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Sample records for review qualitative research

  1. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  2. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  3. Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  4. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kip

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

  5. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  6. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  7. A Review of the Qualitative Research on Multigrade Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce A.

    This paper reviews selected research studies of multigrade classrooms in Canada, Finland, eight developing nations (India, Korea, Maldives, Nepal, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia), and the United States. Based on information about the perceptions of multigrade instruction of principals and teachers, the following issues are…

  8. Qualitative Insights from the Osteoporosis Research: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Much of the research on osteoporosis has been generated quantitatively. However, the qualitative osteoporosis literature provides valuable information on patient and clinician experiences and perspectives, informing the design and implementation of health research and healthcare services. To identify knowledge gaps and inform the design of future qualitative research, a narrative review was conducted to consolidate and synthesize the existing insights available within the qualitative osteoporosis research. Methods. Search terms reflecting the domains of osteoporosis and qualitative research were entered into the Scopus database to generate a comprehensive survey of qualitative research in the area of osteoporosis. Articles were thematically analysed and the results are presented in the form of a narrative review. Results. Forty-four articles were included in the narrative review. Qualitative research in the field of osteoporosis research can be summarized by 3 thematic areas: the meaning of osteoporosis for patients and the public, the lived experience of an osteoporosis diagnosis, and the programmatic approach to osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Conclusions. Qualitative studies provide clinically valuable insights in how osteoporosis is conceptualized and managed and programmatic aspects of osteoporosis treatment. The findings of this narrative review suggest the need for balance between presenting osteoporosis as a serious health condition and producing unwarranted anxiety and inactivity so as to ensure the best possible outcomes for individuals with osteoporosis. PMID:27994908

  9. The qualitative research proposal.

    PubMed

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  10. Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

  11. Rigorous, robust and systematic: Qualitative research and its contribution to burn care. An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; de Jong, A E E; McLean, L

    2015-12-01

    Qualitative methods are progressively being implemented by researchers for exploration within healthcare. However, there has been a longstanding and wide-ranging debate concerning the relative merits of qualitative research within the health care literature. This integrative review aimed to exam the contribution of qualitative research in burns care and subsequent rehabilitation. Studies were identified using an electronic search strategy using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) and Scopus of peer reviewed primary research in English between 2009 to April 2014 using Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method as a guide for analysis. From the 298 papers identified, 26 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies there was an average of 22 participants involved in each study with a range of 6-53 participants conducted across 12 nations that focussed on burns prevention, paediatric burns, appropriate acquisition and delivery of burns care, pain and psychosocial implications of burns trauma. Careful and rigorous application of qualitative methodologies promotes and enriches the development of burns knowledge. In particular, the key elements in qualitative methodological process and its publication are critical in disseminating credible and methodologically sound qualitative research.

  12. How are qualitative methods used in diabetes research? A 30-year systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Sekar, Swathi; Griswold, Emily P; Ali, Mohammed K

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years. The majority of articles (75%) reported using substantive qualitative research, while mixed-methods research has remained underutilised. Eighty-five per cent of articles reported studies conducted in North America or Europe, with few studies in developing countries. Most articles reported recruiting clinic-based populations (58%). Over half (54%) of research questions focused on patient experience and 24% on diabetes management. Qualitative methods can provide important insights about socio-cultural aspects of disease to improve disease management. However, they remain underutilised for understanding the diabetes experience, especially in Africa and Asia and amongst non-clinic populations.

  13. Qualitative research: a review of methods with use of examples from the total knee replacement literature.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Dorcas E; Clark, Jocalyn P

    2009-05-01

    Qualitative research is a useful approach to explore perplexing or complicated clinical situations. Since 1996, at least fifteen qualitative studies in the area of total knee replacement alone were found. Qualitative studies overcome the limits of quantitative work because they can explicate deeper meaning and complexity associated with questions such as why patients decline joint replacement surgery, why they do not adhere to pain medication and exercise regimens, how they manage in the postoperative period, and why providers do not always provide evidence-based care. In this paper, we review the role of qualitative methods in orthopaedic research, using knee osteoarthritis as an illustrative example. Qualitative research questions tend to be inductive, and the stance of the investigator is relevant and explicitly acknowledged. Qualitative methodologies include grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography and involve gathering opinions and text from individuals or focus groups. The methods are rigorous and take training and time to apply. Analysis of the textual data typically proceeds with the identification, coding, and categorization of patterns in the data for the purpose of generating concepts from within the data. With use of analytic techniques, researchers strive to explain the findings; questions are asked to tease out different levels of meaning, identify new concepts and themes, and permit a deeper interpretation and understanding. Orthopaedic practitioners should consider the use of qualitative research as a tool for exploring the meaning and complexities behind some of the perplexing phenomena that they observe in research findings and clinical practice.

  14. Rigor in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Strategies Used in Published Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…

  15. Use of Qualitative Methods in Published Health Services and Management Research: A 10-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field’s knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study’s methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research. PMID:20675353

  16. Understanding & Conducting Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan; Stainback, William

    In this book, which applies the state of the art in qualitative research to special education, qualitative research is used as a generic term for investigative methodologies described variously as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field research, or participant-observer research. Chapter 1 introduces and defines qualitative research and…

  17. YouTube as a Qualitative Research Asset: Reviewing User Generated Videos as Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    YouTube, the video hosting service, offers students, teachers, and practitioners of qualitative researchers a unique reservoir of video clips introducing basic qualitative research concepts, sharing qualitative data from interviews and field observations, and presenting completed research studies. This web-based site also affords qualitative…

  18. Effective Practices in the Delivery of Research Ethics Education: A Qualitative Review of Instructional Methods.

    PubMed

    Todd, E Michelle; Torrence, Brett S; Watts, Logan L; Mulhearn, Tyler J; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    In order to delineate best practices for courses on research ethics, the goal of the present effort was to identify themes related to instructional methods reflected in effective research ethics and responsible conduct of research (RCR) courses. By utilizing a qualitative review, four themes relevant to instructional methods were identified in effective research ethics courses: active participation, case-based activities, a combination of individual and group approaches, and a small number of instructional methods. Three instructional method themes associated with less effective courses were also identified: passive learning, a group-based approach, and a large number of instructional methods. Key characteristics of each theme, along with example courses relative to each theme, are described. Additionally, implications regarding these instructional method themes and recommendations for best practices in research ethics courses are discussed.

  19. Being a qualitative researcher.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Immy; Biley, Francis C

    2011-07-01

    This article, from a keynote address, is the result of some of the things which I learned about qualitative research during my many years of doing and teaching it. The main point I make is that qualitative researchers should present a good story which is based on evidence but focused on meaning rather than measurement. In qualitative inquiry, the researchers' selves are involved, their experiences become a resource. Researchers cannot distance themselves from the other participants, although they cannot fully present their meaning and experience. I also discuss voice, paradigm, and innovation as potentially problematic issues in qualitative research. These are terms often used but not always examined for their meaning in qualitative inquiry. If researchers are aware and sensitive, rather than overemotional or self-absorbed, qualitative research can be enlightening, person-centered, and humanistic.

  20. Critiquing qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2009-10-01

    The ability to critique research is a valuable skill that is fundamental to a perioperative nurse's ability to base his or her clinical practice on evidence derived from research. Criteria differ for critiquing a quantitative versus a qualitative study (ie, statistics are evaluated in a quantitative study, but not in a qualitative study). This article provides on guidelines for assessing qualitative research. Excerpts from a published qualitative research report are summarized and then critiqued. Questions are provided that help evaluate different sections of a research study (eg, sample, data collection methods, data analysis).

  1. Overview of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.

  2. Part two: Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Quick, J; Hall, S

    2015-01-01

    This second article in the series Spotlight on Research focuses on qualitative research, its applications, principles and methodologies. It provides an insight into how this approach can be used within the perioperative setting and gives advice for practitioners looking to undertake a qualitative research study.

  3. Commentary: Writing and evaluating qualitative research reports

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...

  4. GPs’ perspectives on the management of patients with multimorbidity: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Carol; Mc Hugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Bradley, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the existing published literature on the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) or their equivalent on the clinical management of multimorbidity and determine targets for future research that aims to improve clinical care in multimorbidity. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore GPs’ experiences of clinical management of multimorbidity or multiple chronic diseases. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex, Social Science Full Text and digital theses/online libraries (database inception to September 2012) to identify literature using qualitative methods (focus groups or interviews). Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results Of 1805 articles identified, 37 were reviewed in detail and 10 were included, using a total of 275 GPs in 7 different countries. Four areas of difficulty specific to the management of multimorbidity emerged from these papers: disorganisation and fragmentation of healthcare; the inadequacy of guidelines and evidence-based medicine; challenges in delivering patient-centred care; and barriers to shared decision-making. A ‘line of argument’ was drawn which described GPs’ sense of isolation in decision-making for multimorbid patients. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the problem areas for GPs in the management of multimorbidity may be classified into four domains. There will be no ‘one size fits all’ intervention for multimorbidity but these domains may be useful targets to guide the development of interventions that will assist and improve the provision of care to multimorbid patients. PMID:24038011

  5. The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular

  6. Lay perspectives on hypertension and drug adherence: systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Charles D A; McKevitt, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the findings from individual qualitative studies on patients’ understanding and experiences of hypertension and drug taking; to investigate whether views differ internationally by culture or ethnic group and whether the research could inform interventions to improve adherence. Design Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative research using the 2006 UK Economic and Social Research Council research methods programme guidance. Data sources Medline, Embase, the British Nursing Index, Social Policy and Practice, and PsycInfo from inception to October 2011. Study selection Qualitative interviews or focus groups among people with uncomplicated hypertension (studies principally in people with diabetes, established cardiovascular disease, or pregnancy related hypertension were excluded). Results 59 papers reporting on 53 qualitative studies were included in the synthesis. These studies came from 16 countries (United States, United Kingdom, Brazil, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Tanzania, and Thailand). A large proportion of participants thought hypertension was principally caused by stress and produced symptoms, particularly headache, dizziness, and sweating. Participants widely intentionally reduced or stopped treatment without consulting their doctor. Participants commonly perceived that their blood pressure improved when symptoms abated or when they were not stressed, and that treatment was not needed at these times. Participants disliked treatment and its side effects and feared addiction. These findings were consistent across countries and ethnic groups. Participants also reported various external factors that prevented adherence, including being unable to find time to take the drugs or to see the doctor; having insufficient money to pay for treatment; the cost of appointments and healthy food; a lack of health insurance; and forgetfulness. Conclusions Non

  7. Sampling in Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    2011-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal. PMID:22058580

  8. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a well-recognized need for greater use of theory to address research translational gaps. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a set of sociological tools to understand and explain the social processes through which new or modified practices of thinking, enacting, and organizing work are implemented, embedded, and integrated in healthcare and other organizational settings. This review of NPT offers readers the opportunity to observe how, and in what areas, a particular theoretical approach to implementation is being used. In this article we review the literature on NPT in order to understand what interventions NPT is being used to analyze, how NPT is being operationalized, and the reported benefits, if any, of using NPT. Methods Using a framework analysis approach, we conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed literature using NPT. We searched 12 electronic databases and all citations linked to six key NPT development papers. Grey literature/unpublished studies were not sought. Limitations of English language, healthcare setting and year of publication 2006 to June 2012 were set. Results Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria; in the main, NPT is being applied to qualitatively analyze a diverse range of complex interventions, many beyond its original field of e-health and telehealth. The NPT constructs have high stability across settings and, notwithstanding challenges in applying NPT in terms of managing overlaps between constructs, there is evidence that it is a beneficial heuristic device to explain and guide implementation processes. Conclusions NPT offers a generalizable framework that can be applied across contexts with opportunities for incremental knowledge gain over time and an explicit framework for analysis, which can explain and potentially shape implementation processes. This is the first review of NPT in use and it generates an impetus for further and extended use of NPT. We recommend that in future

  9. Teaching Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delyser, Dydia

    2008-01-01

    Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

  10. Out of the frying pan? Streamlining the ethics review process of multisite qualitative research projects.

    PubMed

    Iedema, Rick A M; Allen, Suellen; Britton, Kate; Hor, Suyin

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ethics approval processes for two multicentre, nationwide, qualitative health service research projects. The paper explains that the advent of the National Ethics Application Form has brought many improvements, but that attendant processes put in place at local health network and Human Research Ethics Committee levels may have become significantly more complicated, particularly for innovative qualitative research projects. The paper raises several questions based on its analysis of ethics application processes currently in place. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexity of multicentre research ethics applications for research in health services has been addressed by the introduction of the National Ethics Application Form. Uptake of the form across the country's human research ethics committees has been uneven. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper adds detailed insight into the ethics application process as it is currently enacted across the country. The paper details this process with reference to difficulties faced by multisite and qualitative studies in negotiating access to research sites, ethics committees' relative unfamiliarity with qualitative research , and apparent tensions between harmonisation and local sites' autonomy in approving research. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Practitioners aiming to engage in research need to be aware that ethics approval takes place in an uneven procedural landscape, made up of variable levels of ethics approval harmonization and intricate governance or site-specific assessment processes.

  11. Qualitative research in thanatology.

    PubMed

    Carverhill, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    A new research paradigm has been emerging which holds significant potential for the field of death studies. The qualitative project is a diverse collection of methodologies that focuses its interests on the words, narratives, and stories of individuals and groups. Part of its appeal may lie in the inherent closeness of fit between qualitative inquiry and applied work with the dying and the bereaved. The author introduces the individual articles in this special issue and outlines the development of the project as well as some current issues in qualitative research in thanatology.

  12. Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473

  13. Wellbeing Research in Developing Countries: Reviewing the Role of Qualitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura; Crivello, Gina; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the contribution of qualitative methods to exploring concepts and experiences of wellbeing among children and adults living in developing countries. They provide examples illustrating the potential of these methods for gaining a holistic and contextual understanding of people's perceptions and experiences. Some of these come…

  14. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research: The Influence of School Context on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Moore, Darren A.; Cooper, Paul; Russell, Abigail Emma; Richardson, Michelle; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research explored contextual factors relevant to non-pharmacological interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schools. We conducted meta-ethnography to synthesise 34 studies, using theories of stigma to further develop the synthesis. Studies suggested that the…

  15. What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

  16. Advances in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains five papers from a symposium on advances in qualitative research in human resource development (HRD). "Case Study and Its Virtuoso Possibilities" (Verna J. Willis) asserts that the case study method is particularly well suited for research in HRD because its creative and investigative possibilities have not yet…

  17. "She's Weird!"--The Social Construction of Bullying in School: A Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research provides opportunities to study bullying and peer harassment as social processes, interactions and meaning-making in the everyday context of particular settings. It offers the possibility of developing a deep understanding of the culture and group processes of bullying and the participants' perspectives on peer harassment as…

  18. A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

    2011-01-01

    This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

  19. Minority Students' Psychological Adjustment in the School Context: An Integrative Review of Qualitative Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at systematically analyzing the findings reported in qualitative research on acculturation and psychological adjustment in the school context. Content analysis was conducted using the deductively developed and inductively enriched system of categories. The results of the study provide insights into youths' acculturation and…

  20. Consensual Qualitative Research: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; Knox, Sarah; Thompson, Barbara J.; Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Hess, Shirley A.; Ladany, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed the application of consensual qualitative research (CQR) in 27 studies published since the method's introduction to the field in 1997 by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997). After first describing the core components and the philosophical underpinnings of CQR, the authors examined how it has been applied in…

  1. International requirements for consent in biobank research: qualitative review of research guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Irene; Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Several stakeholders in the field of biobank research are currently developing and evaluating innovative consent procedures, and in doing so refer to national and international guidelines that regulate biomedical research. The objectives of this study were to present (1) a synthesis of all consent issues mentioned or required in guidelines that are of potential relevance to biobank research and (2) a detailed overview of similarities and differences between these guidelines. This analysis considered a purposive sample of the nine most internationally recognised research guidelines plus a national checklist for developing consent forms. The synthesis of all included research guidelines found 41 issues of potential relevance to consent procedures in biobank research. The guidelines differ substantially with respect to (1) how comprehensively they address these consent issues, (2) their definition and explanation of the issues and (3) how directly or indirectly the issues are mentioned. The set of 41 consent issues presented in this paper should be further developed in a continuous process. Our findings on the differences among major research guidelines also raise the issue of a more systematic development and revision process for these guidelines. The presented set of content issues potentially relevant to consent in biobank research can inform the balanced development or evaluation of consent forms, as well as the development and revision of corresponding research guidelines.

  2. Interviews in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  3. A review of patient and carer participation and the use of qualitative research in the development of core outcome sets

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background To be meaningful, a core outcome set (COS) should be relevant to all stakeholders including patients and carers. This review aimed to explore the methods by which patients and carers have been included as participants in COS development exercises and, in particular, the use and reporting of qualitative methods. Methods In August 2015, a search of the Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database was undertaken to identify papers involving patients and carers in COS development. Data were extracted to identify the data collection methods used in COS development, the number of health professionals, patients and carers participating in these, and the reported details of qualitative research undertaken. Results Fifty-nine papers reporting patient and carer participation were included in the review, ten of which reported using qualitative methods. Although patients and carers participated in outcome elicitation for inclusion in COS processes, health professionals tended to dominate the prioritisation exercises. Of the ten qualitative papers, only three were reported as a clear pre-designed part of a COS process. Qualitative data were collected using interviews, focus groups or a combination of these. None of the qualitative papers reported an underpinning methodological framework and details regarding data saturation, reflexivity and resource use associated with data collection were often poorly reported. Five papers reported difficulty in achieving a diverse sample of participants and two reported that a large and varied range of outcomes were often identified by participants making subsequent rating and ranking difficult. Conclusions Consideration of the best way to include patients and carers throughout the COS development process is needed. Additionally, further work is required to assess the potential role of qualitative methods in COS, to explore the knowledge produced by different qualitative data collection methods, and to evaluate

  4. Disciplining Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the…

  5. Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that

  6. Understanding and managing cancer-related weight loss and anorexia: insights from a systematic review of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Christine; Burden, Sorrel T; Cheng, Huilin; Molassiotis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the existing qualitative literature in order to develop the evidence base for understanding and managing weight loss and anorexia, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. A systematic search was performed to retrieve English language studies using electronic search and manual checks of selected reference lists. Keywords included qualitative, cancer cachexia, weight loss, anorexia, appetite, malnutrition, food, eating, and drinking. The selection and appraisal of papers were undertaken by two reviewers. Twenty-one qualitative articles were included in the review. There were three major findings emerging from the previous qualitative studies including ‘the multidimensionality of weight loss and anorexia experience’, ‘patients and caregivers' responses to coping with weight loss and anorexia’, and ‘clinical assessment and management of weight loss and anorexia’. The literature review revealed the multidimensional nature of cachexia and weight loss experience by patients and caregivers, which was not recognized and adequately managed by healthcare professionals. Future research in this area would be helpful in enabling a deeper understanding of the complexity of cachexia and weight loss experience in order to move forward to develop an optimal model of supportive care for patients and caregivers. PMID:26136417

  7. Patient Adherence to Tuberculosis Treatment: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Salla A; Lewin, Simon A; Smith, Helen J; Engel, Mark E; Fretheim, Atle; Volmink, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where it is closely associated with HIV/AIDS. Poor adherence to treatment is common despite various interventions aimed at improving treatment completion. Lack of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of barriers to and facilitators of, treatment adherence is currently a major obstacle to finding effective solutions. The aim of this systematic review of qualitative studies was to understand the factors considered important by patients, caregivers and health care providers in contributing to TB medication adherence. Methods and Findings We searched 19 electronic databases (1966–February 2005) for qualitative studies on patients', caregivers', or health care providers' perceptions of adherence to preventive or curative TB treatment with the free text terms “Tuberculosis AND (adherence OR compliance OR concordance)”. We supplemented our search with citation searches and by consulting experts. For included studies, study quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist and data were extracted independently onto a standard form. We then followed Noblit and Hare's method of meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. We screened 7,814 citations and selected 44 articles that met the prespecified inclusion criteria. The synthesis offers an overview of qualitative evidence derived from these multiple international studies. We identified eight major themes across the studies: organisation of treatment and care; interpretations of illness and wellness; the financial burden of treatment; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about treatment; law and immigration; personal characteristics and adherence behaviour; side effects; and family, community, and household support. Our interpretation of the themes across all

  8. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    PubMed

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research.

  9. Qualitative research in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Arnold, E; Lane, S

    2011-10-01

    Transfusion medicine research has traditionally employed quantitative methods to answer clinical research questions. Increasingly, qualitative research methods are being used in the field to address a wide variety of research questions in areas such as blood donation, transfusion practices and policy development. This article describes the key characteristics, methodologies and methods of qualitative research and draws on examples to show how qualitative research approaches have been applied in the field of transfusion medicine. It is hoped that this overview will inform and encourage the application of qualitative research in the field of transfusion medicine.

  10. Pregnant women's perceptions of gestational weight gain: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, Meredith; Kandasamy, Sujane; Giacomini, Mita; DeJean, Deirdre; McDonald, Sarah D

    2016-11-21

    Excess gestational weight gain has numerous negative health outcomes for women and children, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and cesarean section (maternal) and high birth weight, trauma at birth, and asphyxia (infants). Excess weight gain in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of long-term obesity in both mothers and children. Despite a concerted public health effort, the proportion of pregnant women gaining weight in excess of national guidelines continues to increase. To understand this phenomenon and offer suggestions for improving interventions, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research on pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of weight gain in pregnancy. We used the methodology of qualitative meta-synthesis to analyze 42 empirical qualitative research studies conducted in high-income countries and published between 2005 and 2015. With this synthesis, we provide an account of the underlying factors and circumstances (barriers, facilitators, and motivators) that pregnant women identify as important for appropriate weight gain. We also offer a description of the strategies identified by pregnant women as acceptable and appropriate ways to promote healthy weight gain. Through our integrative analysis, we identify women's common perception on the struggle to enact health behaviors and physical, social, and environmental factors outside of their control. Effective and sensitive interventions to encourage healthy weight gain in pregnancy must consider the social environment in which decisions about weight take place.

  11. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  12. The use of saturation in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janiece L

    2012-01-01

    Understanding qualitative research is an important component of cardiovascular nurses' practice and allows them to understand the experiences, stories, and perceptions of patients with cardiovascular conditions. In understanding qualitative research methods, it is essential that the cardiovascular nurse understands the process of saturation within qualitative methods. Saturation is a tool used for ensuring that adequate and quality data are collected to support the study. Saturation is frequently reported in qualitative research and may be the gold standard. However, the use of saturation within methods has varied. Hence, the purpose of this column is to provide insight for the cardiovascular nurse regarding the use of saturation by reviewing the recommendations for which qualitative research methods it is appropriate to use and how to know when saturation is achieved. In understanding saturation, the cardiovascular nurse can be a better consumer of qualitative research.

  13. Social and cultural aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa: a narrative review of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Helle; Norgaard, Ole; Ostergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing focus on the role of social aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African region and to analyze the main research findings in order to identify possible gaps and recommend new research themes to inform future research-based interventions. The analysis is based on a total of 58 articles published from 2001 to 2009 in English or French identified through a literature search in seven scientific, bibliographical databases. Searches included terms related to qualitative studies combined with various terms related to HIV/AIDS. The results of this narrative review show that there was a geographical concentration on Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire and a strong urban bias, with most studies taking place in the capital cities of these countries. The majority of the studies focused on women or women and men; only four articles dealt exclusively with men, of which only two were on men who have sex with men. The main study groups were people living with HIV, young people or female sex workers. Sexual risk-taking and stigmatization were the themes that were most prominently explored in the articles we reviewed. We conclude that research needs to be strengthened in relation to the analysis of experiences with antiretroviral therapy and the non-optimal access to treatment in West Africa. Also, more research is needed on men and their exposure to HIV/AIDS, as well as on the role of concurrent partnership in the spread of HIV.

  14. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers’ perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed. PMID:27907161

  16. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  17. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/drives for initiating use. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies published between 1980 and 2014 were included in the synthesis. Studies originated from 11 countries: the United States (n = 18), England (n = 8), Australia (n = 4), Sweden (n = 4), both England and Wales (n = 2), and Scotland (n = 2). One study each originated from Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, and Norway. The majority of AAS users initiated use before age 30. Sports participation (particularly power sports), negative body image, and psychological disorders such as depression preceded initiation of AAS use for most users. Sources of first AAS were mainly users’ immediate social networks and the illicit market. Enhanced sports performance, appearance, and muscle/strength were the paramount motives for AAS use initiation. Conclusions Our findings elucidate the significance of psychosocial factors in AAS use initiation. The proliferation of AAS on the illicit market and social networks demands better ways of dealing with the global public health problem of AAS use. PMID:24984881

  18. Qualitative Theory and Methods in Applied Linguistics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn A.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews basic issues of theory and method in qualitative research approaches to applied linguistics research, focusing on the ways in which qualitative research can contribute to an understanding of second-language acquisition and use. (83 references) (MDM)

  19. A Critical Review of Qualitative Research Methods in Evaluating Nursing Curriculum Models: Implication for Nursing Education in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Briliya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this critical literature review was to examine qualitative studies done on innovative nursing curriculums in order to determine which qualitative methods have been most effective in investigating the effectiveness of the curriculum and which would be most appropriate in an Arab Islamic country. Data Sources: At least 25 studies…

  20. Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative manuscripts occupy a multidimensional world and can vary by their "latitude" (where they are with respect to the humanities and sciences), "longitude" (where they are with respect to the length and number of data excerpts), and "altitude" (where they are with respect to the level of theorizing). In this article, I discuss these 3…

  1. Patients’ perspectives on the medical primary–secondary care interface: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary–secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Setting International primary–secondary care interface. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite, Biomedica Reference Collection: Comprehensive Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, eBook Collection, Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes and Social Sciences Citation Index, and grey literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were full research papers employing qualitative methodology to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results The search identified 690 articles, of which 39 were selected for full-text review. 20 articles were included in the systematic review that encompassed a total of 689 patients from 10 countries. 4 important areas specific to the primary–secondary care interface from the patients’ perspective emerged: barriers to care, communication, coordination, and ‘relationships and personal value’. Conclusions and implications of key findings Patients should be the focus of any transfer of care between primary and secondary systems. From their perspective, areas for improvement may be classified into four domains that should usefully guide future work aimed at improving quality at this important interface. Trial registration number

  2. Living With, Managing and Minimising Treatment Burden in Long Term Conditions: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Sara; Gonçalves, Ana-Carolina; Areia, Carlos; Oliveira, Rúben; Marcos, Ana Jorge; Marques, Alda; Parmar, Ranj; Hunt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Treatment burden’, defined as both the workload and impact of treatment regimens on function and well-being, has been associated with poor adherence and unfavourable outcomes. Previous research focused on treatment workload but our understanding of treatment impact is limited. This research aimed to systematically review qualitative research to identify: 1) what are the treatment generated disruptions experienced by patients across all chronic conditions and treatments? 2) what strategies do patients employ to minimise these treatment generated disruptions? Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: treatment burden and qualitative methods. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched electronically from inception to Dec 2013. No language limitations were set. Teams of two reviewers independently conducted paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis informed by Cumulative Complexity Model. Eleven papers reporting data from 294 patients, across a range of conditions, age groups and nationalities were included. Treatment burdens were experienced as a series of disruptions: biographical disruptions involved loss of freedom and independence, restriction of meaningful activities, negative emotions and stigma; relational disruptions included strained family and social relationships and feeling isolated; and, biological disruptions involved physical side-effects. Patients employed “adaptive treatment work” and “rationalised non-adherence” to minimise treatment disruptions. Rationalised non-adherence was sanctioned by health professionals at end of life; at other times it was a “secret-act” which generated feelings of guilt and impacted on family and clinical relationships. Conclusions Treatments generate negative emotions and physical side effects, strain relationships and affect identity. Patients minimise these disruptions through additional adaptive work and/or by non

  3. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  4. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  5. Collaborative Principal Preparation Programs: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) conduct the systematic search of the literature to identify the studies on partnerships in school leader preparation; and to (2) systematically review the findings of these studies and synthesize them into major themes reflecting the state of the art in collaborative leadership preparation in the…

  6. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  7. Positivism and qualitative nursing research.

    PubMed

    Paley, J

    2001-01-01

    Despite the hostility to positivism shown by qualitative methodologists in nursing, as in other disciplines, the epistemological and ontological instincts of qualitative researchers seem to coincide with those of the positivists, especially Bayesian positivists. This article suggests that positivists and qualitative researchers alike are pro-observation, proinduction, pro-plausibility and pro-subjectivity. They are also anti-cause, anti-realist, anti-explanation, anti-correspondence, anti-truth. In only one respect is there a significant difference between positivist and qualitative methodologists: most positivists have believed that, methodologically, the natural sciences and the social sciences are the same; most qualitative researchers are adamant that they are not. However, if positivism fails as a philosophy of the natural sciences (which it probably does), it might well succeed as a philosophy of the social sciences, just because there is a methodological watershed between the two. Reflex antagonism to positivism might therefore be a major obstacle to understanding the real reasons why qualitative research and the natural sciences are methodologically divergent; and less hostility on the part of qualitative nurse researchers might bring certain advantages in its wake.

  8. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  9. Learning Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, Lael

    2009-01-01

    In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…

  10. The Impact of Ethics Review on a Research-Led University Curriculum: Results of a Qualitative Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L

    2016-04-01

    In the human sciences, a student research-centered pedagogy is constrained by institutional ethics review, yet there is little research on the impact of ethics review on research-led teaching. This article documents a range of ways that Australian universities are responding to ethics review of undergraduate human research. Forty teachers and administrators were interviewed at 14 universities using purposive sampling to document the range of ways teachers are avoiding ethics review or incorporating it into their curriculum. Some reported halting undergraduate research or evading ethics review, regarding it as meaningless bureaucracy divorced from actual ethical thinking. Those who incorporated ethics review into student research did so by collaborating with administrators. Institutions can facilitate research-led teaching by designing dedicated forms and decentralized review procedures for student research.

  11. Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

  12. Qualitative research: adding drive and dimension to clinical research.

    PubMed

    Rusinová, Katerĭna; Pochard, Frédéric; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chaize, Marine; Azoulay, Elie

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative research and its methods stem from the social sciences and can be used to describe and interpret complex phenomena that involve individuals' views, beliefs, preferences, and subjective responses to places and people. Thus, qualitative research explores the many subjective factors that may influence patient outcomes, staff well-being, and healthcare quality, yet fail to lend themselves to the hypothesis-testing approach that characterizes quantitative research. Qualitative research is valuable in the intensive care unit to explore organizational and cultural issues and to gain insight into social interactions, healthcare delivery processes, and communication. Qualitative research generates explanatory models and theories, which can then serve to devise interventions, whose efficacy can be studied quantitatively. Thus, qualitative research works synergistically with quantitative research, providing new impetus to the research process and a new dimension to research findings. Qualitative research starts with conceptualizing the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, and designing the study; rigorous methods specifically designed for qualitative research are then used to conduct the study, analyze the data, and verify the findings. The researcher is the data-collecting instrument, and the data are the participants' words and behaviors. Data coding methods are used to describe experiences, discover themes, and build theories. In this review, we outline the rationale and methods for conducting qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of available qualitative methods and explain how they can work in close synergy with quantitative methods. To illustrate the effectiveness of combining different research methods, we will refer to recent qualitative studies conducted in the intensive care unit.

  13. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  14. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    PubMed

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  15. Multiple Voices in Health, Sport, Recreation, and Physical Education Research: Revealing Unfamiliar Spaces in a Polyvocal Review of Qualitative Research Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tim F.; Madill, Leanna E.; Bratseth, Chris D.; Cameron, Kathi A.; Coble, James D.; Nimmon, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the potential genres of qualitative research that can be used to research the domains of health, sport, recreation, and physical education. Drawing on Denzin and Lincoln (2000) and Sparkes (2002a), and connecting to the work of six researchers, this article will present five genres of qualitative research…

  16. Historical Perspectives toward Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…

  17. Learning and Teaching Qualitative Research with Qualitative Data Analysis Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlamaki-Kultanen, Seija

    This study examined the way qualitative data analysis software and virtual teaching methods can support the learning of qualitative research. Study methodology was based on phenomenology, and data were gathered in a pilot course on qualitative research methodology in which 22 adult part time graduate students participated. The course was built…

  18. Facilitating Coherence across Qualitative Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…

  19. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  20. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  1. What do we know about the experience of age related macular degeneration? A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Bennion, Amy E; Shaw, Rachel L; Gibson, Jonathan M

    2012-09-01

    Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registerable blindness with a high medical and societal cost burden. Much of the research examining experiences of living with AMD has been conducted independently with small sample sizes and has failed to impact on practice. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research can improve the understanding of the experience of living with AMD by drawing together findings of qualitative studies. This article presents a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies investigating the experience of AMD (literature searched up to April 2012; published studies identified range from 1996 to 2009). The review highlights themes relating to: functional limitations, adaptation and independence; feelings about the future with vision impairment; interaction with the health service; social engagement; disclosure; and the emotional impacts of living with AMD. Attention to the experience of living with AMD can help us to better understand the needs of patients. This meta-synthesis aimed to bring together the findings of qualitative research studies and highlights important areas for consideration when caring for patients with AMD. Our findings suggest that a holistic approach to service provision and support for AMD is needed which takes into account individuals' needs and experiences when coping with and adjusting to living with AMD. This support should aim to reduce stigma, increase social engagement, and develop the psychological resources of patients with AMD.

  2. Qualitative Research: An Essential Part of Statistical Cognition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Pav; Lai, Jerry; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    Our research in statistical cognition uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method approach makes our research more comprehensive, and provides us with new directions, unexpected insights, and alternative explanations for previously established concepts. In this paper, we review four statistical cognition studies that used mixed…

  3. Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    This book, designed for novice researchers, provides a step-by-step guide to the development of a research project. It emphasizes learning how to do qualitative work and provides specific examples from real studies. The chapters are: (1) "Deciding To Do a Qualitative Study"; (2) "Designing Qualitative Studies"; (3) "Collecting Qualitative Data";…

  4. Considerations for Readers of Qualitative Research. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Halle, James W.

    1995-01-01

    This article distinguishes between "using qualitative methods" and "doing qualitative research." It highlights the qualitative approaches of the authors of five articles in this issue and considers the challenges of this type of qualitative research manuscript for the editorial process. (DB)

  5. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  6. Understanding and critiquing qualitative research papers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Polly

    This article, the last in a series on research, examines the steps involved in qualitative research before introducing more terminology regarding the different approaches to qualitative studies. The process of evaluating qualitative research is explored by using an evaluative framework to further explain some of the terminology that researchers use.

  7. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  8. Mentoring Qualitative Research Authors Globally: "The Qualitative Report" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan; Duffy, Maureen; Laughlin, Martha; Warner, Kate; Sahni, Tarmeen

    2007-01-01

    Authoring quality qualitative inquiry is a challenge for most researchers. A lack of local mentors can make writing even more difficult. To meet this need, The "Qualitative Report (TQR)" has helped authors from around the world develop their papers into published articles. "TQR" editorial team members will discuss the history of the journal, their…

  9. A General Survey of Qualitative Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Rick

    Current definitions and philosophical foundations of qualitative research are presented; and designs, evaluation methods, and issues in application of qualitative research to education are discussed. The effects of positivism and the post-positivist era on qualitative research are outlined, and naturalist and positivist approaches are contrasted.…

  10. Qualitative Research--Another Way of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vincent R.

    Qualitative research is based on the direct observation of human activity and interaction in an ongoing, naturalistic fashion. Qualitative researchers are concerned with the internal life of schools; what is really occurring in classrooms, corridors, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Qualitative researchers look at what people ordinarily take for…

  11. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  12. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  13. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Squires, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation. PMID:19522941

  14. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software: a review.

    PubMed

    Banner, Davina J; Albarrran, John W

    2009-01-01

    Over recent decades, qualitative research has become accepted as a uniquely valuable methodological approach for generating knowledge, particularly in relation to promoting understanding of patients' experiences and responses to illness. Within cardiovascular nursing such qualitative approaches have been widely adopted to systematically investigate a number of phenomena. Contemporary qualitative research practice comprises a diverse range of disciplines and approaches. Computer-aided qualitative data analysis software represents an important facet of this increasingly sophisticated movement. Such software offers an efficient means through which to manage and organize data while supporting rigorous data analysis. The increasing use of qualitative data analysis software has stimulated wide discussion. This research column includes a review of some of the advantages and debates related to the use and integration of qualitative data analysis software.

  15. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs.

  16. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  17. Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

  18. How People Interpret Healthy Eating: Contributions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…

  19. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  20. The Question of Quality in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Lawrence F.

    Qualitative research is a model for systematic, data-based inquiry. It has been used widely in the social sciences, and it has a growing acceptance in educational research. Its purpose is to describe and understand a particular, bounded social setting. The differences between quantitative and qualitative research involve the methods employed at…

  1. Thinking about the Nature and Scope of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    In "Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of Qualitative Research" (LaRossa, 2012), the author expressed the hope that, by sketching a cognitive map of the writing and reviewing process, authors and reviewers for the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") would be better able to communicate with each other about the…

  2. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  3. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  4. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.

  5. Can We Integrate Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Science Education?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian in commensurability thesis (a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchers have interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (research programme) as a revolutionary break through in the Kuhnian sense. A review of the literature in areas relevant to science education shows that researchers are far from advocating qualitative research as the only methodology. It is concluded that competition between divergent approaches to research in science education (cf. Lakatos, 1970) would provide a better forum for a productive sharing of research experiences.

  6. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    phenomenological approaches at the subjective end of the continuum. A few researchers have suggested ways in which quantitative and qualitative methods may be...Lofland, lq76), symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969), ethnomethodology (Turner, 1974), existentialism (Douglas & Johnson, 1977), and phenomenology ...orienting perspectives. Although most qualitative research will use some form of participant observation, those taking a phenomenological approach which

  7. The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

  8. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  9. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  10. Quantitative and qualitative research: beyond the debate.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar; Braakmann, Diana; Benetka, Gerhard

    2008-09-01

    Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative and qualitative approaches. This article outlines and discusses quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research approaches with specific reference to their (1) philosophical foundations (i.e. basic sets of beliefs that ground inquiry), (2) methodological assumptions (i.e. principles and formal conditions which guide scientific investigation), and (3) research methods (i.e. concrete procedures for data collection, analysis and interpretation). We conclude that MMR may reasonably overcome the limitation of purely quantitative and purely qualitative approaches at each of these levels, providing a fruitful context for a more comprehensive psychological research.

  11. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  12. An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Gleason, Philip M; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol; Beto, Judith A; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define qualitative research, explain its design, explore its congruence with quantitative research, and provide examples of its applications in dietetics. Also, methods to ensure validity, reliability, and relevance are addressed. Readers will gain increased knowledge about qualitative research and greater competency in evaluating this type of research. The hope is that food and nutrition professionals will be inspired to conduct and publish qualitative research, adding to the body of peer-reviewed dietetics-related qualitative publications. This type of research must be methodically planned and implemented with attention to validity, reliability, and relevance. This rigorous approach boosts the probability that the research will add to the scientific literature and qualify for publication.

  13. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  14. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  15. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  16. Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    In general practice, qualitative research contributes as significantly as quantitative research, in particular regarding psycho-social aspects of patient-care, health services provision, policy setting, and health administrations. In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative research as a whole has been constantly critiqued, if not disparaged, by the lack of consensus for assessing its quality and robustness. This article illustrates with five published studies how qualitative research can impact and reshape the discipline of primary care, spiraling out from clinic-based health screening to community-based disease monitoring, evaluation of out-of-hours triage services to provincial psychiatric care pathways model and finally, national legislation of core measures for children's healthcare insurance. Fundamental concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability as applicable to qualitative research are then addressed with an update on the current views and controversies. PMID:26288766

  17. Notions of quality and standards for qualitative research reporting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Ed

    2015-10-01

    The utility of qualitative research findings in the health sciences has been the subject of considerable debate, particularly with the advent of qualitative systematic reviews in recent years. There has been a significant investment in the production of guidance to improve the reporting of quantitative research; however, comparatively little time has been spent on developing the same for qualitative research reporting. This paper sets out to examine the possibility of developing a framework for refereed journals to utilize when guiding authors on how to report the results of qualitative studies in the hope that this will improve the quality of reports and subsequently their inclusion in qualitative syntheses and guidelines to inform practice at the point of care.

  18. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  19. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  20. Critical Qualitative Research Reader. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…

  1. Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.

    This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative…

  2. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  3. Pakistani women's use of mental health services and the role of social networks: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Dharmi; Brooks, Helen Louise; Nazroo, James; Tranmer, Mark

    2015-11-22

    Pakistani women in the UK are an at-risk group with high levels of mental health problems, but low levels of mental health service use. However, the rates of service use for Pakistani women are unclear, partly because research with South Asian women has been incorrectly generalised to Pakistani women. Further, this research has been largely undertaken within an individualistic paradigm, with little consideration of patients' social networks, and how these may drive decisions to seek help. This systematic review aimed to clarify usage rates, and describe the nature of Pakistani women's social networks and how they may influence mental health service use. Ten journal databases (ASSIA, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, HMIC, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts) and six sources of grey literature were searched for studies published between 1960 and the end of March 2014. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Ten studies (quantitative) reported on inpatient or outpatient service use between ethnic groups. Seven studies (four quantitative, three qualitative) investigated the nature of social networks, and four studies (qualitative) commented on how social networks were involved in accessing mental health services. Pakistani women were less likely than white (British) women to use most specialist mental health services. No difference was found between Pakistani and white women for the consultation of general practitioners for mental health problems. Pakistani women's networks displayed high levels of stigmatising attitudes towards mental health problems and mental health services, which acted as a deterrent to seeking help. No studies were found which compared stigma in networks between Pakistani women and women of other ethnic groups. Pakistani women are at a considerable disadvantage in gaining access to and using statutory mental health services, compared with white women; this, in part, is due to

  4. The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

  5. Learning the Concept of Researcher as Instrument in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…

  6. "Answers," Assemblages, and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Barko, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at some…

  7. Listening: Implications for Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Anya Dozier

    Pueblo communities want local research to be linked to community needs. To address this requirement, university research must shift from a set agenda that addresses personal or professional goals to a flexible design that moves toward a community-based goal. This can be achieved through collaboration with the Pueblo community. Key to developing…

  8. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  9. The Experiences of and Attitudes toward Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Used in School Settings: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Darren A.; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Richardson, Michelle; Racey, Daniel; Rogers, Morwenna; Stein, Ken; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    School-based non-pharmacological interventions are an important part of the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to systematically review qualitative literature relating to the experience of and attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for ADHD. Systematic searches of 20 electronic…

  10. Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 2: Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Frances; Coughlan, Michael; Cronin, Patricia

    As with a quantitative study, critical analysis of a qualitative study involves an in-depth review of how each step of the research was undertaken. Qualitative and quantitative studies are, however, fundamentally different approaches to research and therefore need to be considered differently with regard to critiquing. The different philosophical underpinnings of the various qualitative research methods generate discrete ways of reasoning and distinct terminology; however, there are also many similarities within these methods. Because of this and its subjective nature, qualitative research it is often regarded as more difficult to critique. Nevertheless, an evidenced-based profession such as nursing cannot accept research at face value, and nurses need to be able to determine the strengths and limitations of qualitative as well as quantitative research studies when reviewing the available literature on a topic.

  11. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  12. Doing qualitative research in dentistry and dental education.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, S; Brown, G

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist dental researchers to develop their expertise in qualitative research. It sketches the key characteristics of qualitative research; summarises theoretical perspectives; outlines the core skills of qualitative data collection and the procedures which underlie three methods of qualitative research: interviewing, focus groups and concept maps. The paper offers some guidance on writing qualitative research and provides examples of qualitative research drawn from dentistry and dental education.

  13. The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Lois R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)

  14. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R.…

  15. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  16. Martini Qualitative Research: Shaken, Not Stirred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of qualitative research studies has boomed in recent years, close observation reveals that often the research designs and methodological considerations and approaches have developed a type of configuration that does not adhere to purist definitions of the labels attached. Very often so called interpretivist studies are not…

  17. Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research. Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Alma

    In recent years, many in anthropology have been challenging the positivist paradigm that dominated the field, with its assumption of the researcher as a transparent data gatherer and the notion of data as something to be collected through fieldwork. Questions of qualitative research methodology are also surfacing in education even as the divisions…

  18. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. Revised and Expanded from "Case Study Research in Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    This book offers a resource guide for qualitative researchers in education, discussing data collection techniques, data analysis, reporting, and the issues of validity, reliability, and ethics. Part 1 reviews the nature and design of qualitative research; it discusses various types of qualitative research (including case studies), and how to…

  19. Barriers to qualitative dementia research: the elephant in the room.

    PubMed

    Carmody, John; Traynor, Victoria; Marchetti, Elena

    2015-07-01

    As our population is aging, the global prevalence of dementia is rising. Recent extensive reviews of the dementia literature highlight a clear need for additional qualitative research to address the experiences of people with dementia and their carers. To date, the vast majority of published dementia research is quantitative in nature and, perhaps not surprisingly, attracts the bulk of government funding. In contrast, qualitative dementia research is poorly resourced and less frequently published. Although a myriad of factors are responsible for this dichotomy, we propose that inadequate funding represents the "elephant in the room" of dementia research. In this article, we describe and emphasize the need for qualitative dementia research, highlight existing barriers, and outline potential solutions. Examples of barriers are provided and theoretical underpinnings are proposed.

  20. A systematic review of qualitative research on the contributory factors leading to medicine-related problems from the perspectives of adult patients with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, A; Ghaleb, M; Aljadhey, H; Aslanpour, Z

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To synthesise contributing factors leading to medicine-related problems (MRPs) in adult patients with cardiovascular diseases and/or diabetes mellitus from their perspectives. Design A systematic literature review of qualitative studies regarding the contributory factors leading to MRPs, medication errors and non-adherence, followed by a thematic synthesis of the studies. Data sources We screened Pubmed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycInfo, International Pharmaceutical Abstract and PsycExtra for qualitative studies (interviews, focus groups and questionnaires of a qualitative nature). Review methods Thematic synthesis was achieved by coding and developing themes from the findings of qualitative studies. Results The synthesis yielded 21 studies that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three themes emerged that involved contributing factors to MRPs: patient-related factors including socioeconomic factors (beliefs, feeling victimised, history of the condition, lack of finance, lack of motivation and low self-esteem) and lifestyle factors (diet, lack of exercise/time to see the doctor, obesity, smoking and stress), medicine-related factors (belief in natural remedies, fear of medicine, lack of belief in medicines, lack of knowledge, non-adherence and polypharmacy) and condition-related factors (lack of knowledge/understanding, fear of condition and its complications, and lack of control). Conclusions MRPs represent a major health threat, especially among adult patients with cardiovascular diseases and/or diabetes mellitus. The patients’ perspectives uncovered hidden factors that could cause and/or contribute to MRPs in these groups of patients. PMID:25239295

  1. Crafting Qualitative Research Articles on Marriages and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research…

  2. The ethics of qualitative nursing research.

    PubMed

    Robley, L R

    1995-01-01

    Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitative research process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to participate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to probe deeply, when therapy or nursing care supersedes research, and what and how case studies should be documented in the published results are all matters for ethical deliberation. This article seeks to examine some of the less obvious, yet very important, ethical concerns that nurses face throughout the research process and build a common core of values that can lead to meaningful process and socially responsible research results.

  3. Qualitative Research in Education: A User's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This book provides those new to the field with a blend of practical and theoretical information. The author addresses a spectrum of recent information about the process of qualitative educational research and brings together in one volume the essential elements of all aspects of the field. The text: (1) Introduces traditions and influences in the…

  4. Dialog on a country path: the qualitative research journey.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M; Cangelosi, Pamela R; Dinkins, Christine S

    2014-03-01

    There is little information in the literature describing how students learn qualitative research. This article describes an approach to learning that is based on the pedagogical approach of Dinkins' Socratic-Hermeneutic Shared Inquiry. This approach integrates shared dialog as an essential aspect of learning. The qualitative pedagogy described in this article focused on three questions: What is knowing in qualitative research? How do we come to know qualitative research? What can we do with qualitative research? Students learned the basics of qualitative research within a context that fostered interpretive inquiry. In this way, the course framework mirrored the combination of interviewing, storytelling, and journeying toward understanding that constitute qualitative research.

  5. Mapping the Possibilities of Qualitative Research in Music Education: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitative methods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitative research methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using…

  6. Impact of dementia on marriage: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Evans, David; Lee, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This qualitative review explored the impact of dementia on marriage. The method was informed by systematic review and qualitative research methodologies. A comprehensive search of major databases was undertaken. The search identified 115 studies on the topic; 23 met the inclusion criteria and 19 were appraised as being of good methodological quality. Two major themes and five sub-themes emerged from the analysis of included studies, transition and loss. The theme of transition encompassed the three sub-themes of relationship, roles and intimacy and reflected the changes in the marriage and marital relationship that accompanied dementia. The theme of loss encompassed the two sub-themes of loss of a partner and loss of a marriage, which reflected the many losses that accompanied dementia. However, transition and loss were inter-related, because each change was accompanied by loss and each loss produced another change in the marriage.

  7. Talking about suicide: confidentiality and anonymity in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susanne; Benson, Outi; Brand, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    While it is acknowledged that there is a need for more qualitative research on suicide, it is also clear that the ethics of undertaking such research need to be addressed. This article uses the case study of the authors' experience of gaining ethics approval for a research project that asks people what it is like to feel suicidal to (a) analyse the limits of confidentiality and anonymity and (b) consider the ways in which the process of ethics review can shape and constrain suicide research. This leads to a discussion of the ways in which ethics committees assess and monitor qualitative research more generally and some preliminary suggestions for how this might be improved.

  8. Qualitative research in organ transplantation: recent contributions to clinical care and policy.

    PubMed

    Tong, A; Chapman, J R; Israni, A; Gordon, E J; Craig, J C

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative studies remain relatively uncommon in the transplant literature but are an important approach contributing unique strengths in some areas of research. With the increased focus on patient-centered research and decision-making, it is timely to review qualitative research in the context of transplantation. While quantitative research addresses questions about the effectiveness of interventions or associations between risk factors and outcomes, qualitative research has an equal and complementary role in providing understanding about people's behaviors, attitudes, and values. Qualitative research has provided insights into some of the important but elusive questions in transplantation, including the sources of barriers to organ donation and inequities in access to transplantation, nonadherence to immunosuppressive regimens, and complex psychosocial outcomes. This review highlights recent contributions of qualitative research to transplantation practice and policy, and identifies key principles to guide qualitative research appraisal.

  9. Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: data analysis issues.

    PubMed

    Fade, S A; Swift, J A

    2011-04-01

    Although much of the analysis conducted in qualitative research falls within the broad church of thematic analysis, the wide scope of qualitative enquiry presents the researcher with a number of choices regarding data analysis techniques. This review, the third in the series, provides an overview of a number of techniques and practical steps that can be taken to provide some structure and focus to the intellectual work of thematic analysis in nutrition and dietetics. Because appropriate research methods are crucial to ensure high-quality research, it also describes a process for choosing appropriate analytical methods that considers the extent to which they help answer the research question(s) and are compatible with the philosophical assumptions about ontology, epistemology and methodology that underpin the overall design of a study. Other reviews in this series provide a model for embarking on a qualitative research project in nutrition and dietetics, an overview of the principal techniques of data collection, sampling and quality assessment of this kind of research and some practical advice relevant to nutrition and dietetics, along with glossaries of key terms.

  10. Conducting Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Nancy K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…

  11. Qualitative Evaluation Methods in Ethics Education: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Best Practices.

    PubMed

    Watts, Logan L; Todd, E Michelle; Mulhearn, Tyler J; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Although qualitative research offers some unique advantages over quantitative research, qualitative methods are rarely employed in the evaluation of ethics education programs and are often criticized for a lack of rigor. This systematic review investigated the use of qualitative methods in studies of ethics education. Following a review of the literature in which 24 studies were identified, each study was coded based on 16 best practices characteristics in qualitative research. General thematic analysis and grounded theory were found to be the dominant approaches used. Researchers are effectively executing a number of best practices, such as using direct data sources, structured data collection instruments, non-leading questioning, and expert raters. However, other best practices were rarely present in the courses reviewed, such as collecting data using multiple sources, methods, raters, and timepoints, evaluating reliability, and employing triangulation analyses to assess convergence. Recommendations are presented for improving future qualitative research studies in ethics education.

  12. An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method. PMID:16849979

  13. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Uptake of Interventions for Malaria in Pregnancy in Africa: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Straus, Lianne; Andrew, Erin V. W.; Meñaca, Arantza; Pool, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy (MiP) results in adverse birth outcomes and poor maternal health. MiP-related morbidity and mortality is most pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa, where recommended MiP interventions include intermittent preventive treatment, insecticide-treated bednets and appropriate case management. Besides their clinical efficacy, the effectiveness of these interventions depends on the attitudes and behaviours of pregnant women and the wider community, which are shaped by social and cultural factors. Although these factors have been studied largely using quantitative methods, qualitative research also offers important insights. This article provides a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on social and cultural factors relevant to uptake of MiP interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A systematic search strategy was employed: literature searches were undertaken in several databases (OVID SP, IS Web of Knowledge, MiP Consortium library). MiP-related original research, on social/cultural factors relevant to MiP interventions, in Africa, with findings derived from qualitative methods was included. Non-English language articles were excluded. A meta-ethnographic approach was taken to analysing and synthesizing findings. Thirty-seven studies were identified. Fourteen concentrated on MiP. Others focused on malaria treatment and prevention, antenatal care (ANC), anaemia during pregnancy or reproductive loss. Themes identified included concepts of malaria and risk in pregnancy, attitudes towards interventions, structural factors affecting delivery and uptake, and perceptions of ANC. Conclusions Although malaria risk is associated with pregnancy, women's vulnerability is often considered less disease-specific and MiP interpreted in locally defined categories. Furthermore, local discourses and health workers' ideas and comments influence concerns about MiP interventions. Understandings of ANC, health worker-client interactions

  14. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2016-09-14

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principle investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  15. Qualitative Systematic Review of Intimate Partner Violence among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Native Americans is high, and a full understanding of how to prevent it is unclear. Based on this qualitative systematic review of 13 research reports, a model of IPV among Native Americans was developed. IPV appears to be grounded within a history of upheaval and loss, and is entrenched and repressed within families. Victims are reluctant to seek assistance, and when they do, they often experience barriers within the service system. To prevent and resolve IPV, service providers are urged to establish trust with individuals who seek assistance and to leverage cultural strengths. They also are encouraged to adapt theoretical models to optimize care.

  16. Extending Engineering Practice Research with Shared Qualitative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevelyan, James

    2016-01-01

    Research on engineering practice is scarce and sharing of qualitative research data can reduce the effort required for an aspiring researcher to obtain enough data from engineering workplaces to draw generalizable conclusions, both qualitative and quantitative. This paper describes how a large shareable qualitative data set on engineering…

  17. Inclusion of Qualitative Research: Content Analysis of ACA Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    This paper provides descriptive statistics related to published articles which utilized qualitative methodologies in research studies, as well as conceptual articles pertaining to qualitative research methodologies. The articles examined covered the years 1967-1999. During the 32-year time period, 15 qualitative research articles were published.…

  18. How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drisko, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

  19. Qualitative Research and Its Place in Psychological Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madill, Anna; Gough, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    In discussing the place of diverse qualitative research within psychological science, the authors highlight the potential permeability of the quantitative-qualitative boundary and identify different ways of increasing communication between researchers specializing in different methods. Explicating diversity within qualitative research is…

  20. [Why to have a dossier on qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Palese, Alvisa; Brugnolli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Why a dossier on qualitative research. The main reasons for a dossier on qualitative research are presented, together with strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research compared to quantitative. The different perspectives offered by the two methods on the exploration and interpretation of phenomena are briefly described.

  1. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. Objective The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Methods Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. Results The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local

  2. Qualitative health psychology research: diversity, power, and impact.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-04-01

    This special issue showcases a range of qualitative research projects conducted by health psychologists with a view to promoting greater uptake and development of qualitative research methods in the field. It is timely because qualitative methods have become prominent across psychology and health research and because major health research funders are now inviting qualitative research to help give voice to patient experiences. As a whole, the papers demonstrate the diversity, power, and impact of qualitative research conducted in health-related settings and show how traditional health psychology methods and concepts can be enriched in the process.

  3. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  4. A matter of taste: evaluating the quality of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-06-01

    Driven by an impetus to standardize, numerous checklists have been devised to address quality in qualitative research, but these standards and the mindset driving them offer no language with which to speak about taste, or the aesthetic sensibilities that play such a key role in evaluating the goodness of any object. In this article, quality appraisal in qualitative research is considered in the context of taste, that is, in the discernment involved in judging the value of research and in the recognition of the key role reviewer preferences, sensibilities and membership in one or more taste communities play in these judgements. The evaluation of a study is accomplished by evaluating one or more reports from that study, and such reports may be conceived as art forms amenable to the same criteria for appraisal as poems or paintings. Taste implies judgements about the quality of objects and a person's ability to sift through and select from a store of knowledge that knowledge appropriate to judge its value. What binds a community of practitioners (here reviewers of qualitative studies) together is taste-making, or the constant refinements of judgements concerning what constitutes good and bad practice.

  5. Health research capacity development in low and middle income countries: reality or rhetoric? A systematic meta-narrative review of the qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, Samuel R P; Chandler, Clare; Lang, Trudie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Locally led health research in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is critical for overcoming global health challenges. Yet, despite over 25 years of international efforts, health research capacity in LMICs remains insufficient and development attempts continue to be fragmented. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and critically examine the main approaches and trends in health research capacity development and consolidate key thinking to identify a more coherent approach. Methods This review includes academic and grey literature published between January 2000 and July 2013. Using a predetermined search strategy, we systematically searched PubMed, hand-searched Google Scholar and checked reference lists. This process yielded 1668 papers. 240 papers were selected based on a priori criteria. A modified version of meta-narrative synthesis was used to analyse the papers. Results 3 key narratives were identified: the effect of power relations on capacity development; demand for stronger links between research, policy and practice and the importance of a systems approach. Capacity development was delivered through 4 main modalities: vertical research projects, centres of excellence, North–South partnerships and networks; all were controversial, and each had their strengths and weaknesses. A plurality of development strategies was employed to address specific barriers to health research. However, lack of empirical research and monitoring and evaluation meant that their effectiveness was unclear and learning was weak. Conclusions There has been steady progress in LMIC health research capacity, but major barriers to research persist and more empirical evidence on development strategies is required. Despite an evolution in development thinking, international actors continue to use outdated development models that are recognised as ineffective. To realise newer development thinking, research capacity outcomes need to be equally valued as

  6. Opening up the black box: an introduction to qualitative research methods in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shelton, C L; Smith, A F; Mort, M

    2014-03-01

    Qualitative research methods are a group of techniques designed to allow the researcher to understand phenomena in their natural setting. A wide range is used, including focus groups, interviews, observation, and discourse analysis techniques, which may be used within research approaches such as grounded theory or ethnography. Qualitative studies in the anaesthetic setting have been used to define excellence in anaesthesia, explore the reasons behind drug errors, investigate the acquisition of expertise and examine incentives for hand-hygiene in the operating theatre. Understanding how and why people act the way they do is essential for the advancement of anaesthetic practice, and rigorous, well-designed qualitative research can generate useful data and important insights. Meticulous social scientific methods, transparency, reproducibility and reflexivity are markers of quality in qualitative research. Tools such as the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist and the critical appraisal skills programme are available to help authors, reviewers and readers unfamiliar with qualitative research assess its merits.

  7. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Background. The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. Methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors (n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. Results. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported “basic” information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited “extensive” use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels (n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey (n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups (n = 63; 44%) and interviews (n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content (n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis (n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors (n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many (n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Conclusions. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners’ assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials. PMID:28061040

  8. Qualitative research in psychology: Could William James get a job?

    PubMed

    Marchel, Carol; Owens, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    Considering the case of William James, the author examines the likelihood of a successful career as a qualitative researcher in contemporary U.S. psychology. Fifty-seven journals affiliated with the American Psychological Association or its divisions were analyzed to show the place of qualitative research in U.S. psychology over the past 50 years. Journal abstracts, mission statements, and a short e-mail questionnaire from editors were used to understand patterns and trends in qualitative research in U.S. psychology. Editors are generally accepting of qualitative work, although mission statements do not always signal likely interest in qualitative work. The amount of qualitative work published is comparably low, but patterns of increased publication are found in some journals. Trends in methodologies, topics of research, and ways in which qualitative research enters journals over time are discussed. Suggestions for the publication of qualitative work are provided.

  9. Maximising the impact of qualitative research in feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials: guidance for researchers.

    PubMed

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Hoddinott, Pat; Lewin, Simon; Thomas, Kate J; Young, Bridget; Adamson, Joy; Jansen, Yvonne Jfm; Mills, Nicola; Moore, Graham; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility studies are increasingly undertaken in preparation for randomised controlled trials in order to explore uncertainties and enable trialists to optimise the intervention or the conduct of the trial. Qualitative research can be used to examine and address key uncertainties prior to a full trial. We present guidance that researchers, research funders and reviewers may wish to consider when assessing or undertaking qualitative research within feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials. The guidance consists of 16 items within five domains: research questions, data collection, analysis, teamwork and reporting. Appropriate and well conducted qualitative research can make an important contribution to feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials. This guidance may help researchers to consider the full range of contributions that qualitative research can make in relation to their particular trial. The guidance may also help researchers and others to reflect on the utility of such qualitative research in practice, so that trial teams can decide when and how best to use these approaches in future studies.

  10. Research Commentary: The Promise of Qualitative Metasynthesis for Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert Q., III.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics education has benefited from qualitative methodological approaches over the past 40 years across diverse topics. Although the number, type, and quality of qualitative research studies in mathematics education has changed, little is known about how a collective body of qualitative research findings contributes to our understanding of a…

  11. Using Blogs in Qualitative Educational Research: An Exploration of Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…

  12. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis).

  13. Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

  14. Qualitative research in medicine – An art to be nurtured

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, A.K.; Singh, Gurpreet; Pandya, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    To acquire complete knowledge on a subject both qualitative and quantitative research methods need to be perused by researchers. However, over the period of time qualitative research teaching among medical professionals has reduced. Wisdom amongst doctors seems getting muddled in ‘data’. Operational research as well as health systems research have been the basis of ‘key’ policy changes in situations and programmes including polio immunization to achieve desired objectives. Both qualitative and quantitative methods complement each other and cannot replace one another. We need to protect the 'endangered art' of qualitative research before it becomes extinct from medical schools. PMID:26663966

  15. Promoting and evaluating scientific rigour in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-15

    This article explores perspectives on qualitative research and the variety of views concerning rigour in the research process. Evaluating and ensuring the quality of research are essential considerations for practitioners who are appraising evidence to inform their practice or research. Several criteria and principles for evaluating quality in qualitative research are presented, recognising that their application in practice is influenced by the qualitative methodology used. The article examines a range of techniques that a qualitative researcher can use to promote rigour and apply it to practice.

  16. Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

  17. Cognitive apprenticeship in health sciences education: a qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kayley; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Khanova, Julia; Roth, Mary T

    2016-08-20

    Cognitive apprenticeship theory emphasizes the process of making expert thinking "visible" to students and fostering the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes required for expertise. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the use of cognitive apprenticeship theory with the primary aim of understanding how and to what extent the theory has been applied to the design, implementation, and analysis of education in the health sciences. The initial search yielded 149 articles, with 45 excluded because they contained the term "cognitive apprenticeship" only in reference list. The remaining 104 articles were categorized using a theory talk coding scheme. An in depth qualitative synthesis and review was conducted for the 26 articles falling into the major theory talk category. Application of cognitive apprenticeship theory tended to focus on the methods dimension (e.g., coaching, mentoring, scaffolding), with some consideration for the content and sociology dimensions. Cognitive apprenticeship was applied in various disciplines (e.g., nursing, medicine, veterinary) and educational settings (e.g., clinical, simulations, online). Health sciences education researchers often used cognitive apprenticeship to inform instructional design and instrument development. Major recommendations from the literature included consideration for contextual influences, providing faculty development, and expanding application of the theory to improve instructional design and student outcomes. This body of research provides critical insight into cognitive apprenticeship theory and extends our understanding of how to develop expert thinking in health sciences students. New research directions should apply the theory into additional aspects of health sciences educational research, such as classroom learning and interprofessional education.

  18. Doing qualitative research David Silverman Doing qualitative research Sage Pages: 472 £27.99 9781848600331 184860033X [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2011-01-21

    Professor Silverman's reputation in the world of qualitative research precedes him and I am mindful of his status as I write this review. I am similarly mindful of Denzin's equally eminent standing and note his positive review on the cover of this book in which he describes the content as 'exceedingly thoughtful, practical and comprehensive ….'

  19. An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

  20. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  1. Qualitative Research and its Uses in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q

    2008-01-01

    Although relatively uncommon in health care research, qualitative research is now receiving recognition and is increasingly used in health care research with social and cultural dimensions. Unlike quantitative research, which is deductive and tends to analyze phenomena in terms of trends and frequencies, qualitative research seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon through description. It aims to develop concepts that aid in the understanding of natural phenomena with emphasis on the meaning, experiences and views of the participants. Differences among qualitative researchers exist on matters of ontology, epistemology, data collection methods and methods of evaluation. The aim of this article is not to act as a practical guide on how to conduct qualitative research, but is an attempt to give an introduction to qualitative research methods and their use in health-related research. PMID:21654952

  2. Validity in Qualitative Research: Application of Safeguards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytner, Katrina M.

    2006-01-01

    The construct of validity has received considerable attention in qualitative methods literature (Denzin, 1989; Erickson, 1986; Geertz, 1973; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984; Howe & Eisenhart, 1990; Maxwell, 1992; Smith & Glass, 1987). Much of the attention has been focused upon the issue of whether qualitative results and interpretations accurately reflect…

  3. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    PubMed Central

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  4. Research Review: Doing Artistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the author focuses on the pragmatic consideration: How do artists do artistic research? Artistic research in the context of this review is about the connections and relationships among three primary domains: (1) the arts; (2) higher education; and (3) arts education. Broadly stated, all artists do research when they do art--whether…

  5. [The narrative in qualitative research in health].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2014-04-01

    The marked interest of the human and social sciences in health in narrative studies has led to many forms of incorporation of these contributions in qualitative research in health. It is important to reflect on the contexts and characteristics of this incorporation. To accomplish this, we highlight the core theoretical issues involved and also situate this incorporation in the broader context of the scientific production in the human and social sciences in health. We also stress the contribution of the narrative studies for reflection upon the relations between social structure and action or between specific contexts of social interaction and broader societal contexts. This contribution can be identified in relations established through narrative between interpretation, experience and action throughout the health-disease-care process. It is argued that narratives not only organize interpretations, but can also represent a specific form of social agency. In this sense, the narrative interpretations and narrative performances can be seen as core elements in the social construction of experiences and trajectories of illness and care.

  6. The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

  7. Quality and Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines concepts of the trustworthiness, or credibility, of qualitative research. Following a "researcher-as-instrument," or self-reflective, statement, the paradigmatic underpinnings of various criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research are explored, setting the stage for a discussion of more transcendent standards…

  8. The Role of Qualitative Research in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devetak, Iztok; Glazar, Sasa A.; Vogrinc, Janez

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the qualitative research in which the researcher has been directly involved, and has himself been examining the research phenomenon in the studied environment, is presented. The aim of this qualitative study is to gather data in the form of rich content-based descriptions of people, events, and situations by using different,…

  9. Developing a Research Program Using Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    1997-01-01

    A research program on postpartum depression is used to illustrate the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The direction of a research program is thus not limited by the type of methods in which a researcher has expertise. (SK)

  10. Turning Points in Qualitative Research: Tying Knots in a Handkerchief. Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.

    The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…

  11. How will we know "good" qualitative research when we see it? Beginning the dialogue in health services research.

    PubMed Central

    Devers, K J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To lay the foundation for an explicit review and dialogue concerning the criteria that should be used to evaluate qualitative health services research. Clear criteria are critical for the discipline because they provide a benchmark against which research can be assessed. DATA SOURCES: Existing literature in the social sciences and health services research, particularly in primary care and medicine. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Traditional criteria for evaluating qualitative research are rooted in the philosophical perspective (positivism) most closely associated with quantitative research and methods. As a result, qualitative research and methods may not be used as frequently as they can be and research results generated from qualitative studies may not be disseminated as widely as possible. However, alternative criteria for evaluating qualitative research have been proposed that reflect a different philosophical perspective (post-positivism). Moreover, these criteria are tailored to the unique purposes for which qualitative research is used and the research designs traditionally employed. While criteria based on these two different philosophical perspectives have much in common, some important differences exist. CONCLUSION: The field of health services research must engage in a collective, "qualitative" process to determine which criteria to adopt (positivist or post-positivist), or whether some combination of the two is most appropriate. Greater clarity about the criteria used to evaluate qualitative research will strengthen the discipline by fostering a more appropriate and improved use of qualitative methods, a greater willingness to fund and publish "good" qualitative research, and the development of more informed consumers of qualitative research results. Images Figure 1 PMID:10591278

  12. Conducting qualitative research in the British Armed Forces: theoretical, analytical and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Alan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population.

  13. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 1: What is the idea?].

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; Karbach, U; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Stamer, M

    2012-08-01

    In this first part of a 3-part discussion paper the working group "Qualitative Methods" in the German Network of Health Services Research (DNVF) identifies the potentials and opportunities qualitative research methods provide for health services research. Many research questions relevant for health services research require the use of qualitative methods. However, the potential of and need for qualitative research in health services research has not yet received sufficient attention from funding bodies. We discuss the applicability and importance of qualitative research for the field of health services research. We then move on to describe the key characteristics of qualitative research that need to be taken into account in health services research. We discuss characteristics such as open-ended (qualitative) data, interpretation of meanings, the search for contradictions, closeness to everyday life, openness towards change or modification of the research question and processes in the context of health services research. To ensure a high-quality approach in qualitative methods for the health services research, sufficient competency in methods and appropriate settings that account for the peculiarities of qualitative methods need to be developed. These include an appropriate time frame and sufficient and qualified personnel to conduct qualitative research. Qualitative research is not a research paradigm in itself rather it comprises of many different and diverging approaches. The goal of this paper is to show the diversity of qualitative research methods, its importance for health services research, and to open up the discussion on strategies for integrating qualitative methods into health services research.

  14. Researcher–researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. Methods A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Results Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually “rules” the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in “inferior” and “superior” knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Conclusion Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature. PMID:27307132

  15. Approaches to Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Social Support Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit

    Social scientists tend to adopt either a qualitative or a quantitative perspective in research on social support. As single methods, each perspective has unique distinctions, limitations, and trade-offs. These approaches are based on differing epistemological assumptions. Qualitative research attempts to understand human behavior from the…

  16. Case Study Research in Education. A Qualitative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    A practical guide for designing and carrying out qualitative case study in education is provided. How-to advice for managing all phases of case study research is included. The focus is on case studies that draw from what is commonly known as the qualitative research paradigm rather than a quantitative, positivistic, experimental orientation. Three…

  17. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  18. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  19. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  20. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  1. Doing qualitative research in general practice: methodological utility and engagement.

    PubMed

    Jaye, Chrystal

    2002-10-01

    General practice uses an eclectic range of research methodology. This includes increasing reliance upon qualitative research methods. There seem to be two distinct treatments of qualitative research within primary care and, in particular, within general practice research. The first is characterized by a purely utilitarian and technical focus, using a qualitative method because it is the most appropriate means of realizing the aims of the research, while the second is characterized by in-depth engagement with the philosophical and paradigmatic aspects of qualitative methodology. In-depth engagement with methodology and theory, and theory building, is an important aspect of masterate and doctoral research within social sciences such as education and anthropology, and in the discipline of nursing, but has not been a feature of qualitative research in medicine. A practical difficulty encountered within postgraduate programmes such as the one in which the author teaches is that when innovative qualitative techniques are used by GPs in their postgraduate research dissertations and theses, it is often beyond GP examiners' own knowledge and experience, yet it fails to measure up to standards established in social sciences, particularly in sociology and anthropology where in-depth reflexive engagement with the theory and philosophy of qualitative methodology is expected. This paper suggests that the value of in-depth engagement with methodology when conducting qualitative research results in creative and innovative ways of conducting research that are consonant with the nature of general practice itself, and strengthens research findings. Therefore, as teachers of research methods and supervisors of research theses, it is important to encourage students conducting qualitative research to engage fully with theoretical and methodological issues.

  2. Promises and pitfalls of data sharing in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kohrt, Brandon A; Matthews, Lynn T; Betancourt, Theresa S; Lee, Jooyoung K; Papachristos, Andrew V; Weiser, Sheri D; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-11-01

    The movement for research transparency has gained irresistible momentum over the past decade. Although qualitative research is rarely published in the high-impact journals that have adopted, or are most likely to adopt, data sharing policies, qualitative researchers who publish work in these and similar venues will likely encounter questions about data sharing within the next few years. The fundamental ways in which qualitative and quantitative data differ should be considered when assessing the extent to which qualitative and mixed methods researchers should be expected to adhere to data sharing policies developed with quantitative studies in mind. We outline several of the most critical concerns below, while also suggesting possible modifications that may help to reduce the probability of unintended adverse consequences and to ensure that the sharing of qualitative data is consistent with ethical standards in research.

  3. Peer Review of Grant Applications: Criteria Used and Qualitative Study of Reviewer Practices

    PubMed Central

    Abdoul, Hendy; Perrey, Christophe; Amiel, Philippe; Tubach, Florence; Gottot, Serge; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Alberti, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Background Peer review of grant applications has been criticized as lacking reliability. Studies showing poor agreement among reviewers supported this possibility but usually focused on reviewers’ scores and failed to investigate reasons for disagreement. Here, our goal was to determine how reviewers rate applications, by investigating reviewer practices and grant assessment criteria. Methods and Findings We first collected and analyzed a convenience sample of French and international calls for proposals and assessment guidelines, from which we created an overall typology of assessment criteria comprising nine domains relevance to the call for proposals, usefulness, originality, innovativeness, methodology, feasibility, funding, ethical aspects, and writing of the grant application. We then performed a qualitative study of reviewer practices, particularly regarding the use of assessment criteria, among reviewers of the French Academic Hospital Research Grant Agencies (Programmes Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, PHRCs). Semi-structured interviews and observation sessions were conducted. Both the time spent assessing each grant application and the assessment methods varied across reviewers. The assessment criteria recommended by the PHRCs were listed by all reviewers as frequently evaluated and useful. However, use of the PHRC criteria was subjective and varied across reviewers. Some reviewers gave the same weight to each assessment criterion, whereas others considered originality to be the most important criterion (12/34), followed by methodology (10/34) and feasibility (4/34). Conceivably, this variability might adversely affect the reliability of the review process, and studies evaluating this hypothesis would be of interest. Conclusions Variability across reviewers may result in mistrust among grant applicants about the review process. Consequently, ensuring transparency is of the utmost importance. Consistency in the review process could also be improved by

  4. Qualitative research as a form of scientific inquiry in sport and physical education.

    PubMed

    Locke, L F

    1989-03-01

    Qualitative research includes a family of loosely related inquiry traditions rooted in psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Each differs in origins, assumptions, central questions, and methods. They are united at a deeper paradigmatic level, however, by a shared view of the nature of the world which distinguishes all qualitative research traditions from the conventional natural science model of inquiry in the domains of education, sport, and exercise. This divergence of world view is illustrated by how scientists using qualitative and conventional designs would respond to the query, "How do you know?" There, qualitative traditions yield distinctly different perspectives on questions about the social world. Despite both heuristic power and great promise for application in sport and physical education, however, unresolved questions and troublesome concerns remain. Active scholars, editors, reviewers, and research consumers will control the future for qualitative research and all must stretch to accommodate an unfamiliar way of knowing.

  5. Qualitative research with a Kenyan flavour.

    PubMed

    Mburu, J; Cogswell, L; Crane, E; Todreas, I L

    1991-01-01

    The Essential Drugs Program in Kenya's Ministry of Health included a qualitative research phase of focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the communication needs in educating the public about responsible essential drug use. This article discusses the general parameters of FGDs, and specific outcomes of essential drug FGDs and the evaluation of the health education tools generated in the FGDs. The purpose of the pilot project was to develop effective materials on the correct use of drug regimens and promoting authorized drug providers. FGDs were used as a quick and relatively inexpensive means of gauging a target audience's beliefs and practices. The facilitator of the group directed discussion and probed for participants views on the community's needs, and forms of expression. (Drawing on positive social customs within a culture helps bridge the difference between local perceptions and knowledge.) Pretesting of draft materials in FGDs assured the ability to reach the target audience. These 2 methods contributed to the project's success by involving the target group as experts in providing useful information, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment, and building a relationship between the staff and target group that renewed dedication and willingness to cooperate. Program staff conducted 19 FGDs with 171 clients and 9 FGDs with 63 providers, and also interviewed 36 providers and observed in 4 locations client/provider exchanges. The results showed that client were unaware of the importance of strict compliance with a drug regimen, and consequences of ineffectiveness. Clients were uneasy about side effects, and purchased drugs from unauthorized dealers. The 3 messages to be promoted were 1) return to the clinic or hospital if drug problems arise, 2) use only authorized providers, and 3) follow directions carefully and completely. It was also decided that posters and audio cassette were the communication modes. A description of the materials developed is

  6. Validating Indicators of Disaster Recovery with Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Caroline; Horney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recovery from disasters is a critical function of federal, state, and local governments, yet measurable, validated indicators of community recovery remain unidentified. A list of potential recovery indicators was developed by the authors through a literature review, recovery plan review, and case study of two disaster impacted communities. Methods: To validate the indicators, qualitative data was collected from experts on disaster recovery. Twenty-one key informant interviews and two focus groups were conducted between January and April of 2014 to solicit feedback from disaster recovery practitioners and academics. Results: Five major themes emerged from the qualitative data. These included: the flexibility of the indicators to serve multiple purposes for communities and individuals both pre- and post- disaster; the focus areas are comprehensive, but content and organization can be improved; the importance of seeing the indicators as a self-assessment, rather than a tool for comparing communities; the potential challenges of collecting data for some indicators; and the identification of potential measurement issues with the indicators. Discussion: The proposed recovery indicators can be utilized by both practitioners and researchers to effectively track post-disaster recovery. They capture many of the complexities of community disaster recovery and provide potential opportunities for linkages to the development of disaster recovery plans and other activities that could increase community resilience in the future. PMID:25685626

  7. Poetic forms and structures in qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Furman, Rich

    2006-04-01

    In this article, the author explores the uses of poetic forms in qualitative health research, analyzing thematically a poem written from a patient's perspective of being treated in an emergency room. From the themes identified, he created two "research poems" using two formal poetic structures: the French-Malaysian pantoum, and the Japanese-inspired American tanka. The author contextualizes this research through an exploration of the arts and poetry as qualitative research.

  8. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book…

  9. Innovative Data Collection Strategies in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during…

  10. Qualitative Research in Question: A Narrative of Disciplinary Power with/in the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tara Star

    2008-01-01

    This article narrates the author's experience of obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval for her dissertation study. Although her research topic was particularly sensitive, this case is illustrative of the increasing level of difficulty qualitative researchers are facing in conducting not only risky research but also work that is not…

  11. Search Wide, Dig Deep: Literature Searching for Qualitative Research. An Analysis of the Publication Formats and Information Sources Used for Four Systematic Reviews in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Claire; Brunton, Ginny; Rees, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background: When literature searching for systematic reviews, it is good practice to search widely across different information sources. Little is known about the contributions of different publication formats (e.g. journal article and book chapter) and sources, especially for studies of people's views. Method: Studies from four reviews spanning…

  12. Viewing Agricultural Education Research through a Qualitative Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…

  13. A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

  14. Qualitative Review Synthesis: The Relationship between Inattention and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah Anne; Dueck, Katherine; Rogers, Maria; Tannock, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Background: A body of literature has emerged that links inattentive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to poor academic achievement. Major variation across studies renders conclusions about this relationship complex. Purpose: This review will provide a qualitative synthesis of these studies that (1) use community samples…

  15. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies.

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.

  16. Nurturing the Imagination: Creativity Processes and Innovative Qualitative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Thalia M.; Swaminathan, Raji

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the creativity processes involved in designing and analyzing innovative qualitative research projects and evaluates examples of recent models and typologies that illustrate a variety of ways to approach qualitative inquiry. Using Gardner's Five Minds (2006) typology, Boyer's Model of Scholarship (1997) and Bloom's Taxonomy of…

  17. Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

  18. African Primary Care Research: qualitative data analysis and writing results.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.

  19. The application of qualitative research findings to oncology nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Colleen Ann; Moules, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has established an ambitious research agenda and professional priorities based on a survey by LoBiondo-Wood et al. (2014). With the overall goal to "improve cancer care and the lives of individuals with cancer" (Moore & Badger, 2014, p. 93) through research activities, translating those research findings to direct clinical practice can be overwhelming. As clinicians, understanding how to critique research for quality prior to incorporating research findings into practice is important. The ultimate goal in this critique is to ensure that decisions made about patient care are based on strong evidence. However, the process for appraisal of qualitative research can be ambiguous and often contradictory as a result of the elusive aspect of quality in qualitative research methods (Seale, 1999). In addition, with more than 100 tools available to evaluate qualitative research studies (Higgins & Green, 2011), a lack of consensus exists on how to critically appraise research findings.

  20. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a "thick description" or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods but often differ with respect to study design, data collection, and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semistructured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed-method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research.

  1. Virtual Instruction: A Qualitative Research Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadtlander, Lee M.; Giles, Martha J.

    2010-01-01

    Online graduate programs in psychology are becoming common; however, a concern has been whether instructors in the programs provide adequate research mentoring. One issue surrounding research mentoring is the absence of research laboratories in the virtual university. Students attending online universities often do research without peer or lab…

  2. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  3. Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Sarah H.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

  4. The myth of induction in qualitative nursing research.

    PubMed

    Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M

    2015-04-01

    In nursing today, it remains unclear what constitutes a good foundation for qualitative scientific inquiry. There is a tendency to define qualitative research as a form of inductive inquiry; deductive practice is seldom discussed, and when it is, this usually occurs in the context of data analysis. We will look at how the terms 'induction' and 'deduction' are used in qualitative nursing science and by qualitative research theorists, and relate these uses to the traditional definitions of these terms by Popper and other philosophers of science. We will also question the assertion that qualitative research is or should be inductive. The position we defend here is that qualitative research should use deductive methods. We also see a need to understand the difference between the creative process needed to create theory and the justification of a theory. Our position is that misunderstandings regarding the philosophy of science and the role of inductive and deductive logic and science are still harming the development of nursing theory and science. The purpose of this article is to discuss and reflect upon inductive and deductive views of science as well as inductive and deductive analyses in qualitative research. We start by describing inductive and deductive methods and logic from a philosophy of science perspective, and we examine how the concepts of induction and deduction are often described and used in qualitative methods and nursing research. Finally, we attempt to provide a theoretical perspective that reconciles the misunderstandings regarding induction and deduction. Our conclusion is that openness towards deductive thinking and testing hypotheses is needed in qualitative nursing research. We must also realize that strict induction will not create theory; to generate theory, a creative leap is needed.

  5. The Possible Restorative Justice Functions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    2006-01-01

    The author of this essay contends that there is a need to expand the use of qualitative research methods to include healing and human restoration for the researcher as well as for the researched. This will require moving away from obsessions with positivistic conceptions of scientific research and exploring and using other possible functions of…

  6. Infusing Qualitative Research Experiences into Core Counseling Curriculum Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letourneau, Jade L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Many calls to action for promoting research with counselors-in-training and producing research-practitioners have been published over the past few decades (Balkin 2013; Granello and Granello 1998; Heppner and Anderson 1985), yet the research-practice gap remains. This article explores how qualitative research may help bridge that gap and offers…

  7. Visual Evidence in Qualitative Research: The Role of Videorecording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2004-01-01

    Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitative research data gathering tool, videorecordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in…

  8. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.

    PubMed

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

    2014-02-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  9. Boys in white: a classic of qualitative research turns 50.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte; de Barros, Nelson Filice

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes Boys in white: student culture in medical schoolby Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes and Anselm Strauss, considered a model of qualitative research in sociology. The analysis investigates the trajectories of the authors, the book, qualitative analysis, and the medical students, emphasizing their importance in the origins of medical sociology and the sociology of medical education. In the trajectory of the authors, bibliographical information is given. The trajectory of qualitative research focuses on how this methodology influences the construction of the field. The investigation of the students' trajectory shows how they progress through their first years at medical school to build their own student culture.

  10. Questioning the use value of qualitative research findings.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the use value of qualitative research findings to nurses in practice is questioned. More precisely it is argued that, insofar as action follows belief then, in all but the rarest of cases, the beliefs that nurses in practice can justifiably derive from or form on the basis of qualitative research findings do not sanction action in the world and the assumption, apparently widely held, that qualitative research can as evidence productively inform practice collapses. If qualitative research does not have a substantive action guiding potential then, in consequence, three conclusions are permitted. First, regarding the requirement that nurses ground actions on evidence, regulators should redraft methodologically neutral or permissive guidelines to specify the sorts of research evidence that can serve this function. Second, qualitative methodologies should receive less prominence in nurse education programmes. Third, qualitative researchers should make it clear that their work cannot inform practice. Alternatively, if this claim is advanced the process by which this is to be achieved should be explicitly stated.

  11. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C.; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Meerpohl, Joerg J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. Methods A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. Results 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers “(strongly) agreed” that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. Conclusions The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on

  12. Feminist method and qualitative research about midlife.

    PubMed

    Seibold, C; Richards, L; Simon, D

    1994-02-01

    This paper identifies criteria seen as essential to feminist research. In light of these criteria, issues which have arisen during our current research on women and their experiences of midlife and menopause are discussed. Issues considered include the researchers' responsibilities to participants when exploring sensitive and highly personal issues relating to participants' life experiences, and less clear cut issues such as knowledge construction, power and control. In relation to the latter the balance of power in the research-participant relationship, and the role and responsibilities of the researcher in knowledge construction, are explored. Foucault's notions of knowledge construction and power and control and the feminist researcher's position, are considered in terms of rigour in feminist research and dissemination of research reports. Issues which are seen as problematic and worthy of further debate are: the relations between interviewer and interviewee; the intellectual (the researcher) as the bearer of universal values and as truth teller; and the level of critical activism possible in research studies of this nature.

  13. Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

  14. Qualitative environmental health research: an analysis of the literature, 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2011-10-01

    Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. This analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.

  15. Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry: Possibilities and Tensions in Educational Research. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Carducci, Rozana, Ed.; Kuby, Candace R., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry" is an edited volume that examines the possibilities and tensions encountered by scholars who adopt disruptive qualitative approaches to the study of educational contexts, issues, and phenomena. It presents a collection of innovative and intellectually stimulating chapters which illustrate the potential…

  16. The need for adequate ethical guidelines for qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses adequacy as to the application of Brazilian guidelines, Resolution 196/96(1) and complementaries to qualitative health researches, considering that these are based on non-positivistic paradigms. Frequently, decisions about the research are made together with the studied community. There is a concern with justice and social change. And, since subjectivity can be considered their privileged instrument, such researchers seek a balance between objectivity and subjectivity, discussing how to overcome the researcher's view. We have studied the application and the concept of research found in international and in the Brazilian guidelines. We have noticed that they adopt a positivist conception of research, which establishes 1) the hypothesis test, 2) that all procedures are previously defined by the researcher; 3) neutrality of the researcher and of the knowledge produced. We will present some characteristics of qualitative research; the ethical implications in the way as qualitative research is conceived in non-positivist paradigms and a brief history of these guidelines. Our conclusion: it is inadequate to analyze qualitative researches using these documents, and we suggest the design of specific guidelines for them.

  17. Qualitative research: the "what," "why," "who," and "how"!

    PubMed

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    2015-01-01

    There has been a general view of qualitative research as a lower level form of inquiry and the diverse conceptualizations of what it is, its use or utility, its users, the process of how it is conducted, and its scientific merit. This fragmented understanding and varied ways in which qualitative research is conceived, synthesized, and presented have a myriad of implications in demonstrating and enhancing the utilization of its findings and the ways and skills required in transforming knowledge gained from it. The purpose of this article is to define qualitative research and discuss its significance in research, the questions it addresses, its characteristics, methods and criteria for rigor, and the type of results it can offer. A framework for understanding the "what," "why," "who," and "how" of qualitative research; the different approaches; and the strategies to achieve trustworthiness are presented. Qualitative research provides insights into health-related phenomena and seeks to understand and interpret subjective experience and thus humanizes health care and can enrich further research inquiries and be made clearer and more rigorous as it is relevant to the perspective and goals of nursing.

  18. Determining research knowledge infrastructure for healthcare systems: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examines research knowledge infrastructures (RKIs) found in health systems. An RKI is defined as any instrument (i.e., programs, interventions, tools) implemented in order to facilitate access, dissemination, exchange, and/or use of evidence in healthcare organisations. Based on an environmental scan (17 key informant interviews) and scoping review (26 studies), we found support for a framework that we developed that outlines components that a health system can have in its RKI. The broad domains are climate for research use, research production, activities used to link research to action, and evaluation. The objective of the current study is to profile the RKI of three types of health system organisations--regional health authorities, primary care practices, and hospitals--in two Canadian provinces to determine the current mix of components these organisations have in their RKI, their experience with these components, and their views about future RKI initiatives. Methods This study will include semistructured telephone interviews with a purposive sample region of a senior management team member, library/resource centre manager, and a 'knowledge broker' in three regional health authorities, five or six purposively sampled hospitals, and five or six primary care practices in Ontario and Quebec, for a maximum of 71 interviewees. The interviews will explore (a) which RKI components have proven helpful, (b) barriers and facilitators in implementing RKI components, and (c) views about next steps in further development of RKIs. Discussion This is the first qualitative examination of potential RKI efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in health system decision making. We anticipate being able to identify broadly applicable insights about important next steps in building effective RKIs. Some of the identified RKI components may increase the use of research evidence by decision makers, which may then lead to more informed decisions

  19. Qualitative research on point-of-care testing strategies and programs for HIV.

    PubMed

    Engel, Nora; Pant Pai, Nitika

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing in communities, home settings and primary healthcare centers plays an important role in cutting delays in HIV diagnosis and in the uptake of voluntary testing and counseling. Qualitative research methods have important potential to overcome the current challenges in expanding HIV POC testing programs and strategies, by examining the diagnostic processes, complex inter-relationships and patterns involved in making POC diagnostics work in real-world settings. This article reviews existing qualitative studies on POC testing strategies and programs for HIV. Qualitative research on POC diagnostics around the uptake of POC tests, the actual diagnostic and testing processes involved, the influence of POC tests on clinical decision-making, communication of decisions and decisions exercised by patients are limited. Equally limited are studies that explore adaptation of POC programs to various socio-cultural contexts. More qualitative research is needed to inform test developers, funders and policymakers.

  20. Teaching qualitative research as a means of socialization to nursing.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Daniella; Tamir, Batya; Man, Michal

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present article is to present a model for teaching qualitative research as part of nursing education. The uniqueness of the course model is that it seeks to combine two objectives: (1) initial familiarization of the students with the clinical-nursing environment and the role of the nurse; and (2) understanding the qualitative research approach and inculcation of basic qualitative research skills. The article describes how teaching two central genres in qualitative research - ethnographic and narrative research - constitutes a way of teaching the important skills, concepts, and values of the nursing profession. The article presents the model's structure, details its principal stages, and explains the rationale of each stage. It also presents the central findings of an evaluation of the model's implementation in eight groups over a two-year period. In this way the article seeks to contribute to nursing education literature in general, and to those engaged in clinical training and teaching qualitative research in nursing education in particular.

  1. Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-09-01

    There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy.

  2. Why We Need Qualitative Research in Suicidology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2010-01-01

    Using the differentiation between "explanations" and "understanding" from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on "explanations" is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large…

  3. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  4. Ethical issues in the qualitative researcher--participant relationship.

    PubMed

    Eide, Phyllis; Kahn, David

    2008-03-01

    Qualitative research poses ethical issues and challenges unique to the study of human beings. In developing the interpersonal relationship that is critical to qualitative research, investigator and participant engage in a dialogic process that often evokes stories and memories that are remembered and reconstituted in ways that otherwise would not occur. Ethical issues are raised when this relationship not only provides qualitative research data, but also leads to some degree of therapeutic interaction for the participant. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the controversies inherent in the researcher's dilemma when this occurs, set within the context of a nursing caring theory (Swanson), and the International Council of Nurses Code of ethics for nurses, which provides guidance on global nursing practice.

  5. Cultural unconscious in research: integrating multicultural and depth paradigms in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Yakushko, Oksana; Miles, Pekti; Rajan, Indhushree; Bujko, Biljana; Thomas, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Culturally focused research has gained momentum in many disciplines, including psychology. However, much of this research fails to pay attention to the unconscious dynamics that underlie the study of culture and culturally influenced human beings. Such dynamics may be especially significant when issues of marginalization and oppression are present. Therefore, this paper seeks to contribute a framework for understanding cultural dynamics, especially unconscious cultural dynamics, within depth psychological qualitative research influenced by Jungian and post-Jungian scholarship. Inquiry that is approached with a commitment to making the unconscious conscious seeks to empower and liberate not only the subject/object studied but also the researchers themselves. Following a brief review of multiculturalism in the context of analytically informed psychology, this paper offers several case examples that focus on researchers' integration of awareness of the cultural unconscious in their study of cultural beings and topics.

  6. Qualitative Environmental Health Research: An Analysis of the Literature, 1991–2008

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people’s opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. Objective In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Data sources A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Data extraction Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Data synthesis Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Discussion and conclusions Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes. PMID:20421191

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Legitimation in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Although the importance of validity has long been accepted among quantitative researchers, this concept has been an issue of contention among qualitative researchers. Thus, the first purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive discussion of the different ways that validity has been defined. Second, an argument is provided that in order for…

  8. The Agonistic Approach: Reframing Resistance in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2008-01-01

    The agonistic approach--aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political--sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a…

  9. Journalistic Observation as a Qualitative Research Method for Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Gene

    A comparison is made between the tools of observation and research used by journalists to study society and the media, and the qualitative and clinical research tools used in the social and psychological sciences. The first part of the paper, a journalistic approach to sociology, traces the notion of the sociologist as a super-reporter using…

  10. Keeping and Using Reflective Journals in the Qualitative Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortlipp, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The problem of bias in qualitative research particularly is still debated in methodology texts and there is a lack of agreement on how much researcher influence is acceptable, whether or not it needs to be "controlled", and how it might be accounted for. Denzin (1994) refers to this as the "interpretive crisis" (p. 501). I…

  11. Can Qualitative Researchers Answer Policymakers' What-Works Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The article asks whether constructivist qualitative researchers have anything to offer policymakers who expect researchers to tell them what works. The first part of the article addresses philosophical objections to characterizing the social world in cause/effect terms. Specifically, it considers whether it is legitimate for qualitative…

  12. Building Confidence in Qualitative Research: Engaging the Demands of Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The quality of qualitative research has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also,…

  13. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  14. Contemporary Qualitative Research Methodologies and Issues in Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…

  15. The Politics of Historical Discourse Analysis: A Qualitative Research Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical…

  16. What Good Is Polarizing Research into Qualitative and Quantitative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-01-01

    In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: "quantitative" versus "qualitative." In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the "subjective" and the "objective," and they question the attribution of generalizability to only…

  17. Introducing Evidence Through Research "Push": Using Theory and Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Morden, Andrew; Ong, Bie Nio; Brooks, Lauren; Jinks, Clare; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Dziedzic, Krysia S

    2015-11-01

    A multitude of factors can influence the uptake and implementation of complex interventions in health care. A plethora of theories and frameworks recognize the need to establish relationships, understand organizational dynamics, address context and contingency, and engage key decision makers. Less attention is paid to how theories that emphasize relational contexts can actually be deployed to guide the implementation of an intervention. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential role of qualitative research aligned with theory to inform complex interventions. We detail a study underpinned by theory and qualitative research that (a) ensured key actors made sense of the complex intervention at the earliest stage of adoption and (b) aided initial engagement with the intervention. We conclude that using theoretical approaches aligned with qualitative research can provide insights into the context and dynamics of health care settings that in turn can be used to aid intervention implementation.

  18. Exceptional Children Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, G. Orville, Ed.; Blank, Harriett D., Ed.

    Research reviews are presented for eight areas of exceptionality and for administration. Included are the following reports: 16 on the gifted compiled by Edward C. Frierson; 46 on the mentally retarded reviewed by Howard H. Spicker and Nettie R. Bartel; 20 on the visually impaired presented by William J. Tisdall; 44 on the hearing impaired…

  19. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  20. In Search of a Culture: Navigating the Dimensions of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Ralph LaRossa's (2012) article on the multidimensional world of qualitative research provides family scientists with a set of innovative tools to guide writing and reviewing. He proffered an engaging challenge: to view the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") as a meeting place of scholars, a thought community (Zerubavel, 1997), even a culture…

  1. Flipping the Graduate Qualitative Research Methods Classroom: Did It Lead to Flipped Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The flipped, or inverted, classroom has gained popularity in a variety of fields and at a variety of educational levels, from K-12 through higher education. This paper describes the author's positive experience flipping a graduate qualitative research methods classroom. After a review of the current literature on flipped classrooms in higher…

  2. The "Double Bind" of Re-presentation in Qualitative Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithmier, Angela

    A current movement in qualitative research is a preoccupation with representation of the "other" (Denzin and Lincoln 1994). Feminists, critical theorists and postmodernists have questioned the dominant, legitimized social order and remained sensitive to the multiple issues related to and emanating from power. This paper briefly reviews the…

  3. The Utility of Template Analysis in Qualitative Psychology Research.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma; King, Nigel

    2015-04-03

    Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a large-scale qualitative research project. Our second example demonstrates how a qualitative study that set out to build on mainstream theory made use of the a priori themes (themes determined in advance of coding) permitted in Template Analysis. Our final case study shows how Template Analysis can be used from an interpretative phenomenological stance. We highlight the distinctive features of this style of thematic analysis, discuss the kind of research where it may be particularly appropriate, and consider possible limitations of the technique. We conclude that Template Analysis is a flexible form of thematic analysis with real utility in qualitative psychology research.

  4. The Utility of Template Analysis in Qualitative Psychology Research

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Joanna; McCluskey, Serena; Turley, Emma; King, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Thematic analysis is widely used in qualitative psychology research, and in this article, we present a particular style of thematic analysis known as Template Analysis. We outline the technique and consider its epistemological position, then describe three case studies of research projects which employed Template Analysis to illustrate the diverse ways it can be used. Our first case study illustrates how the technique was employed in data analysis undertaken by a team of researchers in a large-scale qualitative research project. Our second example demonstrates how a qualitative study that set out to build on mainstream theory made use of the a priori themes (themes determined in advance of coding) permitted in Template Analysis. Our final case study shows how Template Analysis can be used from an interpretative phenomenological stance. We highlight the distinctive features of this style of thematic analysis, discuss the kind of research where it may be particularly appropriate, and consider possible limitations of the technique. We conclude that Template Analysis is a flexible form of thematic analysis with real utility in qualitative psychology research. PMID:27499705

  5. Ethical use of social media to facilitate qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Lunnay, Belinda; Borlagdan, Joseph; McNaughton, Darlene; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, qualitative health researchers might consider using social media to facilitate communication with participants. Ambiguity surrounding the potential risks intrinsic to social media could hinder ethical conduct and discourage use of this innovative method. We used some core principles of traditional human research ethics, that is, respect, integrity, and beneficence, to design our photo elicitation research that explored the social influences of drinking alcohol among 34 underage women in metropolitan South Australia. Facebook aided our communication with participants, including correspondence ranging from recruitment to feeding back results and sharing research data. This article outlines the ethical issues we encountered when using Facebook to interact with participants and provides guidance to researchers planning to incorporate social media as a tool in their qualitative studies. In particular, we raise the issues of privacy and confidentiality as contemporary risks associated with research using social media.

  6. A Pluralist View of Generalization in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    A common way of discussing generalisation is to search for one conception--a monist view. Another approach is to create a dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative research, each having a single definition--a dualist perspective. A pluralist view is argued for here, i.e. the existence of several lines of reasoning, each of which can be…

  7. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based reading…

  8. Shared Journaling as Peer Support in Teaching Qualitative Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…

  9. Teaching Qualitative Research Methods through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtmes, Krisanna; Johnson, Earl; Fox, Janet; Burke, Mary S.; Harper, Jeannie; Arcemont, Lisa; Hebert, Lanette; Tarifa, Todd; Brooks, Roy C., Jr.; Reynaud, Andree L.; Deggs, David; Matzke, Brenda; Aguirre, Regina T. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the result of a voluntary service-learning component in a qualitative research methods course. For this course, the service-learning project was the evaluation of the benefits to volunteers who work a crisis hotline for a local crisis intervention center. The service-learning course model used in this paper most closely resembles the…

  10. What in the World Happens in Classrooms? Qualitative Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candela, Antonia; Rockwell, Elsie; Coll, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    This report synthesizes the discussion that took place in a Conference on Qualitative Classroom Research ("What in the world happens in classrooms?" ), organized by the authors and held in Oaxtepec, Mexico in May 2002. The primary aim was to visualize possible interconnections among the various disciplines represented by the 35 scholars who were…

  11. Shifting Priorities: Reflections on Teaching Qualitative Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Keonya C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe pedagogical approaches to qualitative methodology by an instructor of educational psychology at a large research university. The essay begins with an overview of how my graduate training influenced my orientation to empirical study. Next, I will focus on the obstacles encountered when instructing graduate…

  12. Under Construction: How Narrative Elements Shape Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Karri; Colyar, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how narrative constructs could be used to strengthen the writing process. The authors outline the narratological devices of plot, point of view, authorial distance, and character, and examine how these concepts can be used when writing with qualitative data. Narratological tools equip the researcher to selectively manage the…

  13. To Give Good Science: Doing Qualitative Research in the Afterward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…

  14. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  15. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  16. The Productive Difficulty of Untranslatables in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.; Knowlton, Autumn; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights the role of translation in qualitative research that involves multiple languages. Its particular focus is on untranslatables, that is, those words or phrases in a source language that pose challenges to translators because no direct equivalent is available in the target language. "Untranslatables" create moments of…

  17. International Immersion in Counselor Education: A Consensual Qualitative Research Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    This study used consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of international immersion on counselor education students' (N = 10) development and growth. Seven domains emerged from the data (cultural knowledge, empathy, personal and professional impact, process/reflection, relationships, personal characteristics, and…

  18. Evocative Cues and Presence: Relational Consciousness within Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearmain, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an example of how pictures were used to facilitate exploration of spiritual aspects of self, as a basis for qualitative research, with young people aged 15-18 years. The author considers how spiritually moving and stirring experiences may be related to the notion of a direct, participatory embodied attunement to the world.…

  19. Increasingly mobile: How new technologies can enhance qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Carrie Ann; Derr, Amelia Seraphia; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology, such as the growth of smart phones, tablet computing, and improved access to the internet have resulted in many new tools and applications designed to increase efficiency and improve workflow. Some of these tools will assist scholars using qualitative methods with their research processes. We describe emerging technologies for use in data collection, analysis, and dissemination that each offer enhancements to existing research processes. Suggestions for keeping pace with the ever-evolving technological landscape are also offered. PMID:25798072

  20. Increasingly mobile: How new technologies can enhance qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Carrie Ann; Derr, Amelia Seraphia; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology, such as the growth of smart phones, tablet computing, and improved access to the internet have resulted in many new tools and applications designed to increase efficiency and improve workflow. Some of these tools will assist scholars using qualitative methods with their research processes. We describe emerging technologies for use in data collection, analysis, and dissemination that each offer enhancements to existing research processes. Suggestions for keeping pace with the ever-evolving technological landscape are also offered.

  1. Celebrating methodological challenges and changes: reflecting on the emergence and importance of the role of qualitative evidence in Cochrane reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane systematic reviews have proven to be beneficial for decision making processes, both on a practitioner and a policy level, and there are current initiatives to extend the types of evidence used by them, including qualitative research. In this article we outline the major achievements of the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group. Although the Group has encountered numerous challenges in dealing with the evolution of qualitative evidence synthesis, both outside and within the Cochrane Collaboration, it has successfully responded to the challenges posed in terms of incorporating qualitative evidence in systematic reviews. The Methods Group will continue to advocate for more flexible and inclusive approaches to evidence synthesis in order to meet the exciting challenges and opportunities presented by mixed methods systematic reviews and reviews of complex interventions. PMID:24135194

  2. [Quantitative and qualitative research methods, can they coexist yet?].

    PubMed

    Hunt, Elena; Lavoie, Anne-Marise

    2011-06-01

    Qualitative design is gaining ground in Nursing research. In spite of a relative progress however, the evidence based practice movement continues to dominate and to underline the exclusive value of quantitative design (particularly that of randomized clinical trials) for clinical decision making. In the actual context convenient to those in power making utilitarian decisions on one hand, and facing nursing criticism of the establishment in favor of qualitative research on the other hand, it is difficult to chose a practical and ethical path that values the nursing role within the health care system, keeping us committed to quality care and maintaining researcher's integrity. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have advantages and disadvantages, and clearly, none of them can, by itself, capture, describe and explain reality adequately. Therefore, a balance between the two methods is needed. Researchers bare responsibility to society and science, and they should opt for the appropriate design susceptible to answering the research question, not promote the design favored by the research funding distributors.

  3. Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

  4. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports.

    PubMed

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  5. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    PubMed Central

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  6. Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational…

  7. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  8. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  9. Research that Matters: Qualitative Research in the Service of Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the keynote address delivered at the 23rd Annual Ethnographic & Qualitative Research Conference. It is routine for qualitative researchers to "locate" themselves, sharing their history in relation to the settings/contexts, issues, vocabularies, identities, and other factors associated with their topic of inquiry. In this…

  10. On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the United States about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves in competition with each other. Clearly, this polarization has promoted purists, i.e., researchers…

  11. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  12. The Qualitative Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodge-Peters, Dianne S.

    The qualitative dimension of educational research methodology is explored, and the literature of qualitative methodology is reviewed so researchers may (1) understand more fully the qualitative dimension as it, in turn, fits within the parameters of educational research as a whole, and (2) have more informed access to the sometimes daunting array…

  13. Return to work after burns: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Mackey, S P; Diba, R; McKeown, D; Wallace, C; Booth, S; Gilbert, P M; Dheansa, B S

    2009-05-01

    As yet no qualitative research studies looking at return to work following burns have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the "hows" and "whys" of return to work, by purposively selecting a cross-section of burns patients who returned to the same/similar job, those who returned to work but either on a part-time basis or in a different role/job and those who became or remained unemployed, and using semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences. Using matrix analysis methodology, and with the general themes that emerged from these transcripts, it was possible to place patients into 5 broad groups, the "defeated", the "burdened", the "affected", the "unchanged" and the "stronger". We anticipate that use of these general groups will be useful in targeting multi-disciplinary return to work strategies, and discuss how this qualitative research has changed practice at the Queen Victoria Hospital Burns Centre.

  14. Yoga research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy.

  15. Young adults' experience of stroke: a qualitative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Maggie

    Stroke is a life-threatening event that has a devastating impact on young adults and their families. The author conducted a systematic review of the qualitative literature to explore the experience of stroke from the perspective of young adults. Four primary research 'papers' were analyzed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument; 60 findings were extracted from the papers and merged into 13 categories, from which three synthesized findings were developed - disorientation, disrupted sense of self, and roles and relationships. Many of the effects of stroke are 'invisible' but have significant impact on social participation, including the ability to return to work and to enjoy an active social life. Young adults feel the same and yet different following stroke, which may have a profound effect on relationships. Effective communication between patients, families and health professionals is crucial to all aspects of recovery.

  16. [Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods.

  17. Doing good qualitative research in public health: not as easy as it looks.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Ritchie, Jan E; Sainsbury, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss qualitative research for public health professionals. Quality matters in qualitative research, but the principles by which it is judged are critically different from those used to judge epidemiology. Compared to quantitative research, good quality qualitative studies serve different aims, answer distinct research questions and have their own logic for sampling, data collection and analysis. There is, however, no need for antagonism between qualitative research and epidemiology; the two are complementary. With theoretical and methodological guidance from experienced qualitative researchers, public health professionals can learn how to make the most of qualitative research for themselves.

  18. Searching the scientific literature: implications for quantitative and qualitative reviews.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yelena P; Aylward, Brandon S; Roberts, Michael C; Evans, Spencer C

    2012-08-01

    Literature reviews are an essential step in the research process and are included in all empirical and review articles. Electronic databases are commonly used to gather this literature. However, several factors can affect the extent to which relevant articles are retrieved, influencing future research and conclusions drawn. The current project examined articles obtained by comparable search strategies in two electronic archives using an exemplar search to illustrate factors that authors should consider when designing their own search strategies. Specifically, literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO and PubMed targeting review articles on two exemplar disorders (bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and issues of classification and/or differential diagnosis. Articles were coded for relevance and characteristics of article content. The two search engines yielded significantly different proportions of relevant articles overall and by disorder. Keywords differed across search engines for the relevant articles identified. Based on these results, it is recommended that when gathering literature for review papers, multiple search engines should be used, and search syntax and strategies be tailored to the unique capabilities of particular engines. For meta-analyses and systematic reviews, authors may consider reporting the extent to which different archives or sources yielded relevant articles for their particular review.

  19. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Maffoni, Marina; Giardini, Anna; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view.

  20. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Maffoni, Marina; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view. PMID:28243481

  1. Enhancing Environmental Communication and Products Through Qualitative Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are

  2. Review of Research Reporting Guidelines for Radiology Researchers.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Paul; Rawson, James V

    2016-05-01

    Prior articles have reviewed reporting guidelines and study evaluation tools for clinical research. However, only some of the many available accepted reporting guidelines at the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research Network have been discussed in previous reports. In this paper, we review the key Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research reporting guidelines that have not been previously discussed. The study types include diagnostic and prognostic studies, reliability and agreement studies, observational studies, analytical and descriptive, experimental studies, quality improvement studies, qualitative research, health informatics, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, economic evaluations, and mixed methods studies. There are also sections on study protocols, and statistical analyses and methods. In each section, there is a brief overview of the study type, and then the reporting guideline(s) that are most applicable to radiology researchers including radiologists involved in health services research are discussed.

  3. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S

    2007-07-01

    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  4. Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.

    2012-01-01

    Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…

  5. A review of qualitative methodologies used to explore patient perceptions of arts and healthcare.

    PubMed

    Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

    2012-12-01

    Although the importance of the arts in healthcare is increasingly recognised, further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms by which arts and health programmes achieve their impact. An overview of the qualitative methods used to explore patients' perceptions of these interventions is lacking. We reviewed the literature to gain insights into the qualitative methods used to explore patients' perceptions of the role of arts in healthcare with a view to identifying the most common methodologies used and to guide researchers embarking on research regarding patients' perceptions of arts in healthcare. Our results indicate a paucity of qualitative studies, a variety of methods used and variability of methodological rigour. Grounded theory and phenomenology were the most common approaches adopted, mixed methods approaches were relatively frequent, and versions of 'thematic' or 'content' analysis were commonly cited. Semi-structured interviews were the most popular data collection method. The emphasis of all of the studies was on active or participative arts engagement, with no focus on receptive engagement with the arts and aesthetics. It was concluded that careful consideration of appropriate methodology is important when researching such an exploratory and sensitive area. Individual interviews were most popular and might be appropriate when exploring personal, sensitive experiences. Mixed method studies possibly provide a comprehensive approach which might satisfy both the arts and healthcare settings need for evidence. It seems important to pay attention to rigour in any methodology chosen and a greater focus on receptive engagement with the arts might be encouraged in future research.

  6. Qualitative Rockfall Hazard Assessment: A Comprehensive Review of Current Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, F.; Giacomini, A.; Thoeni, K.

    2016-07-01

    Rockfall phenomena represent a major hazard in mountainous areas because they can cause severe damage to infrastructure and buildings as well as serious injuries and fatalities. Rockfalls do not pose the same level of economic risk as large-scale landslides, yet they are responsible for a similar number of accidents and fatalities. Therefore, appropriate land-use planning is necessary to protect people, buildings and facilities from rockfall hazards. Over the last two decades, several methodologies have been proposed to assess rockfall hazards, identify potentially dangerous areas (i.e., rock cliffs with failure-prone blocks) and provide guidelines for choosing and installing the most appropriate mitigation measures. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the existing rockfall hazard assessment methodologies. In particular, the review focuses on qualitative methods that allow a rapid evaluation of a rockfall hazard without costly and time-consuming numerical simulations. The most commonly adopted methodologies in Europe and North America are described and critically analyzed to highlight their differences and similarities and to identify their primary advantages, limitations and fields of application.

  7. Appraising qualitative research in health education: guidelines for public health educators.

    PubMed

    Jeanfreau, Scharalda G; Jack, Leonard

    2010-09-01

    Research studies, including qualitative studies, form the basis for evidence-based practice among health professionals. However, many practicing health educators do not feel fully confident in their ability to critically appraise qualitative research studies. This publication presents an overview of qualitative research approaches, defines key terminology used in qualitative research, and provides guidelines for appraising the strengths and weaknesses of published qualitative research. On reading, health educators will be better equipped to evaluate the quality of the evidence through critical appraisals of qualitative research publications.

  8. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  9. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    PubMed

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  10. Utilizing insider-outsider research teams in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M D; Blacksmith, J; Reno, J

    2000-11-01

    Teams including members from both inside and outside the organization being studied make valuable contributions. A team configuration including both insiders and outsiders is highly effective because variations in the experience history of researchers on the team broaden the available perspectives and maximize the potential interpretations of observed behaviors. An insider-outsider research team consisting of university faculty and nurses at two psychiatric hospitals conducted a study, Meanings of State Hospital Nursing. This article summarizes the study, discusses issues to be resolved when using an insider-outsider research team, and presents the ways in which this approach enhanced the trustworthiness of our findings.

  11. The tobacco endgame: a qualitative review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco endgame concept reorients discussion away from the persistent control of tobacco toward plans for ending the tobacco epidemic, and envisions a tobacco-free future. A variety of policy approaches have been proposed, with many offered prior to the introduction of the unifying term ‘endgame’. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the literature on tobacco control endgames, and drew on media accounts and discussion of analogous ideas for illustrative purposes. We identified proposals focused on the product, user, market/supply or larger institutional structures. Research on public support for these proposals was limited, but suggestive of some public appetite for endgame ideas. Advocates should be encouraged to explore new policy options and consider the goal of a tobacco-free future. PMID:26320149

  12. Establishing rigour in qualitative research: the decision trail.

    PubMed

    Koch, T

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the way in which the decision trail of a qualitative research process can be maintained. It is argued that the trustworthiness (rigour) of a study may be established if the reader is able to audit the events, influences and actions of the researcher. The actual study containing the recording of this decision trail aimed to express the concerns of older patients who were admitted to the acute care sector. The study took place in two care of the elderly wards in a 1000-bed National Health Service hospital in the UK, in 1991. Eventually, 14 patients were interviewed, each on several occasions, and their concerns are expressed in themes, namely: routine geriatric style of care, depersonalization, care deprivation and geriatric segregation. I describe the preparations that were undertaken before patient interviews could commence. The literature recording the process of the interviewer's experience as data in qualitative research is scarce. I show the researcher's participation in making the data as part of an existential phenomenological research process. Existential phenomenology relies on recording influences while generating data such as significant literature, media reports, my value position and journal data.

  13. The Researcher as Instrument: Learning to Conduct Qualitative Research through Analyzing and Interpreting a Choral Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative researchers often describe the ambiguities and complexities of extracting meaning from ambiguous and complex data. Although methodological literature provides useful frameworks and heuristics to guide the process of transforming field data into credible findings, learning to analyze and interpret qualitative data also involves a…

  14. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  15. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  16. [Reflections on qualitative research. Interview of Luisa Saiani with Luigina Mortari].

    PubMed

    Mortari, Luigina; Saiani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Reflections on qualitative research. Interview of Luisa Saiani to Luigina Mortari. Luigina Mortari, an internationally known expert of epistemology and qualitative research, was interviewed to explore her thoughts on issues relevant for qualitative research: when a research question can be considered relevant; key methodological elements; ethical issues.

  17. Patients’ experiences of chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain: a qualitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Andrews, JoyAnn; Barker, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is one of the most predominant types of pain and accounts for a large portion of the primary care workload. Aim To systematically review and integrate the findings of qualitative research to increase understanding of patients’ experiences of chronic non-malignant MSK pain. Design and setting Synthesis of qualitative research using meta-ethnography using six electronic databases up until February 2012 (Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Amed and HMIC). Method Databases were searched from their inception until February 2012, supplemented by hand-searching contents lists of specific journals for 2001–2011 and citation tracking. Full published reports of qualitative studies exploring adults’ own experience of chronic non-malignant MSK pain were eligible for inclusion. Results Out of 24 992 titles, 676 abstracts, and 321 full texts were screened, 77 papers reporting 60 individual studies were included. A new concept of pain as an adversarial struggle emerged. This adversarial struggle was to: 1) affirm self; 2) reconstruct self in time; 3) construct an explanation for suffering; 4) negotiate the healthcare system; and 5) prove legitimacy. However, despite this struggle there is also a sense for some patients of 6) moving forward alongside pain. Conclusions This review provides a theoretical underpinning for improving patient experience and facilitating a therapeutic collaborative partnership. A conceptual model is presented, which offers opportunities for improvement by involving patients, showing them their pain is understood, and forming the basis to help patients move forward alongside their pain. PMID:24351499

  18. Reliability and validity in qualitative research within education in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1996-11-01

    This article discusses the problems of validity and reliability in qualitative research within education and relates this discussion to Africa. A main concern is the posing of the right research questions. The article attempts to bring into focus the voice of Africans, showing that the African researcher knows his/her environment better than any expatriate and will be more likely to ask the right questions provided that s/he is allowed to ask them and is not forced to work with questions of concern to Western donors, and provided that s/he trusts her/his own experiences and uses those to form concepts instead of merely transferring concepts formed in the West and based on experiences in the northern hemisphere. It argues for the need of secondary research to reanalyze from an Afro-centric viewpoint many of the accounts written by Western travellers and anthropologists. It further argues for the use of an autobiographical approach to secure data of high ecological validity. Validity is looked at as a more important concept than reliability and a mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods argued for.

  19. Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part I: Research Principles and Common Applications.

    PubMed

    Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. This article, Part I of a two-article series, provides an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field, including observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. In Part II of this series, we will outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  20. Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Reflection for Novice Counselor Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Randolph; Minichiello, Victor; Plummer, David

    2007-01-01

    Counselors practice in a wide range of disciplines, but also represent a distinct discipline separate from medicine, psychology, and social work. Particularly in countries like Australia, Canada, and the Asia Pacific nations, as a relatively new field, counseling is taking up the challenges of encouraging a research culture that can both critique…

  1. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2014-11-01

    Moderate pressure massage has contributed to many positive effects including increased weight gain in preterm infants, reduced pain in different syndromes including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced attentiveness, reduced depression and enhanced immune function (increased natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity).Surprisingly, these recent studies have not been reviewed, highlighting the need for the current review. When moderate and light pressure massage have been compared in laboratory studies, moderate pressure massage reduced depression, anxiety and heart rate, and it altered EEG patterns, as in a relaxation response. Moderate pressure massage has also led to increased vagal activity and decreased cortisol levels. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that moderate pressure massage was represented in several brain regions including the amygdala, the hypothalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, all areas involved in stress and emotion regulation. Further research is needed to identify underlying neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with moderate pressure massage.

  2. Setting the Qualitative Research Agenda in Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gordon R.; Parsons, Jim

    Three publications ("Dissertation Abstracts International,""Social Education," and "Theory and Research in Social Education") are reviewed to determine trends in types of social studies research conducted between 1977 and 1984. Using a four-fold classification system, 159 studies are surveyed. Results show an…

  3. Current Use of Qualitative Research Methodology in Couples and Family Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleist, David M.; Gompertz, Kelli

    1997-01-01

    Explores recent use of qualitative methodology in research relating to marriage and family counseling. The seven research articles described highlight the potential benefits and challenges qualitative methodology can have for the field of marriage and family counseling. (Author/MKA)

  4. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  5. Experiences of Self-Management Support Following a Stroke: A Meta-Review of Qualitative Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Gemma; Pinnock, Hilary; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Parke, Hannah L.; Heavey, Emily; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Greenhalgh, Trish; Sheikh, Aziz; Taylor, Stephanie J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Supporting self-management in stroke patients improves psychological and functional outcomes but evidence on how to achieve this is sparse. We aimed to synthesise evidence from systematic reviews of qualitative studies in an overarching meta-review to inform the delivery and development of self-management support interventions. Methods We systematically searched eight electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL for qualitative systematic reviews (published January 1993 to June 2012). We included studies exploring patients’, carers’ or health care professionals’ experiences relevant to self-management support following a stroke, including studies describing the lived experience of surviving a stroke. We meta-synthesised the included review findings using a meta-ethnographic framework. Results Seven reviews, reporting 130 unique studies, were included. Themes emerging from the reviews were pertinent, consistent and showed data saturation; though explicit mention of self-management support was rare. Our meta-review highlighted the devastating impact of stroke on patients’ self-image; the varying needs for self-management support across the trajectory of recovery; the need for psychological and emotional support throughout recovery particularly when physical recovery plateaus; the considerable information needs of patients and carers which also vary across the trajectory of recovery; the importance of good patient-professional communication; the potential benefits of goal-setting and action-planning; and the need for social support which might be met by groups for stroke survivors. Conclusions The observed data saturation suggests that, currently, no further qualitative research simply describing the lived experience of stroke is needed; we propose that it would be more useful to focus on qualitative research informing self-management support interventions and their implementation. Our findings demonstrate both the on-going importance

  6. Understanding process and context in breastfeeding support interventions: The potential of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Dawn; Marshall, Joyce; Locke, Abigail

    2017-02-14

    Considerable effort has been made in recent years to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of different interventions for supporting breastfeeding. However, research has tended to focus primarily on measuring outcomes and has paid comparatively little attention to the relational, organizational, and wider contextual processes that may impact delivery of an intervention. Supporting a woman with breastfeeding is an interpersonal encounter that may play out differently in different contexts, despite the apparently consistent aims and structure of an intervention. We consider the limitations of randomized controlled trials for building understanding of the ways in which different components of an intervention may impact breastfeeding women and how the messages conveyed through interactions with breastfeeding supporters might be received. We argue that qualitative methods are ideally suited to understanding psychosocial processes within breastfeeding interventions and have been underused. After briefly reviewing qualitative research to date into experiences of receiving and delivering breastfeeding support, we discuss the potential of theoretically informed qualitative methodologies to provide fuller understanding of intervention processes by focusing on three examples: phenomenology, ethnography, and discourse analysis. The paper concludes by noting some of the epistemological differences between the broadly positivist approach of trials and qualitative methodologies, and we suggest there is a need for further dialog as to how researchers might bridge these differences in order to develop a fuller and more holistic understanding of how best to support breastfeeding women.

  7. Are We (T)here Yet? Qualitative Research in Education's Profuse and Contested Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Handel Kashope

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses the topic of the state of qualitative research in education by asserting that qualitative research in education is in quite a state. Drawing heavily on Denzin and Lincoln's periodization of qualitative research as a guide, it outlines the various competing developments from within and outside that are vying to characterize the…

  8. Understanding Qualitative Metasynthesis: Issues and Opportunities in Early Childhood Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative metasynthesis is an intentional and coherent approach to analyzing data across qualitative studies. It is a process that enables researchers to identify a specific research question and then search for, select, appraise, summarize, and combine qualitative evidence to address the research question. This process uses rigorous qualitative…

  9. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  10. Qualitative Research in Family Therapy: Publication Trends from 1980 to 1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Rhonda A.; Klock, Kathryn; Gale, Jerry E.

    2002-01-01

    In the early 1990s, scholars from a variety of disciplines encouraged greater inclusion of qualitative research methodology in the mental health field. Moon, Dillon, and Sprenkle (1990) hoped their paper "Family therapy and qualitative research" would serve as a stimulus for further development of qualitative research in the field of family…

  11. Barriers and facilitators of interventions for improving antiretroviral therapy adherence: a systematic review of global qualitative evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingyan; Tso, Lai Sze; Rich, Zachary C; Hall, Brian J; Beanland, Rachel; Li, Haochu; Lackey, Mellanye; Hu, Fengyu; Cai, Weiping; Doherty, Meg; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. Methods We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers. We used thematic synthesis to synthesize qualitative evidence and the CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research) approach to assess the confidence of review findings. Results Of 2982 references identified, a total of 31 studies from 17 countries were included. Twelve studies were conducted in high-income countries, 13 in middle-income countries and six in low-income countries. Study populations focused on adults living with HIV (21 studies, n=1025), children living with HIV (two studies, n=46), adolescents living with HIV (four studies, n=70) and pregnant women living with HIV (one study, n=79). Twenty-three studies examined PLHIV perspectives and 13 studies examined healthcare provider perspectives. We identified six themes related to types of interventions, including task shifting, education, mobile phone text messaging, directly observed therapy, medical professional outreach and complex interventions. We also identified five cross-cutting themes, including strengthening social relationships, ensuring confidentiality, empowerment of PLHIV, compensation and integrating religious beliefs into interventions. Our qualitative evidence suggests that strengthening PLHIV social relationships, PLHIV empowerment and developing culturally appropriate interventions may facilitate adherence interventions. Our study indicates that potential barriers are inadequate training and compensation for lay health workers and

  12. The challenges of undertaking (qualitative) research on a military population.

    PubMed

    Bernthal, Elizabeth Mm

    2015-12-01

    Undertaking primary research with a sample of serving personnel and their families is exciting, but raises specific challenges that may not be apparent when undertaking research with a civilian population. This paper explores the issues to be considered when developing the design, obtaining ethical clearance, undertaking the literature review, recruitment, sampling, data collection and analysis for a military study. It advises of the importance of undertaking the literature review, gives guidance on how to maximise recruitment by targeting locations that potential participants frequent, how to reduce the risk of coercion as well as the role of military clearance. The article also discusses reflexivity and highlights the importance of critical self-analytical scrutiny in order to identify whether the experience and role of the researcher has influenced the study. It concludes that taking time to plan the design and delivery of the study should help novice researchers to ensure that their research progresses smoothly.

  13. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  14. Engaging High School Students as Co-Researchers in Qualitative Research: Logistical, Methodological and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dana L.; McVea, Kristine L. S. P.; Creswell, John W.; Harter, Lynn; Mickelson, William; McEntarffer, Rob

    This paper explores six phases of a research project designed specifically to engage high school students as co-researchers in a multisite qualitative study exploring perceptions of tobacco use among high school students in four schools. It describes how university researchers collaborated with the high school students and summarizes seven major…

  15. Management Summary of Qualitative Research Report Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is a summary of research findings from a piece of qualitative research conducted between May and July 2010 for the National Literacy Trust to inform the Talk To Your Baby campaign. The objectives of the research were to identify motivating messages to encourage parents to communicate with their children under three, and to understand key ways…

  16. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address.

  17. Integrative reviews of nursing research.

    PubMed

    Ganong, L H

    1987-02-01

    Integrative reviews of research are a valuable part of the process of creating and organizing a body of literature. It has been argued that integrative reviews should be held to the same standards of clarity, rigor, and replication as primary research. In this paper methods for conducting an integrative review are discussed. Seventeen reviews from nursing journals were examined and compared with a proposed set of criteria for reviews. The results indicated that the majority of integrative reviews in nursing fell short of primary research standards. Guidelines for conducting more rigorous reviews are presented.

  18. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research.

  19. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge.

  20. Situating Qualitative Modes of Inquiry within the Discipline of Statistics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative methods have become common in statistics education research, but questions linger about their role in scholarship. Currently, influential policy documents lend credence to the notion that qualitative methods are inherently inferior to quantitative ones. In this paper, several of the questions about qualitative research raised in recent…

  1. Theory Building through Qualitative Research: Marshalling Opportunities to Advance Cancer Screening Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Craddock Lee, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers lack the resources, time, and/or expertise to include qualitative strategies in their research. In recent years, substantive progress has been made among qualitative methodologists themselves to codify and systematize concept construction and typologies in qualitatively derived theory. These authors discuss the work of Rena Pasick…

  2. Marrow Bone Thinking: A Plea for Strengthened Qualitative Research in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.

    This report discusses the nature of research in the context of distance education and suggests that qualitative research be included as a research methodology for distance education research. Noting that qualitative research represents a shift toward more perceptual, context-embedded interpretive inquiry, the paper argues that it is well suited to…

  3. The Development of Qualitative Classroom Action Research Workshop for In-Service Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2016-01-01

    In-service science teachers in Thailand are mandated to conduct classroom research, which can be quantitative and qualitative research, to improve teaching and learning. Comparing to quantitative research, qualitative research is a research approach that most of the Thai science teachers are not familiar with. This situation impedes science…

  4. Adolescents' perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of 'Web of Science', 'EBSCO', 'Psychinfo' and 'ERIC' databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. The following keywords were used: 'physical activity' and 'physical education', each one individually associated with 'correlate', 'determinant', 'facilitator', 'barrier', 'factor influen*', and with 'qualitative', 'focus group', 'interview', "narrative'. Out of 3815 studies initially identified, due to inclusion and quality criteria, only 12 were fully reviewed. Studies' outcomes were analyzed through thematic analysis. The majority of these reported research with young adolescent girls. Few studies have considered the socioeconomic status influence. According to young people's perspectives, the main facilitators and hampering factors to their participation in physical activity were the following: attitude toward physical activity; motivation; perceptions of competence and body image; fun; influence of friends, family and physical education teachers and environmental physical activity opportunities. Specific life transition periods were referred only as a barrier to physical activity. Strategies of pedagogical actions and for developing physical activity intervention programs were discussed, in order to effectively promote the adoption of active lifestyles among youth.

  5. Interdisciplinarity, Qualitative Research, and the Complex Phenomenon: Toward an Integrative Approach to Intercultural Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Phillip; Kurtz, Jill Sornsen; Carter, Deanne; Pester, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a collaboration by the lead faculty member in a Masters program in Intercultural Studies and students who completed the program under his aegis. This article presents the program's approach to its research course sequence, an approach involving the integration of interdisciplinary and qualitative research. The authors first provide…

  6. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  7. New Directions in Research: Contemporary Qualitative Research Methodologies and Issues in Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph; Steinkuehler, Constance A.; Black, Rebecca W.; Clinton, Katherine A.; Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Dillon, Deborah R.

    2005-01-01

    Scholars who are drawn to qualitative research methodologies represent a diverse group of disciplines and fields. They also represent themselves as researchers and the theoretical frameworks in which they work quite differently. Indeed, it was this diversity in representation that initially motivated us to propose a New Directions feature on…

  8. Patients’ experiences of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: a qualitative systematic review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mathers, J; Rick, C; Jenkinson, C; Garside, R; Pall, H; Mitchell, R; Bayliss, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review and synthesise qualitative research studies that have explored patients’ experience of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Design Systematic review and meta-synthesis of 7 original papers, using metaethnography. Setting Studies conducted in Denmark, France and Sweden. Participants 116 patients who had undergone DBS and 9 spouses of patients. Results Prior to surgery, the experience of advancing PD is one of considerable loss and a feeling of loss of control. There are significant hopes for what DBS can bring. Following surgery, a sense of euphoria is described by many, although this does not persist and there is a need for significant transitions following this. We suggest that normality as a concept is core to the experience of DBS and that a sense of control may be a key condition for normality. Experience of DBS for patients and spouses, and of the transitions that they must undertake, is influenced by their hopes of what surgery will enable them to achieve, or regain (ie, a new normality). Conclusions There is a need for further qualitative research to understand the nature of these transitions to inform how best patients and their spouses can be supported by healthcare professionals before, during and after DBS. In assessing the outcomes of DBS and other treatments in advanced PD, we should consider how to capture holistic concepts such as normality and control. Studies that examine the outcomes of DBS require longer term follow-up. PMID:27338883

  9. So you want to do research? 3. An introduction to qualitative methods.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Keith A

    2003-10-01

    This article describes some of the key issues in the use of qualitative research methods. Starting with a description of what qualitative research is and outlining some of the distinguishing features between quantitative and qualitative research, examples of the type of setting where qualitative research can be applied are provided. Methods of collecting information through in-depth interviews and group discussions are discussed in some detail, including issues around sampling and recruitment, the use of topic guides and techniques to encourage participants to talk openly. An overview on the analysis of qualitative data discusses aspects on data reduction, display and drawing conclusions from the data. Approaches to ensuring rigour in the collection, analysis and reporting of qualitative research are discussed and the concepts of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability are described. Finally, guidelines for the reporting of qualitative research are outlined and the need to write for a particular audience is discussed.

  10. Living with chronic low back pain: a metasynthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Snelgrove, Sherrill; Liossi, Christina

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this qualitative metasynthesis is to articulate the knowledge gained from a review of qualitative studies of patients' experiences of chronic low back pain. METHODS Meta-ethnographic methodology guided the review of 33 articles representing 28 studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2012. A systematic comparison of the main themes from each study was conducted and 'synthesised' to create superordinate themes. RESULTS Three overarching interrelated themes were identified: the impact of chronic low back pain on self; relationships with significant others that incorporated two streams - health professionals and the organisation of care and relationships with family and friends; coping with chronic low back pain. Coping strategies were predominantly physical therapies, medication and avoidance behaviours with very few successful strategies reported. Professional and family support, self-efficacy, motivation, work conditions and exercise opportunities influenced pain experiences. Review authors' recommendations included psychological therapies, education, the facilitation of self-management strategies and support groups. DISCUSSION The review substantiates chronic low back pain as complex, dynamic and multidimensional, underpinned by experiences of persistent distressing pain, loss, and lowered self-worth, stigma, depression, premature aging, fear of the future. Future research should address the paucity of longitudinal studies, loss and issues of ethnicity, gender, ageing.

  11. Executive function and suicidality: a systematic qualitative review

    PubMed Central

    Bredemeier, Keith; Miller, Ivan W.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in executive function (EF) have been proposed as a possible explanation for the “cognitive rigidity” often observed in suicidal individuals. This article provides a systematic review of the existing literature testing relations between EF and suicidality, across various diagnostic and demographic populations, using the influential multidimensional model of EF proposed by Miyake and colleagues (2000) as an organizing framework. Forty-three journal articles on this topic published before January of 2014 were reviewed. Collectively, results from these studies provide tentative support for an association between EF deficits and suicidality. However, there is some evidence that this association is moderated other factors (e.g., suicide attempt lethality). Importantly, this relationship may vary across diagnostic groups. Specifically, more studies that used depressive disorder samples reported some positive findings (75%), followed by mixed diagnostic samples (54%). In contrast, fewer positive findings have emerged from studies with bipolar or psychotic disorder samples (29% and 33% respectively), and some even found that suicidality is associated with better EF in individuals with psychotic disorders. Firm conclusions about relationships between specific dimensions of EF and/or aspects of suicidality are difficult to draw this time. Limitations of the existing literature and corresponding directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26135816

  12. Ethnography in qualitative educational research: AMEE Guide No. 80.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Scott; Peller, Jennifer; Goldman, Joanne; Kitto, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that gathers observations, interviews and documentary data to produce detailed and comprehensive accounts of different social phenomena. The use of ethnographic research in medical education has produced a number of insightful accounts into its role, functions and difficulties in the preparation of medical students for clinical practice. This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to ethnography - its history, its differing forms, its role in medical education and its practical application. Specifically, the Guide initially outlines the main characteristics of ethnography: describing its origins, outlining its varying forms and discussing its use of theory. It also explores the role, contribution and limitations of ethnographic work undertaken in a medical education context. In addition, the Guide goes on to offer a range of ideas, methods, tools and techniques needed to undertake an ethnographic study. In doing so it discusses its conceptual, methodological, ethical and practice challenges (e.g. demands of recording the complexity of social action, the unpredictability of data collection activities). Finally, the Guide provides a series of final thoughts and ideas for future engagement with ethnography in medical education. This Guide is aimed for those interested in understanding ethnography to develop their evaluative skills when reading such work. It is also aimed at those interested in considering the use of ethnographic methods in their own research work.

  13. Visual images for skin cancer prevention: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2012-06-01

    Visual images play an important role in educating the public about skin cancer prevention. The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) determine how visual images are evaluated in skin cancer and tanning qualitative research studies (including theoretical and methodological approaches) and 2) summarize and discuss the image-related findings of the studies with respect to cancer education and public health. Seven databases were searched (PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) using multiple search terms, including MeSH terms, resulting in 5330 citations. Studies were included if they were in English, peer-reviewed, qualitative in design or methodology, dealt with skin cancer or UV exposure, used visual images, and had a focus on the public or patients (i.e., not medical professionals). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: seven content analyses and one focus group study. Content analysis studies in this review suggest the mass media portray Caucasian men and women as unprotected from the sun and with tanned skin, and thus, may inform behaviors related to skin cancer risk. The focus group study suggests visible minorities may benefit from the incorporation of images of melanoma on ethnic skin in cancer education materials. None of the studies used visual communication theory to explicitly guide the research, nor were standardized tools used for image assessment. The lack of guiding theory and standardized assessment instruments can introduce bias in how images are selected and used in research on skin cancer education.

  14. Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…

  15. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lambrinos, Anna; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. Methods The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Results Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate

  16. Older persons' experiences and perspectives of receiving social care: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    de São José, José; Barros, Rosanna; Samitca, Sanda; Teixeira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The topic of social care for older people has gained increasing attention from the part of academics, professionals, policy makers and media. However, we know little about this topic from the perspectives of older persons, which hinders future developments in terms of theory, empirical research, professional practice and social policy. This article presents and discusses a systematic review of relevant qualitative research-based evidence on the older persons' experiences and perspectives of receiving social care published between 1990 and September 2014. This review aimed to obtain answers to the following questions: How is the reception of social care experienced by the older persons? What are the negative and positive aspects of these experiences? What are the factors which influence the experiences? The synthesis of the findings of reviewed papers identified six analytical themes: asking for care as a major challenge; ambivalences; (dis)engagement in decisions concerning care; multiple losses as outcomes of receiving social care; multiple strategies to deal with losses originated by the ageing process; and properties of 'good care'. These themes are discussed from the point of view of their implications for theory, care practice and social policy, and future research.

  17. A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

  18. Study design in qualitative research--2: Sampling and data collection strategies.

    PubMed

    Devers, K J; Frankel, R M

    2000-01-01

    In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results.

  19. Articulating the strategies for maximising the inclusion of people with dementia in qualitative research studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathy; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna

    2015-11-01

    It is essential to understand the experience of living with dementia from the perspective of the person with dementia so that services can be appropriately constructed. This review paper, drawing on prior work, identifies key strategies for the meaningful inclusion of persons with dementia within qualitative research studies, it examines the articulation of these strategies and shares how these strategies were operationalised within one national research study in Ireland. Strategies within the literature were categorised and then synthesized into a guide consisting of four main areas; gaining COnsent, maximizing Responses, Telling the story, and Ending on a high (CORTE). The CORTE guideline was used to as a tool for analysing relevant research reports. CORTE is a synthesized account of grouped strategies that could be used to maximize the meaningful involvement of persons with dementia and can also provide a guide for reporting the strategies used so that researchers can learn from each other.

  20. End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background End of life (EoL) care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further research. It seeks to identify areas of existing research; describe findings specifically relevant to the African context; and, identify areas lacking evidence. Methods Relevant literature was identified through eight electronic databases: AMED, British Nursing Index & Archive, CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Sciences Citation Index; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies in sub-Saharan Africa, about EoL care. Study quality was assessed using a standard grading scale. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format. Results Of the 407 articles initially identified, 51 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Nineteen came from South Africa and the majority (38) focused on HIV/AIDS. Nine dealt with multiple or unspecified conditions and four were about cancer. Study respondents included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and bereaved relatives. Informal carers were typically women, the elderly and children, providing total care in the home, and lacking support from professionals or the extended family. Twenty studies focused on home-based care, describing how programmes function in practice and what is needed to make them effective. Patients and carers were reported to prefer institutional care but this needs to be understood in context. Studies focusing on culture discussed good and bad death, culture-specific approaches to symptoms and

  1. Perceptions and Experiences with Flavored Non-Menthol Tobacco Products: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Osman, Amira; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-03-23

    Although a few countries have banned flavored cigarettes (except menthol), flavors in most tobacco products remain unregulated across the globe. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies examining perceptions of and experiences with flavored non-menthol tobacco products. Of 20 studies on flavored tobacco products included in our qualitative systematic review, 10 examined hookah, six examined e-cigarettes, two examined little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), and three examined other tobacco products, including cigarettes. The majority of studies, regardless of product type, reported positive perceptions of flavored tobacco products, particularly among young adults and adolescents. In six studies that assessed perceptions of harm (including hookah, LCCs, and other flavored tobacco products), participants believed flavored tobacco products to be less harmful than cigarettes. In studies that examined the role of flavors in experimentation and/or initiation (including three studies on e-cigarettes, one hookah study and one LCC study), participants mentioned flavors as specifically leading to their experimentation and/or initiation of flavored tobacco products. Given that many countries have not yet banned flavors in tobacco products, these findings add to existing research on why individuals use flavored tobacco products and how they perceive harm in flavored tobacco products, providing further support for banning non-menthol flavors in most tobacco products.

  2. Qualitative Research in Language Teaching and Learning Journals, 1997-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil; Chik, Alice; Gao, Xuesong; Huang, Jing; Wang, Wenfeng

    2009-01-01

    In the light of widespread discussion of qualitative approaches to language teaching and learning research in recent years, this article reports on a survey of qualitative data-based articles published in 10 major journals between 1997 and 2006. The survey revealed that 477 qualitative articles (22% of the total number published) had appeared in…

  3. A Study Combining Criticism and Qualitative Research Techniques for Appraising Classroom Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, James D.

    Qualitative criticism is a method of understanding things, actions, and events within a social framework. It is a method of acquiring knowledge to guide decision making based on local knowledge and a synthesis of principles from criticism and qualitative research. The function of qualitative criticism is centered with Richard Rorty's theoretical…

  4. Teaching Qualitative Research: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitative methods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitative methods course…

  5. Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions. PMID:22953194

  6. Researching Up: Triangulating Qualitative Research to Influence the Public Debate of "On-Time" College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Tim; Schnee, Emily; VanOra, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: The field of higher education abounds with qualitative research aimed at highlighting the needs, struggles, strengths, and motivations of academically struggling students. However, because of the small-scale nature of these studies, they rarely enter the public debate or impact institutional policy concerning access, remediation,…

  7. Research on USMC Marksmanship Training Assessment Tools, Instructional Simulations, and Qualitative Field-Based Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-10

    delivery of remedial training through the instructional simulations. ONR is also funding CHI Systems, Inc. to conduct field-based qualitative ... research on Navy and Marine Corps DL implementations to develop practical guidelines and procedures to support effective DL employment in the Navy and Marine Corps.

  8. Barriers and enablers in primary care clinicians' management of osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Buchbinder, R; Bennell, K; Slade, S C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and disabling condition. Primary care management of osteoarthritis is generally suboptimal despite evidence for several modestly effective interventions and the availability of high-quality clinical practice guidelines. This report describes a planned study to synthesise the views of primary care clinicians on the barriers and enablers to following recommended management of osteoarthritis, with the aim of providing new interpretations that may facilitate the uptake of recommended treatments, and in turn improve patient care. Methods and analysis A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. 5 databases will be searched using key search terms for qualitative research, evidence-based practice, clinical practice guidelines, osteoarthritis, beliefs, perceptions, barriers, enablers and adherence. A priori inclusion/exclusion criteria include availability of data from primary care clinicians, reports on views regarding management of osteoarthritis, and studies using qualitative methods for both data collection and analysis. At least 2 independent reviewers will identify eligible reports, conduct a critical appraisal of study conduct, extract data and synthesise reported findings and interpretations. Synthesis will follow thematic analysis within a grounded theory framework of inductive coding and iterative theme identification. The reviewers plus co-authors will contribute to the meta-synthesis to find new themes and theories. The Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual) approach will be used to determine a confidence profile of each finding from the meta-synthesis. The protocol has been registered on PROSPERO and is reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The results

  9. Troubling 'lived experience': a post-structural critique of mental health nursing qualitative research assumptions.

    PubMed

    Grant, A

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative studies in mental health nursing research deploying the 'lived experience' construct are often written on the basis of conventional qualitative inquiry assumptions. These include the presentation of the 'authentic voice' of research participants, related to their 'lived experience' and underpinned by a meta-assumption of the 'metaphysics of presence'. This set of assumptions is critiqued on the basis of contemporary post-structural qualitative scholarship. Implications for mental health nursing qualitative research emerging from this critique are described in relation to illustrative published work, and some benefits and challenges for researchers embracing post-structural sensibilities are outlined.

  10. Qualitative Research in Education: The Origins, Debates, and Politics of Creating Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview and discussion of qualitative research in education by analyzing the roles of researchers, the history of the field, its use in policymaking, and its future influence on educational reform. The article begins by describing the unique position that qualitative educational researchers have in higher education, as…

  11. Talk to me, please!: The importance of qualitative research to games for health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial provides an overview of the ways in which qualitative research can guide games for health research and its potential contributions. It also provides guidelines for conducting qualitative research, such as using open ended, non-leading questions and digitally recording the sessions....

  12. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  13. Internalized Homonegativity: A Systematic Mapping Review of Empirical Research

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Rigmor C.; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Internalized homonegativity (IH) is an important variable affecting the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. We included 201 studies in a systematic mapping review of IH. Most studies were conducted in North America and examined IH as a predictor of poor health. The primary focus of 14 studies was IH scale measurement, and, in total, these studies detailed nine distinct scales. Eighteen studies compared levels of IH in LGB populations, four described prevention programs, and one investigated IH using qualitative methods. Our review indicates that further research is needed, particularly qualitative research and ways to ameliorate IH. PMID:26436322

  14. What Value Can Qualitative Research Add to Quantitative Research Design? An Example From an Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Toye, Francine; Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-08-09

    Using an example of qualitative research embedded in a non-surgical feasibility trial, we explore the benefits of including qualitative research in trial design and reflect on epistemological challenges. We interviewed 18 trial participants and used methods of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Our findings demonstrate that qualitative research can make a valuable contribution by allowing trial stakeholders to see things from alternative perspectives. Specifically, it can help to make specific recommendations for improved trial design, generate questions which contextualize findings, and also explore disease experience beyond the trial. To make the most out of qualitative research embedded in quantitative design it would be useful to (a) agree specific qualitative study aims that underpin research design, (b) understand the impact of differences in epistemological truth claims, (c) provide clear thematic interpretations for trial researchers to utilize, and (d) include qualitative findings that explore experience beyond the trial setting within the impact plan.

  15. Understanding the relationships between the physical environment and physical activity in older adults: a systematic review of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While physical activity (PA) provides many physical, social, and mental health benefits for older adults, they are the least physically active age group. Ecological models highlight the importance of the physical environment in promoting PA. However, results of previous quantitative research revealed inconsistencies in environmental correlates of older adults’ PA that may be explained by methodological issues. Qualitative studies can inform and complement quantitative research on environment-PA relationships by providing insight into how and why the environment influences participants’ PA behaviors. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review of qualitative studies exploring the potential impact of the physical environment on older adults’ PA behaviors. Methods A systematic search was conducted in databases of various disciplines, including: health, architecture and urban planning, transportation, and interdisciplinary databases. From 3,047 articles identified in the physical activity, initial search, 31 articles published from 1996 to 2012 met all inclusion criteria. An inductive content analysis was performed on the extracted findings to identify emerging environmental elements related to older adults’ PA. The identified environmental elements were then grouped by study methodologies [indoor interviews (individual or focus groups) vs spatial methods (photo-voice, observations, walk-along interviews)]. Results This review provides detailed information about environmental factors that potentially influence older adults’ PA behaviors. These factors were categorized into five themes: pedestrian infrastructure, safety, access to amenities, aesthetics, and environmental conditions. Environmental factors especially relevant to older adults (i.e., access to facilities, green open spaces and rest areas) tended to emerge more frequently in studies that combined interviews with spatial qualitative methods. Conclusions Findings showed that

  16. Research productivity in Syria: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of current status

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Maria M.; Taftaf, Rokana M. O.; Arabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: Scientific research output measured by the number and quality of publications reflects the research productivity of a certain community. Aims: To examine the quantity and quality of research produced by Syrian institutions with particular emphasis on the clinical and biomedical research. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational analysis of research originating from Syrian institutions indexed by Medline and Science Citation Index (SciVerse) Scopus bibliographic databases. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Medline and SciVerse was conducted including data from Jan 01, 1980 till February 2011 searching for authors affiliated with Syrian institutions. Clinical and biomedical research data were further analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The total of manuscripts indexed by SciVerse originating from Syrian institutions during the last 3 decades is 3540. A total of 458 publications cover clinical and biomedical subject areas. The quality of these 458 publications was evaluated by the citation frequency and impact factor of publishing journals with h-index of 24. Conclusions: Although the spectrum of research originating from Syrian institutions is broad, the overall number of publications particularly in clinical and biomedical subjects is minuscule and of limited quality. The presented data indicate the need to promote research capabilities and to bridge the gap in research productivity by Syrian institutions. PMID:23210002

  17. The Social Costs of Child Poverty: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attree, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic review of qualitative studies of children living in material disadvantage, which compares and confirms experiences across a pool of studies that meet predetermined quality criteria. The review found that, according to children's narratives, the costs of poverty are not only material but also profoundly social. The…

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  19. The Basic Research Review Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Lynn; O'Conner, Mary; Shinkle, Susann; Thomas, Melissa K.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a checklist to help clinical nurses critique research in order to use findings in practice. Categories include purpose of study, statement of problem, literature review, methodology, results and conclusions, and overall concerns (objectivity, ethics, readability). (SK)

  20. ETV Programmes: Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Sohanvir; Panda, Santosh

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on educational television (ETV), focusing on teacher and student attitudes; impact on children and teachers and in-service education in media; and utilization. Also reviews a few studies on the impact and utilization of educational radio broadcasts. Draws broad conclusions about the use, design, and learning process of ETV. (PEN)

  1. Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

  2. Navigating the Complexity of Qualitative Research in Postmodern Contexts: Assemblage, Critical Reflexivity, and Communion as Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    For graduate students and other emerging qualitative researchers, the ever-evolving and sometimes conflicting perspectives, methodologies, and practices within various post-positivist frameworks (e.g. feminist, critical, Indigenous, participatory) can be overwhelming. Qualitative researchers working within postmodern contexts of multiplicity and…

  3. Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

  4. Writing Interview Protocols and Conducting Interviews: Tips for Students New to the Field of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…

  5. Constituting the Field: An Essay on Harry Torrance's "Qualitative Research Methods in Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…

  6. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  7. Opening the Black Box and Searching for Smoking Guns: Process Causality in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; McWhorter, Rochell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of qualitative research in causality, with particular emphasis on process causality. In one paper, it is not possible to discuss all the issues of causality, but the aim is to provide useful ways of thinking about causality and qualitative research. Specifically, a brief overview of the…

  8. The Contribution of Qualitative Research Towards the Issues Affecting Female Undergraduate Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Louise Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of qualitative research methods towards our understanding of the issues affecting female undergraduate engineers. As outlined in this article female engineering students face many challenges during their undergraduate studies. Qualitative research methods provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  9. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  10. Women's Experiences of Inaccurate Breast Cancer Screening Results: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    DeJean, Deirdre; Krahn, Henry; Giacomini, Mita

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunct screening with ultrasound has the potential to detect breast cancers that may not be visible on screening mammography. The use of adjunct ultrasonography is thought to be a safe and inexpensive approach to improving the sensitivity of screening with mammography alone, but potentially at the expense of increasing the rate of false-positive findings. The objective of this review was to examine women's experiences of inaccurate breast cancer screening results and how they affect perceptions of breast cancer screening technologies. Methods This report synthesizes 16 primary qualitative studies, which together involved 690 participating women, to examine women's experiences of inaccurate breast cancer screening results. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results The experience of a false-positive result caused short-term anxiety until the negative result was confirmed. It also led to reoccurring anxiety during future screening. The anxiety experienced in the face of a false-positive result was magnified in high-risk women, who often reflected on the previous breast cancer experiences of family members while awaiting further results. Despite this increased anxiety, women who had experienced a false-positive result were generally not deterred from future screening. Rather, the experiences heightened their awareness of breast cancer and led to a desire for more examinations and more technologies. Women who had experienced false-negative results struggled to restore trust in screening but recognized that some breast cancers were identified through mammography. They were willing to see themselves as exceptions to an otherwise beneficial service. Conclusions Qualitative studies provide some insight into how breast cancer screening inaccuracy affects women, including their faith in the screening technology. Although women suffered marked anxiety from experiencing false-positive mammography tests and

  11. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers.

  12. Learning effects of thematic peer-review: a qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2009-05-01

    This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984. Experiential learning, Experience as the source of learning development. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hill). It was part of an educational programme on spiritual care in nursing for third-year undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in the Netherlands. Reflective journals (n=203) kept by students throughout the peer-review process were analysed qualitatively The analysis shows that students reflect on spirituality in the context of personal experiences in nursing practice. In addition, they discuss the nursing process and organizational aspects of spiritual care. The results show that the first two phases in the experiential learning cycle appear prominently; these are 'inclusion of actual experience' and 'reflecting on this experience'. The phases of 'abstraction of experience' and 'experimenting with new behaviour' are less evident. We will discuss possible explanations for these findings according to factors related to education, the students and the tutors and make recommendations for follow-up research.

  13. Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 2: introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods.

    PubMed

    Petty, Nicola J; Thomson, Oliver P; Stew, Graham

    2012-10-01

    This paper explores a number of commonly used methodologies and methods in qualitative research, namely grounded theory, case study, phenomenology, ethnography and narrative research. For each methodology a brief history of its development and variants is given, followed by typical methods of data collection and analysis. Examples of manual therapy qualitative research studies are highlighted for each methodology. Data collection methods are then discussed and include individual interviews, focus groups, observation and documentary analysis. A frequently used method of data analysis, thematic analysis, is briefly explained. Finally, the strategies to enhance the quality of qualitative research is explored and compared to those of quantitative research.

  14. The Journal Project and the I in Qualitative Research: Three Theoretical Lenses on Subjectivity and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Judith

    2012-01-01

    From the beginnings of qualitative research in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self? Who…

  15. A Manual Retrieval System Using Computer Punch Cards for Qualitative Historical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed examples illustrate one of the possible applications for using the computer punch card for information retrieval in qualitative historical research, suggesting a time-saving method of organization for research data. (SM)

  16. Using care ethics to enhance qualitative research on rural aging and care.

    PubMed

    Herron, Rachel V; Skinner, Mark W

    2013-12-01

    Qualitative research offers important insights into the subjectivity, complexity, and relationality of care. In this article, we examine the particular processes and relationships involved in doing qualitative research about care with older people in rural places. We draw on our experience completing two related qualitative studies of rural care in Canada to extend discussions about responsible research practice in relation to participant recruitment, interviews, and focus groups. By applying Hankivsky's principles of care ethics in our reflection on research practices, we make explicit the role of emotions in connecting with research participants, collecting and participating in narrative-based research, and negotiating identity. We conclude with a discussion of the distinct ways in which applying care ethics throughout the research process can augment reflexive practice and enhance the integrity and theoretical contributions of qualitative health research while developing more inclusive understandings of vulnerability in older rural populations.

  17. Research Review, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Simulation Branch (GMSB) of the Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) is engaged in general circulation modeling studies related to global atmospheric and oceanographic research. The research activities discussed are organized into two disciplines: Global Weather/Observing Systems and Climate/Ocean-Air Interactions. The Global Weather activities are grouped in four areas: (1) Analysis and Forecast Studies, (2) Satellite Observing Systems, (3) Analysis and Model Development, (4) Atmospheric Dynamics and Diagnostic Studies. The GLAS Analysis/Forecast/Retrieval System was applied to both FGGE and post FGGE periods. The resulting analyses have already been used in a large number of theoretical studies of atmospheric dynamics, forecast impact studies and development of new or improved algorithms for the utilization of satellite data. Ocean studies have focused on the analysis of long-term global sea surface temperature data, for use in the study of the response of the atmosphere to sea surface temperature anomalies. Climate research has concentrated on the simulation of global cloudiness, and on the sensitivities of the climate to sea surface temperature and ground wetness anomalies.

  18. ETheory's Spell-On Qualitative Inquiry and Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Challenges theory's secure place in qualitative inquiry on three counts. Argues (1) the search for theory in such inquiry originates in a crypto-functionalism; (2) theory's supposed importance for policy formulation cannot in itself justify it; and (3) arguments about its successful use are belied by examining discussion about theory in those…

  19. Visual Juxtaposition as Qualitative Inquiry in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2015-01-01

    Visual juxtaposition is inquiry through contrast, facilitated by side-by-side positioning of two images, or images and text. When combined with a theoretical foundation that explores interactions between the material and discursive elements of visual data, juxtaposition creates opportunities for qualitative analysis that are not as readily…

  20. Why Underage College Students Drink in Excess: Qualitative Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Virginia; Glassman, Tavis; Arthur, Ashley; Webb, Monica; Miller, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Excessive alcohol consumption by underage students is a serious and persistent problem facing most U.S. colleges and universities. Purpose: This qualitative study explores why underage students engage in high-risk drinking and examines motivational cues that may serve as behavioral deterrents. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with…

  1. Evaluation of Item Candidates: The PROMIS Qualitative Item Review

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Rothrock, Nan; Yount, Susan; Stone, Arthur A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) network's primary goals is the development of a comprehensive item bank for patient-reported outcomes of chronic diseases. For its first set of item banks, PROMIS chose to focus on pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, and social function. An essential step for the development of an item pool is the identification, evaluation, and revision of extant questionnaire items for the core item pool. In this work, we also describe the systematic process wherein items are classified for subsequent statistical processing by the PROMIS investigators. Six phases of item development are documented: identification of extant items, item classification and selection, item review and revision, focus group input on domain coverage, cognitive interviews with individual items, and final revision before field testing. Identification of items refers to the systematic search for existing items in currently available scales. Expert item review and revision was conducted by trained professionals who reviewed the wording of each item and revised as appropriate for conventions adopted by the PROMIS network. Focus groups were used to confirm domain definitions and to identify new areas of item development for future PROMIS item banks. Cognitive interviews were used to examine individual items. Items successfully screened through this process were sent to field testing and will be subjected to innovative scale construction procedures. PMID:17443114

  2. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  3. Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed

  4. Online Education and Its Effective Practice: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Anna; Chen, Xiufang

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative content analysis approach, this study reviewed 47 published studies and research on online teaching and learning since 2008, primarily focusing on how theories, practices and assessments apply to the online learning environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide practical suggestions for those who are planning to develop…

  5. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  6. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.

  7. The impact of qualitative research on gynaecologic oncology guidelines.

    PubMed

    How, Jeffrey Andrew; Abitbol, Jeremie; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter Henri; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-02-01

    Objectif : Les soins offerts aux patientes atteintes d’un cancer comptent une importante composante psychosociale, laquelle a été explorée de façon scientifique par l’intermédiaire de la recherche qualitative. Notre étude avait pour objectif d’évaluer la disponibilité de la recherche qualitative en gynéco-oncologie et d’en mesurer l’intégration aux directives cliniques relevant du domaine de la gynéco-oncologie. Méthodes : Nous avons mené des recherches dans diverses bases de données (Medline, CINHAL, Scopus et Web of Science) en vue de cerner la disponibilité de la recherche qualitative menée au cours des 20 dernières années au sujet des trois cancers gynécologiques les plus prévalents : les cancers de l’endomètre, de l’ovaire et du col utérin. Des directives cliniques nationales et internationales portant sur la prise en charge des cancers gynécologiques ont été sélectionnées au moyen du site Web National Guideline Clearinghouse, du site Web de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada, et du répertoire Standards and Guidelines Evidence de lignes directrices sur le cancer. Une analyse bibliométrique a été utilisée pour déterminer la fréquence des références qualitatives citées dans les directives cliniques en question. Résultats : Nous avons identifié 113 mémoires de recherche qualitative portant sur des cancers gynécologiques qui se centraient sur les effets psychologiques, sur la dynamique sociale et sur les interactions médecin-patiente dans le cadre du traitement anticancéreux et de la récupération. Au sein des 15 directives cliniques nationales et internationales portant sur la prise en charge des cancers gynécologiques que nous avons identifiées, nous avons dénombré un total de 2 272 références; parmi ces dernières, seules trois références citant une recherche qualitative ont été identifiées (0,1 %), et ce, au sein d’une seule directive clinique parmi les 15

  8. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    PubMed

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  9. "Slow food" post-qualitative research in psychology: old craft skills in new disguise?

    PubMed

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term "qualitative methods" researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons' unique experience. In light of the risk of "McDonaldization" in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to 'move on' in a material world and in irreversible time.

  10. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Among US Hispanics/Latinas: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Lilli; Foley, Kristie L.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic/Latina women experience the highest cervical cancer incidence rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States (US), and tend to present with more severe cases and experience higher mortality compared to most other populations. The goal of this qualitative systematic review was to explore existing interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among US Hispanics/Latinas and to identify characteristics of effective interventions and research gaps. Materials and Methods Six online databases were searched from their inception through June 30, 2013, using designated search terms and keywords. Peer-reviewed articles that documented an intervention designed to improve screening for cervical cancer among Hispanics/Latinas ages 18 years and older living in the US were reviewed. Data were abstracted using a standardized form to document intervention characteristics and results. Results Forty-five articles, describing 32 unique interventions, met inclusion criteria. Identified interventions consisted primarily of educational programs and/or provision of screening. Interventions used lay health advisors (LHAs), clinic-based outreach/delivery strategies, partnerships with churches, and mass media campaigns. Twelve interventions resulted in significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates. Conclusions Interventions developed utilizing theory, applying community-based participatory research approaches, and using lay health advisors were identified as having the greatest potential for improving cervical cancer screening among Hispanics/Latinas. There continues to be a need for the development of interventions in geographic areas with new and emerging Hispanic/Latino populations and that are comprehensive, follow participants for longer periods of time, and broaden the roles and build the capacities of LHAs. PMID:25154515

  11. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  12. Teachers as Researchers of New Literacies: Reflections on Qualitative Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kew, Bryan; Given, Kim; Brass, Jory

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a beginning teacher, experienced teacher, and teacher educator reflect upon their experiences with qualitative self-studies of language and literacy in teacher education courses. The goal of these course projects was to introduce teachers to sociocultural theories, qualitative research, and "new" literacies. Sharing…

  13. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…

  14. Exploring Culture from a Distance: The Utility of Telephone Interviews in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitative research literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…

  15. Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

    2012-01-01

    A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

  16. Blackbirds Singing in the Dead of Night?: Advancing the Craft of Teaching Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Margaret; Rowe, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that the craft knowledge of skilled teachers must be shared to help nursing students become competent, committed qualitative researchers. Strategies to develop a qualitative eye, deal with challenges such as ethical conduct, inform approaches to fieldwork, and extend capacity and confidence to interpret data, play with ideas, analyze…

  17. The Case for Fiction as Qualitative Research: Towards a Non-Referential Ground for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mus, Stijn

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the crisis of representation, the qualitative approaches have gained momentum within the social sciences. This crisis has lead to a widespread awareness about the need to incorporate the subject's understanding in the research design. Yet, the validity of qualitative accounts is still regarded as a function of its representative…

  18. Qualitative Research on Text Comprehension and the Report of the National Reading Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almasi, Janice F.; Garas-York, Keli; Shanahan, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how the report of the National Reading Panel (NRP) in 2000 might have differed if qualitative research had been included in their examination of text comprehension instruction. Electronic and hand searches yielded 12 qualitative studies meeting criteria for inclusion in the study. Each of the studies was read and coded to…

  19. Application of Haddon’s matrix in qualitative research methodology: an experience in burns epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deljavan, Reza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Fouladi, Nasrin; Arshi, Shahnam; Mohammadi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix) through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries. Methods This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase. Results The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education), pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators). This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans. Conclusion Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries that may possibly be useful for prevention or future quantitative research. PMID:22866013

  20. Utility of qualitative research findings in evidence-based public health practice.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data, derived from quantitative studies, provide important information about the causes, prevalence, risk correlates, treatment and prevention of diseases, and health issues at a population level. However, public health issues are complex in nature and quantitative research findings are insufficient to support practitioners and administrators in making evidence-informed decisions. Upshur's Synthetic Model of Evidence (2001) situates qualitative research findings as a credible source of evidence for public health practice. This article answers the following questions: (1) where does qualitative research fit within the paradigm of evidence-based practice and (2) how can qualitative research be used by public health professionals? Strategies for using qualitative research findings instrumentally, conceptually, and symbolically are identified by applying Estabrooks' (1999) conceptual structure of research utilization. Different research utilization strategies are illustrated through the use of research examples from the field of work on intimate partner violence against women. Recommendations for qualitative researchers disseminating findings and for public health practitioners/policy makers considering the use of qualitative findings as evidence to inform decisions are provided.

  1. How theory is used and articulated in qualitative research: development of a new typology.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Herber, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    There is a long tradition within qualitative research of theory being central and of critical importance. Qualitative research theory often equates with the methodologies used but this is a complex relationship, plagued by lack of consensus among scholars regarding how theory and methodology are related. This article furthers the debates on how theories are used in qualitative research, how they might influence a study and how they are articulated in publications. The aim is to provide a framework through which the relationship between theory and qualitative research can be understood. We propose a five-point typology on the levels of theoretical visibility, testing this against a range of published research from five key international health, medicine and social science journals. The typology captures a range of visibility--from seemingly absent through to highly visible and applied throughout. There was a clear gradient in this assessment--only a minority appeared to use theory consistently throughout a study. We outline several challenges to consistently applying theory in qualitative research and suggest potential solutions. This article is based on the argument that lack of theory in qualitative research undermines its quality. The typology is offered to assist researchers in applying theory in their own research and critiquing its use in the work of others.

  2. Blackbirds singing in the dead of night?: Advancing the craft of teaching qualitative research.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Rowe, Jennifer

    2003-07-01

    Qualitative research education, which is overly concerned with teaching content, can reduce knowledge to the technical-rational domain, and in this process, opportunities for students to be inspired and passionately engaged with the art of qualitative research are lost. Although students may acquire the characteristics of qualitative researchers by observing role models, there is much skilled teachers can do to teach students not only how to conduct research, but also how to be committed qualitative researchers. The craft knowledge of skilled teachers in facilitating these understandings, techniques, and attributes in students must be shared and discussed in meaningful ways to advance quality education and, in turn, quality nursing research. If unshared, teachers' knowledge may go unheard, and they may be left isolated, like blackbirds singing in the dead of night. In this article, the skills of "doing and being" in qualitative research are emphasized by sharing strategies the authors have used in research education. The aim is to discuss creative aspects of teaching practice that are helpful in understanding and advancing rigorous qualitative research.

  3. [Teaching and learning the science of qualitative research in the health area].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Qualitative research constitutes a necessary perspective of knowledge within the field of health services. Healthcare always occurs in complex contexts and its enhancement requires research methodologies that address this complexity. Nevertheless, the knowledge and use of qualitative research in health services is still very limited. Among the different factors that affect its development, the teaching and learning of qualitative research proves to be fundamental, even beyond undergraduate education. Healthcare professionals and health services present certain specific aspects that must be considered in the design and development of the teaching and learning of qualitative research. Based on an eight-year online training experience with Primary Healthcare professionals, the main challenges are indentified and discussed.

  4. Qualitative Research in the CJA/RCV: An 18-Year Analysis (1995-2012).

    PubMed

    Humble, Áine M; Green, Maureen

    2016-03-01

    Some researchers have suggested that qualitative research is increasing in the gerontology field, but little systematic analysis has tested this assertion. Using the Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement as a case study, we analysed articles reporting on original research from 1995 to 2012. One in four articles were qualitative, and results in three-year intervals show a clear increase in qualitative research findings during this 18-year time frame: (a) 1995-1997: 10 per cent; (b) 1998-2000: 19 per cent; (c) 2001-2003: 25 per cent; (d) 2004-2006: 25 per cent; (e) 2007-2009: 29 per cent; and (f) 2010-2012: 43 per cent. In all time intervals (with the exception of 2004-2006), French language articles were more likely to use a qualitative research design compared to English language articles. Topics, methodologies, and data collection strategies are also discussed.

  5. Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1) Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2) Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3) Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4) Lower prestige; 5) Poor remuneration; 6) Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7) Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students find family medicine

  6. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM.

  7. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research

    PubMed Central

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of ‘governmentality’, and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

  8. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research.

  9. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  10. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    PubMed

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  11. A qualitative review for wireless health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Atika; Fadzil Ismail, Ahmad; Khan, Sheroz; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Tasnim, Rumana; Samnan Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Shahid, Zeeshan

    2013-12-01

    A proliferating interest has been being observed over the past years in accurate wireless system development in order to monitor incessant human activities in health care centres. Furthermore because of the swelling number of elderly population and the inadequate number of competent staffs for nursing homes there is a big market petition for health care monitoring system. In order to detect human researchers developed different methods namely which include Field Identification technique, Visual Sensor Network, radar detection, e-mobile techniques and so on. An all-encompassing overview of the non-wired human detection application advancement is presented in this paper. Inductive links are used for human detection application while wiring an electronic system has become impractical in recent times. Keeping in mind the shortcomings, an Inductive Intelligent Sensor (IIS) has been proposed as a novel human monitoring system for future implementation. The proposed sensor works towards exploring the signature signals of human body movement and size. This proposed sensor is fundamentally based on inductive loop that senses the presence and a passing human resulting an inductive change.

  12. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  13. HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenc, Theo; Marrero-Guillamon, Isaac; Llewellyn, Alexis; Aggleton, Peter; Cooper, Chris; Lehmann, Angela; Lindsay, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence relating to the views and attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) concerning testing for HIV. Studies conducted in high-income countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members) since 1996 were included. Seventeen studies were identified, most of gay or bisexual…

  14. Perspectives of Students with Disabilities toward Physical Education: A Qualitative Inquiry Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Sutherland, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review published qualitative inquiries that examine the perspective of students with disabilities toward experiences in physical education. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from electronic databases published from 1995 to 2014. Thirteen articles met all inclusion criteria, and findings were…

  15. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  16. Stroke patients' and informal carers' experiences with life after stroke: an overview of qualitative systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Lou, Stina; Carstensen, Kathrine; Jørgensen, Carina Rumpelthiin; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To provide a systematic overview of current qualitative systematic reviews and metasyntheses of patients' and informal carers' experiences with rehabilitation and life after stroke following discharge. Method A systematic literature search was performed based on PRISMA guidelines. Nine databases were systematically searched by a university librarian. The search yielded 1093 unique entries and screening by title/abstract identified 60 reviews for potential inclusion. After full-text assessment by two independent observers, 11 reviews satisfied the inclusion criteria. Following quality appraisal, four studies were excluded. Results Seven qualitative reviews (containing 108 primary studies) were included: five reviews of patients' experiences and two reviews of carers' experiences. Stroke causes profound disruption of life as known, and both patients and carers must engage in a process of adapting and rebuilding a post-stroke life and identity. This process of rehabilitation is described as temperamental and unstable rather than progressive. From the reviews, five key experiences in this process are identified: autonomy, uncertainty, engagement, hope and social relations. Conclusions The need for broad, qualitative syntheses of stroke patients' experiences is currently fulfilled. Future qualitative reviews could focus more on implications for practice, e.g., by grading the quality of the metafindings. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke is a profound disruption of life as known, and patients and carers value information that helps them prepare for and adjust to this new situation. Optimal rehabilitation is a main concern and goal for patients and carers, and thus carers may be a valuable asset to professionals in the rehabilitation process. Practical and emotional support is important for patients and carers, and rehabilitation professionals should be aware of the increased risk of social isolation post-stroke. Hope is a strong motivational factor and

  17. Out-of-school lives of physically disabled children and young people in the United Kingdom: a qualitative literature review.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kate Helen; Porcellato, Lorna; Tume, Lyvonne

    2014-09-01

    Currently there appears to be few opportunities and little evidence of physically disabled children and young people (C&YP) participating in mainstream social activities. A qualitative review was undertaken to examine the factors affecting physically disabled C&YP (8-15 years) in the United Kingdom participating in out-of-school activities. Views and experiences were explored from the perspective of the service users and providers to assess current provision and to determine the need for future research into factors that may affect participation. Searches were conducted across eight databases, the references of the included studies were checked and the websites were searched. Studies that used a qualitative design that examined the views relating to out-of-school activities were included. Nine papers were identified, which included three peer-reviewed papers and six pieces of grey literature and pertinent government documents to include views and experiences of out-of-school activity provision. The main themes emerging from the review were the need for social inclusion, out-of-school activities run by volunteers and accessibility, with threads throughout, which require further research including parental influence, provision, training and attitudes. This review highlights the absence of the service user's voice and sheds light on the limited provision and barriers affecting participation in out-of-school activities.

  18. Transition to injecting drug use in Iran: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative evidence

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Shadloo, Behrang; Malekinejad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use has been increasing over the past decade in Iran. This study aims to review the epidemiological and qualitative evidence on factors that facilitate or protect against transition to injection in Iran. Methods Five international (Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO), one regional (IMEMR) and three Iranian (Iranmedex, Iranpsych, IranDoc) databases were searched and key experts were contacted. Two trained researchers screened documents to identify relevant studies and independently extracted data using a pre-specified protocol. A thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data and a random effect meta-analysis model was used to determine age of first injection. Results A total of 39 documents from 31 studies met the eligibility criteria; more than 50% were conducted between 2006 and 2008. The weighted mean age of first injection was 25.8 years (95% Confidence Interval: 25.3–26.2). Overall, drug users had used drugs for 6 to 7 years before starting to inject. Heroin was the first drug of injection in the majority of cases. Factors influencing transition to injection included 1) individual (pleasure-seeking behavior and development of drug dependency), 2) social network (role of peer drug users in first injection use), and 3) environmental (the economic efficiency associated with injection and the wide availability of injectable form of drugs in the market). Conclusion Harm reduction policies in Iran have almost exclusively focused on drug injectors. However, given the extent of non-injection drug use, evidence from this study can provide insight on points of interventions for preventing transition to injection use. PMID:26210009

  19. Data analysis in qualitative research: a brief guide to using nvivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lp

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative data is often subjective, rich, and consists of in-depth information normally presented in the form of words. Analysing qualitative data entails reading a large amount of transcripts looking for similarities or differences, and subsequently finding themes and developing categories. Traditionally, researchers 'cut and paste' and use coloured pens to categorise data. Recently, the use of software specifically designed for qualitative data management greatly reduces technical sophistication and eases the laborious task, thus making the process relatively easier. A number of computer software packages has been developed to mechanise this 'coding' process as well as to search and retrieve data. This paper illustrates the ways in which NVivo can be used in the qualitative data analysis process. The basic features and primary tools of NVivo which assist qualitative researchers in managing and analysing their data are described.

  20. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  1. Justifying knowledge, justifying method, taking action: epistemologies, methodologies, and methods in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Little, Miles

    2007-12-01

    In this article, the authors clarify a framework for qualitative research, in particular for evaluating its quality, founded on epistemology, methodology, and method. They define these elements and discuss their respective contributions and interrelationships. Epistemology determines and is made visible through method, particularly in the participant- researcher relationship, measures of research quality, and form, voice, and representation in analysis and writing. Epistemology guides methodological choices and is axiological. Methodology shapes and is shaped by research objectives, questions, and study design. Methodologies can prescribe choices of method, resonate with particular academic disciplines, and encourage or discourage the use and/or development of theory. Method is constrained by and makes visible methodological and epistemic choices. If we define good quality qualitative research as research that attends to all three elements and demonstrates internal consistency between them, standardized checklists can be transcended and innovation and diversity in qualitative research practice facilitated.

  2. Characterization of Investigators’ Approach to Translational Research: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Doris M.; Robinson, Georgeanna F.W.B.; Gilliam, Victoria A.; Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Seltzer, Deborah L; Kapoor, Wishwa N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about how investigators approach their research programs along the translational research continuum. Many consider the translational continuum to be linear, with research beginning at the bench and concluding with research at the bedside or in the community. We aimed to understand if translational investigators approach and view their research in this fashion. Methods We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 16 graduates of the University of Pittsburgh’s Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Scholars Program (KL2) in 2012. Results Our research revealed three characteristic models. The first model we called “linear” and represented the traditional approach. The second we called “holistic”; these investigators began with central research questions and sought to explore them in every direction of translation, not necessarily taking linear steps. The third model we called “technical”; in this model, investigators focused on a unique technology or methodology and applied it across multiple research contexts. Conclusion This study found that there are multiple ways that translational investigators approach their research program. Better understanding of these models can help educators and mentors guide investigators so that they can be more productive in their clinical or translational research career. PMID:25066780

  3. What qualitative research can contribute to a randomized controlled trial of a complex community intervention.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Goering, Paula

    2015-11-01

    Using the case of a large-scale, multi-site Canadian Housing First research demonstration project for homeless people with mental illness, At Home/Chez Soi, we illustrate the value of qualitative methods in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a complex community intervention. We argue that quantitative RCT research can neither capture the complexity nor tell the full story of a complex community intervention. We conceptualize complex community interventions as having multiple phases and dimensions that require both RCT and qualitative research components. Rather than assume that qualitative research and RCTs are incommensurate, a more pragmatic mixed methods approach was used, which included using both qualitative and quantitative methods to understand program implementation and outcomes. At the same time, qualitative research was used to examine aspects of the intervention that could not be understood through the RCT, such as its conception, planning, sustainability, and policy impacts. Through this example, we show how qualitative research can tell a more complete story about complex community interventions.

  4. Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.

    PubMed

    Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position.

  5. Using a theory-driven conceptual framework in qualitative health research.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary

    2012-05-01

    The role and merits of highly inductive research designs in qualitative health research are well established, and there has been a powerful proliferation of grounded theory method in the field. However, tight qualitative research designs informed by social theory can be useful to sensitize researchers to concepts and processes that they might not necessarily identify through inductive processes. In this article, we provide a reflexive account of our experience of using a theory-driven conceptual framework, the Normalization Process Model, in a qualitative evaluation of general practitioners' uptake of a free, pilot, language interpreting service in the Republic of Ireland. We reflect on our decisions about whether or not to use the Model, and describe our actual use of it to inform research questions, sampling, coding, and data analysis. We conclude with reflections on the added value that the Model and tight design brought to our research.

  6. Language and rigour in qualitative research: problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen J; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2008-07-10

    In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.

  7. Using Hermeneutics as a Qualitative Research Approach in Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…

  8. Recruiting Ethnically Diverse Participants into Qualitative Health Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…

  9. Intimate Inquiry: A Love-Based Approach to Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laura, Crystal T.

    2016-01-01

    Academics have a hard time talking about the role of "love" in social research, and the lack of a working definition for its meaning only partly explains our difficulty. The more substantial barrier is our tendency to think about "research" not as a careful exploration of specific social, intellectual, or methodological…

  10. Using Technology to Enhance Qualitative Research with Hidden Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, John; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in technology provide researchers with increased opportunities to locate and conduct research with populations that have historically been inaccessible. This manuscript describes the development of private, voluntary web-based groups, and the process for using web cameras to conduct individual web-based interviews as a method of data…

  11. Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

  12. The Evolution of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Classes when Delivered via Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Klass, Patricia H.

    This study examined whether new streamed Internet audio and video technology could be used for primary instruction in off-campus research classes. Several different off-campus student cohorts at Illinois State university enrolled in both a fall semester qualitative research methods class and a spring semester quantitative research methods class.…

  13. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  14. Qualitative Research as a Hero's Journey: Six Archetypes to Draw on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villate, Vanessa M.

    2012-01-01

    Is the research process similar to a hero's journey? Just as a hero draws on different archetypes during the journey, a researcher moves through phases and must draw upon different strengths. In this article, the six archetypes that Pearson (1998) links to the hero's journey are described. Then, each phase of a qualitative research study is…

  15. Using Email Interviews in Qualitative Educational Research: Creating Space to Think and Time to Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Nalita

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how the Internet and email offer space for participants to think and make sense of their experiences in the qualitative research encounter. It draws on a research study that used email interviewing to generate online narratives to understand academic lives and identities through research encounters in virtual space. The…

  16. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members.

  17. Beyond division: convergences between postmodern qualitative research and family therapy.

    PubMed

    De Haene, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Starting from examples of postmodern research and therapeutic practice, we raise the question on the role of the research-therapy dichotomy within these approaches. The article aims to show the profound convergence between postmodern ethnographic research and constructionist, collaborative therapeutic approaches on a double, epistemological and practice level. First, we point out their converging development toward narrative and constructionist epistemologies. Second, an inquiry into the core features of these disciplinary activities' goal, process, and expert role reveals their profound convergence into a dialogical practice in which the boundaries between research and therapy are radically transgressed. We conclude by questioning the implications and acceptability of this convergence for researchers' and therapists' understanding of their practices.

  18. Surviving depressive ill-health: a qualitative systematic review of older persons' narratives.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anne Lise; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative systematic review was to report a comprehensive literature synthesis of older persons' narratives about what they need in order to survive when suffering from depression. Their survival strategies seem to be a state rarely outlined in the literature. A systematic search of EBSCOhost/Academic Search Premier, ProQuest and PubMed was conducted for the period January 2000 to April 2012. Data were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. Thirteen studies were selected and three themes emerged from synthesis: the need for courage, strength, and self-reliance; the meaning of responsibility; and wearing a mask of normalcy to hide the shame. The first comprised two subthemes: the value of faith and distraction and activity; the second had no subtheme; and the third had one subtheme: reaching out of loneliness towards aloneness and connectivity. Further research should be focused on how community projects can improve health services such as enhancing the safety of health care and disseminating health information.

  19. Students' and Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Norman G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research from the past 40 years on students' and teachers' conceptions of the nature of science, clarifies the basic assumptions and logic which have guided earlier research efforts, contrasts the results from qualitative and quantitative research, makes recommendations about research methods, and suggests avenues for future research about…

  20. Parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care to their newborn infant—Part 1: A qualitative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Eriksson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe parental experiences of providing skin-to-skin care (SSC) to their newborn infants. Background SSC care for newborn infants has been reported to have positive physiological and psychological benefits to the infants and their parents. No systematic review regarding parental experiences has been identified. Design In this first part of a meta-study, the findings of a systematic literature review on parental experience of SSC care are presented. Data sources Four databases were searched, without year or language limitations, up until December 2013. Manual searches were performed in reference lists and in a bibliography of the topic. Review methods After a quality-appraisal process, data from the original articles were extracted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The systematic and manual searches led to the inclusion of 29 original qualitative papers from nine countries, reporting experiences from 401 mothers and 94 fathers. Two themes that characterized the provision of SSC emerged: a restoring experience and an energy-draining experience. Conclusion This review has added scientific and systematic knowledge about parental experiences of providing SSC. Further research about fathers’ experiences is recommended. PMID:25319746

  1. Associations of Obesity and Dyslipidemia with Intake of Sodium, Fat, and Sugar among Koreans: a Qualitative Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon Jung; Wang, Hye Won; Cheon, Se Young; Lee, Hwa Jung; Hwang, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hae Seong

    2016-10-01

    A qualitative systematic review was performed to identify associations of obesity and dyslipidemia with intake of sodium, fat, and sugar among Koreans. We reviewed 6 Korean research databases (KMbase, KoreaMed, NDSL, DBpia, RISS, KISS) with the keywords "sodium intake," "fat intake," and "sugar intake." Total of 11 studies were investigated in this present study. Of these articles, 7 studies were related to sodium intake, 2 studies had a relation to fat intake, and 2 studies were associated with sugar intake. We indicated general characteristics, concentration of serum lipids, nutrition intake, and statistically significant results. High sodium intake contributed to increased etiology of hypertriglyceridemia, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypocholesterolemia, and a risk of being overweight. Fat intake was significantly associated with body fat, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia, and HDL hypocholesterolemia. Sugar intake from coffee drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages contributed to increased HDL hypocholesterolemia and continuous metabolic syndrome score. This qualitative review among Koreans represented that intake of sodium, fat, and sugar has a positive relationship with cause of obesity-related diseases. Especially, this present study has a great significance in terms of considered study that intake of the potentially hazardous nutrients among Koreans has an association with obesity and dyslipidemia. However, further studies such as randomized controlled trials on associations between sodium, fat, and sugar and obesity and dyslipidemia need to be continuously required in order to conduct quantitative systematic reviews and a meta-analysis for Koreans.

  2. Who am I and what am I doing? Becoming a qualitative research interviewer.

    PubMed

    Bulpitt, Helen; Martin, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research can be influenced by the researcher's role in the study. Here, the authors propose reflexive methodologies as a means by which the processes undertaken by the researcher can be made transparent and used as part of the data. Using this approach, this paper explores the experience of becoming a qualitative research interviewer. It provides an account of dilemmas faced while undertaking a series of semi-structured interviews as part of a discourse analytic study into the practice of clinical supervision in a number of mental health professions.

  3. Toward increased capacity for practice-based research among health professionals: implementing a multisite qualitative research project with dietitians.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gwen E; Sellaeg, Kari; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Barr, Susan I

    2007-09-01

    Despite repeated efforts to encourage health professionals to conduct practice-based research, including qualitative research, few practitioners have become active researchers. Mentoring, networking, and hands-on experience have been identified as potential approaches for changing this situation. In this article, the authors describe how they implemented a research mentoring/training component in a national study exploring Canadian dietitians' attitudes and practices with regard to obesity and weight management. They discuss the successes and challenges experienced by mentors and trainees, and provide recommendations for future initiatives to enhance capacity for qualitative, practice-based research among health care practitioners.

  4. Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663

  5. Development of clinically meaningful complex interventions - the contribution of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Meyer, Gabriele; Hall, Elisabeth; Fegran, Liv; Aagaard, Hanne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-06-01

    The debate about the "right" methods and designs for nursing research is on-going. According to international surveys, studies on the effectiveness and safety of nursing interventions are rare. Since nursing practice deals daily with interventions, nurses ostensibly expose hospital patients and nursing home residents frequently to unproven therapeutic and preventive nursing interventions. Nursing interventions are predominately of a complex nature, consisting of several components depending on and interacting with each other and their complex contextual factors. Thus, evaluation studies are often challenging and need especially careful development, ambitious designs and systematic evaluations. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) has proposed a framework, where qualitative and quantitative research rely on each other in order to develop theory-based complex interventions, prepare and conduct their optimal delivery, explain how the interventions work and which conditions contributed in case they did not work. The present essay outlines the points where qualitative research contributes towards the development and evaluation of complex interventions. First, the UK MRC framework is introduced, and secondly it is illustrated where qualitative research should necessarily be located using examples from a handful of qualitative studies. Future clinically meaningful and implementable nursing interventions should best be developed by research groups with both excellent qualitative and quantitative research skills.

  6. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  7. From Qualitative Work to Intervention Development in Pediatric Oncology Palliative Care Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Friedman, Debra L.; Given, Barbara; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative methods can be particularly useful approaches to use with individuals who are experiencing a rare disease and thus who comprise a small sample (such as children with cancer) and are at points in care that few experience (such as end of life). This data-based methods article describes how findings from a qualitative study were used to guide and shape a pediatric oncology palliative care intervention. Qualitative data can lay a strong foundation for subsequent pilot intervention work by facilitating the development of an underlying study conceptualization, providing recruitment feasibility estimates, helping establish clinically meaningful inclusion criteria, establishing staff acceptability of a research intervention, and providing support for face validity of newly developed interventions. These benefits of preliminary qualitative research are described in the context of this study on legacy-making, which involves reports of children (7-12 years of age) living with advanced cancer and of their parent caregivers. PMID:23632900

  8. Inter-rater reliability (IRR): A Valuable Metric for Qualitative Research | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Most people who do qualitative research, which analyzes non-numerical information, such as interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and observations, know that it includes a lot of coding. Coding is a standardized process of classifying qualitative data (i.e., non-numerical data) by using one unified model, or “coding scheme,” to analyze numerous sets of data. Coding aims to reduce subjective opinion and analysis of qualitative data, and instead ensure a more objective analytical process with limited bias in results. 

  9. Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2006-01-01

    A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

  10. Risk in Schooling: The Contribution of Qualitative Research to Our Understanding of the Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Beth; Fenton, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews 15 qualitative studies examining factors contributing to the overrepresentation of minorities in special education. Eleven studies constituted numerical surveys of practitioner perspectives, with additional questions that were analyzed qualitatively. Four studies relied on face-to-face interviews or qualitative surveys,…

  11. Improving Transcription of Qualitative Research Interviews with Speech Recognition Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Terry; Wightman, Colin W.

    The recent development of high-quality voice recognition software greatly facilitates the production of transcriptions for research and allows for objective and full transcription as well as annotated interpretation. Commercial speech recognition programs that are appropriate for generating transcriptions are available from a number of vendors,…

  12. A Qualitative Research on Example Generation Capabilities of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yasemin; Dost, Senol

    2016-01-01

    Examples which are used in exploring a procedure or comprehending/concretizing a mathematical concept are powerful teaching tools. Generating examples other than conventional ones is both a means for research and a pedagogical method. The aim of this study is to determine the transition process between example generation strategies, and the…

  13. Doing Qualitative Research Using Your Computer: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to using commonly available everyday technology, including Microsoft software, to manage and streamline research projects. It uses straight-forward, everyday language to walk readers through this process, drawing on a wide range of examples to demonstrate how easy it is to use such software. This guide is…

  14. Activity Theory and Qualitative Research in Digital Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between people, computer-mediated communication, and online life requires that researchers appropriate a set of methodological tools that would be best suited for capturing and analyzing the phenomenon. However, these tools are not limited to relevant technological forms of data collections and analysis programs; it…

  15. Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

  16. An Applied Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…

  17. Smoke-free homes: what are the barriers, motivators and enablers? A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jude; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies of the barriers, motivators and enablers of smoke-free homes (SFHs). Design Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE, EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, Informit and EMBASE, combining terms for families, households and vulnerable populations; SFH and secondhand smoke; and qualitative research, were supplemented by searches of PhD theses, key authors, specialist journals and reference lists. Study selection We included 22 articles, reporting on 18 studies, involving 646 participants. Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed; English language; published from 1990 onwards (to week 3 of April 2014); used qualitative data collection methods; explored participants’ perspectives of home smoking behaviours; and the barriers, motivators and enablers to initiating and/or maintaining a SFH. Data extraction 1 of 3 authors extracted data with checking by a second. Data synthesis A thematic synthesis was performed to develop 7 core analytic themes: (1) knowledge, awareness and risk perception; (2) agency and personal skills/attributes; (3) wider community norms and personal moral responsibilities; (4) social relationships and influence of others; (5) perceived benefits, preferences and priorities; (6) addiction and habit; (7) practicalities. Conclusions This synthesis highlights the complexity faced by many households in having a SFH, the practical, social, cultural and personal issues that need to be addressed and balanced by households, and that while some of these are common across study settings, specific social and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping household smoking behaviours. The findings can inform policy and practice and the development of interventions aimed at increasing SFHs. Trial registration number CRD42014014115. PMID:26988351

  18. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  19. Reviewing Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Reviews of research play a critical but underappreciated role in knowledge production and accumulation. Yet, until relatively recently, limited attention has been given to the "methodology" of conducting reviews of research. This observation also applies in educational leadership and management where reviews of research have…

  20. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research.

  1. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J.; Wittlin, Natalie M.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.; Parker, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980-2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include: in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched the following databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar for relevant articles using the following broad terms: “Black men” and/or “BMSM,” and “qualitative” and/or “ethnography.” Seventy studies were included in this review. The key themes observed across studies were: (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk-taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  2. "Ouch!" Recruitment of Overweight and Obese Adolescent Boys for Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…

  3. Potential Guidelines for Conducting and Reporting Environmental Education Research: Qualitative Methods of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents guidelines for conducting and reporting qualitative environmental education research developed during a 10-hour, 1-1/2 day workshop sponsored by the North American Commission on Environmental Education Research (NCEER) during the 1997 annual meeting of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE). (Author/CCM)

  4. A Leap of Trust: Qualitative Research in a Musical Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Louise

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the process of determining an approach to the analysis of qualitative data collected as part of a case study research project involving children and teenagers from a community of musical practice--an all ages community-based fiddle group in central Scotland. The researcher's overarching goal is to find ways to increase…

  5. Leadership in University-Based Cooperative Research Centres: A Qualitative Investigation of Performance Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, S. Bartholomew; Hess, Clara E.; McGinnis, Jennifer Lindberg; Gray, Denis O.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance often attached to the role played by leadership in university-based cooperative research centres, we know very little about what "leadership" means in this specific context. The research reported here used a qualitative approach to identify fifteen dimensions of leadership performance for directors of university-based…

  6. Expanding Perspectives: Qualitative Research in Higher Education. Second Edition. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Clifton F., Ed.; Haworth, Jennifer Grant, Ed.; Lattuca, Lisa R., Ed.

    Chapters in this volume provide an introduction to qualitative research in higher education, organizing the discussion around four central themes. Part 1, Situating Ourselves and Our Inquiry, contains: (1) Objectivity in Educational Research (Elliot Eisner); (2) Truth in Trouble (Kenneth Gergen); (3) Beyond Translation: Truth and Rigoberta Menchu…

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  8. Time Management, Passion, and Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Highly Research Productive Counseling Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…

  9. The Impact of a Qualitative Research Interview on Workers' Views of Their Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore whether qualitative research interviews impacted participants' views of their situations. Forty-five workers who reported handling well changes that affected their work were interviewed to explore their experiences of change, factors that helped and hindered their ability to handle change, and assess the…

  10. The Usefulness of Qualitative Case Studies in Research on Special Needs Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghesquiere, Pol; Maes, Bea; Vandenberghe, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Research on special needs education is often very complex and puts specific demands on the methodology used. Data-triangulation, at the very least, is required. In most of our recent research projects on the development of special needs education in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium), we have made use of qualitative case studies to…

  11. Qualitative Research in Educational Communications and Technology: A Brief Introduction to Principles and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, qualitative research has emerged as a widely accepted alternative to the quantitative paradigm for performing research in educational communications and technology. As the new paradigm has evolved, it has spawned a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological techniques that have both increased its potential…

  12. Using Qualitative Research to Develop Culturally Competent Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux; Auerbach, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    Kazdin pointed out that the requirement for evidence-based practice (EBP) has made the long-standing gap between research and practice in clinical psychology even more salient. He offered several strategies for bridging this gap: investigating mechanisms and moderators of therapeutic change, and qualitative research. We agree that qualitative…

  13. Expressing Certainty in Discussion Sections of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobakhti, Leila

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…

  14. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  15. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  16. Ten Steps for Conceptualizing and Conducting Qualitative Research Studies in a Pragmatically Curious Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    In a world of methodological pluralism and mixed-methods, qualitative researchers can take a pathway of pragmatic curiosity by exploring their research interests and the possible design and methodology choices to create studies that not only allow them to pursue their investigative curiosities, but also result in coherent and effective systems of…

  17. A Case Study of Qualitative Research: Methods and Administrative Impact. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jane; Warner, Sean

    A case study in program evaluation that demonstrates the effectiveness of qualitative research methods is presented. Over a 5-year period, the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities in Ohio offered a baccalaureate program (University Without Walls) to local employees of a national manufacturing firm. The institutional research office…

  18. [Synthesis of the reflections of the meeting on ethics in qualitative health research, Guarujá, São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the report collectively elaborated in the meeting on Ethics in Qualitative Health Research, which took place in Guarujá, São Paulo State, from August 28 to 30, in 2006. The meeting was organized by the Ethical Committee of the Municipal Health Office of São Paulo, supported by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), sponsored by UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO and stressed the need to review the Brazilian guidelines for the analysis of the ethical aspects of qualitative health research.

  19. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. Methods and analysis A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. Trial registration number CRD42015026120. PMID:27577586

  20. An occupational perspective of the lived experience of familial dementia caregivers: A thematic review of qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Emma K; Collins, Tracy

    2016-10-06

    Dementia caregiving is thought to have a negative impact on health and wellbeing. This critical review of qualitative literature explored the lived experience of familial dementia caregivers from an occupational therapy perspective. The method was informed by systematic review and qualitative research methodologies and was structured within the occupational dimensions framework of doing-being-becoming-belonging. A comprehensive search of major databases was undertaken which identified 484 studies on the topic; 14 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Ten themes emerged within the doing-being-becoming-belonging framework from the analysis of the studies. The occupational participation of caregivers is conveyed within the 'doing' domain. Ways in which caregiving impacts upon opportunities for self-nurture are presented within the 'being' domain. The 'becoming' domain elucidates ways in which caregivers redefine themselves, their values and their priorities through their caregiving role. The 'belonging' domain depicts ways in which caregivers' connections with their care recipient and others are shaped over time. Practice implications for health and social care practitioners who work with familial dementia caregivers are presented in light of the findings.