cottus, and the gene content of candidate regions was explored based on comparisons with the threespine stickleback genome. Genes showing signals of repeated differentiation among brackish-water and freshwater habitats included functions such as ion transport and structural permeability in freshwater gills, which suggests that local adaptation to different osmotic niches might contribute to genomic divergence among habitats. Overall, the presence of both repeated and unique signatures of differentiation across many loci scattered throughout the genome is consistent with polygenic adaptation from standing genetic variation and locally variable selection pressures in the early stages of life history divergence.

  7. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  8. Evolution and functional divergence of enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid hormone biosynthesis in crustaceans and insects.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jerome H L; Hayward, Alexander; Bendena, William G; Takahashi, Tokiharu; Tobe, Stephen S

    2010-03-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF) play well-known roles in the development and reproduction of insects and crustaceans. Juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) are the enzymes responsible for catalyzing the biosynthesis of JH and MF, respectively. It is not clear whether the genes that encode these enzymes are present in animal lineages outside of the arthropods. Based on DNA sequence similarity, the literature suggests that an FAMeT ortholog is present in humans. However, vertebrates do not appear to produce JH or MF. To help unravel the evolution of hormonal systems in animals we have carried out the first comparative genomic analysis of JHAMT and FAMeT. We identify the first JHAMT ortholog in a crustacean genome, and FAMeT orthologs in annelid and cephalochordate genomes. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses suggest that there is no true homolog of FAMeT in humans contrary to previous hypotheses. Our analyses suggest that the presence of multiple FAMeT isoforms in arthropods may be a consequence of different evolutionary mechanisms. The genes responsible for hormone biosynthesis in extant insects and crustaceans appear to have been present at least in the Pancrustacea. Different selective forces appear to have subsequently acted on the two lineages, leading to the present functional divergence. Our use of comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis advance knowledge of the relationships of the hormonal enzyme genes in question, and provide new insights into the evolution of hormonal systems in the largest animal phylum, the Arthropoda. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequence divergence and diversity suggests ongoing functional diversification of vertebrate NAD metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gossmann, Toni I; Ziegler, Mathias

    2014-11-01

    NAD is not only an important cofactor in redox reactions but has also received attention in recent years because of its physiological importance in metabolic regulation, DNA repair and signaling. In contrast to the redox reactions, these regulatory processes involve degradation of NAD and therefore necessitate a constant replenishment of its cellular pool. NAD biosynthetic enzymes are common to almost all species in all clades, but the number of NAD degrading enzymes varies substantially across taxa. In particular, vertebrates, including humans, have a manifold of NAD degrading enzymes which require a high turnover of NAD. As there is currently a lack of a systematic study of how natural selection has shaped enzymes involved in NAD metabolism we conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis based on intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence. We compare NAD biosynthetic and degrading enzymes in four eukaryotic model species and subsequently focus on human NAD metabolic enzymes and their orthologs in other vertebrates. We find that the majority of enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are subject to varying levels of purifying selection. While NAD biosynthetic enzymes appear to experience a rather high level of evolutionary constraint, there is evidence for positive selection among enzymes mediating NAD-dependent signaling. This is particularly evident for members of the PARP family, a diverse protein family involved in DNA damage repair and programmed cell death. Based on haplotype information and substitution rate analysis we pinpoint sites that are potential targets of positive selection. We also link our findings to a three dimensional structure, which suggests that positive selection occurs in domains responsible for DNA binding and polymerization rather than the NAD catalytic domain. Taken together, our results indicate that vertebrate NAD metabolism is still undergoing functional diversification.

  10. Revealing neuronal function through microelectrode array recordings

    PubMed Central

    Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Deligkaris, Kosmas; Bullmann, Torsten; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Frey, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all possible sources around every sensor. Here, we review the current understanding of microelectrode signals and the techniques for analyzing them. We introduce the ongoing advancements in microelectrode technology, with focus on achieving higher resolution and quality of recordings by means of monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. We show how recent advanced microelectrode array measurement methods facilitate the understanding of single neurons as well as network function. PMID:25610364

  11. Intron-specific patterns of divergence of lin-11 regulatory function in the C. elegans nervous system.

    PubMed

    Amon, Siavash; Gupta, Bhagwati P

    2017-04-01

    The diversity of neurons in the nervous system is specified by many genes, including those that encode transcription factors (TFs) and play crucial roles in coordinating gene transcription. To understand how the spatiotemporal expression of TF genes is regulated to generate neuronal diversity, we used one member of the LIM-Hox family, lin-11, as a model that is necessary for the differentiation of amphid neurons in the nematode C. elegans and a related species C. briggsae. We characterized transcriptional regulation of lin-11 and uncovered regulatory roles of two of the largest introns, intron 3 and intron 7. These introns promote lin-11 expression in non-overlapping sets of neurons. Phenotypic rescue experiments in C. elegans revealed that intron 3 is capable of restoring lin-11 function based on gene expression patterns and behavioral assays. Interestingly, intron 3-driven reporter expression showed differences in neuronal cell types between C. briggsae and C. elegans, indicating evolutionary changes in lin-11 regulation between the two species. Reciprocal transformation experiments provided further evidence consistent with functional changes in both cis and trans regulation of lin-11. To further investigate transcriptional regulation of lin-11, we dissected the intronic regions in C. elegans and identified cell-specific enhancers. These enhancers possess multiple sequence blocks that are conserved among Caenorhabditis species and possess TF binding sites. We tested the role of a subset of predicted TFs and discovered that while three of them (SKN-1, CEH-6, and CRH-1) act via the intron 3 enhancer to negatively regulate lin-11 expression in neurons, another TF (CES-1) acts positively via the intron 7 enhancer. Overall, our findings demonstrate that neuronal expression of lin-11 involves multiple TF regulators and regulatory modules some of which have diverged in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

  12. Diverging functions of Scr between embryonic and post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Hemimetabolous insects undergo an ancestral mode of development in which embryos hatch into first nymphs that resemble miniature adults. While recent studies have shown that homeotic (hox) genes establish segmental identity of first nymphs during embryogenesis, no information exists on the function of these genes during post-embryogenesis. To determine whether and to what degree hox genes influence the formation of adult morphologies, we performed a functional analysis of Sex combs reduced (Scr) during post-embryonic development in Oncopeltus fasciatus. The main effect was observed in prothorax of Scr-RNAi adults, and ranged from significant alterations in its size and shape to a near complete transformation of its posterior half toward a T2-like identity. Furthermore, while the consecutive application of Scr-RNAi at both of the final two post-embryonic stages (fourth and fifth) did result in formation of ectopic wings on T1, the individual applications at each of these stages did not. These experiments provide two new insights into evolution of wings. First, the role of Scr in wing repression appears to be conserved in both holo- and hemimetabolous insects. Second, the prolonged Scr-depletion (spanning at least two nymphal stages) is both necessary and sufficient to restart wing program. At the same time, other structures that were previously established during embryogenesis are either unaffected (T1 legs) or display only minor changes (labium) in adults. These observations reveal a temporal and spatial divergence of Scr roles during embryonic (main effect in labium) and post-embryonic (main effect in prothorax) development. PMID:19382295

  13. Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Wei, Chao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Jun-Lan; Li, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Liang; Jian, Jian-Bo; Li, Ye-Yun; Tai, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages across the world and is made exclusively from cultivars of Camellia sinensis. Many wild relatives of the genus Camellia that are closely related to C. sinensis are native to Southwest China. In this study, we first identified the distinct genetic divergence between C. sinensis and its wild relatives and provided a glimpse into the artificial selection of tea plants at a genome-wide level by analyzing 15,444 genomic SNPs that were identified from 18 cultivated and wild tea accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach. Six distinct clusters were detected by phylogeny inferrence and principal component and genetic structural analyses, and these clusters corresponded to six Camellia species/varieties. Genetic divergence apparently indicated that C. taliensis var. bangwei is a semi-wild or transient landrace occupying a phylogenetic position between those wild and cultivated tea plants. Cultivated accessions exhibited greater heterozygosity than wild accessions, with the exception of C. taliensis var. bangwei. Thirteen genes with non-synonymous SNPs exhibited strong selective signals that were suggestive of putative artificial selective footprints for tea plants during domestication. The genome-wide SNPs provide a fundamental data resource for assessing genetic relationships, characterizing complex traits, comparing heterozygosity and analyzing putatitve artificial selection in tea plants.

  14. Refugial isolation and divergence in the Narrowheaded Gartersnake species complex (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) as revealed by multilocus DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, A.G.; Espinal, A. Lemos; Fisher, R.N.; Holycross, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Glacial–interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene are hypothesized as one of the foremost contributors to biological diversification. This is especially true for cold-adapted montane species, where range shifts have had a pronounced effect on population-level divergence. Gartersnakes of the Thamnophis rufipunctatus species complex are restricted to cold headwater streams in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southwestern USA. We used coalescent and multilocus phylogenetic approaches to test whether genetic diversification of this montane-restricted species complex is consistent with two prevailing models of range fluctuation for species affected by Pleistocene climate changes. Our concatenated nuDNA and multilocus species analyses recovered evidence for the persistence of multiple lineages that are restricted geographically, despite a mtDNA signature consistent with either more recent connectivity (and introgression) or recent expansion (and incomplete lineage sorting). Divergence times estimated using a relaxed molecular clock and fossil calibrations fall within the Late Pleistocene, and zero gene flow scenarios among current geographically isolated lineages could not be rejected. These results suggest that increased climate shifts in the Late Pleistocene have driven diversification and current range retraction patterns and that the differences between markers reflect the stochasticity of gene lineages (i.e. ancestral polymorphism) rather than gene flow and introgression. These results have important implications for the conservation of T. rufipunctatus (sensu novo), which is restricted to two drainage systems in the southwestern US and has undergone a recent and dramatic decline.

  15. Genetic Divergence between Camellia sinensis and Its Wild Relatives Revealed via Genome-Wide SNPs from RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Jun-Lan; Li, Zheng-Guo; Zhang, Liang; Jian, Jian-Bo; Li, Ye-Yun; Tai, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Jiang, Chang-Jun; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages across the world and is made exclusively from cultivars of Camellia sinensis. Many wild relatives of the genus Camellia that are closely related to C. sinensis are native to Southwest China. In this study, we first identified the distinct genetic divergence between C. sinensis and its wild relatives and provided a glimpse into the artificial selection of tea plants at a genome-wide level by analyzing 15,444 genomic SNPs that were identified from 18 cultivated and wild tea accessions using a high-throughput genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) approach. Six distinct clusters were detected by phylogeny inferrence and principal component and genetic structural analyses, and these clusters corresponded to six Camellia species/varieties. Genetic divergence apparently indicated that C. taliensis var. bangwei is a semi-wild or transient landrace occupying a phylogenetic position between those wild and cultivated tea plants. Cultivated accessions exhibited greater heterozygosity than wild accessions, with the exception of C. taliensis var. bangwei. Thirteen genes with non-synonymous SNPs exhibited strong selective signals that were suggestive of putative artificial selective footprints for tea plants during domestication. The genome-wide SNPs provide a fundamental data resource for assessing genetic relationships, characterizing complex traits, comparing heterozygosity and analyzing putatitve artificial selection in tea plants. PMID:26962860

  16. Refugial isolation and divergence in the Narrowheaded Gartersnake species complex (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) as revealed by multilocus DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dustin A; Vandergast, A G; Lemos Espinal, J A; Fisher, R N; Holycross, A T

    2011-09-01

    Glacial-interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene are hypothesized as one of the foremost contributors to biological diversification. This is especially true for cold-adapted montane species, where range shifts have had a pronounced effect on population-level divergence. Gartersnakes of the Thamnophis rufipunctatus species complex are restricted to cold headwater streams in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southwestern USA. We used coalescent and multilocus phylogenetic approaches to test whether genetic diversification of this montane-restricted species complex is consistent with two prevailing models of range fluctuation for species affected by Pleistocene climate changes. Our concatenated nuDNA and multilocus species analyses recovered evidence for the persistence of multiple lineages that are restricted geographically, despite a mtDNA signature consistent with either more recent connectivity (and introgression) or recent expansion (and incomplete lineage sorting). Divergence times estimated using a relaxed molecular clock and fossil calibrations fall within the Late Pleistocene, and zero gene flow scenarios among current geographically isolated lineages could not be rejected. These results suggest that increased climate shifts in the Late Pleistocene have driven diversification and current range retraction patterns and that the differences between markers reflect the stochasticity of gene lineages (i.e. ancestral polymorphism) rather than gene flow and introgression. These results have important implications for the conservation of T. rufipunctatus (sensu novo), which is restricted to two drainage systems in the southwestern US and has undergone a recent and dramatic decline. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Ersmark, Erik; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2015-06-01

    The origin of domestic dogs is poorly understood [1-15], with suggested evidence of dog-like features in fossils that predate the Last Glacial Maximum [6, 9, 10, 14, 16] conflicting with genetic estimates of a more recent divergence between dogs and worldwide wolf populations [13, 15, 17-19]. Here, we present a draft genome sequence from a 35,000-year-old wolf from the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia. We find that this individual belonged to a population that diverged from the common ancestor of present-day wolves and dogs very close in time to the appearance of the domestic dog lineage. We use the directly dated ancient wolf genome to recalibrate the molecular timescale of wolves and dogs and find that the mutation rate is substantially slower than assumed by most previous studies, suggesting that the ancestors of dogs were separated from present-day wolves before the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find evidence of introgression from the archaic Taimyr wolf lineage into present-day dog breeds from northeast Siberia and Greenland, contributing between 1.4% and 27.3% of their ancestry. This demonstrates that the ancestry of present-day dogs is derived from multiple regional wolf populations.

  18. Gene-based polymorphisms reveal limited genomic divergence in a species with a heritable life-history dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Zakas, Christina; Rockman, Matthew V

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of life-history traits is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology. Many closely related species have contrasting life-history strategies, suggesting that the switches in early development that lead to divergent life-histories evolve quickly and frequently. Life-history changes that originate in early development have profound downstream effects on a species' morphology, ecology, genetic diversity, and even speciation rate. How do such transitions in development mode occur, and what is the underlying genetic architecture? To begin to address these questions, we investigated genetic variation in an emerging model in developmental evolution, the polychaete Streblospio benedicti, which has two contrasting and highly heritable offspring types. We compare transcript-based SNP genotypes of individuals of the two development modes to determine the extent of genomic differentiation between them. We find that there is extensive allele sharing across the two types, and minimal fixed differences. We use the site frequency spectrum to fit demographic models to our data and determine that there is recent gene flow between developmental morphs. Our data suggest that the evolution of a genetic developmental dimorphism is not associated with longstanding genetic isolation or genomically extensive divergence. Rather, differences at developmentally important loci, or modest allele-frequency differences at many loci, may be responsible for the drastic life-history differences.

  19. Reducing irreducible complexity: divergence of quaternary structure and function in macromolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Egelman, Edward H

    2010-02-01

    The bacterial flagellar system is an intricate assembly (containing approximately 40 different proteins) that is involved in both protein secretion and bacterial motility. It has also become the icon of the neo-creationist movement in the United States, with the argument that it shows 'irreducible complexity' and could not have been the product of evolution. Recent studies provide new insights into the evolution of the flagellar system and lead to the suggestion that the divergence of quaternary structure in protein assemblies may be an underappreciated mechanism for rapid evolutionary divergence. Work on the enzyme FucU, involved in fucose metabolism, may suggest similar conclusions.

  20. Functional divergence of the brain-size regulating gene MCPH1 during primate evolution and the origin of humans.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Li, Ming; Lin, Qiang; Qi, Xuebin; Su, Bing

    2013-05-22

    One of the key genes that regulate human brain size, MCPH1 has evolved under strong Darwinian positive selection during the evolution of primates. During this evolution, the divergence of MCPH1 protein sequences among primates may have caused functional changes that contribute to brain enlargement. To test this hypothesis, we used co-immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays to examine the activating and repressing effects of MCPH1 on a set of its down-stream genes and then compared the functional outcomes of a series of mutant MCPH1 proteins that carry mutations at the human- and great-ape-specific sites. The results demonstrate that the regulatory effects of human MCPH1 and rhesus macaque MCPH1 are different in three of eight down-stream genes tested (p73, cyclinE1 and p14ARF), suggesting a functional divergence of MCPH1 between human and non-human primates. Further analyses of the mutant MCPH1 proteins indicated that most of the human-specific mutations could change the regulatory effects on the down-stream genes. A similar result was also observed for one of the four great-ape-specific mutations. Collectively, we propose that during primate evolution in general and human evolution in particular, the divergence of MCPH1 protein sequences under Darwinian positive selection led to functional modifications, providing a possible molecular mechanism of how MCPH1 contributed to brain enlargement during primate evolution and human origin.

  1. Functional divergence of the brain-size regulating gene MCPH1 during primate evolution and the origin of humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the key genes that regulate human brain size, MCPH1 has evolved under strong Darwinian positive selection during the evolution of primates. During this evolution, the divergence of MCPH1 protein sequences among primates may have caused functional changes that contribute to brain enlargement. Results To test this hypothesis, we used co-immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays to examine the activating and repressing effects of MCPH1 on a set of its down-stream genes and then compared the functional outcomes of a series of mutant MCPH1 proteins that carry mutations at the human- and great-ape-specific sites. The results demonstrate that the regulatory effects of human MCPH1 and rhesus macaque MCPH1 are different in three of eight down-stream genes tested (p73, cyclinE1 and p14ARF), suggesting a functional divergence of MCPH1 between human and non-human primates. Further analyses of the mutant MCPH1 proteins indicated that most of the human-specific mutations could change the regulatory effects on the down-stream genes. A similar result was also observed for one of the four great-ape-specific mutations. Conclusions Collectively, we propose that during primate evolution in general and human evolution in particular, the divergence of MCPH1 protein sequences under Darwinian positive selection led to functional modifications, providing a possible molecular mechanism of how MCPH1 contributed to brain enlargement during primate evolution and human origin. PMID:23697381

  2. Revealing remodeler function: Varied and unique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastlund, Allen

    Chromatin remodelers perform a necessary and required function for the successful expression of our genetic code. By modifying, shifting, or ejecting nucleosomes from the chromatin structure they allow access to the underlying DNA to the rest of the cell's machinery. This research has focused on two major remodeler motors from major families of chromatin remodelers: the trimeric motor domain of RSC and the motor domain of the ISWI family, ISWI. Using primarily stopped-flow spectrofluorometry, I have categorized the time-dependent motions of these motor domains along their preferred substrate, double-stranded DNA. Combined with collected ATP utilization data, I present the subsequent analysis and associated conclusions that stem from the underlying assumptions and models. Interestingly, there is little in common between the investigated proteins aside from their favored medium. While RSC exhibits modest translocation characteristics and highly effective motion with the ability for large molecular forces, ISWI is not only structurally different but highly inefficient in its motion leading to difficulties in determining its specific translocation mechanics. While chromatin remodeling is a ubiquitous facet of eukaryotic life, there remains much to be understood about their general mechanisms.

  3. Extensive homology of chicken macrochromosomes in the karyotypes of Trachemys scripta elegans and Crocodylus niloticus revealed by chromosome painting despite long divergence times.

    PubMed

    Kasai, F; O'Brien, P C M; Martin, S; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report extensive chromosome homology revealed by chromosome painting between chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA, 2n = 78) macrochromosomes (representing 70% of the chicken genome) and the chromosomes of a turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans, TSC, 2n = 50), and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus, CNI, 2n = 32). Our data show that GGA1-8 arms seem to be conserved in the arms of TSC chromosomes, GGA1-2 arms are separated and homologous to CNI1p, 3q, 4q and 5q. In addition to GGAZ homologues in our previous study, large-scale GGA autosome syntenies have been conserved in turtle and crocodile despite hundreds of millions of years divergence time. Based on phylogenetic hypotheses that crocodiles diverged after the divergence of birds and turtles, our results in CNI suggest that GGA1-2 and TSC1-2 represent the ancestral state and that chromosome fissions followed by fusions have been the mechanisms responsible for the reduction of chromosome number in crocodiles. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Abundance and composition of juvenile corals reveals divergent trajectories for coral assemblages across the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Baird, Andrew H; Bauman, Andrew G; Burt, John A

    2017-01-30

    Marked shifts in the composition of coral assemblages are occurring at many locations, but it is unknown whether these are permanent shifts reinforced by patterns of population replenishment. This study examined the composition of juvenile coral assemblages across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Densities of juvenile corals varied significantly among locations, but were highest where coral cover was highest. Juvenile coral assemblages within the Persian Gulf were dominated by Porites, while no Acropora were recorded. We expect therefore, continued declines in Acropora abundance, while observed dominance of Porites is likely to persist. In the Oman Sea, Pocillopora was the dominant juvenile coral, with Acropora and Stylophora also recorded. This study shows that taxonomic differences in replenishment are reinforcing temporal shifts in coral composition within the southern Persian Gulf, but not in the Oman Sea. Differences in environmental conditions and disturbance regimes likely explain the divergent responses between regions.

  5. Two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades in the wild mouse Mus macedonicus reveal multiple glacial refuges south of Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Orth, A; Auffray, J-C; Bonhomme, F

    2002-11-01

    A survey of 77 individuals covering the range of Mus macedonicus from Georgia in the East to Greece and Bulgaria in the West and Israel in the South has shown the existence of two deeply divergent mitochondrial clades. The southern clade was until now undetected and characterises mice from Israel. Nuclear genes also show some amount of regional differentiation tending to separate the southern M. macedonicus from the northern ones. These results point towards the fact that the eastern Mediterranean short-tailed mouse, which was seen as a fairly homogeneous monotypic species, has in fact a more complex phylogeographic history than has been suspected, and that it warrants the existence of two subspecies. The reasons for this non-uniformity probably ought to be looked for in the history of faunal movements linked to glacial periods, underlining the possible existence of at least two refugia south of the Caucasus.

  6. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  7. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens. We used the Del-Mar 14 K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray to take time-course snapshots of global gene transcription in abdominal fat of juvenile [1-11 weeks of age (wk)] chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages (8 and 36 wk). Further, a RNA sequencing analysis was completed on the same abdominal fat samples taken from high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) cockerels at 7 wk, the age with the greatest divergence in body weight (3.2-fold) and visceral fatness (19.6-fold). Time-course microarray analysis revealed 312 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05) as the main effect of genotype (HG versus LG), 718 genes in the interaction of age and genotype, and 2918 genes as the main effect of age. The RNA sequencing analysis identified 2410 differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat of HG versus LG chickens at 7 wk. The HG chickens are fatter and over-express numerous genes that support higher rates of visceral adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In abdominal fat of LG chickens, we found higher expression of many genes involved in hemostasis, energy catabolism and endocrine signaling, which likely contribute to their leaner phenotype and slower growth. Many transcription factors and their direct target genes identified in HG and LG chickens could be involved in their divergence in adiposity and growth rate. The present analyses of the visceral fat transcriptome in

  9. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Vallon, Olivier; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Witman, George B.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Marshall, Wallace F.; Qu, Liang-Hu; Nelson, David R.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Spalding, Martin H.; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Ren, Qinghu; Ferris, Patrick; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan M.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Cardol, Pierre; Cerutti, Heriberto; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Chen, Chun-Long; Cognat, Valérie; Croft, Martin T.; Dent, Rachel; Dutcher, Susan; Fernández, Emilio; Ferris, Patrick; Fukuzawa, Hideya; González-Ballester, David; González-Halphen, Diego; Hallmann, Armin; Hanikenne, Marc; Hippler, Michael; Inwood, William; Jabbari, Kamel; Kalanon, Ming; Kuras, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Lohr, Martin; Manuell, Andrea; Meier, Iris; Mets, Laurens; Mittag, Maria; Mittelmeier, Telsa; Moroney, James V.; Moseley, Jeffrey; Napoli, Carolyn; Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Niyogi, Krishna; Novoselov, Sergey V.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Pazour, Greg; Purton, Saul; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Riekhof, Wayne; Rymarquis, Linda; Schroda, Michael; Stern, David; Umen, James; Willows, Robert; Wilson, Nedra; Zimmer, Sara Lana; Allmer, Jens; Balk, Janneke; Bisova, Katerina; Chen, Chong-Jian; Elias, Marek; Gendler, Karla; Hauser, Charles; Lamb, Mary Rose; Ledford, Heidi; Long, Joanne C.; Minagawa, Jun; Page, M. Dudley; Pan, Junmin; Pootakham, Wirulda; Roje, Sanja; Rose, Annkatrin; Stahlberg, Eric; Terauchi, Aimee M.; Yang, Pinfen; Ball, Steven; Bowler, Chris; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Green, Pamela; Jorgensen, Richard; Mayfield, Stephen; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard T.; Brokstein, Peter; Dubchak, Inna; Goodstein, David; Hornick, Leila; Huang, Y. Wayne; Jhaveri, Jinal; Luo, Yigong; Martínez, Diego; Ngau, Wing Chi Abby; Otillar, Bobby; Poliakov, Alexander; Porter, Aaron; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Werner, Gregory; Zhou, Kemin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ∼120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella. PMID:17932292

  10. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  11. Functional divergence of HBHA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its evolutionary relationship with TadA from Rhodococcus opacus.

    PubMed

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2016-08-01

    Rhodococcus opacus PD630 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 are oleaginous bacteria able to synthesize and accumulate triacylglycerols (TAG) in lipid bodies (LB). Highly relevant to the structure of LB is a protein homologous to heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) (called TadA in rhodococci), which is a virulence factor found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HBHA is an adhesin involved in binding to non-phagocytic cells and extrapulmonary dissemination. We observed a conserved synteny of three genes encoding a transcriptional regulator (TR), the HBHA protein and a membrane protein (MP) between TAG-accumulating actinobacteria belonging to Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Dietzia genera, among others. A 354 bp-intergenic spacing containing a SigF-binding site was found between hbha and the TR genes in M. tuberculosis, which was absent in genomes of other investigated actinobacteria. Analyses of available "omic" information revealed that TadA and TR were co-induced in rhodococci under TAG-accumulating conditions; whereas in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis, HBHA and TR were regulated independently under stress conditions occurring during infection. We also found differences in protein lengths, domain content and distribution between HBHA and TadA proteins from mycobacteria and rhodococci, which may explain their different roles in cells. Based on the combination of results obtained in model actinobacteria, we hypothesize that HBHA and TadA proteins originated from a common ancestor, but later suffered a process of functional divergence during evolution. Thus, rhodococcal TadA probably has maintained its original role; whereas HBHA may have evolved as a virulence factor in pathogenic mycobacteria.

  12. Divergent Expression and Metabolic Functions of Human Glucuronosyltransferases through Alternative Splicing.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Michèle; Tourancheau, Alan; Girard-Bock, Camille; Villeneuve, Lyne; Vaucher, Jonathan; Duperré, Anne-Marie; Audet-Delage, Yannick; Gilbert, Isabelle; Popa, Ion; Droit, Arnaud; Guillemette, Chantal

    2016-09-27

    Maintenance of cellular homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification is mediated by 19 human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) encoded by ten genes that comprise the glucuronidation pathway. Deep RNA sequencing of major metabolic organs exposes a substantial expansion of the UGT transcriptome by alternative splicing, with variants representing 20% to 60% of canonical transcript expression. Nearly a fifth of expressed variants comprise in-frame sequences that may create distinct structural and functional features. Follow-up cell-based assays reveal biological functions for these alternative UGT proteins. Some isoforms were found to inhibit or induce inactivation of drugs and steroids in addition to perturbing global cell metabolism (energy, amino acids, nucleotides), cell adhesion, and proliferation. This work highlights the biological relevance of alternative UGT expression, which we propose increases protein diversity through the evolution of metabolic regulators from specific enzymes.

  13. Functional divergence and convergent evolution in the plastid-targeted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases of diverse eukaryotic algae.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Daniel; Roger, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, reversibly catalyzing the sixth step of glycolysis and concurrently reducing the coenzyme NAD(+) to NADH. In photosynthetic organisms a GAPDH paralog (Gap2 in Cyanobacteria, GapA in most photosynthetic eukaryotes) functions in the Calvin cycle, performing the reverse of the glycolytic reaction and using the coenzyme NADPH preferentially. In a number of photosynthetic eukaryotes that acquired their plastid by the secondary endosymbiosis of a eukaryotic red alga (Alveolates, haptophytes, cryptomonads and stramenopiles) GapA has been apparently replaced with a paralog of the host's own cytosolic GAPDH (GapC1). Plastid GapC1 and GapA therefore represent two independent cases of functional divergence and adaptations to the Calvin cycle entailing a shift in subcellular targeting and a shift in binding preference from NAD(+) to NADPH. We used the programs FunDi, GroupSim, and Difference Evolutionary-Trace to detect sites involved in the functional divergence of these two groups of GAPDH sequences and to identify potential cases of convergent evolution in the Calvin-cycle adapted GapA and GapC1 families. Sites identified as being functionally divergent by all or some of these programs were then investigated with respect to their possible roles in the structure and function of both glycolytic and plastid-targeted GAPDH isoforms. In this work we found substantial evidence for convergent evolution in GapA/B and GapC1. In many cases sites in GAPDHs of these groups converged on identical amino acid residues in specific positions of the protein known to play a role in the function and regulation of plastid-functioning enzymes relative to their cytosolic counterparts. In addition, we demonstrate that bioinformatic software like FunDi are important tools for the generation of meaningful biological hypotheses that can then be tested with direct experimental techniques.

  14. Segment polarity gene expression in a myriapod reveals conserved and diverged aspects of early head patterning in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    Arthropods show two kinds of developmental mode. In the so-called long germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the fly Drosophila), all segments are formed almost simultaneously from a preexisting field of cells. In contrast, in the so-called short germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the vast majority of arthropods), only the anterior segments are patterned similarly as in Drosophila, and posterior segments are added in a single or double segmental periodicity from a posterior segment addition zone (SAZ). The addition of segments from the SAZ is controlled by dynamic waves of gene activity. Recent studies on a spider have revealed that a similar dynamic process, involving expression of the segment polarity gene (SPG) hedgehog (hh), is involved in the formation of the anterior head segments. The present study shows that in the myriapod Glomeris marginata the early expression of hh is also in a broad anterior domain, but this domain corresponds only to the ocular and antennal segment. It does not, like in spiders, represent expression in the posterior adjacent segment. In contrast, the anterior hh pattern is conserved in Glomeris and insects. All investigated myriapod SPGs and associated factors are expressed with delay in the premandibular (tritocerebral) segment. This delay is exclusively found in insects and myriapods, but not in chelicerates, crustaceans and onychophorans. Therefore, it may represent a synapomorphy uniting insects and myriapods (Atelocerata hypothesis), contradicting the leading opinion that suggests a sister relationship of crustaceans and insects (Pancrustacea hypothesis). In Glomeris embryos, the SPG engrailed is first expressed in the mandibular segment. This feature is conserved in representatives of all arthropod classes suggesting that the mandibular segment may have a special function in anterior patterning.

  15. A novel segmentation approach for noisy medical images using intuitionistic fuzzy divergence with neighbourhood-based membership function.

    PubMed

    Jati, A; Singh, G; Koley, S; Konar, A; Ray, A K; Chakraborty, C

    2015-03-01

    Medical image segmentation demands higher segmentation accuracy especially when the images are affected by noise. This paper proposes a novel technique to segment medical images efficiently using an intuitionistic fuzzy divergence-based thresholding. A neighbourhood-based membership function is defined here. The intuitionistic fuzzy divergence-based image thresholding technique using the neighbourhood-based membership functions yield lesser degradation of segmentation performance in noisy environment. Its ability in handling noisy images has been validated. The algorithm is independent of any parameter selection. Moreover, it provides robustness to both additive and multiplicative noise. The proposed scheme has been applied on three types of medical image datasets in order to establish its novelty and generality. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with other standard algorithms viz. Otsu's method, fuzzy C-means clustering, and fuzzy divergence-based thresholding with respect to (1) noise-free images and (2) ground truth images labelled by experts/clinicians. Experiments show that the proposed methodology is effective, more accurate and efficient for segmenting noisy images.

  16. Novel Virus Discovery and Genome Reconstruction from Field RNA Samples Reveals Highly Divergent Viruses in Dipteran Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David; Moureau, Gregory; Tang, Shuoya; McAlister, Erica; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Glücksman, Edvard; Wang, Hui; Brown, T. David K.; Gould, Ernest A.; Harbach, Ralph E.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Firth, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether small RNA (sRNA) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (Diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using sRNAs sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total RNA deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. Using this strategy, we sequenced from adult Anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes the apparently nearly complete genome of one previously undescribed virus related to chronic bee paralysis virus, and, from a pool of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus mosquitoes, a nearly complete entomobirnavirus genome. We also reconstructed long sequences (1503-6557 nt) related to at least nine other viruses. Crucially, several of the sequences detected were reconstructed from host organisms highly divergent from those in which related viruses have been previously isolated or discovered. It is clear that viral transmission and maintenance cycles in nature are likely to be significantly more complex and taxonomically diverse than previously expected. PMID:24260463

  17. Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange and distinct demographic histories.

    PubMed

    Statham, Mark J; Murdoch, James; Janecka, Jan; Aubry, Keith B; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Soulsbury, Carl D; Berry, Oliver; Wang, Zhenghuan; Harrison, David; Pearch, Malcolm; Tomsett, Louise; Chupasko, Judith; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-10-01

    Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin of the primary North American (Nearctic) clade. Demographic analyses indicated a major expansion in Eurasia during the last glaciation (~50 kya), coinciding with a previously described secondary transfer of a single matriline (Holarctic) to North America. In contrast, North American matrilines (including the transferred portion of Holarctic clade) exhibited no signatures of expansion until the end of the Pleistocene (~12 kya). Analyses of 11 autosomal loci from a subset of foxes supported the colonization time frame suggested by mtDNA (and the fossil record) but, in contrast, reflected no detectable secondary transfer, resulting in the most fundamental genomic division of red foxes at the Bering Strait. Endemic continental Y-chromosome clades further supported this pattern. Thus, intercontinental genomic exchange was overall very limited, consistent with long-term reproductive isolation since the initial colonization of North America. Based on continental divergence times in other carnivoran species pairs, our findings support a model of peripatric speciation and are consistent with the previous classification of the North American red fox as a distinct species, V. fulva.

  18. Genomic Analysis of Phylotype I Strain EP1 Reveals Substantial Divergence from Other Strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Wang, Dechen; Yan, Jinli; Zhou, Jianuan; Deng, Yinyue; Jiang, Zide; Cao, Bihao; He, Zifu; Zhang, Lianhui

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating group of phytopathogens with an unusually wide host range and broad geographical distribution. R. solanacearum isolates may differ considerably in various properties including host range and pathogenicity, but the underlying genetic bases remain vague. Here, we conducted the genome sequencing of strain EP1 isolated from Guangdong Province of China, which belongs to phylotype I and is highly virulent to a range of solanaceous crops. Its complete genome contains a 3.95-Mb chromosome and a 2.05-Mb mega-plasmid, which is considerably bigger than reported genomes of other R. solanacearum strains. Both the chromosome and the mega-plasmid have essential house-keeping genes and many virulence genes. Comparative analysis of strain EP1 with other 3 phylotype I and 3 phylotype II, III, IV strains unveiled substantial genome rearrangements, insertions and deletions. Genome sequences are relatively conserved among the 4 phylotype I strains, but more divergent among strains of different phylotypes. Moreover, the strains exhibited considerable variations in their key virulence genes, including those encoding secretion systems and type III effectors. Our results provide valuable information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of diversified virulences and host range of R. solanacearum species. PMID:27833603

  19. Extreme mitochondrial variation in the Atlantic gall crab Opecarcinus hypostegus (Decapoda: Cryptochiridae) reveals adaptive genetic divergence over Agaricia coral hosts

    PubMed Central

    van Tienderen, Kaj M.; van der Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of migration in marine species exhibiting a pelagic larval stage is determined by various factors, such as ocean currents, pelagic larval stage duration and active habitat selection. Direct measurement of larval movements is difficult and, consequently, factors determining the gene flow patterns remain poorly understood for many species. Patterns of gene flow play a key role in maintaining genetic homogeneity in a species by dampening the effects of local adaptation. Coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae) are obligate symbionts of stony corals (Scleractinia). Preliminary data showed high genetic diversity on the COI gene for 19 Opecarcinus hypostegus specimens collected off Curaçao. In this study, an additional 176 specimens were sequenced and used to characterize the population structure along the leeward side of Curaçao. Extremely high COI genetic variation was observed, with 146 polymorphic sites and 187 unique haplotypes. To determine the cause of this high genetic diversity, various gene flow scenarios (geographical distance along the coast, genetic partitioning over depth, and genetic differentiation by coral host) were examined. Adaptive genetic divergence across Agariciidae host species is suggested to be the main cause for the observed high intra-specific variance, hypothesised as early signs of speciation in O. hypostegus. PMID:28079106

  20. AFLP Genome Scanning Reveals Divergent Selection in Natural Populations of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae) along a Latitudinal Transect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ai-Hong; Wei, Na; Fritsch, Peter W.; Yao, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci) provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae) along a latitudinal transect. We genotyped 276 individuals from 11 populations of L. chinense using 987 AFLP markers. Both frequency-based (Dfdist and BayeScan) and correlation-based (MLM) methods were applied to detect outlier loci. Our analyses recovered both neutral and potentially adaptive genetic differentiation among populations of L. chinense. We found moderate genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations with reduced genetic diversity toward the periphery of the species ranges. Nine AFLP marker loci showed evidence of being outliers for population differentiation for both detection methods. Of these, six were strongly associated with at least one climate factor. Temperature, precipitation, and radiation were found to be three important factors influencing local adaptation of L. chinense. The outlier AFLP loci are likely not the target of natural selection, but the neighboring genes of these loci might be involved in local adaptation. Hence, these candidates should be validated by further studies. PMID:27303414

  1. Conservation and divergence of microRNAs and their functions in Euphorbiaceous plants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Changying; Wang, Wenquan; Zheng, Yun; Chen, Xin; Bo, Weiping; Song, Shun; Zhang, Weixiong; Peng, Ming

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼21 nt non-coding RNAs which regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are key regulators of nearly all essential biological processes. Aiming at understanding miRNA’s functions in Euphorbiaceae, a large flowering plant family, we performed a genome-scale systematic study of miRNAs in Euphorbiaceae, by combining computational prediction and experimental analysis to overcome the difficulty of lack of genomes for most Euphorbiaceous species. Specifically, we predicted 85 conserved miRNAs in 23 families in the Castor bean (Ricinus communis), and experimentally verified and characterized 58 (68.2%) of the 85 miRNAs in at least one of four Euphorbiaceous species, the Castor bean, the Cassava (Manihot esculenta), the Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) during normal seedling development. To elucidate their function in stress response, we verified and profiled 48 (56.5%) of the 85 miRNAs under cold and drought stresses as well as during the processes of stress recovery. The results revealed some species- and condition-specific miRNA expression patterns. Finally, we predicted 258 miRNA:target partners, and identified the cleavage sites of six out of ten miRNA targets by a modified 5′ RACE. This study produced the first collection of miRNAs and their targets in Euphorbiaceae. Our results revealed wide conservation of many miRNAs and diverse functions in Euphorbiaceous plants during seedling growth and in response to abiotic stresses. PMID:19942686

  2. Embryonic toxin expression in the cone snail Conus victoriae: primed to kill or divergent function?

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Siero, William A; Kuang, Zhihe; Williamson, Nicholas A; Karas, John A; Page, Louise R; MacMillan, David; Callaghan, Brid; Kompella, Shiva Nag; Adams, David J; Norton, Raymond S; Purcell, Anthony W

    2011-06-24

    Predatory marine cone snails (genus Conus) utilize complex venoms mainly composed of small peptide toxins that target voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in their prey. Although the venoms of a number of cone snail species have been intensively profiled and functionally characterized, nothing is known about the initiation of venom expression at an early developmental stage. Here, we report on the expression of venom mRNA in embryos of Conus victoriae and the identification of novel α- and O-conotoxin sequences. Embryonic toxin mRNA expression is initiated well before differentiation of the venom gland, the organ of venom biosynthesis. Structural and functional studies revealed that the embryonic α-conotoxins exhibit the same basic three-dimensional structure as the most abundant adult toxin but significantly differ in their neurological targets. Based on these findings, we postulate that the venom repertoire of cone snails undergoes ontogenetic changes most likely reflecting differences in the biotic interactions of these animals with their prey, predators, or competitors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show toxin mRNA transcripts in embryos, a finding that extends our understanding of the early onset of venom expression in animals and may suggest alternative functions of peptide toxins during development.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis, Lineage-Specific Expansion and Functional Divergence of seed dormancy 4-Like Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Cao, Shuanghe; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    The rice gene seed dormancy 4 (OsSdr4) functions in seed dormancy and is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Although previous studies of this protein family were reported for rice and other species, knowledge of the evolution of genes homologous to OsSdr4 in plants remains inadequate. Fifty four Sdr4-like (hereafter designated Sdr4L) genes were identified in nine plant lineages including 36 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes in eight subfamilies (I-VIII). Genes from the same lineage clustered together, supported by analysis of conserved motifs and exon-intron patterns. Segmental duplications were present in both dicot and monocot clusters, while tandemly duplicated genes occurred only in monocot clusters indicating that both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to expansion of the grass I and II subfamilies. Estimation of the approximate ages of the duplication events indicated that ancestral Sdr4 genes evolved from a common angiosperm ancestor, about 160 million years ago (MYA). Moreover, diversification of Sdr4L genes in mono and dicot plants was mainly associated with genome-wide duplication and speciation events. Functional divergence was observed in all subfamily pairs, except IV/VIIIa. Further analysis indicated that functional constraints between subfamily pairs I/II, I/VIIIb, II/VI, II/VIIIb, II/IV, and VI/VIIIb were statistically significant. Site and branch-site model analyses of positive selection suggested that these genes were under strong adaptive selection pressure. Critical amino acids detected for both functional divergence and positive selection were mostly located in the loops, pointing to functional importance of these regions in this protein family. In addition, differential expression studies by transcriptome atlas of 11 Sdr4L genes showed that the duplicated genes may have undergone divergence in expression between plant species. Our findings showed that Sdr4L genes are functionally divergent

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis, Lineage-Specific Expansion and Functional Divergence of seed dormancy 4-Like Genes in Plants.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Cao, Shuanghe; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    The rice gene seed dormancy 4 (OsSdr4) functions in seed dormancy and is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Although previous studies of this protein family were reported for rice and other species, knowledge of the evolution of genes homologous to OsSdr4 in plants remains inadequate. Fifty four Sdr4-like (hereafter designated Sdr4L) genes were identified in nine plant lineages including 36 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes in eight subfamilies (I-VIII). Genes from the same lineage clustered together, supported by analysis of conserved motifs and exon-intron patterns. Segmental duplications were present in both dicot and monocot clusters, while tandemly duplicated genes occurred only in monocot clusters indicating that both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to expansion of the grass I and II subfamilies. Estimation of the approximate ages of the duplication events indicated that ancestral Sdr4 genes evolved from a common angiosperm ancestor, about 160 million years ago (MYA). Moreover, diversification of Sdr4L genes in mono and dicot plants was mainly associated with genome-wide duplication and speciation events. Functional divergence was observed in all subfamily pairs, except IV/VIIIa. Further analysis indicated that functional constraints between subfamily pairs I/II, I/VIIIb, II/VI, II/VIIIb, II/IV, and VI/VIIIb were statistically significant. Site and branch-site model analyses of positive selection suggested that these genes were under strong adaptive selection pressure. Critical amino acids detected for both functional divergence and positive selection were mostly located in the loops, pointing to functional importance of these regions in this protein family. In addition, differential expression studies by transcriptome atlas of 11 Sdr4L genes showed that the duplicated genes may have undergone divergence in expression between plant species. Our findings showed that Sdr4L genes are functionally divergent

  5. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs.

  6. Functional Divergence of Poplar Histidine-Aspartate Kinase HK1 Paralogs in Response to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Héricourt, François; Chefdor, Françoise; Djeghdir, Inès; Larcher, Mélanie; Lafontaine, Florent; Courdavault, Vincent; Auguin, Daniel; Coste, Franck; Depierreux, Christiane; Tanigawa, Mirai; Maeda, Tatsuya; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Carpin, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Previous works have shown the existence of protein partnerships belonging to a MultiStep Phosphorelay (MSP) in Populus putatively involved in osmosensing. This study is focused on the identification of a histidine-aspartate kinase, HK1b, paralog of HK1a. The characterization of HK1b showed its ability to homo- and hetero-dimerize and to interact with a few Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer (HPt) proteins, suggesting a preferential partnership in poplar MSP linked to drought perception. Furthermore, determinants for interaction specificity between HK1a/1b and HPts were studied by mutagenesis analysis, identifying amino acids involved in this specificity. The HK1b expression analysis in different poplar organs revealed its co-expression with three HPts, reinforcing the hypothesis of partnership participation in the MSP in planta. Moreover, HK1b was shown to act as an osmosensor with kinase activity in a functional complementation assay of an osmosensor deficient yeast strain. These results revealed that HK1b showed a different behaviour for canonical phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues. These phosphorylation modularities of canonical amino acids could explain the improved osmosensor performances observed in yeast. As conserved duplicates reflect the selective pressures imposed by the environmental requirements on the species, our results emphasize the importance of HK1 gene duplication in poplar adaptation to drought stress. PMID:27941652

  7. Functional Divergence of Poplar Histidine-Aspartate Kinase HK1 Paralogs in Response to Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Héricourt, François; Chefdor, Françoise; Djeghdir, Inès; Larcher, Mélanie; Lafontaine, Florent; Courdavault, Vincent; Auguin, Daniel; Coste, Franck; Depierreux, Christiane; Tanigawa, Mirai; Maeda, Tatsuya; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Carpin, Sabine

    2016-12-08

    Previous works have shown the existence of protein partnerships belonging to a MultiStep Phosphorelay (MSP) in Populus putatively involved in osmosensing. This study is focused on the identification of a histidine-aspartate kinase, HK1b, paralog of HK1a. The characterization of HK1b showed its ability to homo- and hetero-dimerize and to interact with a few Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer (HPt) proteins, suggesting a preferential partnership in poplar MSP linked to drought perception. Furthermore, determinants for interaction specificity between HK1a/1b and HPts were studied by mutagenesis analysis, identifying amino acids involved in this specificity. The HK1b expression analysis in different poplar organs revealed its co-expression with three HPts, reinforcing the hypothesis of partnership participation in the MSP in planta. Moreover, HK1b was shown to act as an osmosensor with kinase activity in a functional complementation assay of an osmosensor deficient yeast strain. These results revealed that HK1b showed a different behaviour for canonical phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues. These phosphorylation modularities of canonical amino acids could explain the improved osmosensor performances observed in yeast. As conserved duplicates reflect the selective pressures imposed by the environmental requirements on the species, our results emphasize the importance of HK1 gene duplication in poplar adaptation to drought stress.

  8. RNA-seq and high-definition mass spectrometry reveal the complex and divergent venoms of two rear-fanged colubrid snakes.

    PubMed

    McGivern, James J; Wray, Kenneth P; Margres, Mark J; Couch, Michelle E; Mackessy, Stephen P; Rokyta, Darin R

    2014-12-03

    Largely because of their direct, negative impacts on human health, the venoms of front-fanged snakes of the families Viperidae and Elapidae have been extensively characterized proteomically, transcriptomically, and pharmacologically. However, relatively little is known about the molecular complexity and evolution of the venoms of rear-fanged colubrid snakes, which are, with a few notable exceptions, regarded as harmless to humans. Many of these snakes have venoms with major effects on their preferred prey, and their venoms are probably as critical to their survival as those of front-fanged elapids and viperids. We sequenced the venom-gland transcriptomes from a specimen of Hypsiglena (Desert Night Snake; family Colubridae, subfamily Dipsadinae) and of Boiga irregularis (Brown Treesnake; family Colubridae, subfamily Colubrinae) and verified the transcriptomic results proteomically by means of high-definition mass spectrometry. We identified nearly 3,000 nontoxin genes for each species. For B. irregularis, we found 108 putative toxin transcripts in 46 clusters with <1% nucleotide divergence, and for Hypsiglena we identified 79 toxin sequences that were grouped into 33 clusters. Comparisons of the venoms revealed divergent venom types, with Hypsiglena possessing a viper-like venom dominated by metalloproteinases, and B. irregularis having a more elapid-like venom, consisting primarily of three-finger toxins. Despite the difficulty of procuring venom from rear-fanged species, we were able to complete all analyses from a single specimen of each species without pooling venom samples or glands, demonstrating the power of high-definition transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. We found a high level of divergence in the venom types of two colubrids. These two venoms reflected the hemorrhagic/neurotoxic venom dichotomy that broadly characterizes the difference in venom strategies between elapids and viperids.

  9. Divergent roles of BECN1 in LC3 lipidation and autophagosomal function.

    PubMed

    He, Ruina; Peng, Jingyu; Yuan, Pengfei; Xu, Fang; Wei, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    BECN1/Beclin 1 is regarded as a critical component in the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex to trigger autophagy in mammalian cells. Despite its significant role in a number of cellular and physiological processes, the exact function of BECN1 in autophagy remains controversial. Here we created a BECN1 knockout human cell line using the TALEN technique. Surprisingly, the complete loss of BECN1 had little effect on LC3 (MAP1LC3B/LC3B) lipidation, and LC3B puncta resembling autophagosomes by fluorescence microscopy were still evident albeit significantly smaller than those in the wild-type cells. Electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed that BECN1 deficiency led to malformed autophagosome-like structures containing multiple layers of membranes under amino acid starvation. We further confirmed that the PtdIns3K complex activity and autophagy flux were disrupted in BECN1(-/-) cells. Our results demonstrate the essential role of BECN1 in the functional formation of autophagosomes, but not in LC3B lipidation.

  10. Snake venomics of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis from the Caribbean region of Costa Rica reveals two divergent compositional patterns in New World elapids.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Julián; Vargas-Vargas, Nancy; Pla, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood; Rey-Suárez, Paola; Sanz, Libia; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Protein composition, toxicity, and neutralization of the venoms of Micrurus alleni and Micrurus mosquitensis, two sympatric monadal coral snakes found in humid environments of the Caribbean region of Costa Rica, were studied. Proteomic profiling revealed that these venoms display highly divergent compositions: the former dominated by three-finger toxins (3FTx) and the latter by phospholipases A2 (PLA2). Protein family abundances correlated with enzymatic and toxic characteristics of the venoms. Selective inhibition experiments showed that PLA2s play only a marginal role in the lethal effect of M. alleni venom, but have a major role in M. mosquitensis venom. Proteomic data gathered from other Micrurus species evidenced that the two divergent venom phenotypes are recurrent, and may constitute a general trend across New World elapids. Further, M. mosquitensis, but not M. alleni, venom contains PLA2-like/Kunitz-type inhibitor complex(es) that resemble the ASIC1a/2-activating MitTx heterodimeric toxin isolated from Micrurus tener venom. The evolutionary origin and adaptive relevance of the puzzling phenotypic variability of Micrurus venoms remain to be understood. An antivenom against the PLA2-predominant Micrurus nigrocinctus venom strongly cross-recognized and neutralized M. mosquitensis venom, but only weakly M. alleni venom.

  11. Comparative developmental analysis of Drosophila and Tribolium reveals conserved and diverged roles of abrupt in insect wing evolution.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, Padmapriyadarshini; Lai, Yi-Ting; Sambrani, Nagraj; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    Morphological innovation is a fundamental process in evolution, yet its molecular basis is still elusive. Acquisition of elytra, highly modified beetle forewings, is an important innovation that has driven the successful radiation of beetles. Our RNAi screening for candidate genes has identified abrupt (ab) as a potential key player in elytron evolution. In this study, we performed a series of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in both Tribolium and Drosophila to understand the contributions of ab to the evolution of beetle elytra. We found that (i) ab is essential for proper wing vein patterning both in Tribolium and Drosophila, (ii) ab has gained a novel function in determining the unique elytron shape in the beetle lineage, (iii) unlike Hippo and Insulin, other shape determining pathways, the shape determining function of ab is specific to the elytron and not required in the hindwing, (iv) ab has a previously undescribed role in the Notch signal-associated wing formation processes, which appears to be conserved between beetles and flies. These data suggest that ab has gained a new function during elytron evolution in beetles without compromising the conserved wing-related functions. Gaining a new function without losing evolutionarily conserved functions may be a key theme in the evolution of morphologically novel structures.

  12. Divergence patterns of genic copy number variation in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) reveal three conserved genes with major population-specific expansions.

    PubMed

    Pezer, Željka; Harr, Bettina; Teschke, Meike; Babiker, Hiba; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation represents a major source of genetic divergence, yet the evolutionary dynamics of genic copy number variation in natural populations during differentiation and adaptation remain unclear. We applied a read depth approach to genome resequencing data to detect copy number variants (CNVs) ≥1 kb in wild-caught mice belonging to four populations of Mus musculus domesticus. We complemented the bioinformatics analyses with experimental validation using droplet digital PCR. The specific focus of our analysis is CNVs that include complete genes, as these CNVs could be expected to contribute most directly to evolutionary divergence. In total, 1863 transcription units appear to be completely encompassed within CNVs in at least one individual when compared to the reference assembly. Further, 179 of these CNVs show population-specific copy number differences, and 325 are subject to complete deletion in multiple individuals. Among the most copy-number variable genes are three highly conserved genes that encode the splicing factor CWC22, the spindle protein SFI1, and the Holliday junction recognition protein HJURP. These genes exhibit population-specific expansion patterns that suggest involvement in local adaptations. We found that genes that overlap with large segmental duplications are generally more copy-number variable. These genes encode proteins that are relevant for environmental and behavioral interactions, such as vomeronasal and olfactory receptors, as well as major urinary proteins and several proteins of unknown function. The overall analysis shows that genic CNVs contribute more to population differentiation in mice than in humans and may promote and speed up population divergence.

  13. Divergence patterns of genic copy number variation in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) reveal three conserved genes with major population-specific expansions

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Željka; Harr, Bettina; Teschke, Meike; Babiker, Hiba; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation represents a major source of genetic divergence, yet the evolutionary dynamics of genic copy number variation in natural populations during differentiation and adaptation remain unclear. We applied a read depth approach to genome resequencing data to detect copy number variants (CNVs) ≥1 kb in wild-caught mice belonging to four populations of Mus musculus domesticus. We complemented the bioinformatics analyses with experimental validation using droplet digital PCR. The specific focus of our analysis is CNVs that include complete genes, as these CNVs could be expected to contribute most directly to evolutionary divergence. In total, 1863 transcription units appear to be completely encompassed within CNVs in at least one individual when compared to the reference assembly. Further, 179 of these CNVs show population-specific copy number differences, and 325 are subject to complete deletion in multiple individuals. Among the most copy-number variable genes are three highly conserved genes that encode the splicing factor CWC22, the spindle protein SFI1, and the Holliday junction recognition protein HJURP. These genes exhibit population-specific expansion patterns that suggest involvement in local adaptations. We found that genes that overlap with large segmental duplications are generally more copy-number variable. These genes encode proteins that are relevant for environmental and behavioral interactions, such as vomeronasal and olfactory receptors, as well as major urinary proteins and several proteins of unknown function. The overall analysis shows that genic CNVs contribute more to population differentiation in mice than in humans and may promote and speed up population divergence. PMID:26149421

  14. Comparative Genomics Including the Early-Diverging Smut Fungus Ceraceosorus bombacis Reveals Signatures of Parallel Evolution within Plant and Animal Pathogens of Fungi and Oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Thines, Marco

    2015-08-27

    Ceraceosorus bombacis is an early-diverging lineage of smut fungi and a pathogen of cotton trees (Bombax ceiba). To study the evolutionary genomics of smut fungi in comparison with other fungal and oomycete pathogens, the genome of C. bombacis was sequenced and comparative genomic analyses were performed. The genome of 26.09 Mb encodes for 8,024 proteins, of which 576 are putative-secreted effector proteins (PSEPs). Orthology analysis revealed 30 ortholog PSEPs among six Ustilaginomycotina genomes, the largest groups of which are lytic enzymes, such as aspartic peptidase and glycoside hydrolase. Positive selection analyses revealed the highest percentage of positively selected PSEPs in C. bombacis compared with other Ustilaginomycotina genomes. Metabolic pathway analyses revealed the absence of genes encoding for nitrite and nitrate reductase in the genome of the human skin pathogen Malassezia globosa, but these enzymes are present in the sequenced plant pathogens in smut fungi. Interestingly, these genes are also absent in cultivable oomycete animal pathogens, while nitrate reductase has been lost in cultivable oomycete plant pathogens. Similar patterns were also observed for obligate biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Furthermore, it was found that both fungal and oomycete animal pathogen genomes are lacking cutinases and pectinesterases. Overall, these findings highlight the parallel evolution of certain genomic traits, revealing potential common evolutionary trajectories among fungal and oomycete pathogens, shaping the pathogen genomes according to their lifestyle.

  15. Comparative Genomics Including the Early-Diverging Smut Fungus Ceraceosorus bombacis Reveals Signatures of Parallel Evolution within Plant and Animal Pathogens of Fungi and Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ceraceosorus bombacis is an early-diverging lineage of smut fungi and a pathogen of cotton trees (Bombax ceiba). To study the evolutionary genomics of smut fungi in comparison with other fungal and oomycete pathogens, the genome of C. bombacis was sequenced and comparative genomic analyses were performed. The genome of 26.09 Mb encodes for 8,024 proteins, of which 576 are putative-secreted effector proteins (PSEPs). Orthology analysis revealed 30 ortholog PSEPs among six Ustilaginomycotina genomes, the largest groups of which are lytic enzymes, such as aspartic peptidase and glycoside hydrolase. Positive selection analyses revealed the highest percentage of positively selected PSEPs in C. bombacis compared with other Ustilaginomycotina genomes. Metabolic pathway analyses revealed the absence of genes encoding for nitrite and nitrate reductase in the genome of the human skin pathogen Malassezia globosa, but these enzymes are present in the sequenced plant pathogens in smut fungi. Interestingly, these genes are also absent in cultivable oomycete animal pathogens, while nitrate reductase has been lost in cultivable oomycete plant pathogens. Similar patterns were also observed for obligate biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Furthermore, it was found that both fungal and oomycete animal pathogen genomes are lacking cutinases and pectinesterases. Overall, these findings highlight the parallel evolution of certain genomic traits, revealing potential common evolutionary trajectories among fungal and oomycete pathogens, shaping the pathogen genomes according to their lifestyle. PMID:26314305

  16. The effects of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency and prefrontal cortex function during divergent thinking

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Oshin; Bouak, Fethi; Caldwell, J. L.; Cheung, Bob; Cupchik, Gerald; Jobidon, Marie-Eve; Lam, Quan; Nakashima, Ann; Paul, Michel; Peng, Henry; Silvia, Paul J.; Smith, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral aspects of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are the two regions most consistently recruited in divergent thinking tasks. Given that frontal tasks have been shown to be vulnerable to sleep loss, we explored the impact of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency (i.e., number of generated responses) and PFC function during divergent thinking. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning twice while engaged in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT) – once following a single night of sleep deprivation and once following a night of normal sleep. They also wore wrist activity monitors, which enabled us to quantify daily sleep and model cognitive effectiveness. The intervention was effective, producing greater levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Modeled cognitive effectiveness and fluency were impaired following sleep deprivation, and sleep deprivation was associated with greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during AUT. The results suggest that an intervention known to temporarily compromise frontal function can impair fluency, and that this effect is instantiated in the form of an increased hemodynamic response in the left IFG. PMID:24795594

  17. The effects of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency and prefrontal cortex function during divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Oshin; Bouak, Fethi; Caldwell, J L; Cheung, Bob; Cupchik, Gerald; Jobidon, Marie-Eve; Lam, Quan; Nakashima, Ann; Paul, Michel; Peng, Henry; Silvia, Paul J; Smith, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral aspects of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are the two regions most consistently recruited in divergent thinking tasks. Given that frontal tasks have been shown to be vulnerable to sleep loss, we explored the impact of a single night of sleep deprivation on fluency (i.e., number of generated responses) and PFC function during divergent thinking. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning twice while engaged in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT) - once following a single night of sleep deprivation and once following a night of normal sleep. They also wore wrist activity monitors, which enabled us to quantify daily sleep and model cognitive effectiveness. The intervention was effective, producing greater levels of fatigue and sleepiness. Modeled cognitive effectiveness and fluency were impaired following sleep deprivation, and sleep deprivation was associated with greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during AUT. The results suggest that an intervention known to temporarily compromise frontal function can impair fluency, and that this effect is instantiated in the form of an increased hemodynamic response in the left IFG.

  18. hBolA, novel non-classical secreted proteins, belonging to different BolA family with functional divergence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Bo; Cao, Jia-Bing; Wan, Bing-Bing; Wang, Xin-Rong; Ding, Guo-Hui; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Hong-Meng; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Han, Ze-Guang

    2008-10-01

    This study reported that all three human BolA proteins (hBolA1, hBolA2, and hBolA3) are novel non-classical secreted proteins identified with bioinformatics and molecular biology experiments. The three BolA fusion proteins with c-Myc tag could be secreted into the culture medium of the transfected Cos-7 cells, although they could not be colocalized with Golgi apparatus. And the secretion of three BolA proteins could not be inhibited after BFA treatment. Furthermore, the secretion was not dependent on its predicted signal peptide. All the experiment results suggested that the secretion was a non-classical export. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the human BolAs belong to three different groups with functional divergence of BolA subfamily, where the different helix-turn-helix motif among hBolA1, hBolA2, and hBolA3 could be responsible for their functional divergence. Our data provided a basis for functional studies of BolA protein family.

  19. Functional divergence of BAK1 genes from Brassica rapa in regulating plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Li, C; Li, Q; Wang, Q N; Huang, S H; Zhang, Y F; Wang, X F

    2015-11-19

    BAK1 is a co-receptor of BRI1 in early signaling pathways mediated by brassinosteroids (BRs) and is thought to play a major role in plant growth and development. As the role of BAK1 has not yet been fully elucidated then further research is required to explore its potential for use in genetic modification to improve crops. In this study, three BAK1 genes from the amphidiploid species Brassica rapa were isolated and their kinase functions were predicted following DNA sequence analysis. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that two genes, BrBAK1-1 and BrBAK1-8, shared a conserved kinase domain and 5 tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of a BAK1 receptor for BR perception, whereas the third gene, BrBAK1-3, was deficient for a signal peptide, but had 4 leucine zippers and 3 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in an extracellular domain. All three BrBAK1 kinases localized on the cellular membrane. Ectopic expression of each BrBAK1 gene in BR-insensitive (bri1-5 mutant) Arabidopsis plants indicated that BrBAK1-1 and BrBAK1-8 were functional homologues of AtBAK1 based on the rescue of growth in the bri1-5 mutant. Overexpression of BrBAK1-3 caused a severe dwarf phenotype resembling the phenotype of null BRI1 alleles. The results here suggest there are significant differences among the three BrBAK1 kinases for their effects on plant architecture. This conclusion has important implications for genetic modification of B. rapa.

  20. Conserved and Diverged Functions of the Calcineurin-Activated Prz1 Transcription Factor in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Vachon, Lianne; Kwon, Eun-Joo Gina; Chua, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Gene regulation in response to intracellular calcium is mediated by the calcineurin-activated transcription factor Prz1 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Genome-wide studies of the Crz1 and CrzA fungal orthologs have uncovered numerous target genes involved in conserved and species-specific cellular processes. In contrast, very few target genes of Prz1 have been published. This article identifies an extensive list of genes using transcriptome and ChIP-chip analyses under inducing conditions of Prz1, including CaCl2 and tunicamycin treatment, as well as a ∆pmr1 genetic background. We identified 165 upregulated putative target genes of Prz1 in which the majority contained a calcium-dependent response element in their promoters, similar to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog Crz1 These genes were functionally enriched for Crz1-conserved processes such as cell-wall biosynthesis. Overexpression of prz1(+)increased resistance to the cell-wall degradation enzyme zymolyase, likely from upregulation of theO-mannosyltransferase encoding gene omh1(+) Loss of omh1(+)abrogates this phenotype. We uncovered a novel inhibitory role in flocculation for Prz1. Loss of prz1(+)resulted in constitutive flocculation and upregulation of genes encoding the flocculins Gsf2 and Pfl3, as well as the transcription factor Cbf12. The constitutive flocculation of the ∆prz1 strain was abrogated by the loss of gsf2(+) or cbf12(+) This study reveals that Prz1 functions as a positive and negative transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis and flocculation, respectively. Moreover, comparison of target genes between Crz1/CrzA and Prz1 indicate some conservation in DNA-binding specificity, but also substantial rewiring of the calcineurin-mediated transcriptional regulatory network.

  1. Optical electrocorticogram (OECoG) using wide-field calcium imaging reveals the divergence of neuronal and glial activity during acute rodent seizures.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Andy G S; Laffont, Philippe; Zhao, Mingrui; Ma, Hongtao; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2015-08-01

    The role of glia in epilepsy has been widely debated. Using in vivo bulk loading of calcium dyes, we imaged neuronal and glial activity in an acute pharmacologic rodent model of neocortical seizures. Optical calcium-based ECoG maps revealed that neuronal waves propagated rapidly and remained mostly confined to the seizure focus. Glial waves were triggered by ictal onset but propagated slowly in a stereotypical fashion far beyond the seizure focus. Although related at their onset, the divergence of these two phenomena during seizure evolution calls into question their interdependence and the criticality of the role of glia in seizure onset and neurovascular coupling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus".

  2. Functional Divergence of Diterpene Syntheses in the Medicinal Plant Salvia miltiorrhiza1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guanghong; Duan, Lixin; Jin, Baolong; Qian, Jun; Xue, Zheyong; Shen, Guoan; Snyder, John Hugh; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin; Huang, Luqi; Peters, Reuben J.; Qi, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza produces various tanshinone diterpenoids that have pharmacological activities such as vasorelaxation against ischemia reperfusion injury and antiarrhythmic effects. Their biosynthesis is initiated from the general diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate by sequential reactions catalyzed by copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and kaurene synthase-like cyclases. Here, we report characterization of these enzymatic families from S. miltiorrhiza, which has led to the identification of unique pathways, including roles for separate CPSs in tanshinone production in roots versus aerial tissues (SmCPS1 and SmCPS2, respectively) as well as the unique production of ent-13-epi-manoyl oxide by SmCPS4 and S. miltiorrhiza kaurene synthase-like2 in floral sepals. The conserved SmCPS5 is involved in gibberellin plant hormone biosynthesis. Down-regulation of SmCPS1 by RNA interference resulted in substantial reduction of tanshinones, and metabolomics analysis revealed 21 potential intermediates, indicating a complex network for tanshinone metabolism defined by certain key biosynthetic steps. Notably, the correlation between conservation pattern and stereochemical product outcome of the CPSs observed here suggests a degree of correlation that, especially when combined with the identity of certain key residues, may be predictive. Accordingly, this study provides molecular insights into the evolutionary diversification of functional diterpenoids in plants. PMID:26077765

  3. Expansion and Functional Divergence of Jumonji C-Containing Histone Demethylases: Significance of Duplications in Ancestral Angiosperms and Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shengzhan; Wang, Yingxiang; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Liangsheng

    2015-08-01

    Histone modifications, such as methylation and demethylation, are crucial mechanisms altering chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent biochemical and molecular studies have uncovered a group of histone demethylases called Jumonji C (JmjC) domain proteins. However, their evolutionary history and patterns have not been examined systematically. Here, we report extensive analyses of eukaryotic JmjC genes and define 14 subfamilies, including the Lysine-Specific Demethylase3 (KDM3), KDM5, JMJD6, Putative-Lysine-Specific Demethylase11 (PKDM11), and PKDM13 subfamilies, shared by plants, animals, and fungi. Other subfamilies are detected in plants and animals but not in fungi (PKDM12) or in animals and fungi but not in plants (KDM2 and KDM4). PKDM7, PKDM8, and PKDM9 are plant-specific groups, whereas Jumonji, AT-Rich Interactive Domain2, KDM6, and PKDM10 are animal specific. In addition to known domains, most subfamilies have characteristic conserved amino acid motifs. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) was likely an important mechanism for JmjC duplications, with four pairs from an angiosperm-wide WGD and others from subsequent WGDs. Vertebrates also experienced JmjC duplications associated with the vertebrate ancestral WGDs, with additional mammalian paralogs from tandem duplication and possible transposition. The sequences of paralogs have diverged in both known functional domains and other regions, showing evidence of selection pressure. The increases of JmjC copy number and the divergences in sequence and expression might have contributed to the divergent functions of JmjC genes, allowing the angiosperms and vertebrates to adapt to a great number of ecological niches and contributing to their evolutionary successes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Evolution-guided functional analyses reveal diverse antiviral specificities encoded by IFIT1 genes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew D; Schaller, Aaron M; Geballe, Adam P; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    IFIT (interferon-induced with tetratricopeptide repeats) proteins are critical mediators of mammalian innate antiviral immunity. Mouse IFIT1 selectively inhibits viruses that lack 2'O-methylation of their mRNA 5' caps. Surprisingly, human IFIT1 does not share this antiviral specificity. Here, we resolve this discrepancy by demonstrating that human and mouse IFIT1 have evolved distinct functions using a combination of evolutionary, genetic and virological analyses. First, we show that human IFIT1 and mouse IFIT1 (renamed IFIT1B) are not orthologs, but are paralogs that diverged >100 mya. Second, using a yeast genetic assay, we show that IFIT1 and IFIT1B proteins differ in their ability to be suppressed by a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. Finally, we demonstrate that IFIT1 and IFIT1B have divergent antiviral specificities, including the discovery that only IFIT1 proteins inhibit a virus encoding a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. These functional data, combined with widespread turnover of mammalian IFIT genes, reveal dramatic species-specific differences in IFIT-mediated antiviral repertoires. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14228.001 PMID:27240734

  5. Genetic divergence in wild population of endangered yellowtail catfish Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) revealed by mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Kumar, Rajesh; Sah, R S; Lal, Kuldeep K

    2015-04-01

    Pangasius pangasius, an endangered freshwater fish species, is an important component of capture fishery from Indian rivers. Samples collected through commercial catches from three riverine populations were analyzed with cytb (307 bp) and ATPase6&8 (842 bp) regions for population variation and differentiation. The sequences of the both the mitochondrial regions revealed high haplotype and low nucleotide diversity. Shallow genetic diversity based on ATPase6&8 was observed, however its haplotypes network clearly indicated two distinct mitochondrial lineages. Mismatch distribution suggested population bottlenecks followed by expansion in Mahanadi population. The present study indicated the ATPase6&8 to be a potential mitochondrial marker for studying the population sub-structuring in the wild population of P. pangasius.

  6. Deep divergence and apparent sex-biased dispersal revealed by a Y-linked marker in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Joseph P.; Steele, Craig A.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2010-01-01

    Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA markers can reveal phylogenetic patterns by allowing tracking of male and female lineages, respectively. We used sequence data from a recently discovered Y-linked marker and a mitochondrial marker to examine phylogeographic structure in the widespread and economically important rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two distinct geographic groupings that generally correspond to coastal and inland subspecies were evident within the Y marker network while the mtDNA haplotype network showed little geographic structure. Our results suggest that male-specific behavior has prevented widespread admixture of Y haplotypes and that gene flow between the coastal and inland subspecies has largely occurred through females. This new Y marker may also aid conservation efforts by genetically identifying inland populations that have not hybridized with widely stocked coastal-derived hatchery fish. PMID:20546904

  7. Divergent functional properties of ryanodine receptor types 1 and 3 expressed in a myogenic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Fessenden, J D; Wang, Y; Moore, R A; Chen, S R; Allen, P D; Pessah, I N

    2000-01-01

    Of the three known ryanodine receptor (RyR) isoforms expressed in muscle, RyR1 and RyR2 have well-defined roles in contraction. However, studies on mammalian RyR3 have been difficult because of low expression levels relative to RyR1 or RyR2. Using the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) helper-free amplicon system, we expressed either RyR1 or RyR3 in 1B5 RyR-deficient myotubes. Western blot analysis revealed that RyR1- or RyR3-transduced cells expressed the appropriate RyR isoform of the correct molecular mass. Although RyR1 channels exhibited the expected unitary conductance for Cs(+) in bilayer lipid membranes, 74 of 88 RyR3 channels exhibited pronounced subconductance behavior. Western blot analysis with an FKBP12/12.6-selective antibody reveals that differences in gating behavior exhibited by RyR1 and RyR3 may be, in part, the result of lower affinity of RyR3 for FKBP12. In calcium imaging studies, RyR1 restored skeletal-type excitation-contraction coupling, whereas RyR3 did not. Although RyR3-expressing myotubes were more sensitive to caffeine than those expressing RyR1, they were much less sensitive to 4-chloro-m-cresol (CMC). In RyR1-expressing cells, regenerative calcium oscillations were observed in response to caffeine and CMC but were never seen in RyR3-expressing 1B5 cells. In [(3)H]ryanodine binding studies, only RyR1 exhibited sensitivity to CMC, but both RyR isoforms responded to caffeine. These functional differences between RyR1 and RyR3 expressed in a mammalian muscle context may reflect differences in association with accessory proteins, especially FKBP12, as well as structural differences in modulator binding sites. PMID:11053126

  8. Divergent functional properties of ryanodine receptor types 1 and 3 expressed in a myogenic cell line.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, J D; Wang, Y; Moore, R A; Chen, S R; Allen, P D; Pessah, I N

    2000-11-01

    Of the three known ryanodine receptor (RyR) isoforms expressed in muscle, RyR1 and RyR2 have well-defined roles in contraction. However, studies on mammalian RyR3 have been difficult because of low expression levels relative to RyR1 or RyR2. Using the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) helper-free amplicon system, we expressed either RyR1 or RyR3 in 1B5 RyR-deficient myotubes. Western blot analysis revealed that RyR1- or RyR3-transduced cells expressed the appropriate RyR isoform of the correct molecular mass. Although RyR1 channels exhibited the expected unitary conductance for Cs(+) in bilayer lipid membranes, 74 of 88 RyR3 channels exhibited pronounced subconductance behavior. Western blot analysis with an FKBP12/12.6-selective antibody reveals that differences in gating behavior exhibited by RyR1 and RyR3 may be, in part, the result of lower affinity of RyR3 for FKBP12. In calcium imaging studies, RyR1 restored skeletal-type excitation-contraction coupling, whereas RyR3 did not. Although RyR3-expressing myotubes were more sensitive to caffeine than those expressing RyR1, they were much less sensitive to 4-chloro-m-cresol (CMC). In RyR1-expressing cells, regenerative calcium oscillations were observed in response to caffeine and CMC but were never seen in RyR3-expressing 1B5 cells. In [(3)H]ryanodine binding studies, only RyR1 exhibited sensitivity to CMC, but both RyR isoforms responded to caffeine. These functional differences between RyR1 and RyR3 expressed in a mammalian muscle context may reflect differences in association with accessory proteins, especially FKBP12, as well as structural differences in modulator binding sites.

  9. Flower development of Phalaenopsis orchid involves functionally divergent SEPALLATA-like genes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chen, You-Yi; Du, Jian-Syun; Chen, Yun-Yu; Chung, Mei-Chu; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Neng; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The Phalaenopsis orchid produces complex flowers that are commercially valuable, which has promoted the study of its flower development. E-class MADS-box genes, SEPALLATA (SEP), combined with B-, C- and D-class MADS-box genes, are involved in various aspects of plant development, such as floral meristem determination, organ identity, fruit maturation, seed formation and plant architecture. Four SEP-like genes were cloned from Phalaenopsis orchid, and the duplicated PeSEPs were grouped into PeSEP1/3 and PeSEP2/4. All PeSEPs were expressed in all floral organs. PeSEP2 expression was detectable in vegetative tissues. The study of protein–protein interactions suggested that PeSEPs may form higher order complexes with the B-, C-, D-class and AGAMOUS LIKE6-related MADS-box proteins to determine floral organ identity. The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll. Silencing of PeSEP2 had minor effects on the floral phenotype. Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression. These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes. PMID:24571782

  10. Flower development of Phalaenopsis orchid involves functionally divergent SEPALLATA-like genes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chen, You-Yi; Du, Jian-Syun; Chen, Yun-Yu; Chung, Mei-Chu; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Neng; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    The Phalaenopsis orchid produces complex flowers that are commercially valuable, which has promoted the study of its flower development. E-class MADS-box genes, SEPALLATA (SEP), combined with B-, C- and D-class MADS-box genes, are involved in various aspects of plant development, such as floral meristem determination, organ identity, fruit maturation, seed formation and plant architecture. Four SEP-like genes were cloned from Phalaenopsis orchid, and the duplicated PeSEPs were grouped into PeSEP1/3 and PeSEP2/4. All PeSEPs were expressed in all floral organs. PeSEP2 expression was detectable in vegetative tissues. The study of protein-protein interactions suggested that PeSEPs may form higher order complexes with the B-, C-, D-class and AGAMOUS LIKE6-related MADS-box proteins to determine floral organ identity. The tepal became a leaf-like organ when PeSEP3 was silenced by virus-induced silencing, with alterations in epidermis identity and contents of anthocyanin and chlorophyll. Silencing of PeSEP2 had minor effects on the floral phenotype. Silencing of the E-class genes PeSEP2 and PeSEP3 resulted in the downregulation of B-class PeMADS2-6 genes, which indicates an association of PeSEP functions and B-class gene expression. These findings reveal the important roles of PeSEP in Phalaenopsis floral organ formation throughout the developmental process by the formation of various multiple protein complexes.

  11. An Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Oil Biosynthesis in High- and Low-Oil Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shi-Bo; Li, Qi-Gang; Song, Jian; Hao, Yu-Qi; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Huan-Quan; Dunwell, Jim M.; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Seed oils provide a renewable source of food, biofuel and industrial raw materials that is important for humans. Although many genes and pathways for acyl-lipid metabolism have been identified, little is known about whether there is a specific mechanism for high-oil content in high-oil plants. Based on the distinct differences in seed oil content between four high-oil dicots (20~50%) and three low-oil grasses (<3%), comparative genome, transcriptome and differential expression analyses were used to investigate this mechanism. Among 4,051 dicot-specific soybean genes identified from 252,443 genes in the seven species, 54 genes were shown to directly participate in acyl-lipid metabolism, and 93 genes were found to be associated with acyl-lipid metabolism. Among the 93 dicot-specific genes, 42 and 27 genes, including CBM20-like SBDs and GPT2, participate in carbohydrate degradation and transport, respectively. 40 genes highly up-regulated during seed oil rapid accumulation period are mainly involved in initial fatty acid synthesis, triacylglyceride assembly and oil-body formation, for example, ACCase, PP, DGAT1, PDAT1, OLEs and STEROs, which were also found to be differentially expressed between high- and low-oil soybean accessions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct differences of oleosin in patterns of gene duplication and loss between high-oil dicots and low-oil grasses. In addition, seed-specific GmGRF5, ABI5 and GmTZF4 were predicted to be candidate regulators in seed oil accumulation. This study facilitates future research on lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of seed oil content. PMID:27159078

  12. Regional homogeneity, resting-state functional connectivity and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation associated with creativity measured by divergent thinking in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Makoto Miyauchi, Carlos; Shinada, Takamitsu; Sakaki, Kohei; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Yokota, Susumu; Daniele, Magistro; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-02-28

    Brain connectivity is traditionally thought to be important for creativity. Here we investigated the associations of creativity measured by divergent thinking (CMDT) with resting-state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) measures and their sex differences. We examined these relationships in the brains of 1277 healthy young adults. Whole-brain analyses revealed a significant interaction between verbal CMDT and sex on (a) regional homogeneity within an area from the left anterior temporal lobe (b) on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus and (c) on fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in several distinct areas, including the precuneus and middle cingulate gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and cerebellum. These interactions were mediated by positive correlations in females and negative correlations in males. These findings suggest that greater CMDT in females is reflected by (a) regional coherence (regional homogeneity) of brain areas responsible for representing and combining concepts as well as (b) the efficient functional connection (RSFC) between the key areas for the default state of cognitive activity and speech production, and (c) greater spontaneous neural activity (fALFF) during the resting of brain areas involved in frontal lobe functions, default cognitive activities, and language functions. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the associations between creativity and resting state brain connectivity patterns are different between males and females.

  13. The complete genome sequence of Dickeya zeae EC1 reveals substantial divergence from other Dickeya strains and species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianuan; Cheng, Yingying; Lv, Mingfa; Liao, Lisheng; Chen, Yufan; Gu, Yanfang; Liu, Shiyin; Jiang, Zide; Xiong, Yuanyan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2015-08-04

    Dickeya zeae is a bacterial species that infects monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Two antibiotic-like phytotoxins named zeamine and zeamine II were reported to play an important role in rice seed germination, and two genes associated with zeamines production, i.e., zmsA and zmsK, have been thoroughly characterized. However, other virulence factors and its molecular mechanisms of host specificity and pathogenesis are hardly known. The complete genome of D. zeae strain EC1 isolated from diseased rice plants was sequenced, annotated, and compared with the genomes of other Dickeya spp.. The pathogen contains a chromosome of 4,532,364 bp with 4,154 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis indicates that D. zeae EC1 is most co-linear with D. chrysanthemi Ech1591, most conserved with D. zeae Ech586 and least similar to D. paradisiaca Ech703. Substantial genomic rearrangement was revealed by comparing EC1 with Ech586 and Ech703. Most virulence genes were well-conserved in Dickeya strains except Ech703. Significantly, the zms gene cluster involved in biosynthesis of zeamines, which were shown previously as key virulence determinants, is present in D. zeae strains isolated from rice, and some D. solani strains, but absent in other Dickeya species and the D. zeae strains isolated from other plants or sources. In addition, a DNA fragment containing 9 genes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis was found inserted in the fli gene cluster encoding flagellar biosynthesis of strain EC1 and other two rice isolates but not in other strains. This gene cluster shares a high protein similarity to the fatty acid genes from Pantoea ananatis. Our findings delineate the genetic background of D. zeae EC1, which infects both dicotyledons and monocotyledons, and suggest that D. zeae strains isolated from rice could be grouped into a distinct pathovar, i.e., D. zeae subsp. oryzae. In addition, the results of this study also unveiled that the zms gene cluster presented in

  14. Expression divergence of the AGL6 MADS domain transcription factor lineage after a core eudicot duplication suggests functional diversification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of their known role as transcriptional regulators of key plant developmental processes, the diversification of MADS-box gene function is thought to be a major driving force in the developmental evolution of plants. Yet the function of some MADS-box gene subfamilies has remained elusive thus far. One such lineage, AGL6, has now been functionally characterized in three angiosperm species, but a phylogenetic framework for comparison of AGL6 gene function is currently missing. Results Based on phylogenetic analyses of newly isolated and EST-based sequences, we describe the duplication history of the AGL6 subfamily in angiosperms. Our analyses provide support for four ancient duplications in the evolution of the AGL6 lineage: one at the base of core eudicots resulting in euAGL6 and AGL6-like gene clades, one during basal angiosperm diversification and two in monocot evolution. To investigate whether the spatial domains in which AGL6 genes function have diverged after duplication, we use quantitative Real Time PCR. We show that the core eudicot AGL6-like clade acquired expression in vegetative tissues, while its paralog euAGL6 remains predominantly confined to reproductive tissues. Conclusions These and previous data lead us to propose that the AGL6 lineage in core eudicots, in addition to functions related to the expression in reproductive structures, may have acquired a function in developmental transitions of vegetative shoots. PMID:20633275

  15. Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling Reveals Differential Functional Connectivity of the Medial and Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zald, David H.; McHugo, Maureen; Ray, Kimberly L.; Glahn, David C.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Laird, Angela R.

    2014-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in a broad range of behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders. Anatomical tracing studies in nonhuman primates reveal differences in connectivity across subregions of the OFC, but data on the connectivity of the human OFC remain limited. We applied meta-analytic connectivity modeling in order to examine which brain regions are most frequently coactivated with the medial and lateral portions of the OFC in published functional neuroimaging studies. The analysis revealed a clear divergence in the pattern of connectivity for the medial OFC (mOFC) and lateral OFC (lOFC) regions. The lOFC showed coactivations with a network of prefrontal regions and areas involved in cognitive functions including language and memory. In contrast, the mOFC showed connectivity with default mode, autonomic, and limbic regions. Convergent patterns of coactivations were observed in the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and thalamus. A small number of regions showed connectivity specific to the anterior or posterior sectors of the OFC. Task domains involving memory, semantic processing, face processing, and reward were additionally analyzed in order to identify the different patterns of OFC functional connectivity associated with specific cognitive and affective processes. These data provide a framework for understanding the human OFC's position within widespread functional networks. PMID:23042731

  16. Insight Into Genomic Changes Accompanying Divergence: Genetic Linkage Maps and Synteny of Lucania goodei and L. parva Reveal a Robertsonian Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Emma L.; Kozak, Genevieve M.; Ming, Ray; Rayburn, A. Lane; Kiehart, Ryan; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary genetics and in studies of speciation. We performed a karyotyping study and constructed high-density linkage maps for two closely related killifish species, Lucania parva and L. goodei, that differ in salinity tolerance and still hybridize in their contact zone in Florida. Using SNPs from orthologous EST contigs, we compared synteny between the two species to determine how genomic architecture has shifted with divergence. Karyotyping revealed that L. goodei possesses 24 acrocentric chromosomes (1N) whereas L. parva possesses 23 chromosomes (1N), one of which is a large metacentric chromosome. Likewise, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism−based linkage maps indicated 24 linkage groups for L. goodei and 23 linkage groups for L. parva. Synteny mapping revealed two linkage groups in L. goodei that were highly syntenic with the largest linkage group in L. parva. Together, this evidence points to the largest linkage group in L. parva being the result of a chromosomal fusion. We further compared synteny between Lucania with the genome of a more distant teleost relative medaka (Oryzias latipes) and found good conservation of synteny at the chromosomal level. Each Lucania LG had a single best match with each medaka chromosome. These results provide the groundwork for future studies on the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and salinity tolerance in Lucania and other Fundulidae. PMID:24898707

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A Reveals Divergence among Pathovars in Genes Involved in Virulence and Transposition†

    PubMed Central

    Joardar, Vinita; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Jackson, Robert W.; Selengut, Jeremy; Dodson, Robert; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Daugherty, Sean C.; DeBoy, Robert; Durkin, A. Scott; Giglio, Michelle Gwinn; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, William C.; Rosovitz, M. J.; Sullivan, Steven; Crabtree, Jonathan; Creasy, Todd; Davidsen, Tanja; Haft, Dan H.; Zafar, Nikhat; Zhou, Liwei; Halpin, Rebecca; Holley, Tara; Khouri, Hoda; Feldblyum, Tamara; White, Owen; Fraser, Claire M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Cartinhour, Sam; Schneider, David J.; Mansfield, John; Collmer, Alan; Buell, C. Robin

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, a gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen, is the causal agent of halo blight of bean. In this study, we report on the genome sequence of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola isolate 1448A, which encodes 5,353 open reading frames (ORFs) on one circular chromosome (5,928,787 bp) and two plasmids (131,950 bp and 51,711 bp). Comparative analyses with a phylogenetically divergent pathovar, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, revealed a strong degree of conservation at the gene and genome levels. In total, 4,133 ORFs were identified as putative orthologs in these two pathovars using a reciprocal best-hit method, with 3,941 ORFs present in conserved, syntenic blocks. Although these two pathovars are highly similar at the physiological level, they have distinct host ranges; 1448A causes disease in beans, and DC3000 is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis. Examination of the complement of ORFs encoding virulence, fitness, and survival factors revealed a substantial, but not complete, overlap between these two pathovars. Another distinguishing feature between the two pathovars is their distinctive sets of transposable elements. With access to a fifth complete pseudomonad genome sequence, we were able to identify 3,567 ORFs that likely comprise the core Pseudomonas genome and 365 ORFs that are P. syringae specific. PMID:16159782

  18. Key herbivores reveal limited functional redundancy on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, C. L.; van de Leemput, I. A.; Depczynski, M.; Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Marine ecosystems are facing increasing exposure to a range of stressors and declines in critical ecological functions. The likelihood of further loss of functions and resilience is dependent, in part, on the extent of functional redundancy (i.e. the capacity of one species to functionally compensate for the loss of another species) within critical functional groups. We used multiple metrics; species richness, generic richness, abundance and reserve capacity (i.e. the relative number of individuals available to fulfil the function if the numerically dominant species is lost), as indicators to assess the potential functional redundancy of four functional groups of herbivorous fishes (browsers, excavators, grazers and scrapers) in two of the worlds' most intact coral reef ecosystems: the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia. We found marked variations in potential redundancy among habitats within each reef system and functional groups. Despite negligible fishing of herbivorous fishes, coastal habitats in both reef systems had lower functional redundancy compared to offshore locations for all herbivorous fishes collectively and the four functional groups independently. This pattern was consistent in all four indicators of redundancy. The potential vulnerability of these coastal habitats is highlighted by recent shifts from coral to macroalgal dominance on several coastal reefs of the GBR. Our approach provides a simple yet revealing evaluation of potential functional redundancy. Moreover, it highlights the spatial variation in potential vulnerability and resilience of reef systems.

  19. Divergence of the Floral A-Function between an Asterid and a Rosid Species[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans, Klaas; Rozier, Frédérique; Zethof, Jan; Chamot, Sophy

    2017-01-01

    The ABC model is widely used as a genetic framework for understanding floral development and evolution. In this model, the A-function is required for the development of sepals and petals and to antagonize the C-function in the outer floral whorls. In the rosid species Arabidopsis thaliana, the AP2-type AP2 transcription factor represents a major A-function protein, but how the A-function is encoded in other species is not well understood. Here, we show that in the asterid species petunia (Petunia hybrida), AP2B/BLIND ENHANCER (BEN) confines the C-function to the inner petunia floral whorls, in parallel with the microRNA BLIND. BEN belongs to the TOE-type AP2 gene family, members of which control flowering time in Arabidopsis. In turn, we demonstrate that the petunia AP2-type REPRESSOR OF B-FUNCTION (ROB) genes repress the B-function (but not the C-function) in the first floral whorl, together with BEN. We propose a combinatorial model for patterning the B- and C-functions, leading to the homeotic conversion of sepals into petals, carpels, or stamens, depending on the genetic context. Combined with earlier results, our findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms controlling the spatial restriction of the floral organ identity genes are more diverse than the well-conserved B and C floral organ identity functions. PMID:28646074

  20. Revealing quantum correlation by negativity of the Wigner function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghiabadi, Razieh; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    We analyze two two-mode continuous variable separable states with the same marginal states. We adopt the definition of classicality in the form of well-defined positive Wigner function describing the state and find that although the states possess positive local Wigner functions, they exhibit negative Wigner functions for the global states. Using the negativity of Wigner function as an indicator of nonclassicality, we show that despite these states possess different negativities of the Wigner function, they do not reveal this difference as phase space nonclassicalities such as negativity of the Mandel Q parameter or quadrature squeezing. We then concentrate on quantum correlation of these states and show that quantum discord and local quantum uncertainty, as two well-defined measures of quantum correlation, manifest the difference between negativity of the Wigner functions. The non-Gaussianity of these states is also examined and show that the difference in behavior of their non-Gaussianity is the same as the difference between negativity of their Wigner functions. We also investigate the influence of correlation rank criterion and find that when the states can be produced locally from classical states, the Wigner functions cannot reveal their quantum correlations.

  1. Phylogenomic analysis of the complete sequence of a gastroenteritis-associated cetacean adenovirus (bottlenose dolphin adenovirus 1) reveals a high degree of genetic divergence.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Maja; Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Hayer, Juliette; García-Párraga, Daniel; Nieto-Pelegrín, Elvira; Melero, Mar; Álvaro, Teresa; Valls, Mónica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose Manuel; Belák, Sándor; Granberg, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Adenoviruses are common pathogens in vertebrates, infecting a wide range of hosts, but only having rarely been detected and correlated with disease in cetaceans. This article describes the first complete genomic sequence of a cetacean adenovirus, bottlenose dolphin adenovirus 1 (BdAdV-1), detected in captive bottlenose dolphin population (Tursiops truncatus) suffering from self-limiting gastroenteritis. The complete genome sequence of BdAdV-1 was recovered from data generated by high-throughput sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. The genome is 34,080bp long and has 220 nucleotides long inverted terminal repeats. A total of 29 coding sequences were identified, 26 of which were functionally annotated. Among the unusual features of this genome is a remarkably long 4380bp E3 ORF1, that displays no sequence homology with the corresponding E3 regions of other adenoviruses. In addition, the fiber protein only has 26% identity with fiber proteins described in other adenoviruses. Three hypothetical proteins were predicted. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the closest known relative to BdAdV-1 is an adenovirus detected in bottlenose dolphin (KR024710), with an amino acid sequence identity between 36 and 79% depending on the protein. Based on the phylogenic analysis, the BdAdV-1 appears to have co-evolved with its host. The results indicate that BdAdV-1 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the Adenoviridae family, however, it is clearly different from other adenoviruses, especially in the 3'-end of the viral genome. The high degree of sequence divergence suggests that BdAdV-1 should be considered as a novel species in the Mastadenovirus genus. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of high-throughput sequencing to obtain full-length genomes of genetically divergent viruses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A divergent route to core- and peripherally functionalized diazacoronenes that act as colorimetric and fluorescence proton sensors

    DOE PAGES

    He, Bo; Dai, Jing; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; ...

    2015-03-31

    Combining core annulation and peripheral group modification, we have demonstrated a divergent synthesis of a family of highly functionalized coronene derivatives from a readily accessible dichlorodiazaperylene intermediate. Various reactions, such as aromatic nucleophilic substitution, Kumada coupling and Suzuki coupling proceed effectively on α-positions of the pyridine sites, giving rise to alkoxy, thioalkyl, alkyl or aryl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to peripheral group modulation, the aromatic core structures can be altered by annulation with thiophene or benzene ring systems. Corresponding single crystal X-ray diffraction and optical studies indicate that the heteroatom linkages not only impact the solid state packing,more » but also significantly influence the optoelectronic properties. Moreover, these azacoronene derivatives display significant acid-induced spectroscopic changes, suggesting their great potential as colorimetric and fluorescence proton sensors.« less

  3. A divergent route to core- and peripherally functionalized diazacoronenes that act as colorimetric and fluorescence proton sensors

    SciTech Connect

    He, Bo; Dai, Jing; Zherebetskyy, Danylo; Chen, Teresa L.; Zhang, Benjamin A.; Teat, Simon J.; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Linwang; Liu, Yi

    2015-03-31

    Combining core annulation and peripheral group modification, we have demonstrated a divergent synthesis of a family of highly functionalized coronene derivatives from a readily accessible dichlorodiazaperylene intermediate. Various reactions, such as aromatic nucleophilic substitution, Kumada coupling and Suzuki coupling proceed effectively on α-positions of the pyridine sites, giving rise to alkoxy, thioalkyl, alkyl or aryl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to peripheral group modulation, the aromatic core structures can be altered by annulation with thiophene or benzene ring systems. Corresponding single crystal X-ray diffraction and optical studies indicate that the heteroatom linkages not only impact the solid state packing, but also significantly influence the optoelectronic properties. Moreover, these azacoronene derivatives display significant acid-induced spectroscopic changes, suggesting their great potential as colorimetric and fluorescence proton sensors.

  4. Polynomial in momenta invariants of Hamilton's equations, divergent series and generalized functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    We consider the problem of the motion of two identical interacting particles on a circle in a potential force field. We study conditions for the existence of an additional first integral in the form of a polynomial of degree 4 in momenta with periodic coefficients. These conditions are reduced to the solvability of a certain nonlinear functional-differential equation for the potential of the external force and the interaction potential. If the potentials are smooth, this equation has only trivial solutions: at least one of the potentials is a constant function. We classify generalized solutions of this equation when the interaction potential is a distribution while the external potential is a smooth function. Formal Fourier series for the interaction potential can be summed up by the (C, 2)-Cesaro method to periodic functions with singularities.

  5. Prediction and Assignment of Function for a Divergent N-succinyl Amino Acid Racemase

    SciTech Connect

    Song,L.; Kalyanaraman, C.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Glasner, M.; Brown, S.; Imker, H.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    The protein databases contain many proteins with unknown function. A computational approach for predicting ligand specificity that requires only the sequence of the unknown protein would be valuable for directing experiment-based assignment of function. We focused on a family of unknown proteins in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily and used two approaches to assign function: (i) enzymatic assays using libraries of potential substrates, and (ii) in silico docking of the same libraries using a homology model based on the most similar (35% sequence identity) characterized protein. The results matched closely; an experimentally determined structure confirmed the predicted structure of the substrate-liganded complex. We assigned the N-succinyl arginine/lysine racemase function to the family, correcting the annotation (L-Ala-D/L-Glu epimerase) based on the function of the most similar characterized homolog. These studies establish that ligand docking to a homology model can facilitate functional assignment of unknown proteins by restricting the identities of the possible substrates that must be experimentally tested.

  6. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs Reveal Diverging Pit Viper Molecules and Scaffolds Typical of Cobra (Elapidae) Venoms: Implications for Snake Toxin Repertoire Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L. M.; Ching, Ana T. C.; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y.; Ho, Paulo L.; Diniz, Marcelo R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts. PMID:16582429

  7. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Reveals Transduplication and the Impact of Repeat Elements on Pathogenicity and Population Divergence

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Viola A.; Pandelova, Iovanna; Dhillon, Braham; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Figueroa, Melania; Freitag, Michael; Hane, James K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Holman, Wade H.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Martin, Joel; Oliver, Richard P.; Robbertse, Barbara; Schackwitz, Wendy; Schwartz, David C.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zhou, Shiguo; Zeng, Qiandong; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ma, Li-Jun; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.

    2012-08-16

    Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a necrotrophic fungus causal to the disease tan spot of wheat, whose contribution to crop loss has increased significantly during the last few decades. Pathogenicity by this fungus is attributed to the production of host-selective toxins (HST), which are recognized by their host in a genotype-specific manner. To better understand the mechanisms that have led to the increase in disease incidence related to this pathogen, we sequenced the genomes of three P. tritici-repentis isolates. A pathogenic isolate that produces two known HSTs was used to assemble a reference nuclear genome of approximately 40 Mb composed of 11 chromosomes that encode 12,141 predicted genes. Comparison of the reference genome with those of a pathogenic isolate that produces a third HST, and a nonpathogenic isolate, showed the nonpathogen genome to be more diverged than those of the two pathogens. Examination of gene-coding regions has provided candidate pathogen-specific proteins and revealed gene families that may play a role in a necrotrophic lifestyle. Analysis of transposable elements suggests that their presence in the genome of pathogenic isolates contributes to the creation of novel genes, effector diversification, possible horizontal gene transfer events, identified copy number variation, and the first example of transduplication by DNA transposable elements in fungi. Overall, comparative analysis of these genomes provides evidence that pathogenicity in this species arose through an influx of transposable elements, which created a genetically flexible landscape that can easily respond to environmental changes.

  8. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Reveals Transduplication and the Impact of Repeat Elements on Pathogenicity and Population Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Viola A.; Pandelova, Iovanna; Dhillon, Braham; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Figueroa, Melania; Freitag, Michael; Hane, James K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Holman, Wade H.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Martin, Joel; Oliver, Richard P.; Robbertse, Barbara; Schackwitz, Wendy; Schwartz, David C.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zhou, Shiguo; Zeng, Qiandong; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ma, Li-Jun; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a necrotrophic fungus causal to the disease tan spot of wheat, whose contribution to crop loss has increased significantly during the last few decades. Pathogenicity by this fungus is attributed to the production of host-selective toxins (HST), which are recognized by their host in a genotype-specific manner. To better understand the mechanisms that have led to the increase in disease incidence related to this pathogen, we sequenced the genomes of three P. tritici-repentis isolates. A pathogenic isolate that produces two known HSTs was used to assemble a reference nuclear genome of approximately 40 Mb composed of 11 chromosomes that encode 12,141 predicted genes. Comparison of the reference genome with those of a pathogenic isolate that produces a third HST, and a nonpathogenic isolate, showed the nonpathogen genome to be more diverged than those of the two pathogens. Examination of gene-coding regions has provided candidate pathogen-specific proteins and revealed gene families that may play a role in a necrotrophic lifestyle. Analysis of transposable elements suggests that their presence in the genome of pathogenic isolates contributes to the creation of novel genes, effector diversification, possible horizontal gene transfer events, identified copy number variation, and the first example of transduplication by DNA transposable elements in fungi. Overall, comparative analysis of these genomes provides evidence that pathogenicity in this species arose through an influx of transposable elements, which created a genetically flexible landscape that can easily respond to environmental changes. PMID:23316438

  9. Genomewide SNP data reveal cryptic phylogeographic structure and microallopatric divergence in a rapids-adapted clade of cichlids from the Congo River.

    PubMed

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Munshi-South, Jason; Stiassny, Melanie L J

    2017-03-01

    The lower Congo River is a freshwater biodiversity hot spot in Africa characterized by some of the world's largest rapids. However, little is known about the evolutionary forces shaping this diversity, which include numerous endemic fishes. We investigated phylogeographic relationships in Teleogramma, a small clade of rheophilic cichlids, in the context of regional geography and hydrology. Previous studies have been unable to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Teleogramma due to lack of variation in nuclear genes and discrete morphological characters among putative species. To sample more broadly across the genome, we analysed double-digest restriction-associated sequencing (ddRAD) data from 53 individuals across all described species in the genus. We also assessed body shape and mitochondrial variation within and between taxa. Phylogenetic analyses reveal previously unrecognized lineages and instances of microallopatric divergence across as little as ~1.5 km. Species ranges appear to correspond to geographic regions broadly separated by major hydrological and topographic barriers, indicating these features are likely important drivers of diversification. Mitonuclear discordance indicates one or more introgressive hybridization events, but no clear evidence of admixture is present in nuclear genomes, suggesting these events were likely ancient. A survey of female fin patterns hints that previously undetected lineage-specific patterning may be acting to reinforce species cohesion. These analyses highlight the importance of hydrological complexity in generating diversity in certain freshwater systems, as well as the utility of ddRAD-Seq data in understanding diversification processes operating both below and above the species level.

  10. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Ching, Ana T C; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Ho, Paulo L; Diniz, Marcelo R V

    2006-06-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts.

  11. Toward the evolutionary genomics of gametophytic divergence: patterns of transmission ratio distortion in monkeyflower (Mimulus) hybrids reveal a complex genetic basis for conspecific pollen precedence.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Lila; Aagaard, Jan; Tuthill, John C

    2008-12-01

    Conspecific pollen precedence (CPP) is a major component of reproductive isolation between many flowering plant taxa and may reveal mechanisms of gametophytic evolution within species, but little is known about the genetic basis and evolutionary history of CPP. We systematically investigated the genetic architecture of CPP using patterns of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in F2 and backcross hybrids between closely related species of Mimulus (Phrymaceae) with divergent mating systems. We found that CPP in Mimulus hybrids was polygenic and was the majority source of interspecific TRD genome-wide, with at least eight genomic regions contributing to the transmission advantage of M. guttatus pollen grains on M. guttatus styles. In aggregate, these male-specific transmission ratio distorting loci (TRDLs) were more than sufficient to account for the 100% precedence of pure M. guttatus pollen over M. nasutus pollen in mixed pollinations of M. guttatus. All but one of these pollen TRDLs were style-dependent; that is, we observed pollen TRD in F(1) and/or M. guttatus styles, but not in M. nasutus styles. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in pollen tube performance accumulate gradually and may have been driven by coevolution between pollen and style in the predominantly outcrossing M. guttatus.

  12. microTSS: accurate microRNA transcription start site identification reveals a significant number of divergent pri-miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Georgakilas, Georgios; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Yang, Peter; Zhang, Yuhong; Economides, Aris N; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2014-12-10

    A large fraction of microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from intergenic non-coding loci and the identification of their promoters remains 'elusive'. Here, we present microTSS, a machine-learning algorithm that provides highly accurate, single-nucleotide resolution predictions for intergenic miRNA transcription start sites (TSSs). MicroTSS integrates high-resolution RNA-sequencing data with active transcription marks derived from chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNase-sequencing to enable the characterization of tissue-specific promoters. MicroTSS is validated with a specifically designed Drosha-null/conditional-null mouse model, generated using the conditional by inversion (COIN) methodology. Analyses of global run-on sequencing data revealed numerous pri-miRNAs in human and mouse either originating from divergent transcription at promoters of active genes or partially overlapping with annotated long non-coding RNAs. MicroTSS is readily applicable to any cell or tissue samples and constitutes the missing part towards integrating the regulation of miRNA transcription into the modelling of tissue-specific regulatory networks.

  13. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of the APOBEC3G-Vif Interaction Reveal Ancient Origins of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Alex A.; Emerman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Naturally circulating lentiviruses are abundant in African primate species today, yet their origins and history of transmitting between hosts remain obscure. As a means to better understand the age of primate lentiviruses, we analyzed primate genomes for signatures of lentivirus-driven evolution. Specifically, we studied the adaptive evolution of host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G) in Old World Monkey (OWM) species. We find recurrent mutation of A3G in multiple primate lineages at sites that determine susceptibility to antagonism by the lentiviral accessory protein Vif. Using a broad panel of SIV Vif isolates, we demonstrate that natural variation in OWM A3G confers resistance to Vif-mediated degradation, suggesting that adaptive variants of the host factor were selected upon exposure to pathogenic lentiviruses at least 5–6 million years ago (MYA). Furthermore, in members of the divergent Colobinae subfamily of OWM, a multi-residue insertion event in A3G that arose at least 12 MYA blocks the activity of Vif, suggesting an even more ancient origin of SIV. Moreover, analysis of the lentiviruses associated with Colobinae monkeys reveal that the interface of the A3G-Vif interaction has shifted and given rise to a second genetic conflict. Our analysis of virus-driven evolution describes an ancient yet ongoing genetic conflict between simian primates and lentiviruses on a million-year time scale. PMID:23359341

  14. Species Divergence vs. Functional Convergence Characterizes Crude Oil Microbial Community Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yong; Zhao, Jie-Yu; Tang, Yue-Qin; Guo, Peng; Yang, Yunfeng; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-01-01

    Oil reservoirs exhibit extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity and high temperature. Insights into microbial community assemblages in oil reservoirs and their functional potentials are important for understanding biogeochemical cycles in the subterranean biosphere. In this study, we performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of crude oil samples from two geographically distant oil reservoirs in China, and compared them with all the 948 available environmental metagenomes deposited in IMG database (until October 2013). Although the dominant bacteria and the proportion of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens were different among oil metagenomes, compared with the metagenomes from other environments, all the oil metagenomes contained higher abundances of genes involved in methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation and stress response systems. In addition, a “shape-sorting” manner was proposed for the assembly of microbial communities in oil reservoirs, with the oil reservoir acting as a function sorter to select microbes with special functions from its endemic pool of microorganisms. At the functional level, we found that environmental metagenomes were generally clustered according to their isolation environments but not their geographical locations, suggesting selective processes to be involved in the assembly of microbial communities based on functional gene composition. PMID:27570522

  15. Regressive evolution of the arthropod tritocerebral segment linked to functional divergence of the Hox gene labial

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Turetzek, Natascha; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2015-01-01

    The intercalary segment is a limbless version of the tritocerebral segment and is present in the head of all insects, whereas other extant arthropods have retained limbs on their tritocerebral segment (e.g. the pedipalp limbs in spiders). The evolutionary origin of limb loss on the intercalary segment has puzzled zoologists for over a century. Here we show that an intercalary segment-like phenotype can be created in spiders by interfering with the function of the Hox gene labial. This links the origin of the intercalary segment to a functional change in labial. We show that in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum the labial gene has two functions: one function in head tissue maintenance that is conserved between spiders and insects, and a second function in pedipalp limb promotion and specification, which is only present in spiders. These results imply that labial was originally crucial for limb formation on the tritocerebral segment, but that it has lost this particular subfunction in the insect ancestor, resulting in limb loss on the intercalary segment. Such loss of a subfunction is a way to avoid adverse pleiotropic effects normally associated with mutations in developmental genes, and may thus be a common mechanism to accelerate regressive evolution. PMID:26311666

  16. Expansion and Functional Divergence of AP2 Group Genes in Spermatophytes Determined by Molecular Evolution and Arabidopsis Mutant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Li, Meiping; Shi, Jisen; Lu, Ye; Laux, Thomas; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The APETALA2 (AP2) genes represent the AP2 group within a large group of DNA-binding proteins called AP2/EREBP. The AP2 gene is functional and necessary for flower development, stem cell maintenance, and seed development, whereas the other members of AP2 group redundantly affect flowering time. Here we study the phylogeny of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes. Spermatophyte AP2 group genes can be classified into AP2 and TOE types, six clades, and we found that the AP2 group homologs in gymnosperms belong to the AP2 type, whereas TOE types are absent, which indicates the AP2 type gene are more ancient and TOE type was split out of AP2 type and losing the major function. In Brassicaceae, the expansion of AP2 and TOE type lead to the gene number of AP2 group were up to six. Purifying selection appears to have been the primary driving force of spermatophyte AP2 group evolution, although positive selection occurred in the AP2 clade. The transition from exon to intron of AtAP2 in Arabidopsis mutant leads to the loss of gene function and the same situation was found in AtTOE2. Combining this evolutionary analysis and published research, the results suggest that typical AP2 group genes may first appear in gymnosperms and diverged in angiosperms, following expansion of group members and functional differentiation. In angiosperms, AP2 genes (AP2 clade) inherited key functions from ancestors and other genes of AP2 group lost most function but just remained flowering time controlling in gene formation. In this study, the phylogenies of AP2 group genes in spermatophytes was analyzed, which supported the evidence for the research of gene functional evolution of AP2 group. PMID:27703459

  17. Comparison of ribitol and glycerol teichoic acid genes in Bacillus subtilis W23 and 168: identical function, similar divergent organization, but different regulation.

    PubMed

    Lazarevic, Vladimir; Abellan, François-Xavier; Möller, Siham Beggah; Karamata, Dimitri; Mauël, Catherine

    2002-03-01

    The tar genes directing the synthesis of poly(ribitol phosphate), the main teichoic acid in Bacillus subtilis strain W23, were sequenced. They are organized in two divergently transcribed operons, tarABIJKL and tarDF, as are the tag genes specifying poly(glycerol phosphate) synthesis in B. subtilis 168. The features of the tar genes as well as the putative participation of their products in the proposed biosynthesis pathway of poly(ribitol phosphate) are presented. The tarA and tarD genes, which are most likely involved in the synthesis of the linkage unit (the entity coupling teichoic acid to peptidoglycan), are separated by 508 nt. Sequences of the outer segments of this regulatory region are similar to the two divergent promoter regions identified upstream of the tagA and tagD genes in strain 168. However, in W23, these regions, which also included functional promoters, are separated by an additional DNA segment of about 100 nt, on which two new mRNA starts, one in each direction, were identified. The regulatory regions of teichoic acid divergons of Bacillus globigii, Bacillus licheniformis and eight strains of B. subtilis were cloned and sequenced. In four B. subtilis strains and in B. globigii, their length and sequence are similar to the regulatory region of W23. In the others, including B. licheniformis, they are of the 168-type. Analysis of nucleotide sequences of a non-coding grey hole, present in the tag region of strain 168, revealed higher similarities to tar than to tag entities. This suggests that at least part of the tag genes specifying the synthesis of glucosylated poly(glycerol phosphate) in strain 168 was introduced by horizontal gene transfer into a strain originally synthesizing a ribitol-phosphate-containing teichoic acid.

  18. Viral and cellular SOS-regulated motor proteins: dsDNA translocation mechanisms with divergent functions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage attacks on bacterial cells have been known to activate the SOS response, a transcriptional response affecting chromosome replication, DNA recombination and repair, cell division and prophage induction. All these functions require double-stranded (ds) DNA translocation by ASCE hexameric motors. This review seeks to delineate the structural and functional characteristics of the SOS response and the SOS-regulated DNA translocases FtsK and RuvB with the phi29 bacteriophage packaging motor gp16 ATPase as a prototype to study bacterial motors. While gp16 ATPase, cellular FtsK and RuvB are similarly comprised of hexameric rings encircling dsDNA and functioning as ATP-driven DNA translocases, they utilize different mechanisms to accomplish separate functions, suggesting a convergent evolution of these motors. The gp16 ATPase and FtsK use a novel revolution mechanism, generating a power stroke between subunits through an entropy-DNA affinity switch and pushing dsDNA inward without rotation of DNA and the motor, whereas RuvB seems to employ a rotation mechanism that remains to be further characterized. While FtsK and RuvB perform essential tasks during the SOS response, their roles may be far more significant as SOS response is involved in antibiotic-inducible bacterial vesiculation and biofilm formation as well as the perspective of the bacteria-cancer evolutionary interaction. PMID:24995125

  19. Comparative Genomics of the Ectomycorrhizal Sister Species Rhizopogon vinicolor and Rhizopogon vesiculosus (Basidiomycota: Boletales) Reveals a Divergence of the Mating Type B Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mujic, Alija Bajro; Kuo, Alan; Tritt, Andrew; Lipzen, Anna; Chen, Cindy; Johnson, Jenifer; Sharma, Aditi; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2017-01-01

    Divergence of breeding system plays an important role in fungal speciation. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, however, pose a challenge for the study of reproductive biology because most cannot be mated under laboratory conditions. To overcome this barrier, we sequenced the draft genomes of the ectomycorrhizal sister species Rhizopogon vinicolor Smith and Zeller and R. vesiculosus Smith and Zeller (Basidiomycota, Boletales)—the first genomes available for Basidiomycota truffles—and characterized gene content and organization surrounding their mating type loci. Both species possess a pair of homeodomain transcription factor homologs at the mating type A-locus as well as pheromone receptor and pheromone precursor homologs at the mating type B-locus. Comparison of Rhizopogon genomes with genomes from Boletales, Agaricales, and Polyporales revealed synteny of the A-locus region within Boletales, but several genomic rearrangements across orders. Our findings suggest correlation between gene content at the B-locus region and breeding system in Boletales with tetrapolar species possessing more diverse gene content than bipolar species. Rhizopogon vinicolor possesses a greater number of B-locus pheromone receptor and precursor genes than R. vesiculosus, as well as a pair of isoprenyl cysteine methyltransferase genes flanking the B-locus compared to a single copy in R. vesiculosus. Examination of dikaryotic single nucleotide polymorphisms within genomes revealed greater heterozygosity in R. vinicolor, consistent with increased rates of outcrossing. Both species possess the components of a heterothallic breeding system with R. vinicolor possessing a B-locus region structure consistent with tetrapolar Boletales and R. vesiculosus possessing a B-locus region structure intermediate between bipolar and tetrapolar Boletales. PMID:28450370

  20. Divergent taxonomic and functional responses of microbial communities to field simulation of aeolian soil erosion and deposition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingyu; Zhao, Cancan; Gao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Wang, Tengxu; Yuan, Tong; Hale, Lauren; Nostrand, Joy D Van; Wan, Shiqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Aeolian soil erosion and deposition have worldwide impacts on agriculture, air quality and public health. However, ecosystem responses to soil erosion and deposition remain largely unclear in regard to microorganisms, which are the crucial drivers of biogeochemical cycles. Using integrated metagenomics technologies, we analysed microbial communities subjected to simulated soil erosion and deposition in a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. As expected, soil total organic carbon and plant coverage were decreased by soil erosion, and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was increased by soil deposition, demonstrating that field simulation was reliable. Soil microbial communities were altered (p < .039) by both soil erosion and deposition, with dramatic increase in Cyanobacteria related to increased stability in soil aggregates. amyA genes encoding α-amylases were specifically increased (p = .01) by soil deposition and positively correlated (p = .02) to DOC, which likely explained changes in DOC. Surprisingly, most of microbial functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium cycling were decreased or unaltered by both erosion and deposition, probably arising from acceleration of organic matter mineralization. These divergent responses support the necessity to include microbial components in evaluating ecological consequences. Furthermore, Mantel tests showed strong, significant correlations between soil nutrients and functional structure but not taxonomic structure, demonstrating close relevance of microbial function traits to nutrient cycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The plant energy sensor: evolutionary conservation and divergence of SnRK1 structure, regulation, and function.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Tom; Hulsmans, Sander; Rolland, Filip

    2016-12-01

    The SnRK1 (SNF1-related kinase 1) kinases are the plant cellular fuel gauges, activated in response to energy-depleting stress conditions to maintain energy homeostasis while also gatekeeping important developmental transitions for optimal growth and survival. Similar to their opisthokont counterparts (animal AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, and yeast Sucrose Non-Fermenting 1, SNF), they function as heterotrimeric complexes with a catalytic (kinase) α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. Although the overall configuration of the kinase complexes is well conserved, plant-specific structural modifications (including a unique hybrid βγ subunit) and associated differences in regulation reflect evolutionary divergence in response to fundamentally different lifestyles. While AMP is the key metabolic signal activating AMPK in animals, the plant kinases appear to be allosterically inhibited by sugar-phosphates. Their function is further fine-tuned by differential subunit expression, localization, and diverse post-translational modifications. The SnRK1 kinases act by direct phosphorylation of key metabolic enzymes and regulatory proteins, extensive transcriptional regulation (e.g. through bZIP transcription factors), and down-regulation of TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling. Significant progress has been made in recent years. New tools and more directed approaches will help answer important fundamental questions regarding their structure, regulation, and function, as well as explore their potential as targets for selection and modification for improved plant performance in a changing environment.

  2. Distinct protein domains and expression patterns confer divergent axon guidance functions for Drosophila Robo receptors.

    PubMed

    Spitzweck, Bettina; Brankatschk, Marko; Dickson, Barry J

    2010-02-05

    The orthogonal array of axon pathways in the Drosophila CNS is constructed in part under the control of three Robo family axon guidance receptors: Robo1, Robo2 and Robo3. Each of these receptors is responsible for a distinct set of guidance decisions. To determine the molecular basis for these functional specializations, we used homologous recombination to create a series of 9 "robo swap" alleles: expressing each of the three Robo receptors from each of the three robo loci. We demonstrate that the lateral positioning of longitudinal axon pathways relies primarily on differences in gene regulation, not distinct combinations of Robo proteins as previously thought. In contrast, specific features of the Robo1 and Robo2 proteins contribute to their distinct functions in commissure formation. These specializations allow Robo1 to prevent crossing and Robo2 to promote crossing. These data demonstrate how diversification of expression and structure within a single family of guidance receptors can shape complex patterns of neuronal wiring.

  3. Divergent functional isoforms drive niche specialisation for nutrient acquisition and use in rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Francesco; Carberry, Ciara; M Waters, Sinéad; Kenny, David; McCabe, Matthew S; Creevey, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Many microbes in complex competitive environments share genes for acquiring and utilising nutrients, questioning whether niche specialisation exists and if so, how it is maintained. We investigated the genomic signatures of niche specialisation in the rumen microbiome, a highly competitive, anaerobic environment, with limited nutrient availability determined by the biomass consumed by the host. We generated individual metagenomic libraries from 14 cows fed an ad libitum diet of grass silage and calculated functional isoform diversity for each microbial gene identified. The animal replicates were used to calculate confidence intervals to test for differences in diversity of functional isoforms between microbes that may drive niche specialisation. We identified 153 genes with significant differences in functional isoform diversity between the two most abundant bacterial genera in the rumen (Prevotella and Clostridium). We found Prevotella possesses a more diverse range of isoforms capable of degrading hemicellulose, whereas Clostridium for cellulose. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in key metabolic processes indicating that isoform diversity plays an important role in maintaining their niche specialisation. The methods presented represent a novel approach for untangling complex interactions between microorganisms in natural environments and have resulted in an expanded catalogue of gene targets central to rumen cellulosic biomass degradation.

  4. Structural and Functional Divergence of Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone from Jawless Fish to Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a novel hypothalamic peptide that inhibits gonadotropin release in the quail. The presence of GnIH-homologous peptides and its receptors (GnIHRs) have been demonstrated in various vertebrate species including teleosts, suggesting that the GnIH-GnIHR family is evolutionarily conserved. In avian and mammalian brain, GnIH neurons are localized in the hypothalamic nuclei and their neural projections are widely distributed. GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to inhibit reproductive functions by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. In addition, GnIH-GnIHR signaling is regulated by various factors, such as environmental cues and stress. However, the function of fish GnIH orthologs remains inconclusive because the physiological properties of fish GnIH peptides are debatable. This review summarizes the current research progress in GnIH-GnIHR signaling and their physiological functions in vertebrates with special emphasis on non-mammalian vertebrate species. PMID:25386165

  5. Functional complementation of anthocyanin sequestration in the vacuole by widely divergent glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Alfenito, M R; Souer, E; Goodman, C D; Buell, R; Mol, J; Koes, R; Walbot, V

    1998-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last genetically defined step of the maize anthocyanin pigment pathway. This step is the conjugation of glutathione to cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G). Glutathionated C3G is transported to the vacuole via a tonoplast Mg-ATP-requiring glutathione pump (GS-X pump). Genetically, the comparable step in the petunia anthocyanin pathway is controlled by the Anthocyanin9 (An9) gene. An9 was cloned by transposon tagging and found to encode a type I plant GST. Bz2 and An9 have evolved independently from distinct types of GSTs, but each is regulated by the conserved transcriptional activators of the anthocyanin pathway. Here, a phylogenetic analysis is presented, with special consideration given to the origin of these genes and their relaxed substrate requirements. In particle bombardment tests, An9 and Bz2 functionally complement both mutants. Among several other GSTs tested, only soybean GmGST26A (previously called GmHsp26A and GH2/4) and maize GSTIII were found to confer vacuolar sequestration of anthocyanin. Previously, these genes had not been associated with the anthocyanin pathway. Requirements for An9 and Bz2 gene function were investigated by sequencing functional and nonfunctional germinal revertants of an9-T3529, bz2::Ds, and bz2::Mu1. PMID:9668133

  6. Evolutionary divergence and functions of the human interleukin (IL) gene family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cytokines play a very important role in nearly all aspects of inflammation and immunity. The term 'interleukin' (IL) has been used to describe a group of cytokines with complex immunomodulatory functions -- including cell proliferation, maturation, migration and adhesion. These cytokines also play an important role in immune cell differentiation and activation. Determining the exact function of a particular cytokine is complicated by the influence of the producing cell type, the responding cell type and the phase of the immune response. ILs can also have pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, further complicating their characterisation. These molecules are under constant pressure to evolve due to continual competition between the host's immune system and infecting organisms; as such, ILs have undergone significant evolution. This has resulted in little amino acid conservation between orthologous proteins, which further complicates the gene family organisation. Within the literature there are a number of overlapping nomenclature and classification systems derived from biological function, receptor-binding properties and originating cell type. Determining evolutionary relationships between ILs therefore can be confusing. More recently, crystallographic data and the identification of common structural motifs have led to a more accurate classification system. To date, the known ILs can be divided into four major groups based on distinguishing structural features. These groups include the genes encoding the IL1-like cytokines, the class I helical cytokines (IL4-like, γ-chain and IL6/12-like), the class II helical cytokines (IL10-like and IL28-like) and the IL17-like cytokines. In addition, there are a number of ILs that do not fit into any of the above groups, due either to their unique structural features or lack of structural information. This suggests that the gene family organisation may be subject to further change in the near future. PMID:21106488

  7. Structural and Functional Divergence of a 1-Mb Duplicated Region in the Soybean (Glycine max) Genome and Comparison to an Orthologous Region from Phaseolus vulgaris[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jer-Young; Stupar, Robert M.; Hans, Christian; Hyten, David L.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) has undergone at least two rounds of polyploidization, resulting in a paleopolyploid genome that is a mosaic of homoeologous regions. To determine the structural and functional impact of these duplications, we sequenced two ~1-Mb homoeologous regions of soybean, Gm8 and Gm15, derived from the most recent ~13 million year duplication event and the orthologous region from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), Pv5. We observed inversions leading to major structural variation and a bias between the two chromosome segments as Gm15 experienced more gene movement (gene retention rate of 81% in Gm15 versus 91% in Gm8) and a nearly twofold increase in the deletion of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons via solo LTR formation. Functional analyses of Gm15 and Gm8 revealed decreases in gene expression and synonymous substitution rates for Gm15, for instance, a 38% increase in transcript levels from Gm8 relative to Gm15. Transcriptional divergence of homoeologs was found based on expression patterns among seven tissues and developmental stages. Our results indicate asymmetric evolution between homoeologous regions of soybean as evidenced by structural changes and expression variances of homoeologous genes. PMID:20729383

  8. Crystal structures reveal N-terminal Domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpD to be highly divergent from that of ClpC1

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Kumar Jagdev, Manas; Vasudevan, Dileep

    2017-01-01

    The caseinolytic protease machinery associated chaperone protein ClpC is known to be present in bacteria, plants and other eukaryotes, whereas ClpD is unique to plants. Plant ClpC and ClpD proteins get localized into chloroplast stroma. Herein, we report high resolution crystal structures of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpC1 and ClpD. Surprisingly, AtClpD, but not AtClpC1, deviates from the typical N-terminal repeat domain organization of known Clp chaperones and have only seven α-helices, instead of eight. In addition, the loop connecting the two halves of AtClpD NTD is longer and covers the region which in case of AtClpC1 is thought to contribute to adaptor protein interaction. Taken together, the N-terminal domain of AtClpD has a divergent structural organization compared to any known Clp chaperones which hints towards its specific role during plant stress conditions, as opposed to that in the maintenance of chloroplastic homeostasis by AtClpC1. Conservation of residues in the NTD that are responsible for the binding of the cyclic peptide activator - Cyclomarin A, as reported for mycobacterial ClpC1 suggests that the peptide could be used as an activator to both AtClpC1 and AtClpD, which could be useful in their detailed in vitro functional characterization. PMID:28287170

  9. Phenotypic and Transcriptional Analysis of Divergently Selected Maize Populations Reveals the Role of Developmental Timing in Seed Size Determination1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Hirsch, Candice N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Kell, Paul; Duvick, Susan; Spalding, Edgar P.; Buell, C. Robin; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed size is a component of grain yield and an important trait in crop domestication. To understand the mechanisms governing seed size in maize (Zea mays), we examined transcriptional and developmental changes during seed development in populations divergently selected for large and small seed size from Krug, a yellow dent maize cultivar. After 30 cycles of selection, seeds of the large seed population (KLS30) have a 4.7-fold greater weight and a 2.6-fold larger size compared with the small seed population (KSS30). Patterns of seed weight accumulation from the time of pollination through 30 d of grain filling showed an earlier onset, slower rate, and earlier termination of grain filling in KSS30 relative to KLS30. This was further supported by transcriptome patterns in seeds from the populations and derived inbreds. Although the onset of key genes was earlier in small seeds, similar maximum transcription levels were observed in large seeds at later stages, suggesting that functionally weaker alleles, rather than transcript abundance, may be the basis of the slow rate of seed filling in KSS30. Gene coexpression networks identified several known genes controlling cellularization and proliferation as well as novel genes that will be useful candidates for biotechnological approaches aimed at altering seed size in maize and other cereals. PMID:24710068

  10. Crystal structures reveal N-terminal Domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpD to be highly divergent from that of ClpC1.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Kumar Jagdev, Manas; Vasudevan, Dileep

    2017-03-13

    The caseinolytic protease machinery associated chaperone protein ClpC is known to be present in bacteria, plants and other eukaryotes, whereas ClpD is unique to plants. Plant ClpC and ClpD proteins get localized into chloroplast stroma. Herein, we report high resolution crystal structures of the N-terminal domain of Arabidopsis thaliana ClpC1 and ClpD. Surprisingly, AtClpD, but not AtClpC1, deviates from the typical N-terminal repeat domain organization of known Clp chaperones and have only seven α-helices, instead of eight. In addition, the loop connecting the two halves of AtClpD NTD is longer and covers the region which in case of AtClpC1 is thought to contribute to adaptor protein interaction. Taken together, the N-terminal domain of AtClpD has a divergent structural organization compared to any known Clp chaperones which hints towards its specific role during plant stress conditions, as opposed to that in the maintenance of chloroplastic homeostasis by AtClpC1. Conservation of residues in the NTD that are responsible for the binding of the cyclic peptide activator - Cyclomarin A, as reported for mycobacterial ClpC1 suggests that the peptide could be used as an activator to both AtClpC1 and AtClpD, which could be useful in their detailed in vitro functional characterization.

  11. Mitochondrial protein import - Functional analysis of the highly diverged Tom22 orthologue of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Jan; Rout, Samuel; Desy, Silvia; Schneider, André

    2017-01-01

    The β-barrel protein Tom40 and the α-helically anchored membrane protein Tom22 are the only universally conserved subunits of the protein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM). Tom22 has an N-terminal cytosolic and a C-terminal intermembrane space domain. It occurs in two variants: one typified by the yeast protein which has a cytosolic domain containing a cluster of acidic residues, and a shorter variant typified by the plant protein that lacks this domain. Yeast-type Tom22 functions as a secondary protein import receptor and is also required for the stability of the TOM complex. Much less is known about the more widespread short variant of Tom22, which is also found in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. Here we show that the intermembrane space domain of trypanosomal Tom22 binds mitochondrial precursor proteins and that it is essential for normal growth and mitochondrial protein import. Moreover, complementation experiments indicate that the intermembrane space domain cannot be replaced by the corresponding regions of the yeast or plant Tom22 orthologues. Lack or replacement of the short cytosolic domain, however, does not interfere with protein function. Finally, we show that only the membrane-spanning domain of trypanosomal Tom22 is essential for assembly of the trypanosomal TOM complex analogue. PMID:28094338

  12. Divergence of Structure and Function in the Haloacid Dehalogenase Enzyme Superfamily: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BT2127 is an Inorganic Pyrophosphatase+

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hua; Yury, Patskovsky; Toro, Rafael; Farelli, Jeremiah D.; Pandya, Chetanya; Almo, Steven C.; Allen, Karen N.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The explosion of protein sequence information requires that current strategies for function assignment must evolve to complement experimental approaches with computationally-based function prediction. This necessitates the development of strategies based on the identification of sequence markers in the form of specificity determinants and a more informed definition of orthologues. Herein, we have undertaken the function assignment of the unknown Haloalkanoate Dehalogenase superfamily member BT2127 (Uniprot accession # Q8A5V9) from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron using an integrated bioinformatics/structure/mechanism approach. The substrate specificity profile and steady-state rate constants of BT2127 (with kcat/Km value for pyrophosphate of ∼1 × 105 M−1 s−1), together with the gene context, supports the assigned in vivo function as an inorganic pyrophosphatase. The X-ray structural analysis of the wild-type BT2127 and several variants generated by site-directed mutagenesis shows that substrate discrimination is based, in part, on active site space restrictions imposed by the cap domain (specifically by residues Tyr76 and Glu47). Structure guided site directed mutagenesis coupled with kinetic analysis of the mutant enzymes identified the residues required for catalysis, substrate binding, and domain-domain association. Based on this structure-function analysis, the catalytic residues Asp11, Asp13, Thr113, and Lys147 as well the metal binding residues Asp171, Asn172 and Glu47 were used as markers to confirm BT2127 orthologues identified via sequence searches. This bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that the biological range of BT2127 orthologue is restricted to the phylum Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi. The key structural determinants in the divergence of BT2127 and its closest homologue β-phosphoglucomutase control the leaving group size (phosphate vs. glucose-phosphate) and the position of the Asp acid/base in the open vs. closed conformations. HADSF pyrophosphatases

  13. Regulatory circuit rewiring and functional divergence of the duplicate admp genes in dorsoventral axial patterning.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Cheng; Pai, Chih-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chih; Ting, Hsiu-Chi; Martinez, Pedro; Telford, Maximilian J; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2016-02-01

    The spatially opposed expression of Antidorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp) and BMP signals controls dorsoventral (DV) polarity across Bilateria and hence represents an ancient regulatory circuit. Here, we show that in addition to the conserved admp1 that constitutes the ancient circuit, a second admp gene (admp2) is present in Ambulacraria (Echinodermata+Hemichordata) and two marine worms belonging to Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha. The phylogenetic distribution implies that the two admp genes were duplicated in the Bilaterian common ancestor and admp2 was subsequently lost in chordates and protostomes. We show that the ambulacrarian admp1 and admp2 are under opposite transcriptional control by BMP signals and knockdown of Admps in sea urchins impaired their DV polarity. Over-expression of either Admps reinforced BMP signaling but resulted in different phenotypes in the sea urchin embryo. Our study provides an excellent example of signaling circuit rewiring and protein functional changes after gene duplications.

  14. Necrosis- and apoptosis-related Met cleavages have divergent functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Montagne, R; Berbon, M; Doublet, L; Debreuck, N; Baranzelli, A; Drobecq, H; Leroy, C; Delhem, N; Porte, H; Copin, M-C; Dansin, E; Furlan, A; Tulasne, D

    2015-01-01

    Upon activation by its ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, the receptor tyrosine kinase Met promotes survival, proliferation, and migration of epithelial cells during embryogenesis. Deregulated Met signaling can also promote cancer progression and metastasis. Met belongs to the functional family of dependence receptors whose activity switches from pro-survival to pro-apoptotic during apoptosis upon caspase cleavage. Although apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of cancer cells, some remain sensitive to other cell death processes, including necrosis induced by calcium stress. The role and fate of Met during necrotic cell death are unknown. Following treatment with calcium ionophores, cell lines and primary cells undergo necrosis, and the full-length Met receptor is efficiently degraded. This degradation is achieved by double cleavage of Met in its extracellular domain by a metalloprotease of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family and in its intracellular domain by calpains (calcium-dependent proteases). These cleavages separate the Met extracellular region from its kinase domain, thus preventing Met activity and its potential pro-survival activity. Although the intracellular fragment is very similar to the fragment generated by caspases, it displays no pro-apoptotic property, likely because of the presence of the last few amino acids of Met, known to inhibit this pro-apoptotic function. The fragments identified here are observed in lung tumors overexpressing the Met receptor, along with fragments previously identified, suggesting that proteolytic cleavages of Met are involved in its degradation in tumor tissues. Thus, Met is a modulator of necrosis, able to protect cells when activated by its ligand but efficiently degraded by proteolysis when this process is engaged. PMID:25996296

  15. Expansion Mechanisms and Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Family in Sorghum and Other Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yunhua; Cheng, Yansong; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Jiang, Shu-Ye

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) exist in various eukaryotes and function in detoxification of xenobiotics and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. We have carried out a genome-wide survey of this gene family in 10 plant genomes. Our data show that tandem duplication has been regarded as the major expansion mechanism and both monocot and dicot plants may have practiced different expansion and evolutionary history. Non-synonymous substitutions per site (Ka) and synonymous substitutions per site (Ks) analyses showed that N- and C-terminal functional domains of GSTs (GST_N and GST_C) seem to have evolved under a strong purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) under different selective pressures. Differential evolutionary rates between GST_N and GST_C and high degree of expression divergence have been regarded as the major drivers for the retention of duplicated genes and the adaptability to various stresses. Expression profiling also indicated that the gene family plays a role not only in stress-related biological processes but also in the sugar-signalling pathway. Our survey provides additional annotation of the plant GST gene family and advance the understanding of plant GSTs in lineage-specific expansion and species diversification. PMID:21169340

  16. Structural and functional divergence of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors in early sarcopterygians: lungfish and Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Tam, Janice K V; Chow, Billy K C; Lee, Leo T O

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor remain enigmatic since the discovery of physiologically functional GHRH-GHRH receptor (GHRHR) in non-mammalian vertebrates in 2007. Interestingly, subsequent studies have described the identification of a GHRHR(2) in chicken in addition to the GHRHR and the closely related paralogous receptor, PACAP-related peptide (PRP) receptor (PRPR). In this article, we provide information, for the first time, on the GHRHR in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians by the cloning and characterization of GHRHRs from lungfish (P. dolloi) and X. laevis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated structural resemblance of lungfish GHRHR to their mammalian orthologs, while the X. laevis GHRHR showed the highest homology to GHRHR(2) in zebrafish and chicken. Functionally, lungfish GHRHR displayed high affinity towards GHRH in triggering intracellular cAMP and calcium accumulation, while X. laevis GHRHR(2) was able to react with both endogenous GHRH and PRP. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both lungfish GHRHR and X. laevis GHRHR(2) had the highest expression in brain, and interestingly, X. laevis(GHRHR2) also had high abundance in the reproductive organs. These findings, together with previous reports, suggest that early in the Sarcopterygii lineage, GHRHR and PRPR have already established diverged and specific affinities towards their cognate ligands. GHRHR(2), which has only been found in xenopus, zebrafish and chicken hitherto, accommodates both GHRH and PRP.

  17. Structural and Functional Divergence of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptors in Early Sarcopterygians: Lungfish and Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Janice K. V.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Lee, Leo T. O.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor remain enigmatic since the discovery of physiologically functional GHRH-GHRH receptor (GHRHR) in non-mammalian vertebrates in 2007. Interestingly, subsequent studies have described the identification of a GHRHR2 in chicken in addition to the GHRHR and the closely related paralogous receptor, PACAP-related peptide (PRP) receptor (PRPR). In this article, we provide information, for the first time, on the GHRHR in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians by the cloning and characterization of GHRHRs from lungfish (P. dolloi) and X. laevis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated structural resemblance of lungfish GHRHR to their mammalian orthologs, while the X. laevis GHRHR showed the highest homology to GHRHR2 in zebrafish and chicken. Functionally, lungfish GHRHR displayed high affinity towards GHRH in triggering intracellular cAMP and calcium accumulation, while X. laevis GHRHR2 was able to react with both endogenous GHRH and PRP. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both lungfish GHRHR and X. laevis GHRHR2 had the highest expression in brain, and interestingly, X. laevis GHRHR2 also had high abundance in the reproductive organs. These findings, together with previous reports, suggest that early in the Sarcopterygii lineage, GHRHR and PRPR have already established diverged and specific affinities towards their cognate ligands. GHRHR2, which has only been found in xenopus, zebrafish and chicken hitherto, accommodates both GHRH and PRP. PMID:23308232

  18. Functional Divergence in Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors (ALFs): From Recognition of Cell Wall Components to Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Vergnes, Agnès; de Lorgeril, Julien; Goncalves, Priscila; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria; Sauné, Laure; Romestand, Bernard; Fievet, Julie; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Antilipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) have been described as highly cationic polypeptides with a broad spectrum of potent antimicrobial activities. In addition, ALFs have been shown to recognize LPS, a major component of the Gram-negative bacteria cell wall, through conserved amino acid residues exposed in the four-stranded β-sheet of their three dimensional structure. In penaeid shrimp, ALFs form a diverse family of antimicrobial peptides composed by three main variants, classified as ALF Groups A to C. Here, we identified a novel group of ALFs in shrimp (Group D ALFs), which corresponds to anionic polypeptides in which many residues of the LPS binding site are lacking. Both Group B (cationic) and Group D (anionic) shrimp ALFs were produced in a heterologous expression system. Group D ALFs were found to have impaired LPS-binding activities and only limited antimicrobial activity compared to Group B ALFs. Interestingly, all four ALF groups were shown to be simultaneously expressed in an individual shrimp and to follow different patterns of gene expression in response to a microbial infection. Group B was by far the more expressed of the ALF genes. From our results, nucleotide sequence variations in shrimp ALFs result in functional divergence, with significant differences in LPS-binding and antimicrobial activities. To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of the sequence diversity found in the ALF family. PMID:23861837

  19. Corticostriatal Divergent Function in Determining the Temporal and Spatial Properties of Motor Tics

    PubMed Central

    Israelashvili, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Striatal disinhibition leads to the formation of motor tics resembling those expressed during Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. The spatial properties of these tics are dependent on the location of the focal disinhibition within the striatum; however, the factors affecting the temporal properties of tic expression are still unknown. Here, we used microstimulation within the motor cortex of freely behaving rats before and after striatal disinhibition to explore the factors underlying the timing of individual tics. Cortical activation determined the timing of individual tics via an accumulation process of inputs that was dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the inputs. The resulting tics and their neuronal representation within the striatum were highly stereotypic and independent of the cortical activity properties. The generation of tics was limited by absolute and relative tic refractory periods that were derived from an internal striatal state. Thus, the precise time of the tic expression depends on the interaction between the summation of incoming excitatory inputs to the striatum and the timing of the previous tic. A data-driven computational model of corticostriatal function closely replicated the temporal properties of tic generation and enabled the prediction of tic timing based on incoming cortical activity and tic history. These converging experimental and computational findings suggest a clear functional dichotomy within the corticostriatal network, pointing to disparate temporal (cortical) versus spatial (striatal) encoding. Thus, the abnormal striatal inhibition typical of Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders results in tics due to cortical activation of the abnormal striatal network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The factors underlying the temporal properties of tics expressed in Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders have eluded clinicians and scientists for decades. In this study, we highlight the key role of corticostriatal activity

  20. Corticostriatal Divergent Function in Determining the Temporal and Spatial Properties of Motor Tics.

    PubMed

    Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2015-12-16

    Striatal disinhibition leads to the formation of motor tics resembling those expressed during Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. The spatial properties of these tics are dependent on the location of the focal disinhibition within the striatum; however, the factors affecting the temporal properties of tic expression are still unknown. Here, we used microstimulation within the motor cortex of freely behaving rats before and after striatal disinhibition to explore the factors underlying the timing of individual tics. Cortical activation determined the timing of individual tics via an accumulation process of inputs that was dependent on the frequency and amplitude of the inputs. The resulting tics and their neuronal representation within the striatum were highly stereotypic and independent of the cortical activity properties. The generation of tics was limited by absolute and relative tic refractory periods that were derived from an internal striatal state. Thus, the precise time of the tic expression depends on the interaction between the summation of incoming excitatory inputs to the striatum and the timing of the previous tic. A data-driven computational model of corticostriatal function closely replicated the temporal properties of tic generation and enabled the prediction of tic timing based on incoming cortical activity and tic history. These converging experimental and computational findings suggest a clear functional dichotomy within the corticostriatal network, pointing to disparate temporal (cortical) versus spatial (striatal) encoding. Thus, the abnormal striatal inhibition typical of Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders results in tics due to cortical activation of the abnormal striatal network. The factors underlying the temporal properties of tics expressed in Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders have eluded clinicians and scientists for decades. In this study, we highlight the key role of corticostriatal activity in determining the

  1. Two zebrafish eIF4E family members are differentially expressed and functionally divergent.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Joshi, Bhavesh; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; Jagus, Rosemary

    2004-03-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is an essential component of the translational machinery that binds m(7)GTP and mediates the recruitment of capped mRNAs by the small ribosomal subunit. Recently, a number of proteins with homology to eIF4E have been reported in plants, invertebrates, and mammals. Together with the prototypical translation factor, these constitute a new family of structurally related proteins. To distinguish the prototypical translation factor eIF4E from other family members, it has been termed eIF4E-1 (Keiper, B. D., Lamphear, B. J., Deshpande, A. M., Jankowska-Anyszka, M., Aamodt, E. J., Blumenthal, T., and Rhoads, R. E. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 10590-10596). We describe the characterization of two eIF4E family members in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Based on their relative identities with human eIF4E-1, these zebrafish proteins are termed eIF4E-1A (82%) and eIF4E-1B (66%). eIF4E-1B, originally termed eIF4E(L), has been reported previously as the zebrafish eIF4E-1 counterpart (Fahrenkrug, S. C., Dahlquist, M. O., Clark, K., and Hackett, P. B. (1999) Differentiation 65, 191-201; Fahrenkrug, S. C., Joshi, B., Hackett, P. B., and Jagus, R. (2000) Differentiation 66, 15-22). Sequence comparisons suggest that the two genes probably evolved from a duplication event that occurred during vertebrate evolution. eIF4E-1A is expressed ubiquitously in zebrafish, whereas expression of eIF4E-1B is restricted to early embryonic development and to gonads and muscle of the tissues investigated. The ability of these two zebrafish proteins to bind m(7)GTP, eIF4G, and 4E-BP, as well as to complement yeast conditionally deficient in functional eIF4E, show that eIF4E-1A is a functional equivalent of human eIF4E-1. Surprisingly, although eIF4E-1B possesses all known residues thought to be required for interaction with the cap structure, eIF4G, and 4E-BPs, it fails to interact with any of these components, suggesting that this protein serves a role

  2. Divergent functions of Toll-like receptors during bacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Baral, Pankaj; Batra, Sanjay; Zemans, Rachel L; Downey, Gregory P; Jeyaseelan, Samithamby

    2014-10-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria are a major cause of death in humans irrespective of sex, race, or geography. Indeed, accumulated data indicate greater mortality and morbidity due to these infections than cancer, malaria, or HIV infection. Successful recognition of, followed by an appropriate response to, bacterial pathogens in the lungs is crucial for effective pulmonary host defense. Although the early recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the lungs is key in the response against invading microbial pathogens, other sentinels, such as alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and CD4(+) T cells, also contribute to the elimination of the bacterial burden. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, are important for recognizing and responding to microbes during pulmonary infections. However, bacterial pathogens have acquired crafty evasive strategies to circumvent the pattern recognition receptor response and thus establish infection. Increased understanding of the function of TLRs and evasive mechanisms used by pathogens during pulmonary infection will deepen our knowledge of immunopathogenesis and is crucial for developing effective therapeutic and/or prophylactic measures. This review summarizes current knowledge of the multiple roles of TLRs in bacterial lung infections and highlights the mechanisms used by pathogens to modulate or interfere with TLR signaling in the lungs.

  3. L1 syndrome mutations impair neuronal L1 function at different levels by divergent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Michael K E; Nam, Yun-Chung; Moumen, Anice; Keglowich, Laura; Bouché, Elisabeth; Küffner, Mercedes; Bock, Hans H; Rathjen, Fritz G; Raoul, Cedric; Frotscher, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the human L1CAM gene cause neurodevelopmental disorders collectively referred to as L1 syndrome. Here, we investigated cellular pathomechanisms underlying two L1 syndrome mutations, R184Q and W1036L. We demonstrate that these mutations cause partial endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of L1, reduce L1 cell surface expression, but do not induce ER stress in neuronal NSC-34 cells. We provide evidence that surface trafficking of mutated L1 is affected by defective sorting to ER exit sites and attenuated ER export. However, in differentiated neuronal cultures and long-term cultured hippocampal slices, the L1-R184Q protein is restricted to cell bodies, whereas L1-W1036L also aberrantly localizes to dendrites. These trafficking defects preclude axonal targeting of L1, thereby affecting L1-mediated axon growth and arborization. Our results indicate that L1 syndrome mutations impair neuronal L1 function at different levels, firstly by attenuating ER export and secondly by interfering with polarized neuronal trafficking. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A common anterior insula representation of disgust observation, experience and imagination shows divergent functional connectivity pathways.

    PubMed

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke; Keysers, Christian

    2008-08-13

    Similar brain regions are involved when we imagine, observe and execute an action. Is the same true for emotions? Here, the same subjects were scanned while they (a) experience, (b) view someone else experiencing and (c) imagine experiencing gustatory emotions (through script-driven imagery). Capitalizing on the fact that disgust is repeatedly inducible within the scanner environment, we scanned the same participants while they (a) view actors taste the content of a cup and look disgusted (b) tasted unpleasant bitter liquids to induce disgust, and (c) read and imagine scenarios involving disgust and their neutral counterparts. To reduce habituation, we inter-mixed trials of positive emotions in all three scanning experiments. We found voxels in the anterior Insula and adjacent frontal operculum to be involved in all three modalities of disgust, suggesting that simulation in the context of social perception and mental imagery of disgust share a common neural substrates. Using effective connectivity, this shared region however was found to be embedded in distinct functional circuits during the three modalities, suggesting why observing, imagining and experiencing an emotion feels so different.

  5. Divergent Functions of Toll-like Receptors during Bacterial Lung Infections

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Pankaj; Batra, Sanjay; Zemans, Rachel L.; Downey, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria are a major cause of death in humans irrespective of sex, race, or geography. Indeed, accumulated data indicate greater mortality and morbidity due to these infections than cancer, malaria, or HIV infection. Successful recognition of, followed by an appropriate response to, bacterial pathogens in the lungs is crucial for effective pulmonary host defense. Although the early recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the lungs is key in the response against invading microbial pathogens, other sentinels, such as alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells, also contribute to the elimination of the bacterial burden. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors, are important for recognizing and responding to microbes during pulmonary infections. However, bacterial pathogens have acquired crafty evasive strategies to circumvent the pattern recognition receptor response and thus establish infection. Increased understanding of the function of TLRs and evasive mechanisms used by pathogens during pulmonary infection will deepen our knowledge of immunopathogenesis and is crucial for developing effective therapeutic and/or prophylactic measures. This review summarizes current knowledge of the multiple roles of TLRs in bacterial lung infections and highlights the mechanisms used by pathogens to modulate or interfere with TLR signaling in the lungs. PMID:25033332

  6. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences.

    PubMed

    Cope, Emily K; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Lynch, Susan V

    2017-05-12

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response. We show that CRS patients cluster into distinct sub-groups (DSI-III), each defined by specific pattern of bacterial co-colonization (permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA); p = 0.001, r (2) = 0.318). Each sub-group was typically dominated by a pathogenic family: Streptococcaceae (DSI), Pseudomonadaceae (DSII), Corynebacteriaceae [DSIII(a)], or Staphylococcaceae [DSIII(b)]. Each pathogenic microbiota was predicted to be functionally distinct (PERMANOVA; p = 0.005, r (2) = 0.217) and encode uniquely enriched gene pathways including ansamycin biosynthesis (DSI), tryptophan metabolism (DSII), two-component response [DSIII(b)], and the PPAR-γ signaling pathway [DSIII(a)]. Each is also associated with significantly distinct host immune responses; DSI, II, and III(b) invoked a variety of pro-inflammatory, TH1 responses, while DSIII(a), which exhibited significantly increased incidence of nasal polyps (Fisher's exact; p = 0.034, relative risk = 2.16), primarily induced IL-5 expression (Kruskal Wallis; q = 0.045). A large proportion of CRS patient heterogeneity may be explained by the composition of their sinus bacterial microbiota and related host immune response-features which may inform strategies for tailored therapy in this patient population.

  7. Functional Conservation of the Transportin Nuclear Import Pathway in Divergent Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Siomi, Mikiko C.; Fromont, Micheline; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Wan, Lili; Wang, Fan; Legrain, Pierre; Dreyfuss, Gideon

    1998-01-01

    Human transportin1 (hTRN1) is the nuclear import receptor for a group of pre-mRNA/mRNA-binding proteins (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins [hnRNP]) represented by hnRNP A1, which shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. hTRN1 interacts with the M9 region of hnRNP A1, a 38-amino-acid domain rich in Gly, Ser, and Asn, and mediates the nuclear import of M9-bearing proteins in vitro. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transportin (yTRN; also known as YBR017c or Kap104p) has been identified and cloned. To understanding the nuclear import mediated by yTRN, we searched with a yeast two-hybrid system for proteins that interact with it. In an exhaustive screen of the S. cerevisiae genome, the most frequently selected open reading frame was the nuclear mRNA-binding protein, Nab2p. We delineated a ca.-50-amino-acid region in Nab2p, termed NAB35, which specifically binds yTRN and is similar to the M9 motif. NAB35 also interacts with hTRN1 and functions as a nuclear localization signal in mammalian cells. Interestingly, yTRN can also mediate the import of NAB35-bearing proteins into mammalian nuclei in vitro. We also report on additional substrates for TRN as well as sequences of Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TRNs. Together, these findings demonstrate that both the M9 signal and the nuclear import machinery utilized by the transportin pathway are conserved in evolution. PMID:9632798

  8. Functional and Structural Divergence in Human TRPV1 Channel Subunits by Oxidative Cysteine Modification*

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Nozomi; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Fujiwara, Kenji; Polat, Onur Kerem; Badr, Heba; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a tetrameric protein that acts as a sensor for noxious stimuli such as heat and for diverse inflammatory mediators such as oxidative stress to mediate nociception in a subset of sensory neurons. In TRPV1 oxidation sensing, cysteine (Cys) oxidation has been considered as the principle mechanism; however, its biochemical basis remains elusive. Here, we characterize the oxidative status of Cys residues in differential redox environments and propose a model of TRPV1 activation by oxidation. Through employing a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE, electrophysiology, and mass spectrometry we have identified the formation of subunit dimers carrying a stable intersubunit disulfide bond between Cys-258 and Cys-742 of human TRPV1 (hTRPV1). C258S and C742S hTRPV1 mutants have a decreased protein half-life, reflecting the role of the intersubunit disulfide bond in supporting channel stability. Interestingly, the C258S hTRPV1 mutant shows an abolished response to oxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis of Cys residues of hTRPV1 treated with hydrogen peroxide shows that Cys-258 is highly sensitive to oxidation. Our results suggest that Cys-258 residues are heterogeneously modified in the hTRPV1 tetrameric complex and comprise Cys-258 with free thiol for oxidation sensing and Cys-258, which is involved in the disulfide bond for assisting subunit dimerization. Thus, the hTRPV1 channel has a heterogeneous subunit composition in terms of both redox status and function. PMID:26702055

  9. Divergence of allosteric effects of rapacuronium on binding and function of muscarinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Many neuromuscular blockers act as negative allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by decreasing affinity and potency of acetylcholine. The neuromuscular blocker rapacuronium has been shown to have facilitatory effects at muscarinic receptors leading to bronchospasm. We examined the influence of rapacuronium on acetylcholine (ACh) binding to and activation of individual subtypes of muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells to determine its receptor selectivity. Results At equilibrium rapacuronium bound to all subtypes of muscarinic receptors with micromolar affinity (2.7-17 μM) and displayed negative cooperativity with both high- and low-affinity ACh binding states. Rapacuronium accelerated [3H]ACh association with and dissociation from odd-numbered receptor subtypes. With respect to [35S]GTPγS binding rapacuronium alone behaved as an inverse agonist at all subtypes. Rapacuronium concentration-dependently decreased the potency of ACh-induced [35S]GTPγS binding at M2 and M4 receptors. In contrast, 0.1 μM rapacuronium significantly increased ACh potency at M1, M3, and M5 receptors. Kinetic measurements at M3 receptors showed acceleration of the rate of ACh-induced [35S]GTPγS binding by rapacuronium. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a novel dichotomy in rapacuronium effects at odd-numbered muscarinic receptors. Rapacuronium accelerates the rate of ACh binding but decreases its affinity under equilibrium conditions. This results in potentiation of receptor activation at low concentrations of rapacuronium (1 μM) but not at high concentrations (10 μM). These observations highlight the relevance and necessity of performing physiological tests under non-equilibrium conditions in evaluating the functional effects of allosteric modulators at muscarinic receptors. They also provide molecular basis for potentiating M3 receptor-mediated bronchoconstriction. PMID:20038295

  10. Functional and Structural Divergence in Human TRPV1 Channel Subunits by Oxidative Cysteine Modification.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Nozomi; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Fujiwara, Kenji; Polat, Onur Kerem; Badr, Heba; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-02-19

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a tetrameric protein that acts as a sensor for noxious stimuli such as heat and for diverse inflammatory mediators such as oxidative stress to mediate nociception in a subset of sensory neurons. In TRPV1 oxidation sensing, cysteine (Cys) oxidation has been considered as the principle mechanism; however, its biochemical basis remains elusive. Here, we characterize the oxidative status of Cys residues in differential redox environments and propose a model of TRPV1 activation by oxidation. Through employing a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE, electrophysiology, and mass spectrometry we have identified the formation of subunit dimers carrying a stable intersubunit disulfide bond between Cys-258 and Cys-742 of human TRPV1 (hTRPV1). C258S and C742S hTRPV1 mutants have a decreased protein half-life, reflecting the role of the intersubunit disulfide bond in supporting channel stability. Interestingly, the C258S hTRPV1 mutant shows an abolished response to oxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis of Cys residues of hTRPV1 treated with hydrogen peroxide shows that Cys-258 is highly sensitive to oxidation. Our results suggest that Cys-258 residues are heterogeneously modified in the hTRPV1 tetrameric complex and comprise Cys-258 with free thiol for oxidation sensing and Cys-258, which is involved in the disulfide bond for assisting subunit dimerization. Thus, the hTRPV1 channel has a heterogeneous subunit composition in terms of both redox status and function.

  11. Functional Divergence in CO2 Exchange Among Vascular Plant Communities in a Temperate Ombrotrophic Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.; Humphreys, Elyn R.

    2013-04-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) are used to classify vegetation into groups that demonstrate similar responses to changes in environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the potential for differentiating CO2 exchange among three vascular plant communities (Chamaedaphne, Maianthemum/Ledum, and Eriophorum) with different dominant species and microclimatic characteristics at the Mer Bleue bog in Canada. Using an automatic chamber system, we examined the seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), gross ecosystem production (GEP), and ecosystem respiration (ER), as well as the responses of GEP and ER to changing environmental and biotic conditions among communities in 2009. While seasonal mean NEE were similar among the three plant communities, seasonal mean GEP and ER were significantly lower in the Maianthemum/Ledum community owing to the lower green biomass and higher water table. Based on the parameterized GEP models, we detected a significant decrease in effective quantum yield in the order of Eriophorum > Chamaedaphne > Maianthemum/Ledum community, indicating the most efficient photosynthetic activity in sedges at lower light levels. The rate of linear increase in GEP with vascular green area index was considerably lower in the Maianthemum/Ledum community, in relation to the high specific leaf area of forb foliage. We found that maximum gross photosynthesis (Pmax) per unit ground area had a clear seasonal pattern with a single peak in mid-summer, but Pmax per unit green area varied much less over time. This suggests that the temporal changes in community-level Pmax are predominantly controlled by variations in green area rather than variations in photosynthetic capacity per unit green area. The ER model parameters were significantly different among communities, with the highest temperature sensitivity of ER in the Eriophorum community. The three communities each represent a distinct PFT as their CO2 exchange processes respond to environmental

  12. Solid-state NMR studies of a diverged microsomal amino-proximate delta12 desaturase peptide reveal causes of stability in bilayer: tyrosine anchoring and arginine snorkeling.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, William J; Karp, Ethan S; Cellar, Nick A; Minto, Robert E; Lorigan, Gary A

    2006-02-15

    This study reports the solid-state NMR spectroscopic characterization of the amino-proximate transmembrane domain (TM-A) of a diverged microsomal delta12-desaturase (CREP-1) in a phospholipid bilayer. A series of TM-A peptides were synthesized with 2H-labeled side chains (Ala-53, -56, and -63, Leu-62, Val-50), and their dynamic properties were studied in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers at various temperatures. At 6 mol % peptide to lipid, 31P NMR spectra indicated that the peptides did not significantly disrupt the phospholipid bilayer in the L(alpha) phase. The 2H NMR spectra from Ala-53 and Ala-56 samples revealed broad Pake patterns with quadrupolar splittings of 16.9 kHz and 13.3 kHz, respectively, indicating restricted motion confined within the hydrocarbon core of the phospholipid bilayer. Conversely, the deuterated Ala-63 sample revealed a peak centered at 0 kHz with a linewidth of 1.9 kHz, indicating increased side-chain motion and solvent exposure relative to the spectra of the other Ala residues. Val-50 and Leu-62 showed Pake patterns, with quadrupolar splittings of 3.5 kHz and 3.7 kHz, respectively, intermediate to Ala-53/Ala-56 and Ala-63. This indicates partial motional averaging and supports a model with the Val and Leu residues embedded inside the lipid bilayer. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy performed on the 2H-labeled Ala-56 TM-A peptide incorporated into magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers indicated that the peptide is tilted 8 degrees with respect to the membrane normal of the lipid bilayer. Snorkeling and anchoring interactions of Arg-44 and Tyr-60, respectively, with the polar region or polar hydrophobic interface of the lipid bilayer are suggested as control elements for insertional depth and orientation of the helix in the lipid matrix. Thus, this study defines the location of key residues in TM-A with respect to the lipid bilayer, describes the conformation of TM-A in a biomembrane mimic, presents a

  13. Divergent Effects of Genetic Variation in Endocannabinoid Signaling on Human Threat- and Reward-Related Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Gorka, Adam; Hyde, Luke W.; Kimak, Mark; Halder, Indrani; Ducci, Francesca; Ferrell, Robert E.; Goldman, David; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a key enzyme in regulating endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (C385A) in the human FAAH gene has been associated with increased risk for addiction and obesity. Methods Using imaging genetics in 82 healthy adult volunteers, we examined the effects of FAAH C385A on threat- and reward-related human brain function. Results Carriers of FAAH 385A, associated with reduced enzyme and, possibly, increased eCB signaling, had decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity but increased reward-related ventral striatal reactivity in comparison to C385 homozygotes. Similar divergent effects of FAAH C385A genotype were manifest at the level of brain-behavior relationships. 385A carriers showed decreased correlation between amygdala reactivity and trait anxiety but increased correlation between ventral striatal reactivity and delay discounting, an index of impulsivity. Conclusions Our results parallel pharmacologic and genetic dissection of eCB signaling, are consistent with the psychotropic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and highlight specific neural mechanisms through which variability in eCB signaling impacts complex behavioral processes related to risk for addiction and obesity. PMID:19103437

  14. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  15. Genome-wide analysis reveals diverged patterns of codon bias, gene expression, and rates of sequence evolution in picea gene families.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2015-03-05

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms.

  16. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-05-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification.

  17. Evolutionary history and functional divergence of the cytochrome P450 gene superfamily between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species uncover effects of whole genome and tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Wang, Linhai; Dossa, Komivi; Zhang, Xiurong; Ke, Tao; Liao, Boshou

    2017-09-18

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) superfamily is involved in the biosynthesis of various primary and secondary metabolites. However, little is known about the effects of whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) events on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450s in Brassica after splitting from a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Hidden Markov Model search and manual curation, we detected that Brassica species have nearly 1.4-fold as many P450 members as A. thaliana. Most P450s in A. thaliana and Brassica species were located on pseudo-chromosomes. The inferred phylogeny indicated that all P450s were clustered into two different subgroups. Analysis of WGD event revealed that different P450 gene families had appeared after evolutionary events of species. For the TD event analyses, the P450s from TD events in Brassica species can be divided into ancient and recent parts. Our comparison of influence of WGD and TD events on the P450 gene superfamily between A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that the family-specific evolution in the Brassica lineage can be attributed to both WGD and TD, whereas WGD was recognized as the major mechanism for the recent evolution of the P450 super gene family. Expression analysis of P450s from A. thaliana and Brassica species indicated that WGD-type P450s showed the same expression pattern but completely different expression with TD-type P450s across different tissues in Brassica species. Selection force analysis suggested that P450 orthologous gene pairs between A. thaliana and Brassica species underwent negative selection, but no significant differences were found between P450 orthologous gene pairs in A. thaliana-B. rapa and A. thaliana-B. oleracea lineages, as well as in different subgenomes in B. rapa or B. oleracea compared with A. thaliana. This study is the first to investigate the effects of WGD and TD on the evolutionary history and functional divergence of P450

  18. The gene history of zebrafish tlr4a and tlr4b is predictive of their divergent functions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Con; Charette, Jeremy; Catchen, Julian; Lage, Christopher R; Giasson, Gregory; Postlethwait, John H; Millard, Paul J; Kim, Carol H

    2009-11-01

    Mammalian immune responses to LPS exposure are typified by the robust induction of NF-kappaB and IFN-beta responses largely mediated by TLR4 signal transduction pathways. In contrast to mammals, Tlr4 signal transduction pathways in nontetrapods are not well understood. Comprehensive syntenic and phylogenetic analyses support our hypothesis that zebrafish tlr4a and tlr4b genes are paralogous rather than orthologous to human TLR4. Furthermore, we provide evidence to support our assertion that the in vivo responsiveness of zebrafish to LPS exposure is not mediated by Tlr4a and Tlr4b paralogs because they fail to respond to LPS stimulation in vitro. Zebrafish Tlr4a and Tlr4b paralogs were also unresponsive to heat-killed Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila. Using chimeric molecules in which portions of the zebrafish Tlr4 proteins were fused to portions of the mouse TLR4 protein, we show that the lack of responsiveness to LPS was most likely due to the inability of the extracellular portions of zebrafish Tlr4a and Tlr4b to recognize the molecule, rather than to changes in their capacities to transduce signals through their Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. Taken together, these findings strongly support the notion that zebrafish tlr4a and tlr4b paralogs have evolved to provide alternative ligand specificities to the Tlr immune defense system in this species. These data demonstrate that intensive examination of gene histories when describing the Tlr proteins of basally diverging vertebrates is required to obtain fuller appreciation of the evolution of their function. These studies provide the first evidence for the functional evolution of a novel Tlr.

  19. Functional similarity and molecular divergence of a novel reproductive transcriptome in two male-pregnant Syngnathus pipefish species

    PubMed Central

    Small, Clayton M; Harlin-Cognato, April D; Jones, Adam G

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary studies have revealed that reproductive proteins in animals and plants often evolve more rapidly than the genome-wide average. The causes of this pattern, which may include relaxed purifying selection, sexual selection, sexual conflict, pathogen resistance, reinforcement, or gene duplication, remain elusive. Investigative expansions to additional taxa and reproductive tissues have the potential to shed new light on this unresolved problem. Here, we embark on such an expansion, in a comparison of the brood-pouch transcriptome between two male-pregnant species of the pipefish genus Syngnathus. Male brooding tissues in syngnathid fishes represent a novel, nonurogenital reproductive trait, heretofore mostly uncharacterized from a molecular perspective. We leveraged next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) to compare transcript abundance in the male brooding tissues of pregnant with nonpregnant samples from Gulf (S. scovelli) and dusky (S. floridae) pipefish. A core set of protein-coding genes, including multiple members of astacin metalloprotease and c-type lectin gene families, is consistent between species in both the direction and magnitude of expression bias. As predicted, coding DNA sequence analysis of these putative “male pregnancy proteins” suggests rapid evolution relative to nondifferentially expressed genes and reflects signatures of adaptation similar in magnitude to those reported from Drosophila male accessory gland proteins. Although the precise drivers of male pregnancy protein divergence remain unknown, we argue that the male pregnancy transcriptome in syngnathid fishes, a clade diverse with respect to brooding morphology and mating system, represents a unique and promising object of study for understanding the perplexing evolutionary nature of reproductive molecules. PMID:24324861

  20. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function.

    PubMed

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S

    2014-11-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen-stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  2. A New Insight into the Evolution and Functional Divergence of SWEET Transporters in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Qin, Mengfan; Qiao, Xin; Cheng, Yinsheng; Li, Xiaolong; Zhang, Huping; Wu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    SWEET genes are a recently identified plant gene family that play an indispensable role in sugar efflux. However, no systematic study has been performed in pear. In this research, 18 SWEET transporters identified in pear, almost twice the number found in woodland strawberry and Japanese apricot, were divided into four clades. Conserved motifs and six exons of the SWEET transporters were found in six species. SWEET transporters contained seven transmembrane segments (TMSs) that evolved from an internal duplication of an ancestral three-TMSs unit, connected by TMS4. This is the first direct evidence identifying internal repeats through bioinformatics analysis. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication and dispersed duplication represent the main driving forces for SWEET family evolution in six species, with former duplications more important in pear. Gene expression results suggested that PbSWEET15 and PbSWEET17 have no expression in any tissues because of critical lost residues and that 62.5% of PbSWEET duplicate gene pairs have functional divergence. Additionally, PbSWEET6, PbSWEET7 and PbSWEET14 were found to play important roles in sucrose efflux from leaves, and the high expression of PbSWEET1 and PbSWEET2 might contribute to unloading sucrose from the phloem in the stem. Finally, PbSWEET5, PbSWEET9 and PbSWEET10 might contribute to pollen development. Overall, our study provides important insights into the evolution of the SWEET gene family in pear and four other Rosaceae, and the important candidate PbSWEET genes involved in the development of different tissues were identified in pear.

  3. Knock-Out Models Reveal New Aquaporin Functions

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Knockout mice have been informative in the discovery of unexpected biological functions of aquaporins. Knockout mice have confirmed the predicted roles of aquaporins in transepithelial fluid transport, as in the urinary concentrating mechanism and glandular fluid secretion. A less obvious, though predictable role of aquaporins is in tissue swelling under stress, as in the brain in stroke, tumor and infection. Phenotype analysis of aquaporin knockout mice has revealed several unexpected cellular roles of aquaporins whose mechanisms are being elucidated. Aquaporins facilitate cell migration, as seen in aquaporin-dependent tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis, by a mechanism that may involve facilitated water transport in lamellipodia of migrating cells. The ‘aquaglyceroporins’, aquaporins that transport both glycerol and water, regulate glycerol content in epidermis, fat and other tissues, and lead to a multiplicity of interesting consequences of gene disruption including dry skin, resistance to skin carcinogenesis, impaired cell proliferation and altered fat metabolism. An even more surprising role of a mammalian aquaporin is in neural signal transduction in the central nervous system. The many roles of aquaporins might be exploited for clinical benefit by modulation of aquaporin expression/function – as diuretics, and in the treatment of brain swelling, glaucoma, epilepsy, obesity and cancer. PMID:19096787

  4. Divergent expression patterns of miR164 and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes in palms and other monocots: implication for the evolution of meristem function in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Adam, Hélène; Marguerettaz, Mélanie; Qadri, Rashad; Adroher, Bernard; Richaud, Frédérique; Collin, Myriam; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Vigouroux, Yves; Laufs, Patrick; Tregear, James W; Jouannic, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    In order to understand how the morphology of plant species has diversified over time, it is necessary to decipher how the underlying developmental programs have evolved. The regulatory network controlling shoot meristem activity is likely to have played an important role in morphological diversification and useful insights can be gained by comparing monocots and eudicots. These two distinct monophyletic groups of angiosperms diverged 130 Ma and are characterized by important differences in their morphology. Several studies of eudicot species have revealed a conserved role for NAM and CUC3 genes in meristem functioning and pattern formation through the definition of morphogenetic boundaries during development. In this study, we show that NAM- and CUC3-related genes are conserved in palms and grasses, their diversification having predated the radiation of monocots and eudicots. Moreover, the NAM-miR164 posttranscriptional regulatory module is also conserved in palm species. However, in contrast to the CUC3-related genes, which share a similar expression pattern between the two angiosperm groups, the expression domain of the NAM-miR164 module differs between monocot and eudicot species. In our studies of spatial expression patterns, we compared existing eudicot data with novel results from our work using two palm species (date palm and oil palm) and two members of the Poaceae (rice and millet). In addition to contrasting results obtained at the gene expression level, major differences were also observed between eudicot and monocot NAM-related genes in the occurrence of putative cis-regulatory elements in their promoter sequences. Overall, our results suggest that although NAM- and CUC3-related proteins are functionally equivalent between monocots and eudicots, evolutionary radiation has resulted in heterotopy through alterations in the expression domain of the NAM-miR164 regulatory module.

  5. Holistic atlases of functional networks and interactions reveal reciprocal organizational architecture of cortical function.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Dajiang; Zhang, Shu; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Hanbo; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Ye, Jieping; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-04-01

    For decades, it has been largely unknown to what extent multiple functional networks spatially overlap/interact with each other and jointly realize the total cortical function. Here, by developing novel sparse representation of whole-brain fMRI signals and by using the recently publicly released large-scale Human Connectome Project high-quality fMRI data, we show that a number of reproducible and robust functional networks, including both task-evoked and resting state networks, are simultaneously distributed in distant neuroanatomic areas and substantially spatially overlapping with each other, thus forming an initial collection of holistic atlases of functional networks and interactions (HAFNIs). More interestingly, the HAFNIs revealed two distinct patterns of highly overlapped regions and highly specialized regions and exhibited that these two patterns of areas are reciprocally localized, revealing a novel organizational principle of cortical function.

  6. Sporadic Gene Loss After Duplication Is Associated with Functional Divergence of Sirtuin Deacetylases Among Candida Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Rupert, Christopher B.; Heltzel, Justin M. H.; Taylor, Derek J.; Rusche, Laura N.

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication promotes the diversification of protein functions in several ways. Ancestral functions can be partitioned between the paralogs, or a new function can arise in one paralog. These processes are generally viewed as unidirectional. However, paralogous proteins often retain related functions and can substitute for one another. Moreover, in the event of gene loss, the remaining paralog might regain ancestral functions that had been shed. To explore this possibility, we focused on the sirtuin deacetylase SIR2 and its homolog HST1 in the CTG clade of yeasts. HST1 has been consistently retained throughout the clade, whereas SIR2 is only present in a subset of species. These NAD+-dependent deacetylases generate condensed chromatin that represses transcription and stabilizes tandemly repeated sequences. By analyzing phylogenetic trees and gene order, we found that a single duplication of the SIR2/HST1 gene occurred, likely prior to the emergence of the CTG clade. This ancient duplication was followed by at least two independent losses of SIR2. Functional characterization of Sir2 and Hst1 in three species revealed that these proteins have not maintained consistent functions since the duplication. In particular, the rDNA locus is deacetylated by Sir2 in Candida albicans, by Hst1 in C. lusitaniae, and by neither paralog in C. parapsilosis. In addition, the subtelomeres in C. albicans are deacetylated by Sir2 rather than by Hst1, which is orthologous to the sirtuin associated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae subtelomeres. These differences in function support the model that sirtuin deacetylases can regain ancestral functions to compensate for gene loss. PMID:27543294

  7. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Natalie S; Statham, Mark J; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  8. Complete Plastid Genome Sequencing of Trochodendraceae Reveals a Significant Expansion of the Inverted Repeat and Suggests a Paleogene Divergence between the Two Extant Species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan-xia; Moore, Michael J.; Meng, Ai-ping; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-qiang; Wang, Heng-chang

    2013-01-01

    The early-diverging eudicot order Trochodendrales contains only two monospecific genera, Tetracentron and Trochodendron. Although an extensive fossil record indicates that the clade is perhaps 100 million years old and was widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere during the Paleogene and Neogene, the two extant genera are both narrowly distributed in eastern Asia. Recent phylogenetic analyses strongly support a clade of Trochodendrales, Buxales, and Gunneridae (core eudicots), but complete plastome analyses do not resolve the relationships among these groups with strong support. However, plastid phylogenomic analyses have not included data for Tetracentron. To better resolve basal eudicot relationships and to clarify when the two extant genera of Trochodendrales diverged, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of Tetracentron sinense using Illumina technology. The Tetracentron and Trochodendron plastomes possess the typical gene content and arrangement that characterize most angiosperm plastid genomes, but both genomes have the same unusual ∼4 kb expansion of the inverted repeat region to include five genes (rpl22, rps3, rpl16, rpl14, and rps8) that are normally found in the large single-copy region. Maximum likelihood analyses of an 83-gene, 88 taxon angiosperm data set yield an identical tree topology as previous plastid-based trees, and moderately support the sister relationship between Buxaceae and Gunneridae. Molecular dating analyses suggest that Tetracentron and Trochodendron diverged between 44-30 million years ago, which is congruent with the fossil record of Trochodendrales and with previous estimates of the divergence time of these two taxa. We also characterize 154 simple sequence repeat loci from the Tetracentron sinense and Trochodendron aralioides plastomes that will be useful in future studies of population genetic structure for these relict species, both of which are of conservation concern. PMID:23577110

  9. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Natalie S.; Statham, Mark J.; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California’s role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  10. Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals unsuspected taxonomic affinity of the extinct Chatham duck (Pachyanas chathamica) and resolves divergence times for New Zealand and sub-Antarctic brown teals.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Wood, Jamie R; Scofield, R Paul; Llamas, Bastien; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Chatham duck (Pachyanas chathamica) represented one of just three modern bird genera endemic to the Chatham archipelago (situated ~850 km east of New Zealand) but became extinct soon after humans first settled the islands (c. 13th-15th centuries AD). The taxonomic affinity of the Chatham duck remains largely unresolved; previous studies have tentatively suggested placements within both Tadornini (shelducks) and Anatini (dabbling ducks). Herein, we sequence a partial mitochondrial genome (excluding the D-loop) from the Chatham duck and discover that it was a phenotypically-divergent species within the genus Anas (Anatini). This conclusion is further supported by a re-examination of osteological characters. Our molecular analyses convincingly demonstrate that the Chatham duck is the most basal member of a sub-clade comprising the New Zealand and sub-Antarctic brown teals (the brown teal [A. chlorotis], Auckland Island teal [A. aucklandica] and Campbell Island teal [A. nesiotis]). Molecular clock calculations based on an ingroup fossil calibration support a divergence between the Chatham duck and its sister-taxa that is consistent with the estimated time of emergence of the Chatham Islands. Additionally, we find that mtDNA divergence between the two sub-Antarctic teal species (A. aucklandica and A. nesiotis) significantly pre-dates the last few glacial cycles, raising interesting questions about the timing of their dispersal to these islands, and the recent phylogeographic history of brown teal lineages in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic, morphological, geographical and ecological approaches reveal phylogenetic relationships in complex groups, an example of recently diverged pinyon pine species (Subsection Cembroides).

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Wegier, Ana; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Ortíz-Medrano, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel; Whipple, Amy V; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Domínguez, César A

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups is challenging for intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., technical) reasons. Mexican pinyon pines are a complex group whose phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries have been widely studied but poorly resolved, partly due to intrinsic ecological and evolutionary features such as low morphological and genetic differentiation caused by recent divergence, hybridization and introgression. Extrinsic factors such as limited sampling and difficulty in selecting informative molecular markers have also impeded progress. Some of the Mexican pinyon pines are of conservation concern but others may remain unprotected because the species boundaries have not been established. In this study we combined approaches to resolve the phylogenetic relationships in this complex group and to establish species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa: P. discolor, P. johannis, P. culminicola and P. cembroides. We performed phylogenetic analyses using the chloroplast markers matK and psbA-trnH as well as complete and partial chloroplast genomes of species of Subsection Cembroides. Additionally, we performed a phylogeographic analysis combining genetic data (18 chloroplast markers), morphological data and geographical data to define species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa. Ecological divergence was supported by differences in climate among localities for distinct genetic lineages. Whereas the phylogenetic analysis inferred with matK and psbA-trnH was unable to resolve the relationships in this complex group, we obtained a resolved phylogeny with the use of the chloroplast genomes. The resolved phylogeny was concordant with a haplotype network obtained using chloroplast markers. In species with potential for recent divergence, hybridization or introgression, nonhierarchical network-based approaches are probably more appropriate to protect against misclassification due to incomplete

  12. Functional Analysis and Regulation of the Divergent spuABCDEFGH-spuI Operons for Polyamine Uptake and Utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Dar; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Nakada, Yuji; Jiang, Ying

    2002-01-01

    A multiple-gene locus for polyamine uptake and utilization was discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. This locus contained nine genes designated spuABCDEFGHI (spu for spermidine and putrescine utilization). The physiological functions of the spu genes in utilization of two polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) were analyzed by using Tn5 transposon-mediated spu knockout mutants. Growth and uptake experiments support that the spuDEFGH genes specify components of a major ABC-type transport system for spermidine uptake, and enzymatic measurements indicated that spuC encodes putrescine aminotransferase with pyruvate as the amino group receptor. Although spuA and spuB mutants showed an apparent defect in spermidine utilization, the biochemical functions of the gene products have yet to be elucidated. Assays of lacZ fusions demonstrated the presence of agmatine-, putrescine-, and spermidine-inducible promoters for the spuABCDEFGH operon and the divergently transcribed spuI gene of unknown function. Since the observed induction effect of agmatine was abolished in an aguA mutant where conversion of agmatine into putrescine was blocked, putrescine or spermidine, but not agmatine, serves as the inducer molecule of the spuA-spuI divergent promoters. S1 nuclease mappings confirmed further the induction effects of the polyamines on transcription of the divergent promoters and localized the transcription initiation sites. Gel retardation assays with extracts from the cells grown on putrescine or spermidine demonstrated the presence of a polyamine-responsive regulatory protein interacting with the divergent promoter region. Finally, the absence of the putrescine-inducible spuA expression and putrescine aminotransferase (spuC) formation in the cbrB mutant indicated that the spu operons are regulated by the global CbrAB two-component system perhaps via the putative polyamine-responsive transcriptional activator. PMID:12081945

  13. Functional analysis and regulation of the divergent spuABCDEFGH-spuI operons for polyamine uptake and utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Dar; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Nakada, Yuji; Jiang, Ying

    2002-07-01

    A multiple-gene locus for polyamine uptake and utilization was discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. This locus contained nine genes designated spuABCDEFGHI (spu for spermidine and putrescine utilization). The physiological functions of the spu genes in utilization of two polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) were analyzed by using Tn5 transposon-mediated spu knockout mutants. Growth and uptake experiments support that the spuDEFGH genes specify components of a major ABC-type transport system for spermidine uptake, and enzymatic measurements indicated that spuC encodes putrescine aminotransferase with pyruvate as the amino group receptor. Although spuA and spuB mutants showed an apparent defect in spermidine utilization, the biochemical functions of the gene products have yet to be elucidated. Assays of lacZ fusions demonstrated the presence of agmatine-, putrescine-, and spermidine-inducible promoters for the spuABCDEFGH operon and the divergently transcribed spuI gene of unknown function. Since the observed induction effect of agmatine was abolished in an aguA mutant where conversion of agmatine into putrescine was blocked, putrescine or spermidine, but not agmatine, serves as the inducer molecule of the spuA-spuI divergent promoters. S1 nuclease mappings confirmed further the induction effects of the polyamines on transcription of the divergent promoters and localized the transcription initiation sites. Gel retardation assays with extracts from the cells grown on putrescine or spermidine demonstrated the presence of a polyamine-responsive regulatory protein interacting with the divergent promoter region. Finally, the absence of the putrescine-inducible spuA expression and putrescine aminotransferase (spuC) formation in the cbrB mutant indicated that the spu operons are regulated by the global CbrAB two-component system perhaps via the putative polyamine-responsive transcriptional activator.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Functional Divergence of MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Xue, Cheng; Li, Jiaming; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Yu, Li'ang; Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The MYB superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. To date, MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate MYB genes and divided them into four subfamilies. The R2R3-MYB (PbrMYB) family shared an R2R3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. The Pbr MYB family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including 33 subgroups which contained both MYB genes of Rosaceae plants and AtMYB genes, and four subgroups which included only Rosaceae MYB genes or AtMYB genes. PbrMYB genes with similar functions clustered into the same subgroup, indicating functional conservation. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplications played critical roles in the expansion of the MYB family. The 87 Pbr MYB duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving Pbr MYB gene evolution. The 15 gene pairs presented 1-7 codon sites under positive selection. A total of 147 expressed genes were identified from RNA-sequencing data of fruit, and six Pbr MYB members in subgroup C1 were identified as important candidate genes in the regulation of lignin synthesis by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Further correlation analysis revealed that six PbrMYBs were significantly correlated with five structural gene families (F5H, HCT, CCR, POD and C3'H) in the lignin pathway. The phylogenetic, evolution and expression analyses of the MYB gene family in Chinese white pear establish a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of Pbr MYB genes.

  15. Genetic divergence of bradyrhizobium strains nodulating soybeans as revealed by multilocus sequence analysis of genes inside and outside the symbiosis island.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing Xing; Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, Rui; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Yan Ming; Wang, En Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-05-01

    The genus Bradyrhizobium has been considered to be a taxonomically difficult group. In this study, phylogenetics and evolutionary genetics analyses were used to investigate divergence levels among Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating soybeans in China. Eleven genospecies were identified by sequence analysis of three phylogenetic and taxonomic markers (SMc00019, thrA, and truA). This was also supported by analyses of eight genes outside the symbiosis island ("off-island" genes; SMc00019, thrA, truA, fabB, glyA, phyR, exoN, and hsfA). However, seven genes inside the symbiosis island ("island" genes; nifA, nifH, nodC, nodV, fixA, trpD, and rhcC2) showed contrasting lower levels of nucleotide diversity and recombination rates than did off-island genes. Island genes had significantly incongruent gene phylogenies compared to the species tree. Four phylogenetic clusters were observed in island genes, and the epidemic cluster IV (harbored by Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense, Bradyrhizobium daqingense, Bradyrhizobium sp. I, Bradyrhizobium sp. III, and Bradyrhizobium sp. IV) was not found in Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium sp. II, or Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The gene flow level of island genes among genospecies is discussed in the context of the divergence level of off-island genes.

  16. Strong conservation of the bird Z chromosome in reptilian genomes is revealed by comparative painting despite 275 million years divergence.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, Martina; Giovannotti, Massimo; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kasai, Fumio; Trifonov, Vladimir A; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Caputo, Vincenzo; Olmo, Ettore; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, Willem

    2011-10-01

    The divergence of lineages leading to extant squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) and birds occurred about 275 million years ago. Birds, unlike squamates, have karyotypes that are typified by the presence of a number of very small chromosomes. Hence, a number of chromosome rearrangements might be expected between bird and squamate genomes. We used chromosome-specific DNA from flow-sorted chicken (Gallus gallus) Z sex chromosomes as a probe in cross-species hybridization to metaphase spreads of 28 species from 17 families representing most main squamate lineages and single species of crocodiles and turtles. In all but one case, the Z chromosome was conserved intact despite very ancient divergence of sauropsid lineages. Furthermore, the probe painted an autosomal region in seven species from our sample with characterized sex chromosomes, and this provides evidence against an ancestral avian-like system of sex determination in Squamata. The avian Z chromosome synteny is, therefore, conserved albeit it is not a sex chromosome in these squamate species.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT8 and GPAT9 are localized to the ER and possess distinct ER retrieval signals: functional divergence of the dilysine ER retrieval motif in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Gidda, Satinder K; Shockey, Jay M; Rothstein, Steven J; Dyer, John M; Mullen, Robert T

    2009-10-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; EC 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the committed step in the production of glycerolipids, which are major components of cellular membranes, seed storage oils, and epicuticular wax coatings. While the biochemical activities of GPATs have been characterized in detail, the cellular features of these enzymes are only beginning to emerge. Here we characterized the phylogenetic relationships and cellular properties of two GPAT enzymes from the relatively large Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT family, including GPAT8, which is involved in cutin biosynthesis, and GPAT9, which is a new putative GPAT that has extensive homology with a GPAT from mammalian cells involved in storage oil formation and, thus, may have a similar role in plants. Immunofluorescence microscopy of transiently-expressed myc-epitope-tagged GPAT8 and GPAT9 revealed that both proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and differential permeabilization experiments indicated that their N- and C-termini were oriented towards the cytosol. However, these two proteins contained distinct types of ER retrieval signals, with GPAT8 possessing a divergent type of dilysine motif (-KK-COOH rather than the prototypic -KKXX-COOH or -KXKXX-COOH motif) and GPAT9 possessing a hydrophobic pentapeptide motif (-phi-X-X-K/R/D/E-phi-; where phi are large hydrophobic amino acid residues). Notably, the divergent dilysine motif in GPAT8 only functioned effectively when additional upstream residues were included to provide the proper protein context. Extensive mutational analyses of the divergent dilysine motif, based upon sequences present in the C-termini of other GPAT8s from various plant species, further expanded the functional definition of this molecular targeting signal, thereby providing insight to the targeting signals in other GPAT family members as well as other ER-resident membrane proteins within plant cells.

  18. Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsuko; Martindale, Mark Q; Fukui, Akimasa; Tochinai, Shin

    2010-03-01

    Brachyury, a member of the T-box transcription family identified in a diverse array of metazoans, was initially recognized for its function in mesoderm formation and notochord differentiation in vertebrates; however, its ancestral role has been suggested to be in control of morphogenetic movements. Here, we show that morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of Brachyury (MlBra) in embryos of a ctenophore, one of the most ancient groups of animals, prevents the invagination of MlBra expressing stomodeal cells and is rescued with corresponding RNA injections. Injection of RNA encoding a dominant-interfering construct of MlBra causes identical phenotypes to that of RNA encoding a dominant-interfering form of Xenopus Brachyury (Xbra) in Xenopus embryos. Both injected embryos down-regulate Xbra downstream genes, Xbra itself and Xwnt11 but not axial mesodermal markers, resulting in failure to complete gastrulation due to loss of convergent extension movements. Moreover, animal cap assay reveals that MlBra induces Xwnt11 like Xbra. Overall results using Xenopus embryos show that these two genes are functionally interchangeable. These functional experiments demonstrate for the first time in a basal metazoan that the primitive role of Brachyury is to regulate morphogenetic movements, rather than to specify endomesodermal fates, and the role is conserved between non-bilaterian metazoans and vertebrates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling in vivo creatine/phosphocreatine in vitro reveals divergent adaptations in human muscle mitochondrial respiratory control by ADP after acute and chronic exercise.

    PubMed

    Ydfors, Mia; Hughes, Meghan C; Laham, Robert; Schlattner, Uwe; Norrbom, Jessica; Perry, Christopher G R

    2016-06-01

    , whereby the first session did not change Kmapp with in vivo Cr:PCr despite increases in -Cr. The fifth session decreased sensitivity with Cr:PCr or +Cr despite no change in -Cr. Chronic exercise increased sensitivity ±Cr in association with increased electron transport chain content (+33-62% complexes I-V), supporting classic proposals that link increased sensitivity to oxidative capacity. However, in vivo Cr:PCr reveals a perplexing decreased sensitivity, contrasting the increases seen ±Cr. Functional responses occurred without changes in fibre type or proteins regulating mitochondrial-cytosolic energy exchange (mtCK, VDAC and ANT). Despite the dynamic responses seen with ±Cr, modelling in vivo phosphate-shuttling conditions in vitro reveals that ADP sensitivity is unchanged after high-intensity exercise and is decreased after training. These findings challenge our understanding of how exercise regulates skeletal muscle energy homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. Students' Conceptualisations of Function Revealed through Definitions and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to explore the conceptualisations of function that some students express when they are responding to fictitious students' statements about functions. We also asked them what is meant by "function" and many voluntarily used examples in their responses. The task was developed in collaboration with teachers from two…

  1. Recruitment of closely linked genes for divergent functions: the seed storage protein (Glu-3) and powdery mildew (Pm3) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Ning; Huang, Xiu-Qiang; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2010-05-01

    Wheat seed storage protein gene loci (Glu-3) and powdery mildew resistance gene loci (Pm3 and Pm3-like) are closely linked on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes. To study the structural organization of the Glu-3/Pm3 loci, three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were sequenced from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat. The A and B genome clones contained a Glu-3 adjacent to a Pm3-like gene organized in a conserved Glu-3/SFR159/Pm3-like structure. The D genome clone contained clusters of resistance gene analogs but no Pm3. Its similarity to the A and B genome was limited to the Glu-3/SFR159 region. Comparison of the B genome PM3-like deduced amino acid sequence with known PM3 functional isotypes reinforced the hypothesis of allelic evolution via block exchange by gene conversion/recombination. The advent of glutenin genes and the formation of the Glu-3/SFR159/Pm3 locus occurred after divergence of wheat from rice and Brachypodium. Comparison of the A genome homologous sequences permitted an estimate of time of divergence of approximately 0.3 million years ago. The B genome sequences were not colinear indicating that they could either be paralogs or represent different B genome progenitors. Analysis of the 11 complete retrotransposons indicated a time of divergence ranging from 0.29 to 5.62 million years ago, consistent with their complex nested structure.

  2. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes.

  3. The medaka FoxP2, a homologue of human language gene FOXP2, has a diverged structure and function.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Tatsuo; Chandra, Abhishek; Yang, Zhi; Xue, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Kimura, Wataru; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Inohaya, Keiji; Kudo, Akira; Uezato, Tadayoshi; Miura, Naoyuki

    2008-03-01

    Forkhead box (Fox) genes are involved in organogenesis and cell differentiation. A mutation of FOXP2 was discovered in patients with severe defects in speech and language. The medaka FoxP2 was cloned in order to clarify the molecular evolution and difference in the protein structure and function by comparing human/mouse and medaka genes. The result showed that medaka FoxP2 had a 73.7% homology to the human and mouse counterparts, and its zinc finger, leucine zipper and forkhead domain structures were conserved. However, medaka FoxP2 lacked a long polyglutamine repeat and had two insertions of unique amino acid sequences. FoxP2 expression was found in the epiphysis and retina, in addition to the midbrain and cerebellum. The transcriptional assay revealed that medaka FoxP2 showed a very weak repressive activity to the CC10 promoter while mouse Foxp2 exhibited a strong repressive activity. Mutational analyses of medaka FoxP2 showed that the three amino acids of forkhead domain were responsible for the weak repressive activity. These results suggest that medaka FoxP2 may play a different function in the development of the medaka fish.

  4. Multivariate sequence analysis reveals additional function impacting residues in the SDR superfamily.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pratibha; Singh, Noopur; Dixit, Aparna; Choudhury, Devapriya

    2014-10-01

    The "extended" type of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR), share a remarkable similarity in their tertiary structures inspite of being highly divergent in their functions and sequences. We have carried out principal component analysis (PCA) on structurally equivalent residue positions of 10 SDR families using information theoretic measures like Jensen-Shannon divergence and average shannon entropy as variables. The results classify residue positions in the SDR fold into six groups, one of which is characterized by low Shannon entropies but high Jensen-Shannon divergence against the reference family SDR1E, suggesting that these positions are responsible for the specific functional identities of individual SDR families, distinguishing them from the reference family SDR1E. Site directed mutagenesis of three residues from this group in the enzyme UDP-Galactose 4-epimerase belonging to SDR1E shows that the mutants promote the formation of NADH containing abortive complexes. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to suggest a mechanism by which the mutants interfere with the re-oxidation of NADH leading to the formation of abortive complexes.

  5. Thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial functions in permeabilized muscle fibers from two populations of Drosophila simulans with divergent mitotypes.

    PubMed

    Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J William O; Tanguay, Robert M; Blier, Pierre U

    2011-07-01

    In ectotherms, the external temperature is experienced by the mitochondria, and the mitochondrial respiration of different genotypes is likely to change as a result. Using high-resolution respirometry with permeabilized fibers (an in situ approach), we tried to identify differences in mitochondrial performance and thermal sensitivity of two Drosophila simulans populations with two different mitochondrial types (siII and siIII) and geographical distributions. Maximal state 3 respiration rates obtained with electrons converging at the Q junction of the electron transport system (ETS) differed between the mitotypes at 24°C. Catalytic capacities were higher in flies harboring siII than in those harboring siIII mitochondrial DNA (2,129 vs. 1,390 pmol O(2)·s(-1)·mg protein(-1)). The cytochrome c oxidase activity was also higher in siII than siIII flies (3,712 vs. 2,688 pmol O(2)·s(-1)·mg protein(-1)). The higher catalytic capacity detected in the siII mitotype could provide an advantage in terms of intensity of aerobic activity, endurance, or both, if the intensity of exercise that can be aerobically performed is partly dictated by the aerobic capacity of the tissue. Moreover, thermal sensitivity results showed that even if temperature affects the catalytic capacity of the different enzymes of the ETS, both mitotypes revealed high tolerance to temperature variation. Previous in vitro study failed to detect any consistent functional mitochondrial differences between the same mitotypes. We conclude that the in situ approach is more sensitive and that the ETS is a robust system in terms of functional and regulatory properties across a wide range of temperatures.

  6. Sexual divergence in microtubule function: the novel intranasal microtubule targeting SKIP normalizes axonal transport and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Amram, N; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Sragovich, S; Malishkevich, A; Katz, J; Touloumi, O; Lagoudaki, R; Grigoriadis, N C; Giladi, E; Yeheskel, A; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Jouroukhin, Y; Gozes, I

    2016-10-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), essential for brain formation, is a frequent autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-mutated gene. ADNP associates with microtubule end-binding proteins (EBs) through its SxIP motif, to regulate dendritic spine formation and brain plasticity. Here, we reveal SKIP, a novel four-amino-acid peptide representing an EB-binding site, as a replacement therapy in an outbred Adnp-deficient mouse model. We discovered, for the first time, axonal transport deficits in Adnp(+/-) mice (measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging), with significant male-female differences. RNA sequencing evaluations showed major age, sex and genotype differences. Function enrichment and focus on major gene expression changes further implicated channel/transporter function and the cytoskeleton. In particular, a significant maturation change (1 month-five months) was observed in beta1 tubulin (Tubb1) mRNA, only in Adnp(+/+) males, and sex-dependent increase in calcium channel mRNA (Cacna1e) in Adnp(+/+) males compared with females. At the protein level, the Adnp(+/-) mice exhibited impaired hippocampal expression of the calcium channel (voltage-dependent calcium channel, Cacnb1) as well as other key ASD-linked genes including the serotonin transporter (Slc6a4), and the autophagy regulator, BECN1 (Beclin1), in a sex-dependent manner. Intranasal SKIP treatment normalized social memory in 8- to 9-month-old Adnp(+/-)-treated mice to placebo-control levels, while protecting axonal transport and ameliorating changes in ASD-like gene expression. The control, all d-amino analog D-SKIP, did not mimic SKIP activity. SKIP presents a novel prototype for potential ASD drug development, a prevalent unmet medical need.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Functional Specialization along the Intestinal Tract of a Carnivorous Teleostean Fish (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    High-quality sequencing reads from the intestine of European sea bass were assembled, annotated by similarity against protein reference databases and combined with nucleotide sequences from public and private databases. After redundancy filtering, 24,906 non-redundant annotated sequences encoding 15,367 different gene descriptions were obtained. These annotated sequences were used to design a custom, high-density oligo-microarray (8 × 15 K) for the transcriptomic profiling of anterior (AI), middle (MI), and posterior (PI) intestinal segments. Similar molecular signatures were found for AI and MI segments, which were combined in a single group (AI-MI) whereas the PI outstood separately, with more than 1900 differentially expressed genes with a fold-change cutoff of 2. Functional analysis revealed that molecular and cellular functions related to feed digestion and nutrient absorption and transport were over-represented in AI-MI segments. By contrast, the initiation and establishment of immune defense mechanisms became especially relevant in PI, although the microarray expression profiling validated by qPCR indicated that these functional changes are gradual from anterior to posterior intestinal segments. This functional divergence occurred in association with spatial transcriptional changes in nutrient transporters and the mucosal chemosensing system via G protein-coupled receptors. These findings contribute to identify key indicators of gut functions and to compare different fish feeding strategies and immune defense mechanisms acquired along the evolution of teleosts. PMID:27610085

  8. Cytometry-based single-cell analysis of intact epithelial signaling reveals MAPK activation divergent from TNF-α-induced apoptosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Alan J; Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; Scurrah, Cherie' R; Herring, Charles A; Gewin, Leslie S; Masuzaki, Ryota; Karp, Seth J; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Gerdes, Michael J; Irish, Jonathan M; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding heterogeneous cellular behaviors in a complex tissue requires the evaluation of signaling networks at single-cell resolution. However, probing signaling in epithelial tissues using cytometry-based single-cell analysis has been confounded by the necessity of single-cell dissociation, where disrupting cell-to-cell connections inherently perturbs native cell signaling states. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy (Disaggregation for Intracellular Signaling in Single Epithelial Cells from Tissue—DISSECT) that preserves native signaling for Cytometry Time-of-Flight (CyTOF) and fluorescent flow cytometry applications. A 21-plex CyTOF analysis encompassing core signaling and cell-identity markers was performed on the small intestinal epithelium after systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) stimulation. Unsupervised and supervised analyses robustly selected signaling features that identify a unique subset of epithelial cells that are sensitized to TNF-α-induced apoptosis in the seemingly homogeneous enterocyte population. Specifically, p-ERK and apoptosis are divergently regulated in neighboring enterocytes within the epithelium, suggesting a mechanism of contact-dependent survival. Our novel single-cell approach can broadly be applied, using both CyTOF and multi-parameter flow cytometry, for investigating normal and diseased cell states in a wide range of epithelial tissues. PMID:26519361

  9. Genetic Divergence and Heritability of 42 Coloured Upland Rice Genotypes (Oryzasativa) as Revealed by Microsatellites Marker and Agro-Morphological Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Faiz; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Hakim, Md Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Akmar Abdullah, Siti Nor

    2015-01-01

    Coloured rice genotypes have greater nutritious value and consumer demand for these varieties is now greater than ever. The documentation of these genotypes is important for the improvement of the rice plant. In this study, 42 coloured rice genotypes were selected for determination of their genetic divergence using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 15 agro-morphological traits. Twenty-one out of the 25 SSR primers showed distinct, reproducible polymorphism. A dendrogram constructed using the SSR primers clustered the 42 coloured rice genotypes into 7 groups. Further, principle component analysis showed 75.28% of total variations were explained by the first—three components. All agro-morphological traits showed significant difference at the (p≤0.05) and (p≤0.01) levels. From the dendrogram constructed using the agro-morphological traits, all the genotypes were clustered into four distinct groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed that among the 15 agro-morphological traits, the yield contributing factor had positive correlation with the number of tillers, number of panicles, and panicle length. The heritability of the 15 traits ranged from 17.68 to 99.69%. Yield per plant and harvest index showed the highest value for both heritability and genetic advance. The information on the molecular and agro-morphological traits can be used in rice breeding programmes to improve nutritional value and produce higher yields. PMID:26393807

  10. Genetic Divergence and Heritability of 42 Coloured Upland Rice Genotypes (Oryzasativa) as Revealed by Microsatellites Marker and Agro-Morphological Traits.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faiz; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Hakim, Md Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Akmar Abdullah, Siti Nor

    2015-01-01

    Coloured rice genotypes have greater nutritious value and consumer demand for these varieties is now greater than ever. The documentation of these genotypes is important for the improvement of the rice plant. In this study, 42 coloured rice genotypes were selected for determination of their genetic divergence using 25 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and 15 agro-morphological traits. Twenty-one out of the 25 SSR primers showed distinct, reproducible polymorphism. A dendrogram constructed using the SSR primers clustered the 42 coloured rice genotypes into 7 groups. Further, principle component analysis showed 75.28% of total variations were explained by the first-three components. All agro-morphological traits showed significant difference at the (p≤0.05) and (p≤0.01) levels. From the dendrogram constructed using the agro-morphological traits, all the genotypes were clustered into four distinct groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that among the 15 agro-morphological traits, the yield contributing factor had positive correlation with the number of tillers, number of panicles, and panicle length. The heritability of the 15 traits ranged from 17.68 to 99.69%. Yield per plant and harvest index showed the highest value for both heritability and genetic advance. The information on the molecular and agro-morphological traits can be used in rice breeding programmes to improve nutritional value and produce higher yields.

  11. Biochemical analysis of three putative KaiC clock proteins from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 suggests their functional divergence.

    PubMed

    Wiegard, Anika; Dörrich, Anja K; Deinzer, Hans-Tobias; Beck, Christian; Wilde, Annegret; Holtzendorff, Julia; Axmann, Ilka M

    2013-05-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to have a circadian clock system that consists mainly of three protein components: KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. This