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Sample records for reverse transcriptase-pcr diagnostic

  1. Use of propidium monoazide in reverse transcriptase PCR to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses in water samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since o...

  2. Development and Evaluation of an Enterovirus D68 Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Buller, Richard S.; Cannella, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in clinical specimens. This assay was developed in response to the unprecedented 2014 nationwide EV-D68 outbreak in the United States associated with severe respiratory illness. As part of our evaluation of the outbreak, we sequenced and published the genome sequence of the EV-D68 virus circulating in St. Louis, MO. This sequence, along with other GenBank sequences from past EV-D68 occurrences, was used to computationally select a region of EV-D68 appropriate for targeting in a strain-specific RT-PCR assay. The RT-PCR assay amplifies a segment of the VP1 gene, with an analytic limit of detection of 4 copies per reaction, and it was more sensitive than commercially available assays that detect enteroviruses and rhinoviruses without distinguishing between the two, including three multiplex respiratory panels approved for clinical use by the FDA. The assay did not detect any other enteroviruses or rhinoviruses tested and did detect divergent strains of EV-D68, including the first EV-D68 strain (Fermon) identified in California in 1962. This assay should be useful for identifying and studying current and future outbreaks of EV-D68 viruses. PMID:26063859

  3. Poly(A) polymerase modification and reverse transcriptase PCR amplification of environmental RNA.

    PubMed

    Botero, Lina M; D'Imperio, Seth; Burr, Mark; McDermott, Timothy R; Young, Mark; Hassett, Daniel J

    2005-03-01

    We describe a combination of two established techniques for a novel application for constructing full-length cDNA clone libraries from environmental RNA. The cDNA was cloned without the use of prescribed primers that target specific genes, and the procedure did not involve random priming. Purified RNA was first modified by addition of a poly(A) tail and then was amplified by using a commercially available reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) cDNA synthesis kit. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a cDNA clone library was constructed from size-fractionated RNA (targeting 16S rRNA) purified from a geothermally heated soil in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. The resulting cDNA library contained clones representing Bacteria and Eukarya taxa and several mRNAs. There was no exact clone match between this library and a separate cDNA library generated from an RT-PCR performed with unmodified rRNA and Bacteria-specific forward and universal reverse primers that were designed from cultivated organisms; however, both libraries contained representatives of the Firmicutes and the alpha-Proteobacteria. Unexpectedly, there were no Archaea clones in the library generated from poly(A)-modified RNA. Additional RT-PCRs performed with universal and Archaea-biased primers and unmodified RNA demonstrated the presence of novel Archaea in the soil. Experiments with pure cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus and Halobacterium halobium revealed that some Archaea rRNA may not be a suitable substrate for the poly(A) tail modification step. The protocol described here demonstrates the feasibility of directly accessing prokaryote RNA (rRNA and/or mRNA) in environmental samples, but the results also illustrate potentially important problems.

  4. Direct detection of viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts by reverse transcriptase PCR in contaminated milk samples after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaitilingom, M; Gendre, F; Brignon, P

    1998-03-01

    A fast, sensitive, and target contaminant-modulable method was developed to detect viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts after heat treatment. By reverse transcriptase PCR with elongation factor gene (EF-Tu or EF-1 alpha)-specific primers, the detection level was 10 cells ml of milk-1. The simplicity and rapidity (4 h) of the procedure suggests that this method may be easily transposable to other foods and other contaminants. PMID:9501455

  5. Direct Detection of Viable Bacteria, Molds, and Yeasts by Reverse Transcriptase PCR in Contaminated Milk Samples after Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vaitilingom, Marc; Gendre, Francois; Brignon, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and target contaminant-modulable method was developed to detect viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts after heat treatment. By reverse transcriptase PCR with elongation factor gene (EF-Tu or EF-1α)-specific primers, the detection level was 10 cells ml of milk−1. The simplicity and rapidity (4 h) of the procedure suggests that this method may be easily transposable to other foods and other contaminants. PMID:9501455

  6. Immunoaffinity concentration and purification of waterborne enteric viruses for detection by reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, K J; De Leon, R; Sobsey, M D

    1996-01-01

    To assess the risks from viral contamination of drinking-water supplies, there is a clear need for methods to directly detect viral pathogens. In this study, we developed a broad-spectrum immunocapture method for concentration and purification of enteric viruses. The method involved indirect antibody capture (AbCap) of intact viruses followed by release of virion genomic RNA and reverse transcriptase PCR for amplification and oligoprobe hybridization for detection. The procedure involved concentrating enteric viruses from large volumes of water by standard filtration-elution techniques with IMDS filters and 1 liter of 1% beef extract-0.05 M glycine (BE/G) as an eluate. The BE/G eluate was concentrated and purified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, Pro-Cipitate (a commercially available protein precipitating reagent) precipitation, and a second PEG precipitation to a volume of approximately 500 mu l. Aliquots of the second PEG precipitate were further processed by RNA extraction, AbCap, or cell culture analysis for infectious viruses. The AbCap method was applied to 11 field samples of fecally contaminated surface water. Of the 11 samples, 9 were positive for enteric viruses by AbCap method 4 of 11 samples were positive for enteric viruses by direct RNA extraction of a small aliquot of the second PEG concentrate; and 4 of 11 samples were positive for enteric viruses by measurement of cell culture infectivity. The results of enteric viruses were compared with those for standard bacterial and coliphage indicators of fecal contamination. PMID:8787407

  7. Validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for the detection of H7 avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pedersen, J.; Killian, M.L.; Hines, N.; Senne, D.; Panigrahy, B.; Ip, H.S.; Spackman, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the validation of an avian influenza virus (AIV) H7 subtype-specific real-time reverse transcriptasePCR (rRT-PCR) assay developed at the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) for the detection of H7 AI in North and South American wild aquatic birds and poultry. The validation was a collaborative effort by the SEPRL and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The 2008 H7 rRT-PCR assay detects 101 50% embryo infectious doses per reaction, or 103104 copies of transcribed H7 RNA. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated to be 97.5% and 82.4%, respectively; the assay was shown to be specific for H7 AI when tested with >270 wild birds and poultry viruses. Following validation, the 2008 H7 rRT-PCR procedure was adopted as an official U.S. Department of Agriculture procedure for the detection of H7 AIV. The 2008 H7 assay replaced the previously used (2002) assay, which does not detect H7 viruses currently circulating in wild birds in North and South America. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  8. Insulated Isothermal Reverse Transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Lung, O; Pasick, J; Fisher, M; Buchanan, C; Erickson, A; Ambagala, A

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. User-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for CSF diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. In this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on a compact, user-friendly device (POCKIT(™) Nucleic Acid Analyzer) that does not need data interpretation by the user. The assay accurately detected CSFV RNA from a diverse panel of 33 CSFV strains representing all three genotypes plus an additional in vitro-transcribed RNA from cloned sequences representing a vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity was observed with a panel of 18 viruses associated with livestock including eight other pestivirus strains (bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 and type 2, border disease virus, HoBi atypical pestivirus), African swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, porcine circovirus 1, porcine circovirus 2, porcine respiratory coronavirus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus, bovine herpes virus type 1 and vesicular stomatitis virus. The iiRT-PCR assay accurately detected CSFV as early as 2 days post-inoculation in RNA extracted from serum samples of experimentally infected pigs, before appearance of clinical signs. The limit of detection (LOD95% ) calculated by probit regression analysis was 23 copies per reaction. The assay has a sample to answer turnaround time of less than an hour using extracted RNA or diluted or low volume of neat serum. The user-friendly, compact device that automatically analyses and displays results could potentially be a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of CSF in a disease outbreak. PMID:25644051

  9. Rapid diagnosis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcriptase PCR-based assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, M E; Enría, D; Maiztegui, J I; Grau, O; Romanowski, V

    1995-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is an endemo-epidemic disease caused by Junín virus. This report demonstrates that a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR-based assay developed in our laboratory to detect Junín virus in whole blood samples is sensitive and specific. The experiments were conducted in a double-blinded manner using 94 clinical samples collected in the area in which AHF is endemic. The RT-PCR-based assay was compared with traditional methodologies, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, plaque neutralization tests, and occasionally viral isolation. The calculated parameters for RT-PCR diagnosis, with seroconversion as the "gold standard," were 98% sensitivity and 76% specificity. It is noteworthy that 94% of the patients with putative false-positive results (RT-PCR positive and no seroconversion detected) exhibited febrile syndromes of undefined etiology. These results could be interpreted to mean that most of those patients with febrile syndromes were actually infected with Junín virus but did not develop a detectable immune response. Furthermore, 8 laboratory-fabricated samples and 25 blood samples of patients outside the area in which AHF is endemic tested in a similar way were disclosed correctly (100% match). The RT-PCR assay is the only laboratory test available currently for the early and rapid diagnosis of AHF. It is sensitive enough to detect the low viremia found during the period in which immune plasma therapy can be used effectively, reducing mortality rates from 30% to less than 1%. PMID:7542268

  10. Cytokine expression in respiratory syncytial virus-infected mice as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinqing; Li, Haijing; Tang, Yi Wei

    2003-02-01

    In the murine model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, cytokine patterns induced by vaccinations with either killed (i.e. formalin-inactivated, alum-precipitated) virus (KV) or live virus (LV) have been shown to influence disease expression. To determine the mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-4 and IFN-gamma in BALB/c mice challenged with RSV, a real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay was developed. This assay uses 5'-exonuclease fluorogenic probes and is performed on the ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detector System (TaqMan). The relative quantitative levels of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-gamma were compared with those measured by an RNase protection assay (RPA) and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which are methods used to measure the levels of mRNA and protein, respectively. Results obtained by the TaqMan assay showed that mice primed with KV induces increased IL-4 mRNA production while LV induces increased IFN-gamma mRNA, which is in agreement with conventional methods. IL-4 and IFN-gamma relative quantities obtained from TaqMan were highly correlated to those determined by RPA (r=0.96 for IFN-gamma, P<0.01) and EIA (r=0.90 for IL-4 and r=0.75 for IFN-gamma, P<0.01). Assay reproducibility was examined by testing a same sample in triplicate at three experiments. Minimal deviation values were observed in both intra- and inter-assays. TaqMan, which is rapid, sensitive and reproducible, provides an alternative tool for the quantitative analysis of cytokine mRNA expression in the murine model of RSV immunopathogenesis. PMID:12505627

  11. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR in orchardgrass subjected to various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linkai; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Zeng, Bing; Xu, Bin; Yin, Guohua; Lee, Samantha; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool for the measurement of gene expression; however, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The objective of the present study was to identify the stable reference genes in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), a principal cool-season forage grass in the world. Ten candidate reference genes were selected in this study including ATP-binding [ABC], actin [ACTIN], cyclophilin [CYP2], glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], beta-amylase 4 [BAM4], zeitlupe [ZTL], MAP Kinase 4 [MPK4], ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [UBC], S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [SAMDC], and translationally controlled tumor protein [TCTP]. The candidate genes were assessed in orchardgrass leaves and roots under conditions of drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. We used GeNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and RefFinder for qRT-PCR normalization and validation to determine that the expression of these reference genes was stress-dependent. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were found to be the most stably expressed genes for drought stress while ACTIN, TCTP, and ABC were the most stable under salt stress. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were all found to be good reference genes for studying heat stress. Likewise, CYP2, MPK4, and ABC were most suitable to study waterlogging, and ACTIN, CYP2, and MPK4 were determined as the three best reference genes for ABA studies. Our study identified and validated the possible reference genes in orchardgrass that may be used for quantification of target gene expression under various abiotic stresses.

  12. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella typhimurium from pork.

    PubMed

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2010-03-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA and has a greater potential for detecting viable pathogens than do DNA-based PCR assays, with improved speed and sensitivity compared with traditional methods. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella Typhimurium from pork within two 8-h work shifts using a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) assay. Pork chop and sausage samples (25 g) were inoculated with 10(8) to 10(0) CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and stomached in 225 ml of tetrathionate broth. Serial dilutions were spread plated on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 10 h of selective preenrichment or preenrichment followed by 12 h of selective enrichment (for stressed cells) at 37 degrees C for standard cultural enumeration. RNA was extracted using the TRIzol method. The rt-RT-PCR assay was carried out in a Bio-Rad iCycler using a SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR kit and Salmonella specific invA gene primers with an internal amplification control (IAC). The PCR was followed by melting temperature (T(m)) analysis to determine specific Salmonella invA (T(m) = 87.5 degrees C) and IAC (T(m) = 82 degrees C) products. Improved Salmonella detection up to 10(1) CFU/25 g of pork and 10(0) CFU/25 g of sausages was obtained after 10 h of enrichment within approximately 24 h. Even without enrichment, Salmonella could be detected from both pork chop and sausage at 10(6) CFU/25 g within 1 day. This robust rt-RT-PCR detects and confirms Salmonella in pork within approximately 24 h and thus is significantly faster than traditional methods that take >/=1 week. This assay shows promise for routine testing and monitoring of Salmonella by the pork industry.

  13. Development and Evaluation of Serotype- and Group-Specific Fluorogenic Reverse Transcriptase PCR (TaqMan) Assays for Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Johnny D.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L.; Dion-Schultz, Amanda; Mangold, Beverly E.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Watts, Douglas M.; Porter, Kevin R.; Murphy, Gerald R.; Suharyono, Wuryadi; King, Chwan-Chuen; Hayes, Curtis G.; Temenak, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Five fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed for serotypes 1 to 4 and group-specific detection of dengue virus. Serotype- and group-specific oligonucleotide primers and fluorogenic probes were designed against conserved regions of the dengue virus genome. The RT-PCR assay is a rapid single-tube method consisting of a 30-min RT step linked to a 45-cycle PCR at 95 and 60°C that generates a fluorogenic signal in positive samples. Assays were initially evaluated against cell culture-derived dengue stock viruses and then with 67 dengue viremic human sera received from Peru, Indonesia, and Taiwan. The TaqMan assays were compared to virus isolation using C6/36 cells followed by an immunofluorescence assay using serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. Viral titers in sera were determined by plaque assay in Vero cells. The serotype-specific TaqMan RT-PCR assay detected 62 of 67 confirmed dengue virus-positive samples, for a sensitivity of 92.5%, while the group-specific assay detected 66 of 67 confirmed dengue virus-positive samples, for a sensitivity of 98.5%. The TaqMan RT-PCR assays have a specificity of 100% based on the serotype concordance of all assays compared to cell culture isolation and negative results obtained when 21 normal human sera and plasma samples were tested. Our results demonstrate that the dengue virus TaqMan RT-PCR assays may be utilized as rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and serotyping tools for epidemiological studies of dengue virus infections. PMID:11682539

  14. Development and evaluation of a culture-independent method for source determination of fecal wastes in surface and storm waters using reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of FRNA coliphage genogroup gene sequences

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complete method, incorporating recently improved reverse transcriptase-PCR primer/probe assays and including controls for determining interferences to phage recoveries from water sample concentrates and for detecting interferences to their analysis, was developed for the direct...

  15. Development and evaluation of a culture-independent method for source determination of fecal wastes in surface and storm waters using reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of FRNA coliphage genogroup gene sequences.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A complete method, incorporating recently improved reverse transcriptase-PCR primer/probe assays and including controls for determining interferences to phage recoveries from water sample concentrates and for detecting interferences to their analysis, was developed for the direct...

  16. Development and Validation of a Quantitative, One-Step, Multiplex, Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Monika; Myers, Todd; Guevara, Carolina; Jungkind, Donald; Williams, Maya; Houng, Huo-Shu

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens with common transmission vectors and similar clinical presentations. Patient care may be impacted by the misdiagnosis of DENV and CHIKV in areas where both viruses cocirculate. In this study, we have developed and validated a one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) to simultaneously detect, quantify, and differentiate between four DENV serotypes (pan-DENV) and chikungunya virus. The assay uses TaqMan technology, employing two forward primers, three reverse primers, and four fluorophore-labeled probes in a single-reaction format. Coextracted and coamplified RNA was used as an internal control (IC), and in vitro-transcribed DENV and CHIKV RNAs were used to generate standard curves for absolute quantification. The diagnostic 95% limits of detection (LOD) within the linear range were 50 and 60 RNA copies/reaction for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV, respectively. Our assay was able to detect 53 different strains of DENV, representing four serotypes, and six strains of CHIKV. No cross-reactivity was observed with related flaviviruses and alphaviruses, To evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, 89 clinical samples positive or negative for DENV (serotypes 1 to 4) and CHIKV by the standard virus isolation method were tested in our assay. The multiplex RT-PCR assay showed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity for DENV and 100% sensitivity and specificity for CHIKV. With an assay turnaround time of less than 2 h, including extraction of RNA, the multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assay provides rapid diagnosis for the differential detection of two clinically indistinguishable diseases, whose geographical occurrence is increasingly overlapping. PMID:27098955

  17. Use of Propidium Monoazide in Reverse Transcriptase PCR To Distinguish between Infectious and Noninfectious Enteric Viruses in Water Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Parshionikar, Sandhya; Laseke, Ian; Fout, G. Shay

    2010-01-01

    Human enteric viruses can be present in untreated and inadequately treated drinking water. Molecular methods, such as the reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), can detect viral genomes in a few hours, but they cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious viruses. Since only infectious viruses are a public health concern, methods that not only are rapid but also provide information on the infectivity of viruses are of interest. The intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used for distinguishing between viable and nonviable bacteria with DNA genomes, but it has not been used to distinguish between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses with RNA genomes. In this study, PMA in conjunction with RT-PCR (PMA-RT-PCR) was used to determine the infectivity of enteric RNA viruses in water. Coxsackievirus, poliovirus, echovirus, and Norwalk virus were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment with heat (72°C, 37°C, and 19°C) or hypochlorite. Infectious or native and noninfectious or inactivated viruses were treated with PMA. This was followed by RNA extraction and RT-PCR or quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The PMA-RT-PCR results indicated that PMA treatment did not interfere with detection of infectious or native viruses but prevented detection of noninfectious or inactivated viruses that were rendered noninfectious or inactivated by treatment at 72°C and 37°C and by hypochlorite treatment. However, PMA-RT-PCR was unable to prevent detection of enteroviruses that were rendered noninfectious by treatment at 19°C. After PMA treatment poliovirus that was rendered noninfectious by treatment at 37°C was undetectable by qRT-PCR, but PMA treatment did not affect detection of Norwalk virus. PMA-RT-PCR was also shown to be effective for detecting infectious poliovirus in the presence of noninfectious virus and in an environmental matrix. We concluded that PMA can be used to differentiate between potentially infectious and noninfectious

  18. Modified H5 real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR oligonucleotides for detection of divergent avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdelwhab, E M; Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Erfan, Ahmed M; Aly, Mona M; Hafez, Hafez M

    2010-12-01

    The efforts exerted to prevent circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in birds are the best way to prevent the emergence of a new virus subtype with pandemic potential. Despite the blanket vaccination strategy against HPAI H5N1 in Egypt, continuous circulation of the virus in poultry has increased since late 2007 as a result of the presence of genetic and antigenic distinct variant strains that have escaped during the immune response of vaccinated birds. Although the suspected poultry flocks have had signs and lesions commonly seen in HPAI H5N1-infected birds, escape of variant strains from detection by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RRT-PCR) was observed. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed multiple single nucleotide substitutions in the primers and probe target sequences of the H5 gene by real-time RT-PCR. This study describes the results of RRT-PCR, modified from an existing protocol with regard to the detection of the partial H5 gene segment of the Egyptian H5N1 divergent viruses and applied to nationwide surveillance. The modified RRT-PCR assay was more sensitive than the original one in the detection of Egyptian isolates, with 104% amplification efficiency. Sixty-one field samples were found to be positive in our assay, but only 51 samples tested positive by the original protocol and were more sensitive than matrix gene RRT-PCR detection assay. A detection limit of 10 mean embryo infective dose (EID50) with the updated oligonucleotides primers and probe set was found. For the foreseeable future, mutation of H5N1 viruses and the endemic situation in developing countries require continuous improvement of current diagnostics to aid in the containment of the H5N1 virus in poultry sectors and to lower the threat of influenza virus spread. PMID:21313854

  19. Detection of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in bovine peripheral blood samples by duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Reinbold, James B; Coetzee, Johann F; Sirigireddy, Kamesh R; Ganta, Roman R

    2010-07-01

    Insufficient diagnostic sensitivity and specificity coupled with the potential for cross-reactivity among closely related Anaplasma species has made the accurate determination of infection status problematic. A method for the development of simplex and duplex real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum 16S rRNA in plasma-free bovine peripheral blood samples is described. The duplex assay was able to detect as few as 100 copies of 16S rRNA of both A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum in the same reaction. The ratio of 16S rRNA to 16S DNA copies for A. marginale was determined to be 117.9:1 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 100.7:1, 135.2:1). Therefore, the detection limit is the minimum infective unit of one A. marginale bacterium. The duplex assay detected nonequivalent molar ratios as high as 100-fold. Additionally, the duplex assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) were used to screen 237 samples collected from herds in which anaplasmosis was endemic. When the cELISA was evaluated by the results of the qRT-PCR, its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of A. marginale infection were found to be 65.2% (95% CI, 55.3%, 75.1%) and 97.3% (95% CI, 94.7%, 99.9%), respectively. A. phagocytophilum infection was not detected in the samples analyzed. One- and two-way receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed in order to recommend the optimum negative cutoff value for the cELISA. Percentages of inhibition of 20 and 15.3% were recommended for the one- and two-way curves, respectively. In conclusion, the duplex real-time qRT-PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for the accurate and precise detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in cattle.

  20. An improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicoides midges utilizing infrared-dye-labeled primers for reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Kato, Cecilia Y; Mayer, Richard T

    2007-03-01

    A new rapid (less than 6h from insect-to-results) high-throughput assay that is sensitive and specific for detecting BTV RNA in Culicoides biting midges is reported. Homogenization and extraction of nucleic acids from individual Culicoides specimens were performed in a 96-well plate format using specialized beads in a homogenization buffer compatible with cell culture and RNA extraction. A portion of homogenate (10%) from each specimen was retained for confirmatory infectious virus isolation, while the remaining 90% was used for RNA extraction. The RNA was used in a single step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) reaction with infrared (IR)-dye-labeled primers. The RT-PCR products were visualized in agarose gels with an infrared scanner. The adaptation of IR-dye-labeled primers in combination with a one step RT-PCR resulted in a detection limit of 0.5 pfu of purified BTV RNA. All 24 serotypes of BTV prototype strains and none of the 8 serotypes of the closely related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) prototype strains were detected.

  1. Typing of dengue viruses in clinical specimens and mosquitoes by single-tube multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Harris, E; Roberts, T G; Smith, L; Selle, J; Kramer, L D; Valle, S; Sandoval, E; Balmaseda, A

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, dengue viruses (serotypes 1 to 4) have spread throughout tropical regions worldwide. In many places, multiple dengue virus serotypes are circulating concurrently, which may increase the risk for the more severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever. For the control and prevention of dengue fever, it is important to rapidly detect and type the virus in clinical samples and mosquitoes. Assays based on reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR (RT-PCR) amplification of dengue viral RNA can offer a rapid, sensitive, and specific approach to the typing of dengue viruses. We have reduced a two-step nested RT-PCR protocol to a single-tube reaction with sensitivity equivalent to that of the two-step protocol (1 to 50 PFU) in order to maximize simplicity and minimize the risk of sample cross-contamination. This assay was also optimized for use with a thermostable RT-polymerase. We designed a plasmid-based internal control that produces a uniquely sized product and can be used to control for both reverse transcription or amplification steps without the risk of generating false-positive results. This single-tube RT-PCR procedure was used to type dengue viruses during the 1995 and 1997-1998 outbreaks in Nicaragua. In addition, an extraction procedure that permits the sensitive detection of viral RNA in pools of up to 50 mosquitoes without PCR inhibition or RNA degradation was developed. This assay should serve as a practical tool for use in countries where dengue fever is endemic, in conjunction with classical methods for surveillance and epidemiology of dengue viruses.

  2. Evaluation of a rapid and completely automated real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Frederick S; Rogers, Beverly B; Tang, Yi-Wei; Oberste, M Steven; Robinson, Christine C; Kehl, K Sue; Rand, Kenneth A; Rotbart, Harley A; Romero, Jose R; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Persing, David H

    2011-02-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have emerged as the new gold standard for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis, and their use can improve the management and decrease the costs for caring for children with enteroviral meningitis. The Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a rapid, fully automated real-time PCR test for the detection of enterovirus RNA that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for in vitro diagnostic use in March 2007. In this multicenter trial we established the clinical performance characteristics of the Xpert EV assay in patients presenting with meningitis symptoms relative to clinical truth. Clinical truth for enteroviral meningitis was defined as clinical evidence of meningitis, the absence of another detectable pathogen in CSF, and detection of enterovirus in CSF either by two reference NAATs or by viral culture. A total of 199 prospectively and 235 retrospectively collected specimens were eligible for inclusion in this study. The overall prevalence of enteroviral meningitis was 26.04%. The Xpert EV assay had a sensitivity of 94.69% (90% confidence interval [CI] = 89.79 to 97.66%), specificity of 100% (90% CI = 99.07 to 100%), positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 98.17, and an accuracy of 98.62% relative to clinical truth. The Xpert EV assay demonstrated a high degree of accuracy for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis. The simplicity and on-demand capability of the Xpert EV assay should prove to be a valuable adjunct to the evaluation of suspected meningitis cases.

  3. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

    PubMed Central

    Hostettler, Isabel; Müller, Joachim; Stephens, Chad E.; Haynes, Richard; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development. PMID:25516828

  4. Quantification of substance p mRNA in human immune cells by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jian-Ping; Douglas, Steven D; Shaheen, Farida; Pleasure, David E; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2002-01-01

    We have applied a newly developed real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR (RT-PCR) assay for quantification of substance P (SP) mRNA expression (the SP real-time RT-PCR assay) in human blood monocyte-derived macrophages, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and microglia isolated from fetal brain. The SP real-time RT-PCR assay had a sensitivity of 60 mRNA copies, with a dynamic range of detection between 60 and 600,000 copies of the SP gene transcript per reaction mixture. The coefficient of variation of the threshold cycle number between the SP real-time RT-PCR assays was less than 1.16%. This assay with an SP-specific primer pair efficiently recognizes all four isoforms of preprotachykinin A (the SP precursor) gene transcripts. In order to use this assay to measure the levels of SP mRNA in the human immune cells quantitatively, we designed a specific probe (molecular beacon) derived from exon 3 of the SP gene. We demonstrated that the real-time RT-PCR quantitatively detected SP mRNA in the human immune cells, among which the microglia isolated from fetal brain had the highest levels of SP mRNA. The SP real-time PCR assay yielded reproducible data, as the intra-assay variation was less than 1%. Thus, it is feasible to apply the real-time RT-PCR assay for quantification of SP mRNA levels in human immune cells, as well as in other nonneuronal cells. Since SP is a major modulator of neuroimmunoregulation, this assay has the potential for widespread application for basic and clinical investigations.

  5. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. Methods/Principal Findings 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize

  6. Simultaneous Detection of Rift Valley Fever, Bluetongue, Rinderpest, and Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses by a Single-Tube Multiplex Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Assay Using a Dual-Priming Oligonucleotide System▿

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Seo, Hyun-Ji; Park, Jee-Yong; Moon, Jin-San; Cho, In-Soo; Choi, In-Soo; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a highly sensitive and specific one-step multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR assay for the simultaneous and differential detection of Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV), bluetongue virus (BTV), rinderpest virus (RPV), and Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). These viruses cause mucosal lesions in cattle, sheep, and goats, and they are difficult to differentiate from one another based solely on their clinical presentation in suspected disease cases. In this study, we developed a multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR to detect these viruses using a novel dual-priming oligonucleotide (DPO). The DPO contains two separate priming regions joined by a polydeoxyinosine linker, which blocks extension of nonspecifically primed templates and consistently allows high PCR specificity even under less-than-optimal PCR conditions. A total of 19 DPO primers were designed to detect and discriminate between RVFV, BTV, RPV, and PPRV by the generation of 205-, 440-, 115-, and 243-bp cDNA products, respectively. The multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR described here enables the early diagnosis of these four viruses and may also be useful as part of a testing regime for cattle, sheep, or goats exhibiting similar clinical signs, including mucosal lesions. PMID:21307219

  7. Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Analysis of Bacterial rRNA for Detection and Characterization of Bacterial Species in Arthritis Synovial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Cox, Charles J.; Hurle, Michael; Wong, Anthony; Wilkie, Scott; Zanders, Edward D.; Gaston, J. S. Hill; Crowe, J. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is widely believed to be preceded by exposure to some environmental trigger such as bacterial infectious agents. The influence of bacteria on RA disease onset or pathology has to date been controversial, due to inconsistencies between groups in the report of bacterial species isolated from RA disease tissue. Using a modified technique of reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification, we have detected bacterial rRNA in the synovial tissue of late-stage RA and non-RA arthritis controls. This may be suggestive of the presence of live bacteria. Sequencing of cloned complementary rDNA (crDNA) products revealed a number of bacterial sequences in joint tissue from each patient, and from these analyses a comprehensive profile of the organisms present was compiled. This revealed a number of different organisms in each patient, some of which are common to both RA and non-RA controls and are probably opportunistic colonizers of previously diseased tissue and others which are unique species. These latter organisms may be candidates for a specific role in disease pathology and require further investigation to exclude them as causative agents in the complex bacterial millieu. In addition, many of the detected bacterial species have not been identified previously from synovial tissue or fluid from arthritis patients. These may not be easily cultivable, since they were not revealed in previous studies using conventional in vitro bacterial culture methods. In situ hybridization analyses have revealed the joint-associated bacterial rRNA to be both intra- and extracellular. The role of viable bacteria or their nucleic acids as triggers in disease onset or pathology in either RA or non-RA arthritis controls is unclear and requires further investigation. PMID:10992514

  8. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  9. Evaluation of the use of PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR for detection of pathogenic bacteria in biosolids from anaerobic digestors and aerobic composters.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, Carola; Wuertz, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    A PCR-based method and a reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)-based method were developed for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in organic waste, using Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. In seeded organic waste samples, detection limits of less than 10 cells per g of organic waste were achieved after one-step enrichment of bacteria, isolation, and purification of DNA or RNA before PCR or RT-PCR amplification. To test the reproducibility and reliability of the newly developed methods, 46 unseeded samples were collected from diverse aerobic (composting) facilities and anaerobic digestors and analyzed by both culture-based classical and newly developed PCR-based procedures. No false-positive but some false-negative results were generated by the PCR- or RT-PCR-based methods after one-step enrichment when compared to the classical detection methods. The results indicated that the level of activity of the tested bacteria in unseeded samples was very low compared to that of freshly inoculated cells, preventing samples from reaching the cell density required for PCR-based detection after one-step enrichment. However, for Salmonella spp., a distinct PCR product could be obtained for all 22 nonamended samples that tested positive for Salmonella spp. by the classical detection procedure when a selective two-step enrichment (20 h in peptone water at 37 degrees C and 24 h in Rappaport Vassiliadis medium at 43 degrees C) was performed prior to nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Hence, the classical procedure was shortened, since cell plating and further differentiation of isolated colonies can be omitted, substituted for by highly sensitive and reliable detection based on nucleic acid extraction and PCR. Similarly, 2 of the 22 samples in which Salmonella spp. were detected also tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes according to a two-step enrichment procedure followed by PCR, compared to 3 samples

  10. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests.

  11. Detection of EML4-ALK fusion gene in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer by using a sensitive quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sha; Wang, Fang; Shao, Qiong; Zhang, Xu; Duan, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shao, Jian-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is present in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcinoma. Clinical trials on ALK inhibitor phase I to III have shown an interesting disease control rate and acceptable tolerability in ALK rearrangement patients. In clinical application, the precise diagnostic strategy for identifying ALK rearrangements remains to be determined. In this study, ALK rearrangement was screened by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), direct sequencing, 2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and immunohistochemistry in 173 lung adenocarcinomas. We identified 18 cases (10.4%) with EML4-ALK fusion-positive by qRT-PCR, and all were positive for EML4-ALK fusion gene validated by direct sequencing. The result was consistent with that of other methods. Furthermore, of the 18 EML4-ALK fusion-positive cases, 16 (9.2%) were positive by using EML4-ALK fusion probe FISH, and 15 (8.7%) were positive by using ALK break-apart probe FISH and immunohistochemistry staining. Of the 18 ALK fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas, 8 cases (44.4%) were histologically diagnosed as subtypes of cribriform adenocarcinoma, 7 cases (38.9%) as cribriform adenocarcinoma mixed with papillary and/or mucinous pattern, 2 cases (11.1%) as papillary adenocarcinoma, and 1 case (5.6%) as mucinous adenocarcinoma. In the present study, the ALK rearrangement frequency detected by qRT-PCR in Chinese NSCLC patients was higher than that in the western populations. QRT-PCR is a rapid, sensitive technology that could be used as a screening tool for identifying EML4-ALK fusion-positive NSCLC patients who would be sensitive for receiving ALK inhibitor therapy.

  12. Development of one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assays for the rapid and simultaneous detection of four viruses causing porcine diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Ashiba, Tomoko; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    Porcine diarrhea caused by viruses is a major problem of the pig farming industry and can result in substantial losses of revenue. Thus, diagnosing the infectious agents is important to prevent and control diseases in pigs. We developed novel one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) assays that can detect four porcine diarrheal viruses simultaneously: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and porcine group A rotavirus (PRVA). The qPCR analysis takes only 75 minutes to detect the presence of the four viruses. The limits of detection of our new assays for PEDV, TGEV, PDCoV, and PRVA were 100, 10, 10 and 10 copies per reaction, respectively. The sensitivity of qPCR was 1-1000 times higher than that of published gel-based RT-PCR. We used our qPCR method to successfully diagnose clinical samples from infected pigs, and no false positive results were obtained. In conclusion, qPCR can drastically reduce the diagnostic time to detect viruses compared to currently employed methods. We predict that the qPCR assays will become a useful tool for detecting viral infections that cause diarrhea and other complications in pigs. PMID:27348884

  13. Duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to determine cytokine mRNA expression in a hamster model of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, has distinct immunological features and is uniquely susceptible to intracellular pathogens. Studies in hamsters are limited by the relative unavailability of tools to conduct immunological studies. To address this limitation we developed duplex real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assays for the relative quantification of the mRNAs of hamster cytokines, chemokines, and related immune response molecules. Results Real-time RT-PCR primers and probes were synthesized for analysis of interleukin (IL)-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p40, TGF-β, IL-13, IL-21, chemokine ligand (CCL) 22, CCL17, Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 and FoxP3 expression. Standard curves and validation experiments were performed for each real-time RT-PCR assay, allowing us to use the comparative Ct (2-ΔΔCt) method to calculate changes in gene expression. Application of the real-time RT PCR assays to a biological model was demonstrated by comparing mRNA expression in skin and lymph node tissues between uninfected and Leishmania panamensis infected hamsters. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT PCR assays provide a powerful approach for the quantification of cytokine transcription in hamsters, and their application to a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggests that a balanced type 1 and type 2 cytokine response contributes to the chronic, nonprogressive course of disease. These new molecular tools will further facilitate investigation into the mechanisms of disease in the hamster, not only for models of leishmaniasis, but also for other viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections. PMID:20569429

  14. Development of a sigDE-based real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR for the detection of viable Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Yang, Jielin; Zhou, Xiujuan; Liu, Bin; Liu, Daixin; Yuan, Chengang; He, Yuping; Pan, Liangwen; Shi, Xianming

    2014-07-01

    Salmonella is the most common cause of bacterial food poisoning in humans worldwide. Thus, rapid and reliable methods for the detection of this pathogen are required. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-RT-PCR), which detects the presence of mRNA (shorter half-life than DNA) has shown great potential for detecting viable pathogens. We recently identified a few new potential specific DNA sequences for Salmonella enterica using a comparative genomics method (Chen et al., 2010). In the present study, we examined the expression of the Salmonella-specific sigDE operon (encoding invasion proteins within the pathogenicity island 5) under typical growth conditions to determine whether sigDE could be a useful viability marker for the bacterium. We then assayed sigDE mRNA from cells heat-treated at 60°C, 100°C, and 121°C (autoclaved), and found that mRNA was degraded in autoclaved bacterial samples. These results showed that the sigDE transcript is a suitable mRNA target for rt-RT-PCR with samples pretreated at 121°C. Thus, an rt-RT-PCR using sigDE primers was developed for the detection of viable Salmonella. An RNA internal amplification control was constructed by overlap extension PCR, synthesized using in vitro transcription with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter, and incorporated into the rt-RT-PCR system to eliminate false-negative results. The rt-RT-PCR system has the capability of specifically detecting all the tested S. enterica serovars, and the detection limit of this assay with cultures of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311 was 10(1) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. After 18-h enrichment, sigDE-based rt-RT-PCR could detect as low as 10(0) CFU/mL of Salmonella from egg broth and milk.

  15. Validation and Application of a Commercial Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR Assay in Investigation of a Large Dengue Virus Outbreak in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Tsai, You-Yuan; Lin, I-Ting; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Chang, Kung-Chao; Chen, Jung-Chin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate, rapid, and early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infections is essential for optimal clinical care. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-LightMix dengue virus EC kit for DENV detection using samples from a dengue outbreak in Taiwan in 2015. Methods Sera from patients with suspected DENV infection were analyzed and compared using the LightMix kit, a Dengue NS1 Ag + Ab Combo kit for detection of NS1 antigen and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and an “in-house” qualitative DENV-specific RT-PCR assay. Results A total of 8,989, 8,954, and 1581 samples were subjected to NS1 antigen detection, IgM and IgG detection, and LightMix assays, respectively. The LightMix assay yielded a linear curve for viral loads (VL) between 102 and 106 copies/reaction, and the minimum detection limits for DENV serotype 1 (DENV1) and DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 were 1, 10, and 100 focus forming units (FFU)/mL, respectively. There was 88.9% concordance between the results obtained using the NS1 antigen combo kit and by LightMix analysis, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the two methods were 89.4 and 100%, and 84.7 and 100%, respectively. Notably, fatal cases were attributed to DENV2 infection, and 79.5% (27/34) of these cases occurred in patients ≥ 71 years of age. Among these older patients, 82.3% (14/17) were NS1/IgM/IgG (+/-/-), exhibiting VLs between 106–109 copies/mL, which was markedly higher than the rate observed in the other age groups. Conclusions The LightMix assay was effective for early diagnosis of DENV infection. Our data indicate that high VLs during primary infection in elderly patients may be a positive predictor for severe illness, and may contribute to high mortality rates. PMID:27732593

  16. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Group Organisms in Human and Mouse Joint Tissue by Reverse Transcriptase PCR: Prevalence in Diseased Synovial Tissue Suggests Lack of Specific Association with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Cox, Charles J.; McColm, Andrew A.; Bagshaw, Julie A.; Reece, Richard; Veale, Douglas J.; Emery, Paul; Isaacs, John D.; Gaston, J. S. Hill; Crowe, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Infection with mycobacterial species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has long been implicated in the etiopathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the basis of clinical and pathological similarities between tuberculosis and RA. Despite evidence of immune responses to mycobacterial antigens in RA patient synovial fluid, cross-reactivity between these and host joint antigens, and the presence of M. tuberculosis protein antigen in RA synovial fluid, a definite causal association with RA has not been shown. Previous studies from our laboratory using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of bacterial rRNAs have shown RA synovium to be colonized by a diverse range of bacteria, most of commensal origin. However, M. tuberculosis group organism (MTG) RNA sequences were found in one RA patient tissue. Since this was considered of sufficient interest to warrant further investigation, we devised a M. tuberculosis-specific nested RT-PCR test which could be used for detection of MTG in a mixed pool of bacterial crDNAs. This test was used to investigate the distribution of MTG in RA synovial tissue and also non-RA arthritis and healthy control tissues and was also used to examine the tissue distribution of MTG in an acute and chronic model of M. tuberculosis infection in the BALB/c mouse. MTG sequences were found in a high proportion of RA patient synovial tissues but also in non-RA arthritis control tissues at lower frequency. This likely reflects trafficking of persistent M. bovis BCG to inflamed joint tissue, irrespective of cause. MTG were not found in healthy synovial tissue or the tissue of patients with undifferentiated arthritis. In both the acute and chronic models of infection in BALB/c mice, M. tuberculosis was also found to have trafficked to joint tissues, however, no signs of inflammation, arthritis, or pathology associated with M. tuberculosis infection was seen. These combined results would argue against a specific causal role of MTG in RA-like arthritis

  18. Development and characterization of a highly specific and sensitive SYBR green reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus on the basis of sequence signatures.

    PubMed

    Medina, Rafael A; Rojas, Mark; Tuin, Astrid; Huff, Stephen; Ferres, Marcela; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Godoy, Paula; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fofanov, Yuriy; SantaLucia, John

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus showed that many diagnostic tests were unsuitable for detecting the novel virus isolates. In most countries the probe-based TaqMan assay developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was used for diagnostic purposes. The substantial sequence data that became available during the course of the pandemic created the opportunity to utilize bioinformatics tools to evaluate the unique sequence properties of this virus for the development of diagnostic tests. We used a comprehensive computational approach to examine conserved 2009 H1N1 sequence signatures that are at least 20 nucleotides long and contain at least two mismatches compared to any other known H1N1 genome. We found that the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes contained sequence signatures that are highly conserved among 2009 H1N1 isolates. Based on the NA gene signatures, we used Visual-OMP to design primers with optimal hybridization affinity and we used ThermoBLAST to minimize amplification artifacts. This procedure resulted in a highly sensitive and discriminatory 2009 H1N1 detection assay. Importantly, we found that the primer set can be used reliably in both a conventional TaqMan and a SYBR green reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay with no loss of specificity or sensitivity. We validated the diagnostic accuracy of the NA SYBR green assay with 125 clinical specimens obtained between May and August 2009 in Chile, and we showed diagnostic efficacy comparable to the CDC assay. Our approach highlights the use of systematic computational approaches to develop robust diagnostic tests during a viral pandemic.

  19. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP.

  20. Propidium monoazide reverse transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad R; Fout, G Shay; Johnson, Clifford H; White, Karen M; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2015-07-01

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the public health significance of positive findings are limited. In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwalk virus from virus particles rendered non-infectious by any treatment. PMA RT-PCR assay was not able to differentiate between infectious and UV inactivated viruses suggesting that viral capsid damage may be necessary for PMA to enter and bind to the viral genome. PMA RT-PCR on naked MNV-1 and Norwalk virus RNA suggest that PMA RT-PCR can be used to detect intact, potentially infectious MNV-1 and Norwalk viruses and can be used to exclude the detection of free viral RNA by PCR assay. PMID:25796356

  1. A multiplexed reverse transcriptase PCR assay for identification of viral respiratory pathogens at point-of-care

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S E; .Ortiz, J I; Tammero, L; Birch, J M; Derlet, R W; Cohen, S; Manning, D; McBride, M T

    2007-04-11

    We have developed a nucleic acid-based assay that is rapid, sensitive, specific, and can be used for the simultaneous detection of 5 common human respiratory pathogens including influenza A, influenza B, parainfluenza type 1 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus group B, C, and E. Typically, diagnosis on an un-extracted clinical sample can be provided in less than 3 hours, including sample collection, preparation, and processing, as well as data analysis. Such a multiplexed panel would enable rapid broad-spectrum pathogen testing on nasal swabs, and therefore allow implementation of infection control measures, and timely administration of antiviral therapies. This article presents a summary of the assay performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Limits of detection are provided for each targeted respiratory pathogen, and result comparisons are performed on clinical samples, our goal being to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the multiplexed assay to the combination of immunofluorescence and shell vial culture currently implemented at the UCDMC hospital. Overall, the use of the multiplexed RT-PCR assay reduced the rate of false negatives by 4% and reduced the rate of false positives by up to 10%. The assay correctly identified 99.3% of the clinical negatives, 97% of adenovirus, 95% of RSV, 92% of influenza B, and 77% of influenza A without any extraction performed on the clinical samples. The data also showed that extraction will be needed for parainfluenza virus, which was only identified correctly 24% of the time on un-extracted samples.

  2. Using Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR and Cell Culture Plaque Assays to Determine Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts to Chemical Sanitizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are highly resistant to many chemical sanitizers. Current methods used to determine oocyst infectivity have relied exclusively on mouse, chicken, and feline bioassays. Although considered gold standards, they only provide a qualitative assessment of oocyst infectivity. I...

  3. In-vitro Cell Culture and Real-time Reverse Transcriptase PCR-based Assays to Detect Infective Toxoplas gondii Oocysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, apicomplexan parasite that infects humans. It is ubiquitous in nature and seroprevalence in the United States and in Europe ranges from 25->70%. Although typically associated with causing foodborne outbreaks, recent studies in Canad...

  4. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gota, H; Thompson, M C; Tuszewski, M; Binderbauer, M W

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ∼5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  5. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gota, H. Thompson, M. C.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. W.

    2014-11-15

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ∼5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  6. Hanle effect as a magnetic diagnostic for field-reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deepak K.

    2016-11-01

    Hanle effect is presented as a low magnetic-field diagnostic for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The non-perturbative technique is capable of measuring not only magnetic-field profile and direction but also field-null position and its shape. Conditions and configurations for the measurement are discussed. The technique is applicable to other low magnetic-field laboratory plasmas, e.g., magnetic-cusps, where measurements of low field are desirable, and it may also be extended to measure the two-dimensional vector magnetic-field.

  7. Universal influenza B virus genomic amplification facilitates sequencing, diagnostics, and reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Lin, Xudong; Wang, Wei; Halpin, Rebecca A; Bera, Jayati; Stockwell, Timothy B; Barr, Ian G; Wentworth, David E

    2014-05-01

    Although human influenza B virus (IBV) is a significant human pathogen, its great genetic diversity has limited our ability to universally amplify the entire genome for subsequent sequencing or vaccine production. The generation of sequence data via next-generation approaches and the rapid cloning of viral genes are critical for basic research, diagnostics, antiviral drugs, and vaccines to combat IBV. To overcome the difficulty of amplifying the diverse and ever-changing IBV genome, we developed and optimized techniques that amplify the complete segmented negative-sense RNA genome from any IBV strain in a single tube/well (IBV genomic amplification [IBV-GA]). Amplicons for >1,000 diverse IBV genomes from different sample types (e.g., clinical specimens) were generated and sequenced using this robust technology. These approaches are sensitive, robust, and sequence independent (i.e., universally amplify past, present, and future IBVs), which facilitates next-generation sequencing and advanced genomic diagnostics. Importantly, special terminal sequences engineered into the optimized IBV-GA2 products also enable ligation-free cloning to rapidly generate reverse-genetics plasmids, which can be used for the rescue of recombinant viruses and/or the creation of vaccine seed stock. PMID:24501036

  8. Authentication and recovery of medical diagnostic image using dual reversible digital watermarking.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhigang; Zeng, Feng; Zhang, Yaoping; Mao, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new region-based tampering detection and recovering method that utilizes both reversible digital watermarking and quad-tree decomposition for medical diagnostic image's authentication. Firstly, the quad-tree decomposition is used to divide the original image into blocks with high homogeneity, and then we computer pixels' linear interpolation as each block's recovery feature. Secondly, these recovery features as the first layer watermarking information is embedded by using simple invertible integer transformation. In order to enhance the proposed method's security, the logistic chaotic map is exploited to choose each block's reference pixel. The second layer watermark comprises by the quad-tree information and essential parameters for extraction are embedded by LSB replacement. In the authentication phase, the embedded watermark is extracted and the source image is recovered, and the similar linear interpolation technique is utilized to get each block's feature. Therefore, the tampering detection and localization can be achieved through comparing the extracted feature with the recomputed one, and the extracted feature can be used to recover those tampered regions with high similarity to their original state. Experimental results show that, compared with previous similar existing scheme, the proposed method not only achieves high embedding capacity and good visual quality of marked and restored image, but also has more accuracy for tampering detection.

  9. Langmuir probe diagnostic suite in the C-2 field-reversed configuration.

    PubMed

    Roche, T; Sun, X; Armstrong, S; Knapp, K; Slepchenkov, M

    2014-11-01

    Several in situ probes have been designed and implemented into the diagnostic array of the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy [M. Tuszewski et al. (the TAE Team), Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)]. The probes are all variations on the traditional Langmuir probe. They include linear arrays of triple probes, linear arrays of single-tipped swept probes, a multi-faced Gundestrup probe, and an ion-sensitive probe. The probes vary from 5 to 7 mm diameter in size to minimize plasma perturbations. They also have boron nitride outer casings that prevent unwanted electrical breakdown and reduce the introduction of impurities. The probes are mounted on motorized linear-actuators allowing for programmatic scans of the various plasma parameters over the course of several shots. Each probe has a custom set of electronics that allows for measurement of the desired signals. High frequency ( > 5MHz) analog optical-isolators ensure that plasma parameters can be measured at sub-microsecond time scales while providing electrical isolation between machine and data acquisition systems. With these probes time-resolved plasma parameters (temperature, density, spatial potential, flow, and electric field) can be directly/locally measured in the FRC jet and edge/scrape-off layer.

  10. Langmuir probe diagnostic suite in the C-2 field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, T. Armstrong, S.; Knapp, K.; Slepchenkov, M.; Sun, X.

    2014-11-15

    Several in situ probes have been designed and implemented into the diagnostic array of the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy [M. Tuszewski et al. (the TAE Team), Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)]. The probes are all variations on the traditional Langmuir probe. They include linear arrays of triple probes, linear arrays of single-tipped swept probes, a multi-faced Gundestrup probe, and an ion-sensitive probe. The probes vary from 5 to 7 mm diameter in size to minimize plasma perturbations. They also have boron nitride outer casings that prevent unwanted electrical breakdown and reduce the introduction of impurities. The probes are mounted on motorized linear-actuators allowing for programmatic scans of the various plasma parameters over the course of several shots. Each probe has a custom set of electronics that allows for measurement of the desired signals. High frequency ( > 5MHz) analog optical-isolators ensure that plasma parameters can be measured at sub-microsecond time scales while providing electrical isolation between machine and data acquisition systems. With these probes time-resolved plasma parameters (temperature, density, spatial potential, flow, and electric field) can be directly/locally measured in the FRC jet and edge/scrape-off layer.

  11. Authentication and recovery of medical diagnostic image using dual reversible digital watermarking.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhigang; Zeng, Feng; Zhang, Yaoping; Mao, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new region-based tampering detection and recovering method that utilizes both reversible digital watermarking and quad-tree decomposition for medical diagnostic image's authentication. Firstly, the quad-tree decomposition is used to divide the original image into blocks with high homogeneity, and then we computer pixels' linear interpolation as each block's recovery feature. Secondly, these recovery features as the first layer watermarking information is embedded by using simple invertible integer transformation. In order to enhance the proposed method's security, the logistic chaotic map is exploited to choose each block's reference pixel. The second layer watermark comprises by the quad-tree information and essential parameters for extraction are embedded by LSB replacement. In the authentication phase, the embedded watermark is extracted and the source image is recovered, and the similar linear interpolation technique is utilized to get each block's feature. Therefore, the tampering detection and localization can be achieved through comparing the extracted feature with the recomputed one, and the extracted feature can be used to recover those tampered regions with high similarity to their original state. Experimental results show that, compared with previous similar existing scheme, the proposed method not only achieves high embedding capacity and good visual quality of marked and restored image, but also has more accuracy for tampering detection. PMID:23755652

  12. Diagnostic suite of the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. C.; Gota, H.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U experiment at Tri Alpha Energy studies the evolution of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection. Data on the FRC plasma performance are provided by a comprehensive suite of diagnostics that includes magnetic sensors, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, and fusion product detectors. While many of these diagnostic systems were inherited from the preceding experiment C-2, C-2U has a variety of new and upgraded diagnostic systems: multi-chord far-infrared polarimetry, multiple fast imaging cameras with selectable atomic line filters, proton detector arrays, and 100 channel bolometer units capable of observing multiple regions of the spectrum simultaneously. In addition, extensive ongoing work focuses on advanced methods of measuring separatrix shape and plasma current profile that will facilitate equilibrium reconstruction and active control of the FRC plasma.

  13. Reversals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers nine materials for remediating reversals in handicapped students at the early childhood and elementary levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession…

  14. High sensitivity far infrared laser diagnostics for the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. H.; Beall, M.; Schroeder, J.; Settles, G.; Feng, P.; Kinley, J. S.; Gota, H.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    A high sensitivity multi-channel far infrared laser diagnostics with switchable interferometry and polarimetry operation modes for the advanced neutral beam-driven C-2U field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is described. The interferometer achieved superior resolution of 1 × 1016 m-2 at >1.5 MHz bandwidth, illustrated by measurement of small amplitude high frequency fluctuations. The polarimetry achieved 0.04° instrument resolution and 0.1° actual resolution in the challenging high density gradient environment with >0.5 MHz bandwidth, making it suitable for weak internal magnetic field measurements in the C-2U plasmas, where the maximum Faraday rotation angle is less than 1°. The polarimetry resolution data is analyzed, and high resolution Faraday rotation data in C-2U is presented together with direct evidences of field reversal in FRC magnetic structure obtained for the first time by a non-perturbative method.

  15. Magnetic diagnostic suite of the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment confinement vessela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. C.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P.; Knapp, K.; Luo, Y.; Mendoza, R.; Patel, V.; Tuszewski, M.; Van Drie, A. D.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic measurements are a fundamental part of determining the size and shape of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas in the C-2 device. The magnetic probe suite consists of 44 in-vessel and ex-vessel probes constructed using various technologies: ultra-high vacuum compatible mineral-insulated cable, nested triple axis coils hand-wound on ceramic bobbins, and commercial chip inductors mounted on printed circuit boards. Together, these probes measure the three-dimensional excluded flux profile of the FRC, which approximates the shape of the separatrix between the confined plasma volume and the scrape-off layer. High accuracy is achieved by using the extensive probe measurements to compensate for non-ideal effects such as flux leakage through the vacuum vessel and bulk motion of the FRC towards the wall. A subset of the probes is also used as a set of Mirnov arrays that provide sensitive detection of perturbations and oscillations of the FRC.

  16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic aid for synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, J.; Crew, J.; Birdsall, S.; Gill, S.; Clark, J.; Fisher, C.; Kelsey, A.; Nojima, T.; Sonobe, H.; Cooper, C.; Gusterson, B.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) that is associated with a high proportion of synovial sarcoma can be a useful diagnostic aid. The translocation results in fusion of the SYT gene on chromosome 18 to either the SSX1 or the SSX2 gene, two homologous genes within Xp11.2. Two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were assessed as approaches to identify the rearrangement in well characterized cases. The presence of the translocation, and the specific chromosome X gene disrupted, were inferred from the configuration of signals from chromosome-specific centromere probes, paints, and markers flanking each gene in preparations of interphase nuclei. Rearrangement was found in two cell lines and eight of nine tumor samples, including analysis of five touch imprints. This was consistent with cytogenetic data in four cases and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis using primers known to amplify both SYT-SSX1 and SYT-SSX2 transcripts. The transcripts were distinguished by restriction with LspI and SmaI. Contrary to previous suggestions, there was no obvious correlation between histological subtype and involvement of the SSX1 or SSX2 gene. These approaches could also be applied to the identification of tumor-free margins and metastatic disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8579118

  17. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39 °C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in ...

  18. Epidemic outbreaks, diagnostics, and control measures of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2007-08.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaguang; Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Al Hammad, Yousef; Abdel Rhman, Salah Shaban; Al-Blowi, Mohamed Hamad

    2010-03-01

    The first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) occurred in two "backyard" flocks of Houbara bustards and falcons in February 2007. Subsequent outbreaks were seen through the end of 2007 in "backyard" birds including native chickens, ostriches, turkeys, ducks, and peacocks. From November 2007 through January 2008, H5N1 HPAI outbreaks occurred in 19 commercial poultry premises, including two broiler breeder farms, one layer breeder farm, one ostrich farm, and 15 commercial layer farms, with approximately 4.75 million birds affected. Laboratory diagnosis of all H5N1-positive cases was conducted at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (CVDL) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A combination of diagnostic tests was used to confirm the laboratory diagnosis. A rapid antigen-capture test and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assay on clinical and field specimens were conducted initially. Meanwhile, virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs was performed and was followed by hemagglutinin (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition tests, then rapid antigen-capture and rtRT-PCR tests on HA-positive allantoic fluid samples. In most HPAI cases, a complete laboratory diagnosis was made within 24-48 hr at the CVDL. Saudi Arabian government officials made immediate decisions to depopulate all H5N1-affected and nonaffected flocks within a 5-km radius area and applied quarantine zones to prevent the virus from spreading to other areas. Other control measures, such as closure of live bird markets and intensive surveillance tests on all poultry species within quarantine zones, were in place during the outbreaks. As a result, the HPAI outbreaks were quickly controlled, and no positive cases were detected after January 29, 2008. The KSA was declared free of HPAI on April 30, 2008, by the World Animal Health Organization. PMID:20521658

  19. Fast imaging diagnostics on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.; Cordero, M.; Patel, V.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary. The axial view incorporated a stainless-steel mirror in a protective cap assembly attached to the vacuum-side of the viewport. For each system, a custom lens-based, high-throughput optical periscope was designed to relay the plasma image about half a meter to a high-speed camera. Each instrument also contained a remote-controlled filter wheel, set between shots to isolate a particular hydrogen or impurity emission line. The design of the camera platform, imaging performance, and sample data for each view is presented.

  20. Far infrared laser polarimetry and far forward scattering diagnostics for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas.

    PubMed

    Deng, B H; Kinley, J S; Knapp, K; Feng, P; Martinez, R; Weixel, C; Armstrong, S; Hayashi, R; Longman, A; Mendoza, R; Gota, H; Tuszewski, M

    2014-11-01

    A two-chord far infrared (FIR) laser polarimeter for high speed sub-degree Faraday rotation measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment is described. It is based on high power proprietary FIR lasers with line width of about 330 Hz. The exceptionally low intrinsic instrument phase error is characterized with figures of merit. Significant toroidal magnetic field with rich dynamics is observed. Simultaneously obtained density fluctuation spectra by far forward scattering are presented.

  1. Use of Existing Diagnostic Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Detection of Ebola Virus RNA in Semen.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, James; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Adams, Rick D; Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-04-15

    Sexual transmission of Ebola virus in Liberia has now been documented and associated with new clusters in regions previously declared Ebola free. Assays that have Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and are routinely used to detect Ebola virus RNA in whole blood and plasma specimens at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research were tested for their suitability in detecting the presence of Ebola virus RNA in semen. Qiagen AVL extraction protocols, as well as the Ebola Zaire Target 1 and major groove binder quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, were demonstrably suitable for this purpose and should facilitate epidemiologic investigations, including those involving long-term survivors of Ebola. PMID:26374912

  2. Use of Existing Diagnostic Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Detection of Ebola Virus RNA in Semen.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, James; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Adams, Rick D; Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-04-15

    Sexual transmission of Ebola virus in Liberia has now been documented and associated with new clusters in regions previously declared Ebola free. Assays that have Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and are routinely used to detect Ebola virus RNA in whole blood and plasma specimens at the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research were tested for their suitability in detecting the presence of Ebola virus RNA in semen. Qiagen AVL extraction protocols, as well as the Ebola Zaire Target 1 and major groove binder quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, were demonstrably suitable for this purpose and should facilitate epidemiologic investigations, including those involving long-term survivors of Ebola.

  3. Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Detection of Senecavirus A in Swine Vesicular Diagnostic Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew W.; Barrette, Roger W.; Sayed, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A (SV-A), formerly, Seneca Valley virus (SVV), has been detected in swine with vesicular lesions and is thought to be associated with swine idiopathic vesicular disease (SIVD), a vesicular disease syndrome that lacks a defined causative agent. The clinical presentation of SIVD resembles that of other more contagious and economically devastating vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD), and vesicular stomatitis (VS), that typically require immediate rule out diagnostics to lift restrictions on animal quarantine, movement, and trade. This study presents the development of a sensitive, SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay suitable for detection of SV-A in diagnostic swine specimens. After testing 50 pigs with clinical signs consistent with vesicular disease, 44 (88%) were found to be positive for SV-A by RT-qPCR as compared to none from a negative cohort of 35 animals without vesicular disease, indicating that the assay is able to successfully detect the virus in an endemic population. SV-A RNA was also detectable at a low level in sera from a subset of pigs that presented with (18%) or without (6%) vesicular signs. In 2015, there has been an increase in the occurrence of SV-A in the US, and over 200 specimens submitted to our laboratory for vesicular investigation have tested positive for the virus using this method. SV-A RNA was detectable in all common types of vesicular specimens including swabs and tissue from hoof lesions, oral and snout epithelium, oral swabs, scabs, and internal organ tissues such as liver and lymph node. Genome sequencing analysis from recent virus isolates was performed to confirm target amplicon specificity and was aligned to previous isolates. PMID:26757142

  4. Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Detection of Senecavirus A in Swine Vesicular Diagnostic Specimens.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Alexa J; O'Hearn, Emily S; Fabian, Andrew W; Barrette, Roger W; Sayed, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A (SV-A), formerly, Seneca Valley virus (SVV), has been detected in swine with vesicular lesions and is thought to be associated with swine idiopathic vesicular disease (SIVD), a vesicular disease syndrome that lacks a defined causative agent. The clinical presentation of SIVD resembles that of other more contagious and economically devastating vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD), and vesicular stomatitis (VS), that typically require immediate rule out diagnostics to lift restrictions on animal quarantine, movement, and trade. This study presents the development of a sensitive, SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay suitable for detection of SV-A in diagnostic swine specimens. After testing 50 pigs with clinical signs consistent with vesicular disease, 44 (88%) were found to be positive for SV-A by RT-qPCR as compared to none from a negative cohort of 35 animals without vesicular disease, indicating that the assay is able to successfully detect the virus in an endemic population. SV-A RNA was also detectable at a low level in sera from a subset of pigs that presented with (18%) or without (6%) vesicular signs. In 2015, there has been an increase in the occurrence of SV-A in the US, and over 200 specimens submitted to our laboratory for vesicular investigation have tested positive for the virus using this method. SV-A RNA was detectable in all common types of vesicular specimens including swabs and tissue from hoof lesions, oral and snout epithelium, oral swabs, scabs, and internal organ tissues such as liver and lymph node. Genome sequencing analysis from recent virus isolates was performed to confirm target amplicon specificity and was aligned to previous isolates. PMID:26757142

  5. A diagnostic neutral beam system for the MST reversed-field pinch: Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy and Rutherford scattering (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, D. J.; Fiksel, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Mishagin, V.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic neutral beam system is being purchased for the MST reversed-field pinch. Initially, this beam will be used for charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) to measure impurity ion velocity and temperature, both equilibrium and fluctuating. This work is an extension of an existing MST spectroscopic diagnostic which has successfully measured chord-averaged flow with 10 μs time resolution [D. J. Den Hartog and R. J. Fonck, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3238 (1994)]. CHERS will provide high spatial resolution, critically needed for the investigation of fluctuations associated with the dynamo and transport. This beam will also be applied to Rutherford scattering for local measurements of majority ion velocity and temperature. Ion velocity is determined by the shift of the energy spectrum of the scattered neutral beam; ion temperature by the width of the energy spectrum. The scattered spectrum will be detected by two multichannel neutral particle analyzers. In order to achieve a time resolution of about 10 μs, the neutral beam equivalent current density and current must be high; both of these characteristics are hallmarks of the DINA beam design.

  6. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Zhang, Shulu

    2016-10-01

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39°C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in infected leaf and seed tissues. The performance of the AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ RT-RPA diagnostic assay, utilizing a lateral flow strip contained within an amplicon detection chamber, was evaluated and the results were compared with a standard RT-PCR assay. The AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ assay was specific for TCDVd in leaf and seed tissues, its sensitivity was comparable to conventional RT-PCR in leaf tissues, and it does not require extensive sample purification, specialized equipment, or technical expertise. This is the first report utilizing an RT-RPA assay to detect viroids and the assay can be used both in the laboratory and in the field for TCDVd detection.

  7. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Zhang, Shulu

    2016-10-01

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39°C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in infected leaf and seed tissues. The performance of the AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ RT-RPA diagnostic assay, utilizing a lateral flow strip contained within an amplicon detection chamber, was evaluated and the results were compared with a standard RT-PCR assay. The AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ assay was specific for TCDVd in leaf and seed tissues, its sensitivity was comparable to conventional RT-PCR in leaf tissues, and it does not require extensive sample purification, specialized equipment, or technical expertise. This is the first report utilizing an RT-RPA assay to detect viroids and the assay can be used both in the laboratory and in the field for TCDVd detection. PMID:27427473

  8. Reversible dementias

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Manjari; Vibha, Deepti

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the early diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia which is essential to identify patients with cognitive symptoms who may have treatable conditions. Guidelines suggest that all patients presenting with dementia or cognitive symptoms should be evaluated with a range of laboratory tests, and with structural brain imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While many of the disorders reported as ‘reversible dementias’ are conditions that may well be associated with cognitive or behavioral symptoms, these symptoms are not always sufficiently severe to fulfill the clinical criteria for dementia. Thus, while the etiology of a condition may be treatable it should not be assumed that the associated dementia is fully reversible. Potentially reversible dementias should be identified and treatment considered, even if the symptoms are not sufficiently severe to meet the clinical criteria for dementia, and even if partial or full reversal of the cognitive symptoms cannot be guaranteed. In the literature, the most frequently observed potentially reversible conditions identified in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia are depression, adverse effects of drugs, drug or alcohol abuse, space-occupying lesions, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and metabolic conditions land endocrinal conditions like hypothyroidism and nutritional conditions like vitamin B-12 deficiency. Depression is by far the most common of the potentially reversible conditions. The review, hence addresses the common causes of reversible dementia and the studies published so far. PMID:21416018

  9. Detection of flaviviruses by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Eldadah, Z A; Asher, D M; Godec, M S; Pomeroy, K L; Goldfarb, L G; Feinstone, S M; Levitan, H; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-04-01

    RNA sequences of five flaviviruses were detected by a modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that incorporated a reverse transcriptase and RNase inhibitor. Oligonucleotide primer pairs were synthesized to amplify sequences from St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Japanese encephalitis (JBE), yellow fever (YF), dengue 2 (DEN-2), and dengue 4 (DEN-4) viruses. The amplified products were visualized as bands of appropriate size on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. The identity of these products was confirmed by restriction endonuclease cleavage to generate fragments of predicted lengths. The reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) successfully amplified flavivirus sequences from cell cultures, frozen brain tissue, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue. The reactions were highly specific, and the method compared favorably to two conventional assays of viral infectivity. RT-PCR followed by PCR with nesting primers (N-PCR) was 1,000-fold more sensitive in detecting virus than classical infectivity titration by intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice and nearly 1,000-fold more sensitive than amplification of virus in cell culture followed by inoculation of mice.

  10. Detection of Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 in Japan and establishment of a rapid, sensitive and direct diagnostic method based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ken; Urayama, Syun-Ichi; Katoh, Yu; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hase, Shu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-02-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 (MoCV1) is a mycovirus with a dsRNA genome that infects the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and impairs its growth. To date, MoCV1 has only been found in Vietnamese isolates of M. oryzae, and the distribution of this virus in M. oryzae isolates from other parts of the world remains unknown. In this study, using a one-step reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay, we detected a MoCV1-related virus in M. oryzae in Japan (named MoCV1-AK) whose sequence shares considerable similarity with that of the MoCV1 Vietnamese isolate. To establish a system for a comprehensive survey of MoCV1 infection in the field, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for direct detection of the virus. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was at least as high as that of the one-step RT-PCR assay. In addition, we detected MoCV1-AK in M. oryzae-infected oatmeal agar plates and lesions on rice leaves using the RT-LAMP assay without dsRNA extraction, by simple sampling with a toothpick. Preliminary screening of MoCV1 in Japanese M. oryzae isolates indicated that MoCV1 is currently distributed in rice fields in Japan. Our results provide a first example of the application of RT-LAMP for the detection of mycoviruses, which will accelerate surveys for mycovirus infection. PMID:26547578

  11. Reverse transcriptase domain sequences from tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) long terminal repeat retrotransposons: sequence characterization and phylogenetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Da-Long; Hou, Xiao-Gai; Jia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Tree peony is an important horticultural plant worldwide of great ornamental and medicinal value. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-retrotransposons) are the major components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their sequence characteristics, genetic distribution and transcriptional activity; however, no information about them is available in tree peony. Ty1-copia-like reverse transcriptase sequences were amplified from tree peony genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved domains of the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in this study. PCR fragments of roughly 270 bp were isolated and cloned, and 33 sequences were obtained. According to alignment and phylogenetic analysis, all sequences were divided into six families. The observed difference in the degree of nucleotide sequence similarity is an indication for high level of sequence heterogeneity among these clones. Most of these sequences have a frame shift, a stop codon, or both. Dot-blot analysis revealed distribution of these sequences in all the studied tree peony species. However, different hybridization signals were detected among them, which is in agreement with previous systematics studies. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) indicated that Ty1-copia retrotransposons in tree peony were transcriptionally inactive. The results provide basic genetic and evolutionary information of tree peony genome, and will provide valuable information for the further utilization of retrotransposons in tree peony. PMID:26019529

  12. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops.

  13. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  14. Reversible Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Madanieh, Raef; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vatti, Satya K; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies (CMs) have many etiological factors that can result in severe structural and functional dysregulation. Fortunately, there are several potentially reversible CMs that are known to improve when the root etiological factor is addressed. In this article, we discuss several of these reversible CMs, including tachycardia-induced, peripartum, inflammatory, hyperthyroidism, Takotsubo, and chronic illness–induced CMs. Our discussion also includes a review on their respective pathophysiology, as well as possible management solutions. PMID:26052233

  15. Vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Belker, A M

    1987-02-01

    A vasovasostomy may be performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia, but also may be performed on an outpatient basis with epidural or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is preferred by most of my patients, the majority of whom choose this technique. With proper preoperative and intraoperative sedation, patients sleep lightly through most of the procedure. Because of the length of time often required for bilateral microsurgical vasoepididymostomy, epidural or general anesthesia and overnight hospitalization are usually necessary. Factors influencing the preoperative choice for vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy in patients undergoing vasectomy reversal are considered. The preoperative planned choice of vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy for patients having vasectomy reversal described herein does not have the support of all urologists who regularly perform these procedures. My present approach has evolved as the data reported in Tables 1 and 2 have become available, but it may change as new information is evaluated. However, it offers a logical method for planning choices of anesthesia and inpatient or outpatient status for patients undergoing vasectomy reversal procedures. PMID:3811050

  16. Vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Belker, A M

    1987-02-01

    A vasovasostomy may be performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia, but also may be performed on an outpatient basis with epidural or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is preferred by most of my patients, the majority of whom choose this technique. With proper preoperative and intraoperative sedation, patients sleep lightly through most of the procedure. Because of the length of time often required for bilateral microsurgical vasoepididymostomy, epidural or general anesthesia and overnight hospitalization are usually necessary. Factors influencing the preoperative choice for vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy in patients undergoing vasectomy reversal are considered. The preoperative planned choice of vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy for patients having vasectomy reversal described herein does not have the support of all urologists who regularly perform these procedures. My present approach has evolved as the data reported in Tables 1 and 2 have become available, but it may change as new information is evaluated. However, it offers a logical method for planning choices of anesthesia and inpatient or outpatient status for patients undergoing vasectomy reversal procedures.

  17. Development of reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid detection and quantification of viable yeasts and molds contaminating yogurts and pasteurized food products.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Gianluca; Rizzotti, Lucia; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR assays have been used to detect and quantify actin mRNA from yeasts and molds. Universal primers were designed based on the available fungal actin sequences, and by RT-PCR they amplified a specific 353-bp fragment from fungal species involved in food spoilage. From experiments on heat-treated cells, actin mRNA was a good indicator of cell viability: viable cells and cells in a nonculturable state were detected, while no signal was observed from dead cells. The optimized RT-PCR assay was able to detect 10 CFU of fungi ml(-1) in pure culture and 10(3) and 10(2) CFU ml(-1) in artificially contaminated yogurts and pasteurized fruit-derived products, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR, performed on a range of spoiled commercial food products, validated the suitability of actin mRNA detection for the quantification of naturally contaminating fungi. The specificity and sensitivity of the procedure, combined with its speed, its reliability, and the potential automation of the technique, offer several advantages to routine analysis programs that assess the presence and viability of fungi in food commodities.

  18. Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid, polymerase chain reaction–based detection of bacterial genes, and metabolomic determination of responses to orthopaedic infection. PMID:25808967

  19. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood.

  20. Optimization of rapid Salmonella enterica detection in liquid whole eggs by SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2011-04-01

    Eggs and egg products have a high risk of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis contamination leading to gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Thus, a rapid screening tool for viable Salmonella Enteritidis cells in the egg industry is needed. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect viable Salmonella Enteritidis from spiked liquid whole eggs (LWEs) within 24 h using SYBR green I-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Salmonella specific invA gene along with an internal amplification control in a Bio-Rad iCycler. LWE was inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and mixed with tetrathionate broth, and 100 μL of serially diluted portions in phosphate-buffered saline was plated on Xylose Lysine Tergitol 4 agar or 5 mL were used for RNA extraction by the TRIzol method immediately or after enrichment of 6, 12, or 16 h at 37 °C. The real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay was carried out using previously described Salmonella invA gene primers. Melt temperature analysis of the PCR product was included to determine specific invA amplification. Without enrichment, the assay detection limit was 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/25 mL LWE. After enrichment for 6 and 12 h, Salmonella Enteritidis could be detected from LWE up to 10(4) and 10(2) CFU/25 mL, respectively. Improved Salmonella Enteritidis detection up to 10(0) CFU/25 mL was obtained after 16-h enrichment. Even with 16-h enrichment, the results could be still be obtained within 24 h, which is much faster than by traditional cultural detection that takes several days. Therefore, this assay appears suitable for routine detection of Salmonella enterica contamination by the egg industry to help prevent the transmission of egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks and timely recall of contaminated products.

  1. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  2. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  3. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  4. Diagnostic application of H3N8-specific equine influenza real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Canine influenza virus in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Dubovi, Edward J; Zylich, Nancy C; Crawford, P Cynda; Sells, Stephen; Go, Yun Young; Loynachan, Alan T; Timoney, Peter J; Chambers, Thomas M; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the capability of 3 recently described one-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assays targeting the nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M), and hemagglutinin (HA) genes of H3N8 Equine influenza virus (EIV NP, EIV M, and EIV HA3 assays, respectively) to detect Canine influenza virus (CIV). The assays were initially evaluated with nucleic acid extracted from tissue culture fluid (TCF) containing the A/canine/FL/43/04 strain of Influenza A virus associated with the 2004 canine influenza outbreak in Florida. The EIV NP, EIV M, and EIV HA3 assays could detect CIV nucleic acid at threshold cycle (Ct) values of 16.31, 23.71, and 15.28, respectively. Three assays using TCF or allantoic fluid (AF) samples containing CIV (n  =  13) and archived canine nasal swab samples (n  =  20) originally submitted for laboratory diagnosis of CIV were further evaluated. All TCF and AF samples, together with 10 nasal swab samples that previously tested positive for virus by attempted isolation in embryonated hens' eggs or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, were positive in all 3 real-time RT-PCR assays. None of the 3 assays detected the H1N1 Swine influenza virus strain in current circulation. These findings demonstrate that previously described real-time RT-PCR assays targeting NP, M, and H3 HA gene segments of H3N8 EIV are also valuable for the diagnosis of CIV infection in dogs. The assays could expedite the detection and identification of CIV. PMID:21088179

  5. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  6. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  7. Behavioral diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Pyles, D A

    1989-01-01

    The contemporary behavior analyst, to operate ethically and effectively, must be aware of many more factors affecting behavior than simple consequences. Although the literature demonstrating the effectiveness of active behavior management is impressive, a compelling argument can be made that a great number of behavior problem seen in individuals with developmental disabilities may be attributable to factors other than consequences. Our experience has been more often than not that physiological, organic, medication, or situational variables are the actual culprits in maladaptive behavior. Individuals with severe or profound retardation may respond to aversive features of their environment by displaying noncompliance, tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behavior. These antecedents can affect their behavior just as powerfully as can the consequences of their behavior. Behavior analysts must become sensitive to these potential factors and be prepared to employ behavioral diagnostic strategies in the search for the causes of maladaptive behavior. Finally, they must be prepared to design rather unconventional passive behavior management treatment programs involving the manipulation of the antecedent environment. In the case of Carrie, from the example at the beginning of this paper, the analysis yielded the hypothesis that her face scratching was a reaction to sinus blockage caused by seasonal allergies. Her treatment involved daily dosages of antihistamines administered by our nurses and subsequent elimination of the scratching. Tom was found to be suffering from "wheelchair fatigue." When he was allowed to recline on other surfaces (e.g., bean bag chair, mat, bolster) on a regular basis, he did not attempt any form of self-injury. Melissa was found to have a severe case of Pre Menstrual Syndrome as well as seizure disorder, and was treated with the appropriate medications. Her headbanging was reduced to a few minor incidents per month. Walter's tantrums on closer

  8. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  10. Vasectomy reversal in humans.

    PubMed

    Bernie, Aaron M; Osterberg, E Charles; Stahl, Peter J; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Goldstein, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Vasectomy is the most common urological procedure in the United States with 18% of men having a vasectomy before age 45. A significant proportion of vasectomized men ultimately request vasectomy reversal, usually due to divorce and/or remarriage. Vasectomy reversal is a commonly practiced but technically demanding microsurgical procedure that restores patency of the male excurrent ductal system in 80-99.5% of cases and enables unassisted pregnancy in 40-80% of couples. The discrepancy between the anastomotic patency rates and clinical pregnancy rates following vasectomy reversal suggests that some of the biological consequences of vasectomy may not be entirely reversible in all men. Herein we review what is known about the biological sequelae of vasectomy and vasectomy reversal in humans, and provide a succinct overview of the evaluation and surgical management of men desiring vasectomy reversal.

  11. Justice and Reverse Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan H.

    Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, this book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. The introduction defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive methodology as applied to reverse…

  12. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    SciTech Connect

    Cubitt, Toby; Kastoryano, Michael; Montanaro, Ashley; Temme, Kristan

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  13. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  14. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  15. Reversing the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F. ); Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains proceedings of Reversing The Arms Race. Topics covered include: Verifying Reductions of Nuclear Warheads; Verifying Limits on Nuclear-Armed Cruise Missiles; and The Technical Basis for Warhead Detection.

  16. Reversibility of antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although theoretically attractive, the reversibility of resistance has proven difficult in practice, even though antibiotic resistance mechanisms induce a fitness cost to the bacterium. Associated resistance to other antibiotics and compensatory mutations seem to ameliorate the effect of antibiotic interventions in the community. In this paper the current understanding of the concepts of reversibility of antibiotic resistance and the interventions performed in hospitals and in the community are reviewed. PMID:24836051

  17. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking.

    PubMed

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu

    2016-05-01

    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  18. Fast ion JET diagnostics: confinement and losses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiptily, V. G.; Pinches, S. D.; Sharapov, S. E.; Syme, D. B.; Cecconello, M.; Darrow, D.; Hill, K.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Yavorskij, V.; Johnson, T.; Murari, A.; Reich, M.; Gorini, G.; Zoita, V.

    2008-03-12

    A study of magnetically confined fast ions in tokamaks plays an important role in burning plasma research. To reach ignition and steady burning of a reactor plasma an adequate confinement of energetic ions produced by NBI heating, accelerated with ICRF and born in fusion reactions is essential to provide efficient heating of the bulk plasma. Thus, investigation of the fast ion behaviour is an immediate task for present-day large machines, such as JET, in order to understand the main mechanisms of slowing down, redistribution and losses, and to develop optimal plasma scenarios. Today's JET has an enhanced suite of fast ion diagnostics both of confined and lost ions that enable to significantly contribute to this important area of research. Fast ion populations of p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He, made with ICRF, NBI, and fusion reactions have been investigated in experiments on JET with sophisticated diagnostics in conventional and shear-reversed plasmas, exploring a wide range of effects. This paper will introduce to the JET fast-ion diagnostic techniques and will give an overview of recent observations. A synergy of the unique diagnostic set was utilised in JET, and studies of the response of fast ions to MHD modes (e.g. tornado modes, sawtooth crashes), fast {sup 3}He-ions behaviour in shear-reversed plasmas are impressive examples of that. Some results on fast ion losses in JET experiments with various levels of the toroidal field ripple will be demonstrated.

  19. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2011-07-12

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa.

  20. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Om; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2015-10-19

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed.

  1. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  2. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP): a new approach for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and its sero-types in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farooq, U; Latif, A; Irshad, H; Ullah, A; Zahur, A B; Naeem, K; Khan, S U H; Ahmed, Z; Rodriguez, L L; Smoliga, G

    2015-01-01

    Successful disease management requires a rapid and sensitive diagnosis method that can recognize early infection even before the manifestation of its clinical signs. The only available field diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are lateral flow devices, commonly known as chromatographic strips. Low sensitivity and inability to detect FMD virus (FMDV) at the serotype level are limitations of lateral flow devices. Therefore, a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was standardized using universal and sero-type specific genes in a single tube. This test does not require sophisticated equipment and can detect FMDV at serotype level in about 60 min. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of this test is comparable to conventional reverse transcriptase PCR and real time PCR (rRT-PCR). PMID:27175198

  3. HDL Function, Dysfunction, and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edward A.; Feig, Jonathan E.; Hewing, Bernd; Hazen, Stanley L.; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Although high HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with decreased cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies, recent genetic and pharmacological findings have raised doubts about the beneficial effects of HDL. Raising HDL levels in animal models by infusion or over expression of apolipoprotein A-I has shown clear vascular improvements, such as delayed atherosclerotic lesion progression and accelerated lesion regression, along with increased reverse cholesterol transport. Inflammation and other factors, such as myeloperoxidase mediated oxidation, can impair HDL production and HDL function, in regard to its reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, tests of HDL function, which have not yet been developed as routine diagnostic assays, may prove useful and be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than HDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:23152494

  4. Reversible digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Keith T.

    1999-04-01

    A method has been developed to hide one image inside another with little loss in image quality. If the second image is a logo or watermark, then this method may be used to protect the ownership rights of the first image and to guarantee the authenticity of the image. The two images to be combined may be either black & white or color continuous tone images. A reversible image is created by incorporating the first image in the upper 4 bits and the second image in the lower 4 bits. When viewed normally, the reversible image appears to be the first image. To view the hidden image, the bits of the combined image are reversed, exchanging all of the lower and higher order bits. When viewed in the reversed mode, the image appears to be the second or hidden image. To maintain a high level of image quality for both images, two simultaneous error diffusion calculations are run to ensure that both views of the reversible image have the same visual appearance as the originals. Any alteration of one of the images locally destroys the other image at the site of the alterations. This provides a method to detect alterations of the original image.

  5. Reversible collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.

    2013-10-15

    Reversible magnetic reconnection is demonstrated for the first time by means of gyrokinetic numerical simulations of a collisionless magnetized plasma. Growth of a current-driven instability in a sheared magnetic field is accompanied by magnetic reconnection due to electron inertia effects. Following the instability growth, the collisionless reconnection is accelerated with development of a cross-shaped structure of current density, and then all field lines are reconnected. The fully reconnected state is followed by the secondary reconnection resulting in a weakly turbulent state. A time-reversed simulation starting from the turbulent state manifests that the collisionless reconnection process proceeds inversely leading to the initial state. During the reversed reconnection, the kinetic energy is reconverted into the original magnetic field energy. In order to understand the stability of reversed process, an external perturbation is added to the fully reconnected state, and it is found that the accelerated reconnection is reversible when the deviation of the E × B streamlines due to the perturbation is comparable with or smaller than a current layer width.

  6. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    This is an analytical study of the Diagnostic methods Prescribes in Ayurveda. As in the case of disease and treatments the concept of diagnosis also is unique in Ayurveda. It goes to the Nidana of Doshicimbalance by studying the physical, physiological, psychic and behavoural aspects of the patient. The paper gives an insight into the various diagnostic methods enunciated in Sastras which turns out to be a fore-runner of any of modern diagnostic methods. PMID:22556480

  7. Plasma diagnostics for FED

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the plasma diagnostic instruments recommended for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is described. First the role and need for plasma diagnostics is discussed. This is followed by an identification of particles and radiation eminating from the plasma. Next some design considerations are presented for the overall set of diagnostic instruments. Finally, instruments used for control and for plasma performance measurements are included in separate lists.

  8. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  9. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  10. [Diagnostic Errors in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Buser, Claudia; Bankova, Andriyana

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of diagnostic errors in everyday practice can help improve patient safety. The most common diagnostic errors are the cognitive errors, followed by system-related errors and no fault errors. The cognitive errors often result from mental shortcuts, known as heuristics. The rate of cognitive errors can be reduced by a better understanding of heuristics and the use of checklists. The autopsy as a retrospective quality assessment of clinical diagnosis has a crucial role in learning from diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors occur more often in primary care in comparison to hospital settings. On the other hand, the inpatient errors are more severe than the outpatient errors.

  11. [Diagnostic Errors in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Buser, Claudia; Bankova, Andriyana

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of diagnostic errors in everyday practice can help improve patient safety. The most common diagnostic errors are the cognitive errors, followed by system-related errors and no fault errors. The cognitive errors often result from mental shortcuts, known as heuristics. The rate of cognitive errors can be reduced by a better understanding of heuristics and the use of checklists. The autopsy as a retrospective quality assessment of clinical diagnosis has a crucial role in learning from diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors occur more often in primary care in comparison to hospital settings. On the other hand, the inpatient errors are more severe than the outpatient errors. PMID:26649954

  12. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  13. Reversible Chemochromic Hydrogen Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), affiliated with the University of Central Florida, has invented a reversible pigment that changes from light beige to blue when exposed to hydrogen and back to light beige when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. In laboratory and environmental studies, the FSEC pigment in its tape form failed to change color adequately when exposed to hydrogen after one day of exposure at Kennedy Space Center's Beach Corrosion Test Facility. The reversible hydrogen-detecting tape also lost its ability to change color after being placed in an environmental chamber at 45 C for one day. The first attempts at extruding the reversible pigment into various polymers were unsuccessful because of the pigment's poor thermal stability. The goal of this project was to formulate a pigment with improved thermal and environmental stability for extrusion into a variety of appropriate polymer matrices. The formulation of the reversible hydrogen-detecting pigment was modified by removing one reagent and chemically modifying the hydrogen sensitive ingredient. This was intended to improve the hydrophobicity of the pigment and alter the thermal degradation mechanism.

  14. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  15. Reverse Coherent Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2009-04-01

    We define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by classical feedback communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This protocol family leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted entanglement distribution capacity for some interesting channels.

  16. Reverse Coherent Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  17. Time reversal communication system

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  18. Reversing Underachievement through Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Baum, Susan M.; Hebert, Thomas; McCluskey, Ken W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems of underachievement, especially among potentially high ability students, and the difficulties inherent in reversing this process. Presents new perspective and strategies that promote success. Describes Type III enrichment experiences as a means to unleash students' potential. Speculates as to what causes turnaround within an…

  19. Reverse coherent information.

    PubMed

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2009-05-29

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  20. Justice and Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1976-01-01

    Although this article does not necessarily recommend policies of reverse discrimination, arguments indicating that such policies are not contradictory to accepted concepts of justice are presented. The necessity of dispersing any consequent injury to society as a whole rather than to individuals is stressed. (RW)

  1. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  2. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  3. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  4. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  5. Reverse genetics of mononegavirales.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, K K

    2004-01-01

    "Reverse genetics" or de novo synthesis of nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses (Mononegavirales) from cloned cDNA has become a reliable technique to study this group of medically important viruses. Since the first generation of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA in 1994, reverse genetics systems have been established for members of most genera of the Rhabdo-, Paramyxo-, and Filoviridae families. These systems are based on intracellular transcription of viral full-length RNAs and simultaneous expression of viral proteins required to form the typical viral ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). These systems are powerful tools to study all aspects of the virus life cycle as well as the roles of virus proteins in virus-host interplay and pathogenicity. In addition, recombinant viruses can be designed to have specific properties that make them attractive as biotechnological tools and live vaccines. PMID:15298166

  6. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  7. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-02-26

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements.

  8. Reversible watermarking for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leest, Arno J.; van der Veen, Michiel; Bruekers, Fons

    2004-06-01

    Reversible watermarking is a technique for embedding data in a digital host signal in such a manner that the original host signal can be restored in a bit-exact manner in the restoration process. In this paper, we present a general framework for reversible watermarking in multi-media signals. A mapping function, which is in general neither injective nor surjective, is used to map the input signal to a perceptually equivalent output signal. The resulting unused sample values of the output signal are used to encode additional (watermark) information and restoration data. At the 2003 SPIE conference, examples of this technique applied to digital audio were presented. In this paper we concentrate on color and gray-scale images. A particular challenge in this context is not only the optimization of rate-distortion, but also the measure of perceptual quality (i.e. the distortion). In literature distortion is often expressed in terms of PSNR, making comparison among different techniques relatively straightforward. We show that our general framework for reversible watermarking applies to digital images and that results can be presented in terms of PSNR rate-distortions. However, the framework allows for more subtle signal manipulations that are not easily expressed in terms of PSNR distortion. These changes involve manipulations of contrast and/or saturation.

  9. Reversible DNA compaction.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    In this review we summarize and discuss the different methods we can use to achieve reversible DNA compaction in vitro. Reversible DNA compaction is a natural process that occurs in living cells and viruses. As a result these process long sequences of DNA can be concentrated in a small volume (compacted) to be decompacted only when the information carried by the DNA is needed. In the current work we review the main artificial compacting agents looking at their suitability for decompaction. The different approaches used for decompaction are strongly influenced by the nature of the compacting agent that determines the mechanism of compaction. We focus our discussion on two main artificial compacting agents: multivalent cations and cationic surfactants that are the best known compacting agents. The reversibility of the process can be achieved by adding chemicals like divalent cations, alcohols, anionic surfactants, cyclodextrins or by changing the chemical nature of the compacting agents via pH modifications, light induced conformation changes or by redox-reactions. We stress the relevance of electrostatic interactions and self-assembly as a main approach in order to tune up the DNA conformation in order to create an on-off switch allowing a transition between coil and compact states. The recent advances to control DNA conformation in vitro, by means of molecular self-assembly, result in a better understanding of the fundamental aspects involved in the DNA behavior in vivo and serve of invaluable inspiration for the development of potential biomedical applications. PMID:24444152

  10. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  11. Manual of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, G.; Baker, S.; Davis, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book is on ordering and understanding the results of radiologic studies. Main sections are (I) Diagnostic Radiology serves as a basic introduction; (II) Diagnostic Modalities dedicates a chapter to each imaging modality in a clinical context, with a brief technical description and patient preparation guidelines; and (III) Organ System Imaging contains a chapter on each major organ system, covering the abilities and limitations of each modality to image a specific organ system and the significance of anatomic, physiologic, and general pathologic information.

  12. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  13. Hemoptysis with diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Bimalendu

    2013-02-01

    Hemoptysis is a common symptom. Although initial diagnostic workup, including a chest radiograph, often gives a clue to the cause, it provides no diagnostic hints in 3.0-42.2% of episodes of hemoptysis. To describe those cases with no diagnostic hints at initial investigations, experts have used different terms, including unexplained hemoptysis, idiopathic hemoptysis, cryptogenic hemoptysis and hemoptysis with normal chest radiographs. As hemoptysis is a common symptom of bronchogenic carcinoma, there is a concern of having underlying malignancy. Physicians value high-resolution computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy as the next investigations to establish diagnosis. These investigations however are expensive and nonspecific results are common in those cases of hemoptysis where initial diagnostic workup gives no clues to the cause. As a result, controversies exist with regard to their use. In this article, the author has proposed diagnostic approaches to evaluate those cases of hemoptysis with no diagnostic hints at initial investigation, after extensive review of published articles related to the case scenario. PMID:23362818

  14. Neutron Diagnostics for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Cris W.; Berggren, R.; Caldwell, S.; Chrien, R. C.; Cverna, F.; Faulkner, J.; Mack, J. M.; Morgan, G. L.; Murphy, T. J.; Oertel, J. A.; Tegtmeier, J.; Walton, R.; Wilke, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Young, C. S.

    1999-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be a pre-emminent facility for research on burning plasmas. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a focus area of coordinating fusion reaction product diagnostics on NIF and studying fusion burn. We will be developing ``core'' diagnostics for NIF including neutron time-of-flight and single-hit systems for ion temperature and neutron spectra, measurements of ``bang-time'' (time of fusion burn relative to start of laser pulse), and support for activation measurements for high-yield and radiochemical analysis. We are also developing advanced Phase 2 diagnostics including a gas Cerenkov burn history diagnostic and work on apertures and detectors for neutron imaging. This will include tests of these diagnostic systems on the OMEGA laser in the coming years. The measurement requirements and system descriptions of these NIF diagnostics will be described. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-36.

  15. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    PubMed

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution. PMID:27307159

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of a reovirus in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) from Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Armién, Anibal G; Reed, Leslie; Schott, Renee; Goyal, Sagar M

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, the Minnesota Rehabilitation Center submitted four dead Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) for necropsy to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. All four chickadees were underweight and dehydrated and their intestinal contents were watery and yellowish. No significant lesions were observed upon histopathologic examination. Viral particles of the family Reoviridae were detected after negative-contrast electron microscopic examination of intestinal contents. Analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of a reovirus. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the chickadee reovirus had 97.1% to 98.3% and 89.4% to 97.8% nucleotide identity with turkey enteric reoviruses from apparently healthy and enteritis-affected turkey poults, respectively. The chickadee reovirus had only 56.5% and 58.5% nucleotide and 54.5% and 56.8% amino acid identity with psittacine reovirus and Tvarminne avian virus, respectively. These results indicate that the chickadee reovirus is closely related to turkey reoviruses.

  17. Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Ike

    1996-01-01

    Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites. (GR)

  18. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  19. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  20. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  1. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  2. Development of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  4. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  5. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  6. ORION laser target diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  7. PDX diagnostic control system

    SciTech Connect

    Mika, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-base diagnostic control system operating on the PDX Tokamak. The prime function of the system is to control mechanical positioning devices associated with various diagnostics including Thomson Scattering, X-Ray Pulse Height Analyzer, Rotating Scanning Monochromator, Fast Ion Detection Experiment, Bolometers and Plasma Limiters. The diagnostic control system consists of a PDP-11/34 computer, a CAMAC system partitioned between the PDX control room and the PDX machine area, and special electronic control modules developed at PPL. The special modules include a digital closed loop motor controller and user interface control panel for control and status display. A standard control panel was developed for interfacing each system user with the PDP-11/34 computer, through specially developed CAMAC modules.

  8. [Diagnostic models. 2. Fabrication].

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, M; Vincent, G; L'Official-Vincent, M

    1989-09-01

    After describing in Part I the preparation of diagnostic cast, the authors describe the Wax Up preparation. Most of the definition of centric relation agree that the position of the mandible is slightly behind its position in centric occlusion. The Hinge axis position is used for mounting the cast on articulator. The final restauration must reconstruct both position and the occlusion should be established in front the centric occlusion. After equilibration anterior guidance is studied and restaured if necessary. After creating the different curve of occlusion, the final Wax Up is settled. The use of the diagnostic cast so obtained will be presented in Part III.

  9. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  10. Biochemical Reversal of Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2006-03-01

    We cite our progress on biochemical reversal of aging. However, it may be circa 2 years before we have necessary substances at low cost. Meanwhile, without them, a number of measures can be adopted providing marked improvement for the problems of aging in modern societies. For example, enzymes are needed to excrete toxins that accelerate aging; Hg is the ultimate toxin that disables all enzymes (including those needed to excrete Hg itself). Low Hg level in the urine, due to loss of excretory ability, causes the diagnosis of Hg toxicity to almost always be missed. Hg sources must be removed from the body! Another example is excess sugar; hyperglycemia decreases intracellular ascorbic acid (AA) by competitively inhibiting the insulin- mediated active transport of AA into cells. Thus, immunity is impaired by low leucocyte AA. AA is needed for new proteins in aging tissues. Humans must supplement AA; their need same as in AA-synthesizing mammals.

  11. Reverse slapper detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  12. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2006-04-25

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  13. Multiple stimulus reversible hydrogels

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna; Krzyminski, Karol J.

    2003-12-09

    A polymeric solution capable of gelling upon exposure to a critical minimum value of a plurality of environmental stimuli is disclosed. The polymeric solution may be an aqueous solution utilized in vivo and capable of having the gelation reversed if at least one of the stimuli fall below, or outside the range of, the critical minimum value. The aqueous polymeric solution can be used either in industrial or pharmaceutical environments. In the medical environment, the aqueous polymeric solution is provided with either a chemical or radioisotopic therapeutic agent for delivery to a specific body part. The primary advantage of the process is that exposure to one environmental stimuli alone will not cause gelation, thereby enabling the therapeutic agent to be conducted through the body for relatively long distances without gelation occurring.

  14. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  15. Properly apply reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, J.

    1997-02-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technique used to reduce the loading of dissolved solids in solution. The popularity of RO for treating boiler feedwater is growing because of the rising cost of ion-exchange-based demineralization as well as safety concerns associated with handling acid and caustic. A properly designed and operated RO-based boiler-feedwater-treatment system can reduce the load to, and costs associated with, ion exchange demineralization. This article discusses RO feedwater quality recommendations, pretreatment techniques, and system monitoring necessary to achieve optimum RO system performance in the most cost-effective manner. Regardless of the application--whether it is the treatment of boiler feedwater, industrial wastewater, or process water--the approach to pretreatment and the other design and operating guidance offered here remains the same.

  16. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  17. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  18. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Van Neste, Charles W.; Senesac, Lawrence R.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  19. Combined Ideal and Kinetic Effects on Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov, G.J. Kramer, and R. Nazikian

    2011-05-23

    A theory of Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAEs) is developed for reversed magnetic field shear plasmas when the safety factor minimum, qmin, is at or above a rational value. The modes we study are known sometimes as either the bottom of the frequency sweep or the down sweeping RSAEs. We show that the ideal MHD theory is not compatible with the eigenmode solution in the reversed shear plasma with qmin above integer values. Corrected by special analytic FLR condition MHD dispersion of these modes nevertheless can be developed. Large radial scale part of the analytic RSAE solution can be obtained from ideal MHD and expressed in terms of the Legendre functions. The kinetic equation with FLR effects for the eigenmode is solved numerically and agrees with the analytic solutions. Properties of RSAEs and their potential implications for plasma diagnostics are discussed.

  20. Defining the Polar Field Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The polar fields on the Sun are directly related to solar cycle variability. Recently there has been interest in studying an important characteristic of the polar fields: the timing of the polar field reversals. However this characteristic has been poorly defined, mostly due to the limitations of early observations. In the past, the reversals have been calculated by averaging the flux above some latitude (i.e. 55deg or 75deg). Alternatively, the reversal could be defined by the time in which the previous polarity is completely canceled and replaced by the new polarity at 90de, precisely at the pole. We will use a surface flux transport model to illustrate the differences in the timing of the polar field reversal based on each of these definitions and propose standardization in the definition of the polar field reversal. The ability to predict the timing of the polar field reversal using a surface flux transport model will also be discussed.

  1. Diagnostic Lessons as Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Barbara J.

    Embedded in a sensitive instructional context rather than a stifling testing atmosphere, diagnostic lessons provide assessment that is reliable, practical, valid, and efficient. In this type of assessment, there are several determiners of instructional placement: (1) students' propensity to adapt strategies as a result of specified instruction,…

  2. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  3. Diagnostic Testing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David L.

    This paper presents an explanation of the program design of the three separate Pascal-language programs which comprise UCLA's Diagnostic Testing Package "DX." The three parts of the DX test package are three closely interrelated programs--Editest, Runtest, and Summary. Editest serves the following functions: (1) the creation of a suitable…

  4. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  5. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  6. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  7. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  8. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    PubMed

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-01

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency. PMID:17735224

  9. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, E.G.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n {yields} p + e + {bar v}{sub e}) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta ({sigma}{sub n} {center_dot} p{sub p} {times} p{sub e}). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.

  10. Time-Reversal Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, José; Martínez-Vidal, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The violation of CP symmetry between matter and antimatter in the neutral K and B meson systems is well established, with a high degree of consistency between all available experimental measurements and with the Standard Model of particle physics. On the basis of the up-to-now-unbroken CPT symmetry, the violation of CP symmetry strongly suggests that the behavior of these particles under weak interactions must also be asymmetric under time reversal T. Many searches for T violation have been performed and proposed using different observables and experimental approaches. These include T-odd observables, such as triple products in weak decays, and genuine observables, such as permanent electric dipole moments of nondegenerate stationary states and the breaking of the reciprocity relation. We discuss the conceptual basis of the required exchange of initial and final states with unstable particles, using quantum entanglement and the decay as a filtering measurement, for the case of neutral B and K mesons. Using this method, the BaBar experiment at SLAC has clearly observed T violation in B mesons.

  11. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved.

  12. Reversible micromachining locator

    DOEpatents

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  13. Time Reversal Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, H; /SLAC

    2009-01-27

    This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.

  14. Reverse hierarchical PIV processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohály, J.; Frigerio, F.; Hart, D. P.

    2002-07-01

    A novel hierarchical processing scheme is proposed to efficiently increase the spatial resolution and dynamic range of detecting particle image displacements in PIV images. The technique takes full advantage of the multi-resolution characteristic of the discrete correlation function by starting the processing at the smallest scale and, if necessary, gradually building correlation planes into larger interrogation areas based on the result of inter-level correlation correction and validation. It is shown that the algorithm can be implemented in both direct and FFT based correlation algorithms with greatly reduced computational complexity. The technique opens new perspectives for locally adaptive super-resolution processing taking flow field, seeding, and imaging anomalies into account. Processing at the lowest scale (e.g. pixel or particle image size) allows the combination of correlation planes on any shape. Hence the proposed reverse hierarchical processing represents interrogation area optimization both in size and shape in order to maximize the correlation plane signal-to-noise ratio. The method is successfully demonstrated on experimentally obtained images.

  15. Reverse Transfer Project, Summer 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Elizabeth

    In 1986, a Reverse Transfer Project was initiated at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) in order to promote the summer school attendance at MVCC of "reverse transfer" students (i.e., students who attended another institution during the regular academic year). A mailing, containing a cover letter, informational brochure, summer catalog, and…

  16. Preference Reversal in Multiattribute Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity…

  17. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  18. Blast wave energy diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Thomas E; Tierney, Heidi E; Idzorek, George C; Watt, Robert G; Peterson, Robert R; Peterson, Darrell L; Fryer, Christopher L; Lopez, Mike R; Jones, Michael C; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A; Bailey, James E

    2008-10-01

    The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations. PMID:19044574

  19. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  20. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  1. Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the well-studied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the Gács-Körner common information.

  2. Sonographic diagnostics in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jens; Schwürzer-Voit, Markus; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Voit, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography non-invasively visualizes changes within the skin, skin appendages, subcutaneous tissue, subcutaneous (regional) lymph nodes and peripheral vessels. Thus it is an established diagnostic tool in dermatology. Compared to X-ray, MRI and PET, ultrasonography has some advantages; however, it is more dependent on the individual experience of the investigator. Therefore a structured education and continuous training are necessary. This review describes the physical and technical basics, the administrative requirements and the main indications in dermatology.

  3. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  4. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  5. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  6. ITER Diagnostic First Wal

    SciTech Connect

    G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

    2012-09-21

    The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

  7. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. PMID:20655679

  8. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  9. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  10. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. PMID:26854149

  11. Astigmatism and diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Visnjić, Mirna Belovari; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Barisić, Freja; Iveković, Renata; Laus, Katia Novak; Mandić, Zdravko

    2012-06-01

    Astigmatism represents an inability of the cornea and lens to provide a sharp image onto the retina. Correcting astigmatic errors, whether congenital, contact lens induced or surgically induced, is now an integral part of modern cataract and refractive procedures. Development of modern technology has enabled accurate diagnosis and perfect opportunities for correction; however, while cataract and keratorefractive surgery have come a long way in the last decade, the treatment and diagnosis of astigmatism continue to challenge ophthalmologists. There are several diagnostic procedures and tools available today, some standard and some contemporary that include keratometry, corneal topography, apparatus using wavefront or Scheimpflug analysis like Orbscan, Pentacam, Wavescan, etc. With the introduction of several new diagnostic tools, measurements of astigmatism have become less of an issue, but in some cases it is still difficult to obtain consistent results. What remains still unanswered is the question of the best diagnostic tool on the market. Further research is needed to evaluate both tools as well as their clinical application for optimal use. PMID:23115957

  12. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  13. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  14. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  15. Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M. ); Miller, K. )

    1994-09-01

    Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

  16. Nuclear Diagnostics of ICF

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Ierche, R A; Moran, M J; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Schmid, G J; Stoyer, M A; Disdier, L; Bourgade, J L; Rouyer, A; Fisher, R K; Gerggren, R R; Caldwen, S E; Faulkner, J R; Mack, J M; Oertel, J A; Young, C S; Glebov, V Y; Jaanimagi, P A; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M; Stockel, C; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2001-10-18

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a high temperature and high density plasma is produced by the spherical implosion of a small capsule. A spherical target capsule is irradiated uniformly by a laser beam (direct irradiation) or x-rays from a high Z enclosure (hohlraum) that is irradiated by laser or ion beams (indirect irradiation). Then high-pressure ablation of the surface causes the fuel to be accelerated inward. Thermonuclear fusion reactions begin in the center region of the capsule as it is heated to sufficient temperature (10 keV) by the converging shocks (hot spot formation). During the stagnation of the imploded shell, the fuel in the shell region is compressed to high density ({approx} 10{sup 3} times solid density in fuel region). When these conditions are established, energy released by the initial nuclear reactions in center ''hot-spot'' region can heat up the cold ''fuel'' region and cause ignition. They are developing advanced nuclear diagnostics for imploding plasmas of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is a 1.8MJ, 192-beam glass laser system that is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. One objective of the NIF is to demonstrate ignition and gain in an inertial confinement fusion plasma. Extreme physical conditions characterize the imploded plasmas on the NIF. First, the thickness of the plasma, expressed by areal density (plasma density times radius), is large, up to {approx} 1 g/cm{sup 2}. Highly penetrating probes such as energetic neutrons, hard x-rays, or {gamma} rays are required to see deep inside the plasma. Second, the implosion time is quite short. The implosion process takes {approx} 20 ns and the duration of the fusion reaction is on the order of 100 picoseconds. To observe the time history of the nuclear reactions, time resolution better than 10 ps is required. Third, the size of the imploded plasma is quite small ({approx} 100 {micro}m). To see the shape of burning region

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  18. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  19. Lanczos iterated time-reversal.

    PubMed

    Oberai, Assad A; Feijóo, Gonzalo R; Barbone, Paul E

    2009-02-01

    A new iterative time-reversal algorithm capable of identifying and focusing on multiple scatterers in a relatively small number of iterations is developed. It is recognized that the traditional iterated time-reversal method is based on utilizing power iterations to determine the dominant eigenpairs of the time-reversal operator. The convergence properties of these iterations are known to be suboptimal. Motivated by this, a new method based on Lanczos iterations is developed. In several illustrative examples it is demonstrated that for the same number of transmitted and received signals, the Lanczos iterations based approach is substantially more accurate. PMID:19206835

  20. Reverse mortgage decision-making.

    PubMed

    Leviton, R

    2001-01-01

    Reverse mortgages have been suggested as a promising financial tool to help low-income older homeowners who want to remain in their houses. However, actual use of this option has been much below early estimates of potential demand. This study explored response to the new option through open-ended interviews of homeowners who had received reverse mortgage counseling. Decision-making was influenced by attachment to home, family input, and financial attitudes, including desire to leave a legacy. In general, homeowners took reverse mortgages only as a "last resort" that enabled them to maintain their independence.

  1. New Insights into the Molecular Distinction of Dysplastic Nevi and Common Melanocytic Nevi-Highlighting the Keratinocyte-Melanocyte Relationship.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Philip; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-10-01

    Mitsui et al. approach the problem of differentiating dysplastic nevi from common melanocytic nevi through a molecular lens. Whereas most of the literature on this topic shines the spotlight toward melanocytes, the focus of this paper is shifted to the tumor microenvironment. Using microarrays, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, their results emphasize the role of keratinocyte dysplasia within dysplastic nevi.

  2. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  3. FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

    1980-11-01

    Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table.

  4. [Frontal mass: diagnostic challenges].

    PubMed

    Rubino, Gina; Correia, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Capnocytophaga spp. are part of the oral flora of humans and animals, being responsible for skin and soft tissues infections and invasive infections. Microbiological identification can be difficult due to its slow growth. We present a case of infection caused by this bacteria in the form of an extracerebral intracranial abscess, presenting as a frontal mass that posed some diagnostic challenges. A surgical drainage was performed together with antibiotic therapy with favourable outcome. This microorganism was identified in the second week of treatment and then a careful history revealed a dog bite days prior to the initial symptoms. This could have been the site of entry to a posterior focalization. PMID:23069241

  5. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  6. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  8. Deciphering records of geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field are a major feature of the Earth's dynamo. Questions remain regarding the dynamical processes that give rise to reversals and the properties of the geomagnetic field during a polarity transition. A large number of paleomagnetic reversal records have been acquired during the past 50 years in order to better constrain the structure and geometry of the transitional field. In addition, over the past two decades, numerical dynamo simulations have also provided insights into the reversal mechanism. Yet despite the large paleomagnetic database, controversial interpretations of records of the transitional field persist; they result from two characteristics inherent to all reversals, both of which are detrimental to an ambiguous analysis. On the one hand, the reversal process is rapid and requires adequate temporal resolution. On the other hand, weak field intensities during a reversal can affect the fidelity of magnetic recording in sedimentary records. This paper is aimed at reviewing critically the main reversal features derived from paleomagnetic records and at analyzing some of these features in light of numerical simulations. We discuss in detail the fidelity of the signal extracted from paleomagnetic records and pay special attention to their resolution with respect to the timing and mechanisms involved in the magnetization process. Records from marine sediments dominate the database. They give rise to transitional field models that often lead to overinterpret the data. Consequently, we attempt to separate robust results (and their subsequent interpretations) from those that do not stand on a strong observational footing. Finally, we discuss new avenues that should favor progress to better characterize and understand transitional field behavior.

  9. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Molecular diagnostics in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, V C C; Yew, W W; Yuen, K Y

    2005-11-01

    Molecular diagnostics in tuberculosis has enabled rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens, identification of mycobacterial species, detection of drug resistance, and typing for epidemiological investigation. In the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis, the nucleic acid amplification (NAA) test is rapid and specific but not as sensitive as culture of mycobacteria. The primary determinant of successful NAA testing for tuberculosis depends on the shedding of mycobacterial DNA in secretions from caseating granulomas and its dissemination into sterile body fluids or tissue biopsies. In multibacillary diseases with a high mycobacterial load, a positive Ziehl-Neelsen smear with a positive NAA test is diagnostic of active tuberculosis, whereas a positive Ziehl-Neelsen smear with a negative NAA test in the absence of inhibitors would indicate nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The role of the NAA test is more important in paucibacillary diseases with low mycobacterial loads. The presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors, however, especially in extrapulmonary specimens, may produce false-negative results. Although this problem can be overcome to some extent by extra extraction steps, the additional processing invariably leads to the loss of mycobacterial DNA. To circumvent this problem, a brief culture augmentation step is carried out before the NAA test is performed, which can enhance the mycobacterial load while concomitantly diluting inhibitors, thereby maintaining the sensitivity of the test without excessively increasing turnaround time.

  11. Radiation hardening of diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10{sup 16} neutrons per second because of spallation'' reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

  12. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  13. NIO1 diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniol, B. Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Mimo, A.

    2015-04-08

    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  14. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  15. [Hemophagocytic syndrome: diagnostic problems].

    PubMed

    Czogała, Małgorzata; Czogała, Wojciech; Balwierz, Walentyna

    2006-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a rare but life-threatening disease caused by inappropriate activation of T-lymphocytes and histiocytes, hipercytokinemia and hemophagocytosis. The most common symptoms are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, unspecific neurological abnormalities, pancytopenia, coagulopathy, hiperferritinemia and lipid abnormalities. HS is classified into two forms: primary, inherited (Familial Hamophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis--FHL) and secondary (associated with infection, malignancy, autoimmune disease). In spite of the fact that diagnostic guidelines are available it often remains unrecognised. Prognosis of HS depends on the form of disease and in case of secondary HS on the underlying disease. Development of the treatment protocols (HLH-94, HLH-2004) which combine immunochemiotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has strongly improved prognosis in HS especially in the primary form. Three-year overall survival for children with HS is now over 50%. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy is crucial for effectiveness of the treatment. Popularisation of the knowledge about the syndrome, diagnostic guidelines and treatment protocols can contribute to more frequent appropriate recognition of HS and to improvement of the treatment results. PMID:16892901

  16. Reverse Current in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. W., III

    1978-01-01

    An idealized steady state model of a stream of energetic electrons neutralized by a reverse current in the pre-flare solar plasma was developed. These calculations indicate that, in some cases, a significant fraction of the beam energy may be dissipated by the reverse current. Joule heating by the reverse current is a more effective mechanism for heating the plasma than collisional losses from the energetic electrons because the Ohmic losses are caused by thermal electrons in the reverse current which have much shorter mean free paths than the energetic electrons. The heating due to reverse currents is calculated for two injected energetic electron fluxes. For the smaller injected flux, the temperature of the coronal plasma is raised by about a factor of two. The larger flux causes the reverse current drift velocity to exceed the critical velocity for the onset of ion cyclotron turbulence, producing anomalous resistivity and an order of magnitude increase in the temperature. The heating is so rapid that the lack of ionization equilibrium may produce a soft X-ray and EUV pulse from the corona.

  17. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... This test may be scheduled as part of the endurance run. (b) 175 reversals must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25 reversals must be made from rated takeoff...

  18. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... This test may be scheduled as part of the endurance run. (b) 175 reversals must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25 reversals must be made from rated takeoff...

  19. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... This test may be scheduled as part of the endurance run. (b) 175 reversals must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25 reversals must be made from rated takeoff...

  20. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... This test may be scheduled as part of the endurance run. (b) 175 reversals must be made from flight-idle forward thrust to maximum reverse thrust and 25 reversals must be made from rated takeoff...

  1. Diagnostic approach to hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Kutlar, Ferdane

    2007-01-01

    Abnormalities of hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis are among the most common inherited disorders of man and can be quantitative (thalassemia syndromes) or qualitative (variant Hbs). Definite identification of hemoglobinopathies can be achieved by a stepwise algorithmic approach, starting with a detailed clinical history, through hematologic evaluation [complete blood count (CBC)], reticulocyte count, red blood cell (RBC) morphology], protein based analytic methods [Hb electrophoresis or isoelectric focusing (IEF), cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), reversed phase HPLC] to nucleic acid based methods [such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcribed (RT)-PCR, sequencing of genomic DNA and sequencing of RT-PCR amplified globin cDNA of the gene of interest]. When an abnormality of Hb function (increased or decreased oxygen affinity) or stability (unstable Hb variants) is suspected from the phenotype, special confirmatory tests (determination of p50, Heinz body prep and isopropanol or heat stability tests) can be useful. Family studies are also helpful in certain cases. A review of the application of these methods to the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies at the Sickle Cell Center Laboratory in Augusta, GA, USA, is presented below. PMID:17486507

  2. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  3. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. PMID:25678154

  4. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  5. Peritoneal tuberculosis: diagnostic options.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, N; Soto-Wright, V

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has vague symptoms and few signs. It is essential to recognize and diagnose this curable disease prior to performing definitive surgery. Newer tests such as DNA or RNA amplification allow for early diagnosis but have limitations. CASE: We report a case of peritoneal tuberculosis in an immigrant woman. She had vague symptoms of low-grade fever, mild abdominal pain, obstipation, and bloating. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed to establish the diagnosis. Tuberculosis was confirmed by DNA extraction from the frozen section specimen with subsequent analysis using polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal tuberculosis is a disease that often simulates malignancies. With the increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in developed countries, tuberculosis is also on the rise and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an abdominal/pelvic mass and ascites. PMID:10524670

  6. Diagnostic Evaluation of Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days following an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. The clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbance, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25678154

  7. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  8. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  9. Diagnostic and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Galey, F D

    1995-12-01

    In most competent veterinary diagnostic laboratories, analytical findings are interpreted by the veterinary toxicologist to determine the significance of the finding in view of historic, clinical, and pathologic findings. A veterinary toxicologist also will provide consultation about possible toxic rule-outs for a case, treatment of affected animals, and prevention of additional cases. Once all of the information is available, a complete summary of the findings can be provided to the client. When the procedures outlined are followed, including a systematic approach to collecting all the evidence (historic, clinical, pathologic, and analytic), proper sampling techniques, and good communication between the clinician and the client and laboratory, the usefulness of the toxicology investigation will be maximized.

  10. Diagnostic tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum. A total of 13,106 cases of primary and secondary syphilis were reported in the United States in 2011 and the rate of infection has increased in subgroups, particularly men who have sex with men. The disease is mainly diagnosed through clinical findings and serologic testing. However, no single serologic test of syphilis is sufficient. Hence, the serologic diagnosis of syphilis requires the detection of 2 types of antibodies (nontreponemal antibodies and treponemal antibodies). The paradigm in syphilis testing has recently shifted in many centers to screen with a treponemal antibody test, reflexing to a nontreponemal test if the treponemal antibody test is positive. This reverse of the traditional algorithm may not be widely recognized among clinicians.

  11. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  12. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  13. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  14. Progress on US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ

    2010-11-01

    There have been significant advances in the design concepts for the 8 ITER diagnostic systems being provided by the US. Concepts for integration of the diagnostics into the port plugs have also evolved. A prerequisite for the signoff of the procurement arrangements for these each diagnostic is a Conceptual Design Review organized by the ITER Organization. US experts under contract with the USIPO have been assisting the IO to prepare for these Reviews. In addition, a design team at PPPL has been working with these experts and designers from other ITER parties to package diagnostic front-ends into the 5 US plugs. Modular diagnostic shield modules are now being considered in order to simplify the interfaces between the diagnostics within each plug. Diagnostic first wall elements are envisioned to be integral with these shield modules. This simplifies the remote handling of the diagnostics and provides flexibility for future removal of one diagnostic minimally affecting others. Front-end configurations will be presented, along with lists of issues needing resolution prior to the start of preliminary design.

  15. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  16. Ergodic time-reversible chaos for Gibbs' canonical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, William Graham; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Patra, Puneet Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Nosé's pioneering 1984 work inspired a variety of time-reversible deterministic thermostats. Though several groups have developed successful doubly-thermostated models, single-thermostat models have failed to generate Gibbs' canonical distribution for the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. A 2001 doubly-thermostated model, claimed to be ergodic, has a singly-thermostated version. Though neither of these models is ergodic this work has suggested a successful route toward singly-thermostated ergodicity. We illustrate both ergodicity and its lack for these models using phase-space cross sections and Lyapunov instability as diagnostic tools.

  17. Reverse shift mechanism for automotive manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, M.; Ogawa, S.

    1987-03-03

    A reverse shift mechanism is described for an automotive manual transmission of a type having a reverse idler gear which is movable to selectively complete a reverse gear train, the reverse shift mechanism comprising: a reverse shift arm having a portion disposed adjacent the reverse idler gear and pivotally carried with respect to a transmission casing so that the portion rocks along a direction of axis of the reverse idler gear in response to shifting operation. The portion of the reverse shift arm is provided with a blind hole which is open at a first end toward the reverse idler gear and is closed at a second end away from the reverse idler gear; and a shift arm shoe carried by the portion of the reverse shift arm adjacent the reverse idler gear for pushing the reverse idler gear. The shift arm shoe has an end adapted to engage with a circumferential groove formed in the reverse idler gear and an opposing end shaped to fit in the blind hole of the reverse shift arm; whereby the shift arm shoe is prevented from coming off during assembly by virtue of a vacuum effect created by air confined in the blind hole by fitting engagement between the opposing end and the blind hole, and is held in place after assembly by being clamped between the groove of the reverse idler gear and the blind hole of the reverse shift arm.

  18. Dynamics and timing of reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J.-P.; Fournier, A.

    2012-04-01

    Information provided by records of geomagnetic reversals from lava sequences is constrained by irregular volcanic activity. We show that, despite different resolution, the ten most detailed volcanic records match surprisingly well and display the same dynamical characteristics after tuning to a common eruption rate. We thus infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged over the past 180Ma with the same time constants and duration. The reversing field is characterized by 3 successive episodes, a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases depict a large amplitude directional change which, by comparison with the archeological record, is estimated to last between 2 and 2.5 kyr. The transit between the two polarities does not exceed 1ka and is thus too fast for being properly recorded by most sediments. Similar results are obtained after reducing the directional clusters that are present at different periods in each record. These features and time constants are compatible with models that do not require any mantle control on reversals processes, which is also supported by the absence of preferred longitude of the pole. Lastly, based on the chronology of the successive reversal phases, the eruption rates are found to be at least twice larger for hot spots (<1flow/100yr) than for large flood basaltic provinces.

  19. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  20. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Abhishek P; Smith, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42–60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%–6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery. PMID:26975488

  1. Dynamic diagnostics of the error fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2007-07-01

    The error field diagnostics based on magnetic measurements outside the plasma is discussed. The analysed methods rely on measuring the plasma dynamic response to the finite-amplitude external magnetic perturbations, which are the error fields and the pre-programmed probing pulses. Such pulses can be created by the coils designed for static error field correction and for stabilization of the resistive wall modes, the technique developed and applied in several tokamaks, including DIII-D and JET. Here analysis is based on the theory predictions for the resonant field amplification (RFA). To achieve the desired level of the error field correction in tokamaks, the diagnostics must be sensitive to signals of several Gauss. Therefore, part of the measurements should be performed near the plasma stability boundary, where the RFA effect is stronger. While the proximity to the marginal stability is important, the absolute values of plasma parameters are not. This means that the necessary measurements can be done in the diagnostic discharges with parameters below the nominal operating regimes, with the stability boundary intentionally lowered. The estimates for ITER are presented. The discussed diagnostics can be tested in dedicated experiments in existing tokamaks. The diagnostics can be considered as an extension of the 'active MHD spectroscopy' used recently in the DIII-D tokamak and the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch.

  2. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  3. Time-reversed, flow-reversed ballistics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E. J.; Scheffler, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of planar sheet jet formation are studied to examine the hydrodynamic issues involved when simulations are carried out in the inverse direction, that is, with reversed time and flow. Both a realistic copper equation of state and a shockless equation of state were used. These studies are an initial step in evaluating this technique as a ballistics design tool.

  4. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems. PMID:27338448

  5. Stagnation point reverse flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Ben T. (Inventor); Neumeier, Yedidia (Inventor); Seitzman, Jerry M. (Inventor); Jagoda, Jechiel (Inventor); Weksler, Yoav (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for combusting a combustible fuel includes providing a vessel having an opening near a proximate end and a closed distal end defining a combustion chamber. A combustible reactants mixture is presented into the combustion chamber. The combustible reactants mixture is ignited creating a flame and combustion products. The closed end of the combustion chamber is utilized for directing combustion products toward the opening of the combustion chamber creating a reverse flow of combustion products within the combustion chamber. The reverse flow of combustion products is intermixed with combustible reactants mixture to maintain the flame.

  6. Reversing: A Fundamental Idea in Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Ginat, David

    2008-01-01

    Reversing is the notion of thinking or working in reverse. Computer science textbooks and tutors recognize it primarily in the form of recursion. However, recursion is only one form of reversing. Reversing appears in the computer science curriculum in many other forms, at various intellectual levels, in a variety of fundamental courses. As such,…

  7. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  8. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    PubMed

    Streckfus, C F; Bigler, L R

    2002-03-01

    In the last 10 years, the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid has become somewhat of a translational research success story. Technologies are now available enabling saliva to be used to diagnose disease and predict disease progression. This review describes some important recent advances in salivary diagnostics and barriers to application and advancement. This review will also stimulate future research activity.

  9. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  10. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  11. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.32 Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic...

  12. The tissue diagnostic instrument.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  13. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future. PMID:23888745

  14. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  15. Gonorrhoea diagnostics: An update.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Sood, S

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results. Further, these cannot be used for generation of data on antibiotic susceptibility because genetic markers of antibiotic resistance to recommended therapies have not been fully characterised. They are unaffordable in a setting like ours where reliance is placed on syndromic approach for sexually transmitted infection (STI) management. The use of syndromic approach has resulted in a considerable decline in the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that have been cultured for diagnostic purposes. Many laboratories formerly doing so are no longer performing culture for gonococci, and the basic skills have been lost. There is a need to not only revive this skill but also adopt newer technologies that can aid in accurate diagnosis in a cost-effective manner. There is room for innovation that can facilitate the development of a point-of-care test for this bacterial STI. PMID:27080763

  16. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  17. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  18. Diagnostic Procedures of Itch.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2016-01-01

    A complex and multifactorial pathogenesis of itch makes the proper diagnosis of underlying disease a difficult and challenging clinical problem. The examination of every patient with itch should be started by gathering an accurate history. During the anamnesis it is important to obtain data about the beginning of the appearance of symptoms, its location, diurnal variation, and the factors influencing itch perception. After careful anamnesis the patient should undergo a detailed physical examination, with particular attention to the skin in order to look for any signs of skin lesions. Special attention should be paid to distinguish the primary lesion from the changes resulting from scratching. In patients in whom the etiology of the itch cannot be identified on the basis of the medical examination, a panel of primary screen laboratory examination may be required, and if necessary, depending on the results of basic laboratory results and data from medical history, additional diagnostic tests should be considered. In patients in whom an organic cause of itching has not been established, itch is most likely of undetermined origin; however, psychogenic causes should also be suspected and ruled out. In conclusion, it could be stated that itch is a common symptom of many skin diseases, systemic of neurological diseases. Despite the complex etiology of the disease, an exact cause of itch should be searched for in each patient, as successful therapy is largely dependent on the determination of the cause of the itching. PMID:27578067

  19. Molecular diagnostics in genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Julie V

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the molecular bases of genodermatoses. The interface between genetics and dermatology has broadened with the identification of "new" heritable disorders, improved recognition of phenotypic spectrums, and integration of molecular and clinical data to simplify disease categorization and highlight relationships between conditions. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other technological advances, dermatologists have promising new tools for diagnosis of genodermatoses. This article first addresses phenotypic characterization and classification with the use of online databases, considering concepts of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Indications for genetic testing related to medical care and patient/family decision making are discussed. Standard genetic testing is reviewed, including resources for finding specialized laboratories, methods of gene analysis, and patient/family counseling. The benefits and challenges associated with multigene panels, array-based analysis (eg, copy number variation, linkage, and homozygosity), and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing are then examined. Specific issues relating to molecular analysis of mosaic skin conditions and prenatal/preimplantation diagnosis are also presented. Use of the modern molecular diagnostics described herein enhance our ability to counsel, monitor, and treat patients and families affected by genodermatoses, with broader benefits of providing insights into cutaneous physiology and multifactorial skin disorders.

  20. Correlation ECE diagnostic in Alcator C-Mod

    DOE PAGES

    Sung, C.; White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Mikkelsen, D.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.; Oi, C.; Rice, J.; Reinke, M.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Correlation ECE (CECE) is a diagnostic technique that allows measurement of small amplitude electron temperature, Te, fluctuations through standard cross-correlation analysis methods. In Alcator C-Mod, a new CECE diagnostic has been installed[Sung RSI 2012], and interesting phenomena have been observed in various plasma conditions. We find that local Te fluctuations near the edge (ρ ~ 0:8) decrease across the linearto- saturated ohmic confinement transition, with fluctuations decreasing with increasing plasma density[Sung NF 2013], which occurs simultaneously with rotation reversals[Rice NF 2011]. Te fluctuations are also reduced across core rotation reversals with an increase of plasma density in RF heated L-modemore » plasmas, which implies that the same physics related to the reduction of Te fluctuations may be applied to both ohmic and RF heated L-mode plasmas. In I-mode plasmas, we observe the reduction of core Te fluctuations, which indicates changes of turbulence occur not only in the pedestal region but also in the core across the L/I transition[White NF 2014]. The present CECE diagnostic system in C-Mod and these experimental results are described in this paper.« less

  1. Correlation ECE diagnostic in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, C.; White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Mikkelsen, D.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.; Oi, C.; Rice, J.; Reinke, M.; Gao, C.; Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Churchill, R.; Theiler, C.; Walk, J.; Hughes, J.; Hubbard, A.; Greenwald, M.

    2015-03-12

    Correlation ECE (CECE) is a diagnostic technique that allows measurement of small amplitude electron temperature, Te, fluctuations through standard cross-correlation analysis methods. In Alcator C-Mod, a new CECE diagnostic has been installed[Sung RSI 2012], and interesting phenomena have been observed in various plasma conditions. We find that local Te fluctuations near the edge (ρ ~ 0:8) decrease across the linearto- saturated ohmic confinement transition, with fluctuations decreasing with increasing plasma density[Sung NF 2013], which occurs simultaneously with rotation reversals[Rice NF 2011]. Te fluctuations are also reduced across core rotation reversals with an increase of plasma density in RF heated L-mode plasmas, which implies that the same physics related to the reduction of Te fluctuations may be applied to both ohmic and RF heated L-mode plasmas. In I-mode plasmas, we observe the reduction of core Te fluctuations, which indicates changes of turbulence occur not only in the pedestal region but also in the core across the L/I transition[White NF 2014]. The present CECE diagnostic system in C-Mod and these experimental results are described in this paper.

  2. A Note on Reverse Derivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samman, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this note, the notion of reverse derivation is studied. It is shown that in the class of semiprime rings, this notion coincides with the usual derivation when it maps a semiprime ring into its centre. However, we provide some examples to show that it is not the case in general.

  3. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  4. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  5. Can luteal regression be reversed?

    PubMed Central

    Telleria, Carlos M

    2006-01-01

    The corpus luteum is an endocrine gland whose limited lifespan is hormonally programmed. This debate article summarizes findings of our research group that challenge the principle that the end of function of the corpus luteum or luteal regression, once triggered, cannot be reversed. Overturning luteal regression by pharmacological manipulations may be of critical significance in designing strategies to improve fertility efficacy. PMID:17074090

  6. Law: Reverse Discrimination, Legal Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Just as schools and colleges are starting to hire more black and female faculty members through affirmative action programs, there is a new battle cry on the civil rights front: "reverse discrimination." Qualified whites claim they are being shoved aside in the scramble for less-qualified blacks, Chicanos, American Indians, and members of other…

  7. Quotas Are Not Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Gabrielle K.

    1975-01-01

    The findings of the Morrow v. Crisler and NAACP v. Allen civil rights cases are discussed. It is concluded from these employment discrimination cases that quotas are not reverse discrimination because no one has the right to continue to receive the benefits of racial discrimination at the expense of others. (LBH)

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of Seven Commercial Assays for Rapid Detection of Group A Rotavirus Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Fremy, Céline; Pillet, Sylvie; Mendes Martins, Lucile; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Aho, Serge L.; Pothier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Seven commercial immunochromatographic assays intended for the detection of group A rotavirus antigens in human stool samples were evaluated. These assays showed similar levels of diagnostic accuracy and were suitable for the detection of rotavirus in patients with acute gastroenteritis but missed some asymptomatic rotavirus shedding identified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. PMID:26378280

  9. Graphical presentation of diagnostic information

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

  10. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies.

  11. Diagnostic work-up in patients with possible asthma referred to a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Bødtger, Uffe; Seersholm, Niels; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Objective The best strategy for diagnosing asthma remains unclear. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic strategies in individuals with possible asthma referred to a respiratory outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Methods All individuals with symptoms suggestive of asthma referred over 12 months underwent spirometry, bronchodilator reversibility test, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) registration, and bronchial challenge test with methacholine and mannitol on three separate days. The results of these tests were compared against an asthma diagnosis based on symptoms, presence of atopy and baseline spirometry made by a panel of three independent respiratory specialists. Results Of the 190 individuals examined, 63% (n=122) were classified as having asthma. Reversibility to β2-agonist had the lowest sensitivity of 13%, whereas airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine had the highest (69%). In contrast, specificity was the highest for reversibility testing (93%), whereas methacholine had the lowest specificity (57%). The combination of reversibility, peak-flow variability, and methacholine yielded a cumulative sensitivity of 78%, albeit a specificity of 41%. In comparison, a combination of reversibility and mannitol resulted in a specificity of 82% and a sensitivity of 42%. Conclusion In this real-life population, different diagnostic test combinations were required to achieve a high specificity for diagnosing asthma and a high sensitivity, respectively: Our findings suggest that the diagnostic test approach should be based on whether the aim is to exclude asthma (high sensitivity required) or confirm a diagnosis of asthma (high specificity required). PMID:26557251

  12. Diagnostics for slapper detonator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.

    1989-03-28

    This report discusses diagnostics which have been used to evaluate CDU characteristics and performance, slapper characteristics and performance and the response of a HE detonator output pellet to a slapper stimulus. Many of the diagnostics discussed are appropriate for development and production testing. These include CVR current measurements, voltage probe measurements, time-of-flight measurements, threshold measurements, function time measurements, use of steel witness plates and determination of design margin. Some of the more-sophisticated, expensive diagnostics discussed have yielded very useful information, but are not required for development and production testing. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  14. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  15. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Stratton; D. Johnson; R. Feder; E. Fredrickson; H. Neilson; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorf; M. Cole; P. Goranson; E. Lazarus; B. Nelson

    2003-09-16

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation.

  16. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Nibedita; Dongare, Pradeep A; Mishra, Rajeeb Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice. PMID:26644615

  17. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  18. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  19. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  20. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them. PMID:26668438

  1. [Reverse genetics and prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Plauchu, H

    1988-05-01

    "Reverse" genetics is a research process consisting in finding the gene of a disease, then in "descending" toward the final product that it codes. This reasoning is the reverse of the one normally used which "ascends from the protein to the gene" and can be applied to the discovery of the pathogenic mechanism of a disease. There are numerous spin-offs of this new type of approach for prenatal diagnosis (PND). Thus, the discovery of polymorphic tracers surrounding the gene enables an indirect PND in informative families. Reliability is great if we have many probes at our disposal. Then, discovery of the gene itself permits a direct PND with the use of intragenic probes and synthetic oligonucleotides.

  2. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  3. Reversing the Brazil Nut Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, F.; Vandewalle, N.

    2005-12-01

    We propose a lattice model for studying the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), i.e. the phase segregation occuring when a granular material is vertically shaked. The model considers the tap intensity and the mobility μ of the grains as the main physical parameters. Different mobilities for different grain species lead to segregation (BNE) patterns, reverse segregation (RBNE) patterns, “sandwhich" layered structures or vertical domains. A phase diagram (decompaction χ, mobility difference between both species Δ μ) is obtained in which the different phases are emphasized. In a narrow region of the diagram, different phases coexist. It is shown that the BNE segregation could be reversed by increasing the tap intensity or the characteristics of the grains. Numerical results are compared with earlier experimental works.

  4. A reversible nanoconfined chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Thomas K; Bösenberg, Ulrike; Gosalawit, Rapee; Dornheim, Martin; Cerenius, Yngve; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R

    2010-07-27

    Hydrogen is recognized as a potential, extremely interesting energy carrier system, which can facilitate efficient utilization of unevenly distributed renewable energy. A major challenge in a future "hydrogen economy" is the development of a safe, compact, robust, and efficient means of hydrogen storage, in particular, for mobile applications. Here we report on a new concept for hydrogen storage using nanoconfined reversible chemical reactions. LiBH4 and MgH2 nanoparticles are embedded in a nanoporous carbon aerogel scaffold with pore size Dmax approximately 21 nm and react during release of hydrogen and form MgB2. The hydrogen desorption kinetics is significantly improved compared to bulk conditions, and the nanoconfined system has a high degree of reversibility and stability and possibly also improved thermodynamic properties. This new scheme of nanoconfined chemistry may have a wide range of interesting applications in the future, for example, within the merging area of chemical storage of renewable energy.

  5. Eyespots in a reversible setting.

    PubMed

    Deregowski, Jan B; Gray, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    When eyespots were presented on a reversible figure, the total duration for which elements bearing the eyespots were seen as closer to the observer was found to be greater than the total for counterpart elements. It is speculated that the tendency to see eyespots as nearer than they really are is related to the manner in which they are responded to in nature. PMID:23700964

  6. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  7. Diagnostic Studies With GLA Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) regarding heating rates, energetics and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Relevant preprints are included herein.

  8. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    PubMed

    Malamud, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. In this article the author critically reviews the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring, and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed.

  9. Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

  10. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  11. Reversible fluorescence photoswitching in DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darren A; Holliger, Philipp; Flors, Cristina

    2012-08-30

    We describe the engineering of reversible fluorescence photoswitching in DNA with high-density substitution, and its applications in advanced fluorescence microscopy methods. High-density labeling of DNA with cyanine dyes can be achieved by polymerase chain reaction using a modified DNA polymerase that has been evolved to efficiently incorporate Cy3- and Cy5-labeled cytosine base analogues into double-stranded DNA. The resulting biopolymer, "CyDNA", displays hundreds of fluorophores per DNA strand and is strongly colored and highly fluorescent, although previous observations suggest that fluorescence quenching at such high density might be a concern, especially for Cy5. Herein, we first investigate the mechanisms of fluorescence quenching in CyDNA and we suggest that two different mechanisms, aggregate formation and resonance energy transfer, are responsible for fluorescence quenching at high labeling densities. Moreover, we have been able to re-engineer CyDNA into a reversible fluorescence photoswitchable biopolymer by using the properties of the Cy3-Cy5 pair. This novel biopolymer constitutes a new class of photoactive DNA-based nanomaterial and is of great interest for advanced microscopy applications. We show that reversible fluorescence photoswitching in CyDNA can be exploited in optical lock-in detection imaging. It also lays the foundations for improved and sequence-specific super-resolution fluorescence microscopy of DNA. PMID:22861666

  12. Three distinct reversing modes in the geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Y.; Pavlov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    The data that describe the long-term reversing behavior of the geodynamo show strong and sudden changes in magnetic reversal frequency. This concerns both the onset and the end of superchrons and most probably the occurrence of episodes characterized by extreme geomagnetic reversal frequency (>10-15 rev./Myr). To account for the complexity observed in geomagnetic reversal frequency evolution, we propose a simple scenario in which the geodynamo operates in three distinct reversing modes: i—a "normal" reversing mode generating geomagnetic polarity reversals according to a stationary random process, with on average a reversal rate of ˜3 rev./Myr; ii—a non-reversing "superchron" mode characterizing long time intervals without reversal; iii—a hyper-active reversing mode characterized by an extreme geomagnetic reversal frequency. The transitions between the different reversing modes would be sudden, i.e., on the Myr time scale. Following previous studies, we suggest that in the past, the occurrence of these transitions has been modulated by thermal conditions at the core-mantle boundary governed by mantle dynamics. It might also be possible that they were more frequent during the Precambrian, before the nucleation of the inner core, because of a stronger influence on geodynamo activity of the thermal conditions at the core-mantle boundary.

  13. Reverse redistribution of thallium-201 detected by SPECT imaging after dipyridamole in angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Popma, J.J.; Smitherman, T.C.; Walker, B.S.; Simon, T.R.; Dehmer, G.J. )

    1990-05-15

    Reverse redistribution refers to a thallium-201 perfusion defect that develops or becomes more evident on delayed imaging compared with the initial image immediately after stress. To determine the diagnostic importance of reverse redistribution after intravenous dipyridamole, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography and quantitative coronary arteriography were performed in 90 men with angina pectoris. Of the 250 myocardial segments analyzed, reverse redistribution was present in 17 (7%). Minimal coronary cross-sectional area in proximal vessel segments was less than or equal to 2.0 mm2 more often in regions with transient perfusion abnormalities than in regions with reverse redistribution (66 vs 29%, p less than 0.05). Compared with regions exhibiting transient perfusion abnormalities, regions with reverse redistribution had larger proximal arterial diameters (1.9 +/- 1.1 vs 1.3 +/- 1.1 mm, p less than 0.001) and cross-sectional areas (3.9 +/- 3.1 vs 2.2 +/- 2.6 mm2, p less than 0.001). Coronary artery dimensions and relative stenosis severity did not differ between those regions with normal perfusion and those with reverse redistribution. Reverse redistribution detected by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomographic imaging after dipyridamole is uncommon, appears to occur as frequently in normal subjects as in patients undergoing coronary arteriography and does not indicate the presence of severe coronary artery disease.

  14. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine incorporates a reverser, the endurance calibration, operation, and vibration tests prescribed...

  15. Rapid evaluation of reverse-osmosis membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Simultaneous reverse-osmosis tests conducted with centrifuges having multiple compartment heads are discussed. Equipment for retaining reverse-osmosis membrane is illustrated. Method of conducting tests is described.

  16. A Reverse Shock in GRB 160509A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, T.; Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.

    2016-10-01

    Through detailed multi-wavelength observations and modeling, we present the discovery and characterization a reverse shock in GRB 160509A. This result highlights the unique power of radio observations in the study of GRB reverse shocks.

  17. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  18. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  19. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Service Act, as implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  20. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implemented by 21 CFR part 900, subpart B. (d) Diagnostic laboratory tests—(1) Who may furnish services... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  1. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  2. Cleaning Our World through Reverse Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randazzo, Gabe; LaJevic, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade artists have begun to experiment with "reverse pollution" techniques, such as reverse graffiti, which focuses on cleaning environmental surfaces. Having recently been introduced to the works of Moose, the artist known for inventing the reverse graffiti technique, the authors decided to design a curriculum to increase…

  3. Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Gordon, Jessica; Boada, Richard; Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as…

  4. Categorizing and Promoting Reversibility of Mathematical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Kara, Melike; Placa, Nicora; Sandir, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Reversibility of concepts, a key aspect of mathematical development, is often problematic for learners. In this theoretical paper, we present a typology we have developed for categorizing the different reverse concepts that can be related to a particular initial concept and explicate the relationship among these different reverse concepts. We…

  5. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian Eric

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  6. Retroviral recombination during reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, D W; Duesberg, P H

    1990-03-01

    After mixed infection, up to half of related retroviruses are recombinants. During infection, retroviral RNA genomes are first converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) and then to double-stranded DNA. Thus recombination could occur during reverse transcription, by RNA template switching, or after reverse transcription, by breakage and reunion of DNA. It has not been possible to distinguish between these two potential mechanisms of recombination because both single-stranded cDNA and double-stranded proviral DNA exist in infected cells during the eclipse period. Therefore we have analyzed for recombinant molecules among cDNA products transcribed in vitro from RNA of disrupted virions. Since recombinants from allelic parents can only be distinguished from parental genomes by point mutations, we have examined the cDNAs from virions with distinct genetic structures for recombinant-specific size and sequence markers. The parents share a common internal allele that allows homology-directed recombination, but each contains specific flanking sequences. One parent is a synthetically altered Harvey murine sarcoma virus RNA that lacks a retroviral 3' terminus but carries a Moloney murine retrovirus-derived envelope gene (env) fragment 3' of its transforming ras gene. The other parent is intact Moloney virus. Using a Harvey-specific 5' primer and a Moloney-specific 3' primer, we have found recombinant cDNAs with the polymerase chain reaction, proving directly that retroviruses can recombine during reverse transcription unassisted by cellular enzymes, probably by template switching during cDNA synthesis. The recombinants that were obtained in vitro were identical with those obtained in parallel experiments in vivo.

  7. Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Natalia

    2009-10-01

    In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

  8. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Becker, S L; van Lieshout, L; van Dam, G J; Knopp, S

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease that affects over 250 million people. Control efforts have long been in vain, which is one reason why schistosomiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease. However, since the new millennium, interventions against schistosomiasis are escalating. The initial impetus stems from a 2001 World Health Assembly resolution, urging member states to scale-up deworming of school-aged children with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Because praziquantel is safe, efficacious and inexpensive when delivered through the school platform, diagnosis before drug intervention was deemed unnecessary and not cost-effective. Hence, there was little interest in research and development of novel diagnostic tools. With the recent publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, we have entered a new era. Elimination of schistosomiasis has become the buzzword and this has important ramifications for diagnostic tools. Indeed, measuring progress towards the WHO Roadmap and whether local elimination has been achieved requires highly accurate diagnostic assays. Here, we introduce target product profiles for diagnostic tools that are required for different stages of a schistosomiasis control programme. We provide an update of the latest developments in schistosomiasis diagnosis, including microscopic techniques, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and proxy markers for morbidity assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on challenges and solutions for new technologies to enter clinical practice.

  9. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  10. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  11. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

  12. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

  13. Reversible Photoswitching of Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Syamantak; Verma, Navneet Chandra; Gupta, Abhishek; Nandi, Chayan Kanti

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of reversible photoswitching in carbon nanodots with red emission. A mechanism of electron transfer is proposed. The cationic dark state, formed by the exposure of red light, is revived back to the bright state with the very short exposure of blue light. Additionally, the natural on-off state of carbon dot fluorescence was tuned using an electron acceptor molecule. Our observation can make the carbon dots as an excellent candidate for the super-resolution imaging of nanoscale biomolecules within the cell. PMID:26078266

  14. Time reversal of water waves.

    PubMed

    Przadka, A; Feat, S; Petitjeans, P; Pagneux, V; Maurel, A; Fink, M

    2012-08-10

    We present time reversal experiments demonstrating refocusing of gravity-capillary waves in a water tank cavity. Owing to the reverberating effect of the cavity, only a few channels are sufficient to reconstruct the surface wave at the point source, even if the absorption is not negligible. Space-time-resolved measurements of the waves during the refocusing allow us to quantitatively demonstrate that the quality of the refocusing increases linearly with the number of reemitting channels. Numerical simulations corresponding to water waves at larger scales, with negligible damping, indicate the possibility of very high quality refocusing.

  15. Orthogonal NGS for High Throughput Clinical Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chennagiri, Niru; White, Eric J; Frieden, Alexander; Lopez, Edgardo; Lieber, Daniel S; Nikiforov, Anastasia; Ross, Tristen; Batorsky, Rebecca; Hansen, Sherry; Lip, Va; Luquette, Lovelace J; Mauceli, Evan; Margulies, David; Milos, Patrice M; Napolitano, Nichole; Nizzari, Marcia M; Yu, Timothy; Thompson, John F

    2016-04-19

    Next generation sequencing is a transformative technology for discovering and diagnosing genetic disorders. However, high-throughput sequencing remains error-prone, necessitating variant confirmation in order to meet the exacting demands of clinical diagnostic sequencing. To address this, we devised an orthogonal, dual platform approach employing complementary target capture and sequencing chemistries to improve speed and accuracy of variant calls at a genomic scale. We combined DNA selection by bait-based hybridization followed by Illumina NextSeq reversible terminator sequencing with DNA selection by amplification followed by Ion Proton semiconductor sequencing. This approach yields genomic scale orthogonal confirmation of ~95% of exome variants. Overall variant sensitivity improves as each method covers thousands of coding exons missed by the other. We conclude that orthogonal NGS offers improvements in variant calling sensitivity when two platforms are used, better specificity for variants identified on both platforms, and greatly reduces the time and expense of Sanger follow-up, thus enabling physicians to act on genomic results more quickly.

  16. Orthogonal NGS for High Throughput Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chennagiri, Niru; White, Eric J.; Frieden, Alexander; Lopez, Edgardo; Lieber, Daniel S.; Nikiforov, Anastasia; Ross, Tristen; Batorsky, Rebecca; Hansen, Sherry; Lip, Va; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Mauceli, Evan; Margulies, David; Milos, Patrice M.; Napolitano, Nichole; Nizzari, Marcia M.; Yu, Timothy; Thompson, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is a transformative technology for discovering and diagnosing genetic disorders. However, high-throughput sequencing remains error-prone, necessitating variant confirmation in order to meet the exacting demands of clinical diagnostic sequencing. To address this, we devised an orthogonal, dual platform approach employing complementary target capture and sequencing chemistries to improve speed and accuracy of variant calls at a genomic scale. We combined DNA selection by bait-based hybridization followed by Illumina NextSeq reversible terminator sequencing with DNA selection by amplification followed by Ion Proton semiconductor sequencing. This approach yields genomic scale orthogonal confirmation of ~95% of exome variants. Overall variant sensitivity improves as each method covers thousands of coding exons missed by the other. We conclude that orthogonal NGS offers improvements in variant calling sensitivity when two platforms are used, better specificity for variants identified on both platforms, and greatly reduces the time and expense of Sanger follow-up, thus enabling physicians to act on genomic results more quickly. PMID:27090146

  17. Reversal Agents for the Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Jack E

    2016-10-01

    The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are associated with a significant rate of major and fatal bleeding complications. The new direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), even though having a better bleeding profile than the VKAs, are still associated with serious bleeding. The anticoagulation induced by the VKAs can be reversed with both vitamin K and prothrombin complex concentrates, whereas the DOACs were developed without specific reversal agents. Although there is controversy around the necessity of a reversal agent, most clinicians agree that having a reversal agent for the DOACs would be beneficial. Three reversal agents are currently in development. PMID:27637309

  18. Ideal stability limits of reverse shear equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.W.; Hughes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The dependence on various plasma parameters of the ideal stability limit of reverse shear current profiles in TFTR and other tokamaks has been thoroughly explored. Profiles with reverse shear allow core access to the second ballooning stability region. In addition, for sufficient shear reversal, modes with n = 2 and greater are also stabilized. The n = 1 stability threshold is only slightly affected by reverse shear and becomes the limiting instability. The mode is predominately an infernal mode with a significant external contribution. Particular emphasis will be on analysis of recent experimental results of enhanced reverse shear (ERS) profiles in TFTR and a study of those profile characteristics which optimize TFTR performance.

  19. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  20. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26442283

  1. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  2. Optical beam diagnostics on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Sabersky, A.P.

    1981-02-01

    In designing the PEP optical diagnostics we have been able to build on the experience gained with SPEAR. Most of the problems at SPEAR could be traced to the optical diagnostic system being inside the tunnel. A machine shutdown is required for any maintenance or modification. This implies that in order to make such an instrument successful, a large engineering effort must be mounted to ensure 100% operation at startup. The functions that do not work at startup may never be made to work; this has happened at several machines. Experimental setups are likewise risky and time consuming. A point which has been borne out in both SPEAR and PEP is that the mechanical part of the instrument, the special vacuum chamber, the optical mounts, the alignment and adjustments, require approximately 60% of the effort and cost of the optical diagnostics. It is far better to economize on detectors and electronics than on mechanical and optical essentials.

  3. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  4. Dual processing and diagnostic errors.

    PubMed

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates.

  5. Steganography using reversible texture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Chung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for steganography using a reversible texture synthesis. A texture synthesis process resamples a smaller texture image, which synthesizes a new texture image with a similar local appearance and an arbitrary size. We weave the texture synthesis process into steganography to conceal secret messages. In contrast to using an existing cover image to hide messages, our algorithm conceals the source texture image and embeds secret messages through the process of texture synthesis. This allows us to extract the secret messages and source texture from a stego synthetic texture. Our approach offers three distinct advantages. First, our scheme offers the embedding capacity that is proportional to the size of the stego texture image. Second, a steganalytic algorithm is not likely to defeat our steganographic approach. Third, the reversible capability inherited from our scheme provides functionality, which allows recovery of the source texture. Experimental results have verified that our proposed algorithm can provide various numbers of embedding capacities, produce a visually plausible texture images, and recover the source texture.

  6. Preference reversal in multiattribute choice.

    PubMed

    Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Usher, Marius; Chater, Nick

    2010-10-01

    A central puzzle for theories of choice is that people's preferences between options can be reversed by the presence of decoy options (that are not chosen) or by the presence of other irrelevant options added to the choice set. Three types of reversal effect reported in the decision-making literature, the attraction, compromise, and similarity effects, have been explained by a number of theoretical proposals. Yet a major theoretical challenge is capturing all 3 effects simultaneously. We review the range of mechanisms that have been proposed to account for decoy effects and analyze in detail 2 computational models, decision field theory (Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001) and leaky competing accumulators (Usher & McClelland, 2004), that aim to combine several such mechanisms into an integrated account. By simulating the models, we examine differences in the ways the decoy effects are predicted. We argue that the LCA framework, which follows on Tversky's relational evaluation with loss aversion (Tversky & Kahneman, 1991), provides a more robust account, suggesting that common mechanisms are involved in both high-level decision making and perceptual choice, for which LCA was originally developed.

  7. He Did What?: The role of diagnosticity in revising implicit evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Jeremy; Ferguson, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that implicit evaluations are relatively insensitive to single instances of new, countervailing information that contradicts prior learning. In six experiments, however, we identify the critical role of the perceived diagnosticity of that new information: counter-attitudinal information that is deemed highly diagnostic of the target's true nature leads to a complete reversal of the previous implicit evaluation. Experiments 1a and 1b establish this effect by showing that newly-formed implicit evaluations are reversed minutes later with exposure to a single piece of highly diagnostic information. Experiment 2 demonstrates a valence asymmetry in participants’ likelihood of exhibiting rapid reversals of newly formed positive versus negative implicit evaluations. Experiment 3 provides evidence that a target must be personally responsible for the counter-attitudinal behavior and not merely incidentally associated with a negative act. Experiment 4 shows that participants exhibit revision only when they judge the target's counter-attitudinal behavior as offensive and thus diagnostic of his character. Experiment 5 demonstrates the behavioral implications of newly-revised implicit evaluations. These studies show that newly-formed implicit evaluations can be completely overturned through deliberative considerations about a single piece of counter-attitudinal information. PMID:25365037

  8. Using and interpreting diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Shawn L B; Dohoo, Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Diagnostic tests are invaluable to the practice of veterinary medicine. Using them correctly and interpreting the results appropriately depend on having a good understanding of the basic principles outlined in this article. Topics covered include sensitivity and specificity, agreement among tests, using multiple tests, and other issues related to the use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. The most important principle is recognition that the interpretation of test results varies across populations and requires an estimate of the prevalence of the infection (or disease) in the population being studied.

  9. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  10. Diagnostic imaging in internal medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines medical diagnostic techniques. Topics considered include biological considerations in the approach to clinical medicines; infectious diseases; disorders of the heart; disorders of the vascular system; disorders of the respiratory system; diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract; disorders of the alimentary tract; disorders of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; disorders of the hematopoietic system; disorders of bone and bone mineralization; disorders of the joints, connective tissues, and striated muscles; disorders of the nervous system; miscellaneous disorders; and procedures in diagnostic imaging.

  11. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  12. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  13. Recoverable Plasma Diagnostics Package (RPDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The recoverable plasma diagnostics package (RPDP) is an ejectable and recoverable satellite with flight and ground support systems so that it can be utilized in three modes: attached to an remote manipulator system; tethered; or as a subsatellite. The satellite is well instrumented with particle and field diagnostic as well as optical sensors to: investigate the dynamics of the natural environment or ejected perturbations from particle beams; measure the characteristics and propagation of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; study wave particle interactions; and study natural properties of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere.

  14. Recoverable Plasma Diagnostics Package (RPDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The recoverable plasma diagnostics package (RPDP) is an ejectable and recoverable satellite with flight and ground support systems so that it can be utilized in three modes: attached to an remote manipulator system; tethered; or as a subsatellite. The satellite is well instrumented with particle and field diagnostic as well as optical sensors to: investigate the dynamics of the natural environment or ejected perturbations from particle beams; measure the characteristics and propagation of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; study wave particle interactions; and study natural properties of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere.

  15. New Diagnostics for Childhood Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Silvia S; Swanson, Douglas S; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2015-09-01

    The challenge of diagnosing childhood tuberculosis (TB) results from its paucibacillary nature and the difficulties of sputum collection in children. Mycobacterial culture, the diagnostic gold standard, provides microbiological confirmation in only 30% to 40% of childhood pulmonary TB cases and takes up to 6 weeks to result. Conventional drug susceptibility testing requires an additional 2 to 4 weeks after culture confirmation. In response to the low sensitivity and long wait time of the traditional diagnostic approach, many new assays have been developed. These new tools have shortened time to result; however, none of them offer greater sensitivity than culture.

  16. [The diagnostic possibilities of saliva].

    PubMed

    Kochurova, E V; Kozlov, S V

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is a clinically informative biological fluid which contains multitude of bio-markers. This characteristic makes it possible to carry out numerous analyzes for developing mode to test patient in situ, express-tests included. The diagnostic by saliva is a new area of more simple application both markers and analyzers that can be useful in diagnostic of diseases of oral cavity, oncological diseases included. The using of saliva expands perspectives for making clinical diagnosis and establishment of dynamics and monitoring of disease.

  17. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  18. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  19. Diagnostic Teaching, Writing and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Provides ethnographic information about preservice teachers and their formative relationships to diagnostic teaching and letter writing within the school mathematics curriculum. Also, indicates that elementary school students benefit from letter writing as it relates to mathematics attitudes and achievement levels. (nine references) (JJK)

  20. Selected microgravity combustion diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1993-01-01

    During FY 1989-1992, several diagnostic techniques for studying microgravity combustion have moved from the laboratory to use in reduced-gravity facilities. This paper discusses current instrumentation for rainbow schlieren deflectometry and thermophoretic sampling of soot from gas jet diffusion flames.

  1. Immunosensors in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Justino, Celine I L; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2016-01-01

    The application of simple, cost-effective, rapid, and accurate diagnostic technologies for detection and identification of cardiac and cancer biomarkers has been a central point in the clinical area. Biosensors have been recognized as efficient alternatives for the diagnostics of various diseases due to their specificity and potential for application on real samples. The role of nanotechnology in the construction of immunological biosensors, that is, immunosensors, has contributed to the improvement of sensitivity, since they are based in the affinity between antibody and antigen. Other analytes than biomarkers such as hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus have also been detected by immunosensors for clinical point-of-care applications. In this chapter, we first introduced the various types of immunosensors and discussed their applications in clinical diagnostics over the recent 6 years, mainly as point-of-care technologies for the determination of cardiac and cancer biomarkers, hormones, pathogenic bacteria, and virus. The future perspectives of these devices in the field of clinical diagnostics are also evaluated. PMID:26975970

  2. Diagnostic techniques for thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, J.R.; Snyder, S.C.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    The plasma diagnostic techniques discussed are Rayleigh and coherent Thomson scattering, Coherent-Anti-Stokes-Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) and enthalpy probes. The quantities measured are heavy species and electron temperature, ionized fraction, plasma composition, and velocity. Examples of results from both subsonic and supersonic jets are presented and limitations discussed.

  3. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Baganoff, D.; Bowman, C. T.; Byer, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes, (3) quantitative flow visualization, including temporally and spatially resolved species measurements in a plane, using laser-induced fluorescence; (4) multiple-point velocity visualization; (5) plasma diagnostics, utilizing planar laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength modulation techniques; (6) diagnostic techniques for thermionic converter plasmas; (7) application of advanced diagnostic techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows; (8) development of measurement techniques and a novel facility for investigations of droplet evaporation in turbulent flows; (9) holographic display techniques for 3-D visualization of flowfield data; (10) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) for temperature and velocity measurements in a supersonic jet; and (11) computed absorption tomography system for species measurements in a plane.

  4. Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic models (CDM) have been around for more than a decade but their application is far from widespread for mainly two reasons: (1) CDMs are novel, as compared to traditional IRT models. Consequently, many researchers lack familiarity with them and their properties, and (2) Software programs doing CDMs have been expensive and not…

  5. Advanced diagnostic methods in avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popyack, Leonard Joseph, Jr.

    Advanced diagnostic systems facilitate further enhancement of reliability and safety of modern aircraft. Unlike classical reliability analyses, addressing specific classes of systems or devices, this research is aimed at the development of methods for assessment of the individual reliability characteristics of particular system components subjected to their unique histories of operational conditions and exposure to adverse environmental factors. Individual reliability characteristics are crucial for the implementation of the most efficient maintenance practice of flight-critical system components, known as "condition-based maintenance." The dissertation presents hardware and software aspects of a computer-based system, Time-Stress Monitoring Device, developed to record, store, and analyze raw data characterizing operational and environmental conditions and performance of electro-mechanical flight control system components and aircraft electronics (avionics). Availability of this data facilitates formulation and solution of such diagnostic problems as estimation of the probability of failure and life expectancy of particular components, failure detection, identification, and prediction. Statistical aspects of system diagnostics are considered. Particular diagnostic procedures utilizing cluster analysis, Bayes' technique, and regression analysis are formulated. Laboratory and simulation experiment that verify the obtained results are provided.

  6. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  7. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Reversible optical doping of graphene

    PubMed Central

    Tiberj, A.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Paillet, M.; Huntzinger, J. -R.; Landois, P.; Mikolasek, M.; Contreras, S.; Sauvajol, J. -L.; Dujardin, E.; Zahab, A. -A.

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate surface exposure provided by graphene monolayer makes it the ideal sensor platform but also exposes its intrinsic properties to any environmental perturbations. In this work, we demonstrate that the charge carrier density of graphene exfoliated on a SiO2/Si substrate can be finely and reversibly tuned between hole and electron doping with visible photons. This photo-induced doping happens under moderate laser power conditions but is significantly affected by the substrate cleaning method. In particular, it requires hydrophilic substrates and vanishes for suspended graphene. These findings suggest that optically gated graphene devices operating with a sub-second time scale can be envisioned and that Raman spectroscopy is not always as non-invasive as generally assumed. PMID:23912707

  9. Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Gershenfeld, Neil

    2013-09-13

    We introduce composite materials made by reversibly assembling a three-dimensional lattice of mass-produced carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite parts with integrated mechanical interlocking connections. The resulting cellular composite materials can respond as an elastic solid with an extremely large measured modulus for an ultralight material (12.3 megapascals at a density of 7.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter). These materials offer a hierarchical decomposition in modeling, with bulk properties that can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes that can be determined by the placement of part types. Because site locations are locally constrained, structures can be produced in a relative assembly process that merges desirable features of fiber composites, cellular materials, and additive manufacturing.

  10. R&D ERL: Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This report outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation. The BNL Prototype ERL is an R&D effort aimed at reducing risks and costs associated with the proposed RHIC II electron cooler and eRHIC collider. The ERL will serve as a test bed for developing and testing instrumentation and studying physics and technological issues relevant to very high current ERL's. The prototype ERL, mated to a high current SRF gun, is expected to demonstrate production and energy recovery of high intensity, low emittance beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps. To successfully accomplish this task the ERL will include beam diagnostics required to characterize and tune beam parameters, as well as for machine protection. A preliminary diagnostics plan was presented in earlier publications. In this report, we describe the diagnostics presently planned to provide the data needed to meet these goals.

  11. Process of forming compounds using reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion systems

    DOEpatents

    Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Bean, Roger M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for producing a nanometer-sized metal compound. The process comprises forming a reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system comprising a polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. A first reactant comprising a multi-component, water-soluble metal compound is introduced into the polar fluid in a non-polar or low-polarity fluid. This first reactant can be introduced into the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system during formation thereof or subsequent to the formation of the reverse micelle or microemulsion system. The water-soluble metal compound is then reacted in the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system to form the nanometer-sized metal compound. The nanometer-sized metal compound is then precipitated from the reverse micelle or reverse microemulsion system.

  12. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnosticsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gota, H.; Thompson, M. C.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. W.

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ˜5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  13. Persistent reversed end diastolic flow in the fetal middle cerebral artery: an ominous finding.

    PubMed

    Brownfoot, F C; Cluver, C A; Walker, S P

    2015-08-01

    Fetal persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow is a rare and ominous finding. Previous cases have been associated with intracranial hemorrhage, growth restriction, anaemia, and hepatic anomaly. Intrauterine demise or early neonatal death is a common outcome. We report the case of persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow in a well-grown fetus at 32 weeks' gestation resulting from acute, severe anaemia due to a large feto-maternal hemorrhage. An emergency cesarean section was performed and the neonate required advanced resuscitation and immediate blood transfusion. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic parietal infarct and bilateral ischaemic changes in the basal ganglia. This provides further evidence that persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow in any fetus is an ominous finding warranting urgent diagnostic evaluation and/or delivery. PMID:27433256

  14. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Abubakar, Muhammad Salisu; Abba, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection. PMID:26955391

  15. Personalized nutrition diagnostics at the point-of-need.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoho; Srinivasan, Balaji; Vemulapati, Sasank; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-07-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is widespread and negatively impacts morbidity, mortality, and quality of life globally. On-going advancements in nutritional biomarker discovery are enabling objective and accurate assessment of an individual's micronutrient and broader nutritional status. The vast majority of such assessment however still needs to be conducted in traditional centralized laboratory facilities which are not readily accessible in terms of cost and time in both the developed and developing countries. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies are enabling an increasing number of biochemical reactions at the point-of-need (PON) settings, and can significantly improve the current predicament in nutrition diagnostics by allowing rapid evaluation of one's nutritional status and providing an easy feedback mechanism for tracking changes in diet or supplementation. We believe that nutrition diagnostics represents a particularly appealing opportunity over other PON applications for two reasons: (1) healthy ranges for many micronutrients are well defined which allows for an unbiased diagnosis, and (2) many deficiencies can be reversed through changes in diet or supplementation before they become severe. In this paper, we provide background on nutritional biomarkers used in nutrition diagnostics and review the emerging technologies that exploit them at the point-of-need.

  16. Development of a new virtual diagnostic for V3FIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, G. L. Terranova, D.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Hanson, J. D.

    2014-12-15

    The determination of plasma equilibria from diagnostic information is a fundamental issue. V3FIT is a fully three-dimensional reconstruction code capable of solving the inverse problem using both magnetic and kinetic measurements. It uses VMEC as core equilibrium solver and supports both free- and fixed-boundary reconstruction approaches. In fixed-boundary mode VMEC does not use explicit information about currents in external coils, even though it has important effects on the shape of the safety factor profile. Indeed, the edge safety factor influences the reversal position in RFP plasmas, which then determines the position of the m = 0 island chain and the edge transport properties. In order to exploit such information a new virtual diagnostic has been developed, that thanks to Ampère's law relates the external current through the center of the torus to the circulation of the toroidal magnetic field on the outermost flux surface. The reconstructions that exploit the new diagnostic are indeed found to better interpret the experimental data with respect to edge physics.

  17. Personalized nutrition diagnostics at the point-of-need.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoho; Srinivasan, Balaji; Vemulapati, Sasank; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-07-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is widespread and negatively impacts morbidity, mortality, and quality of life globally. On-going advancements in nutritional biomarker discovery are enabling objective and accurate assessment of an individual's micronutrient and broader nutritional status. The vast majority of such assessment however still needs to be conducted in traditional centralized laboratory facilities which are not readily accessible in terms of cost and time in both the developed and developing countries. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies are enabling an increasing number of biochemical reactions at the point-of-need (PON) settings, and can significantly improve the current predicament in nutrition diagnostics by allowing rapid evaluation of one's nutritional status and providing an easy feedback mechanism for tracking changes in diet or supplementation. We believe that nutrition diagnostics represents a particularly appealing opportunity over other PON applications for two reasons: (1) healthy ranges for many micronutrients are well defined which allows for an unbiased diagnosis, and (2) many deficiencies can be reversed through changes in diet or supplementation before they become severe. In this paper, we provide background on nutritional biomarkers used in nutrition diagnostics and review the emerging technologies that exploit them at the point-of-need. PMID:27272753

  18. Periodicity of the earth's magnetic reversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented from an attempt to perform a relatively comprehensive analysis of the evidence for a periodicity, with harmonics, of the observed regular reversals of the earth's magnetic field. The database considered covers 296 reversals over the past 165 Myr. Histograms with bins 1 Myr apart reveal only 30 Myr reversal patterns. The reversal dates are fitted to a linear periodic function and a spectrum is computed for the residuals at the adopted dates. The possible presence of multiple periodicities is evaluated and over various time intervals. The analysis shows that a recently observed 15 Myr periodicity is probably a harmonic of the 29.5-30.5 Myr period. The calculations do not confirm an inherent magnetic reversal property of the earth. The reversals may arise from tectonic events or from impacts from extraterrestrial objects.

  19. Neural correlates of response reversal: considering acquisition.

    PubMed

    Budhani, S; Marsh, A A; Pine, D S; Blair, R J R

    2007-02-15

    Previous work on response reversal has typically used a single pair of stimuli that serially reverse. This conflation of acquisition and reversal processes has prevented an examination of the functional role of neural systems implicated in response reversal during acquisition despite the relevance of such data in evaluating accounts of response reversal. In the current study, participants encountered 16 independent reversing stimulus pairs in the context of a probabilistic response reversal paradigm. Functional regions of interest identified as involved in response reversal through a contrast used in the previous literature (punished errors made in the reversal phase versus rewarded correct responses), were interrogated across conditions. Consistent with suggestions that middle frontal cortex codes reward, this region showed significantly greater responses to rewarded rather than punished trials irrespective of accuracy or learning phase (acquisition or reversal). Consistent with the suggestion that this coding of the expectation of reinforcement is acquired via input from the amygdala, we observed significant positive connectivity between activity within the amygdala and a region of rostral anterior cingulate cortex highly proximal to this region of middle frontal/mesial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, inferior frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate showed greater responses to punished errors than to the rewarded correct responses. These three regions also showed significant activation to rewarded errors during acquisition, in contrast to positions suggesting that inferior frontal cortex represents punishment or suppresses previously rewarded responses. Moreover, a connectivity analysis with an anterior cingulate cortex seed revealed highly significant positive connectivity among them. The implications of these data for recent accounts of response reversal and of response reversal impairments in specific neuropsychiatric populations are discussed.

  20. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  1. Serial reversal learning in bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    PubMed

    Strang, Caroline G; Sherry, David F

    2014-05-01

    Bumblebees are capable of rapidly learning discriminations, but flexibility in bumblebee learning is less well understood. We tested bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) on a serial reversal learning task. A serial reversal task requires learning of an initial discrimination between two differentially rewarded stimuli, followed by multiple reversals of the reward contingency between stimuli. A reduction in errors with repeated reversals in a serial reversal task is an indicator of behavioural flexibility. Bees were housed in a large indoor environment and tested during foraging flights. Testing free-flying bees allowed for large numbers of trials and reversals. All bees were trained to perform a simultaneous discrimination between two colours for a nectar reward, followed by nine reversals of this discrimination. Results showed that bumblebees reduced errors and improved their performance across successive reversals. A reduction in perseverative errors was the major cause of the improvement in performance. Bees showed a slight increase in error rate in their final trials, perhaps as a consequence of increasing proactive interference, but proactive interference may also have contributed to the overall improvement in performance across reversals. Bumblebees are thus capable of behavioural flexibility comparable to that of other animals and may use proactive interference as a mechanism of behavioural flexibility in varying environments.

  2. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhauer, Loren

    2014-08-15

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.

  3. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  4. Reversible anonymization of DICOM images using automatically generated policies.

    PubMed

    Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Engel, Marcel; Yabanci, Adem; Zabel, Bernhard; Després, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Many real-world applications in the area of medical imaging like case study databases require separation of identifying (IDATA) and non-identifying (MDATA) data, specifically those offering Internet-based data access. These kinds of projects also must provide a role-based access system, controlling, how patient data must be organized and how it can be accessed. On DICOM image level, different image types support different kind of information, intermixing IDATA and MDATA in a single object. To separate them, it is possible to reversibly anonymize DICOM objects by substituting IDATA by a unique anonymous token. In case that later an authenticated user needs full access to an image, this token can be used for re-linking formerly separated IDATA and MDATA, thus resulting in a dynamically generated, exact copy of the original image. The approach described in this paper is based on the automatic generation of anonymization policies from the DICOM standard text, providing specific support for all kinds of DICOM images. The policies are executed by a newly developed framework based on the DICOM toolkit DCMTK and offer a reliable approach to reversible anonymization. The implementation is evaluated in a German BMBF-supported expert network in the area of skeletal dysplasias, SKELNET, but may generally be applicable to related projects, enormously improving quality and integrity of diagnostics in a field focused on images. It performs effectively and efficiently on real-world test images from the project and other kind of DICOM images. PMID:19745435

  5. Tick-borne pathogen - reversed and conventional discovery of disease.

    PubMed

    Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Koopmans, Marion P G; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have increased the number of known microorganisms associated with ticks significantly. Some of these newly identified microorganisms are readily linked to human disease while others are yet unknown to cause human disease. The face of tick-borne disease discovery has changed with more diseases now being discovered in a "reversed way," detecting disease cases only years after the tick-borne microorganism was first discovered. Compared to the conventional discovery of infectious diseases, reverse order discovery presents researchers with new challenges. Estimating public health risks of such agents is especially challenging, as case definitions and diagnostic procedures may initially be missing. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of molecular methods, serology, and epidemiological studies that might be used to study some fundamental questions regarding newly identified tick-borne diseases. With increased tick-exposure and improved detection methods, more tick-borne microorganisms will be added to the list of pathogens causing disease in humans in the future. PMID:25072045

  6. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis.

  7. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27065589

  8. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affiliations Foundation Focus Newsletter E-Update Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events Spring 2016 ...

  9. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... PRF By The Numbers Medical Database Cell & Tissue Bank Diagnostic Testing Research Funding Opportunities Scientific Meetings Scientific ... New in Progeria Research Medical Database Cell & Tissue Bank Diagnostic Testing Research Funding Opportunities Scientific Meetings Scientific ...

  10. Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy reviews.

    PubMed

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Macaskill, Petra

    2013-10-07

    In 1996, shortly after the founding of The Cochrane Collaboration, leading figures in test evaluation research established a Methods Group to focus on the relatively new and rapidly evolving methods for the systematic review of studies of diagnostic tests. Seven years later, the Collaboration decided it was time to develop a publication format and methodology for Diagnostic Test Accuracy (DTA) reviews, as well as the software needed to implement these reviews in The Cochrane Library. A meeting hosted by the German Cochrane Centre in 2004 brought together key methodologists in the area, many of whom became closely involved in the subsequent development of the methodological framework for DTA reviews. DTA reviews first appeared in The Cochrane Library in 2008 and are now an integral part of the work of the Collaboration.

  11. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-10-06

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed.

  12. Novette diagnostic support. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, R.; Franco, E.; Koppel, L.; Rodrigues, B.; Smith, J.

    1985-02-01

    The primary research areas were the following: (1) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette DANTE x-ray spectrometer experiments. This effort was expanded to improve the overall quality of the Novette database; (2) experimental and calculational characterization of the x-ray imaging properties of an ellipsoidal x-ray collection optic serving as a sensitivity enhancing component of the Transmission Grating Streak Spectrometer; (3) performance simulation of the x-ray dispersion properties of candidate x-ray laser cavity, normal incidence end-mirror optics; (4) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette Henway crystal spectrometer and the MCPIGS microchannel plate intensified grazing incident spectrometer experiments; and (5) perform a technical performance vs cost evaluation of commercially available hardware required to perform the NOVA neutron time-of-flight experiments.

  13. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  14. Molecular Diagnostic Tests for Microsporidia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kaya; Weiss, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    The Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites which were recognized over 100 years ago with the description of Nosema bombycis, a parasite of silkworms. It is now appreciated that these organisms are related to the Fungi. Microsporidia infect all major animal groups most often as gastrointestinal pathogens; however they have been reported from every tissue and organ, and their spores are common in environmental sources such as ditch water. Several different genera of these organisms infect humans, but the majority of infections are due to either Enterocytozoon bieneusi or Encephalitozoon species. These pathogens can be difficult to diagnose, but significant progress has been made in the last decade in the development of molecular diagnostic reagents for these organisms. This report reviews the molecular diagnostic tests that have been described for the identification of the microsporidia that infect humans. PMID:19657457

  15. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2007-10-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for various human ailments is gaining popularity as it offers distinct advantages over serum. These include the non-invasive nature of saliva collection compared with phlebotomy, simplicity of collection even for individuals with a modest training and the cost-effective applicability for screening large populations. Whole saliva is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents while gland-specific saliva is useful for investigating pathology of major salivary glands. Broadly, saliva analysis is currently used for the diagnosis of infectious and malignant diseases, hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as for the assessment of therapeutic drug levels, particularly in monitoring drug abuse. This review addresses the current status of salivary diagnostics and their future potential.

  16. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  17. Diagnostic Procedures in Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K. K.

    1976-01-01

    This article offers some guidelines for investigating patients with suspected tropical and parasitic diseases. The common symptoms of tropical diseases as seen in Canadians returning from the tropics are discussed and diagnostic approaches suggested. Simple office laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of the common intestinal and blood parasites are outlined. The value and pitfalls of serological tests in parasitic diseases are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:21308049

  18. High Performance Field Reversed Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binderbauer, Michl

    2014-10-01

    The field-reversed configuration (FRC) is a prolate compact toroid with poloidal magnetic fields. FRCs could lead to economic fusion reactors with high power density, simple geometry, natural divertor, ease of translation, and possibly capable of burning aneutronic fuels. However, as in other high-beta plasmas, there are stability and confinement concerns. These concerns can be addressed by introducing and maintaining a significant fast ion population in the system. This is the approach adopted by TAE and implemented for the first time in the C-2 device. Studying the physics of FRCs driven by Neutral Beam (NB) injection, significant improvements were made in confinement and stability. Early C-2 discharges had relatively good confinement, but global power losses exceeded the available NB input power. The addition of axially streaming plasma guns, magnetic end plugs as well as advanced surface conditioning leads to dramatic reductions in turbulence driven losses and greatly improved stability. As a result, fast ion confinement significantly improved and allowed for build-up of a dominant fast particle population. Under such appropriate conditions we achieved highly reproducible, long-lived, macroscopically stable FRCs with record lifetimes. This demonstrated many beneficial effects of large orbit particles and their performance impact on FRCs Together these achievements point to the prospect of beam-driven FRCs as a path toward fusion reactors. This presentation will review and expand on key results and present context for their interpretation.

  19. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  20. Reversing expectations during discourse comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ming; Kuperberg, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we asked whether comprehenders used the concessive connective, even so, to predict upcoming events. Participants read coherent and incoherent scenarios, with and without even so, e.g. “Elizabeth had a history exam on Monday. She took the test and aced/failed it. (Even so), she went home and celebrated wildly.”, as they rated coherence (Experiment 1) or simply answered intermittent comprehension questions (Experiment 2). The semantic function of even so was used to reverse real-world knowledge predictions, leading to an attenuated N400 to coherent versus incoherent target words (“celebrated”). Moreover, its pragmatic communicative function enhanced predictive processing, leading to more N400 attenuation to coherent targets in scenarios with than without even so. This benefit however, did not come for free: the detection of failed event predictions triggered a later posterior positivity and/or an anterior negativity effect, and costs of maintaining alternative likelihood relations manifest as a sustained negativity effect on sentence-final words. PMID:25914891

  1. Entropic uncertainty and measurement reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Wehner, Stephanie; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-07-01

    The entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information (EUR-QSI) from (Berta et al 2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) is a unifying principle relating two distinctive features of quantum mechanics: quantum uncertainty due to measurement incompatibility, and entanglement. In these relations, quantum uncertainty takes the form of preparation uncertainty where one of two incompatible measurements is applied. In particular, the ‘uncertainty witness’ lower bound in the EUR-QSI is not a function of a post-measurement state. An insightful proof of the EUR-QSI from (Coles et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 210405) makes use of a fundamental mathematical consequence of the postulates of quantum mechanics known as the non-increase of quantum relative entropy under quantum channels. Here, we exploit this perspective to establish a tightening of the EUR-QSI which adds a new state-dependent term in the lower bound, related to how well one can reverse the action of a quantum measurement. As such, this new term is a direct function of the post-measurement state and can be thought of as quantifying how much disturbance a given measurement causes. Our result thus quantitatively unifies this feature of quantum mechanics with the others mentioned above. We have experimentally tested our theoretical predictions on the IBM quantum experience and find reasonable agreement between our predictions and experimental outcomes.

  2. Reverse Genetics in Ecological Research

    PubMed Central

    Schwachtje, Jens; Kutschbach, Susan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2008-01-01

    By precisely manipulating the expression of individual genetic elements thought to be important for ecological performance, reverse genetics has the potential to revolutionize plant ecology. However, untested concerns about possible side-effects of the transformation technique, caused by Agrobacterium infection and tissue culture, on plant performance have stymied research by requiring onerous sample sizes. We compare 5 independently transformed Nicotiana attenuata lines harboring empty vector control (EVC) T-DNA lacking silencing information with isogenic wild types (WT), and measured a battery of ecologically relevant traits, known to be important in plant-herbivore interactions: phytohormones, secondary metabolites, growth and fitness parameters under stringent competitive conditions, and transcriptional regulation with microarrays. As a positive control, we included a line silenced in trypsin proteinase inhibitor gene (TPI) expression, a potent anti-herbivore defense known to exact fitness costs in its expression, in the analysis. The experiment was conducted twice, with 10 and 20 biological replicates per genotype. For all parameters, we detected no difference between any EVC and WT lines, but could readily detect a fitness benefit of silencing TPI production. A statistical power analyses revealed that the minimum sample sizes required for detecting significant fitness differences between EVC and WT was 2–3 orders of magnitude larger than the 10 replicates required to detect a fitness effect of TPI silencing. We conclude that possible side-effects of transformation are far too low to obfuscate the study of ecologically relevant phenotypes. PMID:18253491

  3. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Malaria diagnostics in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean C; Shott, Joseph P; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R; Stewart, V Ann

    2013-11-01

    Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests.

  5. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  6. Fluorescence diagnostics in oncological gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Ludmila A.; Adamyan, Leila V.; Kozachenko, Vladimir P.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Stranadko, Eugene F.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-10-01

    The method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of tumors is a promising tool that may allow to increase sensitivity of tumor detection especially at initial stages. One of the most promising photosensitizers today is 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) that, actually, is not photosensitizer itself but precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This paper deals with cancer diagnostics in gynecology by means of ALA-induced Pp IX laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. The tissue fluorescence spectra in vivo were studied in patients with various pathologies of ovaries, uterine and vulva after 5-aminolevulinic acid administration. It was shown that different pathologies varies in accumulation of Pp IX. Coefficient of fluorescence kf for normal tissue is not high, but exceptions are endometrium and mucous membrane of uterine tubes. Benign tumors of uterus and ovary have low values of kf, but polyps of endometrium exhibit high kf. Optical express-biopsy is important for diagnosis of ovarian cancer and micrometastatic spread. Coefficients of diagnostic contrast were determined for cancer of endometrium, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer.

  7. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  8. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications.

  9. Properties of plasma radiation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Oona, H.

    1996-06-01

    A number of diagnostics utilizing the radiation emitted from high-temperature plasmas have been developed at Los Alamos. Photoemissive x-ray diodes with photon energy bandpass filters provide time resolved rough spectral data from bout 6 eV to > 10 keV photon energy. Filtered silicon photodiodes can be used down to 1 eV and offer the advantages of nominally flat response and ability to operate in poor vacuum conditions. Both types of diodes will provide a rough time resolved spectrum and both are relatively inexpensive, reliable, and passive (i.e. no synchronization problems). For higher energy resolution bent crystal spectrographs are used in the x-ray region. With the addition of streak cameras or gated microchannel plates these systems provide data with high energy and high time resolution. To measure the total energy output a thin foil bolometer is used that measures the change in foil resistance as it is heated by the plasma radiation. Information on the physical location of the plasma is provided by a suite of visible framing cameras and x-ray pinhole cameras. By combining these diagnostics into a complementary set good diagnostic information can be guaranteed on any plasma experiment.

  10. [Implant-associated infections - Diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Renz, N; Müller, M; Perka, C; Trampuz, A

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of implant-associated infections is challenging as chronic low-grade infections often only manifest as subtle clinical symptoms. Clinical evaluation, patient history, imaging, histopathological and microbiological examinations build the cornerstones of the diagnostics for implant-associated infections. New onset of pain at rest, local symptoms at the surgical site and early loosening of the prosthesis or pseudarthrosis should raise suspicion for an infection and prompt further evaluation. Percutaneous sinus tracts, purulent wound secretions and skin erosions with exposure of the implant are certain signs of implant-associated infections. Elevated C‑reactive protein levels in blood support the diagnosis of infection but are neither sufficient sensitive nor specific to confirm or exclude infection. Preoperative antibiotic therapy interferes with the diagnostic evaluation and should be avoided. In periprosthetic joint infections, joint aspiration with determination of the leukocyte count and microbiological examination is a crucial first diagnostic step. Through microbiological and histopathological examinations of intraoperative tissue samples, as well as sonication of explanted implants, the causative pathogen can be identified in most cases. In osteosynthesis-associated infections imaging plays a key role to detect non-union, infection callus, sequester, peri-implant osteolysis and extraosseous and intramedullary pathologies. In prosthetic joint infections imaging provides information about the position and stability of the prosthesis. In case of hematogenic infection seeding from a distant focus, blood cultures should be sampled, followed by a meticulous investigation of potential primary focus of infection, depending on the causative agent.

  11. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT.

    PubMed

    Larheim, T A; Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome.

  12. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Thomas, David; Lewis, Jay

    2010-10-08

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures.We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  13. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

  14. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  15. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  16. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  17. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  18. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  19. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  20. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Goerz, D.A.; Thomas, S.R.

    1981-10-21

    This paper describes the current design status of the plasma diagnostic system for MFTF-B. In this paper we describe the system requirement changes which have occurred as a result of the funded rescoping of the original MFTF facility into MFTF-B. We outline the diagnostic instruments which are currently planned, and present an overview of the diagnostic system.

  1. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reversal in flight the engine will produce no more than flight idle thrust. In addition, it must be shown by analysis or test, or both, that— (i) Each operable reverser can be restored to the forward thrust position; and (ii) The airplane is capable of continued safe flight and landing under any possible...

  2. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reversal in flight the engine will produce no more than flight idle thrust. In addition, it must be shown by analysis or test, or both, that— (i) Each operable reverser can be restored to the forward thrust position; and (ii) The airplane is capable of continued safe flight and landing under any possible...

  3. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reversal in flight the engine will produce no more than flight idle thrust. In addition, it must be shown by analysis or test, or both, that— (i) Each operable reverser can be restored to the forward thrust position; and (ii) The airplane is capable of continued safe flight and landing under any possible...

  4. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reversal in flight the engine will produce no more than flight idle thrust. In addition, it must be shown by analysis or test, or both, that— (i) Each operable reverser can be restored to the forward thrust position; and (ii) The airplane is capable of continued safe flight and landing under any possible...

  5. 14 CFR 25.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reversal in flight the engine will produce no more than flight idle thrust. In addition, it must be shown by analysis or test, or both, that— (i) Each operable reverser can be restored to the forward thrust position; and (ii) The airplane is capable of continued safe flight and landing under any possible...

  6. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  7. Empirical Evidence for Reversibility by Inversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladstone, Roy; Palazzo, Richard

    1974-01-01

    This study demonstrates that, given the assumption that the child does have some understanding of both height and amount, many nonconservers do give correct reversal judgments for both. Also, reversibility data from this study do not support the theory that a new stage appears when water conservation judgments appear. (Author/ED)

  8. Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and…

  9. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... testing, or both, for propeller systems that allow the propeller blades to move from the flight low-pitch... systems. (a) For turbojet and turbofan reversing systems. (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more...

  10. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... testing, or both, for propeller systems that allow the propeller blades to move from the flight low-pitch... systems. (a) For turbojet and turbofan reversing systems. (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more...

  11. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... testing, or both, for propeller systems that allow the propeller blades to move from the flight low-pitch... systems. (a) For turbojet and turbofan reversing systems. (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more...

  12. 14 CFR 23.933 - Reversing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... testing, or both, for propeller systems that allow the propeller blades to move from the flight low-pitch... systems. (a) For turbojet and turbofan reversing systems. (1) Each system intended for ground operation only must be designed so that, during any reversal in flight, the engine will produce no more...

  13. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.

  14. Nonidentified Kikuchi lines with reverse contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2009-03-01

    Electron diffraction patterns of silicon in transmission with contrast reversal from bright to dark for an unidentified Kikuchi line along its length have been obtained. The contrast reversal of an unidentified line is explained within the elementary mechanism of Kikuchi pattern formation taking into account the Kikuchi electron double diffraction.

  15. The New Reverse Transfer: A National Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Janice Nahra; Wilson, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, higher education professionals and researchers have used the term reverse transfer to describe a specific group of students. A current review of community college literature and higher education policy reflects a contextual change of the term, and today reverse transfer has grown to include students who transfer from a two-year…

  16. Reverse Transfer Students: Characteristics, Motivations, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, Kathryn Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The reverse transfer literature contains studies investigating the demographic characteristics of postsecondary students that attended a community college after attending a four-year institution, and their proportion in the community college student population. A few researchers have investigated reverse transfer student motives for enrolling in…

  17. Orthographic similarity: the case of "reversed anagrams".

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison L; Still, Mary L

    2012-07-01

    How orthographically similar are words such as paws and swap, flow and wolf, or live and evil? According to the letter position coding schemes used in models of visual word recognition, these reversed anagrams are considered to be less similar than words that share letters in the same absolute or relative positions (such as home and hose or plan and lane). Therefore, reversed anagrams should not produce the standard orthographic similarity effects found using substitution neighbors (e.g., home, hose). Simulations using the spatial coding model (Davis, Psychological Review 117, 713-758, 2010), for example, predict an inhibitory masked-priming effect for substitution neighbor word pairs but a null effect for reversed anagrams. Nevertheless, we obtained significant inhibitory priming using both stimulus types (Experiment 1). We also demonstrated that robust repetition blindness can be obtained for reversed anagrams (Experiment 2). Reversed anagrams therefore provide a new test for models of visual word recognition and orthographic similarity.

  18. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department ofmore » Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.]« less

  19. Improving the Convergence of Reversible Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey-Bellet, Luc; Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    In Monte-Carlo methods the Markov processes used to sample a given target distribution usually satisfy detailed balance, i.e. they are time-reversible. However, relatively recent results have demonstrated that appropriate reversible and irreversible perturbations can accelerate convergence to equilibrium. In this paper we present some general design principles which apply to general Markov processes. Working with the generator of Markov processes, we prove that for some of the most commonly used performance criteria, i.e., spectral gap, asymptotic variance and large deviation functionals, sampling is improved for appropriate reversible and irreversible perturbations of some initially given reversible sampler. Moreover we provide specific constructions for such reversible and irreversible perturbations for various commonly used Markov processes, such as Markov chains and diffusions. In the case of diffusions, we make the discussion more specific using the large deviations rate function as a measure of performance.

  20. Parkinson’s disease managing reversible neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Cole, Ted; McDougall, Beth; Westaway, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptom course has been classified as an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease. This paper documents 29 PD and treatment-induced systemic depletion etiologies which cause and/or exacerbate the seven novel primary relative nutritional deficiencies associated with PD. These reversible relative nutritional deficiencies (RNDs) may facilitate and accelerate irreversible progressive neurodegeneration, while other reversible RNDs may induce previously undocumented reversible pseudo-neurodegeneration that is hiding in plain sight since the symptoms are identical to the symptoms being experienced by the PD patient. Documented herein is a novel nutritional approach for reversible processes management which may slow or halt irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disease and correct reversible RNDs whose symptoms are identical to the patient’s PD symptoms. PMID:27103805

  1. Estimation and uncertainty of reversible Markov models.

    PubMed

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Wu, Hao; Paul, Fabian; Noé, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Reversibility is a key concept in Markov models and master-equation models of molecular kinetics. The analysis and interpretation of the transition matrix encoding the kinetic properties of the model rely heavily on the reversibility property. The estimation of a reversible transition matrix from simulation data is, therefore, crucial to the successful application of the previously developed theory. In this work, we discuss methods for the maximum likelihood estimation of transition matrices from finite simulation data and present a new algorithm for the estimation if reversibility with respect to a given stationary vector is desired. We also develop new methods for the Bayesian posterior inference of reversible transition matrices with and without given stationary vector taking into account the need for a suitable prior distribution preserving the meta-stable features of the observed process during posterior inference. All algorithms here are implemented in the PyEMMA software--http://pyemma.org--as of version 2.0. PMID:26547152

  2. Three component vibrational time reversal communication

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian E.; Ulrich, Timothy J.; Ten Cate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Time reversal provides an optimal prefilter matched signal to apply to a communication signal before signal transmission. Time reversal allows compensation for wave speed dispersion and can function well in reverberant environments. Time reversal can be used to focus elastic energy to each of the three components of motion independently. A pipe encased in concrete was used to demonstrate the ability to conduct communications of information using three component time reversal. Furthermore, the ability of time reversal to compensate for multi-path distortion (overcoming reverberation) will be demonstrated and the rate of signal communication will be presented. [The U.S. Department of Energy, through the LANL/LDRD Program, is gratefully acknowledged for supporting this work.

  3. Estimation and uncertainty of reversible Markov models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Wu, Hao; Paul, Fabian; Noé, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Reversibility is a key concept in Markov models and master-equation models of molecular kinetics. The analysis and interpretation of the transition matrix encoding the kinetic properties of the model rely heavily on the reversibility property. The estimation of a reversible transition matrix from simulation data is, therefore, crucial to the successful application of the previously developed theory. In this work, we discuss methods for the maximum likelihood estimation of transition matrices from finite simulation data and present a new algorithm for the estimation if reversibility with respect to a given stationary vector is desired. We also develop new methods for the Bayesian posterior inference of reversible transition matrices with and without given stationary vector taking into account the need for a suitable prior distribution preserving the meta-stable features of the observed process during posterior inference. All algorithms here are implemented in the PyEMMA software — http://pyemma.org — as of version 2.0.

  4. Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Anton E; Daniel, Erno S

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propose that raising such reasoning to the conscious level reveals not its basic pattern and basic inferences, it also reveals where errors can and do occur and how such errors might be reduced or even eliminated.

  5. Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Anton E; Daniel, Erno S

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propose that raising such reasoning to the conscious level reveals not its basic pattern and basic inferences, it also reveals where errors can and do occur and how such errors might be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:20093196

  6. Laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure.

    PubMed

    Fiscon, Valentino; Portale, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Antonio; Migliorini, Giovanni; Frigo, Flavio

    2014-12-01

    Reestablishing continuity after a Hartmann's procedure is considered a major surgical procedure with high morbidity/mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the short-/long-term outcome of laparoscopic restoration of bowel continuity after HP. A prospectively collected database of colorectal laparoscopic procedures (>800) performed between June 2005 and June 2013 was used to identify 20 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure (LHR). Median age was 65.4. Ten patients (50 %) had undergone surgery for perforated diverticulitis, 3 (15 %) for cancer, and 7 (35 %) for other reasons (volvulus, posttraumatic perforation, and sigmoid perforation from foreign body). Previous HP had been performed laparoscopically in only 3 patients. Median operative time was 162.5 min. All the procedures were completed laparoscopically. Intraoperative complication rate was nil. Post-operative mortality and morbidity were respectively 0 and 10 % (1 pneumonia, 1 bowel obstruction from post-anastomotic stenosis which required resection and redo of the anastomosis). Median time to first flatus was 3 days, to normal diet 5 days. Median hospital stay was 9 days without readmissions. We followed up the patients for a median of 44 months: when asked, all 20 (100 %) said they would undergo the operation (LHR) again; 3 (15 %) had been re-operated of laparoscopic mesh repair for incisional hernia. When performed by experienced surgeons, LHR is a feasible, safe, reproducible operation, which allows early return of bowel function, early discharge and fast return to work for the patient. It has a low morbidity rate.

  7. Inhaled magnesium fluoride reverse bronchospasma.

    PubMed

    Gandia, Fedoua; Rouatbi, Sonia; Latiri, Imed; Guénard, Hervé; Tabka, Zouhair

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a global health problem. Asthma attacks are becoming more severe and more resistant to usual treatment by beta(2) agonists nebulisation. The search for a new product that could reduce the morbidity of asthmatic disease seems necessary. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of inhaled magnesium fluoride (MgF(2)) with that of magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) 15% alone and sodium fluoride (NaF) 0.5 M alone in rats pre-contracted by methacholine (MeCh). Fifty six adult male Wistar rats of medium weight 259 +/- 15 g were divided randomly into five groups. They inhaled respectively: MeCh, MgF(2) + NaCl 0.9%, MgF(2) + acetic acid, MgSO(4) 15% single and NaF (0.5 M) single. Airway resistances were measured after each dose of MeCh by pneumomultitest equipment. Results indicated that (1) MgF(2) + NaCl 0.9%, MgF(2) + acetic acid and MgSO(4) reversed significantly the methacholine-induced bronchial constriction in rats and had a bronchodilating effect at the moment of its administration (2) MgF(2) + acetic acid led to a greater decrease (P<0.05) of bronchial resistances when compared to that obtained from MgF(2) + NaCl 0.9%, NaF exclusively and MgSO(4) alone (3) inhaled NaF alone led to a significant bronchorelaxing effect (P<0.05) that starts at the sixth dose of MeCh (17 mg/L). As a matter of fact, MgF(2) dissolved in acetic acid and delivered in aerosol form reduces significantly bronchial spasm. In conclusion, MgF(2) can be used as a bronchodilator for diseases with bronchospasma such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  8. Relationship between blood pressure reverse dipping and type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lu; Yan, Bin; Gao, Ya; Su, Dan; Peng, Liyuan; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Yuhuan; Han, Donggang; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that nocturnal variations of blood pressure (BP) were closely related to type 2 diabetes. However, little information has been revealed about the relationship between reverse-dipper pattern of BP and type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, BP variations of 531 hypertensive patients were evaluated with ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese adults was made according to diabetes diagnostic criteria of 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between type 2 diabetes and ABPM results. In the study, patients with reverse-dipper pattern (32.3%) had the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with dippers (21.4%) and nondippers (23.3%). After multivariate logistic regression, reverse-dipper BP pattern (OR 2.067, P = 0.024) and nondipper BP pattern (OR 1.637, P = 0.039) were found to be correlated with type 2 diabetes compared with dipper pattern. The results of our study also suggested that type 2 diabetes might contribute to the reverse-dipper pattern of BP (OR 1.691, P = 0.023). In addition, fasting glucose was negatively correlated with the decline rate of nocturnal SBP (r = -0.095, P = 0.029). Reverse-dipper pattern of BP in ABPM may be independently associated with type 2 diabetes in patients with hypertension. PMID:27109832

  9. Measures of Diagnostic Accuracy: Basic Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy relates to the ability of a test to discriminate between the target condition and health. This discriminative potential can be quantified by the measures of diagnostic accuracy such as sensitivity and specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, the area under the ROC curve, Youden's index and diagnostic odds ratio. Different measures of diagnostic accuracy relate to the different aspects of diagnostic procedure: while some measures are used to assess the discriminative property of the test, others are used to assess its predictive ability. Measures of diagnostic accuracy are not fixed indicators of a test performance, some are very sensitive to the disease prevalence, while others to the spectrum and definition of the disease. Furthermore, measures of diagnostic accuracy are extremely sensitive to the design of the study. Studies not meeting strict methodological standards usually over- or under-estimate the indicators of test performance as well as they limit the applicability of the results of the study. STARD initiative was a very important step toward the improvement the quality of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy. STARD statement should be included into the Instructions to authors by scientific journals and authors should be encouraged to use the checklist whenever reporting their studies on diagnostic accuracy. Such efforts could make a substantial difference in the quality of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy and serve to provide the best possible evidence to the best for the patient care. This brief review outlines some basic definitions and characteristics of the measures of diagnostic accuracy.

  10. Addition of β-mercaptoethanol is a prerequisite for high-quality RNA isolation using QIAsymphony technology as demonstrated by detection of molecular aberrations in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    van der Poel-van de Luytgaarde, Sonja C P A M; Geertsma-Kleinekoort, Wendy M C; Goudswaard, Chantal S; Hogenbirk-Hupkes, Pauline E; van Hoven-Beijen, M Antoinette; van de Werf, Marloes; Chu, Isabel W T; van Kapel, Jan; Valk, Peter J M

    2013-06-01

    The isolation of high-quality RNA and DNA from various specimens is essential to perform reliable molecular diagnostic assays. In routine diagnostics of hematologic malignancies isolation of high-quality RNA is a prerequisite. We used QIAsymphony technology (QST) using a customized RNA CT 800 V6 protocol for automated semi-high-throughput isolation of RNA from human specimens and compared the results for breakpoint cluster region-c-abl oncogene 1 (BCR-ABL1) quantification by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and detection of JAK2 V617F mutations by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on QST RNA with RNA isolation performed with our routine manual method using RNA-Bee (RB). QST RNA was isolated with and without the addition of β-mercaptoethanol (BME). Addition of BME to the lysis buffer RLT Plus resulted in consistently lower Ct values in analyses of the reference gene porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). Further, the BCR-ABL1 mRNA levels of the QST RNA isolation were highly consistent with RB RNA isolation, only when the lysis buffer RLT Plus in addition contained BME. Moreover, cases of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with low levels of JAK2 V617F mRNA were even missed in QST when lysis buffer RLT Plus was used, but they were readily detected after addition of BME.

  11. Serological evaluation of suspected West Nile virus human cases following its introduction during a dengue outbreak in Puerto Rico in 2007.

    PubMed

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Beltran, Manuela; Acosta, Luz Nereida; Jordan-Munoz, Jorge; Torres, Jomil; Luce, Richard; Tomashek, Kay M

    2011-06-01

    A laboratory testing algorithm was evaluated to confirm West Nile virus (WNV) infection in human serum following the introduction of the virus in Puerto Rico in 2007. This testing algorithm used two standard diagnostic assays, the IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC ELISA) and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), along with two nonconventional assays, the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) ELISA and a 90%-plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT(90)) with IgG depletion for dengue virus (DENV) and WNV. A total of 2,321 serum samples from suspected WNV human cases were submitted for testing. Approximately one-third (867, 37%) were cross-reactive for DENV and WNV by MAC ELISA and had negative RT-PCR results for both viruses. Of a subset of 43 samples tested, 31 (72%) of these cases were identified as positive for DENV in the PRNT(90) with IgG depletion and 8 (19%) were positive in the DENV NS1 antigen ELISA. These two assays combined differentiated 36 (84%) of the samples that could not be diagnosed using the standard diagnostic testing methods.

  12. [Incontinence - Etiology, diagnostics and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Frieling, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined by the unintentional loss of solid or liquid stool, and anal incontinence includes leakage of gas and / or fecal incontinence. Anal-fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a symptom. Many patients hide the problem from their families, friends, and even their doctors. Epidemiologic studies indicate a prevalence between 7-15 %, up to 30 % in hospitals and up to 70 % in longterm care settings. Anal-fecal incontinence causes a significant socio-economic burden. There is no widely accepted approach for classifying anal-fecal incontinence available. Anal-fecal continence is maintained by anatomical factors, rectoanal sensation, and rectal compliance. The diagnostic approach comprises muscle and nerve injuries by iatrogenic, obstetric or surgical trauma, descending pelvic floor or associated diseases. A basic diagnostic workup is sufficient to characterize the different manifestations of fecal incontinence in most of the cases. This includes patient history with a daily stool protocol and digital rectal investigation. Additional investigations may include anorectal manometry, anal sphincter EMG, conduction velocity of the pudendal nerve, needle EMG, barostat investigation, defecography and the dynamic MRI. Therapeutic interventions are focused on the individual symptoms and should be provided in close cooperation with gastroenterologists, surgeons, gynecologists, urologists, physiotherapeutics and psychologists (nutritional-training, food fibre content, pharmacological treatment of diarrhea/constipation, toilet training, pelvic floor gymnastic, anal sphincter training, biofeedback). Surgical therapy includes the STARR operation for rectoanal prolapse and sacral nerve stimulation for chronic constipation and anal-fecal incontinence. Surgery should not be applied unless the diagnostic work-up is complete and all conservative treatment options failed. PMID:27557074

  13. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  14. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  15. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  16. Diagnostic management of renal colic.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Salvador, R; Artigas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Renal colic is a common reason for presentation to emergency departments, and imaging has become fundamental for the diagnosis and clinical management of this condition. Ultrasonography and particularly noncontrast computed tomography have good diagnostic performance in diagnosing renal colic. Radiologic management will depend on the tools available at the center and on the characteristics of the patient. It is essential to use computed tomography techniques that minimize radiation and to use alternatives like ultrasonography in pregnant patients and children. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical and radiologic presentations, and clinical management of ureteral lithiasis.

  17. Understanding Onychomycosis Resolving Diagnostic Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-03-01

    No scientifically rigorous, large, prospective studies have been done to document the true prevalence of onychomycosis; the reported rates vary mainly by climate and by population, but the overall prevalence in the United States is estimated to be at least 10%. Advanced age and diabetes are the most commonly reported risk factors for onychomycosis. The differential diagnosis of onychomycosis is lengthy, and visual inspection alone is not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis-direct microscopic examination of a wet-mount preparation with 10% to 20% potassium hydroxide is the first-line diagnostic test. PMID:27074698

  18. The future of diagnostic bacteriology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, S; Deutekom, J

    2011-05-01

    Diagnostic bacteriology has changed little over the past 50 years. Those changes that have occurred have been gradual but not fundamental. KIESTRA Lab Automation is a company specializing in total laboratory automation (TLA). Their methodology incorporates plate labelling and delivery, inoculation and spreading, incubation and digital image analysis. This has led to a paradigm shift in processing since decisions are made from images on a computer screen rather than examination of the actual plates. The result is the development of a skill mix based on the requirements of the service. This allows for the development of a lean and highly efficient laboratory.

  19. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  20. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  1. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  2. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  3. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Novel Designs of Quantum Reversible Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xuemei; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Fulong; Zhu, Junru; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-08-01

    Reversible logic, as an interesting and important issue, has been widely used in designing combinational and sequential circuits for low-power and high-speed computation. Though a significant number of works have been done on reversible combinational logic, the realization of reversible sequential circuit is still at premature stage. Reversible counter is not only an important part of the sequential circuit but also an essential part of the quantum circuit system. In this paper, we designed two kinds of novel reversible counters. In order to construct counter, the innovative reversible T Flip-flop Gate (TFG), T Flip-flop block (T_FF) and JK flip-flop block (JK_FF) are proposed. Based on the above blocks and some existing reversible gates, the 4-bit binary-coded decimal (BCD) counter and controlled Up/Down synchronous counter are designed. With the help of Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL), these counters above have been modeled and confirmed. According to the simulation results, our circuits' logic structures are validated. Compared to the existing ones in terms of quantum cost (QC), delay (DL) and garbage outputs (GBO), it can be concluded that our designs perform better than the others. There is no doubt that they can be used as a kind of important storage components to be applied in future low-power computing systems.

  5. Why contextual preference reversals maximize expected value.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Warren, Paul A; Farmer, George; El-Deredy, Wael; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types-including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337391

  6. Vasectomy: clinical aspects and reversibility.

    PubMed

    Muangman, V

    1979-12-01

    studies involved 185 men who had a vasectomy performed at Ramathibodi Hospital. The postvasectomized man usually feels scrotal ache or discomfort for a few days. The testicular size will not change. Approximately 50% of vasectomized men showed sperm antibodies in their serum after 6 months to 1 year, which gradually diminished at 1 1/2-2 years. The studies did not reveal any significant changes in psychosexual behavior. With the standard method of vasovasostomy the rate of pregnancy of 30% is acceptable by many. Microsurgery is introduced into this field as there is a high rate of pregnancy requirement after vasectomy reversal.

  7. Reversibility and efficiency in coding protein information.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Boaz; Priel, Avner

    2010-12-21

    Why the genetic code has a fixed length? Protein information is transferred by coding each amino acid using codons whose length equals 3 for all amino acids. Hence the most probable and the least probable amino acid get a codeword with an equal length. Moreover, the distributions of amino acids found in nature are not uniform and therefore the efficiency of such codes is sub-optimal. The origins of these apparently non-efficient codes are yet unclear. In this paper we propose an a priori argument for the energy efficiency of such codes resulting from their reversibility, in contrast to their time inefficiency. Such codes are reversible in the sense that a primitive processor, reading three letters in each step, can always reverse its operation, undoing its process. We examine the codes for the distributions of amino acids that exist in nature and show that they could not be both time efficient and reversible. We investigate a family of Zipf-type distributions and present their efficient (non-fixed length) prefix code, their graphs, and the condition for their reversibility. We prove that for a large family of such distributions, if the code is time efficient, it could not be reversible. In other words, if pre-biotic processes demand reversibility, the protein code could not be time efficient. The benefits of reversibility are clear: reversible processes are adiabatic, namely, they dissipate a very small amount of energy. Such processes must be done slowly enough; therefore time efficiency is non-important. It is reasonable to assume that early biochemical complexes were more prone towards energy efficiency, where forward and backward processes were almost symmetrical. PMID:20868696

  8. An insightful approach for understanding solvatochromic reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, Vinicius; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that organic dyes may show solvatochromic reversal with respect to the solvent polarity. This controversial non-monotonic behavior is still not well understood. This has been analyzed here using the merocyanine of Brooker as the working example. Associating a continuous variable to model the solvent polarity a solvatochromic reversal is obtained with a single solute without aggregation. This reversal is in excellent agreement with the experimental results and is shown to be the outcome of a competition between structural change and intramolecular charge transfer.

  9. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    SciTech Connect

    Masot-Conde, Fátima

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  10. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case. PMID:19481331

  11. Methane Screening in JET Reverse Field Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan; B. Alper; G. Corrigan; S.K. Erents; C. Giroud; A. Korotkov; H. Leggate; G.F. Mathews; R.A. Pitts; M. Stamp; J. Spence

    2004-05-17

    JET plasmas with reverse magnetic field feature a different SOL flow than those with normal field. The observed carbon fueling efficiency from injecting methane gas was similar in reverse and normal field. EDGE2D modeling used an externally applied force to create the SOL flows, without specifying the origin of the force. The resulting flow agreed reasonably with the experimental values between the separatrix and 4 cm mid-plane depth in the SOL. The effect of the flow on the calculated carbon screening was 5 to 15% higher carbon fueling efficiency for the low flow velocity with reverse field.

  12. Cheaper Adjoints by Reversing Address Computations

    DOE PAGES

    Hascoët, L.; Utke, J.; Naumann, U.

    2008-01-01

    The reverse mode of automatic differentiation is widely used in science and engineering. A severe bottleneck for the performance of the reverse mode, however, is the necessity to recover certain intermediate values of the program in reverse order. Among these values are computed addresses, which traditionally are recovered through forward recomputation and storage in memory. We propose an alternative approach for recovery that uses inverse computation based on dependency information. Address storage constitutes a significant portion of the overall storage requirements. An example illustrates substantial gains that the proposed approach yields, and we show use cases in practical applications.

  13. Extending the boundaries of reverse engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Chris

    2002-04-01

    In today's market place the potential of Reverse Engineering as a time compression tool is commonly lost under its traditional definition. The term Reverse Engineering was coined way back at the advent of CMM machines and 3D CAD systems to describe the process of fitting surfaces to captured point data. Since these early beginnings, downstream hardware scanning and digitising systems have evolved in parallel with an upstream demand, greatly increasing the potential of a point cloud data set within engineering design and manufacturing processes. The paper will discuss the issues surrounding Reverse Engineering at the turn of the millennium.

  14. Atomic Processes and Diagnostics of Low Pressure Krypton Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Rajesh; Goyal, Dipti; Gangwar, Reetesh; Stafford, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy along with suitable collisional-radiative (CR) model is used in plasma diagnostics. Importance of reliable cross-sections for various atomic processes is shown for low pressure argon plasma. In the present work, radially-averaged Kr emission lines from the 2pi --> 1sj were recorded as a function of pressure from 1 to 50mTorr. We have developed a CR model using our fine-structure relativistic-distorted wave cross sections. The various processes considered are electron-impact excitation, ionization and their reverse processes. The required rate coefficients have been calculated from these cross-sections assuming Maxwellian energy distribution. Electron temperature obtained from the CR model is found to be in good agreement with the probe measurements. Work is supported by IAEA Vienna, DAE-BRNS Mumbai and CSIR, New Delhi.

  15. Learning diagnostic features: the delta rule does Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Hannagan, Thomas; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-07-17

    It has been shown (Murray & Gold, 2004a) that the Bubbles paradigm for studying human perceptual identification can be formally analyzed and compared to reverse correlation methods when the underlying identification model is conceived as a linear amplifier (LAM). However the usefulness of a LAM for characterizing human perceptual identification mechanisms has subsequently been questioned (Gosselin & Schyns, 2004). In this article we show that a simple linear model that is formally analogous to the LAM--a linear perceptron trained with the delta rule--can make sense of several Bubbles experiments in the context of letter identification. Specifically, an analysis of input-output connection weights after training revealed that the most positive weights clustered around letter parts in a way that mimicked the diagnostic parts of letters revealed by the Bubbles technique (Fiset et al., 2008). Our results suggest that linear observer models are indeed unreasonably effective, at least as first approximations to human letter identification mechanisms.

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of anophthalmia by three-dimensional ultrasound: a novel application of the reverse face view.

    PubMed

    Wong, H S; Parker, S; Tait, J; Pringle, K C

    2008-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of anophthalmia can be made on the demonstration of absent eye globe and lens on the affected side(s) on two-dimensional ultrasound examination, but when the fetal head position is unfavorable three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound may reveal additional diagnostic sonographic features, including sunken eyelids and small or hypoplastic orbit on the affected side(s). We present two cases of isolated anophthalmia diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound examination in which 3D ultrasound provided additional diagnostic information. The reverse face view provides valuable information about the orbits and the eyeballs for prenatal diagnosis and assessment of anophthalmia.

  17. [Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

    2013-09-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy in biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Letokhov, Vladilen S.; Artioushenko, Vjacheslav G.; Golovkina, Viktoriya N.

    1998-01-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW- FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850 - 1850 cm-1) has recently found application in the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured in vivo the skin normal and malignant tissues on surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room for measurements of skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis), human breast, stomach, lung, kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of amino acid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  19. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nema, Vijay

    2012-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field. PMID:22919166

  20. [Companion Diagnostics for Solid Tumors].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Companion diagnostics (CoDx) will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas including solid tumors, for example EGFR for gefitinib and ALK fusion gene for crizotinib in non-small-cell lung cancer; KRAS against the use of cetuximab and panitumumab in colorectal cancer; HER2 for trastuzumab in breast cancer. CoDx are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics. In CoDx development, there are still many challenges, such as the business model promoting cooperation between diagnostics and pharmaceutical companies, and also the regulations related to CoDx. The FDA notice on the development of CoDx in 2011 recommended the co-development of a new drug and CoDx as the best practice, and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan also issued a statement in 2013. In addition, the recent discovery of many novel variants in the DNA sequence, advances in sequencing and genomic technology, and improved analytic methods have enabled the impact of germline and somatic mutations to be determined using multiplex diagnosis. The complex challenges to develop CoDx necessitate a close collaboration among academic institutions, regulatory authorities, and pharmaceutical companies. [Review]. PMID:26995877

  1. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  2. Neutron diagnostics for mirror hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellne, Jan; Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tardocchi, Marco; Grosso, Giovanni

    2012-06-19

    Fusion-fission (FuFi) hybrids will need instrumentation to diagnose the deuteriumtritium plasma, whose 14-MeV neutron emission is the driver of the sub-critical fission core. While the fission neutron yield rate (Y{sub fi} and hence power P{sub fi}) can be monitored with standard instrumentation, fusion plasmas in hybrids require special diagnostics where the determination of Y{sub th} ({proportional_to}P{sub fu}) is a challenge. Information on Y{sub fu} is essential for assessing the fusion plasma performance which together with Y{sub fi} allows for the validation of the neutron multiplication factor (k) of the subcritical fission core. Diagnostics for hybrid plasmas are heuristically discussed with special reference to straight field line mirror (SFLM). Relevant DT plasma experience from JET and plans for ITER in the main line of fusion research were used as input. It is shown that essential SFLM plasma information can potentially be obtained with proposed instrumentation, but the state of the hybrid plasma must be predictably robust as derived from fully diagnosed dedicated experiments without interface restrictions of the hybrid application.

  3. [Companion Diagnostics for Solid Tumors].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Companion diagnostics (CoDx) will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas including solid tumors, for example EGFR for gefitinib and ALK fusion gene for crizotinib in non-small-cell lung cancer; KRAS against the use of cetuximab and panitumumab in colorectal cancer; HER2 for trastuzumab in breast cancer. CoDx are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics. In CoDx development, there are still many challenges, such as the business model promoting cooperation between diagnostics and pharmaceutical companies, and also the regulations related to CoDx. The FDA notice on the development of CoDx in 2011 recommended the co-development of a new drug and CoDx as the best practice, and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan also issued a statement in 2013. In addition, the recent discovery of many novel variants in the DNA sequence, advances in sequencing and genomic technology, and improved analytic methods have enabled the impact of germline and somatic mutations to be determined using multiplex diagnosis. The complex challenges to develop CoDx necessitate a close collaboration among academic institutions, regulatory authorities, and pharmaceutical companies. [Review].

  4. New tuberculosis diagnostics and rollout.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth; Cunningham, Jane; Hepple, Pamela; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-03-01

    Early detection and effective treatment are crucial for tuberculosis control, but global case detection rates remain low. The diagnosis of paediatric and extrapulmonary disease is problematic and there are, as yet, no rapid screening tests to assist active case finding in the community. Progress has been made in clinic-based detection tools with the introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF, a nucleic acid amplification test that combines sample processing and analysis in a single instrument to provide a diagnostic result and detection of resistance to rifampicin in under 2h. Enthusiasm for Xpert MTB/RIF has been high and global rollout has been facilitated by donor agencies. However, concerns remain about access and sustainability due to the high cost and infrastructure requirements. Although more sensitive than smear microscopy, early studies suggest the impact of the new test on case detection rates and patient survival has been limited. Alternative technologies are being developed, including non-sputum-based tests to assist the detection of extrapulmonary disease. Evaluation studies are needed to provide evidence of the impact of the new technologies on patient outcomes. This will enable appropriate placement of new diagnostic products in the healthcare system to support the control and eventual eradication of tuberculosis disease.

  5. [Diagnostic imaging of splenic disease].

    PubMed

    Völk, M; Strotzer, M

    2006-03-01

    Primary diseases of the spleen are relatively rare. More frequently, the spleen is involved secondarily in hematological, oncological, infectious, immunological, vascular, and other systemic diseases. The spleen is the most commonly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Anatomical and physiological basics are explained, in addition to embryological facts with resulting abnormalities, such as accessory and "wandering" spleen, and polysplenia. The most frequent primary and secondary diseases of the spleen, including rare diagnoses, are presented and illustrated. Hemangioma represents the most common primary benign tumor, and lymphoma the most common primary malignant tumor of the spleen. Diagnostic imaging does not a allow safe differentiation between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. One section deals with the clinical value and diagnostic workup of incidentally detected lesions. Simple cysts and calcifications need neither clarification nor a follow-up examination. Atypical cysts should be controlled within 3-6 months. Additional clarification using CT or MRT should be reserved for cases with a strong suspicion of clinically relevant primary or secondary splenic disease. PMID:16435091

  6. Diagnostic 'omics' for active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Haas, Carolin T; Roe, Jennifer K; Pollara, Gabriele; Mehta, Meera; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2016-01-01

    The decision to treat active tuberculosis (TB) is dependent on microbiological tests for the organism or evidence of disease compatible with TB in people with a high demographic risk of exposure. The tuberculin skin test and peripheral blood interferon-γ release assays do not distinguish active TB from a cleared or latent infection. Microbiological culture of mycobacteria is slow. Moreover, the sensitivities of culture and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid detection by PCR are often compromised by difficulty in obtaining samples from the site of disease. Consequently, we need sensitive and rapid tests for easily obtained clinical samples, which can be deployed to assess patients exposed to TB, discriminate TB from other infectious, inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, and to identify subclinical TB in HIV-1 infected patients prior to commencing antiretroviral therapy. We discuss the evaluation of peripheral blood transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to develop the next generation of rapid diagnostics for active TB. We catalogue the studies published to date seeking to discriminate active TB from healthy volunteers, patients with latent infection and those with other diseases. We identify the limitations of these studies and the barriers to their adoption in clinical practice. In so doing, we aim to develop a framework to guide our approach to discovery and development of diagnostic biomarkers for active TB. PMID:27005907

  7. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  8. Sonicated Diagnostic Immunoblot for Bartonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallqui, Vania; Speelmon, Emily C.; Verástegui, Manuela; Maguiña-Vargas, Ciro; Pinell-Salles, Paula; Lavarello, Rosa; Delgado, Jose; Kosek, Margaret; Romero, Sofia; Arana, Yanina; Gilman, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Two simple Bartonella bacilliformis immunoblot preparation methods were developed. Antigen was prepared by two different methods: sonication of whole organisms or glycine extraction. Both methods were then tested for sensitivity and specificity. Well-defined control sera were utilized in the development of these diagnostic immunoblots, and possible cross-reactions were thoroughly examined. Sera investigated for cross-reaction with these diagnostic antigens were drawn from patients with brucellosis, chlamydiosis, Q fever, and cat scratch disease, all of whom were from regions where bartonellosis is not endemic. While both immunoblots yielded reasonable sensitivity and high specificity, we recommend the use of the sonicated immunoblot, which has a higher sensitivity when used to detect acute disease and produces fewer cross-reactions. The sonicated immunoblot reported here is 94% sensitive to chronic bartonellosis and 70% sensitive to acute bartonellosis. In a healthy group, it is 100% specific. This immunoblot preparation requires a simple sonication protocol for the harvesting of B. bacilliformis antigens and is well suited for use in regions of endemicity. PMID:10618267

  9. microRNA: Diagnostic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Omar; Vecchione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. An ideal marker should be safe and easy to measure, cost efficient, modifiable with treatment, and consistent across gender and ethnic groups. To date, none of the available biomarkers satisfy all of these criteria. In addition, the major limitations of these markers are low specificity, sensitivity, and false positive results. Recently identified, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA (about 22–25 nt long), also known as micro-coordinators of gene expression, which have been shown to be an effective tools to study the biology of diseases and to have great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of developmental and physiological processes and their deficiencies have been related to a number of disease. In addition, miRNAs are stable and can be easily isolated and measured from tissues and body fluids. In this review, we provide a perspective on emerging concepts and potential usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic markers, emphasizing the involvement of specific miRNAs in particular tumor types, subtypes, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, and forensic test. PMID:26284247

  10. Myoepithelioma: definitions and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Dardick, I

    1995-01-01

    Due to their infrequency and multiplicity of histopathology, myoepitheliomas present difficulties in diagnosis and classification. Cellular varieties can be misdiagnosed as malignancies. Improvements in and clarification of diagnostic criteria are, therefore, required. A key to determining diagnostic criteria for myoepitheliomas is to study cellular morphology, cytoplasmic filament expression, and ultrastructural features of the nonluminal, i.e., neoplastic myoepithelial/basal, tumor cells of pleomorphic adenomas, and apply this information to defining myoepitheliomas. Cytologic and growth patterns of nonluminal cells in pleomorphic adenomas, including plasma-cytoid cells, are reflected in myoepitheliomas. Results also indicate that muscle-specific actin and myofilaments are expressed only in a proportion of cases, and generally in not more than 60-70% of nonluminal cells in pleomorphic adenoma; this also applies to benign and malignant myoepitheliomas. The absence of these markers does not exclude a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Vimentin and glial acidic fibrillary protein, however, are strongly and diffusely expressed in the majority of pleomorphic adenomas and myoepitheliomas and are more reliable markers for these tumors than muscle-specific actin. Like so many other salivary gland tumors, myoepitheliomas present an equally complex histomorphology and variable expression of antigenic markers, only some of which are associated with myoepithelial and basal cells of the acini and ducts of the normal salivary gland.

  11. Constraining the reversing and non-reversing modes of the geodynamo. New insights from magnetostratigraphy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Y.; Pavlov, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Hulot, G.

    2015-12-01

    Constraining the evolution in the geomagnetic reversal frequency over hundreds of million years is not a trivial matter. Beyond the fact that there are long periods without reversals, known as superchrons, and periods with many reversals, the way the reversal frequency changes through time during reversing periods is still debated. A smooth evolution or a succession of stationary segments have both been suggested to account for the geomagnetic polarity time scale since the Middle-Late Jurassic. Sudden changes from a reversing mode to a non-reversing mode of the geodynamo may also well have happened, the switch between the two modes having then possibly been controlled by the thermal conditions at the core-mantle boundary. There is, nevertheless, a growing set of magnetostratigraphic data, which could help decipher a proper interpretation of the reversal history, in particular in the early Paleozoic and even during the Precambrian. Although yielding a fragmentary record, these data reveal the occurrence of both additional superchrons and periods characterized by extremely high, not to say extraordinary, magnetic reversal frequencies. In this talk, we will present a synthesis of these data, mainly obtained from Siberia, and discuss their implication for the magnetic reversal behavior over the past billion years.

  12. Plasma miRNA expression profile in the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Nicholas; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Researchers reporting in the Nature journal Scientific Reports1 have used next generation sequencing and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) technology to profile plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression in cohorts of men with and without late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). The study proposes a panel of three miRNAs as novel biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of LOH. PMID:27364544

  13. Prevalence of Astrovirus Infection among Chilean Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Gaggero, Aldo; O’Ryan, Miguel; Noel, Jacqueline S.; Glass, Roger I.; Monroe, Stephan S.; Mamani, Nora; Prado, Valeria; Avendaño, Luis F.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of astrovirus infection in 456 Chilean children with diarrhea was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcriptase PCR, and cell culture. Astrovirus was detected in 16.5% of rotavirus-negative and 7% of rotavirus-positive samples obtained from emergency rooms or hospitals and in 11% of samples from day care centers. HAst-1 was the predominant serotype identified. PMID:9817899

  14. New Insights into the Molecular Distinction of Dysplastic Nevi and Common Melanocytic Nevi-Highlighting the Keratinocyte-Melanocyte Relationship.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Philip; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-10-01

    Mitsui et al. approach the problem of differentiating dysplastic nevi from common melanocytic nevi through a molecular lens. Whereas most of the literature on this topic shines the spotlight toward melanocytes, the focus of this paper is shifted to the tumor microenvironment. Using microarrays, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, their results emphasize the role of keratinocyte dysplasia within dysplastic nevi. PMID:27664709

  15. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways in Ecotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or incompletely characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, meabolic, signaling) t...

  16. The reverse laser drilling of transparent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, T. R.; Lindner, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Within a limited range of incident laser-beam intensities, laser drilling of a sapphire wafer initiates on the surface of the wafer where the laser beam exits and proceeds upstream in the laser beam to the surface where the laser beam enters the wafer. This reverse laser drilling is the result of the constructive interference between the laser beam and its reflected component on the exit face of the wafer. Constructive interference occurs only at the exit face of the sapphire wafer because the internally reflected laser beam suffers no phase change there. A model describing reverse laser drilling predicts the ranges of incident laser-beam intensity where no drilling, reverse laser drilling, and forward laser drilling can be expected in various materials. The application of reverse laser drilling in fabricating feed-through conductors in silicon-on-sapphire wafers for a massively parallel processer is described.

  17. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  18. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    PubMed

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant. PMID:23887660

  19. Galen: developer of the reversal design?

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    Galen, known to psychologists largely for his personality theory of the four temperaments, diagnosed the cause of a patient's symptoms with a form of reversal design long before its formal description (e.g., Sidman, 1960).

  20. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1995-10-01

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Uncertainties about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal has limited the reactor operating power to 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these uncertainties is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW.

  1. Galen: Developer of the Reversal Design?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    Galen, known to psychologists largely for his personality theory of the four temperaments, diagnosed the cause of a patient's symptoms with a form of reversal design long before its formal description (e.g., Sidman, 1960). PMID:22478486

  2. Reversible Oxygenation of Oxygen Transport Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drain, C. M.; Corden, Barry B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration which illustrates changes in the visible spectra of oxygen transport proteins upon reversible oxygen binding. Provides a comparison of the physical characteristics of oxygen storage and transport proteins. Reviews essentials for preparation of the materials. (ML)

  3. Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2012-07-20

    Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.

  4. Local heating realization by reverse thermal cloak

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Run; Wei, Xuli; Hu, Jinyan; Luo, Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Transformation thermodynamics, as one of the important branches among the extensions of transformation optics, has attracted plentiful attentions and interests recently. The result of transformation thermodynamics, or called as “thermal cloak”, can realize isothermal region and hide objects from heat. In this paper, we presented the concept of “reverse thermal cloak” to correspond to the thermal cloak and made a simple engineering definition to identify them. By full-wave simulations, we verified that the reverse thermal cloak can concentrate heat and realize local heating. The performance of local heating depends on the anisotropic dispersion of the cloaking layer's thermal conductivity. Three-dimensional finite element simulations demonstrated that the reverse thermal cloak can be used to heat up objects. Besides pre-engineered metamaterials, such reverse thermal cloak can even be realized with homogenous materials by alternating spoke-like structure or Hashin coated-sphere structure. PMID:24398592

  5. Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.

    PubMed

    Helou, Josiane; Habre, Maya; Soutou, Boutros; Maatouk, Ismael; Ibrahim, Tony; Tomb, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. After 26 weeks of follow-up, each patient was assessed for spontaneous reversibility. A 12-week duration treatment with topical aluminum chloride was evaluated in patients with persisting hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis was assessed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS). Spontaneous reversibility was observed in 20% of patients. In total, 23 out of 30 patients recovered normal axillary transpiration either spontaneously or after treatment. Mean HDSS score was significantly lower in the treated group. It appears that axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, secondary to laser depilation, reverse either spontaneously or after using topical antiperspirant.

  6. Reversible Michael additions: covalent inhibitors and prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Martin H

    2012-11-01

    Covalent inhibition is an efficient molecular mechanism for inhibiting enzymes or modulating the function of proteins and is found in the action of many drugs and biologically active natural products. However, it is has been less appreciated that the formation of covalent bonds can be reversible or irreversible. This review focuses on biologically active compounds that are Michael acceptors and how the reversible nature of the Michael addition reaction influences biological activity and how this can be exploited in designing prodrugs.

  7. Predicting trend reversals using market instantaneous state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bury, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Collective behaviors taking place in financial markets reveal strongly correlated states especially during a crisis period. A natural hypothesis is that trend reversals are also driven by mutual influences between the different stock exchanges. Using a maximum entropy approach, we find coordinated behavior during trend reversals dominated by the pairwise component. In particular, these events are predicted with high significant accuracy by the ensemble's instantaneous state.

  8. MODIFIED BOROHYDRIDES FOR REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Au, Ming

    2006-05-10

    This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing dehydriding temperature and generating dehydriding-rehydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature.

  9. Miniature Reversal Electron-Attachment Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    1994-01-01

    Miniature reversal electron-attachment detector (miniREAD) enables direct injection of air or vapor at atmospheric pressure from monitored area into mass-spectrometric instrument to detect explosives, narcotics, or other substances, vapors of which suspected of being present in low concentrations. In comparison with older reversal electron-attachment detector, miniREAD simpler in design; more rugged; and easier to build, repair, and maintain. In addition, probably more sensitive.

  10. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Another look at children's symbol reversals.

    PubMed

    Patton, J E; Yarbrough, D B; Thursby, D

    2000-04-01

    In a previously reported longitudinal study of reversal errors for static and kinetic written symbols we found no compelling support for their academic importance in kindergarten (n = 201), Grade 1 (n = 156), or Grade 2 (n = 129); however, for Grade 3 (n = 105), kinetic reversals became a significant predictor of tested reading achievement. If reliable, this finding might have implications for the identification of children with long-term reading impairment. PMID:10833756

  12. RNA virus reverse genetics and vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Stobart, Christopher C; Moore, Martin L

    2014-06-25

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines.

  13. RNA Virus Reverse Genetics and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24967693

  14. Geomagnetic reversal in brunhes normal polarity epoch.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Foster, J H

    1969-02-01

    The magnetic stratigraphly of seven cores of deep-sea sediment established the existence of a short interval of reversed polarity in the upper part of the Brunches epoch of normal polarity. The reversed zone in the cores correlates well with paleontological boundaries and is named the Blake event. Its boundaries are estimated to be 108,000 and 114,000 years ago +/- 10 percent. PMID:17750890

  15. Emerging Indications for Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Urch, Ekaterina; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M

    2016-01-01

    Historically, reverse shoulder arthroplasty was reserved for older, low-demand patients in whom rotator cuff arthropathy was diagnosed. Other common indications included sequelae of previously treated proximal humerus fractures, failed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty, tumor resection, and rheumatoid arthritis in the elderly population. Unpredictable implant durability and high complication rates have limited the use of reverse shoulder arthroplasty to a narrow group of patients. Over the past decade, however, research has led to an improved understanding of the biomechanics behind reverse shoulder prostheses, which has improved implant design and surgical techniques. Consequently, orthopaedic surgeons have slowly begun to expand the indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty to include a wider spectrum of shoulder pathologies. Recent studies have shown promising results for patients who undergo reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of acute proximal humerus fractures, massive rotator cuff tears without arthropathy, primary osteoarthritis, and chronic anterior dislocation, as well as for younger patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. These data suggest that, with judicious patient selection, reverse shoulder arthroplasty can be an excellent treatment option for a growing patient cohort. PMID:27049188

  16. Time reversals of irreversible quantum maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-09-01

    We propose an alternative notion of time reversal in open quantum systems as represented by linear quantum operations, and a related generalization of classical entropy production in the environment. This functional is the ratio of the probability to observe a transition between two states under the forward and the time reversed dynamics, and leads, as in the classical case, to fluctuation relations as tautological identities. As in classical dynamics in contact with a heat bath, time reversal is not unique, and we discuss several possibilities. For any bistochastic map its dual map preserves the trace and describes a legitimate dynamics reversed in time, in that case the entropy production in the environment vanishes. For a generic stochastic map we construct a simple quantum operation which can be interpreted as a time reversal. For instance, the decaying channel, which sends the excited state into the ground state with a certain probability, can be reversed into the channel transforming the ground state into the excited state with the same probability.

  17. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  18. Diagnostic Progress and Results on the Magnetized Shock Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Weber, T. E.

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL is reliably producing Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas spanning peak densities of ~ 1021-23 m-3, combined Te +Ti of 10s-500eV and velocities of 100-300km/s as a means to producing a laboratory supercritical collision-less shock. Visible light images showing discontinuities indicative of shocks and jetting have been obtained on various targets: co-solenoid B field, a metal wall and counter-solenoidal B fields (FRC capture and reconnection). Two chord interferometry, external and internal magnetic probing are routinely employed and x-ray diagnostic capability has recently been added. The pulsed polarimetry technique is being deployed which can measure the local magnetic field using Lidar Thomson scattering. In addition, a fiber optic version of pulsed polarimetry using a new specialty fiber that enhances fiber backscatter with Fiber Bragg Gratings is being developed. Magnetic fields of order ~ 1T have been measured, however a new modified shock chamber geometry and recent machine modifications enabling operation at increased θ-coil voltage are expected to improve translation speed and hence stagnation pressures. Progress on these diagnostics and results will be presented. DOE support Grant No DE-SC00010559.

  19. Current and nano-diagnostic tools for dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Peh, Alister En Kai; Leo, Yee-Sin; Toh, Chee Seng

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is one of the infectious diseases that is widespread over global regions with yearly occurrence of epidemics and could be deadly in some cases. Thus the developments of rapid and specific diagnostic tools which can achieve early detection of dengue infection for disease control during epidemic situations and before complications occur are deemed highly desirable. This paper describes the current and advanced methods for diagnosis of dengue infection and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods in terms of their analytical performances and clinical applicabilities. The current methods discussed herein include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In addition, recent instrumental methods such as quartz crystal microbalance, surface plasmon resonance, photonic crystal and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have shown promising results. Interesting developments in detection of dengue infection using nanosized materials including liposomes, nanowires and nanopores, coupled to conventional fluorescence, potentiometry and voltammetry methods are also described and could possibly point the way forward for the development of inexpensive diagnostic tools for use at point-of-care and in events of epidemic scale.

  20. Motional Stark effect diagnostic on TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowska, K.; De Bock, M.; Jaspers, R.; von Hellermann, M.; Shmaenok, L.

    2004-10-01

    A motional Stark effect diagnostic at the tokamak TEXTOR has been constructed and brought recently into operation. In contrast to diagnostics used on other tokamaks, this diagnostic reveals the direction of the magnetic field from the intensity ratio of the π and σ components of the emitted Balmer-α and not from a polarization measurement of a single line. Moreover, the complete spectrum is measured which allows determining the radial position of the measurement, and in principle the radial electric field.