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Sample records for reversible hepatocyte hypertrophy

  1. Indole-3-carbinol, but not its major digestive product 3,3'-diindolylmethane, induces reversible hepatocyte hypertrophy and cytochromes P450

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, James A. . E-mail: jc94h@nih.gov; Page, John G.; Levine, Barry S.; Tomlinson, Michael J.; Hebert, Charles D.

    2006-03-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to reduce the incidence and multiplicity of cancers in laboratory animal models. Based on the observation that I-3-C induced hepatocyte hypertrophy when administered orally for 13 weeks to rats, a treatment and recovery study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the induction of hepatocyte hypertrophy and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by I-3-C are adaptive, reversible responses. Additionally, we directly compared the effects of I-3-C to those of its principle metabolite DIM. Rats were treated orally for 28 days with 2 doses of I-3-C (5 and 50 mg I-3-C/kg body weight/day) and DIM (7.5 and 75 mg DIM/kg body weight/day) and then one-half of the animals were not treated for an additional 28 days. Organ weights, histopathology, and the CYP enzyme activities of 1A1/2, 2B1/2, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, and 19 A were measured both after treatment and after recovery. Oral administration of 50 mg I-3-C/kg body weight/day to rats for 28 days significantly increased liver weights and CYP enzyme activities. The effects in males were more pronounced and persistent after recovery than the effects in females. The increased organ weights returned to control values after treatment. Conversely, DIM did not alter liver weights and had no effect on CYP activities after the 28-day treatment. Some changes in CYP activities were measured after the DIM recovery period but the magnitudes of the changes were considered biologically insignificant. The results show that I-3-C, but not DIM, induces reversible adaptive responses in the liver.

  2. Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akane; Masuda, Miyabi; Kawano, Takuya; Kitsunai, Yoko; Nakayama, Haruka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Uramaru, Naoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

     Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticides. Using risk assessment reports of pesticides that are publicly available from the Food Safety Commission of Japan, we extracted all observations/findings that were based on 90-day subacute toxicity tests and 2-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in rats. Analysis of the database revealed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed for 37-47% of the pesticides investigated (varying depending on sex and testing period), and that centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy was the most frequent among the various types of hepatocyte hypertrophy in both the 90-day and 2-year studies. The database constructed in this study enables us to investigate the relationships between hepatocyte hypertrophy and other toxicological observations/findings, and thus will be useful for characterizing hepatocyte hypertrophy.

  3. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor and angiotensin II on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ai-Lan; Ou, Cai-Wen; He, Zhao-Chu; Liu, Qi-Cai; Dong, Qi; Chen, Min-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [3H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. PMID:23044624

  4. Growth Differentiation Factor 11 is a Circulating Factor that Reverses Age-Related Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Loffredo, Francesco S.; Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Jay, Steven M.; Gannon, Joseph; Pancoast, James R.; Yalamanchi, Pratyusha; Sinha, Manisha; Dall’Osso, Claudia; Khong, Danika; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Miller, Christine M.; Singer, Britta S.; Stewart, Alex; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Gerszten, Robert E.; Hartigan, Adam J.; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Serwold, Thomas; Wagers, Amy J.; Lee, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The most common form of heart failure occurs with normal systolic function and often involves cardiac hypertrophy in the elderly. To clarify the biological mechanisms that drive cardiac hypertrophy in aging, we tested the influence of circulating factors using heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical technique in which joining of animals of different ages leads to a shared circulation. After 4 weeks of exposure to the circulation of young mice, cardiac hypertrophy in old mice dramatically regressed, accompanied by reduced cardiomyocyte size and molecular remodeling. Reversal of age-related hypertrophy was not attributable to hemodynamic or behavioral effects of parabiosis, implicating a blood-borne factor. Using modified aptamer-based proteomics, we identified the TGFβ superfamily member GDF11 as a circulating factor in young mice that declines with age. Treatment of old mice to restore GDF11 to youthful levels recapitulated the effects of parabiosis and reversed age-related hypertrophy, revealing a new therapeutic opportunity for cardiac aging. PMID:23663781

  5. Reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy via the MEF2-coregulator interface.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianqin; Joshi, Shaurya; Speransky, Svetlana; Crowley, Christopher; Jayathilaka, Nimanthi; Lei, Xiao; Wu, Yongqing; Gai, David; Jain, Sumit; Hoosien, Michael; Gao, Yan; Chen, Lin; Bishopric, Nanette H

    2017-09-07

    Cardiac hypertrophy, as a response to hemodynamic stress, is associated with cardiac dysfunction and death, but whether hypertrophy itself represents a pathological process remains unclear. Hypertrophy is driven by changes in myocardial gene expression that require the MEF2 family of DNA-binding transcription factors, as well as the nuclear lysine acetyltransferase p300. Here we used genetic and small-molecule probes to determine the effects of preventing MEF2 acetylation on cardiac adaptation to stress. Both nonacetylatable MEF2 mutants and 8MI, a molecule designed to interfere with MEF2-coregulator binding, prevented hypertrophy in cultured cardiac myocytes. 8MI prevented cardiac hypertrophy in 3 distinct stress models, and reversed established hypertrophy in vivo, associated with normalization of myocardial structure and function. The effects of 8MI were reversible, and did not prevent training effects of swimming. Mechanistically, 8MI blocked stress-induced MEF2 acetylation, nuclear export of class II histone deacetylases HDAC4 and -5, and p300 induction, without impeding HDAC4 phosphorylation. Correspondingly, 8MI transformed the transcriptional response to pressure overload, normalizing almost all 232 genes dysregulated by hemodynamic stress. We conclude that MEF2 acetylation is required for development and maintenance of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, and that blocking MEF2 acetylation can permit recovery from hypertrophy without impairing physiologic adaptation.

  6. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism by propionic acid and its reversal by carnitine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Brass, E P; Fennessey, P V; Miller, L V

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to study the interaction of propionic acid and carnitine on oxidative metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes. Propionic acid (10 mM) inhibited hepatocyte oxidation of [1-14C]-pyruvate (10 mM) by 60%. This inhibition was not the result of substrate competition, as butyric acid had minimal effects on pyruvate oxidation. Carnitine had a small inhibitory effect on pyruvate oxidation in the hepatocyte system (210 +/- 19 and 184 +/- 18 nmol of pyruvate/60 min per mg of protein in the absence and presence of 10 mM-carnitine respectively; means +/- S.E.M., n = 10). However, in the presence of propionic acid (10 mM), carnitine (10 mM) increased the rate of pyruvate oxidation by 19%. Under conditions where carnitine partially reversed the inhibitory effect of propionic acid on pyruvate oxidation, formation of propionylcarnitine was documented by using fast-atom-bombardment mass spectroscopy. Propionic acid also inhibited oxidation of [1-14C]palmitic acid (0.8 mM) by hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. The degree of inhibition caused by propionic acid was decreased in the presence of 10 mM-carnitine (41% inhibition in the absence of carnitine, 22% inhibition in the presence of carnitine). Propionic acid did not inhibit [1-14C]palmitic acid oxidation by hepatocytes isolated from 48 h-starved rats. These results demonstrate that propionic acid interferes with oxidative metabolism in intact hepatocytes. Carnitine partially reverses the inhibition of pyruvate and palmitic acid oxidation by propionic acid, and this reversal is associated with increased propionylcarnitine formation. The present study provides a metabolic basis for the efficacy of carnitine in patients with abnormal organic acid accumulation, and the observation that such patients appear to have increased carnitine requirements ('carnitine insufficiency'). PMID:3790065

  7. Reversible metabolic depression in hepatocytes of lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) during pre-spawning: regulation by substrate availability.

    PubMed

    Gamper, N L; Savina, M V

    2000-10-01

    The regulation of oxidative metabolism in hepatocytes of lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis) during the freshwater pre-spawning period of their life cycle was studied. The energy metabolism in these cells is characterized by a simplified scheme, where glycolytic ATP production is insignificant and fatty acids are the major respiratory substrates. Seasonal changes in aerobic cell metabolism include a considerable reversible depression of metabolic rate in lamprey hepatocytes during the winter months of the pre-spawning period. The depression is characterized by a more than twofold decrease in hepatocyte endogenous respiration rate, a reduction of oxidative phosphorylation and drop in cellular ATP content. The addition of fatty acids to the hepatocyte incubation medium prevents the decrease in the metabolic rate. In spring, before spawning, a marked activation of energy metabolism in lamprey hepatocytes is found. These observations support the conclusion that the regulation of lamprey hepatocyte energy metabolism is realized through the availability of fatty acids for oxidation.

  8. Carbon Tetrachloride at Hepatotoxic Levels Blocks Reversibly Gap Junctions between Rat Hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, J. C.; Bennett, M. V. L.; Spray, D. C.

    1987-05-01

    Electrical coupling and dye coupling between pairs of rat hepatocytes were reversibly reduced by brief exposure to halogenated methanes (CBrCl3, CCl4, and CHCl3). The potency of different halomethanes in uncoupling hepatocytes was comparable to their hepatotoxicity in vivo, and the rank order was the same as that of their tendency to form free radicals. The effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on hepatocytes was substantially reduced by prior treatment with SKF 525A, an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450, and by exposure to the reducing reagent β -mercaptoethanol. Halomethane uncoupling occurred with or without extracellular calcium and did not change intracellular concentrations of calcium and hydrogen ions or the phosphorylation state of the main gap-junctional protein. Thus the uncoupling appears to depend on cytochrome P-450 oxidative metabolism in which free radicals are generated and may result from oxidation of the gap-junctional protein or of a regulatory molecule that leads to closure of gap-junctional channels. Decreases in junctional conductance may be a rapid cellular response to injury that protects healthy cells by uncoupling them from unhealthy ones.

  9. Autophagic sequestration of [14C]sucrose, introduced into rat hepatocytes by reversible electro-permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, P B; Seglen, P O

    1982-11-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes could be made permeable to small molecules such as [14C]sucrose (but not to proteins) by subjecting the cells to repeated electric discharges in a high-voltage field. During subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C, the permeability changes were reversed within 15 min, the electro-injected [14C]sucrose remaining trapped inside the re-sealed plasma membrane. Autophagic sequestration of [14C]sucrose, i.e., the transfer of radioactivity from cytosol to sedimentable vesicles (autophagosomes and lysosomes), could be followed by incubating the [14C]sucrose-loaded hepatocytes for up to 2 h at 37 degrees C. After incubation, the cells were disrupted by a single high-voltage discharge in electrolyte-free medium (sucrose), and sedimentable cell components were separated from the cytosol by centrifugation through metrizamide. By the use of these methods, which are particularly suitable for the analysis of many small cell samples, it could be shown that [14C]sucrose was autophagically sequestered in the hepatocytes at a rate of 4-5%/h. The sequestration was nearly completely inhibited by the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine.

  10. Serelaxin treatment reverses vascular dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy in a mouse model of Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hooi Hooi; Leo, Chen Huei; Prakoso, Darnel; Qin, Chengxue; Ritchie, Rebecca H.; Parry, Laura J.

    2017-01-01

    Serelaxin prevents endothelial dysfunction in the mouse aorta ex vivo and inhibits apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under acute hyperglycaemia. Less is known about the effects of serelaxin in an in vivo mouse model of diabetes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice that serelaxin is able to reverse diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction and cardiac remodelling. Mice were divided into citrate buffer + placebo, STZ + placebo and STZ + serelaxin (0.5 mg/kg/d, 2 weeks) groups. After 12 weeks of diabetes, sensitivity to the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (ACh) was reduced in the mesenteric artery. This was accompanied by an enhanced vasoconstrictor prostanoid contribution and a decrease in endothelium-derived hyperpolarisation (EDH)-mediated relaxation. Serelaxin restored endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxation but not EDH. It also normalised the contribution of vasoconstrictor prostanoids to endothelial dysfunction and suppressed diabetes-induced hyper-responsiveness of the mesenteric artery to angiotensin II. Similarly, diabetes reduced ACh-evoked NO-mediated relaxation in the aorta which was reversed by serelaxin. In the left ventricle, diabetes promoted apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis; serelaxin treatment reversed this ventricular apoptosis and hypertrophy, but had no effect on fibrosis. In summary, serelaxin reversed diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO-mediated relaxation in the mouse vasculature and attenuating left ventricular hypertrophy and apoptosis. PMID:28067255

  11. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    PubMed Central

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  12. Differential responses of human hepatocytes to the non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia-Long; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor used for the treatment of AIDS and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Despite its therapeutic benefits, treatment with nevirapine has been associated with significant incidences of liver and dermal toxicity. The present study examined the effects of nevirapine on cell growth and death in human hepatocyte HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells and the possible pathways involved in these effects. The concentrations of nevirapine inhibiting 50% cell growth were similar for both cell lines. Nevirapine (0-250 µM) treatment caused a slight increase in the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released into the medium. Apoptotic cell death did not contribute to the decrease in viable cells. Exposing of HepG2 cells to nevirapine caused G2/M phase arrest, and the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase was not altered. In THLE2 cells, the percentage of cells in G1/G0 phase was increased and cellular senescence was induced in a concentration-dependent manner. Endogenous non-telomeric RT activity was not detected in either cell line. Western blot analysis indicated lower levels of p53 and phospho-p53 (ser15) in HepG2 cells as compared to THLE2 cells; no significant changes in p53 or phospho-p53 (ser15) were noted with nevirapine treatment. These data demonstrate that nevirapine inhibits cell growth, induces cell cycle arrest at different phases, and has different effects on cellular senescence in HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells. The differential responses appear to be related to differences in the basal levels of p53 in the HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells.

  13. The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue exendin-4 reverses impaired intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in steatotic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Eunüs S; Hua, Jin; Wilson, Claire H; Tallis, George A; Zhou, Fiona H; Rychkov, Grigori Y; Barritt, Greg J

    2016-09-01

    The release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequent replenishment of ER Ca(2+) by Ca(2+) entry through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE) play critical roles in the regulation of liver metabolism by adrenaline, glucagon and other hormones. Both ER Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry are severely inhibited in steatotic hepatocytes. Exendin-4, a slowly-metabolised glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, is known to reduce liver glucose output and liver lipid, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether exendin-4 alters intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in steatotic hepatocytes, and to evaluate the mechanisms involved. Exendin-4 completely reversed lipid-induced inhibition of SOCE in steatotic liver cells, but did not reverse lipid-induced inhibition of ER Ca(2+) release. The action of exendin-4 on Ca(2+) entry was rapid in onset and was mimicked by GLP-1 or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. In steatotic liver cells, exendin-4 caused a rapid decrease in lipid (half time 6.5min), inhibited the accumulation of lipid in liver cells incubated in the presence of palmitate plus the SOCE inhibitor BTP-2, and enhanced the formation of cyclic AMP. Hormone-stimulated accumulation of extracellular glucose in glycogen replete steatotic liver cells was inhibited compared to that in non-steatotic cells, and this effect of lipid was reversed by exendin-4. It is concluded that, in steatotic hepatocytes, exendin-4 reverses the lipid-induced inhibition of SOCE leading to restoration of hormone-regulated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signalling. The mechanism may involve GLP-1 receptors, cyclic AMP, lipolysis, decreased diacylglycerol and decreased activity of protein kinase C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of tert-butyl hydroperoxide on Ca(2+) ATPase activity in isolated rat hepatocytes and its reversal by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sangram; Agarwal, Richa; Jamal, Farrukh; Mehrotra, Sudhir; Singh, Rakesh

    2012-09-01

    Calcium ions play an importantrole in various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormone action, blood clotting. They ions act as an intracellular second messenger, relaying information within cells to regulate their activity. To understand the mechanism of hepatotoxicity of t-BHP, studies were carried out using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The effect of t-BHP on Ca(2+) accumulation and Ca(2+) uptake by rat hepatocytes was monitored using 45Ca(2+). It caused decrease in 15% accumulation of 45Ca(2+) in comparison to the control group. t-BHP also significantly decreased the Ca(2+) ATPase activity in isolated hepatocytes .This decrease in Ca(2+) ATPase activity by t-BHP was reversed 40% by naturally occurring antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and 20% by the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). These results indicate that the hepatotoxic action of t-BHP involves oxidative stress as evident by the protection accorded by various antioxidants employed in the study as well as impairment of intracellular calcium homeostasis which can lead to liver cell injury.

  15. Autophagic sequestration of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, introduced into rat hepatocytes by reversible electro-permeabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, P.B.; Seglen, P.O.

    1982-11-01

    Isolated rat hepatocytes could be made permeable to small molecules such as (/sup 14/C)sucrose (but not to proteins) but subjecting the cells to repeated discharges in a high-voltage field. During subsequent incubation at 37/sup 0/C, the permeability changes were reversed within 15 min, the electron-injected (/sup 14/C)sucros remaining trapped inside the re-sealed plasma membrane. Autophagic sequestration of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, i.e., the transfer of radioactivity from cytosol to sedimentable vesicles (autophagosomes and lysosomes), could be followed by incubating the (/sup 14/C)sucrose-loaded hepatocytes for up to 2 h at 37/sup 0/C. After incubation, the cells were disrupted by a single high-voltage discharge in electrolyte-free medium (sucrose), and sedimentable cell components were separated from the cytosol by centrifugation through metrizamide. By the use of these methods, which are particularly suitable for the analysis of many small cell samples, it could be shown that (/sup 14/C)sucros was autophagically sequestered in the hepatocytes at a rate of 4-5%/h. The sequestration was nearly completely inhibited by the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine.

  16. A Transgenic Platform for Testing Drugs Intended for Reversal of Cardiac Remodeling Identifies a Novel 11βHSD1 Inhibitor Rescuing Hypertrophy Independently of Re-Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gilon, Dan; Gruener, Sabine; Pietranico-Cole, Sherrie; Oppenheim, Amit; Keshet, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Rescuing adverse myocardial remodeling is an unmet clinical goal and, correspondingly, pharmacological means for its intended reversal are urgently needed. Objectives To harness a newly-developed experimental model recapitulating progressive heart failure development for the discovery of new drugs capable of reversing adverse remodeling. Methods and Results A VEGF-based conditional transgenic system was employed in which an induced perfusion deficit and a resultant compromised cardiac function lead to progressive remodeling and eventually heart failure. Ability of candidate drugs administered at sequential remodeling stages to reverse hypertrophy, enlarged LV size and improve cardiac function was monitored. Arguing for clinical relevance of the experimental system, clinically-used drugs operating on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System (RAAS), namely, the ACE inhibitor Enalapril and the direct renin inhibitor Aliskerin fully reversed remodeling. Remodeling reversal by these drugs was not accompanied by neovascularization and reached a point-of-no-return. Similarly, the PPARγ agonist Pioglitazone was proven capable of reversing all aspects of cardiac remodeling without affecting the vasculature. Extending the arsenal of remodeling-reversing drugs to pathways other than RAAS, a specific inhibitor of 11β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β HSD1), a key enzyme required for generating active glucocorticoids, fully rescued myocardial hypertrophy. This was associated with mitigating the hypertrophy-associated gene signature, including reversing the myosin heavy chain isoform switch but in a pattern distinguishable from that associated with neovascularization-induced reversal. Conclusions A system was developed suitable for identifying novel remodeling-reversing drugs operating in different pathways and for gaining insights into their mechanisms of action, exemplified here by uncoupling their vascular affects. PMID:24667808

  17. A transgenic platform for testing drugs intended for reversal of cardiac remodeling identifies a novel 11βHSD1 inhibitor rescuing hypertrophy independently of re-vascularization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Oren; He, Zhiheng; Gilon, Dan; Gruener, Sabine; Pietranico-Cole, Sherrie; Oppenheim, Amit; Keshet, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Rescuing adverse myocardial remodeling is an unmet clinical goal and, correspondingly, pharmacological means for its intended reversal are urgently needed. To harness a newly-developed experimental model recapitulating progressive heart failure development for the discovery of new drugs capable of reversing adverse remodeling. A VEGF-based conditional transgenic system was employed in which an induced perfusion deficit and a resultant compromised cardiac function lead to progressive remodeling and eventually heart failure. Ability of candidate drugs administered at sequential remodeling stages to reverse hypertrophy, enlarged LV size and improve cardiac function was monitored. Arguing for clinical relevance of the experimental system, clinically-used drugs operating on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System (RAAS), namely, the ACE inhibitor Enalapril and the direct renin inhibitor Aliskerin fully reversed remodeling. Remodeling reversal by these drugs was not accompanied by neovascularization and reached a point-of-no-return. Similarly, the PPARγ agonist Pioglitazone was proven capable of reversing all aspects of cardiac remodeling without affecting the vasculature. Extending the arsenal of remodeling-reversing drugs to pathways other than RAAS, a specific inhibitor of 11β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β HSD1), a key enzyme required for generating active glucocorticoids, fully rescued myocardial hypertrophy. This was associated with mitigating the hypertrophy-associated gene signature, including reversing the myosin heavy chain isoform switch but in a pattern distinguishable from that associated with neovascularization-induced reversal. A system was developed suitable for identifying novel remodeling-reversing drugs operating in different pathways and for gaining insights into their mechanisms of action, exemplified here by uncoupling their vascular affects.

  18. Pathological hypertrophy reverses β2-adrenergic receptor-induced angiogenesis in mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Jennings, Nicole L; Sim, Kenneth; Chang, Lisa; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Kiriazis, Helen; Lee, Ying Ying; Nguyen, My-Nhan; Woodcock, Elizabeth A; Zhang, You-Yi; El-Osta, Assam; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    β-adrenergic activation and angiogenesis are pivotal for myocardial function but the link between both events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the cardiac angiogenesis profile in a mouse model with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of β2-adrenoceptors (β2-TG), and the effect of cardiac pressure overload. β2-TG mice had heightened cardiac angiogenesis, which was essential for maintenance of the hypercontractile phenotype seen in this model. Relative to controls, cardiomyocytes of β2-TGs showed upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heightened phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB), and increased recruitment of phospho-CREB, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and p300 to the VEGF promoter. However, when hearts were subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), angiogenic signaling in β2-TGs was inhibited within 1 week after TAC. β2-TG hearts, but not controls, exposed to pressure overload for 1–2 weeks showed significant increases from baseline in phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKIIδ) and protein expression of p53, reduction in CREB phosphorylation, and reduced abundance of phospho-CREB, p300 and CBP recruited to the CREB-responsive element (CRE) site of VEGF promoter. These changes were associated with reduction in both VEGF expression and capillary density. While non-TG mice with TAC developed compensatory hypertrophy, (2-TGs exhibited exaggerated hypertrophic growth at week-1 post-TAC, followed by LV dilatation and reduced fractional shortening measured by serial echocardiography. In conclusion, angiogenesis was enhanced by the cardiomyocyte (2AR/CREB/VEGF signaling pathway. Pressure overload rapidly inhibited this signaling, likely as a consequence of activated CaMKII and p53, leading to impaired angiogenesis and functional decompensation. PMID:25780088

  19. Myocardial reverse remodeling after pressure unloading is associated with maintained cardiac mechanoenergetics in a rat model of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Mihály; Korkmaz-Icöz, Sevil; Li, Shiliang; Németh, Balázs Tamás; Hegedűs, Péter; Brlecic, Paige; Mátyás, Csaba; Zorn, Markus; Merkely, Béla; Karck, Matthias; Radovits, Tamás; Szabó, Gábor

    2016-09-01

    Pressure unloading represents the only effective therapy in increased afterload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as it leads to myocardial reverse remodeling (reduction of increased left ventricular mass, attenuated myocardial fibrosis) and preserved cardiac function. However, the effect of myocardial reverse remodeling on cardiac mechanoenergetics has not been elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to provide a detailed hemodynamic characterization in a rat model of LVH undergoing pressure unloading. Pressure overload was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by abdominal aortic banding for 6 (AB 6th wk) or 12 wk (AB 12th wk). Sham-operated animals served as controls. Aortic debanding procedure was performed after the 6th experimental week (debanded 12th wk) to investigate the regression of LVH. Pressure unloading resulted in significant reduction of LVH (heart weight-to-tibial length ratio: 0.38 ± 0.01 vs. 0.58 ± 0.02 g/mm, cardiomyocyte diameter: 18.3 ± 0.1 vs. 24.1 ± 0.8 μm debanded 12th wk vs. AB 12th wk, P < 0.05), attenuated the extracellular matrix remodeling (Masson's score: 1.37 ± 0.13 vs. 1.73 ± 0.10, debanded 12th wk vs. AB 12th wk, P < 0.05), provided protection against the diastolic dysfunction, and reversed the maladaptive contractility augmentation (slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship: 1.39 ± 0.24 vs. 2.04 ± 0.09 mmHg/μl, P < 0.05 debanded 12th wk vs. AB 6th wk, P < 0.05). In addition, myocardial reverse remodeling was also associated with preserved ventriculoarterial coupling and increased mechanical efficiency (50.6 ± 2.8 vs. 38.9 ± 2.5%, debanded 12th wk vs. AB 12th wk, P < 0.05), indicating a complete functional and mechanoenergetic recovery. According to our best knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the regression of LVH is accompanied by maintained cardiac mechanoenergetics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. HCV Induces Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Increases Its Catalytic Activity, and Promotes Caspase Degradation in Infected Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhaowen; Tran, Huy; Mathahs, M. Meleah; Moninger, Thomas O.; Schmidt, Warren N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Telomerase repairs the telomeric ends of chromosomes and is active in nearly all malignant cells. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be oncogenic and potential interactions with the telomerase system require further study. We determined the effects of HCV infection on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and enzyme activity in primary human hepatocytes and continuous cell lines. Results Primary human hepatocytes and Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells showed early de novo TERT protein expression 2–4 days after infection and these events coincided with increased TERT promoter activation, TERT mRNA, and telomerase activity. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that NS3-4A protease-helicase, in contrast to core or NS5A, specifically bound to the C-terminal region of TERT through interactions between helicase domain 2 and protease sequences. Increased telomerase activity was noted when NS3-4A was transfected into cells, when added to reconstituted mixtures of TERT and telomerase RNA, and when incubated with high molecular weight telomerase ‘holoenzyme’ complexes. The NS3-4A catalytic effect on telomerase was inhibited with primuline or danoprevir, agents that are known to inhibit NS3 helicase and protease activities respectively. In HCV infected cells, NS3-4A could be specifically recovered with telomerase holoenzyme complexes in contrast to NS5A or core protein. HCV infection also activated the effector caspase 7 which is known to target TERT. Activation coincided with the appearance of lower molecular weight carboxy-terminal fragment(s) of TERT, chiefly sized at 45 kD, which could be inhibited with pancaspase or caspase 7 inhibitors. Conclusions HCV infection induces TERT expression and stimulates telomerase activity in addition to triggering Caspase activity that leads to increased TERT degradation. These activities suggest multiple points whereby the virus can influence neoplasia. The NS3-4A protease-helicase can directly bind to TERT

  1. HCV Induces Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Increases Its Catalytic Activity, and Promotes Caspase Degradation in Infected Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaowen; Tran, Huy; Mathahs, M Meleah; Moninger, Thomas O; Schmidt, Warren N

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase repairs the telomeric ends of chromosomes and is active in nearly all malignant cells. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be oncogenic and potential interactions with the telomerase system require further study. We determined the effects of HCV infection on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and enzyme activity in primary human hepatocytes and continuous cell lines. Primary human hepatocytes and Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells showed early de novo TERT protein expression 2-4 days after infection and these events coincided with increased TERT promoter activation, TERT mRNA, and telomerase activity. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that NS3-4A protease-helicase, in contrast to core or NS5A, specifically bound to the C-terminal region of TERT through interactions between helicase domain 2 and protease sequences. Increased telomerase activity was noted when NS3-4A was transfected into cells, when added to reconstituted mixtures of TERT and telomerase RNA, and when incubated with high molecular weight telomerase 'holoenzyme' complexes. The NS3-4A catalytic effect on telomerase was inhibited with primuline or danoprevir, agents that are known to inhibit NS3 helicase and protease activities respectively. In HCV infected cells, NS3-4A could be specifically recovered with telomerase holoenzyme complexes in contrast to NS5A or core protein. HCV infection also activated the effector caspase 7 which is known to target TERT. Activation coincided with the appearance of lower molecular weight carboxy-terminal fragment(s) of TERT, chiefly sized at 45 kD, which could be inhibited with pancaspase or caspase 7 inhibitors. HCV infection induces TERT expression and stimulates telomerase activity in addition to triggering Caspase activity that leads to increased TERT degradation. These activities suggest multiple points whereby the virus can influence neoplasia. The NS3-4A protease-helicase can directly bind to TERT, increase telomerase activity, and

  2. Alcohol-induced histone H3K9 hyperacetylation and cardiac hypertrophy are reversed by a histone acetylases inhibitor anacardic acid in developing murine hearts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Weian; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2015-06-01

    The expression of cardiac genes is precisely regulated, and any perturbation may cause developmental defects. In a previous study, we demonstrated that alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to uncontrolled expressions of cardiac genes and eventually result in cardiac dysplasia. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the alcohol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and its potential mechanisms. Furthermore, the protective effect of anacardic acid against the alcohol-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been explored in experimental mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were gavaged with 56% ethanol or saline and the hearts of their fetus were collected for analysis. Binding of p300, CBP, PCAF, SRC1, except GCN5, were increased to the NKX2.5 promoter in fetal mouse hearts exposed to alcohol. Increased acetylation of H3K9 and increased mRNA expression of NKX2.5, β-MHC and Cx43 were observed in the same samples. Treatment with a pan-acetylase inhibitor, anacardic acid, reduced the binding affinity of p300 and PCAF to the NKX2.5, β-MHC, Cx43 promoters and attenuated H3K9 hyperacetylation. Interestingly, anacardic acid down-regulated over-expression of these cardiac genes induced by alcohol and ultimately attenuated ethanol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in fetal mice. Our results indicate that alcohol exposure during pregnancy could lead to fetal cardiac hypertrophy. The over-expression of NKX2.5, β-MHC, Cx43 mediated by p300 and PCAF may be critical mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Anacardic acid can down-regulate the over-expression of cardiac genes and reverse cardiac hypertrophy caused by alcohol treatment in pregnant mice, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Deficiency of cardiac Acyl-CoA synthetase-1 induces diastolic dysfunction, but pathologic hypertrophy is reversed by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David S.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Pascual, Florencia; Ellis, Jessica M.; Willis, Monte S.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    In mice with temporally-induced cardiac-specific deficiency of acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (Acsl1H−/−), the heart is unable to oxidize long-chain fatty acids and relies primarily on glucose for energy. These metabolic changes result in the development of both a spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy and increased phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), a substrate of the mechanistic target of rapamycin, mTOR. Doppler echocardiography revealed evidence of significant diastolic dysfunction, indicated by a reduced E/A ratio and increased mean performance index, although the deceleration time and the expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and phospholambin showed no difference between genotypes. To determine the role of mTOR in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, we treated Acsl1H−/− mice with rapamycin. Six to eight week old Acsl1H−/− mice and their littermate controls were given i.p. tamoxifen to eliminate cardiac Acsl1, then concomitantly treated for 10 weeks with i.p. rapamycin or vehicle alone. Rapamycin completely blocked the enhanced ventricular S6K phosphorylation and cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated the expression of hypertrophy-associated fetal genes, including α-skeletal actin and B-type natriuretic peptide. mTOR activation of the related Acsl3 gene, usually associated with pathologic hypertrophy, was also attenuated in the Acsl1H−/− hearts, indicating that alternative pathways of fatty acid activation did not compensate for the loss of Acsl1. Compared to controls, Acsl1H−/− hearts exhibited an 8-fold higher uptake of 2-deoxy[1-14C]glucose and a 35% lower uptake of the fatty acid analog 2-bromo[1-14C]palmitate. These data indicate that Acsl1-deficiency causes diastolic dysfunction and that mTOR activation is linked to the development of cardiac hypertrophy in Acsl1H−/− mice. PMID:24631848

  4. Deficiency of cardiac Acyl-CoA synthetase-1 induces diastolic dysfunction, but pathologic hypertrophy is reversed by rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Paul, David S; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Pascual, Florencia; Ellis, Jessica M; Willis, Monte S; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2014-06-01

    In mice with temporally-induced cardiac-specific deficiency of acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (Acsl1(H-/-)), the heart is unable to oxidize long-chain fatty acids and relies primarily on glucose for energy. These metabolic changes result in the development of both a spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy and increased phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), a substrate of the mechanistic target of rapamycin, mTOR. Doppler echocardiography revealed evidence of significant diastolic dysfunction, indicated by a reduced E/A ratio and increased mean performance index, although the deceleration time and the expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and phospholamban showed no difference between genotypes. To determine the role of mTOR in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, we treated Acsl1(H-/-) mice with rapamycin. Six to eight week old Acsl1(H-/-) mice and their littermate controls were given i.p. tamoxifen to eliminate cardiac Acsl1, then concomitantly treated for 10weeks with i.p. rapamycin or vehicle alone. Rapamycin completely blocked the enhanced ventricular S6K phosphorylation and cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated the expression of hypertrophy-associated fetal genes, including α-skeletal actin and B-type natriuretic peptide. mTOR activation of the related Acsl3 gene, usually associated with pathologic hypertrophy, was also attenuated in the Acsl1(H-/-) hearts, indicating that alternative pathways of fatty acid activation did not compensate for the loss of Acsl1. Compared to controls, Acsl1(H-/-) hearts exhibited an 8-fold higher uptake of 2-deoxy[1-(14)C]glucose and a 35% lower uptake of the fatty acid analog 2-bromo[1-(14)C]palmitate. These data indicate that Acsl1-deficiency causes diastolic dysfunction and that mTOR activation is linked to the development of cardiac hypertrophy in Acsl1(H-/-) mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Olsavsky Goyak, Katy M; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, research suggests that for certain systems, animal models are insufficient for human toxicology testing. The development of robust, in vitro models of human toxicity is required to decrease our dependence on potentially misleading in vivo animal studies. A critical development in human toxicology testing is the use of human primary hepatocytes to model processes that occur in the intact liver. However, in order to serve as an appropriate model, primary hepatocytes must be maintained in such a way that they persist in their differentiated state. While many hepatocyte culture methods exist, the two-dimensional collagen "sandwich" system combined with a serum-free medium, supplemented with physiological glucocorticoid concentrations, appears to robustly maintain hepatocyte character. Studies in rat and human hepatocytes have shown that when cultured under these conditions, hepatocytes maintain many markers of differentiation including morphology, expression of plasma proteins, hepatic nuclear factors, phase I and II metabolic enzymes. Functionally, these culture conditions also preserve hepatic stress response pathways, such as the SAPK and MAPK pathways, as well as prototypical xenobiotic induction responses. This chapter will briefly review culture methodologies but will primarily focus on hallmark hepatocyte structural, expression and functional markers that characterize the differentiation status of the hepatocyte.

  6. Cardiac concentric hypertrophy promoted by activated Met receptor is mitigated in vivo by inhibition of Erk1,2 signalling with Pimasertib.

    PubMed

    Sala, Valentina; Gallo, Simona; Gatti, Stefano; Medico, Enzo; Vigna, Elisa; Cantarella, Daniela; Fontani, Lara; Natale, Massimo; Cimino, James; Morello, Mara; Comoglio, Paolo Maria; Ponzetto, Antonio; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure. Hence, its attenuation represents an important clinical goal. Erk1,2 signalling is pivotal in the cardiac response to stress, suggesting that its inhibition may be a good strategy to revert heart hypertrophy. In this work, we unveiled the events associated with cardiac hypertrophy by means of a transgenic model expressing activated Met receptor. c-Met proto-oncogene encodes for the tyrosine kinase receptor of Hepatocyte growth factor and is a strong inducer of Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk1,2 pathway. We showed that three weeks after the induction of activated Met, the heart presents a remarkable concentric hypertrophy, with no signs of congestive failure and preserved contractility. Cardiac enlargement is accompanied by upregulation of growth-regulating transcription factors, natriuretic peptides, cytoskeletal proteins, and Extracellular Matrix remodelling factors (Timp1 and Pai1). At a later stage, cardiac hypertrophic remodelling results into heart failure with preserved systolic function. Prevention trial by suppressing activated Met showed that cardiac hypertrophy is reversible, and progression to heart failure is prevented. Notably, treatment with Pimasertib, Mek1 inhibitor, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling. Our results suggest that modulation of Erk1.2 signalling may constitute a new therapeutic approach for treating cardiac hypertrophies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary fish oil reverse epididymal tissue adiposity, cell hypertrophy and insulin resistance in dyslipemic sucrose fed rat model small star, filled.

    PubMed

    Soria, Ana; Chicco, Adriana; Eugenia D'Alessandro, María; Rossi, Andrea; Lombardo, Yolanda B.

    2002-04-01

    The present work was designed to assess the possible benefits of (7% w/w) dietary fish oil in reversing the morphological and metabolic changes present in the adipose tissue of rats fed an SRD for a long time. With this purpose, in the epididymal fat tissue, we investigated the effect of dietary fish oil upon: i) the number, size and distribution of cells, ii) the basal and stimulated lipolysis, iii) the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, and iv) the antilipolytic action of insulin. The study was conducted on rats fed an SRD during 120 days with fish oil being isocaloric substituted for corn oil for 90-120 days in half the animals. Permanent hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose homeostasis were present in the rats before the source of fat in the diet was replaced. The major new findings of this study are the following: i) Dietary fish oil markedly reduced the fat pads mass, the hypertrophy of fat cells and improved the altered cell size distribution. ii) The presence of fish oil in the diet corrected the inhibitory effect of high sucrose diet upon the antilipolytic action of insulin, reduced the "in vitro" enhanced basal lipolysis and normalized isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. Fat pads lipoprotein lipase activity decreased reaching values similar to those observed in age-matched controls fed a control diet (CD). These effects were not accompanied by any change in rat body weight. All these data suggest that the dyslipemic rats fed a moderate amount of dietary fish oil constitute a useful animal model to study diet-regulated insulin action.

  8. Hepatocyte Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Treyer, Aleksandr; Müsch, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes, like other epithelia, are situated at the interface between the organism’s exterior and the underlying internal milieu and organize the vectorial exchange of macromolecules between these two spaces. To mediate this function, epithelial cells, including hepatocytes, are polarized with distinct luminal domains that are separated by tight junctions from lateral domains engaged in cell-cell adhesion and from basal domains that interact with the underlying extracellular matrix. Despite these universal principles, hepatocytes distinguish themselves from other nonstriated epithelia by their multipolar organization. Each hepatocyte participates in multiple, narrow lumina, the bile canaliculi, and has multiple basal surfaces that face the endothelial lining. Hepatocytes also differ in the mechanism of luminal protein trafficking from other epithelia studied. They lack polarized protein secretion to the luminal domain and target single-spanning and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored bile canalicular membrane proteins via transcytosis from the basolateral domain. We compare this unique hepatic polarity phenotype with that of the more common columnar epithelial organization and review our current knowledge of the signaling mechanisms and the organization of polarized protein trafficking that govern the establishment and maintenance of hepatic polarity. The serine/threonine kinase LKB1, which is activated by the bile acid taurocholate and, in turn, activates adenosine monophosphate kinase-related kinases including AMPK1/2 and Par1 paralogues has emerged as a key determinant of hepatic polarity. We propose that the absence of a hepatocyte basal lamina and differences in cell-cell adhesion signaling that determine the positioning of tight junctions are two crucial determinants for the distinct hepatic and columnar polarity phenotypes. PMID:23720287

  9. Calcific Aortic Valve Disease: Part 2—Morphomechanical Abnormalities, Gene Reexpression, and Gender Effects on Ventricular Hypertrophy and Its Reversibility

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In part 1, we considered cytomolecular mechanisms underlying calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), hemodynamics, and adaptive feedbacks controlling pathological left ventricular hypertrophy provoked by ensuing aortic valvular stenosis (AVS). In part 2, we survey diverse signal transduction pathways that precede cellular/molecular mechanisms controlling hypertrophic gene expression by activation of specific transcription factors that induce sarcomere replication in-parallel. Such signaling pathways represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention and prevention of decompensation/failure. Hypertrophy provoking signals, in the form of dynamic stresses and ligand/effector molecules that bind to specific receptors to initiate the hypertrophy, are transcribed across the sarcolemma by several second messengers. They comprise intricate feedback mechanisms involving gene network cascades, specific signaling molecules encompassing G protein-coupled receptors and mechanotransducers, and myocardial stresses. Future multidisciplinary studies will characterize the adaptive/maladaptive nature of the AVS-induced hypertrophy, its gender- and individual patient-dependent peculiarities, and its response to surgical/medical interventions. They will herald more effective, precision medicine treatments. PMID:27184804

  10. The reversal of hyperglycemia after transplantation of mouse embryonic stem cells induced into early hepatocyte-like cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Nasim Beigi; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud; Khaki, Zohreh; Soleimani, Masoud

    2011-04-01

    Cellular replacement therapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of transplantation of induced mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into endoderm and early hepatocyte-like cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. After embryoid body (EB) formation from mESC, the EBs were cultured in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX) and insulin for 4 days then was added acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and oncostatin M (OSM) for 10 days, respectively. Blood glucose levels, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance (IGT) test and islet histology were assessed. The result revealed that transplantation of induced mESCs into early hepatocyte-like cells could repair pancreatic islets of control group. Blood glucose levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were significantly improved in test group compared to control group. Furthermore, there was significant increase in the number of islets in test group compared to control group. The findings declare that induced mESCs into endoderm and early hepatocyte-like cells, are appropriate candidate for regenerative therapy of pancreatic islets in type I diabetes.

  11. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  12. Engineering of human hepatocyte lines for cell therapies in humans: prospects and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashit, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  13. Engineering of Human Hepatocyte Lines for Cell Therapies in Humans: Prospects and Remaining Hurdles.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2002-07-01

    Hepatocyte-based biological therapies are increasingly envisioned for temporary support in acute liver failure and provision of specific-liver functions in liver-based metabolic deficiency. One of the hurdles to develop such therapies is severe shortage of human livers for hepatocyte isolation. To address the issue, we have focused on reversible immortalization of human hepatocytes. Such technology can allow rapid preparation of functional and uniform human hepatocytes. Here we present our strategy to construct transplantable human hepatocyte cell lines.

  14. Reversals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers nine materials for remediating reversals in handicapped students at the early childhood and elementary levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession…

  15. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than are white people with similar blood pressure measurements. Sex. Women with hypertension are at higher risk ... hypertrophy than are men with similar blood pressure measurements. Left ventricular hypertrophy changes the structure and working ...

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide D-4F Reduces Cardiac Hypertrophy and Improves Apolipoprotein A-I-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport From Cardiac Tissue in LDL Receptor-null Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Song; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yong-Xue; Qin, Yan-Wen; Miao, Dong-Mei

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia is an independent determinant of increased left ventricular (LV) mass. Because high-density lipoprotein and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and have cardiac protective effects, we hypothesized that the apoA-I mimetic peptide D-4F could promote RCT in cardiac tissue and decrease cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypercholesterolemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice were fed by a Western diet for 18 weeks and then randomized to receive water, or D-4F 0.3 mg/mL, or D-4F 0.5 mg/mL added to drinking water for 6 weeks. After D-4F administration, an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in a trend toward dose-responsivity were found in cardiac tissue. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a reduction in LV posterior wall end-diastolic dimension, and an increase in mitral valve E/A ratio and LV ejection fraction. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed reduced LV wall thickness and myocardial cell diameter. The protein levels of ABCA1 and LXRα were elevated in cardiac tissue of D-4F treated mice compared with the controls (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that D-4F treatment reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved cardiac performance in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed a Western diet, presumably through the LXRα-ABCA1 pathway associated with enhanced myocardial RCT.

  17. The quantitative distinction of hyperplasia from hypertrophy in hepatomegaly induced in the rat liver by phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Carthew, P; Edwards, R E; Nolan, B M

    1998-07-01

    A histological method utilizing the optical dissector principle has been developed for determining the absolute numbers of rat hepatocytes in the liver after treatment with phenobarbital (PB). The optical dissector is a technique derived from the "new stereology" used to measure the number of features, in this case hepatocyte nuclear profiles, that are present in a reference volume of tissue. The method has been applied to distinguish between the hepatomegaly that commonly occurs in rodents after treatment with chemicals, due to an increase in the number of cells caused by cell division (hyperplasia), rather than the size of cells (hypertrophy). In the case of PB treatment, the hepatomegaly was found to be partly due to hypertrophy and partly to hyperplasia after 2 weeks of treatment. While the increase in the absolute number of hepatocytes was not significant after 2 weeks, after 12 weeks of treatment with PB the number of hepatocytes was significantly increased, compared to the controls at that time point. PCNA labeling index measurements of liver hepatocytes confirmed that there was a significant increase in the growth fraction of hepatocytes during PB treatment. The induction of hyperplasia can be associated with an increased risk of eventual liver tumor formation, and the distinction of hyperplasia from hypertrophy, using a purely histological method, for the determination of increases in absolute hepatocyte cell numbers, will be useful in assessing whether treatment-related sustained hyperplasia is occurring in the liver, although this methodology could be applied to any organ.

  18. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  19. Histopathological image analysis of chemical-induced hepatocellular hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Yoshiji; Togashi, Yuko; Mutsuga, Mayu; Imura, Naoko; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2016-04-01

    Chemical-induced hepatocellular hypertrophy is frequently observed in rodents, and is mostly caused by the induction of phase I and phase II drug metabolic enzymes and peroxisomal lipid metabolic enzymes. Liver weight is a sensitive and commonly used marker for detecting hepatocellular hypertrophy, but is also increased by a number of other factors. Histopathological observations subjectively detect changes such as hepatocellular hypertrophy based on the size of a hepatocyte. Therefore, quantitative microscopic observations are required to evaluate histopathological alterations objectively. In the present study, we developed a novel quantitative method for an image analysis of hepatocellular hypertrophy using liver sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and demonstrated its usefulness for evaluating hepatocellular hypertrophy induced by phenobarbital (a phase I and phase II enzyme inducer) and clofibrate (a peroxisomal enzyme inducer) in mice. The algorithm of this imaging analysis was designed to recognize an individual hepatocyte through a combination of pixel-based and object-based analyses. Hepatocellular nuclei and the surrounding non-hepatocellular cells were recognized by the pixel-based analysis, while the areas of the recognized hepatocellular nuclei were then expanded until they ran against their expanding neighboring hepatocytes and surrounding non-hepatocellular cells by the object-based analysis. The expanded area of each hepatocellular nucleus was regarded as the size of an individual hepatocyte. The results of this imaging analysis showed that changes in the sizes of hepatocytes corresponded with histopathological observations in phenobarbital and clofibrate-treated mice, and revealed a correlation between hepatocyte size and liver weight. In conclusion, our novel image analysis method is very useful for quantitative evaluations of chemical-induced hepatocellular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Charlot-Lambrecht, Isabelle; Brochot, Pascal; Noblet, Hervé; Varoquier, Coralie; Eschard, Jean-Paul

    2009-07-01

    We report the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with left calf hypertrophy 6 years after an episode of left S1 sciatica related to a herniated disk. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed muscle hypertrophy. Electromyography showed left S1 radiculopathy with abnormal spontaneous muscle activity. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy is a rare phenomenon that is chiefly seen when denervation occurs slowly and gradually. The typical patient is a middle-aged man who has a history of S1 radiculopathy. The soleus muscle is the main site of involvement. The pathophysiology is unclear but may involve type I fiber hypertrophy in response to the complex repetitive discharges recorded by electromyography. The natural history of neurogenic muscle hypertrophy is incompletely understood.

  1. Hyperplasia vs hypertrophy in tissue regeneration after extensive liver resection.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Fabio; Marongiu, Michela; Contini, Antonella; Serra, Monica; Cadoni, Erika; Murgia, Riccardo; Laconi, Ezio

    2017-03-14

    To address to what extent hypertrophy and hyperplasia contribute to liver mass restoration after major tissue loss. The ability of the liver to regenerate is remarkable on both clinical and biological grounds. Basic mechanisms underlying this process have been intensively investigated. However, it is still debated to what extent hypertrophy and hyperplasia contribute to liver mass restoration after major tissue loss. We addressed this issue using a genetically tagged system. We were able to follow the fate of single transplanted hepatocytes during the regenerative response elicited by 2/3 partial surgical hepatectomy (PH) in rats. Clusters of transplanted cells were 3D reconstructed and their size distribution was evaluated over time after PH. Liver size and liver DNA content were largely recovered 10 d post-PH, as expected (e.g., total DNA/liver/100 g b.w. was 6.37 ± 0.21 before PH and returned to 6.10 ± 0.36 10 d after PH). Data indicated that about 2/3 of the original residual hepatocytes entered S-phase in response to PH. Analysis of cluster size distribution at 24, 48, 96 h and 10 d after PH revealed that about half of the remnant hepatocytes completed at least 2 cell cycles. Average size of hepatocytes increased at 24 h (248.50 μm(2) ± 7.82 μm(2), P = 0.0015), but returned to control values throughout the regenerative process (up to 10 d post-PH, 197.9 μm(2) ± 6.44 μm(2), P = 0.11). A sizeable fraction of the remnant hepatocyte population does not participate actively in tissue mass restoration. Hyperplasia stands as the major mechanism contributing to liver mass restoration after PH, with hypertrophy playing a transient role in the process.

  2. Hyperplasia vs hypertrophy in tissue regeneration after extensive liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Marongiu, Fabio; Marongiu, Michela; Contini, Antonella; Serra, Monica; Cadoni, Erika; Murgia, Riccardo; Laconi, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To address to what extent hypertrophy and hyperplasia contribute to liver mass restoration after major tissue loss. METHODS The ability of the liver to regenerate is remarkable on both clinical and biological grounds. Basic mechanisms underlying this process have been intensively investigated. However, it is still debated to what extent hypertrophy and hyperplasia contribute to liver mass restoration after major tissue loss. We addressed this issue using a genetically tagged system. We were able to follow the fate of single transplanted hepatocytes during the regenerative response elicited by 2/3 partial surgical hepatectomy (PH) in rats. Clusters of transplanted cells were 3D reconstructed and their size distribution was evaluated over time after PH. RESULTS Liver size and liver DNA content were largely recovered 10 d post-PH, as expected (e.g., total DNA/liver/100 g b.w. was 6.37 ± 0.21 before PH and returned to 6.10 ± 0.36 10 d after PH). Data indicated that about 2/3 of the original residual hepatocytes entered S-phase in response to PH. Analysis of cluster size distribution at 24, 48, 96 h and 10 d after PH revealed that about half of the remnant hepatocytes completed at least 2 cell cycles. Average size of hepatocytes increased at 24 h (248.50 μm2 ± 7.82 μm2, P = 0.0015), but returned to control values throughout the regenerative process (up to 10 d post-PH, 197.9 μm2 ± 6.44 μm2, P = 0.11). A sizeable fraction of the remnant hepatocyte population does not participate actively in tissue mass restoration. CONCLUSION Hyperplasia stands as the major mechanism contributing to liver mass restoration after PH, with hypertrophy playing a transient role in the process. PMID:28348481

  3. Regression of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y. James

    2012-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. PMID:22750195

  4. Preferential glutathione conjugation of a reverse diol epoxide compared to a bay region diol epoxide of phenanthrene in human hepatocytes: relevance to molecular epidemiology studies of glutathione-s-transferase polymorphisms and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Berg, Jeannette Zinggeler; Hochalter, J Bradley

    2009-03-16

    Bay region diol epoxides are recognized ultimate carcinogens of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and in vitro studies have demonstrated that they can be detoxified by conjugation with glutathione, leading to the widely investigated hypothesis that individuals with low activity forms of glutathione-S-transferases are at higher risk of PAH induced cancer, a hypothesis that has found at most weak support in molecular epidemiology studies. A weakness in this hypothesis was that the mercapturic acids resulting from the conjugation of PAH bay region diol epoxides had never been identified in human urine. We recently analyzed smokers' urine for mercapturic acids derived from phenanthrene, the simplest PAH with a bay region. The only phenanthrene diol epoxide-derived mercapturic acid in smokers' urine was produced from the reverse diol epoxide, anti-phenanthrene-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide (11), not the bay region diol epoxide, anti-phenanthrene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (10), which does not support the hypothesis noted above. In this study, we extended these results by examining the conjugation of phenanthrene metabolites with glutathione in human hepatocytes. We identified the mercapturic acid N-acetyl-S-(r-4,t-2,3-trihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-c-1-phenanthryl)-L-cysteine (14a), (0.33-35.9 pmol/mL at 10 microM 8, 24 h incubation, N = 10) in all incubations with phenanthrene-3,4-diol (8) and the corresponding diol epoxide 11, but no mercapturic acids were detected in incubations with phenanthrene-1,2-diol (7), and only trace amounts were observed in incubations with the corresponding bay region diol epoxide 10. Taken together with our previous results, these studies clearly demonstrate that glutathione conjugation of a reverse diol epoxide of phenanthrene is favored over conjugation of a bay region diol epoxide. Since reverse diol epoxides of PAH are generally weakly or nonmutagenic/carcinogenic, these results, if generalizable to other PAH, do not support the widely held

  5. Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation. PMID:25116170

  6. Differential and conditional activation of PKC-isoforms dictates cardiac adaptation during physiological to pathological hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Naskar, Shaon; Datta, Kaberi; Mitra, Arkadeep; Pathak, Kanchan; Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week male Balb/c mice (Mus musculus) models, by reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blot analysis and M-mode echocardiography for cardiac function analysis. PKC-δ was significantly induced during pathological hypertrophy while PKC-α was exclusively activated during physiological hypertrophy in our study. PKC-δ activation during pathological hypertrophy resulted in cardiomyocyte apoptosis leading to compromised cardiac function and on the other hand, activation of PKC-α during physiological hypertrophy promoted cardiomyocyte growth but down regulated cellular apoptotic load resulting in improved cardiac function. Reversal in PKC-isoform with induced activation of PKC-δ and simultaneous inhibition of phospho-PKC-α resulted in an efficient myocardium to deteriorate considerably resulting in compromised cardiac function during physiological hypertrophy via augmentation of apoptotic and fibrotic load. This is the first report where PKC-α and -δ have been shown to play crucial role in cardiac adaptation during physiological and pathological hypertrophy respectively thereby rendering compromised cardiac function to an otherwise efficient heart by conditional reversal of their activation.

  7. Adrenocortical hypertrophy: establishing cause and toxicological significance.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Sutcliffe, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    The primary cause of adrenocortical hypertrophy is increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. In toxicology studies, such a condition can arise as a result of the stress response, but it may also occur due to deficient glucocorticoid feedback regulation of ACTH due to toxicity to the adrenal cortex. This latter condition is defined as adrenocortical insufficiency and represents a serious adverse toxic effect on the function of the adrenal cortex. Adrenocortical hypertrophy may occur in the absence of other adrenocortical lesions such that a toxicopathological mechanism is not obvious, for example by pharmacological inhibition of steroidogenesis at the biochemical level. This review discusses the different aetiological factors and mechanisms producing adrenocortical hypertrophy. The need for further evidence in ascribing findings to stress is discussed, as is a protocol for establishing differential diagnoses between stress-induced and toxicity-induced adrenocortical hypertrophy, which is useful in cases where there are no other histopathological lesions in the adrenal cortex. It is concluded that all cases of adrenocortical hypertrophy require further investigation or evidence to ascribe such findings to either stress or adrenocortical inhibition/insufficiency, and that all cases of adrenocortical insufficiency (whether due to a histopathological lesion or reversible pharmacological enzyme inhibition) represent a serious adverse effect that must be properly considered in toxicological risk assessment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Failure of bromocriptine therapy to control juvenile mammary hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Arscott, G D; Craig, H R; Gabay, L

    2001-12-01

    Rapid massive breast hypertrophy occasionally occurs at the time of puberty or during pregnancy, with breast size eventually becoming burdensome or incapacitating to the patient. Pregnancy-related breast hypertrophy is often arrested or reversed by reducing serum prolactin levels with bromocriptine therapy. Unfortunately, breast enlargement in our 12-year-old patient with massive juvenile mammary hypertrophy was unaffected by bromocriptine therapy despite a reduction of her prolactin to normal levels. Two reduction mammaplasties followed by subcutaneous mastectomy were required to control breast hypertrophy. Breast-tissue hypersensitivity to prolactin appears to be a characteristic of pregnancy-related gigantomastia. Our pubertal patient with juvenile mammary hypertrophy failed to respond to bromocriptine therapy, so the aetiology of this syndrome may involve breast-tissue hypersensitivity to hormones other than prolactin. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  9. New approaches to the quantitation of hypertrophy and hyperplasia in hepatomegaly.

    PubMed

    Carthew, P; Edwards, R E; Nolan, B M

    1998-12-28

    A histological method utilizing the optical dissector principle has been developed for determining the contribution of hypertrophy and hyperplasia to the hepatomegaly induced by the peroxisome proliferator gemfibrozil. The optical dissector is a technique derived from the 'new stereology' and has been used to estimate the number of hepatocyte nuclear profiles, that are present in a reference volume of tissue. The overall changes due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the rat liver after gemfibrozil treatment, did not reach significance, although the zonal hypertrophy change did. This indicated that although there was a 20% increase in liver weight with treatment, the hepatomegaly was caused by a combination of hypertrophy and hyperplasia, neither of which, on its own, was significantly different from the control values. The distinction of hyperplasia from hypertrophy, using a purely histological method, will be useful in assessing whether treatment related sustained hyperplasia is occurring in the liver.

  10. Mechanism of Hepatocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Quan, Xi-Bing; Zeng, Wen-Jiao; Yang, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Ming-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocyte apoptosis plays important roles in both the removal of external microorganisms and the occurrence and development of liver diseases. Different conditions, such as virus infection, fatty liver disease, hepatic ischemia reperfusion, and drug-induced liver injury, are accompanied by hepatocyte apoptosis. This review summarizes recent research on the mechanism of hepatocyte apoptosis involving the classical extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. We emphasized the major causes of apoptosis according to the characteristics of different liver diseases. Several concerns regarding future research and clinical application are also raised. PMID:28058033

  11. Ventricular hypertrophy in cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Oakley, C

    1971-01-01

    Semantic difficulties arise when hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is seen without obstruction and with congestive failure, and also when congestive cardiomyopathy is seen with gross hypertrophy but without heart failure. Retention of a small left ventricular cavity and a normal ejection fraction characterizes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at all stages of the disorder. Congestive cardiomyopathy is recognized by the presence of a dilated left ventricular cavity and reduced ejection fraction regardless of the amount of hypertrophy and the presence or not of heart failure. Longevity in congestive cardiomyopathy seems to be promoted when hypertrophy is great relative to the amount of pump failure as measured by increase in cavity size. Conversely, death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most likely when hypertrophy is greatest at a time when outflow tract obstruction has been replaced by inflow restriction caused by diminishing ventricular distensibility. Hypertrophy is thus beneficial and compensatory in congestive cardiomyopathy, whereas it may be the primary disorder and eventual cause of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Reasons are given for believing that hypertension may have been the original cause of left ventricular dilatation in some case of congestive cardiomyopathy in which loss of stroke output thenceforward is followed by normotension. Development of severe hypertension in these patients after recovery from a prolonged period of left ventricular failure with normotension lends weight to this hypothesis. No fault has been found in the large or small coronary arteries in either hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or congestive cardiomyopathy when they have been examined in life by selective coronary angiography, or by histological methods in biopsy or post-mortem material. Coronary blood supply may be a limiting factor in the compensatory hypertrophy of congestive cardiomyopathy, and the ability to hypertrophy may explain the better prognosis of some

  12. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disruption of mindin exacerbates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Zhou-Yan; Wei, Xiang; Deng, Shan; Tang, Qi-Zhu; Feng, Jinghua; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chen; Jiang, Ding-Sheng; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Lian-Feng; Chen, Manyin; Fassett, John; Chen, Yingjie; He, You-Wen; Yang, Qinglin; Liu, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a response of the myocardium to increased workload and is characterised by an increase of myocardial mass and an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). As an ECM protein, an integrin ligand, and an angiogenesis inhibitor, all of which are key players in cardiac hypertrophy, mindin is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention to treat or prevent cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In this study, we investigated the role of mindin in cardiac hypertrophy using littermate Mindin knockout (Mindin−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by aortic banding (AB) or angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in Mindin−/− and WT mice. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was quantitated by echocardiography and by pathological and molecular analyses of heart samples. Mindin−/− mice were more susceptible to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in response to AB or Ang II stimulation than wild type. Cardiac function was also markedly exacerbated during both systole and diastole in Mindin−/− mice in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Western blot assays further showed that the activation of AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signalling in response to hypertrophic stimuli was significantly increased in Mindin−/− mice. Moreover, blocking AKT/GSK3β signalling with a pharmacological AKT inhibitor reversed cardiac abnormalities in Mindin−/− mice. Our data show that mindin, as an intrinsic cardioprotective factor, prevents maladaptive remodelling and the transition to heart failure by blocking AKT/GSK3β signalling. PMID:22367478

  14. REDD1 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy via enhancing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Xue, Ruicong; Wu, Dexi; Wu, Lingling; Chen, Cong; Tan, Weiping; Chen, Yili; Dong, Yugang

    2014-11-07

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Autophagy is established to be involved in regulating cardiac hypertrophy. REDD1, a stress-responsive protein, is proved to contribute in autophagy induction. However, the role of REDD1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that REDD1 knockdown by RNAi exacerbated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, manifested by increased hypertrophic markers such as ANP and cell surface area. In addition, we discovered that ERK1/2 signaling pathway was involved in the effect of REDD1 on hypertrophy. Moreover, our study showed that REDD1 knockdown impaired autophagy in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. mTOR, a signaling molecule governing autophagy induction, was activated by the knockdown of REDD1 under PE stress. Importantly, the pro-hypertrophic effect of REDD1 knockdown was significantly reversed by the autophagy enhancer rapamycin. Taken together, we firstly prove that REDD1 is essential for inhibiting cardiac hypertrophy by enhancing autophagy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. BET Acetyl-Lysine Binding Proteins Control Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Spiltoir, Jessica I.; Stratton, Matthew S.; Cavasin, Maria A.; Demos-Davies, Kim; Reid, Brian G.; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, and thus represents an attractive target for novel therapeutic intervention. JQ1, a small molecule inhibitor of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-lysine reader proteins, was identified in a high throughput screen designed to discover novel small molecule regulators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. JQ1 dose-dependently blocked agonist-dependent hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and reversed the prototypical gene program associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy. JQ1 also blocked left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and improved cardiac function in adult mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The BET family consists of BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT. BRD4 protein expression was increased during cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertrophic stimuli promoted recruitment of BRD4 to the transcriptional start site (TSS) of the gene encoding atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Binding of BRD4 to the ANF TSS was associated with increased phosphorylation of local RNA polymerase II. These findings define a novel function for BET proteins as signal-responsive regulators of cardiac hypertrophy, and suggest that small molecule inhibitors of these epigenetic reader proteins have potential as therapeutics for heart failure. PMID:23939492

  16. MicroRNA-561 promotes acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes through downregulation of the nuclear receptor corepressor dosage-sensitive sex-reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Minghua; Yang, Yinxue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Guo, Peixuan; Zhang, Xueji; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    One of the major mechanisms involved in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity is hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α)-mediated activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-561 and its target gene DAX-1 encoding a corepressor of HNF4α in the process of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We used both human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells and primary human hepatocytes in this study and monitored the levels of reactive oxygen species, lactate dehydrogenase, and glutathione. Our bioinformatics study suggests an association between miR-561 and DAX-1, but not HNF4α. Treatment of HepG2 cells with APAP significantly reduced the expression of DAX-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. miR-561 was induced by APAP treatment in HepG2 cells. Transfection of HepG2 cells with an miR-561 mimic exacerbated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. HNF4α is physically associated with DAX-1 in HepG2 cells. A decreased protein level of DAX-1 by APAP treatment was also enhanced by miR-561 mimic transfection in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. The basal and APAP-induced expression of PXR and CAR was enhanced by miR-561 mimic transfection; however, transfection of HepG2 cells or primary human hepatocytes with a miR-561 inhibitor or DAX-1 small interfering RNA reversed these effects. Additionally, the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that recruitment of DAX-1 onto the PXR promoter was inversely correlated with the recruitment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1α and HNF4α on APAP treatment. These results indicate that miR-561 worsens APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibition of DAX-1 and consequent transactivation of nuclear receptors.

  17. [Is secondary myocardial hypertrophy a physiological or pathological adaptive mechanism?].

    PubMed

    Krayenbühl, H P

    1982-08-01

    Physiological hypertrophy is present when the increase in myocardial mass resulting from chronic mechanical loading is associated with normal or enhanced myocardial function and myosin ATPase activity. Morphological alterations occurring during the formation of hypertrophy are fully reversible in physiological hypertrophy. In pathological hypertrophy myocardial function and myosin ATPase activity are depressed and morphological changes do not or only incompletely regress following the elimination of the stimulus of hypertrophy. In the experimental animal myocardial hypertrophy resulting from exercise conditioning or slight to moderate ventricular pressure overload fulfills the criteria of physiological hypertrophy. More severe sudden pressure overload is accompanied by depression of contractile function. These pressure overload models have however, little analogy to the more progressive development of pressure loading in humans. In young dogs and in cats with a gradually increasing pressure load, in vivo ventricular ejection fraction remained within normal limits 37 to 60 weeks after banding of the ventricular outflow vessel. In vitro myocardial function evaluated in the hypertrophied papillary muscle was, however, at least in part depressed, notably when hydroxyproline concentration was augmented. Following debanding in rats with aortic constriction hydroxyproline content did not regress suggesting that fibrosis once established is not reversible. In man myocardial hypertrophy from exercise conditioning is associated with normal ventricular function except in older athletes, who may show a subtle reduction in ventricular shortening. Patients with chronic pressure overload from aortic stenosis or volume overload from aortic insufficiency in whom the angiographic muscle mass is severely increased (greater than or equal to 180 g/m2) elicit a depressed left ventricular contractile function. Preserved left ventricular ejection performance in aortic valve disease is

  18. O-GlcNAc signaling is essential for NFAT-mediated transcriptional reprogramming during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Facundo, Heberty T.; Brainard, Robert E.; Watson, Lewis J.; Ngoh, Gladys A.; Hamid, Tariq; Prabhu, Sumanth D.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is a complex interplay among many known and unknown processes. One specific pathway involves the phosphatase calcineurin, which regulates nuclear translocation of the essential cardiac hypertrophy transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). Although metabolic dysregulation is frequently described during cardiac hypertrophy, limited insights exist regarding various accessory pathways. One metabolically derived signal, beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), has emerged as a highly dynamic posttranslational modification of serine and threonine residues regulating physiological and stress processes. Given the metabolic dysregulation during hypertrophy, we hypothesized that NFAT activation is dependent on O-GlcNAc signaling. Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy (via transverse aortic constriction) in mice or treatment of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with phenylephrine significantly enhanced global O-GlcNAc signaling. NFAT-luciferase reporter activity revealed O-GlcNAc-dependent NFAT activation during hypertrophy. Reversal of enhanced O-GlcNAc signaling blunted cardiomyocyte NFAT-induced changes during hypertrophy. Taken together, these results demonstrate a critical role of O-GlcNAc signaling in NFAT activation during hypertrophy and provide evidence that O-GlcNAc signaling is coordinated with the onset and progression of cardiac hypertrophy. This represents a potentially significant and novel mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy, which may be of particular interest in future in vivo studies of hypertrophy. PMID:22408028

  19. Hepatocyte transplantation in children with liver cell failure

    PubMed Central

    Hamooda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hepatic failure and liver-based metabolic disorders require management which is both costly and complex. Hepatocyte transplantation has been very encouraging as an alternative to organ transplantation for liver disease treatment, and studies in rodents, show that transplants involving isolated liver cells can reverse hepatic failure, and correct various metabolic deficiencies of the liver. This 2016 review is based on a literature search using PubMed including original articles, reviews, cases and clinical guidelines. The search terms were “hepatocyte transplantation”, “liver transplantation”, “liver cell failure”, “metabolic liver disorders”, “orthotropic liver transplantation”, “hepatocytes” and “stem cell transplantation”. The goal of this review is to summarize the significance of hepatocyte transplantation, the sources of hepatocytes and the barriers of hepatocyte transplantation using a detailed review of literature. Our review shows that treatment of patients with liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation has expanded exponentially, especially for patients suffering from liver-based metabolic disorders. Once hepatocyte transplantation has been shown to effectively replace organ transplantation for a portion of patients with life-threatening liver metabolic diseases and those with liver failure it will make cell therapy effective and available for a broad population of patients with liver disorders. PMID:27957309

  20. Physiology: postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in pythons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Rourke, Bryan C; Caiozzo, Vincent J; Bennett, Albert F; Hicks, James W

    2005-03-03

    Oxygen consumption by carnivorous reptiles increases enormously after they have eaten a large meal in order to meet metabolic demands, and this places an extra load on the cardiovascular system. Here we show that there is an extraordinarily rapid 40% increase in ventricular muscle mass in Burmese pythons (Python molurus) a mere 48 hours after feeding, which results from increased gene expression of muscle-contractile proteins. As this fully reversible hypertrophy occurs naturally, it could provide a useful model for investigating the mechanisms that lead to cardiac growth in other animals.

  1. Copper inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced hypertrophy in embryonic rat cardiac H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Youchun; Kang, Y James

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that dietary copper deficiency causes cardiac hypertrophy and depression of vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse model. Copper replenishment in the diet reverses cardiac hypertrophy and restores VEGF expression. The present study was undertaken to specifically determine the role of VEGF in copper effect on cell hypertrophy. Embryonic rat cardiac H9c2 cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide to develop hypertrophy, determined by increases in cell size and total protein content. Copper addition at 5 microM in cultures suppressed cell hypertrophy. In the presence of anti-VEGF antibody, copper inhibitory effect on cell hypertrophy was blunted, and VEGF alone mimicked the inhibitory effect of copper. The results thus demonstrated that VEGF is critically involved in copper inhibition of cell hypertrophy induced by hydrogen peroxide in the H9c2 cells.

  2. Parvovirus B19-Induced Apoptosis of Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brian D.; Karetnyi, Yuory V.; Naides, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) can persist in multiple tissues and has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including acute fulminant liver failure. The mechanism by which B19 virus induces liver failure remains unknown. Hepatocytes are nonpermissive for B19 virus replication. We previously reported that acute fulminant liver failure associated with B19 virus infection was characterized by hepatocellular dropout. We inoculated both primary hepatocytes and the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep G2 with B19 virus and assayed for apoptosis by using annexin V staining. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis and immunofluorescence demonstrated that B19 virus was able to infect the cells and produce its nonstructural protein but little or no structural capsid protein. Infection with B19 virus induced means of 28% of Hep G2 cells and 10% of primary hepatocytes to undergo apoptosis, which were four- and threefold increases, respectively, over background levels. Analysis of caspase involvement showed that B19 virus-inoculated cultures had a significant increase in the number of cells with active caspase 3. Inhibition studies demonstrated that caspases 3 and 9, but not caspase 8, are required for B19 virus-induced apoptosis. PMID:15220451

  3. Editor's Highlight: Mode of Action Analysis for Rat Hepatocellular Tumors Produced by the Synthetic Pyrethroid Momfluorothrin: Evidence for Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and Mitogenicity in Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Yu; Kushida, Masahiko; Sumida, Kayo; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi; Lake, Brian G; Cohen, Samuel M; Yamada, Tomoya

    2017-08-01

    High dietary levels of momfluorothrin, a nongenotoxic synthetic pyrethroid, induced hepatocellular tumors in male and female Wistar rats in a 2-year bioassay. The mode of action (MOA) for rat hepatocellular tumors was postulated to occur via activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), as momfluorothrin is a close structural analogue of the pyrethroid metofluthrin, which is known to produce rat liver tumors through a CAR-mediated MOA. To elucidate the MOA for rat hepatocellular tumor formation by momfluorothrin, this study was conducted to examine effects on key and associative events of the CAR-mediated MOA for phenobarbital based on the International Programme on Chemical Safety framework. A 2-week in vivo study in Wistar rats revealed that momfluorothrin induced CYP2B activities, increased liver weights, produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis. These effects correlated with the dose-response relationship for liver tumor formation and also showed reversibility upon cessation of treatment. Moreover, momfluorothrin did not increase CYP2B1/2 mRNA expression and hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CAR knockout rats. Using cultured Wistar rat hepatocytes and the RNA interference technique, knockdown of CAR resulted in a suppression of induction of CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels by momfluorothrin. Alternative MOAs for liver tumor formation were excluded. A global gene expression profile analysis of the liver of male Wistar rats treated with momfluorothrin for 2 weeks also showed similarity to the prototypic CAR activator phenobarbital. Overall, these data strongly support that the postulated MOA for momfluorothrin-induced rat hepatocellular tumors as being mediated by CAR activation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Muscle hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jon

    2017-10-01

    The physical examination always begins with a thorough inspection and patients with potential neuromuscular weakness are no exception. One question neurologists routinely address during this early part of the assessment is whether or not there is muscle enlargement. This finding may reflect true muscle hypertrophy-myofibres enlarged from repetitive activity, for example, in myotonia congenita or neuromyotonia-or muscles enlarged by the infiltration of fat or other tissue termed pseudohypertrophy or false enlargement. Pseudohypertrophic muscles are frequently paradoxically weak. Recognising such a clinical clue at the bed side can facilitate a diagnosis or at least can narrow down the list of potential suspects. This paper outlines the conditions, both myopathic and neurogenic, that cause muscle enlargement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Mode of action analysis for the synthetic pyrethroid metofluthrin-induced rat liver tumors: evidence for hepatic CYP2B induction and hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Tomoya; Hirose, Yukihiro; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Kushida, Masahiko; Sumida, Kayo; Sukata, Tokuo; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Nishioka, Kazuhiko; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Kawamura, Satoshi; Okuno, Yasuyoshi

    2009-03-01

    Two-year treatment with high doses of Metofluthrin produced hepatocellular tumors in both sexes of Wistar rats. To understand the mode of action (MOA) by which the tumors are produced, a series of studies examined the effects of Metofluthrin on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) content, hepatocellular proliferation, hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), oxidative stress and apoptosis was conducted after one or two weeks of treatment. The global gene expression profile indicated that most genes with upregulated expression with Metofluthrin were metabolic enzymes that were also upregulated with phenobarbital. Metofluthrin induced CYP2B and increased liver weights associated with centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy (increased smooth endoplasmic reticulum [SER]), and induction of increased hepatocellular DNA replication. CYP2B1 mRNA induction by Metofluthrin was not observed in CAR knockdown rat hepatocytes using the RNA interference technique, demonstrating that Metofluthrin induces CYP2B1 through CAR activation. Metofluthrin also suppressed hepatic GJIC and induced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant enzymes, but showed no alteration in apoptosis. The above parameters related to the key events in Metofluthrin-induced liver tumors were observed at or below tumorigenic dose levels. All of these effects were reversible upon cessation of treatment. Metofluthrin did not cause cytotoxicity or peroxisome proliferation. Thus, it is highly likely that the MOA for Metofluthrin-induced liver tumors in rats is through CYP induction and increased hepatocyte proliferation, similar to that seen for phenobarbital. Based on analysis with the International Life Sciences Institute/Risk Science Institute MOA framework, it is reasonable to conclude that Metofluthrin will not have any hepatocarcinogenic activity in humans, at least at expected levels of exposure.

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor: a regenerative drug for acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Shinya; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2007-03-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and is characterized by the loss of hepatocytes with interstitial fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the potential uses of hepatocyte growth factor for treating hepatic diseases, focusing on the molecular mechanisms whereby hepatocyte growth factor reverses liver cirrhosis. Hepatic myofibroblasts play a central role in the development of liver cirrhosis, while myofibroblasts acquire c-Met. Using a rat model of liver cirrhosis, we recently delineated the direct effect of hepatocyte growth factor toward myofibroblasts: the induction of apoptotic cell death associated with matrix degradation, the inhibition of overproliferation and the suppression of transforming growth factor-beta1 production in myofibroblasts. Hepatocyte growth factor elicits mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions in hepatocytes, therefore contributing to reversing liver dysfunction. Considering the insufficient production of hepatocyte growth factor is responsible for the manifestation of chronic hepatitis, supplementation with or reinduction of hepatocyte growth factor represents a new strategy for attenuating intractable liver diseases.

  7. Tear me down: Role of calpain in the development of cardiac ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Cam; Portbury, Andrea; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Willis, Monte S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy develops most commonly in response to hypertension and is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. The mechanisms by which cardiac hypertrophy may be reversed to reduce this risk have not been fully determined to the point where mechanism-specific therapies have been developed. Recently, proteases in the calpain family have been implicated in regulating the development of cardiac hypertrophy in preclinical animal models. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms by which calpain inhibition has been shown to modulate the development of cardiac (specifically ventricular) hypertrophy. The context within which calpain inhibition might be developed for therapeutic intervention of cardiac hypertrophy is then discussed. PMID:21817165

  8. The ploidy conveyor of mature hepatocytes as a source of genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew W; Taylor, Matthew H; Hickey, Raymond D; Hanlon Newell, Amy E; Lenzi, Michelle L; Olson, Susan B; Finegold, Milton J; Grompe, Markus

    2010-10-07

    Mononucleated and binucleated polyploid hepatocytes (4n, 8n, 16n and higher) are found in all mammalian species, but the functional significance of this conserved phenomenon remains unknown. Polyploidization occurs through failed cytokinesis, begins at weaning in rodents and increases with age. Previously, we demonstrated that the opposite event, ploidy reversal, also occurs in polyploid hepatocytes generated by artificial cell fusion. This raised the possibility that somatic 'reductive mitoses' can also happen in normal hepatocytes. Here we show that multipolar mitotic spindles form frequently in mouse polyploid hepatocytes and can result in one-step ploidy reversal to generate offspring with halved chromosome content. Proliferating hepatocytes produce a highly diverse population of daughter cells with multiple numerical chromosome imbalances as well as uniparental origins. Our findings support a dynamic model of hepatocyte polyploidization, ploidy reversal and aneuploidy, a phenomenon that we term the 'ploidy conveyor'. We propose that this mechanism evolved to generate genetic diversity and permits adaptation of hepatocytes to xenobiotic or nutritional injury.

  9. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual specific phosphatase 12 ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ming; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhu, Guo-Fu; Peng, Wen-Hui; Zhu, Meng-Yun; Yu, Xue-Jing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Da-Chun; Xu, Ya-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor of heart failure. However, we still lack effective methods to reverse cardiac hypertrophy. DUSP12 is a member of the dual specific phosphatase (DUSP) family, which is characterized by its DUSP activity to dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on one substrate. Some DUSPs have been identified as being involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of DUSP12 during pathological cardiac hypertrophy is still unclear. In the present study, we observed a significant decrease in DUSP12 expression in hypertrophic hearts and cardiomyocytes. Using a genetic loss-of-function murine model, we demonstrated that DUSP12 deficiency apparently aggravated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as impaired cardiac function, whereas cardiac-specific overexpression of DUPS12 was capable of reversing this hypertrophic and fibrotic phenotype and improving contractile function. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JNK1/2 activity but neither ERK1/2 nor p38 activity was increased in the DUSP12 deficient group and decreased in the DUSP12 overexpression group both in vitro and in vivo under hypertrophic stress conditions. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2 activity (SP600125) is capable of reversing the hypertrophic phenotype in DUSP12 knockout (KO) mice. DUSP12 protects against pathological cardiac hypertrophy and related pathologies. This regulatory role of DUSP12 is primarily through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibition. DUSP12 could be a promising therapeutic target of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. DUSP12 is down-regulated in hypertrophic hearts. An absence of DUSP12 aggravated cardiac hypertrophy, whereas cardiomyocyte-specific DUSP12 overexpression can alleviate this hypertrophic phenotype with improved cardiac function. Further study demonstrated that DUSP12 inhibited JNK activity to attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophy. © 2016 The

  11. Molecular distinction between physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy: experimental findings and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Weeks, Kate L; Pretorius, Lynette; McMullen, Julie R

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy can be defined as an increase in heart mass. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy (heart growth that occurs in settings of disease, e.g. hypertension) is a key risk factor for heart failure. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. In contrast, physiological cardiac hypertrophy (heart growth that occurs in response to chronic exercise training, i.e. the 'athlete's heart') is reversible and is characterized by normal cardiac morphology (i.e. no fibrosis or apoptosis) and normal or enhanced cardiac function. Given that there are clear functional, structural, metabolic and molecular differences between pathological and physiological hypertrophy, a key question in cardiovascular medicine is whether mechanisms responsible for enhancing function of the athlete's heart can be exploited to benefit patients with pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. This review summarizes key experimental findings that have contributed to our understanding of pathological and physiological heart growth. In particular, we focus on signaling pathways that play a causal role in the development of pathological and physiological hypertrophy. We discuss molecular mechanisms associated with features of cardiac hypertrophy, including protein synthesis, sarcomeric organization, fibrosis, cell death and energy metabolism and provide a summary of profiling studies that have examined genes, microRNAs and proteins that are differentially expressed in models of pathological and physiological hypertrophy. How gender and sex hormones affect cardiac hypertrophy is also discussed. Finally, we explore how knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying pathological and physiological hypertrophy may influence therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of histone deacetylation blocks cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II infusion and aortic banding.

    PubMed

    Kee, Hae Jin; Sohn, Il Suk; Nam, Kwang Il; Park, Jong Eun; Qian, Yong Ri; Yin, Zhan; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Bang, Yung-Jue; Kim, Nacksung; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Epstein, Jonathan A; Kook, Hyun

    2006-01-03

    A number of distinct stress signaling pathways in myocardium cause cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) antagonize several stress-induced pathways and hypertrophy. However, cardiac hypertrophy induced by transgenic overexpression of the homeodomain only protein, HOP, can be prevented by the nonspecific HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid, suggesting that alternate targets that oppose class II HDAC function might exist in myocardium. We tested the effects of several HDAC inhibitors, including a class I HDAC-selective inhibitor, SK-7041, on cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) treatment or aortic banding (AB). Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by chronic infusion of Ang II or by AB in mice or rats and evaluated by determining the ratio of heart weight to body weight or to tibia length, cross-sectional area, or echocardiogram. Cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II or AB for 2 weeks was significantly reduced by simultaneous administration of trichostatin A, valproic acid, or SK-7041. Echocardiogram revealed that exaggerated left ventricular systolic dimensions were relieved by HDAC inhibitors. HDAC inhibitors partially reversed preestablished cardiac hypertrophy and improved survival of AB mice. The expressions of atrial natriuretic factor, alpha-tubulin, beta-myosin heavy chain, and interstitial fibrosis were reduced by HDAC inhibition. These results suggest that the predominant effect of HDAC inhibition, mainly mediated by class I HDACs, is to prevent cardiac hypertrophy in response to a broad range of agonist and stretch stimuli.

  13. Role of CYP2B in Phenobarbital-Induced Hepatocyte Proliferation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Bao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) promotes liver tumorigenesis in rodents, in part through activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the consequent changes in hepatic gene expression and increases in hepatocyte proliferation. A typical effect of CAR activation by PB is a marked induction of Cyp2b10 expression in the liver; the latter has been suspected to be vital for PB-induced hepatocellular proliferation. This hypothesis was tested here by using a Cyp2a(4/5)bgs-null (null) mouse model in which all Cyp2b genes are deleted. Adult male and female wild-type (WT) and null mice were treated intraperitoneally with PB at 50 mg/kg once daily for 5 successive days and tested on day 6. The liver-to-body weight ratio, an indicator of liver hypertrophy, was increased by 47% in male WT mice, but by only 22% in male Cyp2a(4/5)bgs-null mice, by the PB treatment. The fractions of bromodeoxyuridine-positive hepatocyte nuclei, assessed as a measure of the rate of hepatocyte proliferation, were also significantly lower in PB-treated male null mice compared with PB-treated male WT mice. However, whereas few proliferating hepatocytes were detected in saline-treated mice, many proliferating hepatocytes were still detected in PB-treated male null mice. In contrast, female WT mice were much less sensitive than male WT mice to PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation, and PB-treated female WT and PB-treated female null mice did not show significant difference in rates of hepatocyte proliferation. These results indicate that CYP2B induction plays a significant, but partial, role in PB-induced hepatocyte proliferation in male mice. PMID:28546505

  14. Angiotensin II induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy probably through histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Yang, Shuang

    2009-09-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a pathophysiological role in the genesis of cardiac hypertrophy as a hypertrophic stimulus. But little is known about the terminal steps, in which Ang II reprograms cardiac gene expression. Histone deacetyltransferases (HDACs) are considered as the integrators of divergent stress-response pathways during heart remodeling. However, the exact role of HDACs in the hypertrophic process is not clear yet. Therefore, we studied the expression of HDAC2, one of Class I HDACs, and the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a nonspecific HDAC inhibitor, in the Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were prepared from 1-day-old Wistar rats and treated with Ang II. The mRNA levels of HDAC2 and beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), a hypertrophic marker gene, were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of HDAC2 and c-fos, an immediate early response gene, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and the surface areas of cardiomyocytes were measured using Motic Images software. The expression levels of HDAC2 mRNA and protein were increased in a time-dependent manner during the hypertrophic process, accompanied with the increment of beta-MHC and c-fos proteins. Ang II also increased the surface area of cardiomyocytes by more than twofold. VPA significantly reversed these changes. These results suggest that Ang II may induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through HDACs in combination with c-fos and that VPA has the protective effect on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Thus, HDAC inhibition is a feasible therapeutic strategy that holds promise in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

  15. Current status of hepatocyte xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Meier, Raphael P H; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Morel, Philippe; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Strom, Stephen; Bühler, Leo H

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of acute liver failure, a condition with high mortality, comprises optimal clinical care, and in severe cases liver transplantation. However, there are limitations in availability of organ donors. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative that could fill the medical need, in particular as the bridge to liver transplantation. Encapsulated porcine hepatocytes represent an unlimited source that could function as a bioreactor requiring minimal immunosuppression. Besides patients with acute liver failure, patients with alcoholic hepatitis who are unresponsive to a short course of corticosteroids are a target for hepatocyte transplantation. In this review we present an overview of the innate immune barriers in hepatocyte xenotransplantation, including the role of complement and natural antibodies; the role of phagocytic cells and ligands like CD47 in the regulation of phagocytic cells; and the role of Natural Killer cells. We present also some illustrations of physiological species incompatibilities in hepatocyte xenotransplantation, such as incompatibilities in the coagulation system. An overview of the methodology for cell microencapsulation is presented, followed by proof-of-concept studies in rodent and nonhuman primate models of fulminant liver failure: these studies document the efficacy of microencapsulated porcine hepatocytes which warrants progress towards clinical application. Lastly, we present an outline of a provisional clinical trial, that upon completion of preclinical work could start within the upcoming 2-3 years.

  16. Redox regulation of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sag, Can M; Santos, Celio X C; Shah, Ajay M

    2014-08-01

    It is increasingly evident that redox-dependent modifications in cellular proteins and signaling pathways (or redox signaling) play important roles in many aspects of cardiac hypertrophy. Indeed, these redox modifications may be intricately linked with the process of hypertrophy wherein there is not only a significant increase in myocardial O2 consumption but also important alterations in metabolic processes and in the local generation of O2-derived reactive species (ROS) that modulate and/or amplify cell signaling pathways. This article reviews our current knowledge of redox signaling pathways and their roles in cardiac hypertrophy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System". Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Hypertension, hypertrophy, and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Pasquale; Penna, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The heart of patients with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy is more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here we discuss the main mechanisms of IRI and possible targets for cardioprotection. In particular, we consider the viewpoint that hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy may act synergistically in increasing the predisposition to cardiovascular accidents and in worsening IRI. There is no doubt that hypertrophic hearts may be redirected to be less vulnerable to IRI. Some experimental evidences suggest that antihypertensive drugs may have beneficial effects, some of which are not directly related to hypertension-lowering effect. However, more thorough experimental and clinical studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and to maximize the beneficial effects of reperfusion after a heart attack in the presence of comorbidities, such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy.

  18. Toxin-Induced Activation of Rat Hepatocyte Prostaglandin Synthesis and Phospholipid Metabolism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-22

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necesay and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP - microcystin -LR, arachidonic acid, phospholipid...pool was reduced to 47% (p ɘ.025) by l’ 3’ microcystin -LR. Changes in phospholipid classes indicated that prostaglandin formation induced by microcystin ... microcystin -LR has important effects on the regulation of inflammatory mediator synthesis in hepatocytes. 7.,1 ,- TOXIN-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF RAT HEPATOCYTE

  19. Functional characterization of hypertrophy in chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Michael B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2008-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidate cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Expression of cartilage hypertrophy markers (e.g., type X collagen) by MSCs undergoing chondrogenesis raises concern for a tissue engineering application for MSCs, because hypertrophy would result in apoptosis and ossification. To analyze the biologic basis of MSC hypertrophy, we examined the response of chondrifying MSCs to culture conditions known to influence chondrocyte hypertrophy, using an array of hypertrophy-associated markers. Human MSC pellet cultures were predifferentiated for 2 weeks in a chondrogenic medium, and hypertrophy was induced by withdrawing transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), reducing the concentration of dexamethasone, and adding thyroid hormone (T3). Cultures were characterized by histologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods, and gene expression was assessed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The combination of TGFbeta withdrawal, a reduction in the level of dexamethasone, and the addition of T3 was essential for hypertrophy induction. Cytomorphologic changes were accompanied by increased alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix mineralization, and changes in various markers of hypertrophy, including type X collagen, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-3, parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor, retinoic acid receptor gamma, matrix metalloproteinase 13, Indian hedgehog, osteocalcin, and the proapoptotic gene p53. However, hypertrophy was not induced uniformly throughout the pellet culture, and distinct regions of dedifferentiation were observed. Chondrogenically differentiating MSCs behave in a manner functionally similar to that of growth plate chondrocytes, expressing a very similar hypertrophic phenotype. Under the in vitro culture conditions used here, MSC-derived chondrocytes underwent a differentiation program analogous to that observed during endochondral embryonic skeletal development

  20. Labia majora hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    2009-11-01

    A case involving hypertrophy of the labia majora is described. A married 34-year-old mother of a 5-year-old daughter reported that from adolescence, her large labia majora and its protuberance have resembled male genitalia even when she is wearing a slip. For that reason, in the summer, she is ashamed of her appearance and thus has avoided swimming pools and beach areas.With the patient in supine position, the crural creases were marked. The marks were drawn 1 cm apart medially in to the medial part of the labia majora parallel to the natural vulvar crease. The estimated amount of skin and fat to be removed was marked. In this case, more skin and fat needed to be removed from the left side than from the right side. The surgery was performed using sedation and local anesthesia as with outpatient surgery. To avoid excessive bleeding of this area, profuse infiltration was performed using 200 ml of anesthetic solution. Resection of the skin and fat in the area was performed with two hooks holding the area up to avoid introducing the scalpel too deeply.Only the superficial fat was removed. After meticulous hemostasia, two layers of 3/0 absorbable running sutures were placed, one in the deep fat and another in the subdermis,until the wound edges were approached. A 5/0 mononylon running suture closed the skin. These sutures provided strong support to all this very mobile area,avoiding dead spaces and bleeding because postoperative compressive bandages are difficult to hold in this region.The patient was instructed to wash the area four times a day. The surgery was ambulatory, with the patient returning to her province the day after surgery, then coming back for a control visit on postoperative day 10. On postoperative day 1, a moderate edema was observed but no hematoma. The stitches were removed on day 10 after surgery. The postoperative evolution of the case was uneventful. The sensitivity of the labia majora's interior aspect was preserved. With legs open, the labia

  1. Expression of chitinases in hypertrophied adenoids of children.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kyung Wook; Hur, Dae Young; Park, Seong Kook; Yang, Young Il; Kwak, Hyun Ho; Kim, Tae Yong

    2011-10-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), otitis media with effusion (OME), and allergic rhinitis (AR) are common conditions that have been associated with hypertrophied adenoids in children, and adenoidectomy is clinically recommended. The investigators assayed the expression level and site of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (ChT) in hypertrophied adenoids of children to determine the expression levels of 2 chitinases in relation to CRS, OME, and AR. A prospective cohort study. A tertiary care facility. Hypertrophied adenoids from 41 children were harvested during adenoidectomy. Medical records were reviewed and the subjects were grouped according to the presence of CRS, OME, and AR. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of AMCase and ChT in adenoid tissues was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the sites of AMCase and ChT expression. mRNA and protein of AMCase and ChT were present in adenoids of all subjects. CRS was a significant variable in AMCase mRNA and protein expression. CRS, OME, and AR were significant variables in ChT mRNA and protein expression. Both AMCase and ChT were expressed in histiocytes and vascular endothelial cells of adenoid tissues. The findings suggest that chitin-containing pathogens or dysregulated immune responses to them in the hypertrophied adenoids of children could be factors contributing to CRS, OME, and AR via AMCase or ChT overexpression.

  2. Angiopoietins modulate endothelial adaptation, glomerular and podocyte hypertrophy after uninephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen Chih; Lai, Chun Fu; Su, Chi Ting; Peng, Wei Hao; Wu, Ching Fang; Chang, Fan Chi; Chen, Yi Ting; Lin, Shuei Liong; Chen, Yung Ming; Wu, Kwan Dun; Lu, Kuo Shyan; Tsai, Tun Jun

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular capillary remodeling is an essential process in the development of glomerular hypertrophy. Angiopoietins, which are important regulators in angiogenesis, plays a role in the development of glomerulus during embryogenesis. Here, we evaluated the influence of angiopoietin on glomerular components and hypertrophy after uninephrectomy in adult male BALB/c mice. The actions of angiopoietin 1 or 2 were systemically antagonized by the subcutaneous administration of antagonists. We observed that the angiopoietin system was activated after uninephrectomy, and that the blockade of angiopoietin 1 or 2 decreased the activation of the angiopoietin receptor--tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains-2--and attenuated the development of glomerular and podocyte hypertrophy. The increase in endothelial density staining (anti-CD31) following uninephrectomy was also reversed by angiopoietin 1 or 2 blockades. Glomerular basement thickness and foot process width were observed to decrease in the angiopoietin blockade groups. These changes were associated with the down regulation of the expression of genes for the glomerular matrix and basement membrane, including collagen type IV α1, collagen type IV α2, collagen type IV α5, and laminin α5. Thus, angiopoietin 1 or 2 may play an important role in the development of glomerular hypertrophy after uninephrectomy. A blockade of the angiopoietin system not only influenced the endothelium but also the podocyte, leading to diminished gene expression and morphological changes after uninephrectomy.

  3. Angiopoietins Modulate Endothelial Adaptation, Glomerular and Podocyte Hypertrophy after Uninephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Wen Chih; Lai, Chun Fu; Su, Chi Ting; Peng, Wei Hao; Wu, Ching Fang; Chang, Fan Chi; Chen, Yi Ting; Lin, Shuei Liong; Chen, Yung Ming; Wu, Kwan Dun; Lu, Kuo Shyan; Tsai, Tun Jun

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular capillary remodeling is an essential process in the development of glomerular hypertrophy. Angiopoietins, which are important regulators in angiogenesis, plays a role in the development of glomerulus during embryogenesis. Here, we evaluated the influence of angiopoietin on glomerular components and hypertrophy after uninephrectomy in adult male BALB/c mice. The actions of angiopoietin 1 or 2 were systemically antagonized by the subcutaneous administration of antagonists. We observed that the angiopoietin system was activated after uninephrectomy, and that the blockade of angiopoietin 1 or 2 decreased the activation of the angiopoietin receptor—tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF homology domains-2—and attenuated the development of glomerular and podocyte hypertrophy. The increase in endothelial density staining (anti-CD31) following uninephrectomy was also reversed by angiopoietin 1 or 2 blockades. Glomerular basement thickness and foot process width were observed to decrease in the angiopoietin blockade groups. These changes were associated with the down regulation of the expression of genes for the glomerular matrix and basement membrane, including collagen type IV α1, collagen type IV α2, collagen type IV α5, and laminin α5. Thus, angiopoietin 1 or 2 may play an important role in the development of glomerular hypertrophy after uninephrectomy. A blockade of the angiopoietin system not only influenced the endothelium but also the podocyte, leading to diminished gene expression and morphological changes after uninephrectomy. PMID:24367525

  4. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  5. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  6. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  7. Kallikrein-related peptidase 8 is expressed in myocardium and induces cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Buqing; Yu, Qing; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Zhiping; Cong, Binghai; Du, Jiankui; Lu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The tissue kallikrein-related peptidase family (KLK) is a group of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like serine proteases that share a similar homology to parent tissue kallikrein (KLK1). KLK1 is identified in heart and has anti-hypertrophic effects. However, whether other KLK family members play a role in regulating cardiac function remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that KLK8 was expressed in myocardium. KLK8 expression was upregulated in left ventricle of cardiac hypertrophy models. Both intra-cardiac adenovirus-mediated and transgenic-mediated KLK8 overexpression led to cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. In primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, KLK8 knockdown inhibited phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas KLK8 overexpression promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via a serine protease activity-dependent but kinin receptor-independent pathway. KLK8 overexpression increased epidermal growth factor (EGF) production, which was blocked by the inhibitors of serine protease. EGF receptor (EGFR) antagonist and EGFR knockdown reversed the hypertrophy induced by KLK8 overexpression. KLK8-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was also significantly decreased by blocking the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) or PAR2 pathway. Our data suggest that KLK8 may promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through EGF signaling- and PARs-dependent but a kinin receptor-independent pathway. It is implied that different KLK family members can subtly regulate cardiac function and remodeling. PMID:26823023

  8. Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gerçek, Mustafa; Gerçek, Muhammed; Kant, Sebastian; Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Kassner, Astrid; Milting, Hendrik; Liehn, Elisa A; Leube, Rudolf E; Krusche, Claudia A

    2017-04-01

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a hereditary disease leading to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. AC pathology is characterized by cardiomyocyte loss and replacement fibrosis. Our goal was to determine whether cardiomyocytes respond to AC progression by pathological hypertrophy. To this end, we examined tissue samples from AC patients with end-stage heart failure and tissue samples that were collected at different disease stages from desmoglein 2-mutant mice, a well characterized AC model. We find that cardiomyocyte diameters are significantly increased in right ventricles of AC patients. Increased mRNA expression of the cardiac stress marker natriuretic peptide B is also observed in the right ventricle of AC patients. Elevated myosin heavy chain 7 mRNA expression is detected in left ventricles. In desmoglein 2-mutant mice, cardiomyocyte diameters are normal during the concealed disease phase but increase significantly after acute disease onset on cardiomyocyte death and fibrotic myocardial remodeling. Hypertrophy progresses further during the chronic disease stage. In parallel, mRNA expression of myosin heavy chain 7 and natriuretic peptide B is up-regulated in both ventricles with right ventricular preference. Calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (Nfat) signaling, which is linked to pathological hypertrophy, is observed during AC progression, as evidenced by Nfatc2 and Nfatc3 mRNA in cardiomyocytes and increased mRNA of the Nfat target regulator of calcineurin 1. Taken together, we demonstrate that pathological hypertrophy occurs in AC and is secondary to cardiomyocyte loss and cardiac remodeling.

  9. Glucose metabolism and cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Tian, Rong

    2011-01-01

    The most notable change in the metabolic profile of hypertrophied hearts is an increased reliance on glucose with an overall reduced oxidative metabolism, i.e. a reappearance of the foetal metabolic pattern. In animal models, this change is attributed to the down-regulation of the transcriptional cascades promoting gene expression for fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in adult hearts. Impaired myocardial energetics in cardiac hypertrophy also triggers AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to increased glucose uptake and glycolysis. Aside from increased reliance on glucose as an energy source, changes in other glucose metabolism pathways, e.g. the pentose phosphate pathway, the glucosamine biosynthesis pathway, and anaplerosis, are also noted in the hypertrophied hearts. Studies using transgenic mouse models and pharmacological compounds to mimic or counter the switch of substrate preference in cardiac hypertrophy have demonstrated that increased glucose metabolism in adult heart is not harmful and can be beneficial when it provides sufficient fuel for oxidative metabolism. However, improvement in the oxidative capacity and efficiency rather than the selection of the substrate is likely the ultimate goal for metabolic therapies. PMID:21502371

  10. The current status of primary hepatocyte culture

    PubMed Central

    Mitaka, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances toward the development of culture conditions that promote proliferation of primary rodent hepatocytes. There are two major methods for the multiplication of hepatocytes in vitro: one is the use of nicotinamide, the other is the use of a nutrient-rich medium. In the medium containing a high concentration of nicotinamide and a growth factor, primary hepatocytes can proliferate well. In this culture condition small mononucleate cells, which are named small hepatocytes, appear and form colonies. Small hepatocytes have a high potential to proliferate while maintaining hepatic characteristics, and can differentiate into mature ones. On the other hand, combining the nutrient-rich medium with 2% DMSO, the proliferated hepatocytes can recover the hepatic differentiated functions and maintain them for a long time. In this review I describe the culture conditions for the proliferation and differentiation of primary hepatocytes and discuss the small hepatocytes, especially their roles in liver growth. PMID:10319020

  11. Botulinum toxin for masseter hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Al-Muharraqi, Mohammed A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Al Bareeq, Jaffer; Al Bareeq, Reem; Nasser, Mona

    2009-01-21

    Benign masseter muscle hypertrophy is an uncommon clinical phenomenon of uncertain aetiology which is characterised by a soft swelling near the angle of the mandible. The swelling may on occasion be associated with facial pain and can be prominent enough to be considered cosmetically disfiguring. Varying degrees of success have been reported for some of the treatment options for masseter hypertrophy, which range from simple pharmacotherapy to more invasive surgical reduction. Injection of botulinum toxin type A into the masseter muscle is generally considered a less invasive modality and has been advocated for cosmetic sculpting of the lower face. Botulinum toxin type A is a powerful neurotoxin which is produced by the anaerobic organism Clostridium botulinum and when injected into a muscle causes interference with the neurotransmitter mechanism producing selective paralysis and subsequent atrophy of the muscle. To assess the effects of botulinum toxin type A in the management of benign bilateral masseter hypertrophy. We searched the following databases in August 2008: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, issue 3); MEDLINE (via PubMed) (1950 to August 2008); EMBASE (via embase.com) (1980 to August 2008); and LILACS via BIREME. We searched two bibliographic databases of regional journals which may be expected to contain relevant trials (IndMED and Iranmedex) using free text terms appropriate for this review. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing intra-masseteric injections of botulinum toxin versus placebo administered for cosmetic facial sculpting in individuals of any age with bilateral benign masseter hypertrophy, which had been self-evaluated and confirmed by clinical and radiological examination. We excluded participants with unilateral or compensatory contralateral masseter hypertrophy resulting from head and neck radiotherapy. Two review authors

  12. Sodium-independent, bicuculline-sensitive (/sup 3/H)GABA binding to isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Minuk, G.Y.; Bear, C.E.; Sarjeant, E.J.

    1987-05-01

    To determine whether hepatocytes possess specific receptor sites for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potent amino acid neurotransmitter, (/sup 3/H)GABA, was added to sodium-free suspensions of Percoll-purified hepatocytes derived from collagenase-perfused rat livers under various experimental conditions and in the presence or absence of specific GABA receptor agonists (muscimol) and antagonists (bicuculline). The effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on hepatocyte resting membrane potentials were also determined. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)GABA to hepatocytes was a consistent finding. GABA-hepatocyte interactions were reversible and temperature dependent. Muscimol and bicuculline inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 30 nM and 50 microM, respectively), whereas strychnine (1.0-100 microM), a nonspecific central nervous system stimulant, had no appreciable effect. Both GABA and muscimol (100 microM) caused significant hyperpolarization of hepatocyte resting membrane potential (delta PD 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 22.2 +/- 16.2 mV, respectively, means +/- SD, P less than 0.0005). Bicuculline (100 microM) inhibited the effect of muscimol (P less than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that specific GABA receptor sites exist on the surface of isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of such sites raises the possibility that, in addition to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation, hepatic function may be influenced by GABA-ergic neurotransmitter mechanisms.

  13. Efficient amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by Syzygium cumini Skeels extract.

    PubMed

    Veigas, Jyothi M; Shrivasthava, Richa; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2008-09-01

    Syzygium cumini, Indian black plum or Java plum, is a rich source for anthocyanins (230 mg/100g DW) showing high antioxidant activity in vitro. In the following study it is further demonstrated that S. cumini peel extract rich in anthocyanins (SCA) offers considerable protection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced damage in rat hepatocytes. SCA itself being non-toxic to primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 ppm, was found to suppress CCl(4)-induced LDH leakage by 54% at 50ppm, thereby improving the cell viability by 39%. The SCA significantly reversed the CCl(4) induced changes in cellular glutathione (GSH) level, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Exposure of hepatocytes to SCA after CCl(4) treatment was found to elevate GSH and GPx activities by 2-folds, whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were not significantly affected. The fruit pulp extract (SPE) was less effective in offering protection to rat hepatocytes, particularly in terms of total GSH content and a consequent increase in lipid peroxidation although the higher GPx activity suggests the probable involvement of GSH as a substrate for GPx. These observations suggest that the fruit peel extract of S. cumini, is largely responsible for the reversal of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes. Both peel and pulp extract appear to offer protection to rat hepatocytes through GPx along with other biological pathways independent of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

  14. Electrochemical sensing of hepatocyte viability.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hweiyan; Tsai, Shang-heng; Ting, Wei-Jen; Hu, Chao-Chin; Fuh, C Bor

    2014-05-21

    We investigated the use of amperometric and chronoamperometric methods with a double mediator system and screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the electrochemical sensing of hepatocyte viability. Cell counts were determined based on measuring cellular respiration via interaction of electroactive redox mediators. The oxidation currents of chronoamperometric measurement were proportional to the concentrations of ferrocyanide which was produced via interaction of cellular respiration, succinate and ferricyanide. The integrated oxidation charges increased linearly with the density of the cultured primary rat hepatocytes over a range of 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(5) cells per well (slope = 1.98 (±0.08) μC per 10(5) cells; R(2) = 0.9969), and the detection limit was 7600 (±300) cells per well based on S/N = 3. Each density of cells was cultured in triple replicates and individual cell samples were evaluated. The results of the cytotoxic effect of the chronoamperometric method are comparable to those of the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. The chronoamperometric method with ferricyanide and succinate mediators is an efficient, alternative method for assessing the viability of primary hepatocytes which can be completed in 20 min. Succinate did not provide an efficient electron shuttle between cytosolic respiratory redox activity of cancer cells and extracellular ferricyanide, an effect that may be useful for distinguishing hepatocarcinoma cells from healthy hepatocytes.

  15. Biochemical regulators in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kölbel, F; Schreiber, V

    1983-01-01

    In recent years research has shown that muscle is capable of reacting to mechanical stimuli by altering biochemical processes. Myocardium is probably the source of a biochemical factor, or factors which activate myocardial protein synthesis. In experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy adaptive alterations have been shown to occur not only in the adrenal medulla but also in the adrenal cortex. Finally, detection of cross reactivity between digitalis glycosides and a number of steroid hormones has succeeded. We assume that such cross reactivity indicates the existence of an endogenic factor of steroid character, which is produced in the adrenal gland and functions as an endogenic cardiotonic agent. During experimental cardiac hypertrophy its synthesis is possibly increased. We propose the term "endocardin" or "endocardiotonin" for this agent.

  16. Association between miR-181b and PKG 1 in myocardial hypertrophy and its clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei; Yang, Jun; Cao, Qian; Huan, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the microRNA (miR)-181b expression in myocardial hypertrophy and to investigate its association with cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG 1) in an in vitro model. The miR-181b level in the peripheral blood was determined in patients with myocardial hypertrophy, and an in vitro model was established via phenylephrine (PE) treatment. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blotting were performed to detect the expression levels of miR-181b, PKG 1 and hypertrophy-related genes. The results revealed that the expression of miR-181b was elevated in the peripheral blood of patients with myocardial hypertrophy, and this may have contributed to the pathology and progression of the disease. When the primary myocardial cells were treated with PE, microscopic observation and flow cytometry revealed significant hypertrophy. Furthermore, upregulation of myocardial hypertrophy-related genes, including β-myosin heavy chain, α-sarcomeric actinin and atrial natriuretic peptide, was observed. The miR-181b expression level in the PE-treated cells was elevated, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of PKG 1 were decreased, indicating a negative correlation between miR-181b and PKG 1 in myocardial hypertrophy. In addition, when the PE-treated primary myocardial cells were transfected with miR-181b inhibitor, the reduced PKG 1 expression was restored and the myocardial hypertrophy alleviated, as indicated by the reduced cellular sizes and decreased expression levels of the myocardial hypertrophy-related genes. In conclusion, miR-181b expression has been shown to be upregulated in myocardial hypertrophy, and this may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease by regulating the expression of PKG 1. The present findings suggest that miR-181b is a promising molecular indicator for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

  17. Mitochondria in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Mariana G.; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationship between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. PMID:22982369

  18. Mitochondria in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rosca, Mariana G; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L

    2013-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationships between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marked left ventricular hypertrophy mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with steroid therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Scirè, Giuseppe; D'Anella, Giorgio; Cristofori, Laura; Mazzuca, Valentina; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    We describe a child treated with high-dose steroid therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia who showed marked left ventricular hypertrophy mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with steroid therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Cardiomyopathy reversed completely when an appropriate steroid therapeutic regimen was established.

  20. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    PubMed

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  2. Sub-lethal concentration of arsenic interferes with the proliferation of hepatocytes and induces in vivo apoptosis in Clarias batrachus L.

    PubMed

    Datta, Soma; Saha, Dhira Rani; Ghosh, Debabrata; Majumdar, Tanmay; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2007-04-01

    We studied the hepatocellular alterations induced by sub-lethal concentrations (0.50 muM) of arsenic in Indian catfish Clarias batrachus L. Sub-lethal arsenic exposure altered serum aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels and brought about significant changes in different serum biochemical parameters. Arsenic exposure reduced total hepatocyte protein content and suppressed the proliferation of hepatocytes in a time-dependent manner. Routine histological studies on liver documented arsenic-induced changes characterized by dilated sinusoids, formation of intracellular edema, megalocytosis, vacuolation and appearance of hepatic cells with distorted nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy of hepatocytes further revealed hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mitochondria, development of dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and changes in peroxisome size with duration of arsenic exposure. Degeneration of mitochondrial cristae and condensation of chromatin was also evident in arsenic-exposed hepatocytes. A significant number of hepatocytes isolated from arsenic-exposed fish stained with annexin V and demonstrated DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Single-cell gel electrophoresis of exposed hepatocytes also revealed the development of comets usually seen in apoptotic cells. Using specific inhibitors it was determined that the arsenic-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes was caspase-mediated, involving the caspase 3 pathway.

  3. Oval cells compensate for damage and replicative senescence of mature hepatocytes in mice with fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiqi; Koteish, Ayman; Lin, Huizhi; Huang, Jiawen; Roskams, Tania; Dawson, Valina; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2004-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis may have a generally benign prognosis, either because most hepatocytes are not significantly injured or mechanisms to replace damaged hepatocytes are induced. To determine the relative importance of these mechanisms, we compared hepatocyte damage and replication in ethanol-fed and ob/ob mice with very indolent fatty liver disease to that of healthy control mice and PARP-1(-/-) mice with targeted disruption of the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Compared to the healthy controls, both groups with fatty livers had significantly higher serum alanine aminotransferase values, hepatic mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production, and hepatocyte oxidative DNA damage. A significantly smaller proportion of the hepatocytes from fatty livers entered S phase when cultured with mitogens. Moreover, this replicative senescence was not reversed by treating cultured hepatocytes with agents (i.e., betaine or leptin) that improve liver disease in intact ethanol-fed or leptin-deficient mice. Hepatocytes from PARP1(-/-) mice also had more DNA damage and reduced DNA synthesis in response to mitogens. However, neither mice with fatty livers nor PARP-1-deficient mice had atrophic livers. All of the mice with senescent mature hepatocytes exhibited hepatic accumulation of liver progenitor (oval) cells and oval cell numbers increased with the demand for hepatocyte replacement. Therefore, although hepatic oxidant production and damage are generally increased in fatty livers, expansion of hepatic progenitor cell populations helps to compensate for the increased turnover of damaged mature hepatocytes. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that induction of mechanisms to replace damaged hepatocytes is important for limiting the progression of fatty liver disease.

  4. Hepatocytes: critical for glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Klover, Peter J; Mooney, Robert A

    2004-05-01

    Maintaining blood glucose levels within a narrow range is a critical physiological function requiring multiple metabolic pathways and involving several cell types, including a prominent role for hepatocytes. Under hormonal control, hepatocytes can respond to either feeding or fasting conditions by storing or producing glucose as necessary. In the fasting state, the effects of glucagon avoid hypoglycemia by stimulating glucogenesis and glycogenolysis and initiating hepatic glucose release. Postprandially, insulin prevents hyperglycemia, in part, by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and facilitating hepatic glycogen synthesis. Both transcriptional regulation of rate limiting enzymes and modulation of enzyme activity through phosphorylation and allosteric regulation are involved. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common serious metabolic condition in the world, and results from a subnormal response of tissues to insulin (insulin resistance) and a failure of the insulin-secreting beta cells to compensate. In type 2 diabetes, glucose is overproduced by the hepatocyte and is ineffectively metabolized by other organs. Impairments in the insulin signal transduction pathway appear to be critical lesions contributing to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Kidney glycosphingolipids are elevated early in diabetic nephropathy and mediate hypertrophy of mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Subathra, Marimuthu; Korrapati, Midhun; Howell, Lauren A.; Arthur, John M.; Shayman, James A.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes, but their role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) has received limited attention. We used 9- and 17-wk-old nondiabetic db/m and diabetic db/db mice to examine the role of GSLs in DN. Cerebrosides or monoglycosylated GSLs [hexosylceramides (HexCers); glucosyl- and galactosylceramides] and lactosylceramide (LacCers) were elevated in db/db mouse kidney cortices, specifically in glomeruli, and also in urine. In our recent paper (25), we observed that the kidneys exhibited glomerular hypertrophy and proximal tubular vacuolization and increased fibrosis markers at these time points. Mesangial cells contribute to hyperglycemia-induced glomerular hypertrophy in DN. Hyperglycemic culture conditions, similar to that present in diabetes, were sufficient to elevate mesangial cell HexCers and increase markers of fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins, and cellular hypertrophy. Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase or lowering glucose levels decreased markers of fibrosis and extracellular matrix proteins and reversed mesangial cell hypertrophy. Hyperglycemia increased phosphorylated (p)SMAD3 and pAkt levels and reduced phosphatase and tensin homolog levels, which were reversed with glucosylceramide synthase inhibition. These data suggest that inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase reversed mesangial cell hypertrophy through decreased pAkt and pSmad3 and increased pathways responsible for protein degradation. Importantly, urinary GSL levels were higher in patients with DN compared with healthy control subjects, implicating a role for these lipids in human DN. Thus, hyperglycemia in type II diabetes leads to renal dysfunction at least in part by inducing accumulation of HexCers and LacCers in mesangial cells, resulting in fibrosis, extracellular matrix production, and hypertrophy. PMID:26041445

  6. Exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy initiates activation of cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junjie; Xu, Tianzhao; Li, Jin; Lv, Dongcao; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Qiulian; Xu, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Physiological hypertrophy is featured by the hypertrophy of pre-existing cardiomyocytes and the formation of new cardiomyocytes. C-kit positive cardiac progenitor cells increased their numbers in exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy. However, the participation of Sca-1 positive cells in the physiological adaptation of the heart to exercise training is unclear. Physiological hypertrophy was induced by swimming and the mRNA levels of GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from the whole heart were determined by real-time polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) analysis. Immunofluorescent staining was used to compare the number of C-kit and Sca-1 positive cardiac progenitor cells. In addition, mRNA levels of C-kit and Sca-1 in left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), and outflow tract (OFT) were determined in mice swimming for 7, 14, and 21 days by RT-PCRs. The ratio of heart weight (HW) to body weight and HW to tibia length and the mRNA level of GATA4 were increased while mRNA levels of ANP and BNP remained unchanged. C-kit and Sca-1 positive cardiac progenitor cells were activated by swimming training. An increased endogenous production of HGF and IGF was observed at least at the mRNA level. Swimming induced a significant up-regulation of C-kit in LV of mice swimming for 1, 2 and 3 weeks and in RV of mice swimming for 3 weeks. Sca-1 positive cardiac progenitor cells were increased in LV and OFT in mice swimming for 3 weeks. This study presents that swimming-induced physiological hypertrophy initiates activation of cardiac progenitor cells.

  7. Strategies for immortalization of primary hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eva, Ramboer; Bram, De Craene; Joery, De Kock; Tamara, Vanhaecke; Geert, Berx; Vera, Rogiers; Mathieu, Vinken

    2014-01-01

    The liver has the unique capacity to regenerate in response to a damaging event. Liver regeneration is hereby largely driven by hepatocyte proliferation, which in turn relies on cell cycling. The hepatocyte cell cycle is a complex process that is tightly regulated by several well-established mechanisms. In vitro, isolated hepatocytes do not longer retain this proliferative capacity. However, in vitro cell growth can be boosted by immortalization of hepatocytes. Well-defined immortalization genes can be artificially overexpressed in hepatocytes or the cells can be conditionally immortalized leading to controlled cell proliferation. This paper discusses the current immortalization techniques and provides a state-of-the-art overview of the actually available immortalized hepatocyte-derived cell lines and their applications. PMID:24911463

  8. Attenuation of microRNA-16 derepresses the cyclins D1, D2 and E1 to provoke cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuai; Zou, Xiao; Zhu, Jie-Ning; Fu, Yong-Heng; Lin, Qiu-Xiong; Liang, Ye-You; Deng, Chun-Yu; Kuang, Su-Juan; Zhang, Meng-Zhen; Liao, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yu, Xi-Yong; Shan, Zhi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclins/retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway participates in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous small non-coding RNAs, were recognized to play significant roles in cardiac hypertrophy. But, it remains unknown whether cyclin/Rb pathway is modulated by miRNAs during cardiac hypertrophy. This study investigates the potential role of microRNA-16 (miR-16) in modulating cyclin/Rb pathway during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. An animal model of hypertrophy was established in a rat with abdominal aortic constriction (AAC), and in a mouse with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and in a mouse with subcutaneous injection of phenylephrine (PE) respectively. In addition, a cell model of hypertrophy was also achieved based on PE-promoted neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocyte and based on Ang-II-induced neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocyte respectively. We demonstrated that miR-16 expression was markedly decreased in hypertrophic myocardium and hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in rats and mice. Overexpression of miR-16 suppressed rat cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic phenotype of cultured cardiomyocytes, and inhibition of miR-16 induced a hypertrophic phenotype in cardiomyocytes. Expressions of cyclins D1, D2 and E1, and the phosphorylated pRb were increased in hypertrophic myocardium and hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, but could be reversed by enforced expression of miR-16. Cyclins D1, D2 and E1, not pRb, were further validated to be modulated post-transcriptionally by miR-16. In addition, the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and c-Myc were activated during myocardial hypertrophy, and inhibitions of them prevented miR-16 attenuation. Therefore, attenuation of miR-16 provoke cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via derepressing the cyclins D1, D2 and E1, and activating cyclin/Rb pathway, revealing that miR-16 might be a target to manage cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25583328

  9. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Arthurs, Blake; Li, Pei; Durudogan, Leigh; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum saturated fatty acid palmitate have been shown to promote insulin resistance, increase cellular ROS production, and trigger cell apoptosis in hepatocytes during the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether palmitate directly impacts the circadian clock in hepatocytes, which coordinates nutritional inputs and hormonal signaling with downstream metabolic outputs. Here we presented evidence that the molecular clock is a novel target of palmitate in hepatocytes. Palmitate exposure at low dose inhibits the molecular clock activity and suppresses the cyclic expression of circadian targets including Dbp, Nr1d1 and Per2 in hepatocytes. Palmitate treatment does not seem to alter localization or reduce protein expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK, the two core components of the molecular clock in hepatocytes. Instead, palmitate destabilizes the protein-protein interaction between BMAL1-CLOCK in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that SIRT1 activators could reverse the inhibitory action of palmitate on BMAL1-CLOCK interaction and the clock gene expression, whereas inhibitors of NAD synthesis mimic the palmitate effects on the clock function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that palmitate inhibits the clock function by suppressing SIRT1 function in hepatocytes. PMID:26075729

  10. Use of intranasal corticosteroids in adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sakarya, E U; Bayar Muluk, N; Sakalar, E G; Senturk, M; Aricigil, M; Bafaqeeh, S A; Cingi, C

    2017-05-01

    This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system. Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  11. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, R; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-09-26

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid or dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rare malignant lesion within the muscle. Advanced imaging modalities like CT and MRI are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here the authors are reporting a unique case of masseter muscle hypertrophy along with medial pterygoid hypertrophy which was missed clinically but confirmed using CT and MRI.

  12. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    R, Guruprasad; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid or dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rare malignant lesion within the muscle. Advanced imaging modalities like CT and MRI are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here the authors are reporting a unique case of masseter muscle hypertrophy along with medial pterygoid hypertrophy which was missed clinically but confirmed using CT and MRI. PMID:22679271

  13. Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunshi; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Dahai

    2012-01-01

    Aims It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. Methods and Results We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. Conclusion CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23227174

  14. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α in adult mice results in increased hepatocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Walesky, Chad; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α) is known as the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation. Recent studies indicate that HNF4α may inhibit hepatocyte proliferation via mechanisms that have yet to be identified. Using a HNF4α knockdown mouse model based on delivery of inducible Cre recombinase via an adeno-associated virus 8 viral vector, we investigated the role of HNF4α in the regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation. Global gene expression analysis showed that a majority of the downregulated genes were previously known HNF4α target genes involved in hepatic differentiation. Interestingly, ≥500 upregulated genes were associated with cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, we identified potential negative target genes of HNF4α, many of which are involved in the stimulation of proliferation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed binding of HNF4α at three of these genes. Furthermore, overexpression of HNF4α in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in a decrease in promitogenic gene expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data indicate that, apart from its role in hepatocyte differentiation, HNF4α actively inhibits hepatocyte proliferation by repression of specific promitogenic genes. PMID:23104559

  15. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α in adult mice results in increased hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Walesky, Chad; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi; Apte, Udayan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF4α) is known as the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation. Recent studies indicate that HNF4α may inhibit hepatocyte proliferation via mechanisms that have yet to be identified. Using a HNF4α knockdown mouse model based on delivery of inducible Cre recombinase via an adeno-associated virus 8 viral vector, we investigated the role of HNF4α in the regulation of hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation. Global gene expression analysis showed that a majority of the downregulated genes were previously known HNF4α target genes involved in hepatic differentiation. Interestingly, ≥500 upregulated genes were associated with cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, we identified potential negative target genes of HNF4α, many of which are involved in the stimulation of proliferation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we confirmed binding of HNF4α at three of these genes. Furthermore, overexpression of HNF4α in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cells resulted in a decrease in promitogenic gene expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data indicate that, apart from its role in hepatocyte differentiation, HNF4α actively inhibits hepatocyte proliferation by repression of specific promitogenic genes.

  16. HEMETβ: improvement of hepatocyte metabolism mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Orsi, G; De Maria, C; Guzzardi, M; Vozzi, F; Vozzi, G

    2011-10-01

    This article describes hepatocyte metabolism mathematical model (HEMETβ), which is an improved version of HEMET, an effective and versatile virtual cell model based on hepatic cell metabolism. HEMET is based on a set of non-linear differential equations, implemented in Simulink®, which describes the biochemical reactions and energetic cell state, and completely mimics the principal metabolic pathways in hepatic cells. The cell energy function and modular structure are the core of this model. HEMETβ as HEMET model describes hepatic cellular metabolism in standard conditions (cell culture in a plastic multi-well placed in an incubator at 37° C with 5% of CO2) and with excess substrates concentration. The main improvements in HEMETβ are the introductions of Michaelis-Menten models for reversible reactions and enzymatic inhibition. In addition, we eliminated hard non-linearities and modelled cell proliferation and every single aminoacid degradation pathway. All these innovations, combined with a user-friendly aspect, allow researchers to create new cell types and validate new experimental protocols just varying 'peripheral' pathways or model inputs.

  17. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 signalling in cardiac fibroblasts mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tamer M A; Abou-Leisa, Riham; Stafford, Nicholas; Maqsood, Arfa; Zi, Min; Prehar, Sukhpal; Baudoin-Stanley, Florence; Wang, Xin; Neyses, Ludwig; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Oceandy, Delvac

    2016-03-29

    The heart responds to pathological overload through myocyte hypertrophy. Here we show that this response is regulated by cardiac fibroblasts via a paracrine mechanism involving plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Pmca4 deletion in mice, both systemically and specifically in fibroblasts, reduces the hypertrophic response to pressure overload; however, knocking out Pmca4 specifically in cardiomyocytes does not produce this effect. Mechanistically, cardiac fibroblasts lacking PMCA4 produce higher levels of secreted frizzled related protein 2 (sFRP2), which inhibits the hypertrophic response in neighbouring cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we show that treatment with the PMCA4 inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) inhibits and reverses cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in mice. Our results reveal that PMCA4 regulates the development of cardiac hypertrophy and provide proof of principle for a therapeutic approach to treat this condition.

  18. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 signalling in cardiac fibroblasts mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Tamer M. A.; Abou-Leisa, Riham; Stafford, Nicholas; Maqsood, Arfa; Zi, Min; Prehar, Sukhpal; Baudoin-Stanley, Florence; Wang, Xin; Neyses, Ludwig; Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Oceandy, Delvac

    2016-01-01

    The heart responds to pathological overload through myocyte hypertrophy. Here we show that this response is regulated by cardiac fibroblasts via a paracrine mechanism involving plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Pmca4 deletion in mice, both systemically and specifically in fibroblasts, reduces the hypertrophic response to pressure overload; however, knocking out Pmca4 specifically in cardiomyocytes does not produce this effect. Mechanistically, cardiac fibroblasts lacking PMCA4 produce higher levels of secreted frizzled related protein 2 (sFRP2), which inhibits the hypertrophic response in neighbouring cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we show that treatment with the PMCA4 inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) inhibits and reverses cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload in mice. Our results reveal that PMCA4 regulates the development of cardiac hypertrophy and provide proof of principle for a therapeutic approach to treat this condition. PMID:27020607

  19. AAEM minimonograph #46: neurogenic muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, L

    1996-07-01

    Muscle hypertrophy occurs uncommonly in several neurogenic disorders including neuropathies, radiculopathies, spinal muscular atrophy, and post-polio syndrome. Its pathogenesis varies in different circumstances. In the presence of generalized myokymia and neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), symmetrical hypertrophy appears to be the result of continuous spontaneous electrical stimulation of myofibers and, in some cases, results in type 1 myofiber preponderance. Focal hypertrophy occurring with radiculopathies and mononeuropathies was associated with complex repetitive discharges (CRDs) in approximately half the cases. CRDs may play a role in the pathogenesis of myofiber hypertrophy by continuous myofiber stimulation, but in some cases, with and without CRDs, myofiber hypertrophy may be related to mechanical events. Muscle enlargement seen in old polio appears to involve a significant degree of pseudohypertrophy, although some myofiber hypertrophy occurs. The symmetrical occurrence of hypertrophy in genetically determined disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy types 1 and 2 may have both a genetic and a mechanical basis in addition to pseudohypertrophy in some cases.

  20. The role of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanfang; Xu, Jin; He, Lu; Peng, Lijun; Zhong, Qiaoqing; Chen, Linxi; Jiang, Zhisheng

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is conserved in nature from lower eukaryotes to mammals and is an important self-cannibalizing, degradative process that contributes to the elimination of superfluous materials. Cardiac hypertrophy is primarily characterized by excess protein synthesis, increased cardiomyocyte size, and thickened ventricular walls and is a major risk factor that promotes arrhythmia and heart failure. In recent years, cardiomyocyte autophagy has been considered to play a role in controlling the hypertrophic response. However, the beneficial or aggravating role of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. The exact mechanism of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this review, we summarize the controversies associated with autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy and provide insights into the role of autophagy in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that future studies should emphasize the relationship between autophagy and the different stages of cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the autophagic flux and selective autophagy. Autophagy will be a potential therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The role of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lanfang; Xu, Jin; He, Lu; Peng, Lijun; Zhong, Qiaoqing; Chen, Linxi; Jiang, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is conserved in nature from lower eukaryotes to mammals and is an important self-cannibalizing, degradative process that contributes to the elimination of superfluous materials. Cardiac hypertrophy is primarily characterized by excess protein synthesis, increased cardiomyocyte size, and thickened ventricular walls and is a major risk factor that promotes arrhythmia and heart failure. In recent years, cardiomyocyte autophagy has been considered to play a role in controlling the hypertrophic response. However, the beneficial or aggravating role of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. The exact mechanism of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this review, we summarize the controversies associated with autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy and provide insights into the role of autophagy in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that future studies should emphasize the relationship between autophagy and the different stages of cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the autophagic flux and selective autophagy. Autophagy will be a potential therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27084518

  2. Do inflammatory cells influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Koh, Timothy J; Pizza, Francis X

    2009-06-01

    Most research on muscle hypertrophy has focused on the responses of muscle cells to mechanical loading; however, a number of studies also suggest that inflammatory cells may influence muscle hypertrophy. Neutrophils and macrophages accumulate in skeletal muscle following increased mechanical loading, and we have demonstrated that macrophages are essential for hypertrophy following synergist ablation. Whether neutrophils are required remains to be determined. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impair adaptive responses of skeletal muscle in both human and animal experiments suggesting that the routine use of such drugs could impair muscle performance. Much remains to be learned about the role of inflammatory cells in muscle hypertrophy, including the molecular signals involved in calling neutrophils and macrophages to skeletal muscle as well as those that regulate their function in muscle. In addition, although we have demonstrated that macrophages produce growth promoting factors during muscle hypertrophy, the full range of functional activities involved in muscle hypertrophy remains to be determined. Further investigation should provide insight into the intriguing hypothesis that inflammatory cells play integral roles in regulating muscle hypertrophy.

  3. Moexipril and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, P K

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression.

  4. Moexipril and left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chrysant, George S; Nguyen, PK

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors today are the standard therapy of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure due to their proven beneficial effects in left ventricular remodeling and left ventricular function. ACE inhibitors have also been demonstrated to lead to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). It is believed that the mechanism of action of LVH regression with ACE inhibitors arises from more than simple blood pressure reduction. LVH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality independent of blood pressure. Moexipril hydrochloride is a long-acting, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor that can be taken once daily for the treatment of hypertension. Moexipril has now also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on LVH and can lead to LVH regression. PMID:17583172

  5. Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    10-1-0932 TITLE: Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Jonathan E. Isaacs...certainly “denervation atrophy” plays a significant role. Anabolic steroids , which have been shown to cause hypertrophy of muscle fibers, increase net...of satellite cells to muscle fibers. In conclusion, there did not seem to be a functional benefit for anabolic steroid treatment following

  6. 19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and isoniazid protect against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Elkhatali, Samya; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; Elshenawy, Osama H; Abdelhamid, Ghada; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2015-12-15

    We have recently demonstrated that 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE) is the major subterminal-HETE formed in the heart tissue, and its formation was decreased during cardiac hypertrophy. In the current study, we examined whether 19-HETE confers cardioprotection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The effect of Ang II, with and without 19-HETE (20 μM), on the development of cellular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte RL-14 cells was assessed by real-time PCR. Also, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by Ang II, and the effect of increasing 19-HETE by isoniazid (INH; 200mg/kg/day) was assessed by heart weight and echocardiography. Also, alterations in cardiac cytochrome P450 (CYP) and their associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites were determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting and liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that 19-HETE conferred a cardioprotective effect against Ang II-induced cellular hypertrophy in vitro, as indicated by the significant reduction in β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio. In vivo, INH improved heart dimensions, and reversed the increase in heart weight to tibia length ratio caused by Ang II. We found a significant increase in cardiac 19-HETE, as well as a significant reduction in AA and its metabolite, 20-HETE. In conclusion, 19-HETE, incubated with cardiomyocytes in vitro or induced in the heart by INH in vivo, provides cardioprotection against Ang II-induced hypertrophy. This further confirms the role of CYP, and their associated AA metabolites in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatocyte Death: A Clear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    MALHI, HARMEET; GUICCIARDI, MARIA EUGENIA; GORES, GREGORY J.

    2010-01-01

    The hepatocyte is especially vulnerable to injury due to its central role in xenobiotic metabolism including drugs and alcohol, participation in lipid and fatty acid metabolism, its unique role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, the widespread prevalence of hepatotropic viruses, and its existence within a milieu of innate immune responding cells. Apoptosis and necrosis are the most widely recognized forms of hepatocyte cell death. The hepatocyte displays many unique features regarding cell death by apoptosis. It is quite susceptible to death receptor-mediated injury, and its death receptor signaling pathways involve the mitochondrial pathway for efficient cell killing. Also, death receptors can trigger lysosomal disruption in hepatocytes which further promote cell and tissue injury. Interestingly, hepatocytes are protected from cell death by only two anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, which have nonredundant functions. Endoplasmic reticulum stress or the unfolded protein response contributes to hepatocyte cell death during alterations of lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Finally, the current information implicating RIP kinases in necrosis provides an approach to more fully address this mode of cell death in hepatocyte injury. All of these processes contributing to hepatocyte injury are discussed in the context of potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:20664081

  8. Caveolin-1-Autophagy Pathway Mediated Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Apelin-13.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Xie, Feng; Xiao, Ling; Feng, Fen; Huang, Shifang; He, Lu; Liu, Meiqing; Zhou, Qun; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2017-08-01

    Apelin, an endogenous ligand for apelin receptor (APJ), is reported to be involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we explored the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by apelin-13/APJ system. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) rat model was established by constricting the abdominal aorta. Western blots were used for protein expression in LVH rats and cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor morphological features of cells. In addition, the diameter and volume of H9c2 cells were detected by Scepter™ Handheld Automated Cell Counter. We found that the APJ was increased, but caveolin-1 was decreased in heart of LVH rats. In addition, caveolin-1 was suppressed by apelin-13, and this effect was reversed by APJ antagonist F13A in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Apelin-13 not only stimulated the formation of autophagolysosomes, autophagosome, and lysosomes but also increased the expression of autophagic markers Beclin-1 and LC3II/I. Besides, the increase of Beclin-1 and LC3 II/I was reversed by F13A or caveolin-1 overexpression and further enhanced by caveolin inhibitor. Furthermore, the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy index brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) induced by apelin-13 was blunt by F13A or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and further promoted by caveolin inhibitor. And caveolin-1 overexpression reduced the diameter and volume of H9c2 cells induced by apelin-13. Our study indicates that caveolin-1-autophagy pathway mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by apelin-13/APJ system, which might provide a novel therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy disease.

  9. Regression of altitude-produced cardiac hypertrophy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizemore, D. A.; Mcintyre, T. W.; Van Liere, E. J.; Wilson , M. F.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of regression of cardiac hypertrophy with time has been determined in adult male albino rats. The hypertrophy was induced by intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude. The percentage hypertrophy was much greater (46%) in the right ventricle than in the left (16%). The regression could be adequately fitted to a single exponential function with a half-time of 6.73 plus or minus 0.71 days (90% CI). There was no significant difference in the rates of regression for the two ventricles.

  10. Regression of altitude-produced cardiac hypertrophy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizemore, D. A.; Mcintyre, T. W.; Van Liere, E. J.; Wilson , M. F.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of regression of cardiac hypertrophy with time has been determined in adult male albino rats. The hypertrophy was induced by intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude. The percentage hypertrophy was much greater (46%) in the right ventricle than in the left (16%). The regression could be adequately fitted to a single exponential function with a half-time of 6.73 plus or minus 0.71 days (90% CI). There was no significant difference in the rates of regression for the two ventricles.

  11. Mesangial cells initiate compensatory tubular cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sinuani, I; Beberashvili, I; Averbukh, Z; Cohn, M; Gitelman, I; Weissgarten, J

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral nephrectomy results in compensatory renal growth, in which both the size and the functional capacity of the remaining kidney are increased. The functional adaptation to the removal of the contralateral kidney consists mostly of an increase in the glomerular filtration rate of the remaining kidney, and hypertrophy of cells comprising the nephron, mainly of the proximal tubular cells. Although the phenomenon of single kidney hypertrophy has been known for the past thousand years and despite intensive research over the past century, the mechanism of this process still remains unclear. The present article reviews the role of mesangial cells in compensatory renal hypertrophy. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Antiandrogenic therapy with finasteride attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zwadlo, Carolin; Schmidtmann, Elisa; Szaroszyk, Malgorzata; Kattih, Badder; Froese, Natali; Hinz, Hebke; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Widder, Julian; Batkai, Sandor; Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Thum, Thomas; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2015-03-24

    In comparison with men, women have a better prognosis when experiencing aortic valve stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or heart failure. Recent data suggest that androgens like testosterone or the more potent dihydrotestosterone contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Therefore, we analyzed whether antiandrogenic therapy with finasteride, which inhibits the generation of dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5-α-reductase, improves pathological ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We found a strongly induced expression of all 3 isoforms of the 5-α-reductase (Srd5a1 to Srd5a3) in human and mouse hearts with pathological hypertrophy, which was associated with increased myocardial accumulation of dihydrotestosterone. Starting 1 week after the induction of pressure overload by transaortic constriction, mice were treated with finasteride for 2 weeks. Cardiac function, hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis were markedly improved in response to finasteride treatment in not only male, but also in female mice. In addition, finasteride also very effectively improved cardiac function and mortality after long-term pressure overload and prevented disease progression in cardiomyopathic mice with myocardial Gαq overexpression. Mechanistically, finasteride, by decreasing dihydrotestosterone, potently inhibited hypertrophy and Akt-dependent prohypertrophic signaling in isolated cardiac myocytes, whereas the introduction of constitutively active Akt blunted these effects of finasteride. Finasteride, which is currently used in patients to treat prostate disease, potently reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice and might be a therapeutic option for heart failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Role of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).

    PubMed

    Cacciapuoti, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key compensatory mechanism acting in response to pressure or volume overload, involving some alterations in signaling transduction pathways and transcription factors-regulation. These changes result in enhanced proteins' synthesis leading to Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH). It is known that the main function of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) is to prevent accumulation of damaged, misfolded and mutant proteins by proteolysis. But emerging evidences suggest that UPS also attends to the cells' growth, favoring proteins' synthesis, subsequently evolving in LVH. The role of the proteasome in to favor cellular hypertrophy consists in upregulation of the catalytic proteasome subunit, with prevalence of proteins-synthesis on proteins degradation. It is also evident that UPS inhibition may prevent cells' growth opposing to the hypertrophy. In fact in several experimental models, UPS inhibition demonstrated to be able to prevent or reverse cardiac hypertrophy induced by abdominal aortic banding (AAB). That can happen with several proteasome inhibitors acting by multifactorial mechanisms. These evidences induce to hypothesize that, in the future, in patients with the increased volume overload by systemic hypertension, some proteasome-inhibitors could be used to antagonize or prevent LVH without reducing peripheral high blood pressure levels too.

  14. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    PubMed

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics.

  15. Exendin-4 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; He, Xin; Chen, Yili; Huang, Yiyi; Wu, Lingling; He, Jiangui

    Diabetes mellitus is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an important complication of the heart independent of hypertension and coronary artery disease and is accompanied by cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy easily leads to heart failure, which is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone, which has various beneficial roles in the cardiovascular system, and exendin-4 is a highly potent glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist. However, the role of GLP-1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Our study revealed that exendin-4 treatment ameliorated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, which presented as decreased cardiac hypertrophic markers (ANP, BNP, and β-MHC) and cell surface area. This condition was significantly reversed upon treatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin9-39. We also discovered that Erk1/2 and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in this process. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the AMPK inhibitor compound C inhibited the anti-hypertrophic effect of exendin-4, which is associated with the mTOR/p70S6K/4-EBP1 signaling pathway. Finally, exendin-4 enhanced the anti-hypertrophic effect of rapamycin. In summary, our study disclosed that exedin-4 inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by upregulating GLP-1 receptor expression and activating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive parotid gland hypertrophy induced by dietary treatment of GSE in rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Matsuo, Saori; Tamura, Kei; Takahashi, Miwa; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-08-01

    In a 13-week feeding toxicity study of grape skin extract (GSE) performed previously, 5.0% GSE showed diffuse hypertrophy and basophilia in rat parotid glands. To clarify whether the change in the parotid glands was an adverse effect of GSE, 6-week-old male F344 rats were fed a diet containing 5.0% GSE or were administered a dose corresponding to the dietary concentration via gavage for 4 weeks, and the treatment was stopped for 2 weeks. To ascertain the effect of astringency, other animals were fed a diet containing 5.0% tannic acid (TA) using the same protocol as the GSE feed group. Control groups were fed a basal diet or were administered sterilized distilled water by gavage. In the GSE and TA feed groups, diffuse severe hypertrophy and basophilia in the parotid glandular epithelial cells were observed. Macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics consistent with cellular hypertrophy was less apparent after the recovery period in both feed groups. In contrast, no changes were observed in the parotid glands of the gavage GSE and control groups at week 4. Based on these findings of parotid hypertrophy without cytotoxicity, the data from this and previous studies suggest that hypertrophy of the parotid glands induced by feeding treatment with GSE is an adaptive non-adverse effect that is reversible upon removal of the sialotrophic agent. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  17. Preparation of equine isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bakala, A; Karlik, W; Wiechetek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this study a detailed description of the equine hepatocyte isolation procedure is presented. Livers were obtained from horses slaughtered at the local slaughterhouse. For blood removal and liver preservation the following steps are suggested: perfusion with the oxygenated HBSS (0-2 degrees C, with continuous flow of 500-800 ml/min for 3-6 min), protection from ischemia injury by flushing with ice-cold University of Wisconsin Solution (UW, flow rate of 500-800 ml/min), and finally immersion of the liver lobe in UW solution (2 degrees C) during its transport to the laboratory. For equine isolated hepatocyte preparation a "three-step" perfusion procedure was elaborated: rewarming, chelating and collagenase perfusion. We found optimal cell yield and viability under the following conditions: rewarming with UW (38 degrees C) for 8-14 min, chelating with calcium free Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS, 38 degrees C) supplemented with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis[beta-aminoethyl esther]-N,N,N'N'-tetracetic acid at the flow rate of 450 ml/min for 6 min and enzymatic digestion with HBSS supplemented with 0.1% collagenase at 38 degrees C and 450 ml/min flow rate for 8-27 min. These conditions consistently generated cell harvests of 21 x 10(6)+/-4.86 cells/g of perfused liver tissue with viability of 82.7%+/-10.2.

  18. Long-term administration of pyridostigmine attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin signalling.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Jin-Jun; He, Xi; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; Sun, Lei; Chen, Li-Na; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2017-03-10

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with autonomic imbalance, characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic control. Increased parasympathetic function improves ventricular performance. However, whether pyridostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can offset cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether pyridostigmine can ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying mechanisms. Rats were subjected to either sham or constriction of abdominal aorta surgery and treated with or without pyridostigmine for 8 weeks. Vagal activity and cardiac function were determined using PowerLab. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated using various histological stains. Protein markers for cardiac hypertrophy were quantitated by Western blot and immunoprecipitation. Pressure overload resulted in a marked reduction in vagal discharge and a profound increase in cardiac hypertrophy index and cardiac dysfunction. Pyridostigmine increased the acetylcholine levels by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase in rats with pressure overload. Pyridostigmine significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy based on reduction in left ventricular weight/body weight, suppression of the levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain, and a reduction in cardiac fibrosis. These effects were accompanied by marked improvement of cardiac function. Additionally, pyridostigmine inhibited the CaN/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway and suppressed Orai1/STIM1 complex formation. In conclusion, pressure overload resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction and a significant reduction in vagal discharge. Pyridostigmine attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and improved cardiac function, which was related to improved cholinergic transmission efficiency (decreased acetylcholinesterase and increased acetylcholine), inhibition of the CaN/NFAT3/GATA4

  19. Functions of Autophagy in Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is the response of heart to various biomechanical and physiopathological stimuli, such as aging, myocardial ischemia and hypertension. However, a long-term exposure to the stress makes heart progress to heart failure. Autophagy is a dynamic self-degradative process necessary for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Accumulating evidence has revealed a tight link between cardiomyocyte autophagy and cardiac hypertrophy. Sophisticatedly regulated autophagy protects heart from various physiological and pathological stimuli by degradating and recycling of protein aggregates, lipid drops, or organelles. Here we review the recent progresses concerning the functions of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy induced by various hypertrophic stimuli. Moreover, the therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy for cardiac hypertrophy will also be discussed. PMID:25999790

  20. DDiT4L promotes autophagy and inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Bridget; Subramanya, Vinita; Chan, Mun Chun; Zhang, Aifeng; Franchino, Hannabeth; Ottaviano, Filomena; Mishra, Manoj K; Knight, Ashley C; Hunt, Danielle; Ghiran, Ionita; Khurana, Tejvir S; Kontaridis, Maria I; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Das, Saumya

    2017-02-28

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy, in response to stimuli such as exercise, is considered adaptive and beneficial. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy that arises in response to pathological stimuli such as unrestrained high blood pressure and oxidative or metabolic stress is maladaptive and may precede heart failure. We found that the transcript encoding DNA damage-inducible transcript 4-like (DDiT4L) was expressed in murine models of pathological cardiac hypertrophy but not in those of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In cardiomyocytes, DDiT4L localized to early endosomes and promoted stress-induced autophagy through a process involving mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Exposing cardiomyocytes to various types of pathological stress increased the abundance of DDiT4L, which inhibited mTORC1 but activated mTORC2 signaling. Mice with conditional cardiac-specific overexpression of DDiT4L had mild systolic dysfunction, increased baseline autophagy, reduced mTORC1 activity, and increased mTORC2 activity, all of which were reversed by suppression of transgene expression. Genetic suppression of autophagy also reversed cardiac dysfunction in these mice. Our data showed that DDiT4L may be an important transducer of pathological stress to autophagy through mTOR signaling in the heart and that DDiT4L could be therapeutically targeted in cardiovascular diseases in which autophagy and mTOR signaling play a major role.

  1. Embryonic hepatocyte transplantation for hepatic cirrhosis: Efficacy and mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Wen-Ting; Ma, Li-Mei; Xu, Qing; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and mechanism of action of allogeneic embryonic hepatocyte transplantation for the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. METHODS: Rat embryonic hepatocytes were characterized by examining cell markers. Wistar rats with CCl4-induced cirrhosis were randomly divided into two groups: a model group receiving continuous CCl4, and a cell transplantation group receiving continuous CCl4 and transplanted with embryonic fluorescent-labeled hepatocytes. In addition, a normal control group was composed of healthy rats. All rats were sacrificed after 2 wk following the initiation of the cell transplant. Ultrasound, pathological analyses and serum biochemical tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of embryonic hepatocyte transplantation. To analyze the recovery status of cirrhotic hepatocytes and the signaling pathways influenced by embryonic hepatocyte transplantation, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the mRNA expression of stellate activation-associated protein (STAP), c-myb, α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect α-SMA and ET-1 protein expression in hepatic tissues. RESULTS: Gross morphological, ultrasound and histopathological examinations, serum biochemical tests and radioimmunoassays demonstrated that hepatic cirrhosis was successfully established in the Wistar rats. Stem cell factor receptor (c-kit), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), Nestin, α fetal protein, albumin and cytokeratin19 markers were observed in the rat embryonic hepatocytes. Following embryonic hepatocyte transplantation, there was a significant reversal in the gross appearance, ultrasound findings, histopathological properties, and serum biochemical parameters of the rat liver. In addition, after the activation of hepatic stellate cells and STAP signaling, α-SMA, c-myb and ET-1 mRNA levels became significantly lower than in the untreated cirrhotic group (P

  2. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  3. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  4. Acetyl salicylic acid attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Samuel Chege; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Dandan; Guo, Zhenfeng; Liang, Haihai; Qian, Ming; Lv, Lifang; Li, Tianshi; Xu, Bozhi; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chaoqian; Lu, Yanjie; Du, Zhiming; Shan, Hongli; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbid events. The vascular properties of low-dose acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) provide cardiovascular benefits through the irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase 1; however, the possible anti-hypertrophic properties and potential mechanism of aspirin have not been investigated in detail. In this study, healthy wild-type male mice were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation. The TAC-operated mice were treated with the human equivalent of low-dose aspirin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); the remaining mice received an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline with 0.65% ethanol, which was used as a vehicle. A cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model induced by angiotensin II (10 nmol·L(-1)) was treated with the human equivalent of low (10 or 100 μmol·L(-1)) and high (1000 μmol·L(-1)) aspirin concentrations in plasma. Changes in the cardiac structure and function were assessed through echocardiography and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression was determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results indicated that aspirin treatment abrogated the increased thickness of the left ventricular anterior and posterior walls, the swelling of mitochondria, and the increased surface area in in vivo and in vitro hypertrophy models. Aspirin also normalized the upregulated hypertrophic biomarkers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Aspirin efficiently reversed the upregulation of β-catenin and P-Akt expression and the TAC- or ANG II-induced downregulation of GSK-3β. Therefore, low-dose aspirin possesses significant anti-hypertrophic properties at clinically relevant concentrations for anti-thrombotic therapy. The downregulation of β-catenin and Akt may be the underlying signaling mechanism of the effects of aspirin.

  5. Alterations of hepatocyte function with free radical generators and reparation or prevention with coffee polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Saidi Merzouk, Amel; Hafida, Merzouk; Medjdoub, Amel; Loukidi, Bouchra; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad

    2017-03-01

    Liver diseases are linked in the majority of cases to oxidative stress that antioxidants could neutralize with reducing liver injury. Chlorogenic acid, a coffee polyphenol, possesses antioxidant prosperities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro preventive and corrective effects of cholorogenic acid in hepatocyte toxicity induced by free radicals. Hepatocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rats. To determine corrective effects and reparation, cells were first exposed to two free radical generators (hydrogen peroxide/iron sulfate for hydroxyl radical formation, and phenazine methosulfate/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for superoxide anion formation) for 12H and thereafter treated by chlorogenic acid (1 and 10 μM final concentration) for another 12H. To show preventive effects, cells were pretreated by chlorogenic acid and thereafter exposed to free radical generators. Hepatocyte proliferation, glucose uptake, ATP contents, membrane fluidity and integrity, and intracellular redox status were investigated after 24H culture. The results showed that chlorogenic acid reversed the decrease in cell proliferation, glucose uptake and ATP levels, the increased LDH release and the reduced membrane fluidity and restored the oxidant/antioxidant status under oxidative stress. When pre-treated with chlorogenic acid, hepatocytes became very resistant to oxidative conditions and cellular homeostasis was maintained. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid displayed not only corrective but also preventive effects in hepatocytes exposed to oxidative stress and could be beneficial in patients with or at risk of liver diseases.

  6. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  7. Progressive induction of hepatocyte progenitor cells in chronically injured liver

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nishikawa, Yuji; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated epithelial cells show substantial lineage plasticity upon severe tissue injuries. In chronically injured mouse livers, part of hepatocytes become Sry-HMG box containing 9 (Sox9) (+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (+) biphenotypic hepatocytes. However, it is not clear whether all Sox9+ hepatocytes uniformly possess cellular properties as hepatocyte progenitors. Here, we examined the microarray data comparing Sox9+ hepatocytes with mature hepatocytes and identified CD24 as a novel marker for biphenotypic hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that part of Sox9+ hepatocytes near expanded ductular structures expressed CD24 in the liver injured by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-collidine (DDC) diet and by bile duct ligation. Indeed, Sox9+ hepatocytes could be separated into CD24− and CD24+ cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The ratio of CD24+ cells against CD24− ones in Sox9+ hepatocytes gradually increased while DDC-injury progressed and colony-forming capability mostly attributed to CD24+ cells. Although hepatocyte markers were remarkably downregulated in of Sox9+ CD24+ hepatocytes, they re-differentiated into mature hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Our current results demonstrate that the emergence of biphenotypic hepatocytes is a sequential event including the transition from CD24− and CD24+ status, which may be a crucial step for hepatocytes to acquire progenitor properties. PMID:28051157

  8. Reduced expression of mature TGF beta 1 correlates with the suppression of rat hepatocyte apoptosis by the peroxisome proliferator, nafenopin.

    PubMed

    Strange, J; Roberts, R A

    1996-11-11

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens cause cancer without damaging the DNA. Peroxisome proliferators (PPs) are a class of potent rodent non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that may act by perturbing hepatocyte growth regulation. Previously, we have shown that although cultured rat hepatocytes degenerate rapidly in culture, their survival can be reversibly maintained by the PP nafenopin. This prolonged survival is associated with a decrease in the number of hepatocytes displaying the chromatin condensation characteristic of apoptosis. The addition of the negative growth regulator TGF beta-1 induced high levels of hepatocyte apoptosis but nafenopin was able to suppress this TGF beta-1 induced apoptosis. These data suggested that increased levels of mature TGF beta-1 may be involved in the signalling of the apoptosis seen in degenerating hepatocyte cultures. To test this hypothesis, we carried out Western blot analyses using a anti-TGF beta 1 antibody. There was an increase (p = 0.014) in expression of mature TGF beta 1 in degenerating rat hepatocyte cultures compared with hepatocyte cultures surviving in the presence of nafenopin. However, there was a concomitant decrease (p = 0.024) in TGF beta 1-latency activated protein (TGF beta 1-LAP), the precursor of the active, mature form. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that TGF beta 1/TGF beta 1-LAP expression was predominantly in the hepatocytes displaying apoptotic morphology although expression was detected also in non-parenchymal liver cells. The immunocytochemistry data indicate that TGF beta 1 is involved during the onset of hepatocyte apoptosis and that the PP nafenopin can impinge on this cell death pathway. TGF beta 1-LAP, probably produced mainly by the non-parenchymal liver cells, may be processed less efficiently to the mature, active form in the presence of nafenopin, although more data are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Mechanisms of splenic hypertrophy following hepatic resection

    PubMed Central

    Petrovai, Gheorghe; Truant, Stéphanie; Langlois, Carole; Bouras, Ahmed F; Lemaire, Stéphanie; Buob, David; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Pruvot, François-René

    2013-01-01

    Background Following hepatic resection, liver regeneration has been associated with concurrent splenic hypertrophy. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are unknown, may be multiple and include: splanchnic sequestration caused by a reduction in the hepatic mass; hepatic growth factors that may indirectly act on the spleen, and the redistribution of the total reticuloendothelial system. Methods Seventy-five patients (40 males; median age: 60 years) who underwent minor (16%) or major (84%) hepatectomy between September 2004 and October 2009 were included. Prospective measurements of liver and spleen volumes were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively 1 month after hepatectomy using computed tomography (CT). The future remnant liver volume (RLV) was calculated on preoperative CT and the extent of resection was expressed as the RLV divided by total liver volume (TLV). Liver and spleen hypertrophy were expressed according to the absolute gain or relative increase in the initial volumes (%).The presence of fibrosis >F1, associated extrahepatic resection (except minor resections), and previous hepatectomy (major or minor) within 3 months represented exclusion criteria. Results Mean ± standard deviation (SD) liver volume at 1 month was higher than RLV (1187 ± 286 cm3 versus 764 ± 421 cm3; P < 0.001). Mean ± SD splenic volume increased from 252 ± 100 cm3 preoperatively to 300 ± 111 cm3 at 1 month (P < 0.001). Liver and splenic hypertrophy were significant after major hepatectomies (+100% and +26%, respectively; P < 0.001), but not after minor hepatectomies. Liver hypertrophy was inversely correlated to RLV/TLV (r = −0.687, P < 0.001). Splenic hypertrophy was not correlated to RLV/TLV. Liver and splenic hypertrophy were linearly correlated (r = 0.495, P < 0.001). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 37), preoperative portal vein embolization (n = 10) and postoperative complications (overall: n = 25; major: n = 10; infectious: n = 6) had no impact on hepatic or splenic

  10. Gene transfection with human hepatocyte growth factor complementary DNA plasmids attenuates cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in goat hearts implanted with ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Yukitoshi; Sawa, Yoshiki; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Hikaru

    2005-09-01

    Although a left ventricular assist device is often used to provide circulatory support until transplantation in severe heart failure, the mortality of long-term use of left ventricular assist devices remains high. We have shown that hepatocyte growth factor causes angiogenesis, antifibrosis, and antiapoptosis in the myocardium. Therefore, gene therapy with hepatocyte growth factor-complementary DNA plasmids may enhance the chance of "bridge to recovery." In this study, we performed gene therapy with hepatocyte growth factor in the impaired goat heart with a left ventricular assist device. Cardiac impairment was induced in 6 adult goats (56-65 kg) by ligation of the coronary artery, and ventricular assist devices were installed. The hepatocyte growth factor group (HGF; n = 3) was administered human hepatocyte growth factor-complementary DNA plasmid (2.0 mg) in the myocardium. The control group (n = 3) was similarly administered beta-galactosidase plasmid. Four weeks after gene transfection, we attempted to wean all goats from the ventricular assist device. The myocardia transfected with human hepatocyte growth factor-complementary DNA contained human hepatocyte growth factor protein at levels as high as 1.0 +/- 0.3 ng/g tissue 3 days after transfection. After weaning from the ventricular assist device, the HGF group showed good hemodynamics, whereas the control group showed deterioration. The percentage of fractional shortening was significantly higher in the HGF group than the control group (HGF vs control, 37.9% +/- 1.7% vs 26.4% +/- 0.3%, respectively; P < .01). Left ventricular dilatation associated with myocyte hypertrophy and fibrotic changes was detected in the control group but not in the HGF group. Vascular density was markedly increased in the HGF group. These results suggest that gene therapy with human hepatocyte growth factor may enhance the chance of bridge to recovery in the impaired heart supported with a ventricular assist device.

  11. ZNF307 (Zinc Finger Protein 307) Acts as a Negative Regulator of Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang-Jiang; Liang, Chen; Li, Yu-Xia; Hu, Qing-Qing; Zheng, Wei-Wan; Niu, Na; Yang, Xu; Wang, Zi-Rui; Yu, Xiao-Di; Zhang, Bao-Long; Song, Bin-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2017-04-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. We found that the protein expression levels of the ZNF307 (zinc finger protein 307) were significantly increased in heart samples from both human patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and mice subjected to aortic banding. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the role of ZNF307 in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and to explore the signal transduction events that mediate the effect of ZNF307 on cardiac hypertrophy, using cardiac-specific ZNF307 transgenic (ZNF307-TG) mice and ZNF307 global knockout (ZNF307-KO) mice. The results showed that the deletion of ZNF307 potentiated aortic banding-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction; however, the aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophic phenotype was dramatically diminished by ZNF307 overexpression in mouse heart. Mechanistically, the antihypertrophic effects mediated by ZNF307 in response to pathological stimuli were associated with the direct inactivation of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) signaling and blockade of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit p65. Furthermore, the overexpression of a degradation-resistant mutant of IκBα (IκBα(S32A/S36A)) reversed the exacerbation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction shown in aortic banding-treated ZNF307-KO mice. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that ZNF307 ameliorates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the activity of NF-κB-signaling pathway.

  12. UCR1C is a novel activator of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) long isoforms and attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Burmeister, Brian T.; Johnson, Keven R.; Baillie, George S.; Karginov, Andrei V.; Skidgel, Randal A.; O’Bryan, John P.; Carnegie, Graeme K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophy increases the risk of heart failure and arrhythmia. Prevention or reversal of the maladaptive hypertrophic phenotype has thus been proposed to treat heart failure. Chronic β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by elevating 3′, 5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and activating downstream effectors such protein kinase A (PKA). Conversely, hydrolysis of cAMP by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) spatiotemporally restricts cAMP signaling. Here, we demonstrate that PDE4, but not PDE3, is critical in regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and may represent a potential target for preventing maladaptive hypertrophy. We identify a sequence within the upstream conserved region 1 of PDE4D, termed UCR1C, as a novel activator of PDE4 long isoforms. UCR1C activates PDE4 in complex with A-Kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc resulting in decreased PKA signaling facilitated by AKAP-Lbc. Expression of UCR1C in cardiomyocytes inhibits hypertrophy in response to chronic β-AR stimulation. This effect is partially due to inhibition of nuclear PKA activity, which decreases phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In conclusion, PDE4 activation by UCR1C attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by specifically inhibiting nuclear PKA activity. PMID:25683917

  13. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy involves activation of p90 ribosomal s6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Jaballah, Maiy; Mohamed, Iman A; Alemrayat, Bayan; Al-Sulaiti, Fatima; Mlih, Mohamed; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Studies using pharmacological and genetic approaches have shown that increased activity/expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Despite the importance of NHE1 in cardiac hypertrophy, severe cerebrovascular side effects were associated with the use of NHE1 inhibitors when administered to patients with myocardial infarctions. p90 ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK), a downstream regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, has also been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. We hypothesized that RSK plays a role in the NHE1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response. Infection of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus induced hypertrophy and was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of RSK (P<0.05). Parameters of hypertrophy such as cell area, protein content and atrial natriuretic mRNA expression were significantly reduced in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts infected with active NHE1 in the presence of dominant negative RSK (DN-RSK) (P<0.05). These results confirm that NHE1 lies upstream of RSK. Increased phosphorylation and activation of GATA4 at Ser261 was correlated with increased RSK phosphorylation. This increase was reversed upon inhibition of RSK or NHE1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the NHE1 mediated hypertrophy is accounted for by increased activation and phosphorylation of RSK, which subsequently increased the phosphorylation of GATA4; eventually activating fetal gene transcriptional machinery.

  14. In utero Transplanted Human Hepatocytes Allows for Postnatal Engraftment of Human Hepatocytes in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James E; Lillegard, Joseph B; Mckenzie, Travis J; Rodysill, Brian R; Wettstein, Peter J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2012-01-01

    In utero cell transplantation (IUCT) can lead to postnatal engraftment of human cells in the xenogeneic recipient. Most reports of IUCTs have involved hematopoietic stem cells. It is unknown if human hepatocytes used for IUCT in fetal pigs will lead to engraftment of these same cells in the postnatal environment. In this study, fetal pigs received direct liver injections of 1×107 human hepatocytes in utero and were delivered by cesarean-section at term. Piglets received a second direct liver injection of 5×107 human hepatocytes 1 week postnatally. Serum was analyzed for human albumin at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-engraftment. Piglet livers were harvested 6 weeks after transplantation and examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization for human specific sequences. Piglets receiving IUCT with human hepatocytes that were postnatally engrafted with human hepatocytes showed significant levels of human albumin production in their serum at all post-engraftment time points. Human albumin gene expression, the presence of human hepatocytes and the presence of human beta-2 microglobulin were all confirmed 6 weeks post-engraftment. IUCT in fetal pigs using human hepatocytes early in gestation allowed for engraftment of human hepatocytes, which remained viable and functional for weeks after transplantation. IUCT followed by postnatal engraftment may provide a future means for large scale expansion of human hepatocytes in genetically-engineered pigs. PMID:23280879

  15. Hepatocyte β-Klotho regulates lipid homeostasis but not body weight in mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kanako; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Okada, Sadanori; Morimoto, Yuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manio, Mark Christian C; Inoue, Kazuo; Kimura, Kumi; Yagi, Takashi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Fushiki, Tohru; Inoue, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2016-02-01

    β-Klotho (β-Kl), a transmembrane protein expressed in the liver, pancreas, adipose tissues, and brain, is essential for feedback suppression of hepatic bile acid synthesis. Because bile acid is a key regulator of lipid and energy metabolism, we hypothesized potential and tissue-specific roles of β-Kl in regulating plasma lipid levels and body weight. By crossing β-kl(-/-) mice with newly developed hepatocyte-specific β-kl transgenic (Tg) mice, we generated mice expressing β-kl solely in hepatocytes (β-kl(-/-)/Tg). Gene expression, metabolomic, and in vivo flux analyses consistently revealed that plasma level of cholesterol, which is over-excreted into feces as bile acids in β-kl(-/-), is maintained in β-kl(-/-) mice by enhanced de novo cholesterogenesis. No compensatory increase in lipogenesis was observed, despite markedly decreased plasma triglyceride. Along with enhanced bile acid synthesis, these lipid dysregulations in β-kl(-/-) were completely reversed in β-kl(-/-)/Tg mice. In contrast, reduced body weight and resistance to diet-induced obesity in β-kl(-/-) mice were not reversed by hepatocyte-specific restoration of β-Kl expression. We conclude that β-Kl in hepatocytes is necessary and sufficient for lipid homeostasis, whereas nonhepatic β-Kl regulates energy metabolism. We further demonstrate that in a condition with excessive cholesterol disposal, a robust compensatory mechanism maintains cholesterol levels but not triglyceride levels in mice.

  16. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Raggi, Gabriela Cristina; dos Santos Cardoso Sá, Cristina; Costa, Márcio Paulino; de Lima, Jonas Eraldo; Tanaka, Clarice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement. PMID:22892919

  17. Ablation of biglycan attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis after left ventricular pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Nadine; Rommel, Carolin; Schnick, Tilman; Neumann, Elena; Lother, Achim; Monroy-Ordonez, Elsa Beatriz; Zeeb, Martin; Preissl, Sebastian; Gilsbach, Ralf; Melchior-Becker, Ariane; Rylski, Bartosz; Stoll, Monika; Schaefer, Liliana; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Stiller, Brigitte; Hein, Lutz

    2016-12-01

    Biglycan, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, has been shown to play an important role in stabilizing fibrotic scars after experimental myocardial infarction. However, the role of biglycan in the development and regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis during cardiac pressure overload and unloading remains elusive. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of biglycan on cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of left ventricular pressure overload and unloading. Left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice resulted in left ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis and increased biglycan expression. Fluorescence- and magnetic-assisted sorting of cardiac cell types revealed upregulation of biglycan in the fibroblast population, but not in cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or leukocytes after TAC. Removal of the aortic constriction (rTAC) after short-term pressure overload (3weeks) improved cardiac contractility and reversed ventricular hypertrophy but not fibrosis in wild-type (WT) mice. Biglycan ablation (KO) enhanced functional recovery but did not resolve cardiac fibrosis. After long-term TAC for 9weeks, ablation of biglycan attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In vitro, biglycan induced hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and led to activation of a hypertrophic gene program. Putative downstream mediators of biglycan signaling include Rcan1, Abra and Tnfrsf12a. These genes were concordantly induced by TAC in WT but not in biglycan KO mice. Left ventricular pressure overload induces biglycan expression in cardiac fibroblasts. Ablation of biglycan improves cardiac function and attenuates left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis after long-term pressure overload. In vitro biglycan induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, suggesting that biglycan may act as a signaling molecule between cell types to modulate cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Influence of p53 in the transition of myotrophin-induced cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswajit; Young, David; Vasanji, Amit; Gupta, Sudhiranjan; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Sen, Subha

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac-specific overexpression of myotrophin (myo) protein in transgenic (myo-Tg) mice results in hypertrophy at 4 weeks that progresses to heart failure (HF) by 36 weeks. Gene profiling showed that p53 expression increases as hypertrophy worsens to HF, suggesting that p53 may influence myo-induced HF. We aimed to define how the p53 signalling cascade affects the spectrum of cardiac hypertrophy (CH)/HF. Immunoblot analysis showed that in myo-Tg mice (Mus musculus), upregulation of p53 occurs only when hypertrophy transitions to HF (16 weeks onward). To elucidate the role of p53, a double-Tg mouse line (p53(-/-)/myo(+/+)) was developed by crossing myo-Tg mice with p53-null mice. A significant reduction in cardiac mass with improved cardiac function was observed in p53(-/-)/myo(+/+) mice, suggesting that absence of p53 prevents hypertrophy from turning into HF. Analysis via real-time reverse-transcription PCR revealed changes in transcripts of the p53 pathway in p53(-/-)/myo(+/+) mice. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that cross-talk among several key nodal molecules (e.g. cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, caspase-3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells etc.) may play a regulatory role in the transition of CH to HF. Our data provide evidence, for the first time, that the coherence of p53 with myo plays an active role during the transition of CH to HF in a model of HF induced by myo overexpression. Transition from CH to HF can be prevented in the absence of p53 in myo-induced hypertrophy. Therefore, deletion/inhibition of p53 could be a therapeutic strategy to prevent CH from transitioning to HF.

  19. Genetic tracing of hepatocytes in liver homeostasis, injury, and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Huang, XiuZhen; He, Lingjuan; Pu, Wenjuan; Li, Yan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Libo; Yu, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Zhou, Yingqun; Zhou, Bin

    2017-05-26

    The liver possesses a remarkable capacity to regenerate after damage. There is a heated debate on the origin of new hepatocytes after injuries in adult liver. Hepatic stem/progenitor cells have been proposed to produce functional hepatocytes after injury. Recent studies have argued against this model and suggested that pre-existing hepatocytes, rather than stem cells, contribute new hepatocytes. This hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte model is mainly based on labeling of hepatocytes with Cre-recombinase delivered by the adeno-associated virus. However, the impact of virus infection on cell fate determination, consistency of infection efficiency, and duration of Cre-virus in hepatocytes remain confounding factors that interfere with the data interpretation. Here, we generated a new genetic tool Alb-DreER to label almost all hepatocytes (>99.5%) and track their contribution to different cell lineages in the liver. By "pulse-and-chase" strategy, we found that pre-existing hepatocytes labeled by Alb-DreER contribute to almost all hepatocytes during normal homeostasis and after liver injury. Virtually all hepatocytes in the injured liver are descendants of pre-existing hepatocytes through self-expansion. We concluded that stem cell differentiation is unlikely to be responsible for the generation of a substantial number of new hepatocytes in adult liver. Our study also provides a new mouse tool for more precise in vivo genetic study of hepatocytes in the field. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The paradox of muscle hypertrophy in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kornegay, Joe N; Childers, Martin K; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Nghiem, Peter; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Howard, James F; Schatzberg, Scott J; Dow, Jennifer L; Grange, Robert W; Styner, Martin A; Hoffman, Eric P; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2012-02-01

    Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy in humans and syndromes in mice, dogs, and cats. Affected humans and dogs have progressive disease that leads primarily to muscle atrophy. Mdx mice progress through an initial phase of muscle hypertrophy followed by atrophy. Cats have persistent muscle hypertrophy. Hypertrophy in humans has been attributed to deposition of fat and connective tissue (pseudohypertrophy). Increased muscle mass (true hypertrophy) has been documented in animal models. Muscle hypertrophy can exaggerate postural instability and joint contractures. Deleterious consequences of muscle hypertrophy should be considered when developing treatments for muscular dystrophy.

  1. Evodiamine inhibits angiotensin II-induced rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Na; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Lin, Shu-Xian; Hou, Hua-Hua; Wu, Qin; Sun, An-Sheng

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively. The mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), calcineurin (CaN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) of cardiomyocytes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of calcineurin catalytic subunit (CnA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) were detected by Western blot analysis. Compared with the control group, Ang II induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, as evidenced by increased cardiomyocyte surface area, protein content, and ANF mRNA expression; increased intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but decreased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with Ang II, Evo (0.3, 3 μmol/L) significantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased the [Ca(2+)]i concentration and expressions of CaN mRNA, CnA protein, and ERK-2 mRNA, but increased MKP-1 protein expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Most interestingly, Evo increased the NOS activity and NO production, and upregulated the eNOS mRNA expression (P<0.05). Evo signifificantly attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and this effect was partly due to promotion of NO production, reduction of [Ca(2+)]i concentration, and inhibition of CaN and

  2. Selective insulin resistance in hepatocyte senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Challis, Benjamin; Shannon, Nicholas; Hoare, Matthew; Heaney, Judith; Alexander, Graeme J.M.

    2015-02-01

    Insulin resistance has been described in association with chronic liver disease for decades. Hepatocyte senescence has been demonstrated in chronic liver disease and as many as 80% of hepatocytes show a senescent phenotype in advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to understand the role of hepatocyte senescence in the development of insulin resistance. Senescence was induced in HepG2 cells via oxidative stress. The insulin metabolic pathway was studied in control and senescent cells following insulin stimulation. GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in HepG2 cells and human liver tissue. Further, GLUT2 and GLUT4 expressions were studied in three independent chronic liver disease cohorts. Signalling impairment distal to Akt in phosphorylation of AS160 and FoxO1 was evident in senescent HepG2 cells. Persistent nuclear localisation of FoxO1 was demonstrated in senescent cells despite insulin stimulation. Increased GLUT4 and decreased GLUT2 expressions were evident in senescent cells, human cirrhotic liver tissue and publically available liver disease datasets. Changes in GLUT expressions were associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In conclusion, selective insulin resistance is evident in senescent HepG2 cells and changes in GLUT expressions can be used as surrogate markers of hepatocyte senescence. - Highlights: • Senescent hepatocytes demonstrate selective insulin resistance. • GLUT changes act as markers of hepatocyte senescence and have prognostic value. • Study offers insight into long noticed intimacy of cirrhosis and insulin resistance.

  3. Hepatic heme catabolism in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, B.C.; Bonkovsky, H.L.

    1987-05-01

    Uncertainty persists concerning the role and importance of heme oxygenase in the catabolism of heme by hepatocytes. The products of heme oxygenase catalyzed heme catabolism are equimolar amounts of biliverdin IX..cap alpha.., CO, and iron. Previous reports from studies with rodent hepatocyte cultures have suggested the possibility that non-heme oxygenase pathway(s) predominate in the breakdown of hepatic hemoprotein heme. The authors have studied this question in cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, which retain normal regulation of heme metabolism and levels of cytochromes P-450 as in intact animals. Exogenous heme added to the culture medium with control chick embryo hepatocyte cultures was quantitatively converted to biliverdin IX..cap alpha... To study endogenous heme breakdown, cellular heme was labelled by exposing cultured cells to (5-/sup 14/C) 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The hepatocytes were also treated with mephenytoin that increases cytochrome P-450, total hepatic heme and heme oxygenase. At various times after labelling heme, biliverdin, and CO were isolated and counted. For at least 8 hrs, the increase in CO radioactivity corresponded to the loss of radioactivity in heme. Beyond 1 h biliverdin was unstable in culture medium, but for 1 h after labelling (dpm BVIX..cap alpha.. + dpm CO) ..delta..dpm heme. All BV detected was the ..cap alpha.. isomer. They conclude that heme oxygenase accounts for both endogenous and exogenous heme breakdown by hepatocytes.

  4. Activation of factor X by rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, A.K.; Matschiner, J.T.

    1986-05-01

    Synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factor X was studied in hepatocytes prepared by perfusion of rat livers with collagenase. Hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of vitamin K and /sup 3/H-leucine for up to 4h at 37/sup 0/C. Factor X was isolated from the incubation medium by immunochemical techniques and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recovered /sup 3/H-labeled proteins migrated, after reduction of disulfides, as two polypeptide chains with apparent molecular weights (M/sub r/) of approximately 42,000 and 22,000 representing the heavy and light chains of factor X respectively. The apparent M/sub r/ of the heavy chain was about 10,000 daltons lighter than seen with the heavy chain of factor X isolated from rat plasma and was more characteristic of the heavy chain of factor Xa. When the levels of factor X secreted by hepatocytes were determined by clotting assays, activity was present as factor Xa. Also, when purified plasma factor X was added to incubations of hepatocytes (>95% parenchymal cells) the added factor X was rapidly converted to factor Xa. Plasma membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes or from liver homogenates contained an enzyme that converted factor X to factor Xa in a calcium dependent reaction. The physiological significance of a factor X activating enzyme on hepatocyte plasma membranes is not clear.

  5. Proliferation of rat small hepatocytes requires follistatin expression.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Hidekazu; Chen, Qijie; Kon, Junko; Sasaki, Kazunori; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Tanimizu, Naoki; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2012-06-01

    Small hepatocytes (SHs) are a subpopulation of hepatocytes that have high growth potential in culture and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes (MHs). The activin (Act)/follistatin (Fst) system critically contributes to homeostasis of cell growth in the normal liver. ActA and ActB consist of two disulfide-linked Inhibin (Inh)β subunits, InhβA and InhβB, respectively. Fst binds to Act and blocks its bioactivity. In the present study we carried out the experiments to clarify how Fst regulates the proliferation of SHs. The gene expression was analyzed using DNA microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR, and protein expression was examined by western blots, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RT-PCR showed that Fst expression was high in SHs and low in MHs. Although the ActA expression was opposite to that of Fst, ActB expression was high in SHs and low in MHs and increased with time in culture. Fst protein was detected in the cytoplasm of SHs and secreted into the culture medium. ActB protein was also secreted into the medium. Although the exogenous administration of ActA and ActB apparently suppressed the proliferation of SHs, apoptosis of SHs was not induced by treatment with ActA or ActB. On the other hand, Fst treatment did not affect the colony formation of SHs but prevented the inhibitory effect of ActA. Neutralization by the anti-Fst antibody resulted in the suppression of DNA synthesis in SHs, and small hairpin RNA against Fst suppressed the expansion of SH colonies. In conclusion, Fst expression is necessary for the proliferation of SHs.

  6. Apoptosis in chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Önal, Merih; Yılmaz, Taner; Bilgiç, Elif; Müftüoğlu, Sevda Fatma; Kuşçu, Oğuz; Günaydın, Rıza Önder

    2015-02-01

    Chronic tonsillitis is the persistent inflammation of the tonsillar tissue that occurs due to recurrent, acute or subclinical infection. The recurrent and chronic inflammation of palatine tonsils sometimes results in hypertrophy. Apoptosis provides an important balance between lymphocytes in tonsillar lymphoid tissue. The aim of this study is to investigate the apoptosis in tonsillar diseases. 43 patients with chronic tonsilitis and tonsillar hypertrophy underwent tonsillectomy. The specimens were examined immunohistochemically for apoptosis. Tonsils were assembled into groups according to their size. Specimens were compared for their apoptotic cell count. The apoptosis difference between the tonsil size groups is not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, when the study group was divided into two at age 6, the difference was not statistically significant for patients at and below 6 years of age; but, the difference was statistically significant for patients above 6 years of age (p<0.05). The comparison of apoptosis in microcompartments of tonsil tissue (intrafollicular, interfollicular, subepithelial and intraepithelial) between tonsil size stages and between chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy groups revealed no statistical significance (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between intrafollicular and interfollicular, interfollicular and intraepithelial & subepithelial and intraepithelial areas (p<0.05). In the light of these findings, it was concluded that apoptosis played a role in the tonsillar hypertrophy and atrophy. Apoptosis functioned to balance lymphocyte proliferation in tonsil tissue. The association of apoptosis with tonsillar hypertrophy seemed to be age-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic anion uptake by hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Allan W

    2014-10-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na(+)-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na(+)/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na(+)-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na(+)-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands.

  8. Organic Anion Uptake by Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wolkoff, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na+-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na+/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na+-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na+-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands. PMID:25428858

  9. Comparison between true and partial hemifacial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed N; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Ojha, Junu; Bober, Karen; Cohen, Donald M; Green, James G

    2007-10-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy (HFH) is rare and characterized by unilateral enlargement of the head and teeth. Hemifacial hypertrophy is classified as true HFH (THFH) with unilateral enlargement of the viscerocranium, and partial HFH (PHFH) in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a case of THFH and compare and contrast it with a case of PHFH. Hemifacial hypertrophy may cover a wide spectrum of defects or may involve only muscle or bone. Myohyperplasia, reported previously as a separate syndrome, may actually represent a forme fruste of PHFH or THFH. The PHFH patient lead a healthy, normal life without significant psychosocial problems and was reluctant to accept his deformity. Contrastingly, the THFH patient had significant social stigma and compromised health together with major aesthetic morbidity. Treatment planning in THFH is arduous and involves multiple modalities. Therefore, it is imperative to differentiate THFH and PHFH for better understanding and management of the condition.

  10. Myocardial hypertrophy induces carotid body hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sivridis, Efthimios; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki; Pitsiava, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The carotid bodies tend to enlarge after long-standing cardiopulmonary disease. Our objective was to investigate whether cardiac hypertrophy is associated with carotid body hyperplasia. Fifteen autopsy cases with combined left and right ventricular hypertrophy were examined and compared with two control groups (16 cases). The study involved a meticulous dissection of carotid bifurcations, thin serial sections, and morphometric analysis of carotid body volume and cell types (progenitor, dark, light, and sustentacular). There was a significant increase in sustentacular cells in all individuals with cardiac hypertrophy, which was not drug-induced, and accompanied by a similar increase in carotid body volume. Dark or light cell accumulation was detected focally and only in three instances. It appears that the generalized sustentacular cell hyperplasia is the result of long-standing hypoxia, while a superimposed focal prominence of dark or light cells may be proliferative or metaplastic in nature and attributed to short-term hypoxia.

  11. Feasibility of direct oxygenation of primary-cultured rat hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol-decorated liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH).

    PubMed

    Naruto, Hirosuke; Huang, Hongyun; Nishikawa, Masaki; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We tested the short-term efficacy of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in cultured rat hepatocytes. Supplementation with LEH (20% of the hemoglobin concentration of blood) did not lower albumin production in static culture, and completely reversed the cell death and deterioration in albumin production caused by an oxygen shortage in 2D flat-plate perfusion bioreactors.

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived hepatocytes have the functional and proliferative capabilities needed for liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Espejel, Silvia; Roll, Garrett R.; McLaughlin, K. John; Lee, Andrew Y.; Zhang, Jenny Y.; Laird, Diana J.; Okita, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Shinya; Willenbring, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The ability to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from a patient’s somatic cells has provided a foundation for organ regeneration without the need for immune suppression. However, it has not been established that the differentiated progeny of iPS cells can effectively reverse failure of a vital organ. Here, we examined whether iPS cell–derived hepatocytes have both the functional and proliferative capabilities needed for liver regeneration in mice with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency. To avoid biases resulting from random genomic integration, we used iPS cells generated without viruses. To exclude compensation by hepatocytes not derived from iPS cells, we generated chimeric mice in which all hepatocytes were iPS cell derived. In vivo analyses showed that iPS cells were intrinsically able to differentiate into fully mature hepatocytes that provided full liver function. The iPS cell–derived hepatocytes also replicated the unique proliferative capabilities of normal hepatocytes and were able to regenerate the liver after transplantation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy. Thus, our results establish the feasibility of using iPS cells generated in a clinically acceptable fashion for rapid and stable liver regeneration. PMID:20739754

  13. Effect of Anti-Hepatotoxic Agents Against Microcystin-LR Toxicity in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-10

    number) FIELD GROUP -SUB-GROUP microcystin-LR, hepatocytes, anti-hepatotoxic,j dithioerythritol, silymarin 19. AaSTRACT (Continue on reverse if...dlthioerythritol and silymarin on/ Imicrocystin-LR-induced t hepatotoxicity. Cell injury was assessed by (1) the extent ofý cellular 1mCladL:- ne...dithioerythritol and silymarin reduced the amount of marker release and cell detachment from mlcrocystin-LR-treated wells, silymarin provided

  14. Effects of metformin on rosiglitazone-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Hao; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Chen, Yu-Tai; Chi, Tzong-Cherng; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lo, Shih-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) can cause adipose tissue accumulation and myocardial hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine if combined Metformin (Glucophage) and Rosiglitazone (Avandia) could reduce the risk of heart failure caused by Rosiglitazone in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were treated with oral Rosiglitazone/Metformin twice daily for four weeks. Metformin or Rosiglitazone alone and non-treated mice acted as double control. Myocardial hypertrophy and associated side effects of the combined therapy were determined through isolated heart and body weights. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were applied to evaluate expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2A (SUR2A) and Kir 6.2. The activities of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in the myocardium were also observed. Rosiglitazone/Metformin decreased body weight gain and food intake, and inhibited an increasing adipose ratio but did not reduce myocardial hypertrophy. Rosiglitazone increased Kir6.2/SUR2A, Kir6.2/SUR2B, and PPARalpha gene expression. The Rosiglitazone/Metformin combination further increased these gene expressions, especially PPARalpha. Metformin inhibits obesity but has no effect in reducing myocardial hypertrophy caused by Rosiglitazone. Whether Metformin can reduce side effects of TZDs in humans warrants further study.

  15. Inhibition of Cardiomyocytes Hypertrophy by Resveratrol Is Associated with Amelioration of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Zhu, Jingbin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Wei; Li, Bo; Jin, Li; Lian, Jie; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jicheng

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenol antioxidant found in red wine, has been shown to play a cardioprotective role. This study was undertaken to investigate whether Res can protect the heart suffering from hypertrophy injuries induced by isoproterenol (ISO), and whether the protective effect is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Cardiomyocytes were randomly assigned to the control group, ISO group (100 nM ISO for 48 h), Res + ISO group (50 μM Res and 100 nM ISO for 48 h) and Res group (50 μM Res for 48h only). Hypertrophy was estimated by measuring the cell surface area and the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression. Apoptosis was measured using Hoechst 33258 staining and transmission electron microscopy. Protein expression of ER stress and apoptosis factors was analyzed using Western Blot analysis. Res effectively suppress the cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and apoptosis induced by ISO, characterized by the reduction of the myocardial cell surface area, the ANP gene expression, the LDH and MDA leakage amount and the rate of cell apoptosis, while decrease of the protein expression of GRP78, GRP94 and CHOP, and reverse the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. In summary, Res treatment effectively suppressed myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis at least partially via inhibiting ER stress. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stromal cells augment engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Meghnad; Patil, Pradeep B.; He, Zhong; Holgersson, Jan; Olausson, Michael; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2012-01-01

    Background aims One important problem commonly encountered after hepatocyte transplantation is the low numbers of transplanted cells found in the graft. If hepatocyte transplantation is to be a viable therapeutic approach, significant liver parenchyma repopulation is required. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) produce high levels of various growth factors, cytokines and metalloproteinases, and have immunomodulatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that co-transplantation of MSC with human fetal hepatocytes (hFH) could augment in vivo expansion after transplantation. We investigated the ability of human fetal liver MSC (hFLMSC) to augment expansion of phenotypically and functionally well-characterized hFH. Methods Two million hFH (passage 6) were either transplanted alone or together (1:1 ratio) with green fluorescence protein-expressing hFLMSC into the spleen of C57BL/6 nude mice with retrorsine-induced liver injury. Results After 4 weeks, engraftment of cells was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a human-specific DNA probe. Significantly higher numbers of cells expressing human cytokeratin (CK)8, CK18, CK19, Cysteine-rich MNNG HOS Transforming gene (c-Met), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human nuclear antigen, mitochondrial antigen, hepatocyte-specific antigen and albumin (ALB) were present in the livers of recipient animals co-transplanted with hFLMSC compared with those without. Furthermore, expression of human hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and HNF-1β, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A7 mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in these animals. In addition, significantly increased amounts of human ALB were detected. Importantly, hFLMSC did not transdifferentiate into hepatocytes. Conclusions Our study reports the use of a novel strategy for enhanced liver repopulation and thereby advances this experimental procedure closer to clinical liver cell therapy. PMID:22424216

  17. Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy: rescuing the airway with videolaryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Souki, Fouad Ghazi; Yemul-Golhar, Shweta Rahul; Zeyed, Yosaf; Pretto, Ernesto A

    2016-12-01

    Lingual tonsils are lymphatic tissues located at the base of the tongue that may hypertrophy causing difficulty and sometimes inability to ventilate or intubate during anesthesia. Routine airway assessment fails to diagnose lingual tonsil hypertrophy. There is limited experience with use of videolaryngoscopy in cases of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. We present a case of difficult airway due to unanticipated lingual tonsil hypertrophy successfully managed by atypical video laryngoscope positioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiation-Promoting Medium Additives for Hepatocyte Cultivation and Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gouliarmou, Varvara; Pelkonen, Olavi; Coecke, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Isolated primary hepatocytes are considered as the reference system for in vitro hepatic methods. Following the isolation of primary hepatocytes from liver tissue, an unfavorable process named dedifferentiation is initiated leading to the attenuation of the hepatocellular phenotype both at the morphological and functional level. Freshly isolated hepatocytes can be used immediately or can be cryopreserved for future purposes. Currently, a number of antidedifferentiation strategies exist to extend the life span of isolated hepatocytes. The addition of differentiation-promoting compounds to the hepatocyte culture medium is the oldest and simplest antidedifferentiation approach applied. In the present chapter, the most commonly used medium additives for cultivation and cryopreservation of primary hepatocytes are reviewed.

  19. Role of α1D -adrenoceptors in vascular wall hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Ortíz, I A; Rodríguez-Hernández, S N; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; López-Sánchez, P; Touyz, R M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2015-09-01

    The in vivo effect of continuous angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion on arterial blood pressure, vascular hypertrophy and α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) expression was explored. Alzet(®) minipumps filled with Ang II (200 ng kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats (3 months-old). Groups of rats were also treated with losartan, an AT1 R antagonist, or with BMY 7378, a selective α1D -AR antagonist. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff; after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, vessels were isolated for functional and structural analyses. Angiotensin II increased systolic blood pressure. Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta was greater (40% higher) in Ang II-treated rats than in the controls, and similar effect occurred with KCl 80 mm. Responses in tail arteries were not significantly different among the different groups. Angiotensin II decreased α1D -ARs without modifying the other α1 -ARs and induced an increase in media thickness (hypertrophy) in aorta, while no structural change occurred in tail artery. Losartan prevented and reversed hypertension and hypertrophy, while BMY 7378 prevented and reversed the aorta's hypertrophic response, without preventing or reversing hypertension. Findings indicate that Ang II-induced aortic hypertrophic response involves Ang II-AT1 Rs and α1D -ARs. Angiotensin II-induced α1D -AR-mediated vascular remodeling occurs independently of hypertension. Findings identify a α1D -AR-mediated process whereby Ang II influences aortic hypertrophy independently of blood pressure elevation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of the effects of the synthetic pyrethroid Metofluthrin and phenobarbital on CYP2B form induction and replicative DNA synthesis in cultured rat and human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yukihiro; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Yamada, Tomoya; Deguchi, Yoshihito; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Nishioka, Kazuhiko; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Kawamura, Satoshi; Isobe, Naohiko; Lake, Brian G; Okuno, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-05

    High doses of Metofluthrin (MTF) have been shown to produce liver tumours in rats by a mode of action (MOA) involving activation of the constitutive androstane receptor leading to liver hypertrophy, induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms and increased cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MTF with those of the known rodent liver tumour promoter phenobarbital (PB) on the induction CYP2B forms and replicative DNA synthesis in cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Treatment with 50 microM MTF and 50 microM PB for 72 h increased CYP2B1 mRNA levels in male Wistar rat hepatocytes and CYP2B6 mRNA levels in human hepatocytes. Replicative DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine over the last 24 h of a 48 h treatment period. Treatment with 10-1000 microM MTF and 100-500 microM PB resulted in significant increases in replicative DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes. While replicative DNA synthesis was increased in human hepatocytes treated with 5-50 ng/ml epidermal growth factor or 5-100 ng/ml hepatocyte growth factor, treatment with MTF and PB had no effect. These results demonstrate that while both MTF and PB induce CYP2B forms in both species, MTF and PB only induced replicative DNA synthesis in rat and not in human hepatocytes. These results provide further evidence that the MOA for MTF-induced rat liver tumour formation is similar to that of PB and some other non-genotoxic CYP2B form inducers and that the key event of increased cell proliferation would not occur in human liver.

  1. Histological Organization in Hepatocyte Organoid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.; Bowen, William C.; Mulè, Karen; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocytes and other cellular elements isolated by collagenase perfusion of the liver and maintained in defined culture conditions undergo a series of complex changes, including apoptosis and cell proliferation, to reconstruct tissue with specific architecture. Cultures in collagen-coated pleated surface roller bottles, with hepatocyte growth medium medium and in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), form characteristic and reproducible tissue architecture composed of a superficial layer of biliary epithelial cells, an intermediate layer of connective tissue and hepatocytes, and a basal layer of endothelial cells. Dexamethasone, EGF, and HGF are required for the complete histological organization. Analysis of the structures formed demonstrates that the receptor tyrosine kinase ligands HGF and EGF are required for the presence, growth, and phenotypic maturation of the biliary epithelium on the surface of the cultures and for the formation of connective tissue in the cultures. Dexamethasone, in the presence of HGF and EGF, was required for the phenotypic maturation of hepatocytes. The results demonstrate the role of these molecules for the formation and phenotypic maturation of specific histological elements of the liver and suggest roles for these signaling molecules in the formation and structure of the in vivo hepatic architecture. PMID:11696448

  2. The effect of hepatocyte growth factor on gene transcription during intestinal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael S; Thatch, Keith A; Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2011-02-01

    Previously, we investigated the physiologic effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on intestinal adaptation using a massive small bowel resection (MSBR) rat model. To correlate these altered physiologic changes with gene alterations, we used microarray technology at 7, 14, and 21 days after MSBR. Forty-five adult female rats were divided into 3 groups and underwent 70% MSBR, MSBR + HGF (intravenous 150 μg/kg per day), or sham operation (control). Five animals per group were killed at each time point. Ileal mucosa was harvested and RNA extracted. Rat Gene Chips and Expression Console software (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) were used. Statistical analysis was done by analysis of variance using Partek Genomics Suite (Partek, Inc, St Louis, MO). Results were significant if fold change was more than 2 or less than -2, with P < .05. Compared with the control group, MSBR group had significant increases in up-regulated and down-regulated genes. The MSBR-HGF group had further increases in up-regulated and down-regulated genes compared with the MSBR group. At 7 days, 6 cellular hypertrophy families had 30 genes up-regulated, and HGF up-regulated an additional 14 genes. At 21 days, 5 hyperplasia gene families had 32 up-regulated genes. Hepatocyte growth factor up-regulated an additional 16 genes. Microarray analysis of intestinal adaptation identified an early emphasis on hypertrophy and later emphasis on hyperplasia. This is the first demonstration that the effect of HGF on intestinal adaptation is recruitment of more genes rather than an increase in the fold change of already up-regulated genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization of Magic-F1 Transgene, Involved in Muscular Hypertrophy, during Early Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ronzoni, Flavio; Bongio, Matilde; Conte, Silvio; Vercesi, Luigi; Cassano, Marco; Tribioli, Carla; Galli, Daniela; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Magenes, Giovanni; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that Magic-F1 (Met-activating genetically improved chimeric factor 1), a human recombinant protein derived from hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) induces muscle cell hypertrophy but not progenitor cell proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we examined the temporal and spatial expression pattern of Magic-F1 in comparison with Pax3 (paired box gene 3) transcription factor during embryogenesis. Ranging from 9.5 to 17.5 dpc (days post coitum) mouse embryos were analyzed by in situ hybridization using whole mounts during early stages of development (9.5–10.5–11.5 dpc) and cryostat sections for later stages (11.5–13.5–15.5–17.5 dpc). We found that Magic-F1 is expressed in developing organs and tissues of mesenchymal origin, where Pax3 signal appears to be downregulated respect to the wt embryos. These data suggest that Magic-F1 could be responsible of muscular hypertrophy, cooperating with Pax3 signal pathway in skeletal muscle precursor cells. PMID:22187527

  4. IL-6 promotes the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor through the p38 signalling pathway in hypertrophied adenoids in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtian; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Wu; Zuo, Kejun; Li, Huabin

    2013-02-01

    To examine the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hypertrophied adenoids in children and investigate the possible regulatory mechanism. Thirty-eight children with hypertrophied adenoids (moderate, 16; severe, 22) were enrolled to investigate the VEGF expression in the adenoid tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The IL-6 concentration in the nasopharyngeal secretions was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VEGF mRNA expression was further measured in isolated adenoidal cells in vitro after IL-6 stimulation, and the activation of the p38 signalling pathway was determined by Western blot analysis. Our findings showed extensive immunoreactivity of VEGF in the hypertrophied adenoids in children. The levels of VEGF protein and mRNA were significantly higher in severely hypertrophied adenoids than in moderately hypertrophied adenoids (P<0.05). The expression of IL-6 was detectable in the nasopharyngeal secretions, which was significantly associated with the severity of the hypertrophied adenoid. VEGF mRNA expression was upregulated in isolated adenoidal cells in vitro after IL-6 stimulation, and the p38 signalling pathway was activated. The increased expression of VEGF in adenoid tissues suggests a possible role of the IL-6/VEGF axis in the pathogenesis of hypertrophied adenoids in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  6. Tripartite motif 32 prevents pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijuan; Huang, Jia; Ji, Yanxiao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Pixiao; Deng, Keqiong; Jiang, Xi; Ma, Genshan; Li, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    TRIM32 (tripartite motif 32) is widely accepted to be an E3 ligase that interacts with and eventually ubiquitylates multiple substrates. TRIM32 mutants have been associated with LGMD-2H (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H). However, whether TRIM32 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by biomechanical stresses and neurohumoral mediators remains unclear. We generated mice and isolated NRCMs (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) that overexpressed or were deficient in TRIM32 to investigate the effect of TRIM32 on AB (aortic banding) or AngII (angiotensin II)-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and both pathological and molecular analyses were used to determine the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent fibrosis. Our results showed that overexpression of TRIM32 in the heart significantly alleviated the hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, whereas TRIM32 deficiency dramatically aggravated pathological cardiac remodelling. Similar results were also found in cultured NRCMs incubated with AngII. Mechanistically, the present study suggests that TRIM32 exerts cardioprotective action by interruption of Akt- but not MAPK (mitogen-dependent protein kinase)-dependent signalling pathways. Additionally, inactivation of Akt by LY294002 offset the exacerbated hypertrophic response induced by AB in TRIM32-deficient mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TRIM32 plays a protective role in AB-induced pathological cardiac remodelling by blocking Akt-dependent signalling. Therefore TRIM32 could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Current dogma suggests that aerobic exercise training has minimal effects on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  8. Cholangiocarcinomas can originate from hepatocytes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Biao; Malato, Yann; Calvisi, Diego F.; Naqvi, Syed; Razumilava, Nataliya; Ribback, Silvia; Gores, Gregory J.; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Chen, Xin; Willenbring, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are primary liver tumors with a poor prognosis. The development of effective therapies has been hampered by a limited understanding of the biology of ICCs. Although ICCs exhibit heterogeneity in location, histology, and marker expression, they are currently thought to derive invariably from the cells lining the bile ducts, biliary epithelial cells (BECs), or liver progenitor cells (LPCs). Despite lack of experimental evidence establishing BECs or LPCs as the origin of ICCs, other liver cell types have not been considered. Here we show that ICCs can originate from fully differentiated hepatocytes. Using a mouse model of hepatocyte fate tracing, we found that activated NOTCH and AKT signaling cooperate to convert normal hepatocytes into biliary cells that act as precursors of rapidly progressing, lethal ICCs. Our findings suggest a previously overlooked mechanism of human ICC formation that may be targetable for anti-ICC therapy. PMID:22797301

  9. Effects of phenobarbital on metabolism and toxicity of diclofenac sodium in rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, A G; Xia, T; Yuan, J; Yu, R A; Yang, K D; Chen, X M; Qu, W; Waalkes, M P

    2004-10-01

    Diclofenac sodium (DF-Na) was a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in various aspects of inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of phenobarbital (PB) on metabolism and toxicity of DF-Na in vitro and explore the potential mechanism of DF-Na induced hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by a modification of the two-step in situ collagenase perfusion technique and the harvested rat hepatocytes were cultured with sandwich method. Control or PB (2 mM) pre-treated hepatocytes were incubated with DF-Na (0.1, 0.05 or 0.01 mM) in vitro and cytosolic enzyme leakage levels, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity, and metabolite content of DF-Na in cell culture medium were measured. The results showed that without any treatment hepatocyte CYP 3A activity gradually decreased with culture time. On day four, CYP 3A activity was 53% of the initial value. The decline of CYP 3A was partially reversed by CYP inducer PB, and the maximum induction of CYP 3A was 2.2-fold over control after continuous exposure of hepatocytes to 2 mM PB for 48 h. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transamine (ALT) activity and the contents of the DF-Na metabolites 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (4'-OH-DF) and 5-hydroxydiclofenac (5-OH-DF) in media appeared to increase with increasing DF-Na concentrations, though there were no significant differences between DF-Na exposed and control hepatocytes. However, if the hepatocytes first were pre-treated with 2 mM PB for 2 days and then exposed to DF-Na, the concentrations of DF-Na metabolites and the activity of LDH in the media were significantly higher than that of control group. These findings suggest that the hepatotoxicity and metabolism of DF-Na in rat hepatocytes are increased when hepatic CYP 3A activity is increased.

  10. Compensatory Hypertrophy After Living Donor Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chen, K W; Wu, M W F; Chen, Z; Tai, B C; Goh, Y S B; Lata, R; Vathsala, A; Tiong, H Y

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that kidney volume enhances the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney donors. This study aimed to describe the phenomenon of compensatory hypertrophy after donor nephrectomy as measured on computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An institutional Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB)-approved study involved approaching kidney donors to have a follow up CT scan from 6 months to 1 year after surgery; 29 patients participated; 55% were female. Clinical chart review was performed, and the patient's remaining kidney volume was measured before and after surgery based on CT scans. eGFR was determined with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Mean parenchymal volume of the remaining kidney for this population (mean age, 44.3 ± 8.5 y) was 204.7 ± 82.5 cc before surgery and 250.5 ± 113.3 cc after donor nephrectomy. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 79.3% of patients (n = 23). Mean increase in remaining kidney volume was 22.4 ± 23.2% after donor nephrectomy in healthy individuals. Over a median follow-up of 52.9 ± 19.8 months, mean eGFR was 68.9 ± 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with 24.1% of patients (n = 7) in chronic kidney disease grade 3. Absolute and relative change in kidney volume was not associated with sex, race, surgical approach, or background of hypertension (P = NS). There was a trend of decreased hypertrophy with increasing age (P = .5; Spearman correlation, -0.12). In healthy kidney donors, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney occurs in 79.3% of the patients, with an average increment of about 22.4%. Older patients may have a blunted compensatory hypertrophy response after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l(-1) insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance.

  12. Ammonia-induced energy disorders interfere with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongye; Wang, Yanfang; Yu, Zujiang; Li, Duolu; Jia, Bin; Li, Jingjing; Guan, Kelei; Zhou, Yubing; Chen, Yanling; Kan, Quancheng

    2014-08-01

    Hyperammonemia and jaundice are the most common clinical symptoms of hepatic failure. Decreasing the level of ammonia in the blood is often accompanied by a reduction in bilirubin in patients with hepatic failure. Previous studies have shown that hyperammonemia can cause bilirubin metabolism disorders, however it is unclear exactly how hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mechanism or mechanisms by which hyperammonemia interferes with bilirubin metabolism in hepatocytes. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed in primary hepatocytes that had been exposed to ammonium chloride. Mitochondrial morphology and permeability were observed and analyzed, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were determined and changes in the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism were analyzed after ammonia exposure. Hyperammonemia inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, damaged the mitochondria and hindered the TCA cycle in hepatocytes. This led to a reduction in energy synthesis, eventually affecting the expression of enzymes related to bilirubin metabolism, which then caused further problems with bilirubin metabolism. These effects were significant, but could be reversed with the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This study demonstrates that ammonia can cause problems with bilirubin metabolism by interfering with energy synthesis.

  13. Hyperinsulinemia is Associated with Increased Soluble Insulin Receptors Release from Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hiriart, Marcia; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Diaz-Garcia, Carlos Manlio; Castanares, Diana T.; Avitia, Morena; Velasco, Myrian; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Macias-Silva, Marina; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Vidaltamayo, Román; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira

    2014-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that insulin circulates freely in blood. However it can also interact with plasma proteins. Insulin receptors are located in the membrane of target cells and consist of an alpha and beta subunits with a tyrosine kinase cytoplasmic domain. The ectodomain, called soluble insulin receptor (SIR) has been found elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. We explored if insulin binds to SIRs in circulation under physiological conditions and hypothesize that this SIR may be released by hepatocytes in response to high insulin concentrations. The presence of SIR in rat and human plasmas and the culture medium of hepatocytes was explored using Western blot analysis. A purification protocol was performed to isolated SIR using affinity, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatographies. A modified reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to measure SIR release from cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with 1 nmol l−1 insulin induces the release of the insulin receptor ectodomains from normal rat hepatocytes. This effect can be partially prevented by blocking protease activity. Furthermore, plasma levels of SIR were higher in a model of metabolic syndrome, where rats are hyperinsulinemic. We also found increased SIR levels in hyperinsulinemic humans. SIR may be an important regulator of the amount of free insulin in circulation. In hyperinsulinemia, the amount of this soluble receptor increases and this could lead to higher amounts of insulin bound to this receptor, rather than free insulin, which is the biologically active form of the hormone. This observation could enlighten the mechanisms of insulin resistance. PMID:24995000

  14. MiRNAs with Apoptosis Regulating Potential Are Differentially Expressed in Chronic Exercise-Induced Physiologically Hypertrophied Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kalpana, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive mechanism, induced during chronic exercise. As it is reversible and not associated with cardiomyocyte death, it is considered as a natural tactic to prevent cardiac dysfunction and failure. Though, different studies revealed the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathological hypertrophy, their role during physiological hypertrophy is largely unexplored. Hence, this study is aimed at revealing the global expression profile of miRNAs during physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Chronic swimming protocol continuously for eight weeks resulted in induction of physiological hypertrophy in rats and histopathology revealed the absence of tissue damage, apoptosis or fibrosis. Subsequently, the total RNA was isolated and small RNA sequencing was executed. Analysis of small RNA reads revealed the differential expression of a large set of miRNAs during physiological hypertrophy. The expression profile of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs was validated by qPCR. In silico prediction of target genes by miRanda, miRdB and TargetScan and subsequent qPCR analysis unraveled that miRNAs including miR-99b, miR-100, miR-19b, miR-10, miR-208a, miR-133, miR-191a, miR-22, miR-30e and miR-181a are targeting the genes that primarily regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Gene ontology and pathway mapping showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes were mapped to apoptosis and cell death pathways principally via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling. In summary, our data indicates that regulation of these miRNAs with apoptosis regulating potential can be one of the major key factors in determining pathological or physiological hypertrophy by controlling fibrosis, apoptosis and cell death mechanisms. PMID:25793527

  15. MiRNAs with apoptosis regulating potential are differentially expressed in chronic exercise-induced physiologically hypertrophied hearts.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Subbiah; Velmurugan, Ganesan; Shanmugha Rajan, K; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kalpana, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive mechanism, induced during chronic exercise. As it is reversible and not associated with cardiomyocyte death, it is considered as a natural tactic to prevent cardiac dysfunction and failure. Though, different studies revealed the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathological hypertrophy, their role during physiological hypertrophy is largely unexplored. Hence, this study is aimed at revealing the global expression profile of miRNAs during physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Chronic swimming protocol continuously for eight weeks resulted in induction of physiological hypertrophy in rats and histopathology revealed the absence of tissue damage, apoptosis or fibrosis. Subsequently, the total RNA was isolated and small RNA sequencing was executed. Analysis of small RNA reads revealed the differential expression of a large set of miRNAs during physiological hypertrophy. The expression profile of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs was validated by qPCR. In silico prediction of target genes by miRanda, miRdB and TargetScan and subsequent qPCR analysis unraveled that miRNAs including miR-99b, miR-100, miR-19b, miR-10, miR-208a, miR-133, miR-191a, miR-22, miR-30e and miR-181a are targeting the genes that primarily regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Gene ontology and pathway mapping showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs and their target genes were mapped to apoptosis and cell death pathways principally via PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling. In summary, our data indicates that regulation of these miRNAs with apoptosis regulating potential can be one of the major key factors in determining pathological or physiological hypertrophy by controlling fibrosis, apoptosis and cell death mechanisms.

  16. Urotensin II induction of neonatal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy involves the CaMKII/PLN/SERCA 2a signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongtao; Han, Qinghua; Xu, Jianrong; Liu, Wenyuan; Chu, Tingting; Zhao, Li

    2016-05-25

    Although studies have shown that Urotensin II (UII) can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model has been widely used for hypertrophy research, but its precise mechanism remains unknown. Recent researches have demonstrated that UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has a relationship with the changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by UII and to explore whether the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated up-regulating of phospholamban (PLN) Thr17-phosphorylation signaling pathway contributed to UII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated for 48h with UII. Cell size, protein/DNA contents and intracellular Ca(2+) were determined. Phosphorylated and total forms of CaMKII, PLN and the total amount of serco/endo-plasmic reticulum ATPases (SERCA 2a) were quantified by western blot. The responses of cardiomyocytes to UII were also evaluated after pretreatment with the CaMKII inhibitor, KN-93. These results showed that UII increased cell size, protein/DNA ratio and intracellular Ca(2+), consistent with a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of CaMKII and its downstream target PLN (Thr17), SERCA 2a levels were up-regulated by UII treatment. Conversely, treatment with KN-93 reversed all those effects of UII. Taken together, the results suggest that UII can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through CaMKII-mediated up-regulating of PLN Thr17-phosphorylation signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy.

  18. DJ-1 activates autophagy in the repression of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruicong; Jiang, Jingzhou; Dong, Bin; Tan, Weiping; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Yili; Dong, Yugang; Liu, Chen

    2017-09-21

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the risk factor of heart failure when the heart is confronted with pressure overload or neurohumoral stimuli. Autophagy, a conserved degradative pathway, is one of the important mechanisms involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. DJ-1 is a traditional anti-oxidative protein and emerging evidence suggested that DJ-1 might modulate autophagy. However, the regulation of autophagy by DJ-1 in the process of cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. In our study, we firstly discovered that the expression of DJ-1declined in the process of pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, and its alteration was parallel with the impairment of autophagy. Furthermore, we proved that DJ-1 knockout mice exhibited a more hypertrophied phenotype than wildtype mice in cardiac hypertrophy which indicated that DJ-1 is responsible for the repression of cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, DJ-1 knockout significantly exacerbated pulmonary edema due to cardiac hypertrophy. In the process of cardiac hypertrophy, DJ-1 knockout significantly impaired autophagy activation and enhanced mTORC1 and mTORC2 phosphorylation were found. Similarly, our in vitro study proved that DJ-1 overexpression ameliorated phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and promoted autophagy activation. Taken together, DJ-1 might repress both pressure overload and PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the activation of autophagy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. C/EBPβ is required in pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Angulo, I; Mas-Stachurska, A; Sitges, M; Giralt, M; Villarroya, F; Planavila, A

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological model of adaptive and reversible heart enlargement, but the molecular mechanisms determining this kind of physiologic cardiac hypertrophy are poorly known. Here, we analyzed the role of the transcription factor C/EBPβ in the development of pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy. C/EBPβ+/- mice at day 18 of gestation were used as happloinsufficiency model of late pregnancy. We found that C/EBPβ expression was specifically increased in hearts from Wt pregnant mice whereas expression of other C/EBP subtypes (α and δ) was not affected by gestation. Pregnancy-induced changes in systemic metabolic and hormonal profiles were not essentially different in Wt versus C/EBPβ+/- mice. However, C/EBPβ+/- mice developed pregnancy-induced heart hypertrophy to a lower extent relative to Wt mice. Furthermore, hearts from C/EBPβ+/- mice have alterations in fatty acid oxidation genes and reductions in the expression levels of glucose transporters that may compromise metabolic cardiac function during pregnancy. Among marker genes of inflammation, interleukin-6 (Il-6) showed a marked differential behavior in C/EBPβ+/- pregnant mice: pregnancy strongly induced cardiac Il-6 expression in wt, a phenomenon that did not occur in C/EBPβ+/- mice. Moreover, marker genes for M2 macrophages were decreased in C/EBPβ+/- pregnant mice and in C/EBPβ-/- mice subjected to LPS stimulus. Here we found that normal levels of C/EBPβ are required for hypertrophy development during pregnancy. Events such as the increase in IL-6 in the heart of pregnant mice are prevented in C/EBPβ+/- animals. Moreover, C/EBPβ controls M2-macrophage gene expression in the heart. Thus, C/EBPβ appears as a transcription factor required for cardiac hypertrophy response to gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth Arrest-Specific 6 Exacerbates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi-Fan; Xu, Da-Chun; Zhu, Guo-Fu; Zhu, Meng-Yun; Tang, Kai; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Ya-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) is a member of the vitamin K-dependent protein family that is involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, including vascular remodeling, homeostasis, and atherosclerosis. However, there is still no study that systemically elucidates the role of GAS6 in cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we found that GAS6 was upregulated in human dilated cardiomyopathic hearts, hypertrophic murine hearts, and angiotensin II-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, we examined the influence of GAS6 expression in response to a cardiac stress by inducing chronic pressure overload with aortic banding in wild-type and GAS6-knockout mice or cardiac-specific GAS6 overexpressing mice. Under basal conditions, the GAS6-knockout mice had normal left ventricular structure and function but after aortic banding, the mice demonstrated less hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction when compared with wild-type mice. Conversely, cardiac-specific overexpression of GAS6 exacerbated aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GAS6 activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway during pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and the pharmacological mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor U0126 almost completely reversed GAS6 overexpression-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, resulting in improved cardiac function. Collectively, our data support the notion that GAS6 impairs ventricular adaptation to chronic pressure overload by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling. Our findings suggest that strategies to reduce GAS6 activity in cardiac tissue may be a novel approach to attenuate the development of congestive heart failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1-induced osteopontin expression facilitates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Iman A; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Fliegel, Larry; Lopaschuk, Gary; Mlih, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Fillmore, Natasha; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in various experimental models. The upregulation of NHE1 was correlated with an increase in osteopontin (OPN) expression in models of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), and the mechanism for this remains to be delineated. To determine whether the expression of active NHE1-induces OPN and contributes to the hypertrophic response in vitro, cardiomyocytes were infected with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus or transfected with OPN silencing RNA (siRNA-OPN) and characterized for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Expression of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers: cell surface area, protein content, ANP mRNA and expression of phosphorylated-GATA4. NHE1 activity was also significantly increased in cardiomyocytes expressing active NHE1. Interestingly, transfection of cardiomyocytes with siRNA-OPN significantly abolished the NHE1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. siRNA-OPN also significantly reduced the activity of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes expressing NHE1 (68.5±0.24%; P<0.05), confirming the role of OPN in the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response. The hypertrophic response facilitated by NHE1-induced OPN occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). The ability of OPN to facilitate the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response identifies OPN as a potential therapeutic target to reverse the hypertrophic effect induced by the expression of active NHE1.

  2. Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1-Induced Osteopontin Expression Facilitates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Iman A.; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Fliegel, Larry; Lopaschuk, Gary; Mlih, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Nabeel; Fillmore, Natasha; Mraiche, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced expression and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in various experimental models. The upregulation of NHE1 was correlated with an increase in osteopontin (OPN) expression in models of cardiac hypertrophy (CH), and the mechanism for this remains to be delineated. To determine whether the expression of active NHE1-induces OPN and contributes to the hypertrophic response in vitro, cardiomyocytes were infected with the active form of the NHE1 adenovirus or transfected with OPN silencing RNA (siRNA-OPN) and characterized for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Expression of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers: cell surface area, protein content, ANP mRNA and expression of phosphorylated-GATA4. NHE1 activity was also significantly increased in cardiomyocytes expressing active NHE1. Interestingly, transfection of cardiomyocytes with siRNA-OPN significantly abolished the NHE1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. siRNA-OPN also significantly reduced the activity of NHE1 in cardiomyocytes expressing NHE1 (68.5±0.24%; P<0.05), confirming the role of OPN in the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response. The hypertrophic response facilitated by NHE1-induced OPN occurred independent of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and Akt, but required p90-ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). The ability of OPN to facilitate the NHE1-induced hypertrophic response identifies OPN as a potential therapeutic target to reverse the hypertrophic effect induced by the expression of active NHE1. PMID:25884410

  3. Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in broiler chickens with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xun; Chai, Juan; Bi, Shi-Cheng; Li, Jun-Jun; Li, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2012-08-01

    Medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans is associated with enhanced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 has been found in pulmonary artery SMCs (PA-SMCs) in humans with idiopathic PAH, leading to the hypothesis that MMP-2 contributes to the proliferation and migration of vascular SMCs in the pathogenesis of PAH. Rapidly growing meat-type (broiler) chickens provide a model of spontaneous PAH. The present study was conducted to determine whether MMP-2 is involved in the medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in this model. Cultured PA-SMCs from normal birds were used to evaluate the effect of MMPs on cell proliferation. Gelatin zymography showed that endothelin (ET)-1-induced proliferation of PA-SMCs was concomitant with increased pro- and active MMP-2 production. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2 mRNA. However, PA-SMC proliferation was inhibited by the MMP inhibitors doxycycline and cis-9-octadecenoyl-N-hydroxylamide. In vivo experiments revealed a significant increase of MMP-2 expression in hypertrophied pulmonary arterioles of PAH broiler chickens, which was positively correlated with wall thickness and medial hypertrophy. MMP-2 may contribute to medial hypertrophy in pulmonary arterioles during PAH in broiler chickens by enhancing the proliferation of vascular SMCs.

  4. Postoperative thallium-201 myocardial images. Evidence of regression of right ventricular hypertrophy in man.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, H; Tsugu, T; Handa, S; Takagi, Y; Ohsuzu, F; Kondo, M; Kubo, A; Inoue, T; Nakamura, Y

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphic studies were performed on 24 patients with chronic right ventricular overload before and after surgical correction of haemodynamic overload. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 65 years (mean 39 years) at operation. The degree of right ventricular visualisation remained essentially unchanged in an early postoperative study (four to 60 days), though a decrease in right ventricular cavity size was noted in patients with right ventricular volume overload. On later follow-up (18 to 36 months), thallium uptake in the right ventricle was definitely less than before operation in all 13 patients studied at this time. Because thallium-201 radioactivity reflects myocardial blood flow and mass, our study indicates that right ventricular hypertrophy is largely reversible. Thus, thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy can be used to assess non-invasively regression of right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with right ventricular overload. Images PMID:6215051

  5. Proteasome activation during cardiac hypertrophy by the chaperone H11 Kinase/Hsp22.

    PubMed

    Hedhli, Nadia; Wang, Li; Wang, Qian; Rashed, Eman; Tian, Yimin; Sui, Xiangzhen; Madura, Kiran; Depre, Christophe

    2008-02-01

    The regulation of protein degradation by the proteasome during cardiac hypertrophy remains largely unknown. Also, the proteasome translocates to the nuclear periphery in response to cellular stress in yeast, which remains unexplored in mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine the quantitative and qualitative adaptation of the proteasome during stable cardiac hypertrophy. We measured proteasome activity, expression and sub-cellular distribution in a model of chronic cardiac hypertrophy induced by the stress-response chaperone H11 Kinase/Hsp22 (Hsp22). Over-expression of Hsp22 in a transgenic (TG) mouse leads to a 30% increase in myocyte cross-sectional area compared to wild-type (WT) mice (P < 0.01). Characterization of the proteasome in hearts from TG mice vs. WT revealed an increased expression of both 19S and 20S subunits (P < 0.05), a doubling in 20S catalytic activity (P < 0.01), a redistribution of both subunits from the cytosol to the nuclear periphery, and a four-fold increase in nuclear-associated 20S catalytic activity (P < 0.001). The perinuclear proteasome co-localized and interacted with Hsp22. Inhibition of proteasome activity by epoxomicin reduced hypertrophy in TG by 50% (P < 0.05). Adeno-mediated over-expression of Hsp22 in isolated cardiac myocytes increased both cell growth and proteasome activity, and both were prevented upon inhibition of the proteasome. Similarly, stimulation of cardiac cell growth by pro-hypertrophic stimuli increased Hsp22 expression and proteasome activity, and proteasome inhibition in that setting prevented hypertrophy. Proteasome inhibitors also prevented the increase in rate of protein synthesis observed after over-expression of Hsp22 or upon addition of pro-hypertrophic stimuli. Hsp22-mediated cardiac hypertrophy promotes an increased expression and activity, and a subcellular redistribution of the proteasome. Inhibition of the proteasome reverses cardiac hypertrophy upon Hsp22 over-expression or upon

  6. Perioperative hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) infusions improve hepatic regeneration following portal branch ligation (PBL) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mangieri, Christopher W; McCartt, Jason C; Strode, Matthew A; Lowry, John E; Balakrishna, Prasad M

    2017-07-01

    As hepatic surgery has become safer and more commonly performed, the extent of hepatic resections has increased. When there is not enough expected hepatic reserve to facilitate primary resection of hepatic tumors, a clinical adjunct to facilitating primary resection is portal vein embolization (PVE). PVE allows the hepatic remnant to increase to an appropriate size prior to resection via hepatocyte regeneration; however, PVE is not always successful in facilitating adequate regeneration. One of the strongest trophic factors for hepatocyte regeneration is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The purpose of this study was to improve hepatic regeneration with perioperative HGF infusions in an animal model that mimics PVE. Portal branch ligation (PBL) in rodents is equivalent to PVE in humans. We performed left-sided PBL in Sprague-Dawley rodents with the experimental group receiving perioperative HGF infusions. Baseline and postoperative liver volumetrics were obtained with CT scanning methods as performed in clinical practice. Baseline and postoperative liver functions were assessed via indocyanine green (ICG) elimination testing. HGF infused rodents had statistically significant increase in all postoperative liver volumetrics. Most clinically relevant were increased right liver volumes (RLV), 14.10 versus 7.85 cm(3) (p value 0.0001), and increased degree of hypertrophy (DH %), 159.23 versus 47.11 % (p value 0.0079). HGF infused rodents also had a quick return to baseline liver function, 2.38 days compared to 6.13 days (p value 0.0001). Perioperative HGF infusions significantly increase hepatic regeneration following PBL in rodents. Perioperative HGF infusions following PVE are a possible adjunct to increase the amount of patients able to successfully undergo primary resection for hepatic tumors. Further basic science is warranted in examining the use of HGF infusions to increase hepatic regeneration and translating that basic science work to clinical practice.

  7. Biventricular Cardiac Hypertrophy in a Patient with Primary Aldosteronism and Atrial Septal Defect.

    PubMed

    Pemayun, Tjokorda Gde Dalem; Naibaho, Ridho M; Sungkar, Muhammad Achmad

    2017-09-07

    BACKGROUND Primary aldosteronism can be caused by adrenocortical adenoma and is usually associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. Biventricular cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in the presence of a pre-existing atrial septal defect (ASD) are a rare association of primary aldosteronism. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old woman with resistant hypertension and refractory hypokalemia presented with signs and symptoms of heart failure. She had previously been diagnosed having a right adrenal tumor and ostium secundum type ASD. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed the location of the ASD, with a left-to-right cardiac shunt, moderate to severe tricuspid insufficiency, moderate pulmonary hypertension (60 mm Hg), four chamber dilatation and biventricular hypertrophy. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 17%. Endocrine function tests showed a raised plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio, which supported a diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. A captopril suppression test failed to suppress the patient's PAC, which confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent a right adrenalectomy with subsequent normalization of hypokalemia, PAC, and PAC to PRA ratio and her hypertension was managed successfully with monotherapy. Surgical pathology examination of the tumor revealed an adrenocortical adenoma. At follow-up at 18 months, the patient had a normal potassium level, and her cardiac function and ventricular geometries were improved. CONCLUSIONS Reversible cardiac hypertrophy is rarely associated with primary aldosteronism, however, it should be recognized. Present findings suggest that aldosteronism contributes to cardiac remodelling and biventricular hypertrophic changes. Administering appropriate treatment in a timely manner, can reverse cardiac changes along with the other symptoms of primary aldosteronism.

  8. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Luna-López, Armando; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Miranda, Roxana U.; Muñoz, Linda; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system. PMID:27143995

  9. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño-Lámbarri, Natalia; Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Luna-López, Armando; Souza, Verónica; Bucio, Leticia; Miranda, Roxana U; Muñoz, Linda; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system.

  10. Salubrinal attenuates right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension of rats.

    PubMed

    He, Yun-Yun; Liu, Chun-Lei; Li, Xin; Li, Rui-Jun; Wang, Li-Li; He, Kun-Lun

    2016-12-01

    The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (p-eIF2α) is essential for cell survival during hypoxia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether salubrinal, an inhibitor of p-eIF2α dephosphorylation could attenuate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy in rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. PAH of rats was induced by hypobaric hypoxia. Salubrinal supplemented was randomized in either a prevention or a reversal protocol. At the end of the follow-up point, we measured echocardiography, hemodynamics, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. RNA-seq analysis is explored to identify changes in gene expression associated with hypobaric hypoxia with or without salubrinal. Compared with vehicle-treatment rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, salubrinal prevented and partly reversed the increase of the mean pulmonary artery pressure and RV hypertrophy. What's more, salubrinal reduced the percentage wall thickness (WT%) of pulmonary artery and RV collagen volume fraction (CVF) in both prevention and reversal protocols. We also found that salubrinal was capable of reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress. The result of RNA-seq analysis revealed that chronic hypoxia stimulated the differential expression of a series of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and ventricular hypertrophy and so on. Some of these genes could be ameliorated by salubrinal. These results indicate that salubrinal could prevent and reverse well-established RV remodeling, and restore the genes and pathways altered in the right ventricles of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Increased Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6 Stimulates Hepatocyte Proliferation during Mouse Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yongjun; Yoshida, Yuichi; Hughes, Douglas E.; Costa, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6 (HNF6 or ONECUT-1) protein is a cell-type specific transcription factor that regulates expression of hepatocyte-specific genes. Using hepatocytes for Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, the HNF6 protein was shown to associate with cell cycle regulatory promoters. Here, we examined whether increased levels of HNF6 stimulate hepatocyte proliferation during mouse liver regeneration. Methods Tail vein injection of adenovirus expressing the HNF6 cDNA (AdHNF6) was used to increase hepatic HNF6 levels during mouse liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy, and DNA replication was determined by Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Cotransfection and ChIP assays were used to determine transcriptional target promoters. Results Elevated expression of HNF6 during mouse liver regeneration causes a significant increase in the number of hepatocytes entering DNA replication (S-phase) and mouse hepatoma Hepa1-6 cells diminished for HNF6 levels by siRNA transfection exhibit a 50% reduction in S-phase following serum stimulation. This stimulation in hepatocyte S-phase progression was associated with increased expression of the hepatocyte mitogen Tumor Growth Factor α (TGFα) and the cell cycle regulators Cyclin D1 and Forkhead Box m1 (Foxm1) transcription factor. Cotransfection and ChIP assays show that TGFα, Cyclin D1, and HNF6 promoter regions are direct transcriptional targets of the HNF6 protein. Co-immunoprecipitation assays with regenerating mouse liver extracts reveal association between HNF6 and Foxm1 proteins and cotransfection assays show that HNF6 stimulates Foxm1 transcriptional activity. Conclusion These mouse liver regeneration studies show that increased HNF6 levels stimulate hepatocyte proliferation through transcriptional induction of cell cycle regulatory genes. PMID:16618419

  12. Constrained spheroids for prolonged hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wen Hao; Fang, Yu; Yan, Jie; Hong, Xin; Hari Singh, Nisha; Wang, Shu Rui; Nugraha, Bramasta; Xia, Lei; Fong, Eliza Li Shan; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry

    2016-02-01

    Liver-specific functions in primary hepatocytes can be maintained over extended duration in vitro using spheroid culture. However, the undesired loss of cells over time is still a major unaddressed problem, which consequently generates large variations in downstream assays such as drug screening. In static culture, the turbulence generated by medium change can cause spheroids to detach from the culture substrate. Under perfusion, the momentum generated by Stokes force similarly results in spheroid detachment. To overcome this problem, we developed a Constrained Spheroids (CS) culture system that immobilizes spheroids between a glass coverslip and an ultra-thin porous Parylene C membrane, both surface-modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and galactose ligands for optimum spheroid formation and maintenance. In this configuration, cell loss was minimized even when perfusion was introduced. When compared to the standard collagen sandwich model, hepatocytes cultured as CS under perfusion exhibited significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions such as urea secretion, and CYP1A1 and CYP3A2 metabolic activity. We propose the use of the CS culture as an improved culture platform to current hepatocyte spheroid-based culture systems.

  13. Targeted transplantation of mitochondria to hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wu, Catherine H; Wu, George Y

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial defects in hepatocytes can result in liver dysfunction and death. Hepatocytes have cell-surface asialoglycoprotein receptors (AsGRs) which internalize AsGs within endosomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether mitochondria could be targeted to hepatocytes by AsGR-mediated endocytosis. Materials and methods An AsG, AsOR, was linked to polylysine to create a conjugate, AsOR-PL, and complexed with healthy and functional mitochondria (defined by normal morphology, cytochrome c assays, and oxygen-consumption rates). Huh7 (AsGR+) and SK Hep1 (AsGR−) cells were treated with a mitochondrial toxin to form Huh7-Mito− and SK Hep1-Mito− cells, lacking detectable mitochondrial DNA. An endosomolytic peptide, LLO, was coupled to AsOR to form AsOR-LLO. A lysosomal inhibitor, amantadine, was used in mitochondria-uptake studies as a control for nonspecific endosomal release. Results Coincubation of complexed mitochondria and AsOR-LLO with Huh7-Mito− cells increased mitochondrial DNA to >9,700-fold over control at 7 days (P<0.001), and increased mitochondrial oxygen-consumption rates to >90% of control by 10 days. Conclusion Rescue of mitochondria-damaged hepatocytes can be achieved by targeted uptake of normal mitochondria through receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:27942238

  14. Low-level HIV infection of hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only limited data on whether HIV infection occurs within the liver; therefore, we explored early and late stages of the HIV life cycle in two hepatocyte cell lines – Huh7.5 and Huh7.5JFH1 – as well as in primary human hepatocytes. Results Integrated HIV DNA was detected in Huh7.5 and Huh7.5JFH1 cells, as well as in primary hepatocytes, and was inhibited by the integrase inhibitor raltegravir in a dose-dependent manner. HIV p24 protein was also detected in cell culture supernatants at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection and was inhibited by AZT, although levels were modest compared to those in a lymphocyte cell line. Culture supernatants from HIV-infected hepatocytes were capable of infecting a non-hepatic HIV indicator cell line. Conclusions These results indicating low-level HIV replication in hepatoctyes in vitro complement evidence suggesting that HIV has deleterious effects on the liver in vivo. PMID:22877244

  15. Apelin/APJ system: A bifunctional target for cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liqun; Wu, Di; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2017-03-01

    Apelin acts as the endogenous ligand of G protein coupled receptors APJ. The apelin/APJ system is responsible for the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, apelin/APJ has been considered to play an important role in cardiac hypertrophy, but whether that role is beneficial or aggravating remains controversial. Apelin/APJ alleviates cardiac hypertrophy which is triggered by angiotensin II, oxidative stress and exercise. However, central administration of apelin induces cardiac hypertrophy. Peripheral administration of apelin also promotes the development of cardiac hypertrophy under non-pathological conditions. Furthermore, our laboratory discovers that apelin/APJ is able to induce hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vitro. The exact mechanism of apelin/APJ's dual effects in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this paper, we review the controversies associated with apelin/APJ in cardiac hypertrophy and we elaborate the role of apelin/APJ in cardiac hypertrophy related-diseases including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, myocarditis and myocardial infarction. We conclude that further studies should emphasize more about the relationship between apelin/APJ and pathological hypertrophy especially in clinical patients. Moreover, apelin/APJ can be a promising therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy.

  16. Human Cord Blood Stem Cells Generate Human Cytokeratin 18-Negative Hepatocyte-Like Cells in Injured Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amar Deep; Cantz, Tobias; Richter, Rudolf; Eckert, Klaus; Henschler, Reinhard; Wilkens, Ludwig; Jochheim-Richter, Andrea; Arseniev, Lubomir; Ott, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of adult bone marrow (BM) cells into nonhematopoietic cells is a rare phenomenon. Several reports, however, suggest that human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived cells give rise to hepatocytes after transplantation into nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Therefore, we analyzed the hepatic differentiation potential of hUCB cells and compared the frequency of newly formed hepatocyte-like cells in the livers of recipient NOD-SCID mice after transplantation of hUCB versus murine BM cells. Mononuclear cell preparations of hUCB cells or murine BM from enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic or wild-type mice were transplanted into sublethally irradiated NOD-SCID mice. Liver regeneration was induced by carbon tetrachloride injury with and without sub-sequent hepatocyte growth factor treatment. By immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction, we detected clusters of hepatocyte-like cells in the livers of hUCB-transplanted mice. These cells expressed human albumin and Hep Par 1 but mouse CK18, suggesting the formation of chimeric hepatocyte-like cells. Native fluorescence microscopy and double immunofluorescence failed to detect single hepatocytes derived from transplanted enhanced green fluorescent protein-transgenic mouse BM. Fluorescent in situ hybridization rarely revealed donor-derived hepatocyte-like cells after cross-gender mouse BM transplantation. Thus, hUCB cells have differentiation capabilities different from murine BM cells after transplantation into NOD-SCID mice, demonstrating the importance of further testing before hUCB cells can be used therapeutically. PMID:16049339

  17. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Céline; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina; Lagadec, Matthieu; Pastor, Catherine M; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. • Expression of hepatocyte transporters is modified in rats with advanced liver fibrosis. • Kinetic parameters at gadoxetate-enhanced MRI are correlated with hepatocyte transporter expression. • Hepatocyte transport function can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. • Compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI might provide biomarkers in advanced liver fibrosis.

  18. Gingival hypertrophy: a solitary manifestation of scurvy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ryan; Byers, Karin; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2008-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with rapid onset hypertrophy of both the upper and lower gingiva. A detailed history and a diet nearly void of fruits and vegetables raised the suspicion of a possible deficiency of vitamin C. An estimation of the serum ascorbic acid level confirmed our suspicions (<0.12 mg/dL; normal range, 0.4-1.0 mg/dL) and a diagnosis of scurvy was confirmed. A course of 1000 mg/d of ascorbic acid was initiated that caused a dramatic resolution of the gingival lesions. Gingival hypertrophy has a large differential diagnosis; however, it is also known to be an extremely rare manifestation of scurvy. A high index of suspicion for scurvy is relevant given its low prevalence in developed nations and how easily remediable the disease can be, even when it presents in a severe form.

  19. Surgical animal model of ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Marano, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Alberto U

    2007-01-01

    In response to an increased afterload, the myocardium undergoes a complex adaptation by which wall stress is normalized and cardiac output is maintained. Although the consensus suggests that the increase of the myocardial mass is a necessary adaptive process to accommodate the increased workload, there is growing evidence that hypertrophy ultimately results in pathological remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function. Despite intense investigation, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the initiation and the maintenance of this adaptation is largely incomplete and preventing or regressing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major challenge. This chapter provides a detailed description of the procedures necessary to induce LVH by coarctation of the transverse aorta and to analyze the effects of the increased hemodynamic load on cardiac mass, cardiomyocyte size, and cardiac performance.

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  1. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  2. HNF4α contributes to glucose formation in aged rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Eun Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeong; Cova, Anthony; Lee, Suk Keun; Cho, Sung Chun; Kwak, Chung Shil; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Sang Chul; Jun, Hee Sook; Kim, Kyung Tae

    2013-12-01

    Aging-dependent physiological conditions are attributed to parenchymal structural changes to cellular functions in aged organisms. Compared to the young animals, the primary hepatocytes from old rats showed a higher glucose output and a higher expression of the key gluconeogenesis-regulating enzyme, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The primary hepatocytes from old rats showed a higher glucose output and a higher expression of the key gluconeogenesis-regulating enzyme, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), compared with those from the young animals. The in situ hybridization study showed increased PEPCK mRNA expression in the aged liver tissues. The livers from old rats showed loosened hexagonal hepatic lobular structures, increased collagen accumulation, and high expression of the hypoxia marker hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Hypoxia increased the PEPCK mRNA and protein expression levels in accordance with the HIF1α expression. PEPCK promoter luciferase reporter assay showed that hypoxia increased PEPCK through transcriptional activation. Furthermore, the hepatocyte nuclear factor α (HNF4α) protein, but not the HNF4α mRNA level, increased in parallel with the PEPCK mRNA expression under hypoxic conditions. Glucose production increased under hypoxic conditions, but this increment diminished by HNF4α siRNA in young hepatocytes. Moreover, increased glucose production from old rat hepatocytes was reversed by the down-regulation of HNF4α through a specific siRNA. This study suggests that the mild hypoxic conditions in response to aging-dependent hepatic structural changes may contribute to the induction of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK through HNF4α protein stabilization.

  3. Sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via downregulation of c-Met expression.

    PubMed

    He, Yihuai; Long, Jun; Zhong, Weiwei; Fu, Yu; Li, Ying; Lin, Shide

    2014-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms of impaired liver regeneration in several liver diseases remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been observed in a variety of liver diseases. The aims of this study were to explore the impacts of ER stress on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced proliferation and c-Met expression in human hepatocyte L02 cells. Human hepatocyte L02 cells were incubated with thapsigargin (TG) to induce ER stress. 4-Phenylbutyric acid (PBA) was used to rescue ER stress. Activation of glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α, and the expression of c-Met were determined by western blotting. The expression of c-Met mRNA was observed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. L02 cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. L02 cell proliferation was significantly impaired in TG-treated L02 cells from 24 to 48 h, while PBA partly restored the proliferation of L02 cells. In addition, TG treatment significantly decreased the sensitivity of L02 cells to HGF-induced proliferation. PBA partly resumed the sensitivity of L02 cells to HGF-induced proliferation. The expression of c-Met protein in L02 cells was downregulated from 6 h after TG treatment, and PBA partly restored c-Met expression inhibited by TG. The expression of c-Met mRNA was also significantly downregulated from 24 to 48 h after TG treatment. Our results strongly suggest that sustained ER stress inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via downregulation of both c-Met mRNA and protein expression in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

  4. Cryopreservation of primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes with UW solution.

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Takemi; Maruyama, Masanobu; Okitsu, Teru; Shibata, Norikuni; Takesue, Michihiko; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Kosaka, Yoshikazu; Arata, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hideaki; Oshita, Mizuko; Nakaji, Shuhei; Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kurabayashi, Yuzuru; Kodama, Makoto; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    Development of liver-targeted cell therapies, such as hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers, requires a large amount of functional hepatocytes as needed. To achieve this development, establishing an excellent cryopreservation method of hepatocytes is an extremely important issue. Therefore, we performed a comparative review of cryoprotective effects of various cryopreservation solutions using primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated with a four-step dispase and collagenase perfusion method. The obtained hepatocytes with the initial viabilities of 76%, 84%, and 96% were assigned to the following four groups for cryopreservation at -80 degrees C: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) + 12% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (group A), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution + 12% DMSO (group B), Cell Banker 1 (group C), and Cell Banker 2 (group D). The hepatocytes in each group were thawed at 3 days, 10 days, and 5 months of cryopreservation and subjected to comparative analyses, including viability, plating efficiency, LDH release, ammonia removal test, and lentiviral gene transfer. These parameters were the most favorable in the hepatocytes cryopreserved with UW solution. Approximately 5% of thawed cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes expressed LacZ activity after lentiviral transduction. Intrasplenic transplantation of UW solution-cryopreserved hepatocytes improved the survival of rats treated with D-galactosamine. UW solution maintained the functions of cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes.

  5. Albuminuria in Pediatric Patients With Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Ozlem; Bozkurt, Gulpembe; Esen Akpinar, Meltem; Salepci, Egehan; Aktas Oguz, Gokce; Uslu Coskun, Berna

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and albuminuria in pediatric patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy was evaluated in this prospective study. Fifty children with grade 3 to 4 adenotonsillar hypertrophy scheduled for adenoidectomy and/or adenotonsillectomy were selected for study group. Fifteen patients with adenotonsillar grade 1 to 2 or adenotonsillectomized subjects in a similar range of sex, age, and body mass index scheduled for other surgeries were selected for control group. All children were monitored using finger pulse oximeter during the night before surgery. At the day of surgery, first morning urine samples were sent to the laboratory for analysis of albuminuria.Albuminuria was determined in 8 (16%) patients in study group and 1 (6.7%) patient in control group. This difference between groups was determined not to be statistically significant (P > 0.05). None of the pulse oximetry parameters was also found to be associated with albuminuria statistically (P > 0.05). However, the adenoid grade was observed to be associated with albuminuria (P = 0.011).This study revealed no relationship between albuminuria and intermittent hypoxia in children, although previous studies have reported that intermittent hypoxia causes albuminuria in adults. On the contrary, the adenoid grade was found to be in association with albuminuria. The reason seems to be unclear because of the lack of studies investigating albuminuria in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, inflammatory mediators arising from adenoid tissue may cause increase in renal capillary permeability and urine albumin excretion.

  6. Endothelial Signals Modulate Hepatocyte Apicobasal Polarization in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Takuya F.; Sadler, Kirsten C.; Crosnier, Cecile; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Emerging evidence indicates that paracrine signals from endothelial cells play a role in tissue differentiation and organ formation [1–3]. Here, we identify a novel role for endothelial cells in modulating hepatocyte polarization during liver organogenesis. We find that in zebrafish, the apical domain of the hepatocytes predicts the location of the intrahepatic biliary network. The refinement of hepatocyte polarization coincides with the invasion of endothelial cells into the liver, and these endothelial cells migrate along the maturing basal surface of the hepatocytes. Using genetic, pharmacological, and transplantation experiments, we provide evidence that endothelial cells influence the polarization of the adjacent hepatocytes. This influence of endothelial cells on hepatocytes is mediated at least in part by the cell-surface protein Heart of glass and contributes to the establishment of coordinately aligned hepatocyte apical membranes and evenly spaced intrahepatic conduits. PMID:18951027

  7. Sry HMG Box Protein 9-positive (Sox9+) Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-negative (EpCAM−) Biphenotypic Cells Derived from Hepatocytes Are Involved in Mouse Liver Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that mature hepatocytes compensate tissue damages not only by proliferation and/or hypertrophy but also by conversion into cholangiocyte-like cells. We found that Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM−) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-positive (HNF4α+) biphenotypic cells showing hepatocytic morphology appeared near EpCAM+ ductular structures in the livers of mice fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet. When Mx1-Cre:ROSA mice, which were injected with poly(I:C) to label mature hepatocytes, were fed with the DDC diet, we found LacZ+Sox9+ cells near ductular structures. Although Sox9+EpCAM− cells adjacent to expanding ducts likely further converted into ductular cells, the incidence was rare. To know the cellular characteristics of Sox9+EpCAM− cells, we isolated them as GFP+EpCAM− cells from DDC-injured livers of Sox9-EGFP mice. Sox9+EpCAM− cells proliferated and could differentiate to functional hepatocytes in vitro. In addition, Sox9+EpCAM− cells formed cysts with a small central lumen in collagen gels containing Matrigel® without expressing EpCAM. These results suggest that Sox9+EpCAM− cells maintaining biphenotypic status can establish cholangiocyte-type polarity. Interestingly, we found that some of the Sox9+ cells surrounded luminal spaces in DDC-injured liver while they expressed HNF4α. Taken together, we consider that in addition to converting to cholangiocyte-like cells, Sox9+EpCAM− cells provide luminal space near expanded ductular structures to prevent deterioration of the injuries and potentially supply new hepatocytes to repair damaged tissues. PMID:24482234

  8. Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM-) biphenotypic cells derived from hepatocytes are involved in mouse liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2014-03-14

    It has been shown that mature hepatocytes compensate tissue damages not only by proliferation and/or hypertrophy but also by conversion into cholangiocyte-like cells. We found that Sry HMG box protein 9-positive (Sox9(+)) epithelial cell adhesion molecule-negative (EpCAM(-)) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α-positive (HNF4α(+)) biphenotypic cells showing hepatocytic morphology appeared near EpCAM(+) ductular structures in the livers of mice fed 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet. When Mx1-Cre:ROSA mice, which were injected with poly(I:C) to label mature hepatocytes, were fed with the DDC diet, we found LacZ(+)Sox9(+) cells near ductular structures. Although Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells adjacent to expanding ducts likely further converted into ductular cells, the incidence was rare. To know the cellular characteristics of Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells, we isolated them as GFP(+)EpCAM(-) cells from DDC-injured livers of Sox9-EGFP mice. Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells proliferated and could differentiate to functional hepatocytes in vitro. In addition, Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells formed cysts with a small central lumen in collagen gels containing Matrigel® without expressing EpCAM. These results suggest that Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells maintaining biphenotypic status can establish cholangiocyte-type polarity. Interestingly, we found that some of the Sox9(+) cells surrounded luminal spaces in DDC-injured liver while they expressed HNF4α. Taken together, we consider that in addition to converting to cholangiocyte-like cells, Sox9(+)EpCAM(-) cells provide luminal space near expanded ductular structures to prevent deterioration of the injuries and potentially supply new hepatocytes to repair damaged tissues.

  9. Early-onset obesity and food restriction alter hepatocyte metabolism in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Nayra Thais D; Cruz, Gabriel Henrique P; Borrasca, Cristian L; Alves, Lucas de Paula S; de Godoy Gomes, Célia Regina; Ferreira de Godoi, Vilma Aparecida; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat Diaz

    2017-05-13

    Caloric restriction (CR) is suggested for overweight control. Systemic and liver glucose metabolism in the reduced-litter (RL) rat model under 30% CR was investigated. Newborn litters were organised in control (G9); RL with free diet (G3L); and RL with CR (G3R). Assessments were made at the age of 90 d. Higher liver glycogen content and changes in systemic glucose handling were found in the RL groups. Hepatocyte glucose metabolism was similar in groups G9 and G3L, but basal glucose production and glycogenolysis were higher, while gluconeogenesis and basal glycolysis were lower in the G3R. Urea production was lower in the RL groups. The altered glucose handling of the RL adult rats was not reversed by moderate (30%) CR. Hepatocyte glucose and nitrogen metabolism were changed by both early overfeeding and current feeding conditions. RL and CR alter systemic and liver glucose metabolism.

  10. Curcumin inhibits cobalt chloride-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition associated with interference with TGF-β/Smad signaling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Desong; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2015-11-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during adult tissue remodeling responses including carcinogenesis and fibrosis. Existing evidence reveals that hepatocytes can undergo EMT in adult liver, which is critically involved in chronic liver injury. We herein established a hypoxia-induced EMT model in human LO2 hepatocytes treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in vitro, and evaluated the effects of curcumin, a natural antifibrotic compound, on hepatocyte EMT and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that CoCl2 at non-toxic doses induced a mesenchymal cell phenotype in hepatocytes and upregulated several mesenchymal markers including α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, N-cadherin, fibronectin and Snail (an EMT-related transcription factor), but downregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin in hepatocytes. However, curcumin reversed the morphological changes, abrogated the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, and rescued E-cadherin expression in CoCl2-treated hepatocytes, suggesting the inhibition of hepatocyte EMT in vitro. We further found that curcumin interfered with the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by reducing the expression of TGF-β receptor I and inhibiting the expression and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. Use of SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I, demonstrated that interference with the TGF-β/Smad pathway was associated with curcumin suppression of hepatocyte EMT. Our in vivo data showed that curcumin affected hepatic EMT in rat fibrotic liver caused by carbon tetrachloride, which was associated with the inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling. These findings characterized a novel mechanism by which curcumin modulated hepatocyte EMT implicated in treatment of liver fibrosis.

  11. Chondrocyte hypertrophy in skeletal development, growth, and disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Margaret Man-Ger; Beier, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Most of our bones form through the process of endochondral ossification, which is tightly regulated by the activity of the cartilage growth plate. Chondrocyte maturation through the various stages of growth plate physiology ultimately results in hypertrophy. Chondrocyte hypertrophy is an essential contributor to longitudinal bone growth, but recent data suggest that these cells also play fundamental roles in signaling to other skeletal cells, thus coordinating endochondral ossification. On the other hand, ectopic hypertrophy of articular chondrocytes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Thus, a better understanding of the processes that control chondrocyte hypertrophy in the growth plate as well as in articular cartilage is required for improved management of both skeletal growth disorders and osteoarthritis. This review summarizes recent findings on the regulation of hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation, the cellular mechanisms involved in hypertrophy, and the role of chondrocyte hypertrophy in skeletal physiology and pathophysiology.

  12. [Relationship between adenoids hypertrophy and secretory otitis media].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyun; Sun, Zhengliang; Li, Zhengxian; Jiang, Wen

    2004-01-01

    To investigae the cause of secretory otitis media resulting from adenoids hypertrophy and the relationship between adenoids hypertrophy and secretory otitis media. According to the grades of adenoids hypertrophy, 140 children were divided into two groups: the group of middle-grade and the group of pathological hypertrophy. The effect about the degree of adenoids hypertrophy resulted in the descendent of middle ear function and the difference of incidence of secretory otitis media were analyzed. The incidence of secretory otitis media and the pattern of tympanic press were distinct difference in two groups. The results suggested that there was a positive correlation among the grades of adenoids hypertrophy, the descendent degree of middle ear function and the incidence of secretory otitis media.

  13. Choroidal thickness evaluation in paediatric patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, A; Elbay, A; Hafiz, A M; Ozturan, O

    2017-09-01

    To investigate choroidal thickness using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography in paediatric patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, with comparison to healthy children, three months after adenotonsillectomy. The patients were assigned to three groups: an adenotonsillar hypertrophy group, an adenotonsillectomy group and a healthy control group. In all groups, subfoveal, temporal and nasal choroidal thickness measurements were taken. In the subfoveal, temporal and nasal regions, choroidal tissue was found to be significantly thinner in adenotonsillar hypertrophy children than healthy children (p = 0.012, p = 0.027 and p = 0.020). The subfoveal and temporal choroidal thickness measurements of adenotonsillar hypertrophy group cases were significantly decreased compared to those in the adenotonsillectomy group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.048). There was a significant association between decreased choroidal thickness and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy may play an important role in decreased choroidal thickness.

  14. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagland, Hanne R.; Nilsson, Linn I.H.; Burri, Lena; Nikolaisen, Julie; Berge, Rolf K.; Tronstad, Karl J.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in rat hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) was employed to activate mitochondrial oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was confirmed that PPAR target genes were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involved activation mTOR. -- Abstract: The hypolipidemic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators has been explained by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, as observed in livers of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). PPAR-activation does, however, not fully explain the metabolic adaptations observed in hepatocytes after treatment with TTA. We therefore characterized the mitochondrial effects, and linked this to signalling by the metabolic sensor, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In hepatocytes isolated from TTA-treated rats, the changes in cellular content and morphology were consistent with hypertrophy. This was associated with induction of multiple mitochondrial biomarkers, including mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase and mRNAs of mitochondrial proteins. Transcription analysis further confirmed activation of PPAR{alpha}-associated genes, in addition to genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Analysis of mitochondrial respiration revealed that the capacity of both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation were increased. These effects coincided with activation of the stress related factor, ERK1/2, and mTOR. The protein level and phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR actors eIF4G and 4E-BP1 were induced. In summary, TTA increases mitochondrial respiration by inducing hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat hepatocytes, via adaptive regulation of PPARs as well as mTOR.

  15. Differentiation of human foreskin fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Zhao, Ping; Wan, Zhihong; Jin, Xueyuan; Cheng, Yongqian; Yan, Tao; Qing, Song; Ding, Ning; Xin, Shaojie

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differentiation potential of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). The iPSCs were firstly induced by transduction of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC into HFFs using retrovirus. Afterwards, expressions of pluripotency factors were identified by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining, and karyotype, embryoid, and teratoma were observed by microscope. Then, iPSCs were gradually differentiated into endoderm cells, hepatic progenitor cells, and mature HLCs by special culture medium. During this process, differentiation efficiency into each kind of cells was evaluated by detecting SOX17, HNF4a, and ALB using flow cytometry, respectively. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to detect the secretion of ALB in iPSC-induced HLCs and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of hepatocyte-specific genes. The iPSCs were successfully induced by HFFs, which exhibited typical embryonic stem cells morphology, positive alkaline phosphatase staining, normal diploid karyotype, and positive expression of various pluripotency factors. Meanwhile, spherical embryoid and teratoma with 3 germ layers were formed by iPSCs. The iPSCs were consecutively induced into endoderm cells, hepatic progenitor cells and mature HLCs, and the differentiation efficiency was 55.7 ± 2.9%, 45.7 ± 4.8%, and 35.0 ± 3.9%, respectively. Besides, the secretion of ALB and expression of various hepatocyte-specific genes was highly detected in iPSC-induced HLCs. The iPSCs were successfully derived from HFFs and then differentiated into HLCs, which proved a new source for hepatocyte transplantation.

  16. Autocrine expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its cytoprotective effect on hepatocyte poisoning

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong; Zhou, Jun; Dou, Ke-Feng; Chen, Yong; Yan, Qing-Guo; Li, Hai-Min

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct pEGFP-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression vector, the to detect its expression in transfected human hepatocytes, and to investigate the influence of autocrine HGF expression on the proliferative potential and cytoprotective effects in human hepatocytes. METHODS: Human HGF cDNA was ligated to the pEGFP vector. Recombinant plasmid was transfected into human hepatocyte line QZG with liposome. Expression of HGF protein was observed by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Hepatic cells were collected 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection to detect the number of [3H]-TdR uptake in DNA. DNA synthesis was observed by using PCNA stain immunohistochemistry. Acute liver cell damage was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytoprotective effect was observed by examining the survival rate of hepatocytes and leakage of intracellular alanine transaminase (ALT) and potassium ions. RESULTS: HGF identification of pEGFP-HGF by enzyme digestion showed that HGF fragment was cloned into BamH I and Sal I sites of pEGFP-N3. Expression of GFP in transfected hepatocytes was observed with fluorescence microscopy. The [3H]-TdR uptake became 7 times as many as in the control group 96 h after transfection. After HGF transfection, the survival rate of hepatocytes poisoned by CCl4 significantly increased (83% vs 61%, P < 0.05), and the leakage of intracellular alanine transaminase and potassium ions decreased (586 nkat/L vs 1089 nkat/L, P < 0.01; and 5.59 mmol/L vs 6.02 mmol/L, P < 0.01 respectively). Culture of transfected hepatic cells promoted the proliferation of other non-transfected cells. CONCLUSION: Transfected HGF is expressed in hepatic cells and has the activity of promoting cell division and protecting hepatic cells against poisoning. PMID:15334679

  17. [Association of post-radiation focal muscular atrophy and hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, G; Sangla, I; Pouget, J; Azulay, J P

    1993-01-01

    We report a 48 year old woman who had radiotherapy for uterine carcinoma and who developed amyotrophy and muscle hypertrophy in one lower limb. Very few cases of post-radiation monomelic amyotrophy have been reported. On the other hand denervation hypertrophy was presumed to be well known. The seat of the lesions was presumed to be radicular and spinal. The mechanism of atrophy and hypertrophy is discussed.

  18. Hepatocyte Culture in Autologous Decellularized Spleen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Wu, Wanquan; Xiang, Junxi; Lv, Yi; Zheng, Xinglong; Chen, Qian; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhengwen; Ma, Feng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Background and Aims: Using decellularized scaffold to reengineer liver tissue is a promising alternative therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Though the decellularized human liver matrix is the ideal scaffold for reconstruction of the liver theoretically, the shortage of liver donors is still an obstacle for potential clinical application. Therefore, an appropriate alternative scaffold is needed. In the present study, we used a tissue engineering approach to prepare a rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) and evaluate the effectiveness of this DSM for primary rat hepatocytes culture. Methods: Rat decellularized spleen matrix (DSM) was prepared by perfusion of a series of detergents through spleen vasculature. DSM was characterized by residual DNA and specific extracellular matrix distribution. Thereafter, primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in the DSM in a 3-dimensional dynamic culture system, and liver cell survival and biological functions were evaluated by comparison with 3-dimensional sandwich culture and also with cultured in decellularized liver matrix (DLM). Results: Our research found that DSM did not exhibit any cellular components, but preserved the main extracellular matrix and the intact vasculature evaluated by DNA detection, histology, immunohistochemical staining, vessel corrosion cast and upright metallurgical microscope. Moreover, the method of DSM preparation procedure was relatively simple with high success rate (100%). After seeding primary hepatocytes in DSM, the cultured hepatocytes survived inside DSM with albumin synthesis and urea secretion within 10 d. Additionally, hepatocytes in dynamic culture medium had better biological functions at day 10 than that in sandwich culture. Albumin synthesis was 85.67 ± 6.34 μg/107cell/24h in dynamic culture in DSM compared to 62.43 ± 4.59 μg/107cell/24h in sandwich culture (P < 0.01) and to 87.54 ± 5.25 μg/107cell/24h in DLM culture (P > 0.05); urea release was 32.14 ± 8.62

  19. Refractory sleep apnea caused by tubal tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seok Chan; Min, Hyun Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2017-04-01

    Snoring/sleep apnea are usual symptoms of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and adenotonsillectomy is usually recommended. In rare cases, symptoms remain after surgery, and tubal tonsil hypertrophy could be the cause. We experienced a pediatric patient whose symptoms were refratory snoring/sleep apnea although he previously underwent three times of adenotonsillectomy. We diagnosed tubal tonsil hypertrophy which was the cause of refractory symptoms, and decided to perform volume reduction with radiofrequency ablation. We suggest that tubal tonsil hypertrophy should be taken into account of the cause of refractory sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy, and volume reduction with radiofrequency may be an effective method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sestrin 1 ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy via autophagy activation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruicong; Zeng, Junyi; Chen, Yili; Chen, Cong; Tan, Weiping; Zhao, Jingjing; Dong, Bin; Sun, Yu; Dong, Yugang; Liu, Chen

    2017-02-09

    Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Autophagy is acknowledged to be an important mechanism regulating cardiac hypertrophy. Sestrin 1, a downstream target gene of p53, has been proven to regulate autophagy. However, the role of Sestrin 1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Our study showed that Sestrin 1 mRNA and protein expression declined in pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy and phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Knockdown of Sestrin 1 by RNAi deteriorated PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy, whereas the overexpression of Sestrin 1 by adenovirus transfection blunted hypertrophy. We discovered that knockdown of Sestrin 1 resulted in impaired autophagy while overexpression of Sestrin 1 resulted in increased autophagy without affecting lysosomal function. In addition, the antihypertrophic effect of Sestrin 1 overexpression was eliminated by autophagy blockade. Importantly, Sestrin 1 targets at the AMPK/mTORC1/autophagy pathway to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy by interaction with AMPK which is responsible for autophagy regulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Sestrin 1 regulates AMPK/mTORC1/autophagy axis to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy.

  1. [The discussion on relationship between adenoids hypertrophy and food intolerance].

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Hua

    2013-06-01

    To explore the relationship between food intolerance and adenoidal hypertrophy and accordingly to provide evidence for intolerance and adenoidal hypertrophy. Adenoidal hypertrophy in patients with a total of 111 cases as the experiment group, 30 cases of children with no history of allergies and allergy-related diseases and adenoidal hypertrophy symptoms as the control group, and compared the result of food intolerance between two groups. 1) Food intolerance detected positive rate of adenoidal hypertrophy group was higher than the control group. 2) The distribution of the two groups of children in the extent of food intolerance is different. 3) Adenoid hypertrophy and how many types of the food, which is high, moderate intolerance, are unrelated. 4) The daily consumption of 14 kinds of food, the top three foods of adenoidal hypertrophy group and control group are eggs, milk, cod. Food intolerance is the possible cause of adenoidal hypertrophy. The detection of specific IgG antibodies of food have positive significance in the prevention of adenoidal hypertrophy.

  2. [Viscoelastic properties of relaxed papillary muscle at physiological hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Smoliuk, L T; Lisin, R V; Kuznetsov, D A; Protsenko, Iu L

    2012-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties of relaxed rat papillary muscles at physiological hypertrophy (intensive swimming for 5 weeks) have been obtained. It has been ascertained that viscoelastic properties of hypertrophied muscles are not significantly distinguished from those of control papillary muscles. A three-dimensional model of myocardial fascicle has been verified in compliance with experimental data of biomechanical tests of hypertrophied muscles. Elastic and viscous parameters of structural elements of the model negligibly differ from the parameters of the model of a control muscle. It is shown that physiological hypertrophy has a slight influence on viscoelastic properties of papillary muscles.

  3. Mastication and deglutition changes in children with tonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jaqueline Freitas de; Grechi, Tais Helena; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha; Trawitzki, Luciana Vitaliano Voi; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira

    2013-08-01

    The changes in mastication and deglutition in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy need to be better characterized. To evaluate the frequency of parent-reported myofunctional changes and to determine if there are differences in the alteration patterns of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and subjects with adenoid hypertrophy. Questionnaire and assessment by a speech therapist of children aged between three and six years with tonsillar hypertrophy. The data reported by the parents were compared to the data obtained from the speech therapist's evaluation; additionally, data from children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy were compared to findings from subjects with adenoid hypertrophy. cross-sectional cohort. The myofunctional changes observed by the speech therapist were more frequent than the alterations reported by the parents, and there was no correlation between the two findings. The children with adenoid hypertrophy and the individuals with adenotonsillar hypertrophy had the same pattern of myofunctional alteration. Parents cannot clearly correlate tonsillar hypertrophy with changes in mastication and deglutition. The cause of the respiratory obstruction does not seem to interfere in the pattern of myofunctional change.

  4. Experimental hepatocyte xenotransplantation--a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huidong; Liu, Hong; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Schmelzer, Eva; Wang, Yi; Gerlach, Jörg; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K C

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation (Tx) is a potential therapy for certain diseases of the liver, including hepatic failure. However, there is a limited supply of human livers as a source of cells and, after isolation, human hepatocytes can be difficult to expand in culture, limiting the number available for Tx. Hepatocytes from other species, for example, the pig, have therefore emerged as a potential alternative source. We searched the literature through the end of 2014 to assess the current status of experimental research into hepatocyte xenoTx. The literature search identified 51 reports of in vivo cross-species Tx of hepatocytes in a variety of experimental models. Most studies investigated the Tx of human (n = 23) or pig (n = 19) hepatocytes. No studies explored hepatocytes from genetically engineered pigs. The spleen was the most common site of Tx (n = 23), followed by the liver (through the portal vein [n = 6]) and peritoneal cavity (n = 19). In 47 studies (92%), there was evidence of hepatocyte engraftment and function across a species barrier. The data provided by this literature search strengthen the hypothesis that xenoTx of hepatocytes is feasible and potentially successful as a clinical therapy for certain liver diseases, including hepatic failure. By excluding vascular structures, hepatocytes isolated from genetically engineered pig livers may address some of the immunological problems of xenoTx.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL HEPATOCYTE XENOTRANSPLANTATION – A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huidong; Liu, Hong; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Schmelzer, Eva; Wang, Yi; Gerlach, Jörg; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte transplantation is a potential therapy for certain diseases of the liver, including hepatic failure. However, there is a limited supply of human livers as a source of cells and, after isolation, human hepatocytes can be difficult to expand in culture, limiting the number available for transplantation. Hepatocytes from other species, e.g., the pig, have therefore emerged as a potential alternative source. We searched the literature through the end of 2014 to assess the current status of experimental research into hepatocyte xenotransplantation. Literature search and results The literature search identified 51 reports of in vivo cross-species transplantation of hepatocytes in a variety of experimental models. Most studies investigated the transplantation of human (n=23) or pig (n=19) hepatocytes. No studies explored hepatocytes from genetically-engineered pigs. The spleen was the most common site of transplantation (n=23), followed by the liver (through the portal vein [n=6]) and peritoneal cavity (n=19). In 47 studies (92%), there was evidence of hepatocyte engraftment and function across a species barrier. Conclusions The data provided by this literature search strengthen the hypothesis that xenotransplantation of hepatocytes is feasible and potentially successful as a clinical therapy for certain liver diseases, including hepatic failure. By excluding vascular structures, hepatocytes isolated from genetically-engineered pig livers may address some of the immunological problems of xenotransplantation. PMID:25950141

  6. Assessing the therapeutic potential of lab-made hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Milad; Grimm, Andrew A; Willenbring, Holger

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has potential as a bridge or even alternative to whole-organ liver transplantation. Because donor livers are scarce, realizing this potential requires the development of alternative cell sources. To be therapeutically effective, surrogate hepatocytes must replicate the complex function and ability to proliferate of primary human hepatocytes. Ideally, they are also autologous to eliminate the need for immune suppression, which can have severe side effects and may not be sufficient to prevent rejection long term. In the past decade, several methods have been developed to generate hepatocytes from other readily and safely accessible somatic cells. These lab-made hepatocytes show promise in animal models of liver diseases, supporting the feasibility of autologous liver cell therapies. Here, we review recent preclinical studies exemplifying different types of lab-made hepatocytes that can potentially be used in autologous liver cell therapies. To define the therapeutic efficacy of current lab-made hepatocytes, we compare them to primary human hepatocytes, focusing on engraftment efficiency and posttransplant proliferation and function. In addition to summarizing published results, we discuss animal models and assays effective in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This analysis underscores the therapeutic potential of current lab-made hepatocytes, but also highlights deficiencies and uncertainties that need to be addressed in future studies aimed at developing liver cell therapies with lab-made hepatocytes. (Hepatology 2016;64:287-294). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Flavonoids Extraction from Propolis Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy through PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-wei; Qiu, Zhi-dong; Wang, Wei-nan; Sui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Propolis, a traditional medicine, has been widely used for a thousand years as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drug. The flavonoid fraction is the main active component of propolis, which possesses a wide range of biological activities, including activities related to heart disease. However, the role of the flavonoids extraction from propolis (FP) in heart disease remains unknown. This study shows that FP could attenuate ISO-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH) and heart failure in mice. The effect of the two fetal cardiac genes, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), on PCH was reversed by FP. Echocardiography analysis revealed cardiac ventricular dilation and contractile dysfunction in ISO-treated mice. This finding is consistent with the increased heart weight and cardiac ANF protein levels, massive replacement fibrosis, and myocardial apoptosis. However, pretreatment of mice with FP could attenuate cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy in vivo. Furthermore, the cardiac protection of FP was suppressed by the pan-PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. FP is a novel cardioprotective agent that can attenuate adverse cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and associated disorder, such as fibrosis. The effects may be closely correlated with PI3K/AKT signaling. FP may be clinically used to inhibit PCH progression and heart failure. PMID:27213000

  8. Netrin-1 prevents the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Cao, Yunshan; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether netrin-1 is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, induced by pressure overload. For this investigation, thoracic transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed in mice. A total of 18 mice were divided into three groups (n=6 per group): Sham, TAC and TAC + recombinant netrin-1. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with endothelin-1 (ET-1), and samples were collected to examine the expression levels of netrin‑1 by western blot analysis and the mRNA expression of A‑type natriuretic peptide by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. It was found that the expression of netrin‑1 was decreased in the TAC mice and in the neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in response to ET‑1 stimulation. Netrin‑1 eliminated ventricular remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and DNA damage during pressure overload. Furthermore, analysis of the signaling events indicated that netrin‑1‑mediated protection against cardiac hypertrophy was attributed to interruption of the activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) kinase‑1 (K1)‑dependent MEK‑extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2). Therefore, netrin‑1 prevented cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure through the negative regulation of the MEKK1-dependent MEK‑ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways.

  9. Heart rate-induced modifications of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy: exploration of a novel therapeutic concept.

    PubMed

    Klein, Franziska J; Bell, Stephen; Runte, K Elisabeth; Lobel, Robert; Ashikaga, Takamuru; Lerman, Lilach O; LeWinter, Martin M; Meyer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Lowering the heart rate is considered to be beneficial in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In a dilated left ventricle (LV), pharmacological heart rate lowering is associated with a reduction in LV chamber size. In patients with HFrEF, this structural change is associated with better survival. HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly prevalent but, so far, without any evidence-based treatment. HFpEF is typically associated with LV concentric remodeling and hypertrophy. The effects of heart rate on this structural phenotype are not known. Analogous with the benefits of a low heart rate on a dilated heart, we hypothesized that increased heart rates could lead to potentially beneficial remodeling of a concentrically hypertrophied LV. This was explored in an established porcine model of concentric LV hypertrophy and fibrosis. Our results suggest that a moderate increase in heart rate can be used to reduce wall thickness, normalize LV chamber volumes, decrease myocardial fibrosis, and improve LV compliance. Our results also indicate that the effects of heart rate can be titrated, are reversible, and do not induce HF. These findings may provide the rationale for a novel therapeutic approach for HFpEF and its antecedent disease substrate. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Pathophysiologic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain in asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, S.D.; Macfarlane, P.W.; McKillop, J.H.; Lorimer, A.R.; Dunn, F.G.

    1989-05-01

    To investigate the significance of the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain, two groups of asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension were compared. The patients were similar in terms of age, smoking habit, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels, but differed in the presence (Group I, n = 23) or absence (Group II, n = 23) of the ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain. Group I patients had significantly more episodes of exercise-induced ST segment depression (14 versus 4, p less than 0.05) and reversible thallium perfusion abnormalities (11 of 23 versus 3 of 23, p less than 0.05) despite similar exercise capacity and absence of chest pain. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was detected on 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring in two patients in Group I, but no patient in Group II. Coronary arteriography performed in 20 Group I patients demonstrated significant coronary artery disease in 8 patients. This study has shown that there is a subgroup of hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy and strain who have covert coronary artery disease. This can be detected by thallium perfusion scintigraphy, and may contribute to the increased risk known to be associated with this ECG abnormality.

  11. Dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation inhibits hypertrophy induced by platelet-derived growth factor in cultured rat renal vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Yokokawa, K; Minami, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1997-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy is believed to play some roles in atherosclerosis. To elucidate the role of vascular D1-like receptors in VSMC hypertrophy, the effects of dopamine and specific D1-like receptor agonists SKF 38393 and YM 435 on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-mediated VSMC hypertrophy was studied. We observed that cells stimulated by PDGF-BB 5 ng/mL showed increased VSMC hypertrophy. These effects were prevented by coincubation with dopamine, SKF 38393, and YM 435 1-10 mumol/L, and this prevention was reversed by Sch 23390 1 to 10 mumol/L, a specific D1-like receptor antagonist. These actions are mimicked by forskolin 1 to 10 mumol/L, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase and 8-bromo-cAMP 0.1 to 1 mmol/L, and are blocked by a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(P-bromcoinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H89) but not blocked by its negative control. PDGF-BB (5 ng/mL)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was significantly suppressed by coincubation with D1-like receptor agonists, which were reversed by PKA inhibitor H 89. These results suggest that vascular D1-like receptor agonists inhibit hypertrophy of VSMC, possibly through PKA activation and suppression of activated MAPK activity.

  12. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Falguni; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy. PMID:26739493

  13. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy.

  14. Metabolism of lipoproteins by human fetal hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, B.R.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of clearance of lipoproteins from plasma appears to play a role in the development of atherogenesis. The liver may account for as much as two thirds of the removal of low-density lipoprotein and one third of the clearance of high-density lipoprotein in certain animal species and humans, mainly by receptor-mediated pathways. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if human fetal hepatocytes maintained in vitro take up and degrade lipoproteins. We first determined that the maximal binding capacity of iodine 125-iodo-LDL was approximately 300 ng of low-density lipoprotein protein/mg of membrane protein and an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 60 micrograms low-density lipoprotein protein/ml in membranes prepared from human fetal liver. We found that the maximal uptake of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL and (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL by fetal hepatocytes occurred after 12 hours of incubation. Low-density lipoprotein uptake preceded the appearance of degradation products by 4 hours, and thereafter the degradation of low-density lipoprotein increased linearly for at least 24 hours. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein was not degraded to any extent by fetal hepatocytes. (/sup 125/I)Iodo-LDL uptake and degradation were inhibited more than 75% by preincubation with low-density lipoprotein but not significantly by high-density lipoprotein, whereas (/sup 125/I)iodo-HDL uptake was inhibited 70% by preincubation with high-density lipoprotein but not by low-density lipoprotein. In summary, human fetal hepatocytes take up and degrade low-density lipoprotein by a receptor-mediated process similar to that described for human extrahepatic tissues.

  15. Metabolic switch and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes following treatment with angiotensin II are prevented by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Bettina Johanna; Lenski, Matthias; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2008-11-21

    Angiotensin II induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, but its consequences on cardiomyocyte metabolism and energy supply are not completely understood. Here we investigate the effect of angiotensin II on glucose and fatty acid utilization and the modifying role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of metabolism and proliferation. Treatment of H9C2 cardiomyocytes with angiotensin II (Ang II, 1 microm, 4 h) increased [(3)H]leucine incorporation, up-regulated the mRNA expression of the hypertrophy marker genes MLC, ANF, BNP, and beta-MHC, and decreased the phosphorylation of the negative mTOR-regulator tuberin (TSC-2). Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes showed similar results. Western blot analysis revealed a time- and concentration-dependent down-regulation of AMPK-phosphorylation in the presence of angiotensin II, whereas the protein expression of the catalytic alpha-subunit remained unchanged. This was paralleled by membrane translocation of glucose-transporter type 4 (GLUT4), increased uptake of [(3)H]glucose and transient down-regulation of phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), whereas fatty acid uptake remained unchanged. Similarly, short-term transaortic constriction in mice resulted in down-regulation of P-AMPK and P-ACC but up-regulation of GLUT4 membrane translocation in the heart. Preincubation of cardiomyocytes with the AMPK stimulator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 1 mM, 4 h) completely prevented the angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. In addition, AICAR reversed the metabolic effects of angiotensin II: GLUT4 translocation was reduced, but ACC phosphorylation and TSC phosphorylation were elevated. In summary, angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes is accompanied by decreased activation of AMPK, increased glucose uptake, and decreased mTOR inhibition. Stimulation with the AMPK activator AICAR reverses these metabolic changes, increases fatty acid utilization, and inhibits

  16. Bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Einarsson, Curt; Ellis, Ewa; Abrahamsson, Anna; Ericzon, Bo-Göran; Björkhem, Ingemar; Axelson, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a culture system for bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes in comparison with HepG2 cells. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from normal human liver tissue and were cultured in serum-free William’s E medium. The medium was collected and re newed every 24 h. Bile acids and their precursors in media were finally analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) conjugated with glycine or taurine accounted for 70% and 25% of total steroids. A third of CDC A was also conjugated with sulphuric acid. Dexamethasone and thyroid hormone alone or in combination did not significantly effect bile acid formation. The addit ion of cyclosporin A (10 μmol/L) inhibited the synthesis of CA and CDCA by about 13% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isolated human hepatocytes in primary culture behave as in the intact liver by converting cholesterol to conjugated CA and CDCA. This is in contrast to cultured HepG2 cells, which release large amounts of bile acid precursors and unconjugated bile acids into the medium. PMID:11819640

  17. Hepatocyte xenotransplantation for treating liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, André Gustavo; Quaresma, Kátia; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of acute and chronic liver failure is still a challenge despite modern therapeutic innovations. While liver transplantation can restore liver function and improve patient survival, donor shortages limit this treatment to a small number of patients. Cellular xenotransplantation has emerged as an alternative for treating liver failure. Xenohepatocytes could be readily available in sufficient quantities to treat patients in critical condition and thereby reduce the donor shortage. The use of isolated encapsulated or non-encapsulated cells can reduce the immunorejection response. Several studies using animal models of acute or chronic liver failure have demonstrated improved survival and recovery of liver function after xenotransplantation of adult hepatocytes. Porcine liver cells are a potential source of xenohepatocytes due to similarities with human physiology and the great number of hepatocytes that can be obtained. The recent development of less immunogenic transgenic pigs, new immunosuppressive drugs, and cellular encapsulation systems represents important advances in the field of cellular xenotransplantation. In this study, we review the work carried out in animal models that deals with the advantages and limitations of hepatocyte xenotransplantation, and we propose new studies needed in this field.

  18. High fructose causes cardiac hypertrophy via mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Yan-Hai; Chang, Shuo; Zhang, Rong-Yuan; Shi, Chen

    2016-01-01

    High fructose diet can cause cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress is a key mediator for myocardial hypertrophy. Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to reveal mitochondrial oxidative stress-related signaling pathway in high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were fed high fructose to develop cardiac hypertrophy. Fructose and H2O2 were used to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 was applied to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CFTR silence was performed to detect the role of CFTR in high fructose-induced myocardial hypertrophy. ROS, glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial function and hypertrophic markers were measured. We confirmed that long-term high fructose diet caused cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and elevated mitochondrial ROS. However, SkQ1 administration prevented heart hypertrophy and mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cadiomyocytes incubated with fructose or H2O2 exhibited significantly increased cell areas but SkQ1 treatment ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high fructose or H2O2 in vitro. Those results revealed that the underlying mechanism for high fructose-induced heart hypertrophy was attributed to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Moreover, CFTR expression was decreased by high fructose intervention and CFTR silence resulted in an increase in mitochondrial ROS, which suggested high fructose diet affected mitochondrial oxidative stress by regulating CFTR expression. Electron transport chain impairment might be related to mitochondrial oxidative damage. In conclusion, our findings indicated that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a central role in pathogenesis of high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. High fructose decreases CFTR expression to regulate mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:27904687

  19. Compensatory renal hypertrophy following uninephrectomy is calcineurin-independent.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clintoria R; Wynne, Brandi M; Walker, Makeeva; Hoover, Robert S; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2014-12-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent phosphatase that is involved in many cellular processes including hypertrophy. Inhibition or genetic loss of calcineurin blocks pathological cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic renal hypertrophy. However, calcineurin does not appear to be involved in physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise. The role of calcineurin in a compensatory, non-pathological model of renal hypertrophy has not been tested. Therefore, in this study, we examined activation of calcineurin and the effect of calcineurin inhibition or knockout on compensatory hypertrophy following uninephrectomy (UNX). UNX induces ~15% increase in the size of the remaining kidney; the data show no change in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Nox4 or transforming growth factor-β expression confirming the model as one of compensatory hypertrophy. Next, analyses of the remaining kidney reveal that total calcineurin activity is increased, and, to a lesser extent, transcriptional activity of the calcineurin substrate nuclear factor of activated T cell is up-regulated following UNX. However, inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine failed to prevent compensatory renal hypertrophy. Likewise, hypertrophy was comparable to WT in mice lacking either isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα-/- or CnAβ-/-). In conclusion, similar to its role in the heart, calcineurin is required for pathological but not compensatory renal hypertrophy. This separation of signalling pathways could therefore help further define key factors necessary for pathological hypertrophy including diabetic nephropathy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Left ventricular hypertrophy in obese hypertensives: is it really eccentric? (An echocardiographic study).

    PubMed

    Smalcelj, A; Puljević, D; Buljević, B; Brida, V

    2000-06-01

    In order to study left ventricular hypertrophy patterns in obese hypertensives, we examined 132 patients with essential hypertension by 2D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. The patients were classified in four comparable groups, corresponding to the values of Quetelet's body mass index (BMI) and grades of obesity. More obese hypertensives had on average larger left ventricles with thicker walls and larger left atria than less obese, or lean ones. Left ventricular mass increased significantly and progressively with advancing grades of obesity, but relative wall thickness (wall thickness/cavity size ratio) did not diminish. Doppler echocardiography revealed significantly higher prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction among obese than among lean hypertensives. In the second part of our study, we analyzed the subgroups defined by the severity of hypertension and the age of the patients. The correlation of the indices of left ventricular and left atrial hypertrophy with the BMI values was considerably better in the group of moderate than in the group of mild hypertension. The r values were 0.62 vs. 0.22 for left ventricular mass and 0.64 vs. 0.26 for left atrial dimension. The group of patients with severe hypertension was characterized by left ventricular cavity enlargement in correlation with increasing BMI values, but without corresponding left ventricular wall thickening. So called left ventricular "eccentricity index", as the reverse value of relative wall thickness, correlated well (r = 0.76) with the BMI values. The indices of left ventricular hypertrophy correlated with the BMI values slightly better in middle age groups than in the groups of the youngest (< or = 30 years) or the eldest (> or = 61 years) hypertensives. In conclusion, eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy does not seem to be a distinctive feature of hypertensive heart disease in obesity. There is only some tendency toward the "eccentricity" of left ventricular geometry which

  1. The antifibrotic agent pirfenidone inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Takanori; Yamashita, Naoto; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Masayuki; Hanatani, Akihisa; Shimada, Kenei; Muro, Takashi; Iwao, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[(1)H]-pyridone) is an effective drug for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia that can prevent and reverse tissue fibrosis in several organs. Therefore, we investigated whether pirfenidone has a potential role in preventing angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A cardiac hypertrophic mouse model was created using an Ang II infusion (200 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) in wild-type mice for 2 weeks. Mice were divided into the following three groups: a saline-infused (control) group, an Ang II infusion (vehicle) group and an Ang II infusion+pirfenidone-treated (PFD) group, which received pirfenidone (300 mg kg(-1) per day) by gastric gavage during the Ang II infusion. At 2 weeks, we assessed hemodynamics and cardiac function and investigated tissue fibrosis of the myocardium histologically and genetically. Blood pressure in the vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the control group. Although blood pressure was not different between the vehicle and PFD groups, heart weight was significantly decreased in the PFD group. Echocardiography revealed that left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly increased in the vehicle group vs. the control group. Interestingly, pirfenidone significantly inhibited this effect. Continuous infusion of Ang II increased the perivascular and interstitial tissue fibrosis, and pirfenidone inhibited these fibrotic changes. Pirfenidone also inhibited Ang II-induced hypertrophy. In the vehicle group, the mRNA expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased, which was significantly inhibited by pirfenidone. Furthermore, the expression of mineralocorticoid receptors was attenuated by pirfenidone. These results indicate that pirfenidone might be effective as an antifibrotic drug in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypertension.

  2. Enhanced endothelin-1/Rho-kinase signalling and coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shu-Huai; Lu, Guangrong; Xu, Xin; Ren, Yi; Hein, Travis W; Kuo, Lih

    2017-09-01

    Hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy is associated with reduced coronary flow reserve, but its impact on coronary flow regulation and vasomotor function remains incompletely understood and requires further investigation. Left ventricular hypertrophy was induced in mice by transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) for 4 weeks. The left coronary artery blood velocity (LCABV) and myocardium lactate level were measured following the metabolic activation by isoproterenol. Septal coronary arterioles were isolated and pressurized for functional studies. In TAC mice, the heart-to-body weight ratio was increased by 45%, and cardiac fractional shortening and LCABV were decreased by 51 and 14%, respectively. The resting myocardial lactate level was 43% higher in TAC mice. Isoproterenol (5 µg/g, i.p.) increased heart rate by 20% in both groups of animals, but the corresponding increase in LCABV was not observed in TAC mice. The ventricular hypertrophy was associated with elevation of myocardial endothelin-1 (ET-1), increased vascular expression of rho-kinases (ROCKs), and increased superoxide production in the myocardium and vasculature. In coronary arterioles from TAC mice, the endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was reversed to vasoconstriction and the vasoconstriction to ET-1 was augmented. Inhibition of ROCK by H-1152 alleviated oxidative stress and abolished enhanced vasoconstriction to ET-1. Both H-1152 and superoxide scavenger Tempol abolished coronary arteriolar constriction to ACh in a manner sensitive to NO synthase blocker NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Myocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure overload leads to cardiac and coronary microvascular dysfunction and ischaemia possibly due to oxidative stress, enhanced vasoconstriction to ET-1 and compromised endothelial NO function via elevated ROCK signalling.

  3. Endothelin-1-Induced Cell Hypertrophy in Cardiomyocytes is Improved by Fenofibrate: Possible Roles of Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Hsu-Lung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Previous studies demonstrated that endothelin-1 (ET-1) can significantly increase the cell size and stimulate adiponectin expression in cultured human cardiomyocytes (HCM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) activator, on cell hypertrophy and adiponectin expression in vitro and in a rat model of daunorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: The cultured human cardiomyocytes (HCM) were stimulated with or without ET-1. The cell size and the protein expressions of PPARα and adiponectin were tested by confocal Immunofluorescence study and Western blot, respectively. To study the effects of PPARα activation on ET-1-induced cell hypertrophy and adiponectin protein synthesis, HCM were pretreated with fenofibrate or small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PPARα. Echocardiographic parameters were measured and immunohistochemistry study of myocardial adiponectin expression was conducted in the in vivo study. Results: ET-1 significantly increased the cell size, dose-dependently suppressed the expression of PPARα, and enhanced the expression of adiponectin; whereas, such an increase of cell size and enhancement of adiponectin expression were inhibited by the pre-treatment with fenofibrate. Addition of siRNA of PPARα abolished the effects of fenofibrate. Moreover, we found that fenofibrate treatment can significantly improve the left ventricular function and reverse the myocardial expression of adiponectin. Conclusions: Our study shows that fenofibrate may protect against ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and enhanced adiponectin expression through modulation of PPARα expression in vitro and limitation of daunorubicin cardiotoxicity in vivo, suggesting a novel mechanistic insight into the role of PPARα and adiponectin in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27629528

  4. Reversible dementias

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Manjari; Vibha, Deepti

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the early diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia which is essential to identify patients with cognitive symptoms who may have treatable conditions. Guidelines suggest that all patients presenting with dementia or cognitive symptoms should be evaluated with a range of laboratory tests, and with structural brain imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While many of the disorders reported as ‘reversible dementias’ are conditions that may well be associated with cognitive or behavioral symptoms, these symptoms are not always sufficiently severe to fulfill the clinical criteria for dementia. Thus, while the etiology of a condition may be treatable it should not be assumed that the associated dementia is fully reversible. Potentially reversible dementias should be identified and treatment considered, even if the symptoms are not sufficiently severe to meet the clinical criteria for dementia, and even if partial or full reversal of the cognitive symptoms cannot be guaranteed. In the literature, the most frequently observed potentially reversible conditions identified in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia are depression, adverse effects of drugs, drug or alcohol abuse, space-occupying lesions, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and metabolic conditions land endocrinal conditions like hypothyroidism and nutritional conditions like vitamin B-12 deficiency. Depression is by far the most common of the potentially reversible conditions. The review, hence addresses the common causes of reversible dementia and the studies published so far. PMID:21416018

  5. GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS OBSERVED IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES AFTER TREATMENT WITH CHLORINATED OR CHLORINATED AND OZONATED DRINKING WATER FROM EAST FORK LAKE, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water from East Fork Lake was spiked with iodide and bromide, disinfected with chlorine or ozone + chlorine, concentrated ~100-fold using reverse osmosis, and volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) added back. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to full-strength, 1:10...

  6. GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS OBSERVED IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES AFTER TREATMENT WITH CHLORINATED OR CHLORINATED AND OZONATED DRINKING WATER FROM EAST FORK LAKE, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water from East Fork Lake was spiked with iodide and bromide, disinfected with chlorine or ozone + chlorine, concentrated ~100-fold using reverse osmosis, and volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs) added back. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to full-strength, 1:10...

  7. Type III Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Drives Cardiac Hypertrophy Through β-Arrestin2-Dependent Activation of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Song, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan-Chao; Sun, Fei; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Mei-Tong; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Hongliang; Chu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The role of type III transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRIII) in the pathogenesis of heart diseases remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the functional role and molecular mechanisms of TβRIII in the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of TβRIII was significantly elevated in human cardiac hypertrophic samples. Consistently, TβRIII expression was substantially increased in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Overexpression of TβRIII resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by knockdown of TβRIII in vitro. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression of TβRIII independently led to cardiac hypertrophy in mice, which was further aggravated by isoproterenol and TAC treatment. Cardiac contractile function of the mice was not altered in TβRIII transgenic mice; however, TAC led to significantly decreased cardiac contractile function in TβRIII transgenic mice compared with control mice. Conversely, isoproterenol- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and TAC-induced cardiac contractile function impairment were partially reversed by suppression of TβRIII in vivo. Our data suggest that TβRIII mediates stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which requires a physical interaction of β-arrestin2 with both TβRIII and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our findings indicate that stress-induced increase in TβRIII expression results in cardiac hypertrophy through β-arrestin2-dependent activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and that transforming growth factor-β and β-adrenergic receptor signaling are not involved in spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy in cardiac

  8. Hepatocyte-stellate cell cross-talk in the liver engenders a permissive inflammatory microenvironment that drives progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coulouarn, Cédric; Corlu, Anne; Glaise, Denise; Guénon, Isabelle; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Clément, Bruno

    2012-05-15

    Many solid malignant tumors arise on a background of inflamed and/or fibrotic tissues, features that are found in more than 80% hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a critical role in fibrogenesis associated with HCC onset and progression, yet their functional impact on hepatocyte fate remains largely unexplored. Here, we used a coculture model to investigate the cross-talk between hepatocytes (human hepatoma cells) and activated human HSCs. Unsupervised genome-wide expression profiling showed that hepatocyte-HSC cross-talk is bidirectional and results in the deregulation of functionally relevant gene networks. Notably, coculturing increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and modified the phenotype of hepatocytes toward motile cells. Hepatocyte-HSC cross-talk also generated a permissive proangiogenic microenvironment, particularly by inducing VEGFA and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 expression in HSCs. An integrative genomic analysis revealed that the expression of genes associated with hepatocyte-HSC cross-talk correlated with HCC progression in mice and was predictive of a poor prognosis and metastasis propensity in human HCCs. Interestingly, the effects of cross-talk on migration and angiogenesis were reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Our findings, therefore, indicate that the cross-talk between hepatoma cells and activated HSCs is an important feature of HCC progression, which may be targeted by epigenetic modulation.

  9. Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Lovic, Dragan; Narayan, Puneet; Pittaras, Andreas; Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Kokkinos, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Systemic hypertension and physical exercise are both associated with cardiac adaptations. The impact is most prominent on the left side of the heart, which hypertrophies leading to left ventricular hypertrophy. This article reviews structural and functional cardiac changes seen in hypertensive and athlete's hearts.

  10. Craniofacial features of subjects with adenoid, tonsillar, or adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Michela; Ballanti, Fabiana; Franchi, Lorenzo; Cozza, Paola

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the craniofacial features in children with adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillar hypertrophy, and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. 20 patients with adenoid hypertrophy (AG), 20 subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy (TG) and 20 patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATG) were selected. A control group (CG) of 20 children with non-obstructive adenoids or tonsils was also obtained. Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to compare the angular and linear measurements obtained from the lateral cephalograms. No significant differences were observed between AG and CG. Conversely TG exhibited smaller ANB and OVJ values and a larger SNB value when compared to both CG and AG, larger Go-Me, Ar-Gn and Ar-Go measures and a smaller NSGn angle with respect to AG. ATG showed a smaller ANB angle in comparison with CG and AG, larger Ar-Gn and Go-Me values when compared to AG, a smaller SNB angle and a larger NSGn angle with respect to TG. Subjects with tonsillar hypertrophy showed an increased length of the mandibular ramus, a more horizontal growth direction, an increased length of the mandibular body, a more anterior mandibular position and a smaller sagittal discrepancy between the maxilla and the mandible than subjects with adenoid hypertrophy. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishment and characterisation of a novel bovine SV40 large T-antigen-transduced foetal hepatocyte-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Gleich, Alexander; Kaiser, Bastian; Schumann, Julia; Fuhrmann, Herbert

    2016-06-01

    Due to lack of in vitro models for bovine hepatocytes apart from primary cells, there is demand for a bovine hepatocyte-derived cell line. Transduction of bovine foetal hepatocytes with SV40 large T-antigen was performed using the vector pRetro-E2 SV40. Phase contrast microscopy was carried out to evaluate morphology. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to study expression of keratins, tight junction proteins zona occludens-1 and claudin-1, glucose transporter-2 and P-glycoprotein as well as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Urea and triglyceride production was quantified photometrically. Histochemical staining of glycogen by Periodic acid-Schiff stain and of lipids with Oil red O was performed after 24 h incubation with 20 mM glucose and 85 μM palmitic acid, respectively. Gene expression analysis of hepatocyte-typical genes was conducted by reverse transcription PCR. We obtained a SV40LTAg-transduced extended passage cell line, referred to as BFH12. Polygonal growth, keratins, tight junction proteins zona occludens-1 and claudin-1 and glucose transporter-2 as well as P-glycoprotein and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were attested positively. Urea production calculated as cell-specific rate was 14.2 ± 2.0 fmol/h (early passage) and 17.6 ± 3.7 fmol/h (late passage). Cell-specific triglyceride production was 1.6 ± 0.5 fmol/h (early passage) and 2.1 ± 0.3 fmol/h (late passage). Additionally, cells were positive for glycogen and lipid storage and showed a gene expression pattern resembling foetal hepatocytes. With the properties described here, the novel cell line BFH12 is a hepatocyte-derived cell line which can be used as an in vitro whole cell model.

  12. Hepatocyte transplantation program: Lessons learned and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Ibars, Eugenia Pareja; Cortes, Miriam; Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; López, Slivia; Castell, José Vicente; Mir, José

    2016-01-14

    This review aims to share the lessons we learned over time during the setting of the hepatocyte transplantation (HT) program at the Hepatic Cell Therapy Unit at Hospital La Fe in Valencia. New sources of liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation have been explored. The hepatocyte isolation and cryopreservation procedures have been optimized and quality criteria for assessment of functionality of hepatocyte preparations and suitability for HT have been established. The results indicate that: (1) Only highly viable and functional hepatocytes allow to recover those functions lacking in the native liver; (2) Organs with steatosis (≥ 40%) and from elderly donors are declined since low hepatocyte yields, viability and cell survival after cryopreservation, are obtained; (3) Neonatal hepatocytes are cryopreserved without significant loss of viability or function representing high-quality cells to improve human HT; (4) Cryopreservation has the advantage of providing hepatocytes constantly available and of allowing the quality evaluation and suitability for transplantation; and (5) Our results from 5 adults with acute liver failure and 4 from children with inborn metabolic diseases, indicate that HT could be a very useful and safe cell therapy, as long as viable and metabolically functional human hepatocytes are used.

  13. Structural and functional hepatocyte polarity and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gissen, Paul; Arias, Irwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes form a crucially important cell layer that separates sinusoidal blood from the canalicular bile. They have a uniquely organized polarity with a basal membrane facing liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, while one or more apical poles can contribute to several bile canaliculi jointly with the directly opposing hepatocytes. Establishment and maintenance of hepatocyte polarity is essential for many functions of hepatocytes and requires carefully orchestrated cooperation between cell adhesion molecules, cell junctions, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix and intracellular trafficking machinery. The process of hepatocyte polarization requires energy and, if abnormal, may result in severe liver disease. A number of inherited disorders affecting tight junction and intracellular trafficking proteins have been described and demonstrate clinical and pathophysiological features overlapping those of the genetic cholestatic liver diseases caused by defects in canalicular ABC transporters. Thus both structural and functional components contribute to the final hepatocyte polarity phenotype. Many acquired liver diseases target factors that determine hepatocyte polarity, such as junctional proteins. Hepatocyte depolarization frequently occurs but is rarely recognized because hematoxylin-eosin staining does not identify the bile canaliculus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood. Here we aim to provide an update on the key factors determining hepatocyte polarity and how it is affected in inherited and acquired diseases. PMID:26116792

  14. Hepatocyte transplantation program: Lessons learned and future strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ibars, Eugenia Pareja; Cortes, Miriam; Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José; López, Slivia; Castell, José Vicente; Mir, José

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to share the lessons we learned over time during the setting of the hepatocyte transplantation (HT) program at the Hepatic Cell Therapy Unit at Hospital La Fe in Valencia. New sources of liver tissue for hepatocyte isolation have been explored. The hepatocyte isolation and cryopreservation procedures have been optimized and quality criteria for assessment of functionality of hepatocyte preparations and suitability for HT have been established. The results indicate that: (1) Only highly viable and functional hepatocytes allow to recover those functions lacking in the native liver; (2) Organs with steatosis (≥ 40%) and from elderly donors are declined since low hepatocyte yields, viability and cell survival after cryopreservation, are obtained; (3) Neonatal hepatocytes are cryopreserved without significant loss of viability or function representing high-quality cells to improve human HT; (4) Cryopreservation has the advantage of providing hepatocytes constantly available and of allowing the quality evaluation and suitability for transplantation; and (5) Our results from 5 adults with acute liver failure and 4 from children with inborn metabolic diseases, indicate that HT could be a very useful and safe cell therapy, as long as viable and metabolically functional human hepatocytes are used. PMID:26811633

  15. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  16. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  17. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  18. FGF23 induces left ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Faul, Christian; Amaral, Ansel P.; Oskouei, Behzad; Hu, Ming-Chang; Sloan, Alexis; Isakova, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Aguillon-Prada, Robier; Lincoln, Joy; Hare, Joshua M.; Mundel, Peter; Morales, Azorides; Scialla, Julia; Fischer, Michael; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chen, Jing; Go, Alan S.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nessel, Lisa; Townsend, Raymond R.; Feldman, Harold I.; St. John Sutton, Martin; Ojo, Akinlolu; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Di Marco, Giovana Seno; Reuter, Stefan; Kentrup, Dominik; Tiemann, Klaus; Brand, Marcus; Hill, Joseph A.; Moe, Orson W.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Kusek, John W.; Keane, Martin G.; Wolf, Myles

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that increases risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important mechanism of cardiovascular disease in individuals with CKD. Elevated levels of FGF23 have been linked to greater risks of LVH and mortality in patients with CKD, but whether these risks represent causal effects of FGF23 is unknown. Here, we report that elevated FGF23 levels are independently associated with LVH in a large, racially diverse CKD cohort. FGF23 caused pathological hypertrophy of isolated rat cardiomyocytes via FGF receptor–dependent activation of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, but this effect was independent of klotho, the coreceptor for FGF23 in the kidney and parathyroid glands. Intramyocardial or intravenous injection of FGF23 in wild-type mice resulted in LVH, and klotho-deficient mice demonstrated elevated FGF23 levels and LVH. In an established animal model of CKD, treatment with an FGF–receptor blocker attenuated LVH, although no change in blood pressure was observed. These results unveil a klotho-independent, causal role for FGF23 in the pathogenesis of LVH and suggest that chronically elevated FGF23 levels contribute directly to high rates of LVH and mortality in individuals with CKD. PMID:21985788

  19. Mechanotransduction in cardiac hypertrophy and failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Robert C; Zanella, Fabian; Omens, Jeffrey H; Sheikh, Farah

    2015-04-10

    Cardiac muscle cells have an intrinsic ability to sense and respond to mechanical load through a process known as mechanotransduction. In the heart, this process involves the conversion of mechanical stimuli into biochemical events that induce changes in myocardial structure and function. Mechanotransduction and its downstream effects function initially as adaptive responses that serve as compensatory mechanisms during adaptation to the initial load. However, under prolonged and abnormal loading conditions, the remodeling processes can become maladaptive, leading to altered physiological function and the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Although the mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction are far from being fully elucidated, human and mouse genetic studies have highlighted various cytoskeletal and sarcolemmal structures in cardiac myocytes as the likely candidates for load transducers, based on their link to signaling molecules and architectural components important in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent developments that have uncovered specific protein complexes linked to mechanotransduction and mechanotransmission within the sarcomere, the intercalated disc, and at the sarcolemma. The protein structures acting as mechanotransducers are the first step in the process that drives physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, as well as the transition to heart failure, and may provide better insights into mechanisms driving mechanotransduction-based diseases. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Glucose Transporters in Cardiac Metabolism and Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Dan; Tian, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The heart is adapted to utilize all classes of substrates to meet the high-energy demand, and it tightly regulates its substrate utilization in response to environmental changes. Although fatty acids are known as the predominant fuel for the adult heart at resting stage, the heart switches its substrate preference toward glucose during stress conditions such as ischemia and pathological hypertrophy. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that the loss of metabolic flexibility associated with increased reliance on glucose utilization contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. The changes in glucose metabolism in hypertrophied hearts include altered glucose transport and increased glycolysis. Despite the role of glucose as an energy source, changes in other nonenergy producing pathways related to glucose metabolism, such as hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and pentose phosphate pathway, are also observed in the diseased hearts. This article summarizes the current knowledge regarding the regulation of glucose transporter expression and translocation in the heart during physiological and pathological conditions. It also discusses the signaling mechanisms governing glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes, as well as the changes of cardiac glucose metabolism under disease conditions. PMID:26756635

  1. Reversible Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Madanieh, Raef; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vatti, Satya K; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies (CMs) have many etiological factors that can result in severe structural and functional dysregulation. Fortunately, there are several potentially reversible CMs that are known to improve when the root etiological factor is addressed. In this article, we discuss several of these reversible CMs, including tachycardia-induced, peripartum, inflammatory, hyperthyroidism, Takotsubo, and chronic illness–induced CMs. Our discussion also includes a review on their respective pathophysiology, as well as possible management solutions. PMID:26052233

  2. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2

  3. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2

  4. High concentrations of stavudine impair fatty acid oxidation without depleting mitochondrial DNA in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Igoudjil, Anissa; Massart, Julie; Begriche, Karima; Descatoire, Véronique; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2008-06-01

    The antiretroviral nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine (d4T) can induce mild to severe liver injuries such as steatosis (i.e. triglyceride accumulation), steatohepatitis and liver failure. NRTI-induced toxicity has been ascribed to the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication causing mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain dysfunction. This can secondarily impair the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), thus leading to lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis. However, NRTIs could also impair mitochondrial function and induce hepatic steatosis through other mechanisms. In this study, we sought to determine whether d4T could inhibit mitochondrial FAO and induce triglyceride accumulation through a mtDNA-independent mechanism. Since human tumoral and non-tumoral hepatic cell lines were unable to efficiently oxidize palmitic acid, the effects of d4T on mitochondrial FAO were assessed on cultured rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that 750 microM of d4T significantly inhibited palmitic acid oxidation after 48 or 72 h of culture, without inducing cell death. Importantly, high concentrations of zidovudine and zalcitabine (two other NRTIs that can induce hepatic steatosis), or beta-aminoisobutyric acid (a d4T metabolite), did not impair FAO in rat hepatocytes. D4T-induced FAO inhibition was observed without mtDNA depletion and lactate production, and was fully prevented with l-carnitine or clofibrate coincubation. l-carnitine also prevented the accretion of neutral lipids within rat hepatocytes. High concentrations of d4T were unable to inhibit FAO on freshly isolated liver mitochondria. Moreover, a microarray analysis was performed to clarify the mechanism whereby d4T can inhibit mitochondrial FAO and induce triglyceride accumulation in rat hepatocytes. The microarray data, confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, showed that d4T increased the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c

  5. Triacsin C reduces lipid droplet formation and induces mitochondrial biogenesis in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Dechandt, Carlos R P; Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Felippe H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Fernandes, Anna Maria A P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kettelhut, Isis C; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane C

    2017-09-16

    Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4.1 μM) for LD formation: (i) diminished LD number in a concentration-dependent manner; (ii) increased mitochondrial amount; (iii) markedly improved mitochondrial metabolism by enhancing the β-oxidation efficiency, electron transport chain capacity, and degree of coupling - treatment of isolated rat liver mitochondria with the same triacsin C concentrations did not affect the last two parameters; (iv) decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio and elevated the protein carbonyl level, which suggested an increased reactive oxygen species production, as observed in isolated mitochondria. The hepatocyte mitochondrial improvements were not related to either the transcriptional levels of PGC-1α or the content of mTOR and phosphorylated AMPK. Triacsin C at 10 μM induced hepatocyte death by necrosis and/or apoptosis through mechanisms associated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, as demonstrated by experiments using isolated mitochondria. Therefore, triacsin C at sub-IC50 concentrations modulates the lipid imbalance by shifting hepatocytes to a more oxidative state and enhancing the fatty acid consumption, which can in turn accelerate lipid oxidation and reverse NAFLD in long-term therapies.

  6. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. PMID:25395831

  7. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5-50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans.

  8. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas; Rodriguez, Javier; Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei; Tambuwala, Murtaza M.; Higgins, Desmond G.; O'Meara, Yvonne; Slattery, Craig; Manresa, Mario C.; Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike; Baes, Myriam; Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen; Kriegsheim, Alex von; Cummins, Eoin P.; and others

    2016-06-03

    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  9. Molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype and the EMT/MET dynamics of hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Cicchini, Carla; Amicone, Laura; Alonzi, Tonino; Marchetti, Alessandra; Mancone, Carmine; Tripodi, Marco

    2015-02-01

    The complex spatial and paracrine relationships between the various liver histotypes are essential for proper functioning of the hepatic parenchymal cells. Only within a correct tissue organization, in fact, they stably maintain their identity and differentiated phenotype. The loss of histotype identity, which invariably occurs in the primary hepatocytes in culture, or in vivo in particular pathological conditions (fibrosis and tumours), is mainly because of the phenomenon of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT process, that occurs in the many epithelial cells, appears to be driven by a number of general, non-tissue-specific, master transcriptional regulators. The reverse process, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), as yet much less characterized at a molecular level, restores specific epithelial identities, and thus must include tissue-specific master elements. In this review, we will summarize the so far unveiled events of EMT/MET occurring in liver cells. In particular, we will focus on hepatocyte and describe the pivotal role in the control of EMT/MET dynamics exerted by a tissue-specific molecular mini-circuitry. Recent evidence, indeed, highlighted as two transcriptional factors, the master gene of EMT Snail, and the master gene of hepatocyte differentiation HNF4α, exhorting a direct reciprocal repression, act as pivotal elements in determining opposite cellular outcomes. The different balances between these two master regulators, further integrated by specific microRNAs, in fact, were found responsible for the EMT/METs dynamics as well as for the preservation of both hepatocyte and stem/precursor cells identity and differentiation. Overall, these findings impact the maintenance of stem cells and differentiated cells both in in vivo EMT/MET physio-pathological processes as well as in culture. © 2014 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Roles of hepatocyte nuclear factors in hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 350 million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. HBV maintains persistent infection by employing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a template for all HBV RNAs. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are currently treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir. However, these treatments rarely cure CHB because they are unable to inhibit cccDNA transcription and inhibit only a late stage in the HBV life cycle (the reverse transcription step in the nucleocapsid). Therefore, an understanding of the factors regulating cccDNA transcription is required to stop this process. Among numerous factors, hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) play the most important roles in cccDNA transcription, especially in the generation of viral genomic RNA, a template for HBV replication. Therefore, proper control of HNF function could lead to the inhibition of HBV replication. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the roles of HNFs in the HBV life cycle and the upstream factors that regulate HNFs. This knowledge will enable the identification of new therapeutic targets to cure CHB. PMID:27610013

  11. [The acquired long QT during cardiac hypertrophy. Origin, incidence and significance].

    PubMed

    Swynghedauw, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Long QT is not only inherited or drug-induced. It reflects the degree of myocardial adaptation to mechanical overload In normal conditions, in isolated cells, the action potential (AP) duration depends on the activity of several ion channels. On body-surface ECG, the QT interval depends on two additional factors, namely transmural gradients and the spatial 3D projection of the electrical wave vectors. AP lengthening is a well-documented feature of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. The ion current most frequently involved, especially in humans, is an outward potassium current, I(tO), whose density is reduced as a consequence of a reduction in the corresponding gene density. In vivo, cardiac hypertrophy can modify and even reverse the transmural gradients. In humans and rats, hypertensive cardiopathy is associated with a reversible prolongation of the QT interval. The reduction in the density of l(tO )is adaptative, participates in the slowing of the cardiac cycle, and reflects fetal reprogramming. The ECG counterpart of this cellular mechanism is frequently attenuated or even masked by associated myocardial ischemia or by remodelling of the cardiac anatomic structure. Prolongation of the QT interval is a crucial component of the adaptative response to mechanical overload. As such, it has prognostic significance in heart failure of purely mechanical origin, such as hypertensive cardiopathy.

  12. Hematopoietically expressed homeobox is a target gene of farnesoid X receptor in chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiangbin; Burgermeister, Elke; Geisler, Fabian; Einwächter, Henrik; Fan, Lian; Hiber, Michaela; Rauser, Sandra; Walch, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Ebeling, Martin; Wright, Matthew B; Schmid, Roland M; Ebert, Matthias P A

    2009-03-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR/Fxr) is a bile acid-regulated nuclear receptor that promotes hepatic bile acid metabolism, detoxification, and liver regeneration. However, the adaptive pathways under conditions of bile acid stress are not fully elucidated. We found that wild-type but not Fxr knockout mice on diets enriched with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) increase their liver/body weight ratios by 50% due to hepatocellular hypertrophy. Microarray analysis identified Hex (Hematopoietically expressed homeobox), a central transcription factor in vertebrate embryogenesis and liver development, as a novel CDCA- and Fxr-regulated gene. HEX/Hex was also regulated by FXR/Fxr and CDCA in primary mouse hepatocytes and human HepG2 cells. Comparative genomic analysis identified a conserved inverted repeat-1-like DNA sequence within a 300 base pair enhancer element of intron-1 in the human and mouse HEX/Hex gene. A combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation, electromobility shift assay, and transcriptional reporter assays demonstrated that FXR/Fxr binds to this element and mediates HEX/Hex transcriptional activation. HEX/Hex is a novel bile acid-induced FXR/Fxr target gene during adaptation of hepatocytes to chronic bile acid exposure.

  13. [Encapsulating hepatocytes with chitosan in physiological conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhang; Zhang, Bao; Yan, Xiluan; Lao, Xuejun; Yu, Hanry

    2006-10-01

    Prepared from 15.3% N-acetylated chitosan (FNC), half N-acetylated chitosan (HNC) possesses a good solubility in a weak basic solution, guaranteeing the formation of microcapsules by the coacervating reaction between HNC and methacrylic acid (MAA)-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) (MAA-HEMA-MMA) terpolymer under physiological conditions. When hepatocytes were encapsulated in such 3-dimensional microenvironment, as compared to monolayer culture, cell functions, including P450 activity, urea production and albumin release, were well supported. The prepared microcapsules have good mechanical stability and permeability.

  14. Protective effects of hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic derivatives against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Yang, Lingyun; Han, Yaodan; Wu, Zhenwei; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Huibin; Zhou, Jinpei

    2017-03-20

    Glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main hydrolysate of glycyrrhizic acid extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, was reported to be accumulated in hepatocytes due to the extensive distribution of GA receptors in liver. A series of hepatocyte-specific derivatives on the basis of anetholtrithione and glycyrrhizic were designed and synthesized. The potential beneficial effect was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model. In addition, the hepatoprotective activity of these derivatives was assessed by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes, including serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the ratio of GSH to GSSG. Gratifyingly, compounds 5a-c (100mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost a normal liver lobular architecture and cell structure of the livers, as compared to CCl4-treated group. These findings were confirmed with the histopathological observations, where hepatocyte-specific glycyrrhetic acid derivatives 5a-c were capable of reversing the toxic effects of CCl4 on hepatocytes.

  15. The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Bert; Reggiani, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    The role of satellite cells in muscle hypertrophy has long been a debated issue. In the late 1980s it was shown that proteins remain close to the myonucleus responsible for its synthesis, giving rise to the idea of a nuclear domain. This, together with the observation that during various models of muscle hypertrophy there is an activation of the muscle stem cells, i.e. satellite cells, lead to the idea that satellite cell activation is required for muscle hypertrophy. Thus, satellite cells are not only responsible for muscle repair and regeneration, but also for hypertrophic growth. Further support for this line of thinking was obtained after studies showing that irradiation of skeletal muscle, and therefore elimination of all satellite cells, completely prevented overload-induced hypertrophy. Recently however, using different transgenic approaches, it has become clear that muscle hypertrophy can occur without a contribution of satellite cells, even though in most situations of muscle hypertrophy satellite cells are activated. In this review we will discuss the contribution of satellite cells, and other muscle-resident stem cells, to muscle hypertrophy both in mice as well as in humans.

  16. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L-/sup 14/C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 ..mu..M carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 ..mu..M carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart.

  17. Overexpression of microRNA-99a Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoling; Xie, Jun; Wang, Bingjian; Li, Ran; Bai, Jian; Ding, Liang; Gu, Rong; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with significantly increased risk of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in pathological cardiac remodeling. However, whether miR-99a participates in the signaling cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. To evaluate the role of miR-99a in cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed the expression of miR-99a in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by isoprenaline (ISO)/angiotensin-II (Ang II) and in mice model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Expression of miR-99a was evaluated in these hypertrophic cells and hearts. We also found that miR-99a expression was highly correlated with cardiac function of mice with heart failure (8 weeks after TAC surgery). Overexpression of miR-99a attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice and cellular hypertrophy in stimuli treated cardiomyocytes through down-regulation of expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that miR-99a negatively regulates physiological hypertrophy through mTOR signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for pressure-overload heart failure.

  18. Intrinsic-mediated caspase activation is essential for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Putinski, Charis; Abdul-Ghani, Mohammad; Stiles, Rebecca; Brunette, Steve; Dick, Sarah A.; Fernando, Pasan; Megeney, Lynn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is the cellular response that mediates pathologic enlargement of the heart. This maladaptation is also characterized by cell behaviors that are typically associated with apoptosis, including cytoskeletal reorganization and disassembly, altered nuclear morphology, and enhanced protein synthesis/translation. Here, we investigated the requirement of apoptotic caspase pathways in mediating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cardiomyocytes treated with hypertrophy agonists displayed rapid and transient activation of the intrinsic-mediated cell death pathway, characterized by elevated levels of caspase 9, followed by caspase 3 protease activity. Disruption of the intrinsic cell death pathway at multiple junctures led to a significant inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during agonist stimulation, with a corresponding reduction in the expression of known hypertrophic markers (atrial natriuretic peptide) and transcription factor activity [myocyte enhancer factor-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)]. Similarly, in vivo attenuation of caspase activity via adenoviral expression of the biologic effector caspase inhibitor p35 blunted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to agonist stimulation. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with procaspase 3 activating compound 1, a small-molecule activator of caspase 3, resulted in a robust induction of the hypertrophy response in the absence of any agonist stimulation. These results suggest that caspase-dependent signaling is necessary and sufficient to promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These results also confirm that cell death signal pathways behave as active remodeling agents in cardiomyocytes, independent of inducing an apoptosis response. PMID:24101493

  19. Overexpression of microRNA-99a Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Bai, Jian; Ding, Liang; Gu, Rong; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with significantly increased risk of heart failure, one of the leading medical causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in pathological cardiac remodeling. However, whether miR-99a participates in the signaling cascade leading to cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. To evaluate the role of miR-99a in cardiac hypertrophy, we assessed the expression of miR-99a in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by isoprenaline (ISO)/angiotensin-II (Ang II) and in mice model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Expression of miR-99a was evaluated in these hypertrophic cells and hearts. We also found that miR-99a expression was highly correlated with cardiac function of mice with heart failure (8 weeks after TAC surgery). Overexpression of miR-99a attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in TAC mice and cellular hypertrophy in stimuli treated cardiomyocytes through down-regulation of expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These results indicate that miR-99a negatively regulates physiological hypertrophy through mTOR signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic approach for pressure-overload heart failure. PMID:26914935

  20. Foxo3a inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through transactivating catalase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Qi; Wang, Kun; Lv, Dao-Yuan; Li, Pei-Feng

    2008-10-31

    The forkhead transcription factor Foxo3a is able to inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. Our present study demonstrates that Foxo3a can regulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through transactivating catalase. Insulin was able to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant agents, including catalase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, could inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by insulin, suggesting that ROS is necessary for insulin to induce hypertrophy. Strikingly, we observed that the levels of catalase were decreased in response to insulin treatment. The transcriptional activity of Foxo3a depends on its phosphorylation status with the nonphosphorylated but not phosphorylated form to be functional. Insulin treatment led to an increase in the phosphorylated levels of Foxo3a. To understand the relationship between Foxo3a and catalase in the hypertrophic pathway, we characterized that catalase was a transcriptional target of Foxo3a. Foxo3a bound to the promoter region of catalase and stimulated its activity. The inhibitory effect of Foxo3a on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy depended on its transcriptional regulation of catalase. Finally, we identified that myocardin was a downstream mediator of ROS in conveying the hypertrophic signal of insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1. Foxo3a could negatively regulate myocardin expression levels through up-regulating catalase and the consequent reduction of ROS levels. Taken together, our results reveal that Foxo3a can inhibit hypertrophy by transcriptionally targeting catalase.

  1. Hypoxia increases muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akinobu; Sugita, Masaaki; Kato, Ko; Fukuda, Aki; Sudo, Akihiro; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that low-intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion (kaatsu training) induces muscle hypertrophy. A local hypoxic environment facilitates muscle hypertrophy during kaatsu training. We postulated that muscle hypertrophy can be more efficiently induced by placing the entire body in a hypoxic environment to induce muscle hypoxia followed by resistance training. Fourteen male university students were randomly assigned to hypoxia (Hyp) and normoxia (Norm) groups (n = 7 per group). Each training session proceeded at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and comprised four sets of 10 repetitions of elbow extension and flexion. Students exercised twice weekly for 6 wk and then muscle hypertrophy was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and muscle strength was evaluated based on 1RM. Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex (exercised flexor of the hypoxia group) than for the Hyp-N (nonexercised flexor of the hypoxia group) or Norm-Ex flexor (P < .05, Bonferroni correction). Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex than the Hyp-N extensor. Muscle strength was significantly increased early (by week 3) in the Hyp-Ex, but not in the Norm-Ex group. This study suggests that resistance training under hypoxic conditions improves muscle strength and induces muscle hypertrophy faster than under normoxic conditions, thus representing a promising new training technique.

  2. Adipocyte-specific loss of PPARγ attenuates cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xi; Stroud, Matthew J.; Ouyang, Kunfu; Fang, Li; Zhang, Jianlin; Dalton, Nancy D.; Gu, Yusu; Wu, Tongbin; Peterson, Kirk L.; Huang, Hsien-Da; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ that governs systemic homeostasis. PPARγ is a master regulator of adipose tissue signaling that plays an essential role in insulin sensitivity, making it an important therapeutic target. The selective PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) has been used to treat diabetes. However, adverse cardiovascular effects have seriously hindered its clinical application. Experimental models have revealed that PPARγ activation increases cardiac hypertrophy. RSG stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ knockout mice, implying that RSG might stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently of cardiomyocyte PPARγ. However, candidate cell types responsible for RSG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remain unexplored. Utilizing cocultures of adipocytes and cardiomyocytes, we found that stimulation of PPARγ signaling in adipocytes increased miR-200a expression and secretion. Delivery of miR-200a in adipocyte-derived exosomes to cardiomyocytes resulted in decreased TSC1 and subsequent mTOR activation, leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Treatment with an antagomir to miR-200a blunted this hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes. In vivo, specific ablation of PPARγ in adipocytes was sufficient to blunt hypertrophy induced by RSG treatment. By delineating mechanisms by which RSG elicits cardiac hypertrophy, we have identified pathways that mediate the crosstalk between adipocytes and cardiomyocytes to regulate cardiac remodeling. PMID:27734035

  3. Mitochondrial adaptations during myocardial hypertrophy induced by abdominal aortic constriction.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhusong; Wang, Xinxing; Liu, Weili; Gong, Jingbo; Gao, Xiujie; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Fang; Qian, Lingjia

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptive response of the heart to work overload. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is usually associated with the ultimate development of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. The mitochondria have an important function in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, mitochondrial adaptations to hypertrophic stimulus remain ambiguous. A rat model of myocardial hypertrophy was established using abdominal aortic constriction. The expression of mitochondrial complexes was evaluated through electrophoresis using blue native and blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme activity of mitochondrial complexes was detected through in-gel activity. Mitochondrial function and biogenesis decreased in hypertrophied myocardium. The content and activity of mitochondrial Complex V dimers and Complex I significantly decreased during hypertrophy, as well as those of the α, β, B, and D chains of the Complex V dimers. However, the content and activity of mitochondrial Complex V oligomers and Complexes II, III, and IV did not change. The decreased content and activity of Complex V dimers and Complex I caused the decline in mitochondrial function and biogenesis during cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-dependent hepatocyte transplantation for functional liver tissue reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Stock, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    The transplantation of hepatocytes could be an alternative therapeutic option to the whole organ transplantation for the treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, this cell-based therapy needs the understanding of the molecular mechanisms to improve efficacy. This chapter includes a detailed method of a rat model for liver regeneration studies after age-dependent hepatocyte transplantation.

  5. The Optimization of Short-Term Hepatocyte Preservation Before Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Kengo; Inagaki, Akiko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Satoru; Imura, Takehiro; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Shigehito; Ohashi, Kazuo; Enosawa, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu; Goto, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    No optimal methods for short-term hepatocyte preservation have been established. We have recently developed a prominent oxygen-permeable bag (Tohoku Device [TD]) for pancreatic islet culture and transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether TD is also effective for hepatocyte preservation and tried to optimize other conditions. Hepatocytes were preserved in the following conditions, and their outcomes were observed. First, the effectiveness of TD was investigated. Second, hepatocyte medium (HM) and organ preservation solutions with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared. Third, as supplementations, FBS and human serum albumin (HSA) were compared. Fourth, low, room and high temperature were compared. And finally, hepatocytes preserved in various conditions were transplanted into the subrenal capsule space of nonalbumin rats and engrafted areas were assessed. The survival rate of hepatocytes preserved in TD tended to be higher and their viability and function were maintained significantly greater than those of non-TD group. Irrespective of FBS supplementation, the survival rate of HM group was significantly higher than those of organ preservation solution group while viabilities and plating efficiency were similar among them. Although survival rates of groups without FBS were extremely low, results of HSA supplemented group were not inferior to FBS supplemented group. Hepatocytes preserved at high temperature had the worst results. The engrafted area of TD group tended to be higher than those of other groups. TD is effective for short-term hepatocyte preservation. HSA is a useful substitute for FBS, and preserving in HM at low temperature is recommended.

  6. Hepatocyte membrane water permeability measured by silicone layer filtering centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Gradilone, Sergio A; Ochoa, J Elena; García, Fabiana; Larocca, M Cecilia; Pellegrino, José M; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2002-03-01

    We previously found that hepatocytes are able to control their osmotic membrane water permeability (P(f)) by regulating the number of surface aquaporin water channels. Hepatocyte P(f) has been assessed by phase-contrast microscopy and cell image analysis, an established but relatively laborious procedure. We report here an alternative method to assess hepatocyte P(f) based on a single silicone layer filtering centrifugation system. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated in hypotonic or isotonic buffers containing (3)H(2)O as a tracer and, then, were filtered by rapid centrifugation through a silicone layer down to a lysis layer. Osmotically driven radioactivity (i.e., (3)H(2)O) within hepatocytes was calculated as the difference between the dpm in lysis media measured under hypotonic and isotonic conditions. The P(f) calculated from the initial slope of the radioactivity-versus-time curve was 18 microm/s at 4 degrees C. Hepatocytes treated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, to increase P(f) through the plasma membrane insertion of aquaporins, showed an increased P(f) value of 37 microm/s. The aquaporin blocker dimethyl sulfoxide selectively prevented the agonist-induced hepatocyte P(f). These data are in good agreement with the corresponding values determined by quantitative phase-contrast microscopy; thus, the method developed allows the rapid and reliable measurement of hepatocyte P(f).

  7. [Molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Astratenkova, I V; Rogozkin, V A

    2014-06-01

    Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The central place is taken by mTOR enzyme which controls and regulates the main stages of the cascade of reactions of muscle proteins providing synthesis in the conditions of human life. coactivator PGC-1a.

  8. KChIP2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Regulation of Ito and Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongwei; Hadri, Lahouaria; Palomeque, Julieta; Morel, Charlotte; Karakikes, Ioannis; Kaprielian, Roger; Hajjar, Roger; Lebeche, Djamel

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the auxiliary subunit KChIP2, which assembles with pore-forming Kv4-subunits, represents a new potential regulator of the cardiac calcium-independent transient outward potassium current (Ito) density. In hypertrophy and heart failure, KChIP2 expression has been found to be significantly decreased. Our aim was to examine the role of KChIP2 in cardiac hypertrophy and the effect of restoring its expression on electrical remodeling and cardiac mechanical function using a combination of molecular, biochemical and gene targeting approaches. KChIP2 overexpression through gene transfer of Ad.KChIP2 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant increase in Ito-channel forming Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 protein levels. In vivo gene transfer of KChIP2 in aortic banded adult rats showed that, compared to sham-operated or Ad.β-gal-transduced hearts, KChIP2 significantly attenuated the developed left ventricular hypertrophy, robustly increased Ito densities, shortened action potential duration, and significantly altered myocyte mechanics by shortening contraction amplitudes and maximal rates of contraction and relaxation velocities and decreasing Ca2+ transients. Interestingly, blocking Ito with 4-aminopyridine in KChIP2-overexpressing adult cardiomyocytes significantly increased the Ca2+ transients to control levels. One-day old rat pups intracardially transduced with KChIP2 for two months then subjected to aortic banding for 6–8 weeks (to induce hypertrophy) showed similar echocardiographic, electrical and mechanical remodeling parameters. In addition, in cultured adult cardiomyocytes, KChIP2 overexpression increased the expression of Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and sodium calcium exchanger but had no effect on ryanodine receptor 2 or phospholamban expression. In neonatal myocytes, KChIP2 notably reversed Ang II-induced hypertrophic changes in protein synthesis and MAP-kinase activation. It also significantly decreased calcineurin expression, NFATc1

  9. Medicinal effect and its JP2/RyR2-based mechanism of Smilax glabra flavonoids on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy model of cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yueqin; Tu, Jue; Pan, Shuizhen; Jiang, Jianping; Shou, Qiyang; Ling, Yun; Chen, Yunxiang; Wang, Dejun; Yang, Weiji; Shan, Letian; Chen, Minli

    2015-07-01

    Rhizome and root of Smilax glabra Roxb (Liliaceae family) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) named Tu-fu-ling (TFL) for cardiac disease therapy. The TFL flavonoids (TFLF) has been extracted and proven to possess the anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect in our previous reports. Such effect could be mediated by the modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) flux in myocardial cells, in which junctophilin-2 (JP2) and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) play an important role. However, its mechanism of the anti-cardiac hypertrophy effect remains unclarified. 2μmol/L Ang II was applied to induce hypertrophy model of rat primary cardiomyocytes. After treatment of TFLF at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml, the cell size was microscopic measured, and the protein and mRNA expressions of JP2 and RyR2 in cardiomyocytes were estimated by immunofluorescence imaging, ELISA and real-time PCR assay. Obvious hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes was induced by Ang II but reversed by TFLF from 0.5 to 1.0mg/ml. The protein and mRNA expressions of JP2 and RyR2 in cardiomyocytes were also inhibited by Ang II but restored by TFLF at its dose range. Such effect of TFLF was exerted at a dose dependent manner, which was even better than that of verapamil. Our findings may evidence the correlation between JP2/RyR2 and myocardiac hypertrophy, and indicate the JP2/RyR2-mediated anti-hypertrophy mechanism of TFLF for the first time. It deserves to be developed as a promising TCM candidate of new drug for myocardial hypertrophy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice expressing unphosphorylatable phospholemman.

    PubMed

    Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Pavlovic, Davor; Aughton, Karen; Clark, James E; Howie, Jacqueline; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Elevation of intracellular Na in the failing myocardium contributes to contractile dysfunction, the negative force-frequency relationship, and arrhythmias. Although phospholemman (PLM) is recognized to form the link between signalling pathways and Na/K pump activity, the possibility that defects in its regulation contribute to elevation of intracellular Na has not been investigated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the prevention of PLM phosphorylation in a PLM(3SA) knock-in mouse (in which PLM has been rendered unphosphorylatable) will exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy and cellular Na overload. Testing this hypothesis should determine whether changes in PLM phosphorylation are simply bystander effects or are causally involved in disease progression. In wild-type (WT) mice, aortic constriction resulted in hypophosphorylation of PLM with no change in Na/K pump expression. This under-phosphorylation of PLM occurred at 3 days post-banding and was associated with a progressive decline in Na/K pump current and elevation of [Na]i. Echocardiography, morphometry, and pressure-volume (PV) catheterization confirmed remodelling, dilation, and contractile dysfunction, respectively. In PLM(3SA) mice, expression of Na/K ATPase was increased and PLM decreased such that net Na/K pump current under quiescent conditions was unchanged (cf. WT myocytes); [Na(+)]i was increased and forward-mode Na/Ca exchanger was reduced in paced PLM(3SA) myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy and Na/K pump inhibition were significantly exacerbated in banded PLM(3SA) mice compared with banded WT. Decreased phosphorylation of PLM reduces Na/K pump activity and exacerbates Na overload, contractile dysfunction, and adverse remodelling following aortic constriction in mice. This suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice expressing unphosphorylatable phospholemman

    PubMed Central

    Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Pavlovic, Davor; Aughton, Karen; Clark, James E.; Howie, Jacqueline; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Elevation of intracellular Na in the failing myocardium contributes to contractile dysfunction, the negative force–frequency relationship, and arrhythmias. Although phospholemman (PLM) is recognized to form the link between signalling pathways and Na/K pump activity, the possibility that defects in its regulation contribute to elevation of intracellular Na has not been investigated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the prevention of PLM phosphorylation in a PLM3SA knock-in mouse (in which PLM has been rendered unphosphorylatable) will exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy and cellular Na overload. Testing this hypothesis should determine whether changes in PLM phosphorylation are simply bystander effects or are causally involved in disease progression. Methods and results In wild-type (WT) mice, aortic constriction resulted in hypophosphorylation of PLM with no change in Na/K pump expression. This under-phosphorylation of PLM occurred at 3 days post-banding and was associated with a progressive decline in Na/K pump current and elevation of [Na]i. Echocardiography, morphometry, and pressure-volume (PV) catheterization confirmed remodelling, dilation, and contractile dysfunction, respectively. In PLM3SA mice, expression of Na/K ATPase was increased and PLM decreased such that net Na/K pump current under quiescent conditions was unchanged (cf. WT myocytes); [Na+]i was increased and forward-mode Na/Ca exchanger was reduced in paced PLM3SA myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy and Na/K pump inhibition were significantly exacerbated in banded PLM3SA mice compared with banded WT. Conclusions Decreased phosphorylation of PLM reduces Na/K pump activity and exacerbates Na overload, contractile dysfunction, and adverse remodelling following aortic constriction in mice. This suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:25103111

  12. Regulation of compensatory kidney hypertrophy by its own products

    PubMed Central

    Dicker, S. E.; Morris, Christine A.; Shipolini, R.

    1977-01-01

    1. The ligation of blood vessels of one kidney of adult rats resulted in the compensatory hypertrophy of the other kidney. In most animals the rate of hypertrophy was indistinguishable from that observed after unilateral nephrectomy, but in a few cases the onset was retarded when the renal artery alone had been ligated and the collateral circulation increased. 2. When the blood vessels of one kidney of adult rats were ligated and the cortex was excised, the rate of compensatory renal hypertrophy was similar to that observed after unilateral nephrectomy. 3. In animals operated for simultaneous partial hepatectomy and unilateral nephrectomy, there was no sign of compensatory renal hypertrophy while the liver was undergoing regeneration. Renal hypertrophy started after 7 days, when about 98% of the amount of liver removed had been regenerated. 4. Neither aseptic autolysis of one kidney following suppression of its blood supply, nor unilateral nephrectomy affected the rate of liver regeneration after simultaneous partial hepatectomy. 5. Total splenectomy did not affect the rate of compensatory renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy. 6. The heterotopic graft of renal cortical, but not of medullary, cells inhibited compensatory renal hypertrophy in adult rats. The removal of the graft after 14 days was followed by the resumption of compensatory hypertrophy. 7. The inhibiting action of fractions of renal cortical extracts fractionated on Sephadex G100 resin and DEAE-52 cellulose were assayed on the `growth' of renal explants reared in vitro. The final material, though only partially purified, proved to have an inhibiting activity between 250 and 500 times greater than that of the initial extract. 8. When injected into unilaterally nephrectomized rats, the partially purified extract from the renal cortex had an inhibiting effect on compensatory renal hypertrophy. 9. Immunofluorescence technique showed that the partially purified cortical extract affected the

  13. Insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Galan, J.; Trankina, M.; Noel, R.; Ward, W. )

    1990-02-26

    This project was designed to determine whether neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has a significant effect upon the pathways of ligand endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The pathways studied include receptor-mediated endocytosis and fluid-phase endocytosis. Neomycin causes a dose-dependent acceleration of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Since fluid-phase endocytosis can also be a significant factor in {sup 125}I-insulin internalization, lucifer yellow (LY), a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis, was incorporated into an assay similar to the {sup 125}I-insulin internalization procedure. In the presence of 5 mM neomycin, a significant increase in LY uptake was evident at 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml of LY. At 0.8 mg/ml, a decrease in LY uptake was observed. The increased rate of {sup 125}I-insulin internalization in the presence of neomycin was intriguing. Since one action of neomycin is to inhibit phosphoinositidase C, it suggests that the phosphotidylinositol cycle may be involved in ligand internalization by hepatocytes. At low insulin concentrations, receptor-mediated uptake predominates. Fluid-phase uptake can become an important uptake route as insulin concentrations are increased. Since neomycin stimulates fluid-phase endocytosis, it must also be taken into account when measuring ligand internalization.

  14. Mechanisms of the statins cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdoli, Narges; Heidari, Reza; Azarmi, Yadollah; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    Statins are potent drugs, used as lipid-lowering agents in cardiovascular diseases. Hepatotoxicity is one of the serious adverse effects of statins, and the exact mechanism of hepatotoxicity is not yet clear. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the most commonly used statins, that is, atorvastatin, lovastatin, and simvastatin toward isolated rat hepatocytes, were evaluated. Markers, such as cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the amount of reduced and oxidized glutathione in the statin-treated hepatocytes, were investigated. It was found that the statins caused cytotoxicity toward rat hepatocytes dose dependently. An elevation in ROS formation, accompanied by a significant amount of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial depolarization, was observed. Cellular glutathione reservoirs were decreased, and a significant amount of oxidized glutathione was formed. This study suggests that the adverse effect of statins toward hepatocytes is mediated through oxidative stress and the hepatocytes mitochondria play an important role in the statin-induced toxicity.

  15. Estrogen receptor-beta signals left ventricular hypertrophy sex differences in normotensive deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt mice.

    PubMed

    Gürgen, Dennis; Hegner, Björn; Kusch, Angelika; Catar, Rusan; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Hoff, Uwe; Gross, Volkmar; Slowinski, Torsten; da Costa Goncalves, Andrey C; Kintscher, Ulrich; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Luft, Friedrich C; Dragun, Duska

    2011-03-01

    We found earlier that deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment causes blood pressure-independent left ventricular hypertrophy, but only in male mice. To test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) protects the females from left ventricular hypertrophy, we treated male and female ERβ-deficient (ERβ(-/-)) mice and their male and female littermates (wild-type [WT]) with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt and made them telemetrically normotensive with hydralazine. WT males had increased (+16%) heart weight/tibia length ratios compared with WT females (+7%) at 6 weeks. In ERβ(-/-) mice, this situation was reversed. Female WT mice had the greatest heart weight/tibia length ratio increases of all of the groups (+23%), even greater than ERβ(-/-) males (+10%). Echocardiography revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in male WT mice, whereas ERβ(-/-) females developed dilative left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypertrophic response in female ERβ(-/-) mice was accompanied by the highest degree of collagen deposition, indicating maladaptive remodeling. ERβ(+/+) females showed robust protective p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling relationships compared with other groups. Calcineurin Aβ expression and its positive regulator myocyte-enriched calcineurin-interacting protein 1 were increased in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt female ERβ(-/-) mice, yet lower than in WT males. Endothelin increased murine cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro, which could be blocked by estradiol and an ERβ agonist. We conclude that a functional ERβ is essential for inducing adaptive p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, while reducing maladaptive calcineurin signaling in normotensive deoxycorticosterone acetate female mice. Our findings address the possibility of sex-specific cardiovascular therapies.

  16. miR-155 functions downstream of angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 and calcineurin to regulate cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yong; Cao, Zheng; Tong, Xin Zhu; Xie, Hua Qiang; Luo, Tao; Hua, Xian Ping; Wang, Han Qin

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by maladaptive tissue remodeling that may lead to heart failure or sudden death. MicroRNAs (miRs) are negative regulators of angiotensin II and the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AGTR1), which are two components involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, the interaction between angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AGTR1) signaling and miR-155 was investigated. Rat H9C2 (2-1) cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-155 analogues or inhibitors, then stimulated with angiotensin II to induce cardiac hypertrophy. miR-155 expression was revealed to be altered following transfection with chemically-modified miR-155 analogues and inhibitors in rat cardiomyocytes. In cell cardiac hypertrophy models, the cell surface area, AGTR1, atrial natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain-β mRNA expression levels were revealed to be lower in cells stimulated with miR-155 analogue-transfected cells treated with angiotensin II compared with cells stimulated with angiotensin alone (P<0.05), as determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. Furthermore, calcineurin mRNA and protein, intracellular free calcium and nuclear factor of activated T-cells-4 proteins were downregulated in miR-155 analogue-transfected cells treated with angiotensin II, as compared with cells stimulated with angiotensin II alone (P<0.05). In conclusion, the current study indicates that miR-155 may improve cardiac hypertrophy by downregulating AGTR1 and suppressing the calcium signaling pathways activated by AGTR1.

  17. miR-155 functions downstream of angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 and calcineurin to regulate cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yong; Cao, Zheng; Tong, Xin Zhu; Xie, Hua Qiang; Luo, Tao; Hua, Xian Ping; Wang, Han Qin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by maladaptive tissue remodeling that may lead to heart failure or sudden death. MicroRNAs (miRs) are negative regulators of angiotensin II and the angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AGTR1), which are two components involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, the interaction between angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AGTR1) signaling and miR-155 was investigated. Rat H9C2 (2–1) cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-155 analogues or inhibitors, then stimulated with angiotensin II to induce cardiac hypertrophy. miR-155 expression was revealed to be altered following transfection with chemically-modified miR-155 analogues and inhibitors in rat cardiomyocytes. In cell cardiac hypertrophy models, the cell surface area, AGTR1, atrial natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain-β mRNA expression levels were revealed to be lower in cells stimulated with miR-155 analogue-transfected cells treated with angiotensin II compared with cells stimulated with angiotensin alone (P<0.05), as determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. Furthermore, calcineurin mRNA and protein, intracellular free calcium and nuclear factor of activated T-cells-4 proteins were downregulated in miR-155 analogue-transfected cells treated with angiotensin II, as compared with cells stimulated with angiotensin II alone (P<0.05). In conclusion, the current study indicates that miR-155 may improve cardiac hypertrophy by downregulating AGTR1 and suppressing the calcium signaling pathways activated by AGTR1. PMID:27588076

  18. Mitoprotective antioxidant EUK-134 stimulates fatty acid oxidation and prevents hypertrophy in H9C2 cells.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Sreeja; Nair, R Renuka

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important contributory factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension-induced hypertrophy. Mitochondrion is the major source of reactive oxygen species. Hence, protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertensive heart disease. Conventional antioxidants are not likely to be cardioprotective, as they cannot protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. EUK-134 is a salen-manganese complex with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. The possible role of EUK-134, a mitoprotective antioxidant, in the prevention of hypertrophy of H9C2 cells was examined. The cells were stimulated with phenylephrine (50 μM), and hypertrophy was assessed based on cell volume and expression of brain natriuretic peptide and calcineurin. Enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, accompanied by nuclear factor-kappa B gene expression, confirmed the presence of oxidative stress in hypertrophic cells. Metabolic shift was evident from reduction in the expression of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was confirmed by the reduced expression of mitochondria-specific antioxidant peroxiredoxin-3 and enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. Compromised mitochondrial function was apparent from reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with EUK-134 (10 μM) was effective in the prevention of hypertrophic changes in H9C2 cells, reduction of oxidative stress, and prevention of metabolic shift. EUK-134 treatment improved the oxidative status of mitochondria and reversed hypertrophy-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Supplementation with EUK-134 is therefore identified as a novel approach to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and lends scope for the development of EUK-134 as a therapeutic agent in the management of human cardiovascular disease.

  19. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  20. Virginal Breast Hypertrophy and Symptomatic Treatment: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Menekşe, Ebru; Önel, Safa; Karateke, Faruk; Daş, Koray; Bali, İlhan; Bozkurt, Hilmi; Sözen, Selim; Özdoğan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Virginal breast hypertrophy is a rare benign disease. It is characterized by rapid and excessive growth of one or two breasts during peripubertal period. There is no specific treatment algorithm, subcutaneous mastectomy and prosthesis replacement, reduction mammoplasty, medical treatment with particularly tamoxifen are all recommended in the literature. Unfortunately, all treatment methods have some disadvantages in this patient group who have not completed their sexual and physical maturation. Although these treatments are usually required, it should be noted that spontaneous remission could rarely be seen in virginal hypertrophy. We aimed to present a case of virginal hypertrophy, in whom symptomatic treatment has been used and breast growth regressed spontaneously.

  1. GABA-B receptor activation inhibits the in vitro migration of malignant hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lodewyks, Carly; Rodriguez, Jose; Yan, Jing; Lerner, Betty; Lipschitz, Jeremy; Nfon, Charles; Rempel, Julia Darlene; Uhanova, Julia; Minuk, Gerald Yosel

    2011-06-01

    There are conflicting data regarding whether activation of γ-aminobutyric acid-B (GABA-B) receptors results in inhibition of tumor growth and invasion. The objectives of this study were to document the effects of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen on malignant hepatocyte proliferation and migration. We also sought to determine whether any effects on cell migration were mediated by changes in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Finally, GABA-B(1) and -B(2) receptor expression was documented in 2 malignant hepatocyte cell lines (PLC/PRF/5 and Huh-7) and 12 sets of human hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent nontumor tissues. Cell proliferative activity was documented by WST-1 absorbance, migration by wound healing assays, cAMP levels by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), MMP by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and GABA-B receptor expression by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction. Although baclofen had no effect on cell proliferation, wound healing was delayed, an effect that was reversed by the GABA-B receptor antagonist CGP. cAMP levels were decreased in Huh-7 but not PLC cells exposed to baclofen. MMP expression remained unaltered in both cell lines. Finally, GABA-B(1) receptor expression was present and consistently expressed, but GABA-B(2) expression was limited and varied with the number of cell passages and (or) duration of culture. In conclusion, activation of GABA-B receptors has no effect on malignant hepatocyte proliferation but does decrease cell migration. This inhibitory effect may involve cAMP signaling but not MMP expression. GABA-B(2) receptor expression is limited and variable, which may help to explain discrepancies with previously published results.

  2. Reversible Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    will have been introduced. 9. Reversible celular autemata We shall assume the reader to have some familiarity with the concept of cel- lular...10003 Mr. Kin B. Thcmpson 1 copy Technical Director Information Systems Divisia.i Naval Research Laboratory (OP-91T) Technical Information Division

  3. Reverse mortgages.

    PubMed

    Farnesi, D

    1995-09-01

    Elders and their families are often caught in a financial bind when it comes to paying for much-needed home care services. Reverse mortgages may offer a solution to elderly home care clients who own their homes but have a limited income with which to maintain their independence.

  4. REVERSE OSMOSIS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    acetate membranes. Mechanisms of the process and porous cellulose acetate membrane technology are briefly reviewed. Based on a general capillary...The reverse osmosis process is discussed with particular reference to systems involving aqueous solutions and Loeb-Sourirajan-type porous cellulose

  5. Property of hepatitis B virus replication in Tupaia belangeri hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanada, Takahiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Benjelloun, Soumaya; Murakami, Shuko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Tateno, Chise; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-08

    The northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) has been reported to be an effective candidate for animal infection model with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The objective of our study was to analyze the growth characteristics of HBV in tupaia hepatocytes and the host response to HBV infection. We established primary tupaia hepatocytes (3–6-week old tupaia) and infected them with HBV genotypes A, B and C, and all the genotypes proliferated as well as those in human primary hepatocytes (>10{sup 5} copies/ml in culture supernatant). We next generated a chimeric mouse with tupaia liver by transplantation of tupaia primary hepatocytes to urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA (cDNA-uPA)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and the replacement ratio with tupaia hepatocytes was found to be more than 95%. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV (genotypes B, C, and D) resulted in HBV-DNA level of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection, which were almost similar to that in humanized chimeric mouse. In contrast, serum HBV level in adult tupaia (1-year-old tupaia) was quite low (<10{sup 3} copies/ml). Understanding the differences in the response to HBV infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes, chimeric mouse, and adult tupaia will contribute to elucidating the mechanism of persistent HBV infection and viral eradication. Thus, T. belangeri was found to be efficient for studying the host response to HBV infection, thereby providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of HBV. - Highlights: • Primary hepatocytes were established from tupaia that is a novel HBV infection model. • Tupaia primary hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection. • The immunodeficient chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were established. • The chimeric mice with tupaia hepatocytes were susceptible for HBV infection.

  6. The effect of exercise training on transverse tubules in normal, remodeled, and reverse remodeled hearts.

    PubMed

    Kemi, Ole J; Hoydal, Morten A; Macquaide, Niall; Haram, Per M; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Smith, Godfrey L; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2011-09-01

    The response of transverse (T)-tubules to exercise training in health and disease remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of exercise training on the density and spacing of left ventricle cardiomyocyte T-tubules in normal and remodeled hearts that associate with detubulation, by confocal laser scanning microscopy. First, exercise training in normal rats increased cardiomyocyte volume by 16% (P < 0.01), with preserved T-tubule density. Thus, the T-tubules adapted to the physiologic hypertrophy. Next, we studied T-tubules in a rat model of metabolic syndrome with pressure overload-induced concentric left ventricle hypertrophy, evidenced by 15% (P < 0.01) increased cardiomyocyte size. These rats had only 85% (P < 0.01) of the T-tubule density of control rats. Exercise training further increased cardiomyocyte volume by 8% (P < 0.01); half to that in control rats, but the T-tubule density remained unchanged. Finally, post-myocardial infarction heart failure induced severe cardiac pathology, with a 70% (P < 0.01) increased cardiomyocyte volume that included both eccentric and concentric hypertrophy and 55% (P < 0.01) reduced T-tubule density. Exercise training reversed 50% (P < 0.01) of the pathologic hypertrophy, whereas the T-tubule density increased by 40% (P < 0.05) compared to sedentary heart failure, but remained at 60% of normal hearts (P < 0.01). Physiologic hypertrophy associated with conserved T-tubule spacing (~1.8-1.9 µm), whereas in pathologic hypertrophy, T-tubules appeared disorganized without regular spacing. In conclusion, cardiomyocytes maintain the relative T-tubule density during physiologic hypertrophy and after mild concentric pathologic hypertrophy, whereas after severe pathologic remodeling with a substantial loss of T-tubules; exercise training reverses the remodeling and partly corrects the T-tubule density.

  7. The effect of exercise training on transverse tubules in normal, remodeled, and reverse remodeled hearts

    PubMed Central

    Kemi, Ole J; Hoydal, Morten A; MacQuaide, Niall; Haram, Per M; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Smith, Godfrey L; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    The response of transverse (T)-tubules to exercise training in health and disease remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of exercise training on the density and spacing of left ventricle cardiomyocyte T-tubules in normal and remodeled hearts that associate with detubulation, by confocal laser scanning microscopy. First, exercise training in normal rats increased cardiomyocyte volume by 16% (p<0.01), with preserved T-tubule density. Thus, the T-tubules adapted to the physiologic hypertrophy. Next, we studied T-tubules in a rat model of metabolic syndrome with pressure overload-induced concentric left ventricle hypertrophy, evidenced by 15% (p<0.01) increased cardiomyocyte size. These rats had only 85% (p<0.01) of the T-tubule density of control rats. Exercise training further increased cardiomyocyte volume by 8% (p<0.01); half to that in control rats, but the T-tubule density remained unchanged. Finally, post-myocardial infarction heart failure induced severe cardiac pathology, with a 70% (p<0.01) increased cardiomyocyte volume that included both eccentric and concentric hypertrophy and 55% (p<0.01) reduced T-tubule density. Exercise training reversed 50% (p<0.01) of the pathologic hypertrophy, whereas the T-tubule density increased by 40% (p<0.05) compared to sedentary heart failure, but remained at 60% of normal hearts (p<0.01). Physiologic hypertrophy associated with conserved T-tubule spacing (~1.8–1.9 μm), whereas in pathologic hypertrophy, T-tubules appeared disorganized without regular spacing. In conclusion, cardiomyocytes maintain the relative T-tubule density during physiologic hypertrophy and after mild concentric pathologic hypertrophy, whereas after severe pathologic remodeling with a substantial loss of T-tubules; exercise training reverses the remodeling and partly corrects the T-tubule density. PMID:21660947

  8. Thiol-disulfide effects on hepatic glutathione transport. Studies in cultured rat hepatocytes and perfused livers.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, S C; Ge, J L; Huang, H Y; Kuhlenkamp, J; Kaplowitz, N

    1993-01-01

    In cultured rat hepatocytes, cystine led to an inhibition of GSH efflux by lowering the Vmax by approximately 35% without affecting the Km. The cystine-mediated inhibition of GSH efflux was rapid in onset (< 1 h), with near maximum effect at 0.1 mM. Inhibition was still observed when cystine uptake was prevented. Cystine and sulfobromophthalein-GSH, a selective inhibitor of sinusoidal transport of GSH, did not exhibit additive inhibitory effects on GSH efflux. Depletion of ATP or membrane depolarization after cystine treatment were excluded as potential mechanisms. DTT not only reversed the cystine-mediated inhibition of GSH efflux, it stimulated GSH efflux up to 400-500%. The DTT effect was immediate in onset, reaching maximum after 30 min, and was partially reversed by cystine, suggesting that the two share a common site(s) of action. DTT treatment did not alter cellular ATP levels or change the membrane potential. In cultured hepatocytes, DTT treatment increased the Vmax of GSH efflux by approximately 500% without affecting the Km. Inhibition of microtubular function and vesicular acidification did not affect basal or DTT stimulated efflux. Both cystine and DTT effects on sinusoidal GSH efflux were confirmed in perfused livers. In summary, the capacity of the sinusoidal GSH transporter is markedly influenced by thiol-disulfide status. Images PMID:8376579

  9. Inhibition of Hepatocyte Apoptosis: An Important Mechanism of Corn Peptides Attenuating Liver Injury Induced by Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhili; Hou, Tao; Shi, Wen; Liu, Weiwei; He, Hui

    2015-09-11

    In this study, the effects of mixed corn peptides and synthetic pentapeptide (QLLPF) on hepatocyte apoptosis induced by ethanol were investigated in vivo. QLLPF, was previously characterized from corn protein hydrolysis, which had been shown to exert good facilitating alcohol metabolism activity. Mice were pre-treated with the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide for 1 week and then treated with ethanol. After treatment of three weeks, the biochemical indices and the key ethanol metabolizing enzymes, the serum TNF-α, liver TGF-β1 concentrations and the protein expressions related to apoptosis were determined. We found that the Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c expressions in the intrinsic pathway and the Fas, FasL and NF-κB expressions in the extrinsic pathway together with higher TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentrations were reversed compared with the model group by both the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide. The activation of caspase3 was also suppressed. Additionally, apoptosis was further confirmed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the TUNEL assay demonstrated peptides suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis. Our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ethanol is alleviated in response to the treatment of corn peptides, potentially due to reversing the related protein expression.

  10. Berberine attenuates oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis via protecting mitochondria in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin; Xu, Wei-Na

    2017-02-01

    High-fat diets may have favorable effects on growth and cost, but high-fat diets often induce excessive fat deposition, resulting in liver damage. This study aimed to identify the hepatoprotective of a Chinese herb (berberine) for blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish were fed with a normal diet (LFD, 5 % fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 15 % fat) or berberine-supplemented diets (BSD, 15 % fat with berberine 50 or 100 mg/kg level) for 8 weeks. After the feeding, histology, oxidative status and mitochondrial function of liver were assessed. The results showed that HFD caused fat accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatocytes of fish. Hepatocytes in HFD group appeared to be hypertrophied, with larger liver cells diameter than these of LFD group. Berberine-supplemented diets could attenuate oxidative stress and hepatocytes apoptosis. HFD induced the decreasing mitochondrial complexes activities and bulk density and surface area density. Berberine improved function of mitochondrial respiratory chain via increasing the complex activities. Moreover, the histological results showed that berberine has the potential to repair mitochondrial ultrastructural damage and elevate the density in cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that berberine has attenuated liver damage induced by the high fat mainly via the protection for mitochondria.

  11. Left ventricular hypertrophy regression in hypertensive patients treated with metoprolol.

    PubMed

    Corea, L; Bentivoglio, M; Verdecchia, P; Provvidenza, M; Motolese, M

    1984-07-01

    The long-term effects of metoprolol monotherapy, 100 mg b.i.d., for 16-18 months, were investigated in 8 previously untreated essentially hypertensive patients (resting blood pressure greater than 155/95 mmHg) and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (left ventricular mass by Penn Cube formula greater than 215 g). Echocardiographic studies, according to the American Society of Echocardiography recording techniques and measurements criteria, were performed before starting treatment and at the end of follow-up. Metoprolol induced a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, accompanied by a reduction of interventricular septum and posterior wall thickness (from 1.21 cm to 1.10 cm, and from 1.15 cm to 1.06 cm, respectively), left ventricular mass index and mean wall stress. All these changes were significant (p less than 0.01). Cardiac index decreased from 3017 ml/m2 to 2632 ml/m2 (p less than 0.01), mostly because of the reduction in the heart rate. In fact, stroke index, ejection fraction and fractional shortening all slightly increased during treatment in respect to pre-treatment values. Plasma renin activity fell from 1.45 ng/ml/h to 0.81 ng/ml/h (p less than 0.01), whereas both plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentration at rest did not change. Results indicate that in essentially hypertensive patients who have already developed LVH as a consequence of the hypertension, a long-term metoprolol therapy can successfully induce a reversal of LVH together with an effective blood pressure control, without noticeable adverse effects of changes in cardiac performance.

  12. Role of. beta. -adrenoceptors in thyroxine-induced hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Eliades, D.; Weiss, H.R.

    1986-03-05

    The role of ..beta..-adrenoceptors in the development of thyroxine (T/sub 4/)-induced hypertrophy was studied in New Zealand white rabbits. Radiolabelled microspheres were used to measure coronary blood flow, and (/sup 125/I)-pindolol was used for Scatchard analysis of cardiac membranes to determine ..beta..-adrenoceptor density (B/sub max/) and affinity. After 16 d of T/sub 4/, coronary blood flow (CBF) was elevated from 257 +/- 31 ml/min/100 g (mean +/- SD) to 530 +/- 152 and B/sub max/ increased from 24.0 +/- 6.2 fmol/mg membrane protein to 47.3 +/- 12.0. Heart weight (HW) was elevated 30%, and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) increased 70% above control. T/sub 4/ + propranolol (9 mg/kg/d) diminished CBF from levels seen with T/sub 4/ alone, to 361 +/- 146 ml/min/100g. However B/sub max/ elevations were unchanged from values with T/sub 4/. HW and HW/BW increases were insignificantly less than with T/sub 4/ alone. CBF in T/sub 4/ + pindolol (0.9 mg/kg/d) animals was similar to that with T/sub 4/ alone, but B/sub max/ increases were prevented (32.0 +/- 11.0). HW and HW/BW were both lower than with T/sub 4/ alone (153% of control). Thus, it appears that pindolol is more able to reverse some of the effects of T/sub 4/ than is propranolol, possibly due to prevention of ..beta..-adrenoceptor upregulation as a result of its intrinsic sympathomimetic ability.

  13. TGFβ-Stimulated MicroRNA-21 Utilizes PTEN to Orchestrate AKT/mTORC1 Signaling for Mesangial Cell Hypertrophy and Matrix Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nirmalya; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) promotes glomerular hypertrophy and matrix expansion, leading to glomerulosclerosis. MicroRNAs are well suited to promote fibrosis because they can repress gene expression, which negatively regulate the fibrotic process. Recent cellular and animal studies have revealed enhanced expression of microRNA, miR-21, in renal cells in response to TGFβ. Specific miR-21 targets downstream of TGFβ receptor activation that control cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression have not been studied. Using 3′UTR-driven luciferase reporter, we identified the tumor suppressor protein PTEN as a target of TGFβ-stimulated miR-21 in glomerular mesangial cells. Expression of miR-21 Sponge, which quenches endogenous miR-21 levels, reversed TGFβ-induced suppression of PTEN. Additionally, miR-21 Sponge inhibited TGFβ-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt kinase, resulting in attenuation of phosphorylation of its substrate GSK3β. Tuberin and PRAS40, two other Akt substrates, and endogenous inhibitors of mTORC1, regulate mesangial cell hypertrophy. Neutralization of endogenous miR-21 abrogated TGFβ-stimulated phosphorylation of tuberin and PRAS40, leading to inhibition of phosphorylation of S6 kinase, mTOR and 4EBP-1. Moreover, downregulation of miR-21 significantly suppressed TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which were reversed by siRNA-targeted inhibition of PTEN expression. Similarly, expression of constitutively active Akt kinase reversed the miR-21 Sponge-mediated inhibition of TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active mTORC1 prevented the miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of mesangial cell protein synthesis and hypertrophy by TGFβ. Finally, we show that miR-21 Sponge inhibited TGFβ-stimulated fibronectin and collagen expression. Suppression of PTEN expression and expression of both constitutively active Akt kinase and mTORC1 independently reversed this miR-21-mediated

  14. Cardiac Stim1 Silencing Impairs Adaptive Hypertrophy and Promotes Heart Failure Through Inactivation of mTORC2/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bénard, Ludovic; Oh, Jae Gyun; Cacheux, Marine; Lee, Ahyoung; Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; Matasic, Daniel S; Kohlbrenner, Erik; Kho, Changwon; Pavoine, Catherine; Hajjar, Roger J; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-04-12

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a dynamic calcium signal transducer implicated in hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. STIM1 is thought to act as an initiator of cardiac hypertrophic response at the level of the sarcolemma, but the pathways underpinning this effect have not been examined. To determine the mechanistic role of STIM1 in cardiac hypertrophy and during the transition to heart failure, we manipulated STIM1 expression in mice cardiomyocytes by using in vivo gene delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs. In 3 different models, we found that Stim1 silencing prevents the development of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy but also reverses preestablished cardiac hypertrophy. Reduction in STIM1 expression promoted a rapid transition to heart failure. We further showed that Stim1 silencing resulted in enhanced activity of the antihypertrophic and proapoptotic GSK-3β molecule. Pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 was sufficient to reverse the cardiac phenotype observed after Stim1 silencing. At the level of ventricular myocytes, Stim1 silencing or inhibition abrogated the capacity for phosphorylation of Akt(S473), a hydrophobic motif of Akt that is directly phosphorylated by mTOR complex 2. We found that Stim1 silencing directly impaired mTOR complex 2 kinase activity, which was supported by a direct interaction between STIM1 and Rictor, a specific component of mTOR complex 2. These data support a model whereby STIM1 is critical to deactivate a key negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. In cardiomyocytes, STIM1 acts by tuning Akt kinase activity through activation of mTOR complex 2, which further results in repression of GSK-3β activity. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Telmisartan attenuates aortic hypertrophy in hypertensive rats by the modulation of ACE2 and profilin-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jiu-Chang; Ye, Jia-Ying; Jin, Hai-Yan; Yu, Xi; Yu, Hui-Min; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Gao, Ping-Jin; Huang, Dong-Yang; Shuster, Manfred; Loibner, Hans; Guo, Jun-Min; Yu, Xi-Yong; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Gong, Zhao-Hui; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2011-01-17

    Profilin-1 has recently been linked to vascular hypertrophy and remodeling. Here, we assessed the hypothesis that angiotensin (Ang) II type I receptor antagonist telmisartan improves vascular hypertrophy by modulation of expression of profilin-1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Ten-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were received oral administration of telmisartan (5 or 10mg/kg; daily) or saline for 10 weeks. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, there were marked increases in systolic blood pressure and profilin-1 expression and reduced ACE2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) levels in aorta of SHR, associated with elevated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation signaling and aortic hypertrophy characterized with increased media thickness, which were strikingly reversed by telmisartan. In cultured human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs), Ang II induced a dose-dependent increase in profilin-1 expression, along with decreased ACE2 protein expression and elevated ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of ERK1/2 or JNK by either specific inhibitor was able to abolish Ang II-induced ACE2 downregulation and profilin-1 upregulation in HUASMCs. Importantly, treatment with telmisartan (1 or 10 μM) or recombinant human ACE2 (2mg/ml) largely ameliorated Ang II-induced profilin-1 expression and ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation and augmented PPARγ expression in the cultured HUASMCs. In conclusion, telmisartan treatment attenuates vascular hypertrophy in SHR by the modulation of ACE2 and profilin-1 expression with a marked reversal of ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation signaling pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV increases HCV-induced hepatocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Young; Shao, Run-Xuan; Lin, Wenyu; Weinberg, Ethan; Chung, Woo Jin; Tsai, Wei Lun; Zhao, Hong; Goto, Kaku; Zhang, Leiliang; Mendez-Navarro, Jorge; Jilg, Nikolaus; Peng, Lee F.; Brockman, Mark A.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims HCV related liver disease is one of the most important complications in persons with HIV, with accelerated fibrosis progression in coinfected persons compared to those with HCV alone. We hypothesized that HIV coinfection increases HCV related hepatocyte apoptosis and that HCV and HIV influence TRAIL signaling in hepatocytes. Methods We analyzed the effect of HIV on JFH1-infected Huh 7.5.1 cells. Apoptosis was measured by Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay and Western blot for cleaved PARP. TRAIL, TRAIL receptor 1 (DR4) and 2 (DR5) mRNA and protein levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. We also investigated activation of caspase pathways using caspase inhibitors and assessed expression of Bid and cytochrome C. Results We found increased caspase 3/7 activity and cleaved PARP in JFH1 HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells in the presence of heat-inactivated HIV compared to Huh7.5.1 cells infected with JFH1 or exposed to heat-inactivated HIV alone. Both DR4 and DR5 mRNA and protein expression were increased in JFH1-infected cells in the presence of inactivated HIV compared to Huh7.5.1 cells infected with JFH1 or exposed to heat-inactivated HIV alone. Pancaspase, Caspase-8, and caspase-9 inhibition blocked apoptosis induced by HCV, inactivated HIV and HCV plus inactivated HIV. A caspase-9 inhibitor blocked apoptosis induced by HCV, HIV and HCV-HIV comparably to pancaspase and caspase-8 inhibitors. HCV induced the activation of Bid cleavage and cytochrome C release. The addition of HIV substantially augmented this induction. Conclusions Our findings indicate that hepatocyte apoptosis is increased in the presence of HCV and HIV compared to HCV or HIV alone, and that this increase is mediated by DR4 and DR5 up-regulation. They provide an additional mechanism for the observed accelerated liver disease progression observed in HCV-HIV coinfection. PMID:21146890

  17. Fibrous Tendon Hypertrophy after Gastrocnemius Recession: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jastifer, James R; Coughlin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Surgical complications after gastrocnemius recession have been rare in published studies. We report a case of symptomatic fibrous tendon hypertrophy requiring revision surgery. Additionally, we have provided a review of the published data on the complications related to this procedure.

  18. Cytoskeletal Role in the Contractile Dysfunction of Hypertrophied Myocardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Kazuaki; Cooper, George

    1993-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy in response to systolic pressure loading frequently results in contractile dysfunction of unknown cause. In the present study, pressure loading increased the microtubule component of the cardiac muscle cell cytoskeleton, which was responsible for the cellular contractile dysfunction observed. The linked microtubule and contractile abnormalities were persistent and thus may have significance for the deterioration of initially compensatory cardiac hypertrophy into congestive heart failure.

  19. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonah D.; England, Jonathan H.; Esser, Karyn A.; McCarthy, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23869057

  20. Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lee, Jonah D; England, Jonathan H; Esser, Karyn A; McCarthy, John J

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy.

  1. Experimental Mouse Model of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takeyuki; Yokota, Kazuya; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Hara, Masamitsu; Kubota, Kensuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Doi, Toshio; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in elderly people, with the number of LSCS patients increasing due to the aging of the population. The ligamentum flavum (LF) is a spinal ligament located in the interior of the vertebral canal, and hypertrophy of the LF, which causes the direct compression of the nerve roots and/or cauda equine, is a major cause of LSCS. Although there have been previous studies on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to establish a relevant mouse model of LF hypertrophy and to examine disease-related factors. First, we focused on mechanical stress and developed a loading device for applying consecutive mechanical flexion-extension stress to the mouse LF. After 12 weeks of mechanical stress loading, we found that the LF thickness in the stress group was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. In addition, there were significant increases in the area of collagen fibers, the number of LF cells, and the gene expression of several fibrosis-related factors. However, in this mecnanical stress model, there was no macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, or increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which are characteristic features of LF hypertrophy in LSCS patients. We therefore examined the influence of infiltrating macrophages on LF hypertrophy. After inducing macrophage infiltration by micro-injury to the mouse LF, we found excessive collagen synthesis in the injured site with the increased TGF-β1 expression at 2 weeks after injury, and further confirmed LF hypertrophy at 6 weeks after injury. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical stress is a causative factor for LF hypertrophy and strongly suggest the importance of macrophage infiltration in the progression of LF hypertrophy via the stimulation of collagen production. PMID:28060908

  2. Cucurbitacin B Protects Against Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Yang, Zheng; Wu, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Han; Yuan, Yuan; Chang, Wei; Bian, Zhou Yan; Zhu, Jin Xiu; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-04-08

    Lack of effective anti-cardiac hypertrophy drugs creates a major cause for the increasing prevalence of heart failure. In the present study, we determined the anti-hypertrophy and anti-fibrosis potential of a natural plant triterpenoid, Cucurbitacin B both in vitro and in vivo. Aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy. After 1 week of surgery, mice were receive cucurbitacin B treatment (Gavage, 0.2 mg/kg body weight/2 day). Afer 4 weeks of AB, cucurbitacin B demonstrated a strong anti- hypertrophy and anti-fibrosis ability as evidenced by decreased of heart weight, myocardial cell cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis, ameliorated of systolic and diastolic abnormalities, normalized in gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers, reserved microvascular density in pressure overload induced hypertrophic mice. Cucurbitacin B also showed significant hypertrophy inhibitory effect in phenylephrine stimulated cardiomyocytes. The Cucurbitacin B-mediated mitigated cardiac hypertrophy was attributable to the increasing level of autophagy, which was associated with the blockade of Akt/mTOR/FoxO3a signal pathway, validated by SC79, MK2206, and 3-MA, the Akt agonist, inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor in vitro. The overexpression of constitutively active Akt completely abolished the Cucurbitacin B-mediated protection of cardiac hypertrophy in human cardiomyocytes AC16. Collectively, our findings suggest that cucurbitacin B protects against cardiac hypertrophy through increasing the autophagy level in cardiomyocytes, which is associated with the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/FoxO3a signal axis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph; Glaser, Alex E.; Wolf, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr) RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for

  4. [Morphometric characteristics of neuromuscular spindles in hypertrophied skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Mytskan, B M; Mel'man, E P

    1986-11-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy in young male rats was found to be accompanied by adaptive changes in neuromuscular spindles. The changes consisted in connective capsule thickening, increased diameter of NMS and intrafusal muscle fibers, expanded afferent and efferent nerve terminals, increased microcirculatory bed capacity. The quantitative and qualitative shifts observed in NMS structure are morphologically equivalent to the rise in their functional potential, which forms the basis for the functional changes in conditions of increasing skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph; Glaser, Alex E; Wolf, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFR(A887T), Ras85D(V12) and Ras85D(V12S35), which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr) RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERK(D334N), which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for

  6. Experimental Mouse Model of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeyuki; Yokota, Kazuya; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Hara, Masamitsu; Kubota, Kensuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Doi, Toshio; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in elderly people, with the number of LSCS patients increasing due to the aging of the population. The ligamentum flavum (LF) is a spinal ligament located in the interior of the vertebral canal, and hypertrophy of the LF, which causes the direct compression of the nerve roots and/or cauda equine, is a major cause of LSCS. Although there have been previous studies on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to establish a relevant mouse model of LF hypertrophy and to examine disease-related factors. First, we focused on mechanical stress and developed a loading device for applying consecutive mechanical flexion-extension stress to the mouse LF. After 12 weeks of mechanical stress loading, we found that the LF thickness in the stress group was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. In addition, there were significant increases in the area of collagen fibers, the number of LF cells, and the gene expression of several fibrosis-related factors. However, in this mecnanical stress model, there was no macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, or increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which are characteristic features of LF hypertrophy in LSCS patients. We therefore examined the influence of infiltrating macrophages on LF hypertrophy. After inducing macrophage infiltration by micro-injury to the mouse LF, we found excessive collagen synthesis in the injured site with the increased TGF-β1 expression at 2 weeks after injury, and further confirmed LF hypertrophy at 6 weeks after injury. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical stress is a causative factor for LF hypertrophy and strongly suggest the importance of macrophage infiltration in the progression of LF hypertrophy via the stimulation of collagen production.

  7. Vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Belker, A M

    1987-02-01

    A vasovasostomy may be performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia, but also may be performed on an outpatient basis with epidural or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is preferred by most of my patients, the majority of whom choose this technique. With proper preoperative and intraoperative sedation, patients sleep lightly through most of the procedure. Because of the length of time often required for bilateral microsurgical vasoepididymostomy, epidural or general anesthesia and overnight hospitalization are usually necessary. Factors influencing the preoperative choice for vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy in patients undergoing vasectomy reversal are considered. The preoperative planned choice of vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy for patients having vasectomy reversal described herein does not have the support of all urologists who regularly perform these procedures. My present approach has evolved as the data reported in Tables 1 and 2 have become available, but it may change as new information is evaluated. However, it offers a logical method for planning choices of anesthesia and inpatient or outpatient status for patients undergoing vasectomy reversal procedures.

  8. New method of hepatocyte transplantation and extracorporeal liver support.

    PubMed Central

    Demetriou, A A; Whiting, J; Levenson, S M; Chowdhury, N R; Schechner, R; Michalski, S; Feldman, D; Chowdhury, J R

    1986-01-01

    A technique has been developed by the authors that allows hepatocyte attachment on collagen-coated microcarriers resulting in prolonged hepatocyte viability and function both in vivo and in vitro. Rat hepatocytes were obtained by portal vein collagenase perfusion. Intraperitoneally transplanted microcarrier-attached normal hepatocytes into congeneic Gunn rats were functioning 3-4 weeks later, as shown by the presence and persistence of conjugated bilirubin in recipient bile, sustained decrease in serum bilirubin, uptake of Tc99m-DESIDA, and morphologic criteria. Intraperitoneal transplantation of normal microcarrier-attached hepatocytes into genetically albumin deficient rats (NAR) resulted in marked increase in plasma albumin levels (6 days without and 21 days with Cyclosporin A immunosuppression). Microcarrier-attached hepatocytes transplanted after 2 weeks of storage at -80 C into congeneic Gunn rats were viable and functional as assessed by criteria outlined above. An extracorporeal liver perfusion system was developed using the microcarrier-attached hepatocytes that was capable of synthesizing and conjugating bilirubin and synthesizing liver-specific proteins. Images FIGS. 5A and B. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 12. PMID:3530153

  9. In vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of duck embryonic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Schacke, M; Glück, B; Wutzler, P; Sauerbrei, A

    2009-04-01

    Hepatitis B-virucidal testing of biocides in quantitative suspension tests using duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) requires primary duck embryonic hepatocytes for viral propagation. To improve the test system and availability of these cells, commercial culture plates with different growth surfaces were tested for cell cultivation and different approaches for cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension were examined. After 12 days of culture, the largest amounts of hepatocytes were grown in CellBIND and TTP plates and CellBIND surface showed the lowest tendency of monolayer detachment nearly comparable with collagen 1-coated CELLCOAT plates. For cryopreservation of hepatocyte suspension, the use of growth medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (ME(2)SO), FCS supplemented with ME(2)SO or cryosafe-1 as cryoprotective agents provided the highest rates of surviving cells after thawing. The freezing-thawing process did not significantly reduce the susceptibility of hepatocytes to infection with DHBV. In conclusion, plates without collagen 1 such as CellBIND are recommended for cultivation of primary duck embryonic hepatocytes in infectivity experiments of DHBV for virucidal testing of biocides. The use of cryopreserved hepatocytes is possible when freshly isolated cells from the liver of duck embryos are not available.

  10. Isolation of centrolobular and perilobular hepatocytes after phenobarbital treatment

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Daily phenobarbital (PB) injections, on 3-7 consecutive days, induce an intense proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) associated with a decrease of the glucose-6-phosphatase activity. This situation first affects the centrolobular hepatocytes, enhancing the degree of liver lobule heterogeneity. This experimental model was used for isolation and further subfractionation of hepatocytes on Ficoll density gradients, as described in the preceding paper. Profiles of protein, DNA, RNA, glycogen, phosphorylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase were determined all along the gradient. Two liver cell populations were distinguished: (a) light hepatocytes (mean density 1.10) present the same morphological characteristics as centrolobular cells, i.e., an abundant smooth ER composed of tubular elements, numerous small mitochondria, and few glycogen particles; (b) heavy hepatocytes (mean density 1.14) are characterized by large and compact glycogen areas and prominent rough endoplasmic cisternae, as are the perilobular cells. After incubation in the Wachstein-Meisel medium, Centrolobular hepatocytes exhibit dispersed reaction sites of glucose-6-phosphatase activity, whereas perilobular cells present a continuous and intense reaction. Morphometric determinations were carried out for both cell populations. Centrolobular PB hepatocytes are considerably enlarged (mean diameter: 23.7 mum); perilobular hepatocytes have a significantly smaller mean diameter of 19.2 mum, which is close to the values of control liver cells. PMID:167029

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes as an alternative to human adult hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research have attracted much attention. The ability to generate such cells from somatic cells has implications for overcoming both immunological rejection and the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Hepatocytes derived from patient-specific iPS cells offer a possible solution to the shortage of cell sources in cell replacement therapy, drug screening, and disease model. Despite such great promise, however, recent articles have questioned the viability of the therapeutic applications of iPS cells. These cells must, therefore, satisfy stringent criteria prior to practical use. The main focus of this review is a description of the current status of hepatic differentiation technology of iPS cells and a discussion of the concerns regarding the practical use of these techniques in cell replacement therapy, drug screening, and disease model. The current status of strategies for generating iPS cells and the accumulated knowledge on strategies for differentiating ES cells into hepatocytes will be summarized. We also refer to the possibility of direct conversion of adult somatic cells into functional hepatocytes.

  12. Protective effect of C-phycocyanin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu; Zheng, Shan; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Qizhou; Yang, Xuegan

    2010-04-29

    This study focused on the hepatoprotective activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro study, human hepatocyte cell line L02 was used. C-PC showed its capability to reverse CCl(4)-induced L02 cells viability loss, alanine transaminase (ALT) leakage and morphological changes. C-PC also showed the following positive effects: prevent the CCl(4)-induced overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA); prevent changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and reduce glutathione (GSH) level. In vivo, C-PC showed its capability to decrease serum ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in CCl(4)-induced liver damage in mice. The histological observations supported the results obtained from serum enzymes assays. C-PC also showed the following effects in mice liver: prevent the CCl(4)-induced MDA formation and GSH depletion; prevent SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity; and prevent the elevation of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNAs. Both the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that C-PC was useful in protecting against CCl(4)-induced hepatocyte damage. One of the mechanisms is believed to be through C-PCs scavenging ability to protect the hepatocytes from free radicals damage induced by CCl(4). In addition, C-PC may be able to block inflammatory infiltration through its anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting TGF-beta1 and HGF expression.

  13. Lysosomal iron mobilization and induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition in acetaminophen-induced toxicity to mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Kazuyoshi; Kim, Jae-Sung; Uchiyama, Akira; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Lemasters, John J

    2010-09-01

    Acetaminophen induces the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in hepatocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) trigger the MPT and play an important role in AAP-induced hepatocellular injury. Because iron is a catalyst for ROS formation, our aim was to investigate the role of chelatable iron in MPT-dependent acetaminophen toxicity to mouse hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from fasted male C3Heb/FeJ mice. Necrotic cell killing was determined by propidium iodide fluorometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was visualized by confocal microscopy of tetramethylrhodamine methylester. Chelatable ferrous ion was monitored by calcein quenching, and 70 kDa rhodamine-dextran was used to visualize lysosomes. Cell killing after acetaminophen (10mM) was delayed and decreased by more than half after 6 h by 1mM desferal or 1mM starch-desferal. In a cell-free system, ferrous but not ferric iron quenched calcein fluorescence, an effect reversed by dipyridyl, a membrane-permeable iron chelator. In hepatocytes loaded with calcein, intracellular calcein fluorescence decreased progressively beginning about 4 h after acetaminophen. Mitochondria then depolarized after about 6 h. Dipyridyl (20mM) dequenched calcein fluorescence. Desferal and starch-desferal conjugate prevented acetaminophen-induced calcein quenching and mitochondrial depolarization. As calcein fluorescence became quenched, lysosomes disappeared, consistent with release of iron from ruptured lysosomes. In conclusion, an increase of cytosolic chelatable ferrous iron occurs during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, which triggers the MPT and cell killing. Disrupted lysosomes are the likely source of iron, and chelation of this iron decreases acetaminophen toxicity to hepatocytes.

  14. Toxicogenomics directory of chemically exposed human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Marianna; Stöber, Regina M; Edlund, Karolina; Rempel, Eugen; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Widera, Agata; Madjar, Katrin; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Marchan, Rosemarie; Sachinidis, Agapios; Spitkovsky, Dimitry; Hescheler, Jürgen; Carmo, Helena; Arbo, Marcelo D; van de Water, Bob; Wink, Steven; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Escher, Sylvia; Hardy, Barry; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Waldmann, Tanja; Mardinoglu, Adil; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas S; Oberemm, Axel; Lampen, Alfons; Schaap, Mirjam M; Luijten, Mirjam; van Steeg, Harry; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Stierum, Rob H; Leist, Marcel; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan G

    2014-12-01

    A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap, we used the Open TG-GATES database with Affymetrix files of cultivated human hepatocytes incubated with chemicals, further sets of gene array data with hepatocytes from human donors generated in this study, and publicly available genome-wide datasets of human liver tissue from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). After a curation procedure, expression data of 143 chemicals were included into a comprehensive biostatistical analysis. The results are summarized in the publicly available toxicotranscriptomics directory ( http://wiki.toxbank.net/toxicogenomics-map/ ) which provides information for all genes whether they are up- or downregulated by chemicals and, if yes, by which compounds. The directory also informs about the following key features of chemically influenced genes: (1) Stereotypical stress response. When chemicals induce strong expression alterations, this usually includes a complex but highly reproducible pattern named 'stereotypical response.' On the other hand, more specific expression responses exist that are induced only by individual compounds or small numbers of compounds. The directory differentiates if the gene is part of the stereotypical stress response or if it represents a more specific reaction. (2) Liver disease-associated genes. Approximately 20 % of the genes influenced by chemicals are up- or downregulated, also in liver disease. Liver disease genes deregulated in cirrhosis, HCC, and NASH that overlap with genes of the aforementioned stereotypical chemical stress response include CYP3A7, normally expressed in fetal liver; the

  15. Inhibition of Jak2 phosphorylation attenuates pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Beckles, Daniel L; Mascareno, Eduardo; Siddiqui, M A Q

    2006-12-01

    We examined the role of Jak2 kinase phosphorylation in the development of pressure overload hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and treated with tyrphostin AG490, a pharmacological inhibitor of Jak2. Control mice (sham), subjected to TAC for 15 days (TAC) or to TAC and treated with 48 microg/kg/day i.p. of tyrphostin AG490 (TAC+AG490) were evaluated for morphological, physiological, and molecular changes associated with pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice subjected to TAC alone developed concentric hypertrophy that accompanied activation of the components of the Jak/STAT signaling pathway manifested by an increase in phosphorylation of Jak2 and STAT3. We also observed increased phosphorylation of MAPK p44/p42, p38 MAPK and JNK in the TAC group, as well as, an increase in expression of MKP-1 phosphatase which negatively regulates MAPK kinases. Treatment of aortic constricted mice with tyrphostin AG490 failed to develop hypertrophy and showed a marked reduction in phosphorylation of Jak2 and STAT3. There was, however, in TAC and AG490 treated mice, a notable increase in the phosphorylation state of the MAPK p44/42, whereas MKP-1 phosphatase was downregulated. These findings suggest that Jak2 kinase plays an important role in left ventricular remodeling during pressure overload hypertrophy. Pharmacological inhibition of Jak2 kinase during pressure overload blocks the development of concentric hypertrophy.

  16. Mechanisms for altered carnitine content in hypertrophied rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.A.

    1987-03-01

    Carnitine levels are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction (banding) and evaluated in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In an attempt to determine the mechanisms for these alterations, L-(/sup 14/C)carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by approx.20% in hypertrophied hearts of banded rats at all perfusate carnitine concentrations employed. The reduction in total uptake was due to a 40% reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake with no difference in uptake by diffusion. In contrast, carnitine uptake was not altered in isolated hypertrophied hearts of SHR. However, serum carnitine levels were elevated in SHR, which could result in increased myocardial carnitine uptake in vivo. The data suggest that altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of aortic-banded rats is due to an alteration in the carrier-mediated carnitine transport system in the myocardium. However, altered carnitine content in hypertrophied hearts of SHR is not due to a change in the carnitine transport system per se but may rather be due to a change in serum carnitine levels.

  17. Profilin modulates sarcomeric organization and mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, Viola; Viswanathan, Meera C.; Lee, Dong I.; Rainer, Peter P.; Schmidt, William; Kronert, William A.; Harding, Sian E.; Kass, David A.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Cammarato, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Aims Heart failure is often preceded by cardiac hypertrophy, which is characterized by increased cell size, altered protein abundance, and actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Profilin is a well-conserved, ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional actin-binding protein, and its role in cardiomyocytes is largely unknown. Given its involvement in vascular hypertrophy, we aimed to test the hypothesis that profilin-1 is a key mediator of cardiomyocyte-specific hypertrophic remodelling. Methods and results Profilin-1 was elevated in multiple mouse models of hypertrophy, and a cardiomyocyte-specific increase of profilin in Drosophila resulted in significantly larger heart tube dimensions. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of profilin-1 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) induced a hypertrophic response, measured by increased myocyte size and gene expression. Profilin-1 silencing suppressed the response in NRVMs stimulated with phenylephrine or endothelin-1. Mechanistically, we found that profilin-1 regulates hypertrophy, in part, through activation of the ERK1/2 signalling cascade. Confocal microscopy showed that profilin localized to the Z-line of Drosophila myofibrils under normal conditions and accumulated near the M-line when overexpressed. Elevated profilin levels resulted in elongated sarcomeres, myofibrillar disorganization, and sarcomeric disarray, which correlated with impaired muscle function. Conclusion Our results identify novel roles for profilin as an important mediator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We show that overexpression of profilin is sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and sarcomeric remodelling, and silencing of profilin attenuates the hypertrophic response. PMID:26956799

  18. ALK7 protects against pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Tang, Yanhong; Wu, Gang; Mei, Yang; Liu, Wanli; Liu, Xiaoxiong; Wan, Nian; Liu, Yu; Huang, Congxin

    2015-10-01

    Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), one of the type I transforming growth factor-β receptors, is expressed in various tissues, including the heart. However, the participation of ALK7 in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy has not yet been studied. Here, we sought to determine the regulatory role and underlying mechanisms of ALK7 in cardiac hypertrophy. We performed aortic banding (AB) in ALK7-knockout mice, cardiac-specific ALK7-transgenic mice, and the wild-type littermates of these mice. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated using pathological analysis, echocardiographic measurement, haemodynamic measurement, and molecular analysis. Our results revealed that ALK7 disruption led to an aggravated cardiac hypertrophic response that was accompanied by increased cardiac fibrosis and reduced contractile function, whereas cardiac-specific ALK7 overexpression exhibited the opposite phenotype in response to pressure overload. Similarly, ALK7 protected against angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that ALK7-dependent cardioprotection was mediated largely through inhibition of the MEK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway. Our data suggest that ALK7 acts as a novel regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy via the negative regulation of MEK-ERK1/2 signalling and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Novel EGFR inhibitors attenuate cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kesong; Tian, Xinqiao; Qian, Yuanyuan; Skibba, Melissa; Zou, Chunpeng; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Zheng; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an important risk factor for heart failure. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this current study was to examine the role of EGFR in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we observed that both Ang II and EGF could increase the phospohorylation of EGFR and protein kinase B (AKT)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and then induce cell hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic silencing significantly reduced Ang II-induced EGFR signalling pathway activation, hypertrophic marker overexpression, and cell hypertrophy. In addition, our results showed that Ang II-induced EGFR activation is mediated by c-Src phosphorylation. In vivo, Ang II treatment significantly led to cardiac remodelling including cardiac hypertrophy, disorganization and fibrosis, accompanied by the activation of EGFR signalling pathway in the heart tissues, while all these molecular and pathological alterations were attenuated by the oral administration with EGFR inhibitors. In conclusion, the c-Src-dependent EGFR activation may play an important role in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and inhibition of EGFR by specific molecules may be an effective strategy for the treatment of Ang II-associated cardiac diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Mitochondrial adaptations to physiological vs. pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Abel, E. Dale; Doenst, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a stereotypic response of the heart to increased workload. The nature of the workload increase may vary depending on the stimulus (repetitive, chronic, pressure, or volume overload). If the heart fully adapts to the new loading condition, the hypertrophic response is considered physiological. If the hypertrophic response is associated with the ultimate development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure, the response is considered pathological. Although divergent signalling mechanisms may lead to these distinct patterns of hypertrophy, there is some overlap. Given the close relationship between workload and energy demand, any form of cardiac hypertrophy will impact the energy generation by mitochondria, which are the key organelles for cellular ATP production. Significant changes in the expression of nuclear and mitochondrially encoded transcripts that impact mitochondrial function as well as altered mitochondrial proteome composition and mitochondrial energetics have been described in various forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we review mitochondrial alterations in pathological and physiological hypertrophy. We suggest that mitochondrial adaptations to pathological and physiological hypertrophy are distinct, and we shall review potential mechanisms that might account for these differences. PMID:21257612

  1. Bezafibrate Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Si-Chi; Ma, Zhen-Guo; Wei, Wen-Ying; Yuan, Yu-Pei; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Background. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) is closely associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have indicated that bezafibrate (BZA), a PPAR-α agonist, could attenuate insulin resistance and obesity. This study was designed to determine whether BZA could protect against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods. Mice were orally given BZA (100 mg/kg) for 7 weeks beginning 1 week after aortic banding (AB) surgery. Cardiac hypertrophy was assessed based on echocardiographic, histological, and molecular aspects. Moreover, neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) were used to investigate the effects of BZA on the cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response in vitro. Results. Our study demonstrated that BZA could alleviate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice subjected to AB surgery. BZA treatment also reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). BZA suppressed phenylephrine- (PE-) induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocyte in vitro. The protective effects of BZA were abolished by the treatment of the PPAR-α antagonist in vitro. Conclusions. BZA could attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

  2. COX-2 inhibitor reduces skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Novak, Margaret L; Billich, William; Smith, Sierra M; Sukhija, Kunal B; McLoughlin, Thomas J; Hornberger, Troy A; Koh, Timothy J

    2009-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory strategies are often used to reduce muscle pain and soreness that can result from high-intensity muscular activity. However, studies indicate that components of the acute inflammatory response may be required for muscle repair and growth. The hypothesis of this study was that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity is required for compensatory hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. We used the synergist ablation model of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, along with the specific COX-2 inhibitor NS-398, to investigate the role of COX-2 in overload-induced muscle growth in mice. COX-2 was expressed in plantaris muscles during compensatory hypertrophy and was localized mainly in or near muscle cell nuclei. Treatment with NS-398 blunted the increases in mass and protein content in overloaded muscles compared with vehicle-treated controls. Additionally, the COX-2 inhibitor decreased activity of the urokinase type plasminogen activator, macrophage accumulation, and cell proliferation, all of which are required for hypertrophy after synergist ablation. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, and p70S6K were increased following synergist ablation, but were not affected by NS-398. Additionally, expression of atrogin-1 was reduced during hypertrophy, but was also not affected by NS-398. These results demonstrate that COX-2 activity is required for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, possibly through facilitation of extracellular protease activity, macrophage accumulation, and cell proliferation.

  3. Macromastia and bilateralaxillary breast hypertrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rahman, G A; Adigunt, I A; Yusuf, I F; Bamigbade, D P

    2007-01-01

    Breast hypertrophy presents at puberty or thereafter. It is a condition of abnormal enlargement of the breast tissue in excess of the normal proportion. Gland hypertrophy, excessive fatty tissue or a combination of both may cause this condition. Macromastia can be unilateral or bilateral. To present a case of massive bilateral gigantomastia with huge bilateral hypertrophy of the axillary breasts. Review of the prentation, clinical and investigative findings aswell as the outcome of surgical intervention of a young Nigerian woman with bilateral severe breast hypertrophy and severe hypertrophy of axillary breasts. The patient was a 26-year-old woman who presented with massive swelling of her breasts and bilateral axillary swellings, both of six years duration.. In addition to the breast pathology, she also suffered significant psychological problems. The breast ultrasonography confirmed only diffuse swellings, with no visible lumps or areas of calcifiCation. She had total bilateral excision of the hypertrophied axillary breasts, and bilateral breast amputation with composite nipple-areola complex graft of the normally located breasts.The total weight of the breast tissues removed was 44.8 kilogram. Macromastia of this size is very rare. This case to date is probably the largest in the world literature. Surgical treatment of the condition gives a satisfactory outcome.

  4. Bezafibrate Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Si-Chi; Ma, Zhen-Guo; Wei, Wen-Ying; Yuan, Yu-Pei

    2017-01-01

    Background. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) is closely associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have indicated that bezafibrate (BZA), a PPAR-α agonist, could attenuate insulin resistance and obesity. This study was designed to determine whether BZA could protect against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods. Mice were orally given BZA (100 mg/kg) for 7 weeks beginning 1 week after aortic banding (AB) surgery. Cardiac hypertrophy was assessed based on echocardiographic, histological, and molecular aspects. Moreover, neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) were used to investigate the effects of BZA on the cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response in vitro. Results. Our study demonstrated that BZA could alleviate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice subjected to AB surgery. BZA treatment also reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). BZA suppressed phenylephrine- (PE-) induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocyte in vitro. The protective effects of BZA were abolished by the treatment of the PPAR-α antagonist in vitro. Conclusions. BZA could attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:28127304

  5. Mitochondrial adaptations to physiological vs. pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Abel, E Dale; Doenst, Torsten

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a stereotypic response of the heart to increased workload. The nature of the workload increase may vary depending on the stimulus (repetitive, chronic, pressure, or volume overload). If the heart fully adapts to the new loading condition, the hypertrophic response is considered physiological. If the hypertrophic response is associated with the ultimate development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure, the response is considered pathological. Although divergent signalling mechanisms may lead to these distinct patterns of hypertrophy, there is some overlap. Given the close relationship between workload and energy demand, any form of cardiac hypertrophy will impact the energy generation by mitochondria, which are the key organelles for cellular ATP production. Significant changes in the expression of nuclear and mitochondrially encoded transcripts that impact mitochondrial function as well as altered mitochondrial proteome composition and mitochondrial energetics have been described in various forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we review mitochondrial alterations in pathological and physiological hypertrophy. We suggest that mitochondrial adaptations to pathological and physiological hypertrophy are distinct, and we shall review potential mechanisms that might account for these differences.

  6. Network Reconstruction and Systems Analysis of Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Ryall, Karen A.; Holland, David O.; Delaney, Kyle A.; Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Parker, Audrey J.; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is managed by a dense web of signaling pathways with many pathways influencing myocyte growth. A quantitative understanding of the contributions of individual pathways and their interactions is needed to better understand hypertrophy signaling and to develop more effective therapies for heart failure. We developed a computational model of the cardiac myocyte hypertrophy signaling network to determine how the components and network topology lead to differential regulation of transcription factors, gene expression, and myocyte size. Our computational model of the hypertrophy signaling network contains 106 species and 193 reactions, integrating 14 established pathways regulating cardiac myocyte growth. 109 of 114 model predictions were validated using published experimental data testing the effects of receptor activation on transcription factors and myocyte phenotypic outputs. Network motif analysis revealed an enrichment of bifan and biparallel cross-talk motifs. Sensitivity analysis was used to inform clustering of the network into modules and to identify species with the greatest effects on cell growth. Many species influenced hypertrophy, but only a few nodes had large positive or negative influences. Ras, a network hub, had the greatest effect on cell area and influenced more species than any other protein in the network. We validated this model prediction in cultured cardiac myocytes. With this integrative computational model, we identified the most influential species in the cardiac hypertrophy signaling network and demonstrate how different levels of network organization affect myocyte size, transcription factors, and gene expression. PMID:23091058

  7. Multiphasic Regulation of Systemic and Peripheral Organ Metabolic Responses to Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Liew, Chong Wee; Xu, Shanshan; Wang, Xuerong; McCann, Maximilian; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Carley, Andrew C; Pang, Jingbo; Fantuzzi, Giamila; O'Donnell, J Michael; Lewandowski, E Douglas

    2017-04-01

    Reduced fat oxidation in hypertrophied hearts coincides with a shift of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I from muscle to increased liver isoforms. Acutely increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase I in normal rodent hearts has been shown to recapitulate the reduced fat oxidation and elevated atrial natriuretic peptide message of cardiac hypertrophy. Because of the potential for reduced fat oxidation to affect cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide, and thus, induce adipose lipolysis, we studied peripheral and systemic metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice model of transverse aortic constriction in which left ventricular hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks without functional decline until 16 weeks (ejection fraction, -45.6%; fractional shortening, -22.6%). We report the first evidence for initially improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in response to 2 weeks transverse aortic constriction versus sham, linked to enhanced insulin signaling in liver and visceral adipose tissue (epididymal white adipose tissue [WAT]), reduced WAT inflammation, elevated adiponectin, mulitilocular subcutaneous adipose tissue (inguinal WAT) with upregulated oxidative/thermogenic gene expression, and downregulated lipolysis and lipogenesis genes in epididymal WAT. By 6 weeks transverse aortic constriction, the metabolic profile reversed with impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, reduced insulin signaling in liver, epididymal WAT and heart, and downregulation of oxidative enzymes in brown adipose tissue and oxidative and lipogenic genes in inguinal WAT. Changes in insulin signaling, circulating natriuretic peptides and adipokines, and varied expression of adipose genes associated with altered insulin response/glucose handling and thermogenesis occurred prior to any functional decline in transverse aortic constriction hearts. The findings demonstrate multiphasic responses in extracardiac metabolism to pathogenic cardiac stress, with early iWAT browning providing potential

  8. Characterization of a model to independently study regression of ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, William E; Rojas, Mauricio; Corn, Drew; Willis, Monte; Patterson, Cam; Smyth, Susan S; Selzman, Craig H

    2007-10-01

    Although a host of studies catalogue changes that occur with the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), there is little information about features related solely to LVH regression. This is due, in part, to a lack of animal models to study this question. While traditional models of aortic banding have provided useful information regarding the development of LVH, a similarly effective model is necessary to study mechanisms associated with LVH regression. Minimally invasive transverse arch banding was performed in C57BL6 mice using a slipknot technique. Twenty-eight days later, the band was removed. Carotid Doppler velocity gradients were serially measured to assess the degree of aortic constriction. Echocardiography, histology, electron microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess functional, structural, and genetic aspects of hypertrophy. Banding of the transverse arch created the expected increase in aortic velocity and gradient between the left and right carotid artery, which normalized with relief of the constriction. Pressure overload resulted in a robust hypertrophic response as assessed by heart weight/body weight ratios, gross and microscopic histology, transthoracic echocardiography, electron microscopy, and hypertrophy gene expression. These markers were reversed within 1 week following debanding and were maintained for up to 4 weeks. Mortality rate for the cumulative procedure was 5% over a 2-month period. These results demonstrate a safe, effective, and reproducible method of promoting LVH regression-avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and a second invasive surgery to remove the constriction. The simplicity of this technique combined with the well-known advantages of using the mouse species makes this model both unique and relevant. Ultimately, this model will facilitate focused study of independent mechanisms involved with LVH regression.

  9. PPARdelta activation normalizes cardiac substrate metabolism and reduces right ventricular hypertrophy in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jucker, Beat M; Doe, Christopher P; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Olzinski, Alan R; Maniscalco, Kristeen; Williams, Carolyn; Hu, Tom C-C; Lenhard, Stephen C; Costell, Melissa; Bernard, Roberta; Sarov-Blat, Lea; Steplewski, Klaudia; Willette, Robert N

    2007-07-01

    Previously, it was shown that selective deletion of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) in the heart resulted in a cardiac lipotoxicity, hypertrophy, and heart failure. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic and selective pharmacological activation of PPARdelta in a model of congestive heart failure. PPARdelta-specific agonist treatment (GW610742X at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day for 6-9 weeks) was initiated immediately postmyocardial infarction (MI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy was used to assess cardiac function and energetics. A 1-(13)C glucose clamp was performed to assess relative cardiac carbohydrate versus fat oxidation. Additionally, cardiac hemodynamics and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction gene expression analysis was performed. MI rats had significantly reduced left ventricle (LV) ejection fractions and whole heart phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio compared with Sham animals (reduction of 43% and 14%, respectively). However, GW610742X treatment had no effect on either parameter. In contrast, the decrease in relative fat oxidation rate observed in both LV and right ventricle (RV) following MI (decrease of 58% and 54%, respectively) was normalized in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with GW610742X. These metabolic changes were associated with an increase in lipid transport/metabolism target gene expression (eg, CD36, CPT1, UCP3). Although there was no difference between groups in LV weight or infarct size measured upon necropsy, there was a dramatic reduction in RV hypertrophy and lung congestion (decrease of 22-48%, P<0.01) with treatment which was associated with a >7-fold decrease (P<0.05) in aterial natriuretic peptide gene expression in RV. Diuretic effects were not observed with GW610742X. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a selective PPARdelta agonist normalizes cardiac substrate metabolism and reduces RV hypertrophy and pulmonary

  10. Hepatocytic parental progenitor cells of rat small hepatocytes maintain self-renewal capability after long-term culture

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Kino, Junichi; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Tanimizu, Naoki; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The liver has a variety of functions for maintaining homeostasis, and hepatocytes play a major role. In contrast with the high regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes (MHs) in vivo, they have not been successfully expanded ex vivo. Here we demonstrate that CD44-positive cells sorted from small hepatocyte (SH) colonies derived from a healthy adult rat liver can proliferate on a Matrigel-coated dish in serum-free chemically defined medium; in addition, a subpopulation of the cells can divide more than 50 times in a period of 17 weeks every 4-week-passage. The passage cells retained the capability to recover highly differentiated functions, such as glycogen storage, CYP activity and bile secretion. When Matrigel-treated cells from the third passage were transplanted into retrorsine/partial hepatectomy-treated rat livers, the cells engrafted to differentiate into MHs and cholangiocytes. These results suggest that long-term cultured CD44+ SHs retain hepatocytic characteristics in vitro and the capability to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in vivo. Thus, a newly identified subpopulation of MHs possessing the attributes of hepatocytic stem/progenitor cells can be passaged several times without losing hepatocytic characteristics. PMID:28397810

  11. The problem Of muscle hypertrophy: Revisited.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Mouser, J Grant; Counts, Brittany R; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence. We suggest that these changes may be completely separate phenomena based on: (1) the weak correlation between the change in muscle size and the change in muscle strength after training; (2) the loss of muscle mass with detraining, yet a maintenance of muscle strength; and (3) the similar muscle growth between low-load and high-load resistance training, yet divergent results in strength. Muscle Nerve 54: 1012-1014, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Managing turbinate hypertrophy: coblation vs. radiofrequency treatment.

    PubMed

    Passali, D; Loglisci, M; Politi, L; Passali, G C; Kern, E

    2016-06-01

    The role of inferior turbinate hypertrophy in the reduction of nasal airflow is well established. Although chronic nasal obstruction is not life- threatening, it significantly impairs patients' quality of life, affecting many aspects of daily activities; therefore, patients seek medical intervention. 40 patients were selected (27 males and 13 females) between 27 and 64 years of age with a symptom of nasal obstruction. The patients were divided in two groups: Group 1: coblation, 25 patients (18 males and 7 females); Group 2: radiofrequency, 15 patients (7 males and 6 females). These 40 patients were followed for 3 years. Patients were analyzed using both subjective and objective methods. The visual analog scale (VAS) subjective data and objective data including both active anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were recorded and analyzed. Data were collected pre-operatively and at 1 and 3 years post-operatively. According to our data, both coblation and radiofrequency turbinate reduction benefit patients with good results. The complications, found during the follow-up, are limited to minimal bleeding and crusting. Coblation and radiofrequency were significantly less painful than others procedures during the early post-operative period. In our study, both coblation and radiofrequency provide an improvement in nasal airflow with a reduction in nasal obstructive symptoms in the short term, but their efficacy tended to decrease within 3 years.

  13. Non-coding RNAs in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Lara; da Costa Martins, Paula A

    2017-02-23

    Heart Failure is one of the largest contributors to disease burden and healthcare outflow in the Western world. Despite significant progress in the treatment of heart failure, disease prognosis remains very poor with the only curative therapy still being heart transplantation. To counteract the current situation, efforts have been made to better understand the underlying molecular pathways in the progression of cardiac disease towards heart failure, and to link the disease to novel therapeutic targets such as non-coding RNAs. The non-coding part of the genome has gained prominence over the last couple of decades by opening a completely new research field and having established different non-coding RNAs species as fundamental regulators of cellular functions. Not surprisingly, their dysregulation is increasingly being linked to pathology, including to cardiac disease. Pre-clinically, non-coding RNAs have been shown to be of great value as therapeutic targets in pathological cardiac remodelling and also as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers for heart failure. Therefore, it is to expect that non-coding RNA-based therapeutic strategies will reach the bedside in the future and provide new and more efficient treatments for heart failure. Here, we review recent discoveries linking the function and molecular interactions of non-coding RNAs with the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. RV pressure overload: from hypertrophy to failure.

    PubMed

    van der Bruggen, Cathelijne E E; Tedford, Ryan J; Handoko, Martin Louis; van der Velden, Jolanda; de Man, Frances S

    2017-10-01

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), right ventricular (RV) adaptation is essential to overcome the chronic increases in RV pressure overload. Ultimately, RV compensatory mechanisms are not sufficient and patients succumb to RV failure. The processes underlying the transition of RV adaptation to RV failure are not well understood. In this review, we propose that important insights in RV adaptation processes can be obtained by comparing different etiologies of PAH, namely patients with PAH secondary to Eisenmenger syndrome, patients with PAH secondary to systemic sclerosis and patients where no cause is identified: idiopathic PAH. Although the amount of RV afterload does not differ between these patient groups, their prognosis is distinctly different. We will show that an adaptive RV phenotype, as is observed in Eisenmenger patients, coincides with RV hypertrophy, increased RV contractility, low RV fibrosis and low RV diastolic stiffness. Whereas a phenotype of RV failure, as is observed in patients with PAH-secondary to systemic sclerosis, is characterized by impaired contractile reserve, RV fibrosis and RV diastolic stiffness. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Antihypertensive Therapies and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J

    2017-09-19

    It is widely accepted that successful lowering of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension leads to regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, whether differences exist among pharmacological BP-lowering therapies is debated. In this report, we discuss these differences in light of recent literature and the position of extant practice guidelines. Studies comparing the effects of antihypertensive classes on LVH regression reached different conclusions, but the overall direction which is reflected in current society guidelines is that successful lowering of BP is more important than selection of an individual antihypertensive class. Nevertheless, some practice guidelines added statements about considering a specific antihypertensive class for its potential benefit such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or excluding a class such as direct vasodilators. On the other hand, reports have been consistent about the more favorable effect of intensive BP-lowering strategy (target systolic BP < 120 mmHg) compared to standard BP lowering (target systolic BP > 140 mmHg), which is not yet discussed in the current practice guidelines. Successful lowering of BP leads to LVH regression. While reports have been inconsistent about differences among antihypertensive classes, lowering BP beyond currently recommended levels has consistently showed a greater effect on LVH regression.

  16. Hepatocyte growth factor incorporated chitosan nanoparticles augment the differentiation of stem cell into hepatocytes for the recovery of liver cirrhosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Short half-life and low levels of growth factors in the niche of injured microenvironment necessitates the exogenous and sustainable delivery of growth factors along with stem cells to augment the regeneration of injured tissues. Methods Here, recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) by ionic gelation method and studied for its morphological and physiological characteristics. Cirrhotic mice received either hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) or mesenchymal stemcells (MSC) with or without HGF incorporated chitosan nanoparticles (HGF-CNP) and saline as control. Biochemical, histological, immunostaining and gene expression assays were carried out using serum and liver tissue samples. One way analysis of variance was used for statics application Results Serum levels of selected liver protein and enzymes were significantly increased in the combination of MSC and HGF-CNP (MSC+HGF-CNP) treated group. Immunopositive staining for albumin (Alb) and cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Alb, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), CK18, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) ascertained that MSC-HGF-CNP treatment could be an effective combination to repopulate liver parenchymal cells in the liver cirrhosis. Zymogram and western blotting for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) revealed that MMP2 actively involved in the fibrolysis of cirrhotic tissue. Immunostaining for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and type I collagen showed decreased expression in the MSC+HGF-CNP treatment. These results indicated that HGF-CNP enhanced the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes and supported the reversal of fibrolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM). Conclusion Bone marrow stem cells were isolated, characterized and transplanted in mice model. Biodegradable biopolymeric nanoparticles were prepared with the pleotrophic protein molecule and it worked well for the differentiation of stem

  17. The relation between childhood obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Daar, Ghaniya; Sarı, Kamran; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Ede, Hüseyin; Aydın, Reha; Saydam, Levent

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a common and significant public health problem all over the world. As a well-known fact obese children have an increased risk of obesity-associated comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders at an earlier age compared to their normal weight peers. They also have an increased risk of poor self-esteem, greater body dissatisfaction, and increased peer teasing that lead to a lower health-related quality of life. While the presence of adenoid hypertrophy and increased rate of obstructive sleep apnea frequently co-exists in majority of cases. We have limited knowledge about the effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on development of childhood obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity, presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the quality of life parameters in obese children as measured by the OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty obese children aged between 3 and 18 years and 50 age- and gender-matched otherwise children were enrolled to the study. All subjects were routinely examined by the otolaryngologist before enrollment. The size of adenoid hypertrophy was measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs. The tonsils were also graded using the schema recommended by Brodsky et al. We used OSA-18 questionnaires to evaluate the subjects' quality of life issues. We found, 34 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy while the rate was 6 % in control group. Similarly 16 % of obese group had tonsillar hypertrophy compared to only 4 % in non-obese group. It was also noted that total OSA-18 scores of obese group were significantly higher than those of non-obese group. In subgroup analysis of obese group, total OSA-18 score of obese subjects with either adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy was significantly higher than that of obese subjects without adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy. As the related literature suggests that the impact of adenotonsillar size on OSA

  18. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Regulates Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Day, Regina M.; Thiel, Gerald; Lum, Julie; Chévere, Rubén D.; Yang, Yongzhen; Stevens, Joanne; Sibert, Laura; Fanburg, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen, morphogen, and motogen that functions in tissue healing and acts as an anti-fibrotic factor. The mechanism for this is not well understood. Recent studies implicate somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in fibrosis. We examined the effects of HGF on ACE expression in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Short term treatment of BPAEC with HGF transiently increased both ACE mRNA (3 h) and activity (24 h), as determined by ACE protease assays and reverse transcription-PCR. Incubation of BPAEC with HGF for longer periods suppressed ACE mRNA (6 h) and activity (72 h). In contrast, phorbol ester (PMA) treatment produced sustained increase in ACE mRNA and activity. We examined the short term molecular effects of HGF on ACE using PMA for comparison. HGF and PMA increased transcription from a luciferase reporter with the core ACE promoter, which contains a composite binding site for SP1/3 and Egr-1. Immunocytochemistry and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that both HGF and PMA increased Egr-1 binding. HGF also increased SP3 binding, as measured by EMSA. However, HGF and PMA increased the cellular activity of only Egr-1, not SP3, as measured by luciferase reporter assays. Deletion of the Egr-1 site in the reporter construct completely abrogated HGF-induced transcription but only ~50% of PMA-induced activity. Expression of dominant negative Egr-1 and SP3 blocked up-regulation of the ACE promoter by HGF but only reduced up-regulation by PMA. These results show that HGF transiently increases gene transcription of ACE via activation of Egr-1, whereas PMA regulation involves Egr-1 and additional factor(s). PMID:14679188

  19. Endothelial Nogo-B regulates sphingolipid biosynthesis to promote pathological cardiac hypertrophy during chronic pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Azevedo, Paula S.; Siragusa, Mauro; Bielawski, Jacek; Giordano, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently discovered that endothelial Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the ER, regulates vascular function by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Here, we show that endothelium-derived sphingolipids, particularly sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), protect the heart from inflammation, fibrosis, and dysfunction following pressure overload and that Nogo-B regulates this paracrine process. SPT activity is upregulated in banded hearts in vivo as well as in TNF-α–activated endothelium in vitro, and loss of Nogo removes the brake on SPT, increasing local S1P production. Hence, mice lacking Nogo-B, systemically or specifically in the endothelium, are resistant to the onset of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of SPT with myriocin restores permeability, inflammation, and heart dysfunction in Nogo-A/B–deficient mice to WT levels, whereas SEW2871, an S1P1 receptor agonist, prevents myocardial permeability, inflammation, and dysfunction in WT banded mice. Our study identifies a critical role of endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis and its regulation by Nogo-B in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and proposes a potential therapeutic target for the attenuation or reversal of this clinical condition. PMID:27158676

  20. Toxicity of ethacrynic acid in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masubuchi, Y; Narimatsu, S; Kobayashi, S; Horie, T

    2002-04-01

    Ethacrynic acid, a loop diuretic drug, caused lipid peroxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation showed a good correlation with the leakage of glutamic-oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) from the hepatocytes. The addition of antioxidants such as N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and promethazine to the isolated rat hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid prevented the lipid peroxidation and decreased the GOT leakage to some extent. SKF-525A inhibited the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid and decreased the TBARS formation, suggesting that the lipid peroxidation was caused by the oxidative metabolism. The intracellular reduced glutathione markedly decreased in the hepatocyte suspension containing ethacrynic acid and the hepatocellular protein sulfhydryls were decreased, which was negatively correlated with the GOT leakage. Thus the ethacrynic acid-induced hepatotoxicity was found to be related to the lipid peroxidation and the decrease of cellular protein sulfhydryls.

  1. Direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to functional and expandable hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pengyu; Zhang, Ludi; Gao, Yimeng; He, Zhiying; Yao, Dan; Wu, Zhitao; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Liu, Changcheng; Hu, Yiping; Lai, Dongmei; Hu, Zhenlei; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Guoyu; Wang, Xin; Hui, Lijian

    2014-03-06

    The generation of large numbers of functional human hepatocytes for cell-based approaches to liver disease is an important and unmet goal. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to hepatic lineages could offer a solution to this problem but so far has only been achieved with mouse cells. Here, we generated human induced hepatocytes (hiHeps) from fibroblasts by lentiviral expression of FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF4A. hiHeps express hepatic gene programs, can be expanded in vitro, and display functions characteristic of mature hepatocytes, including cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and biliary drug clearance. Upon transplantation into mice with concanavalin-A-induced acute liver failure and fatal metabolic liver disease due to fumarylacetoacetate dehydrolase (Fah) deficiency, hiHeps restore the liver function and prolong survival. Collectively, our results demonstrate successful lineage conversion of nonhepatic human cells into mature hepatocytes with potential for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  2. Coculture and Long-Term Maintenance of Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Merav; Levy, Gahl; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals, serving a wide spectrum of vital functions. Loss of liver function due to drug toxicity, progressive fatty liver disease, or viral infection is a major cause of death in the United States of America. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic toxicity screening, basic research and the development of bioartificial liver devices require long-term hepatocyte culture techniques that sustain hepatocyte morphology and function. In recent years, several techniques have been developed that can support high levels of liver-specific gene expression, metabolic function, and synthetic activity for several weeks in culture. These include the collagen double gel configuration, hepatocyte spheroids, coculture with nonparenchymal cells, and micropatterned cocultures. This chapter will cover the current status of hepatocyte culture techniques, including media formulation, oxygen supply, and heterotypic cell-cell interactions.

  3. Cytoskeletal mechanics in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagawa, H.; Wang, N.; Narishige, T.; Ingber, D. E.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the cellular contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy results not from an abnormality intrinsic to the myofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton but rather from an increased density of the microtubule component of the extramyofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton. To determine how, in physical terms, this increased microtubule density mechanically overloads the contractile apparatus at the cellular level, we measured cytoskeletal stiffness and apparent viscosity in isolated cardiocytes via magnetic twisting cytometry, a technique by which magnetically induced force is applied directly to the cytoskeleton through integrin-coupled ferromagnetic beads coated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Measurements were made in two groups of cardiocytes from cats with right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding: (1) those from the pressure-overloaded RV and (2) those from the normally loaded same-animal control left ventricle (LV). Cytoskeletal stiffness increased almost twofold, from 8.53 +/- 0.77 dyne/cm2 in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 16.46 +/- 1.32 dyne/cm2 in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Cytoskeletal apparent viscosity increased almost fourfold, from 20.97 +/- 1.92 poise in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 87.85 +/- 6.95 poise in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. In addition to these baseline data showing differing stiffness and, especially, apparent viscosity in the two groups of cardiocytes, microtubule depolymerization by colchicine was found to return both the stiffness and the apparent viscosity of the pressure overload-hypertrophied RV cells fully to normal. Conversely, microtubule hyperpolymerization by taxol increased the stiffness and apparent viscosity values of normally loaded LV cardiocytes to the abnormal values given above for pressure-hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Thus, increased microtubule density constitutes primarily a viscous load on

  4. Shensongyangxin protects against pressure overload‑induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Di-Fei; Wu, Qing-Qing; Ni, Jian; Deng, Wei; Wei, Cong; Jia, Zhen-Hua; Zhou, Heng; Zhou, Meng-Qiao; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Shensongyangxin (SSYX) is a medicinal herb, which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Various pharmacological activities of SSYX have been identified. However, the role of SSYX in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be fully elucidated. In present study, aortic banding (AB) was performed to induce cardiac hypertrophy in mice. SSYX (520 mg/kg) was administered by daily gavage between 1 and 8 weeks following surgery. The extent of cardiac hypertrophy was then evaluated by pathological and molecular analyses of heart tissue samples. In addition, in vitro experiments were performed to confirm the in vivo results. The data of the present study demonstrated that SSYX prevented the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by AB, as assessed by measurements of heart weight and gross heart size, hematoxylin and eosin staining, cross‑sectional cardiomyocyte area and the mRNA expression levels of hypertrophic markers. SSYX also inhibited collagen deposition and suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, collagen Ⅰα and collagen Ⅲα, which was mediated by the inhibition of the TGFβ/small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling pathway. The inhibitory action of SSYX on cardiac hypertrophy was mediated by the inhibition of Akt signaling. In vitro investigations in the rat H9c2 cardiac cells also demonstrated that SSYX attenuated angiotensin II‑induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These findings suggested that SSYX attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in the pressure overloaded mouse heart. Therefore, the cardioprotective effect of SSYX is associated with inhibition of the Akt and TGFβ/Smad signaling pathways.

  5. Cytoskeletal mechanics in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagawa, H.; Wang, N.; Narishige, T.; Ingber, D. E.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the cellular contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy results not from an abnormality intrinsic to the myofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton but rather from an increased density of the microtubule component of the extramyofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton. To determine how, in physical terms, this increased microtubule density mechanically overloads the contractile apparatus at the cellular level, we measured cytoskeletal stiffness and apparent viscosity in isolated cardiocytes via magnetic twisting cytometry, a technique by which magnetically induced force is applied directly to the cytoskeleton through integrin-coupled ferromagnetic beads coated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Measurements were made in two groups of cardiocytes from cats with right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding: (1) those from the pressure-overloaded RV and (2) those from the normally loaded same-animal control left ventricle (LV). Cytoskeletal stiffness increased almost twofold, from 8.53 +/- 0.77 dyne/cm2 in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 16.46 +/- 1.32 dyne/cm2 in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Cytoskeletal apparent viscosity increased almost fourfold, from 20.97 +/- 1.92 poise in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 87.85 +/- 6.95 poise in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. In addition to these baseline data showing differing stiffness and, especially, apparent viscosity in the two groups of cardiocytes, microtubule depolymerization by colchicine was found to return both the stiffness and the apparent viscosity of the pressure overload-hypertrophied RV cells fully to normal. Conversely, microtubule hyperpolymerization by taxol increased the stiffness and apparent viscosity values of normally loaded LV cardiocytes to the abnormal values given above for pressure-hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Thus, increased microtubule density constitutes primarily a viscous load on

  6. The transcription factor GATA-6 regulates pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    van Berlo, Jop H.; Elrod, John W.; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M.G.; York, Allen J.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The transcriptional code that programs maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy involves the zinc finger-containing DNA binding factor GATA-4. The highly related transcription factor GATA-6 is also expressed in the adult heart, although its role in controlling the hypertrophic program is unknown. Objective To determine the role of GATA-6 in cardiac hypertrophy and homeostasis. Methods and Results Here we performed a cardiomyocyte-specific conditional gene targeting approach for Gata6, as well as a transgenic approach to overexpress GATA-6 in the mouse heart. Deletion of Gata6-loxP with Nkx2.5-cre produced late embryonic lethality with heart defects, while deletion with β-myosin heavy chain-cre (βMHC-cre) produced viable adults with greater than 95% loss of GATA-6 protein in the heart. These later mice were subjected to pressure overload induced hypertrophy for 2 and 6 weeks, which showed a significant reduction in cardiac hypertrophy similar to that observed Gata4 heart-specific deleted mice. Gata6-deleted mice subjected to pressure overload also developed heart failure while control mice maintained proper cardiac function. Gata6-deleted mice also developed less cardiac hypertrophy following 2 weeks of angiotensin II/phenylephrine infusion. Controlled GATA-6 overexpression in the heart induced hypertrophy with aging and predisposed to greater hypertrophy with pressure overload stimulation. Combinatorial deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 from the adult heart resulted in dilated cardiomyopathy and lethality by 16 weeks of age. Mechanistically, deletion of Gata6 from the heart resulted in fundamental changes in the levels of key regulatory genes and myocyte differentiation-specific genes. Conclusions These results indicate that GATA-6 is both necessary and sufficient for regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response and differentiated gene expression, both alone and in coordination with GATA-4. PMID:20705924

  7. Intracytoplasmic Crystalline Inclusions in the Hepatocytes of an Antelope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    hepatocytes of a 13-year-old female Thomson’s gazelle . Histologically, multifocal to coalescing areas of many hepatocytes contained large cytoplasmic...hepatocellular crystalline inclusions in a gazelle . 2. Case Description A 13-year-old female Thomson’s gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni) from a zoo was presented to...dead and had a history of severe parasitism. Postmortem examination revealed sparse body fat store in the gazelle . There was bilateral enlargement of

  8. Detection of Dichlorvos Adducts in a Hepatocyte Cell Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    modified targets in lysed human hepatocyte- like cells (HepaRG) using a direct liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry (LC−MS) assay of cell lysates...parasympathetic autonomic nervous system5 and the neuromuscular systems.3 Recent studies also suggest that DDVP affects non-neuronal targets in human ... human hepatocyte-like cell line (HepaRG) with DDVP. Then, we identified DDVP-modified targets in these lysates either with shotgun proteomics or with a

  9. [Experimental atrophy/hypertrophy complex of the liver after portal and/or biliary ligation in the rat].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, W; Duda, P; Tanner, S; Balsiger, D; Höflin, F; Zimmermann, A; Blumgart, L H

    1992-08-01

    Patients with lobar or segmental, benign or malignant strictures of the biliary tree (with or without impairment of the portal blood flow) show a considerable atrophy of the involved area of the liver with a compensatory hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the remaining non affected liver. To investigate the importance of the biliary and portal obstruction for the development of this process, we used a rat model, with selective biliary and/or portal ligation of the anterior liver lobes (two thirds of the liver mass). Weight measurements, morphometry, functional scintigraphy (Hepatoiodida-scan) and blood enzyme analyses were done immediately postoperatively, at 30 hours and 4, 8 and 28 days after the operation. The major findings were: 1. 28 days after biliary and/or portal ligation there was no difference between the body weight of the four groups, all ligated animals having compensated for an initial greater percentage body-weight loss. 2. Total liver weight remained constant, while atrophy and hypertrophy/hyperplasia occurred although a progressive derangement of liver morphology was observed during that time. 3. A severe atrophy-hypertrophy-complex (AHC) developed after selective portal ligation, which in our experiment did not appear after selective biliary ligation. 4. Morphometrical changes after selective biliary ligation were reversible, whereas in liver lobes with selective portal ligation a progressive parenchymal destruction and involution with subsequent impairment of hepatic function of the concerned lobe was observed.

  10. Biomechanics and functionality of hepatocytes in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan; Song, Zhenyuan; Cotler, Scott J; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-27

    Cirrhosis is a life-threatening condition that is generally attributed to overproduction of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix that mechanically stiffens the liver. Chronic liver injury due to causes including viral hepatitis, inherited and metabolic liver diseases and external factors such as alcohol abuse can result in the development of cirrhosis. Progression of cirrhosis leads to hepatocellular dysfunction. While extensive studies to understand the complexity underlying liver fibrosis have led to potential application of anti-fibrotic drugs, no such FDA-approved drugs are currently available. Additional studies of hepatic fibrogenesis and cirrhosis primarily have focused on the extracellular matrix, while hepatocyte biomechanics has received limited attention. The role of hepatocyte biomechanics in liver cirrhosis remains elusive, and how the cell stiffness is correlated with biological functions of hepatocytes is also unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of hepatocytes are correlated with their functions (e.g., glucose metabolism), and that hepatic dysfunction can be restored through modulation of the cellular biomechanics. Furthermore, our results indicate the hepatocyte functionality appears to be regulated through a crosstalk between the Rho and Akt signaling. These novel findings may lead to biomechanical intervention of hepatocytes and the development of innovative tissue engineering for clinical treatment to target liver cells rather than exclusively focusing on the extracellular matrix alone in liver cirrhosis.

  11. General review on in vitro hepatocyte models and their applications.

    PubMed

    Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-01-01

    In vitro hepatocyte models represent very useful systems in both fundamental research and various application areas. Primary hepatocytes appear as the closest model for the liver in vivo. However, they are phenotypically unstable, have a limited life span and in addition, exhibit large interdonor variability when of human origin. Hepatoma cell lines appear as an alternative but only the HepaRG cell line exhibits various functions, including major cytochrome P450 activities, at levels close to those found in primary hepatocytes. In vitro hepatocyte models have brought a substantial contribution to the understanding of the biochemistry, physiology, and cell biology of the normal and diseased liver and in various application domains such as xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity, virology, parasitology, and more generally cell therapies. In the future, new well-differentiated hepatocyte cell lines derived from tumors or from either embryonic or adult stem cells might be expected and although hepatocytes will continue to be used in various fields, these in vitro liver models should allow marked advances, especially in cell-based therapies and predictive and mechanistic hepatotoxicity of new drugs and other chemicals. All models will benefit from new developments in throughput screening based on cell chips coupled with high-content imaging and in toxicogenomics technologies.

  12. Salvianolate Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress by Attenuating Mitochondrial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Lei, Yang; Liu, Hong-Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolate is widely used to treat angiocardiopathy in clinic in China, but its application in liver diseases remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Salvianolate on rat hepatic injury by protecting hepatocyte mitochondria. To evaluate the effects of Salvianolate on injured hepatocytes, alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated with Salvianolate. Cell viability and MitoTracker Green for mitochondria and 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazole-carbocyanide iodine (JC-1) levels and cytochrome C (Cyto-C) expressions were detected in vitro. To identify the effect of Salvianolate on protecting against mitochondria injury, male Wistar rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with Salvianolate (40 mg·kg−1). Serum liver function, parameters for peroxidative damage, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of hepatocyte mitochondria were assayed. Our results showed that Salvianolate effectively protected hepatocytes, increased mitochondria vitality, and decreased Cyto-C expressions in vitro. Besides, Salvianolate alleviated the liver function, attenuated the indicators of peroxidation, and relieved the mitochondria injury in vivo. In conclusion, Salvianolate is effective in protecting hepatocytes from injury in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might be related to its protective effect on hepatocyte mitochondria against oxidative stress. PMID:27340417

  13. Salvianolate Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress by Attenuating Mitochondrial Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Lei, Yang; Liu, Hong-Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolate is widely used to treat angiocardiopathy in clinic in China, but its application in liver diseases remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Salvianolate on rat hepatic injury by protecting hepatocyte mitochondria. To evaluate the effects of Salvianolate on injured hepatocytes, alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated with Salvianolate. Cell viability and MitoTracker Green for mitochondria and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazole-carbocyanide iodine (JC-1) levels and cytochrome C (Cyto-C) expressions were detected in vitro. To identify the effect of Salvianolate on protecting against mitochondria injury, male Wistar rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with Salvianolate (40 mg·kg(-1)). Serum liver function, parameters for peroxidative damage, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of hepatocyte mitochondria were assayed. Our results showed that Salvianolate effectively protected hepatocytes, increased mitochondria vitality, and decreased Cyto-C expressions in vitro. Besides, Salvianolate alleviated the liver function, attenuated the indicators of peroxidation, and relieved the mitochondria injury in vivo. In conclusion, Salvianolate is effective in protecting hepatocytes from injury in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might be related to its protective effect on hepatocyte mitochondria against oxidative stress.

  14. A Hedgehog Survival Pathway in ‘Undead’ Lipotoxic Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kakisaka, Keisuke; Cazanave, Sophie C.; Werneburg, Nathan W.; Razumilava, Nataliya; Mertens, Joachim C.; Bronk, Steve F.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Ballooned hepatocytes in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) generate sonic hedgehog (SHH). This observation is consistent with a cellular phenotype in which the cell death program has been initiated but cannot be executed. Our aim was to determine if ballooned hepatocytes have potentially disabled the cell death execution machinery, and if so, can their functional biology be modeled in vitro. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on human NASH specimens. In vitro studies were performed using Huh-7 cells with shRNA targeted knockdown of caspase 9 (shC9 cells) or primary hepatocytes from caspase 3−/− mice. Results Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH display diminished expression of the caspase 9. This phenotype was modeled using shC9 cells; these cells were resistant to lipoapoptosis by palmitate (PA) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) despite lipid droplet formation. During lipid loading by either PA or LPC, shC9 cells activate JNK which via AP-1 induces SHH expression. An autocrine hedgehog survival signaling pathway was further delineated in both shC9 and caspase 3−/− cells during lipotoxic stress. Conclusion Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH downregulate caspase 9, a pivotal caspase executing the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Hepatocytes engineered to reduce caspase 9 expression are resistant to lipoapoptosis, in part, due to a hedgehog autocrine survival signaling pathway. PMID:22641094

  15. A hedgehog survival pathway in 'undead' lipotoxic hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Keisuke; Cazanave, Sophie C; Werneburg, Nathan W; Razumilava, Nataliya; Mertens, Joachim C; Bronk, Steve F; Gores, Gregory J

    2012-10-01

    Ballooned hepatocytes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) generate sonic hedgehog (SHH). This observation is consistent with a cellular phenotype in which the cell death program has been initiated but cannot be executed. Our aim was to determine whether ballooned hepatocytes have potentially disabled the cell death execution machinery, and if so, can their functional biology be modeled in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was performed on human NASH specimens. In vitro studies were performed using HuH-7 cells with shRNA targeted knockdown of caspase 9 (shC9 cells) or primary hepatocytes from caspase 3(-/-) mice. Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH display diminished expression of caspase 9. This phenotype was modeled using shC9 cells; these cells were resistant to lipoapoptosis by palmitate (PA) or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) despite lipid droplet formation. During lipid loading by either PA or LPC, shC9 cells activate JNK which induces SHH expression via AP-1. An autocrine hedgehog survival signaling pathway was further delineated in both shC9 and caspase 3(-/-) cells during lipotoxic stress. Ballooned hepatocytes in NASH downregulate caspase 9, a pivotal caspase executing the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Hepatocytes engineered to reduce caspase 9 expression are resistant to lipoapoptosis, in part, due to a hedgehog autocrine survival signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk -3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. The apoptotic features of hepatocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. The hepatic triglyceride content markedly increased at wk 0 and wk +3 compared with the values at wk -3. The results of the comet assay showed increases in the mean tail moment values of hepatic cells after parturition in all cows, which suggested increased DNA damage. Histopathologically, the hepatocytes began to contain lipid droplets at wk 0 and were severely opacified at wk +3. Caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA)-positive cells were first detected in the liver after parturition. Condensation of nuclear chromatin, a typical sign of apoptosis, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy after parturition. These results suggest that apoptosis is induced in hepatocytes of dairy cows around parturition and may result from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes.

  17. Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk −3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. The apoptotic features of hepatocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. The hepatic triglyceride content markedly increased at wk 0 and wk +3 compared with the values at wk −3. The results of the comet assay showed increases in the mean tail moment values of hepatic cells after parturition in all cows, which suggested increased DNA damage. Histopathologically, the hepatocytes began to contain lipid droplets at wk 0 and were severely opacified at wk +3. Caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA)-positive cells were first detected in the liver after parturition. Condensation of nuclear chromatin, a typical sign of apoptosis, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy after parturition. These results suggest that apoptosis is induced in hepatocytes of dairy cows around parturition and may result from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. PMID:23543948

  18. Decreased hepatocyte membrane potential differences and GABAA-beta3 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minuk, Gerald Y; Zhang, Manna; Gong, Yuewen; Minuk, Leonard; Dienes, Hans; Pettigrew, Norman; Kew, Michael; Lipschitz, Jeremy; Sun, Dongfeng

    2007-03-01

    To determine whether hepatocyte membrane potential differences (PDs) are depolarized in human HCC and whether depolarization is associated with changes in GABAA receptor expression, hepatocyte PDs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were documented in HCC tissues via microelectrode impalement, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis, respectively. HCC tissues were significantly depolarized (-19.8+/-1.3 versus -25.9+/-3.2 mV, respectively [P<0.05]), and GABAA-beta3 expression was down-regulated (GABAA-beta3 mRNA and protein expression in HCC; 5,693+/-1,385 and 0.29+/-0.11 versus 11,046+/-4,979 copies/100 mg RNA and 0.62+/-0.16 optical density in adjacent tumor tissues, respectively [P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively]) when compared with adjacent nontumor tissues. To determine the physiological relevance of the down-regulation, human malignant hepatocytes deficient in GABAA-beta3 receptor expression (Huh-7 cells) were transfected with GABAA-beta3 complementary DNA (cDNA) or vector alone and injected into nu/nu nude mice (n=16-17 group). Tumors developed after a mean (+/-SD) of 51+/-6 days (range: 41-60 days) in 7/16 (44%) mice injected with vector-transfected cells and 70+/-12 days (range: 59-86 days) in 4/17 (24%) mice injected with GABAA-beta3 cDNA-transfected cells (P<0.005). The results of this study indicate that (1) human HCC tissues are depolarized compared with adjacent nontumor tissues, (2) hepatic GABAA-beta3 receptor expression is down-regulated in human HCC, and (3) restoration of GABAA-beta3 receptor expression results in attenuated in vivo tumor growth in nude mice.

  19. Perinatal deiodinase 2 expression in hepatocytes defines epigenetic susceptibility to liver steatosis and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bocco, Barbara M. L. C.; Abdalla, Sherine M.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Mohácsik, Petra; Fekete, Csaba; Li, Daofeng; Xing, Xiaoyun; Wang, Ting; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone binds to nuclear receptors and regulates gene transcription. Here we report that in mice, at around the first day of life, there is a transient surge in hepatocyte type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates the prohormone thyroxine to the active hormone triiodothyronine, modifying the expression of ∼165 genes involved in broad aspects of hepatocyte function, including lipid metabolism. Hepatocyte-specific D2 inactivation (ALB-D2KO) is followed by a delay in neonatal expression of key lipid-related genes and a persistent reduction in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression. Notably, the absence of a neonatal D2 peak significantly modifies the baseline and long-term hepatic transcriptional response to a high-fat diet (HFD). Overall, changes in the expression of approximately 400 genes represent the HFD response in control animals toward the synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides, whereas in ALB-D2KO animals, the response is limited to a very different set of only approximately 200 genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and lipase activity. A whole genome methylation profile coupled to multiple analytical platforms indicate that 10–20% of these differences can be related to the presence of differentially methylated local regions mapped to sites of active/suppressed chromatin, thus qualifying as epigenetic modifications occurring as a result of neonatal D2 inactivation. The resulting phenotype of the adult ALB-D2KO mouse is dramatic, with greatly reduced susceptibility to diet-induced steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity. PMID:26508642

  20. Potassium transmembrane fluxes in anoxic hepatocytes from goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Mut, P N; Espelt, M V; Krumschnabel, G; Schwarzbaum, P J

    2006-01-01

    Despite the fact that anoxic goldfish hepatocytes can maintain the transmembrane gradients of Na(+), H(+) and Ca(2+), cyanide (CN) intoxication leads to a rapid breakdown of K(+) homeostasis. In this study, [(86)Rb(+)] K(+) fluxes across the plasma membrane of goldfish hepatocytes were studied in order to identify the possible causes of this imbalance. Four minutes of cyanide incubation induced an acute and stable 61% decrease of K(+) influx (mostly driven by Na,K-ATPase activity), whereas K(+) efflux increased by 24.3%, this imbalance yielding a net K(+) efflux of 0.279+/-0.024 nmol 10(-6) cells(-1) min(-1). This uncoupling was not observed when glycolytic ATP production was inhibited with iodoacetic acid. Although the CN-induced decrease of K(+) influx was fully reversible upon washout of the inhibitor, it could not be prevented by any of the following treatments: (1) addition of 2% bovine serum albumin, which binds extracellular fatty acids known to activate specific K(+) channels; (2) addition of ascorbate, which acts as a radical scavenger; (3) inclusion of 5 mM glucose as an extracellular carbon source; and (4) removal of medium oxygen (obtained by nitrogen bubbling). Regarding the elevation of K(+) efflux in the presence of CN, neither ATP-dependent K(+) channels nor the KCl cotransporter appeared to be activated, whereas BaCl(2), an inhibitor of voltage-gated K(+) channels, decreased K(+) efflux of CN-intoxicated cells to control levels. In summary, these results indicate that, in goldfish hepatocytes, the CN-induced K(+) imbalance results from acute Na,K-ATPase inhibition together with the activation of voltage-dependent K(+) channels, the latter probably resulting from transient membrane depolarization.

  1. Perinatal deiodinase 2 expression in hepatocytes defines epigenetic susceptibility to liver steatosis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Tatiana L; Fernandes, Gustavo W; McAninch, Elizabeth A; Bocco, Barbara M L C; Abdalla, Sherine M; Ribeiro, Miriam O; Mohácsik, Petra; Fekete, Csaba; Li, Daofeng; Xing, Xiaoyun; Wang, Ting; Gereben, Balázs; Bianco, Antonio C

    2015-11-10

    Thyroid hormone binds to nuclear receptors and regulates gene transcription. Here we report that in mice, at around the first day of life, there is a transient surge in hepatocyte type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates the prohormone thyroxine to the active hormone triiodothyronine, modifying the expression of ∼165 genes involved in broad aspects of hepatocyte function, including lipid metabolism. Hepatocyte-specific D2 inactivation (ALB-D2KO) is followed by a delay in neonatal expression of key lipid-related genes and a persistent reduction in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression. Notably, the absence of a neonatal D2 peak significantly modifies the baseline and long-term hepatic transcriptional response to a high-fat diet (HFD). Overall, changes in the expression of approximately 400 genes represent the HFD response in control animals toward the synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides, whereas in ALB-D2KO animals, the response is limited to a very different set of only approximately 200 genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and lipase activity. A whole genome methylation profile coupled to multiple analytical platforms indicate that 10-20% of these differences can be related to the presence of differentially methylated local regions mapped to sites of active/suppressed chromatin, thus qualifying as epigenetic modifications occurring as a result of neonatal D2 inactivation. The resulting phenotype of the adult ALB-D2KO mouse is dramatic, with greatly reduced susceptibility to diet-induced steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity.

  2. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R

    2012-06-22

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  3. Dynamic PolyConjugates for targeted in vivo delivery of siRNA to hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rozema, David B; Lewis, David L; Wakefield, Darren H; Wong, So C; Klein, Jason J; Roesch, Paula L; Bertin, Stephanie L; Reppen, Tom W; Chu, Qili; Blokhin, Andrei V; Hagstrom, James E; Wolff, Jon A

    2007-08-07

    Achieving efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to the appropriate target cell would be a major advance in the use of RNAi in gene function studies and as a therapeutic modality. Hepatocytes, the key parenchymal cells of the liver, are a particularly attractive target cell type for siRNA delivery given their central role in several infectious and metabolic disorders. We have developed a vehicle for the delivery of siRNA to hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo, which we have named siRNA Dynamic PolyConjugates. Key features of the Dynamic PolyConjugate technology include a membrane-active polymer, the ability to reversibly mask the activity of this polymer until it reaches the acidic environment of endosomes, and the ability to target this modified polymer and its siRNA cargo specifically to hepatocytes in vivo after simple, low-pressure i.v. injection. Using this delivery technology, we demonstrate effective knockdown of two endogenous genes in mouse liver: apolipoprotein B (apoB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (ppara). Knockdown of apoB resulted in clear phenotypic changes that included a significant reduction in serum cholesterol and increased fat accumulation in the liver, consistent with the known functions of apoB. Knockdown of ppara also resulted in a phenotype consistent with its known function, although with less penetrance than observed in apoB knockdown mice. Analyses of serum liver enzyme and cytokine levels in treated mice indicated that the siRNA Dynamic PolyConjugate was nontoxic and well tolerated.

  4. Dynamic PolyConjugates for targeted in vivo delivery of siRNA to hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, David B.; Lewis, David L.; Wakefield, Darren H.; Wong, So C.; Klein, Jason J.; Roesch, Paula L.; Bertin, Stephanie L.; Reppen, Tom W.; Chu, Qili; Blokhin, Andrei V.; Hagstrom, James E.; Wolff, Jon A.

    2007-01-01

    Achieving efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to the appropriate target cell would be a major advance in the use of RNAi in gene function studies and as a therapeutic modality. Hepatocytes, the key parenchymal cells of the liver, are a particularly attractive target cell type for siRNA delivery given their central role in several infectious and metabolic disorders. We have developed a vehicle for the delivery of siRNA to hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo, which we have named siRNA Dynamic PolyConjugates. Key features of the Dynamic PolyConjugate technology include a membrane-active polymer, the ability to reversibly mask the activity of this polymer until it reaches the acidic environment of endosomes, and the ability to target this modified polymer and its siRNA cargo specifically to hepatocytes in vivo after simple, low-pressure i.v. injection. Using this delivery technology, we demonstrate effective knockdown of two endogenous genes in mouse liver: apolipoprotein B (apoB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (ppara). Knockdown of apoB resulted in clear phenotypic changes that included a significant reduction in serum cholesterol and increased fat accumulation in the liver, consistent with the known functions of apoB. Knockdown of ppara also resulted in a phenotype consistent with its known function, although with less penetrance than observed in apoB knockdown mice. Analyses of serum liver enzyme and cytokine levels in treated mice indicated that the siRNA Dynamic PolyConjugate was nontoxic and well tolerated. PMID:17652171

  5. Induction of hepatocyte proliferation by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ledda-Columbano, G M; Pibiri, M; Molotzu, F; Cossu, C; Sanna, L; Simbula, G; Perra, A; Columbano, A

    2004-11-01

    Retinoids have been shown to exert an anticarcinogenic effect through suppression of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and/or differentiation. In rat liver, in particular, retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit regeneration after partial hepatectomy, most probably through repression of the expression of c-fos and c-jun. Surprisingly enough, in spite of the proposed therapeutic effects of all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) no data are available on its effect on normal adult liver. Here, we show that tRA administration in the diet (150 mg/kg) increased DNA synthesis in mouse liver, at 1 and 2 weeks, with a return to control values at 4 weeks (labelling index was 16.5, 8.3 and 3.3%, respectively, versus control values of 1.4, 1.3 and 2.5%). Increase in mitotic index paralleled that of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Kinetic studies showed that entry into S phase began between 24 and 48 h, with a peak between 96 and 120 h. Histological observation of the liver and biochemical evaluation of the levels of serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminases did not reveal any evidence of cell death demonstrating that increased DNA synthesis was not due to tRA-induced liver damage and regeneration, but rather the consequence of a direct mitogenic effect. In addition, analysis of total hepatic DNA content after a 7-day treatment showed a significant increase in tRA-fed mice compared with controls (21.11 mg/100 g body wt in tRA-fed mice versus 15.67 mg/100 g body wt of controls). Hepatocyte proliferation in tRA-fed mice was associated with increased hepatic levels of cyclin D1, E and A, and enhanced expression of the member of pRb family, p107. In conclusion, the results showed that tRA induces hepatocyte proliferation in the absence of cell death, similarly to other ligands of steroid/thyroid hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. The mitogenic effect of tRA cautions about its possible use for antitumoral purposes in liver carcinogenesis.

  6. Tyrosines-740/751 of PDGFRβ contribute to the activation of Akt/Hif1α/TGFβ nexus to drive high glucose-induced glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2017-09-23

    Glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy contributes to the complications of diabetic nephropathy. The mechanism by which high glucose induces mesangial cell hypertrophy is poorly understood. Here we explored the role of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) tyrosine kinase in driving the high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. We show that high glucose stimulates the association of the PDGFRβ with PI 3 kinase leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of the latter. High glucose-induced Akt kinase activation was also dependent upon PDGFRβ and its tyrosine phosphorylation at 740/751 residues. Inhibition of PDGFRβ activity, its downregulation and expression of its phospho-deficient (Y740/751F) mutant inhibited mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. Interestingly, expression of constitutively active Akt reversed this inhibition, indicating a role of Akt kinase downstream of PDGFRβ phosphorylation in this process. The transcription factor Hif1α is a target of Akt kinase. siRNAs against Hif1α inhibited the high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, increased expression of Hif1α induced hypertrophy similar to high glucose. We found that inhibition of PDGFRβ and expression of PDGFRβ Y740/751F mutant significantly inhibited the high glucose-induced expression of Hif1α. Importantly, expression of Hif1α countered the inhibition of mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by siPDGFRβ or PDGFRβ Y740/751F mutant. Finally, we show that high glucose-stimulated PDGFRβ tyrosine phosphorylation at 740/751 residues and the tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor regulate the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) expression by Hif1α. Thus we define the cell surface PDGFRβ as a major link between high glucose and its effectors Hif1α and TGFβ for induction of diabetic mesangial cell hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Homeostatic regulation of electrical excitability in physiological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai-Chien; Foeger, Nicholas C; Marionneau, Céline; Jay, Patrick Y; McMullen, Julie R; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    Pathological biomechanical stresses cause cardiac hypertrophy, which is associated with QT prolongation and arrhythmias. Previous studies have demonstrated that repolarizing K+ current densities are decreased in pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy, resulting in action potential and QT prolongation. Cardiac hypertrophy also occurs with exercise training, but this physiological hypertrophy is not associated with electrical abnormalities or increased arrhythmia risk, suggesting that repolarizing K+ currents are upregulated, in parallel with the increase in myocyte size, to maintain normal cardiac function. To explore this hypothesis directly, electrophysiological recordings were obtained from ventricular myocytes isolated from two mouse models of physiological hypertrophy, one produced by swim-training of wild-type mice and the other by cardiac-specific expression of constitutively active phosphoinositide-3-kinase-p110α (caPI3Kα). Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that repolarizing K+ current amplitudes were higher in ventricular myocytes isolated from swim-trained and caPI3Kα, compared with wild-type, animals. The increases in K+ current amplitudes paralleled the observed cellular hypertrophy, resulting in normalized or increased K+ current densities. Electrocardiographic parameters, including QT intervals, as well as ventricular action potential waveforms in swim-trained animals/myocytes were indistinguishable from controls, demonstrating preserved electrical function. Additional experiments revealed that inward Ca2+ current amplitudes/densities were also increased in caPI3Kα, compared with WT, left ventricular myocytes. The expression of transcripts encoding K+, Ca2+ and other ion channel subunits was increased in swim-trained and caPI3Kα ventricles, in parallel with the increase in myocyte size and with the global increases in total cellular RNA expression. In contrast to pathological hypertrophy, therefore, the functional

  8. Mechanical Stretch Up-regulates MicroRNA-26a and Induces Human Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy by Suppressing Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β*

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Junaith S.; Lopez, Michael A.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2010-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle hypertrophy is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in severe asthma. Several human diseases have been now associated with dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression. miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we identify miR-26a as a hypertrophic miRNA of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). We show that stretch selectively induces the transcription of miR-26a located in the locus 3p21.3 of human chromosome 3. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) directly activates miR-26a expression through the transcriptional machinery upon stretch. Furthermore, stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a induces HASMC hypertrophy, and miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a is a hypertrophic gene. We identify glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), an anti-hypertrophic protein, as a target gene of miR-26a. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that miR-26a directly interact with the 3′-untranslated repeat of the GSK-3β mRNA. Stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a attenuates the endogenous GSK-3β protein levels followed by the induction of HASMC hypertrophy. miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a-induced hypertrophy occurs via its target gene GSK-3β. Overall, as a first time, our study unveils that miR-26a is a mechanosensitive gene, and it plays an important role in the regulation of HASMC hypertrophy. PMID:20525681

  9. Mechanical stretch up-regulates microRNA-26a and induces human airway smooth muscle hypertrophy by suppressing glycogen synthase kinase-3β.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Junaith S; Lopez, Michael A; Boriek, Aladin M

    2010-09-17

    Airway smooth muscle hypertrophy is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in severe asthma. Several human diseases have been now associated with dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression. miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we identify miR-26a as a hypertrophic miRNA of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). We show that stretch selectively induces the transcription of miR-26a located in the locus 3p21.3 of human chromosome 3. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) directly activates miR-26a expression through the transcriptional machinery upon stretch. Furthermore, stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a induces HASMC hypertrophy, and miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a is a hypertrophic gene. We identify glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), an anti-hypertrophic protein, as a target gene of miR-26a. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that miR-26a directly interact with the 3'-untranslated repeat of the GSK-3β mRNA. Stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a attenuates the endogenous GSK-3β protein levels followed by the induction of HASMC hypertrophy. miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a-induced hypertrophy occurs via its target gene GSK-3β. Overall, as a first time, our study unveils that miR-26a is a mechanosensitive gene, and it plays an important role in the regulation of HASMC hypertrophy.

  10. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental delays in preschool children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Erkan; Soylu, Nusret; Polat, Cahit; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Uçur, Ömer; Bozdoğan, Gökçe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of adenotonsillar hypertrophy on general development, as well as fine and gross motor capabilities, social communication, and language development in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy by applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II. The study included 30 patients (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 53.3±12.2 months; range 32 to 72 months) who were indicated for adenotonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy between February 2013 and July 2013. The control group comprised 30 children participants (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 53.1±12.8 months; range 32 to 72 months) with no adenotonsillectomy indication. All participants included in the study were performed routine physical examination, flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy, and tympanometry. Brodsky scale and fiberendoscopic findings were used to categorize tonsil and adenoid sizes, respectively. Following ear, nose, and throat evaluation, a psychologist conducted Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in all participants blindly. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients had higher abnormal levels of general development (c2=7.13, p=0.028). Although patients and controls had similar levels of fine motor, gross motor, and personal-social development levels, there was a statistically borderline difference between them in terms of language development (t=1.82, p=0.074). The possibility of adenotonsillar hypertrophy should definitely be considered in children with delayed general and language developments.

  12. Sodium Butyrate Controls Cardiac Hypertrophy in Experimental Models of Rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhoomika M

    2017-04-07

    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on partial abdominal aorta constriction (PAAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and determine its mechanism of action. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to PAAC for eight weeks. After eight weeks, we carried out hypertrophic and hemodynamic evaluation and measured oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial DNA concentration. PAAC control animals exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, decreased hemodynamic functions and oxidative stress. Treatment with SB reduced hypertrophic indices, LV wall thickness, LV collagen levels, cardiomyocyte diameter, serum lipid levels and serum cardiac biomarkers. Treatment with SB also improved hemodynamic functions, prevented oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial DNA concentration. Improvement in hypertrophy due to HDAC inhibition was further confirmed by HDAC mRNA expression studies which revealed that SB decreases expression of prohypertrophic HDAC, i.e., HDAC2, without altering the expression of anti-hypertrophic HDAC5. Sodium butyrate produces beneficial effect on cardiac hypertrophy as is evident, specifically from reduction in hypertrophic parameters including collagen levels, improvement in mitochondrial DNA concentration and preservation of LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. This beneficial effect of sodium butyrate is mediated through downregulation of class I HDACs, specifically HDAC2 without any effect on class II HDAC, i.e., HDAC5. Thus, selective class I HDAC inhibition is required for controlling cardiac hypertrophy. Newer HDAC inhibitors which are class I inhibitor and class II promoter can be designed to obtain a 'pan' or 'dual' natural HDAC 'regulators.'

  13. Video fluoroscopy for evaluating adenoid hypertrophy in children.

    PubMed

    Ysunza, Antonio; Pamplona, M Carmen; Ortega, Juan M; Prado, Héctor

    2008-08-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in children. Traditionally, adenoid size has been evaluated using a conventional lateral skull film. Flexible endoscopy is now the gold standard for the evaluation of the upper airway. Children need to be cooperative in order to complete a videonasopharyngoscopy examination, which is not always possible. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of lateral video fluoroscopy for assessing adenoid size compared to conventional lateral skull films with videonasopharyngoscopy as the gold standard. Twenty pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy demonstrated by videonasopharyngoscopy, and 20 control patients without adenoid hypertrophy were assessed with video fluoroscopy and lateral skull radiograph. Two independent examiners evaluated all studies. Specificity, sensitivity, and predictive values were obtained for findings on video fluoroscopy and lateral skull film. Video fluoroscopy showed 100% sensitivity, and 90% specificity for the diagnosis of adenoid hypertrophy. Lateral skull films showed 70% sensitivity, and 55% specificity. A Spearman correlation coefficient demonstrated a significant correlation (P<0.05) between findings on video fluoroscopy and videonasopharyngoscopy. In contrast, there was a no significant correlation (P>0.05) between lateral skull films and videonasopharyngoscopy. Video fluoroscopy appears to be a safe and reliable procedure for assessing adenoid hypertrophy in children.

  14. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 mediates compensatory renal hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinxian; Chen, Jianchun; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying renal hypertrophy and progressive nephron damage remains poorly understood. Here we generated congenic ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) knockin mice expressing non-phosphorylatable rpS6 and found that uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy was significantly blunted in these knockin mice. Uninephrectomy-induced increases in cyclin D1 and decreases in cyclin E in the remaining kidney were attenuated in the knockin mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Uninephrectomy induced rpS6 phosphorylation in the wild type mice; however, no rpS6 phosphorylation was detected in uninephrectomized or sham-operated knockin mice. Nonetheless, uninephrectomy stimulated comparable 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in both knockin and wild type mice, indicating that mTORC1 was still activated in the knockin mice. Moreover, the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented both rpS6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, significantly blunted uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy in wild type mice, but did not prevent residual renal hypertrophy despite inhibiting 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in uninephrectomized knockin mice. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological approaches unequivocally demonstrate that phosphorylated rpS6 is a downstream effector of the mTORC1-S6K1 signaling pathway mediating renal hypertrophy. Hence, rpS6 phosphorylation facilitates the increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in cyclin E1 that underlie the hypertrophic nature of uninephrectomy-induced kidney growth. PMID:25229342

  16. [Hypertrophy of labia minora--pathomorphology and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Kruk-Jeromin, Julia; Zieliński, Tomasz

    2010-04-01

    Hypertrophy of labia minora is a variant of normal anatomy. The enlargement can be unilateral or bilateral and is sometimes asymmetric. Hypertrophy of the labia minora may be attributed to mechanical irritation and endocrine diseases. Labia minora longer than 5 cm is a functional and aesthetic problem for many women. Surgical treatment is performed at the request of the patient and based on surgical reduction of labia minora. The goal of this paper is to present our own experiences in labia minora reduction. Twenty-one patients with labia minora hypertrophy aged from 18 to 35, were operated. Hypertrophy was bilateral in all cases but asymmetrical in 5. We have observed that labia majora were smaller than normally and even after labioplasty did not contact in the midline. We performed elliptical resection of the protuberant segment of the hypertrophic labium. We obtained good aesthetic and functional results. All patients were fully satisfied with the outcome. Hypertrophy of labia minora is not a pathologic condition but rather a variant of normal anatomy. Indication of the operation is psychical and functional discomfort. Elliptical resection of the protuberant tissue is a safe method of treatment.

  17. Dietary fish oil enhances renal hypertrophy in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Logan, J L; Benson, B; Lee, S M

    1990-10-01

    Renal hypertrophy occurs early in the natural history of human and experimental diabetes and may be a manifestation of the same pathophysiological process which ultimately results in diabetic nephropathy. The precise biological events which stimulate and regulate this growth process remain incompletely understood. We postulated that renal eicosanoids contribute to the development of renal hypertrophy in diabetes. We elected to test the effects of suppression of dienoic eicosanoid metabolism (arachidonic acid metabolism) on renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats by feeding fish oil. Diabetic rats fed fish oil had markedly reduced insulin requirements compared to control rats pair-fed a beef tallow-rich diet. The concentrations of prostaglandin E2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 were depressed in the renal cortex of diabetic rats fed fish oil. This alteration in eicosanoid metabolism was associated with a substantial enhancement of diabetic renal hypertrophy. These results indicate that dietary fish oil has profound effects on renal eicosanoid metabolism in experimental diabetes and that these autocoids may participate in the biological events which regulate diabetic renal hypertrophy.

  18. Inhibitory effects of interferon-gamma on myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongkui; Li, Wei; Yang, Renhui; Ogasawara, Annie; Lu, Hsienwie; Paoni, Nicholas F

    2005-09-21

    Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) plays an important role in pathologic cardiac growth. After testing several immune cytokines, we found that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inhibited responsiveness of adult myocytes to PGF(2alpha). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that IFN-gamma inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by PGF(2alpha). Incubation of cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes with PGF(2alpha) caused cell spreading, which was inhibited by IFN-gamma. The inhibitory effect was not affected by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors. In addition, administration of fluprostenol, a more selective agonist at the PGF(2alpha) receptor, induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Chronic treatment with IFN-gamma inhibited this myocardial growth, and the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma was not accompanied by an increase in myocardial NO synthase gene expression. Further, abdominal aortic constriction resulted in a substantial increase in heart, ventricular and left ventricular weights to BW ratio that was significantly attenuated by treatment with IFN-gamma. The results demonstrate that IFN-gamma inhibits the in vitro and in vivo effects of PGF(2alpha) on cardiac hypertrophy, and that the mechanism of action is likely independent of NO production. IFN-gamma also attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload, suggesting that PGF(2alpha) plays a role in the pathogeneses of this severe type of cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. A Single Injection of Hypertrophied Androgenic Gland Cells Produces All-Female Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Levy, Tom; Rosen, Ohad; Eilam, Brit; Azulay, Dudu; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Manor, Rivka; Shechter, Assaf; Sagi, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Monosex culture, common in animal husbandry, enables gender-specific management. Here, production of all-female prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was achieved by a novel biotechnology comprising three steps: (a) A single injection of suspended hypertrophied androgenic gland cells caused fully functional sex reversal of females into "neo-males" bearing the WZ genotype; (b) crossing neo-males with normal females (WZ) yielded genomically validated WW females; and (c) WW females crossed with normal males (ZZ) yielded all-female progeny. This is the first sustainable biotechnology for large-scale all-female crustacean aquaculture. The approach is particularly suited to species in which females are superior to males and offers seedstock protection, thereby ensuring a quality seed supply. Our technology will thus revolutionize not only the structure of the crustacean aquaculture industry but can also be applied to other sectors. Finally, the production of viable and reproducible females lacking the Z chromosome questions its role, with respect to sexuality.

  20. [Application of philosophy on comprehensive analysis of adenoid hypertrophy space occupying effect in meticulous adenoidectomy].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhenkun

    2015-07-01

    To achieve targeted and meticulous surgery of adenoid hypertrophy, a comprehensive analysis of adenoid hypertrophy space occupying effect and morphological evaluation were conducted and the clinical results were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and sixty-three children with adenoid hypertrophy were treated in our department from May 2013 to May 2014. All children received three examinations preoperatively, including: Nasopharyngo-fiberoscopy, Audiometry and Tympanometry. Based on the results, space occupying effect of adenoid hypertrophy was divided into three types: vertical hypertrophy type, horizontal hypertrophy type and vertical & horizontal hypertrophy type. We assumed the causal relationship with vertical hypertrophy type to snoring (nasal blockage) and horizontal hypertrophy type to secretory otitis media respectively. All children received transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy with radiofrequency ablation. The postoperative followup of these children for 6 to 12 months showed that the vertical hypertrophy type and horizontal hypertrophy type children all recovered from the syndromes of snoring (nasal blockage) and secretory otitis media respectively. The nasopharyngo-fiberoscopy showed that the nasopharyngeal space was smooth and the bilateral choanas opened well. No recurrence was found. The philosophy of comprehensive analysis on adenoid hypertrophy space occupying effect could help the surgeons understand adenoid hypertrophy better and can guide the adenoidectomy more meticulously.

  1. Resetting the transcription factor network reverses terminal chronic hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Taichiro; Bell, Aaron; Brooks, Jenna M.; Setoyama, Kentaro; Melis, Marta; Han, Bing; Fukumitsu, Ken; Handa, Kan; Tian, Jianmin; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Locker, Joseph; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    The cause of organ failure is enigmatic for many degenerative diseases, including end-stage liver disease. Here, using a CCl4-induced rat model of irreversible and fatal hepatic failure, which also exhibits terminal changes in the extracellular matrix, we demonstrated that chronic injury stably reprograms the critical balance of transcription factors and that diseased and dedifferentiated cells can be returned to normal function by re-expression of critical transcription factors, a process similar to the type of reprogramming that induces somatic cells to become pluripotent or to change their cell lineage. Forced re-expression of the transcription factor HNF4α induced expression of the other hepatocyte-expressed transcription factors; restored functionality in terminally diseased hepatocytes isolated from CCl4-treated rats; and rapidly reversed fatal liver failure in CCl4-treated animals by restoring diseased hepatocytes rather than replacing them with new hepatocytes or stem cells. Together, the results of our study indicate that disruption of the transcription factor network and cellular dedifferentiation likely mediate terminal liver failure and suggest reinstatement of this network has therapeutic potential for correcting organ failure without cell replacement. PMID:25774505

  2. Turnover of cytokeratin polypeptides in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Denk, H.; Lackinger, E.; Zatloukal, K. ); Franke, W.W. )

    1987-11-01

    The turnover of cytokeratin polypeptides A (equivalent to No. 8 of the human cytokeratin catalog) and D (equivalent to human cytokeratin No. 18) of mouse hepatocytes was studied by pulse-labeling of mouse liver proteins after intraperitoneal injection of L-(guanido{sup 14}C)arginine and ({sup 14}C)sodium bicarbonate. With L-(guanido-{sup 14}C)arginine a rapid increase in the specific radioactivity of both cytokeratins was observed which reached a plateau between 12 and 24 h. With ({sup 14}C)sodium bicarbonate maximal specific radioactivity was obtained at 6 h followed by a rapid decrease to half maximum values within the subsequent 6 h and then a slower decrease. Half-lives were determined from the decrease of specific radioactivities after pulse-labeling by least-squares plots and found to be 84 h (for cytokeratin component A) and 104 h (component D) for arginine labeling . Values obtained after bicarbonate labeling were similar (95 h for A and 98 h for D). These results show that liver cytokeratins are relatively stable proteins and suggest that components A and D are synthesized and degraded at similar rates, probably in a coordinate way.

  3. Nonalcoholic Lipid Accumulation and Hepatocyte Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Juanjuan; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengbing; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuli; Yao, Dengfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is steadily increasing, highlighting its status as a public health concern, particularly due to its significant association with other comorbidities, such as diabetes. However, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a primary risk factor, with its own prevalence increasing in recent years, and it has gradually caught up with the historical primary etiological factors of infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, exposure to aflatoxin, or alcohol liver disease. The deeply worrisome aspects of all of these high risk factors, however, are their remarkable presence within populations. Systemic and genetic mechanisms involved in the malignant transformation of liver cells, as well as useful biomarkers of early stage HCC are being investigated. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the interrelation of NAFLD and HCC remain largely unknown. In this review, some of the recent advances in our understanding of liver lipid accumulation are summarized and discussed to provide insights into the relationship between NAFLD and hepatocyte malignant transformation. PMID:27350942

  4. In vitro culture of isolated primary hepatocytes and stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells for liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenxia; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-08-01

    Various liver diseases result in terminal hepatic failure, and liver transplantation, cell transplantation and artificial liver support systems are emerging as effective therapies for severe hepatic disease. However, all of these treatments are limited by organ or cell resources, so developing a sufficient number of functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration is a priority. Liver regeneration is a complex process regulated by growth factors (GFs), cytokines, transcription factors (TFs), hormones, oxidative stress products, metabolic networks, and microRNA. It is well-known that the function of isolated primary hepatocytes is hard to maintain; when cultured in vitro, these cells readily undergo dedifferentiation, causing them to lose hepatocyte function. For this reason, most studies focus on inducing stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro. In this review, we mainly focus on the nature of the liver regeneration process and discuss how to maintain and enhance in vitro hepatic function of isolated primary hepatocytes or stem cell-derived HLCs for liver regeneration. In this way, hepatocytes or HLCs may be applied for clinical use for the treatment of terminal liver diseases and may prolong the survival time of patients in the near future.

  5. Extracellular high-mobility group box 1 mediates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Ying; Yu, Peng; Tong, Rui; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shuning; Yao, Kang; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is increased in myocardium under pressure overload, may be involved in pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. The objectives of this study are to determine the role of HMGB1 in cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction under pressure overload. Pressure overload was imposed on the heart of male wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), while recombinant HMGB1, HMGB1 box A (a competitive antagonist of HMGB1) or PBS was injected into the LV wall. Moreover, cardiac myocytes were cultured and given sustained mechanical stress. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed after the operation and sections for histological analyses were generated from paraffin-embedded hearts. Relevant proteins and genes were detected. Cardiac HMGB1 expression was increased after TAC, which was accompanied by its translocation from nucleus to both cytoplasm and intercellular space. Exogenous HMGB1 aggravated TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, as demonstrated by echocardiographic analyses, histological analyses and foetal cardiac genes detection. Nevertheless, the aforementioned pathological change induced by TAC could partially be reversed by HMGB1 inhibition. Consistent with the in vivo observations, mechanical stress evoked the release and synthesis of HMGB1 in cultured cardiac myocytes. This study indicates that the activated and up-regulated HMGB1 in myocardium, which might partially be derived from cardiac myocytes under pressure overload, may be of crucial importance in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Effects of increased preload on the force-frequency response and contractile kinetics in early stages of cardiac muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Haizlip, Kaylan M; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2012-06-15

    Numerous studies have aimed to elucidate markers for the onset of decompensatory hypertrophy and heart failure in vivo and in vitro. Alterations in the force-frequency relationship are commonly used as markers for heart failure with a negative staircase being a hallmark of decompensated cardiac function. Here we aim to determine the functional and molecular alterations in the very early stages of compensatory hypertrophy through analysis of the force-frequency relationship, using a novel isolated muscle culture system that allows assessment of force-frequency relationship during the development of hypertrophy. New Zealand white male rabbit trabeculae excised from the right ventricular free wall were utilized for all experiments. Briefly, muscles held at constant preload and contracting isometrically were stimulated to contract in culture for 24 h, and in a subset up to 48 h. We found that, upon an increase in the preload and maintaining the muscles in culture for up to 24 h, there was an increase in baseline force produced by isolated trabeculae over time. This suggests a gradual compensatory response to the impact of increased preload. Temporal analysis of the force-frequency response during this progression revealed a significant blunting (at 12 h) and then reversal of the positive staircase as culture time increased (at 24 h). Phosphorylation analysis revealed a significant decrease in desmin and troponin (Tn)I phosphorylation from 12 to 24 h in culture. These results show that even very early on in the compensatory hypertrophy state, the force-frequency relationship is already affected. This effect on force-frequency relationship may, in addition to protein expression changes, be partially attributed to the alterations in myofilament protein phosphorylation.

  7. Curcumin attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose and insulin via the PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongchun; Peng, Xiaofeng; Du, Weimin; Wu, Yang; Huang, Bo; Xue, Lai; Wu, Qin; Qiu, Hongmei; Jiang, Qingsong

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of curcumin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a possible mechanism involving the PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway in diabetes. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose (25.5mmol/L) and insulin (0.1μmol/L) (HGI) and the antihypertrophic effect of curcumin were evaluated in primary culture by measuring the cell surface area, protein content and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression. The mRNA and protein expressions were assayed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, whereas the NO concentration and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity were determined using nitrate reduction and ELISA methods, respectively. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by HGI was characterized by increasing ANF mRNA expression, total protein content, and cell surface area, with downregulated mRNA and protein expressions of both PPARγ and Akt, which paralleled the declining eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS content, and NO concentration. The effects of HGI were inhibited by curcumin (1, 3, 10μmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner. GW9662 (10μmol/L), a selective PPARγ antagonist, could abolish the effects of curcumin. LY294002 (20μmol/L), an Akt blocker, and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (100μmol/L), a NOS inhibitor, could also diminish the effects of curcumin. The results suggested that curcumin supplementation can improve HGI-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy in vitro through the activation of PPARγ/Akt/NO signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy in cyp1a1ren-2 transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Peters, Barbara S; Dornaika, Rami; Hosten, Norbert; Hadlich, Stefan; Mullins, John J; Peters, Jörg; Rettig, Rainer

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the cyp1a1ren-2 transgenic rat model of inducible hypertension for studies of the development and regression of cardiac hypertrophy. Cyp1a1ren-2 rats received a diet containing 0% or 0.167% indole-3-carbinonl (I3C) for 4 weeks to induce hypertension. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 T was performed every second week for 10 weeks to measure left ventricular mass and the ejection fraction. Concomitantly, in six cyp1a1ren-2 rats blood pressure was recorded telemetrically. Plasma prorenin concentrations rose from 138 ± 38 to 15,490 ± 3990 ng/angiotensin I/mL/h (P < 0.001) in I3C-treated transgenic rats and returned to basal levels after cessation of I3C. Mean blood pressure increased to a plateau of 169 ± 11 mmHg by the second week of induction. After cessation of I3C (day 28), arterial pressure dropped to values slightly below those prior to induction within 4 days (basal: 106 ± 7 mmHg, day 32: 103 ± 21 mmHg; NS). At day 28, left ventricular mass was increased by 39% vs. 4% in controls (P < 0.001) without changes of the ejection fraction. Cardiac hypertrophy was completely reversed at day 70, as evaluated by MRI. The cyp1a1ren-2 transgenic rat is a useful model to study reversal and healing in the absence of surgical interventions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Perinatal DDT Exposure Induces Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele A.; Sethi, Sunjay; Benard, Ludovic; Moshier, Erin; Haraldsson, Borje; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice, and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. However, the use of DDT to control vector-borne diseases continues in developing countries. Prenatal DDT exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that perinatal DDT exposure causes hypertension in adult mice. Methods: DDT was administered to C57BL/6J dams from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5. Blood pressure (BP) and myocardial wall thickness were measured in male and female adult offspring. Adult mice were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, to evaluate sensitivity to amelioration of DDT-associated hypertension by ACE inhibition. We further assessed the influence of DDT exposure on the expression of mRNAs that regulate BP through renal ion transport. Results: Adult mice perinatally exposed to DDT exhibited chronically increased systolic BP, increased myocardial wall thickness, and elevated expression of mRNAs of several renal ion transporters. Captopril completely reversed hypertension in mice perinatally exposed to DDT. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that perinatal exposure to DDT causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult offspring. A key mechanism underpinning this hypertension is an overactivated renin angiotensin system because ACE inhibition reverses the hypertension induced by perinatal DDT exposure. Citation: La Merrill M, Sethi S, Benard L, Moshier E, Haraldsson B, Buettner C. 2016. Perinatal DDT exposure induces hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1722–1727; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP164 PMID:27325568

  10. Nitric oxide and the enigma of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C

    2004-06-01

    In pathological conditions associated with persistent increases in hemodynamic workload (old myocardial infarction, high blood pressure, valvular heart disease), a number of signalling pathways are activated in the heart, all of which promote hypertrophic growth of the heart, characterised at the cellular level by increases in individual cardiac myocyte size. Some of these pathways are required for a successful adaptation to cardiac injury. Other pathways are maladaptive, however, as they lead to progressive contractile dysfunction and heart failure. The free radical gas nitric oxide and natriuretic peptides, both of which are produced in the heart, have emerged as endogenous inhibitors of maladaptive hypertrophy signalling. Overall, it appears that cardiac hypertrophy is controlled by an interplay of pro- and antihypertrophic signalling networks. This delicate balance can tip towards adaptation or heart failure. In the future, patients living with cardiac disease may benefit from therapeutic strategies targeting maladaptive hypertrophy signalling pathways. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in rat hepatocytes but not in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vaynshteyn, David; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2012-06-01

    Caffeine is the active constituent in coffee. Continual consumption of caffeine can lead to an attenuated response also known as tolerance. Results from rat studies have shown that caffeine is an inducer of CYP1A2, the enzyme responsible for caffeine's metabolism. This suggests that CYP1A2 induction by caffeine may be in part responsible for caffeine tolerance. However, whether caffeine induces CYP1A2 expression in humans remains unknown. Our results from luciferase assays performed in HepG2 cells showed that caffeine is not an activator of the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a major transcription factor involved in upregulation of CYP1A2. Furthermore, caffeine did not induce CYP1A2 expression in primary human hepatocytes at a concentration attained by ordinary coffee drinking. On the other hand, caffeine enhanced CYP1A2 expression by 9-fold in rat hepatocytes. Our results suggest that caffeine from ordinary coffee drinking does not induce CYP1A2 expression in humans and that factors other than CYP1A2 induction by caffeine likely contribute to development of caffeine tolerance in humans.

  12. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.

  13. CD38 promotes angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Hong, Xuan; Zhao, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Yun-Fei; Chen, Ting-Tao; Deng, Li-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Jian-Bin; Ji, Guang-Ju; Fu, Mingui; Deng, Ke-Yu; Xin, Hong-Bo

    2017-03-12

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an early hallmark during the clinical course of heart failure and regulated by various signalling pathways. Recently, we observed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts from CD38 knockout mice were significantly resistant to oxidative stress such as H2 O2 -induced injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury. In addition, we also found that CD38 knockout mice protected heart from ischaemia reperfusion injury through activating SIRT1/FOXOs-mediated antioxidative stress pathway. However, the role of CD38 in cardiac hypertrophy is not explored. Here, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of CD38 in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Following 14 days of Ang-II infusion with osmotic mini-pumps, a comparable hypertension was generated in both of CD38 knockout and wild-type mice. However, the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were much more severe in wild-type mice compared with CD38 knockout mice. Consistently, RNAi-induced knockdown of CD38 decreased the gene expressions of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and reactive oxygen species generation in Ang-II-stimulated H9c2 cells. In addition, the expression of SIRT3 was elevated in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells, in which SIRT3 may further activate the FOXO3 antioxidant pathway. The intracellular Ca(2+) release induced by Ang-II markedly decreased in CD38 knockdown H9c2 cells, which might be associated with the decrease of nuclear translocation of NFATc4 and inhibition of ERK/AKT phosphorylation. We concluded that CD38 plays an essential role in cardiac hypertrophy probably via inhibition of SIRT3 expression and activation of Ca(2+) -NFAT signalling pathway. Thus, CD38 may be a novel target for treating cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H/sub 2/O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H/sub 2/O with buffer containing 1.2 mM /sup 14/C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 ..mu..moles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 ..mu..moles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O/sub 2/ consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 ..mu..moles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine.

  15. Supra-physiological dose of testosterone induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pirompol, Prapawadee; Teekabut, Vassana; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone and androgenic anabolic steroids have been misused for enhancement of physical performance despite many reports on cardiac sudden death. Although physiological level of testosterone provided many regulatory benefits to human health, including the cardiovascular function, supra-physiological levels of the hormone induce hypertrophy of the heart with unclear contractile activation. In this study, dose- and time-dependent effects of high-testosterone treatment on cardiac structure and function were evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into four groups of testosterone treatment for 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Increases in both percentage heart:body weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in representing hypertrophy of the heart were significantly shown in all testosterone-treated groups to the same degree. In 4-week-treated rats, physiological cardiac hypertrophy was apparent with an upregulation of α-MHC without any change in myofilament contractile activation. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 8- and 12-week testosterone-treated groups, as indicated by suppression of myofilament activation and myocardial collagen deposition without transition of MHC isoforms. Only in 12-week testosterone-treated group, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was demonstrated with unaltered myocardial stiffness, but significant reductions in the phosphorylation signals of ERK1/2 and mTOR. Results of our study suggest that the outcome of testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not dose dependent but is rather relied on the factor of exposure to duration in inducing maladaptive responses of the heart. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  17. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we a