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Sample records for revised simplex method

  1. Simplex method in problems of light-beam phase control.

    PubMed

    Chesnokov, S S; Davletshina, I V

    1995-12-20

    The possibility of the application of the simplex method to problems of wave-front control for light beams propagating in a nonlinear medium is investigated. A numerical analysis of simplex-method effectiveness in comparison with the gradient procedure of hill climbing is carried out. The regimes of stationary and nonstationary wind refraction are considered. The simplest optimization of the simplex size and the control basis is done. PMID:21068958

  2. Optimization using the gradient and simplex methods.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Víctor; Cerdà, Juan Luis; Idris, Abubakr M

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally optimization of analytical methods has been conducted using a univariate method, varying each parameter one-by-one holding fixed the remaining. This means in many cases to reach only local minima and not get the real optimum. Among the various options for multivariate optimization, this paper highlights the gradient method, which involves the ability to perform the partial derivatives of a mathematical model, as well as the simplex method that does not require that condition. The advantages and disadvantages of those two multivariate optimization methods are discussed, indicating when they can be applied and the different forms that have been introduced. Different cases are described on the applications of these methods in analytical chemistry. PMID:26653495

  3. Simplex-stochastic collocation method with improved scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeling, W. N.; Dwight, R. P.; Cinnella, P.

    2016-04-01

    The Simplex-Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method is a robust tool used to propagate uncertain input distributions through a computer code. However, it becomes prohibitively expensive for problems with dimensions higher than 5. The main purpose of this paper is to identify bottlenecks, and to improve upon this bad scalability. In order to do so, we propose an alternative interpolation stencil technique based upon the Set-Covering problem, and we integrate the SSC method in the High-Dimensional Model-Reduction framework. In addition, we address the issue of ill-conditioned sample matrices, and we present an analytical map to facilitate uniformly-distributed simplex sampling.

  4. The Intelligence of Dual Simplex Method to Solve Linear Fractional Fuzzy Transportation Problem

    PubMed Central

    Narayanamoorthy, S.; Kalyani, S.

    2015-01-01

    An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example. PMID:25810713

  5. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038. PMID:19650633

  6. An accurate skull stripping method based on simplex meshes and histogram analysis for magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Galdames, Francisco J; Jaillet, Fabrice; Perez, Claudio A

    2012-01-01

    Skull stripping methods are designed to eliminate the non-brain tissue in magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. Removal of non-brain tissues is a fundamental step in enabling the processing of brain MR images. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic accurate skull stripping method based on deformable models and histogram analysis. A rough-segmentation step is used to find the optimal starting point for the deformation and is based on thresholds and morphological operators. Thresholds are computed using comparisons with an atlas, and modeling by Gaussians. The deformable model is based on a simplex mesh and its deformation is controlled by the image local gray levels and the information obtained on the gray level modeling of the rough-segmentation. Our Simplex Mesh and Histogram Analysis Skull Stripping (SMHASS) method was tested on the following international databases commonly used in scientific articles: BrainWeb, Internet Brain Segmentation Repository (IBSR), and Segmentation Validation Engine (SVE). A comparison was performed against three of the best skull stripping methods previously published: Brain Extraction Tool (BET), Brain Surface Extractor (BSE), and Hybrid Watershed Algorithm (HWA). Performance was measured using the Jaccard index (J) and Dice coefficient (κ). Our method showed the best performance and differences were statistically significant (p<0.05): J=0.904 and κ=0.950 on BrainWeb; J=0.905 and κ=0.950 on IBSR; J=0.946 and κ=0.972 on SVE.

  7. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038.

  8. Revised Capillary Breakup Rheometer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Louise; Schultz, William; Solomon, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Rather than integrate the one-dimensional equation of motion for a capillary breakup rheometer, we take the axial derivative of that equation. This avoids the determination of the axial force with all of its complications and correction factors. The resulting evolutionary equation that involves either two or four derivatives of the capillary radius as a function of the axial coordinate determines the ratio of elongational viscosity to surface tension coefficient. We examine several silicone and olive oils to show the accuracy of the method for Newtonian fluids. We will discuss our surface tension measurement techniques and briefly describe measurements of viscoelastic materials, including saliva.

  9. A Comparative Study of Three Revision Methods in EFL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to explore effective instruction in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting, this study investigated language errors identified by students and teachers in three different revision stages: self-revision, peer revision, and teacher revision. It gave the focus to the effects of the three different methods on learners' writing…

  10. Novel method for genotyping clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Glück, Brigitte; Möbius, Susanne; Pfaff, Florian; Zell, Roland; Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Up to now, three distinct genotypes, A, B and C, of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), based on polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes, have been reported. Here, we propose to include an additional polymorphism of the US2 gene. The refined genotyping method was validated using 423 clinical isolates from patients with different HSV-1 diseases. The proportions of three US2 genotypes were A, 46.6%; B, 23.2%; and C, 30.2 %. Genotype A of US2 and US4/US7 showed a highly significant correlation. In addition, the frequency of genotype A was significantly higher in women than in men with herpes labialis. PMID:26280525

  11. Coarse-graining using the relative entropy and simplex-based optimization methods in VOTCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühle, Victor; Jochum, Mara; Koschke, Konstantin; Aluru, N. R.; Kremer, Kurt; Mashayak, S. Y.; Junghans, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) simulations are an important tool to investigate systems on larger time and length scales. Several methods for systematic coarse-graining were developed, varying in complexity and the property of interest. Thus, the question arises which method best suits a specific class of system and desired application. The Versatile Object-oriented Toolkit for Coarse-graining Applications (VOTCA) provides a uniform platform for coarse-graining methods and allows for their direct comparison. We present recent advances of VOTCA, namely the implementation of the relative entropy method and downhill simplex optimization for coarse-graining. The methods are illustrated by coarse-graining SPC/E bulk water and a water-methanol mixture. Both CG models reproduce the pair distributions accurately. SYM is supported by AFOSR under grant 11157642 and by NSF under grant 1264282. CJ was supported in part by the NSF PHY11-25915 at KITP. K. Koschke acknowledges funding by the Nestle Research Center.

  12. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  13. Lentigo Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, including areas that are not exposed to sunlight. Multiple lentigos are associated with several inherited syndromes, ... as identical to those caused by exposure to sunlight. Who's At Risk Lentigo simplex may occur in ...

  14. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis.

  15. Multifunction extension of simplex optimization method for mutual information-based registration of ultrasound volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrodsky, Vladimir; Shekhar, Raj; Cornhill, J. Fredrick

    2001-07-01

    Mutual information has been demonstrated to be an accurate and reliable criterion function to perform registration of medical data. Due to speckle noise, ultrasound volumes do not provide a smooth mutual information function. Consequently the optimization technique used must be robust enough to avoid local maxima and converge on the desired global maximum eventually. While the well-known downhill simplex optimization uses a single criterion function, our extension to multi-function optimization uses three criterion functions, namely mutual information computed at three levels of intensity quantization and hence three degrees of noise suppression. Registration was performed with rigid as well as simple non-rigid transformation modes for real-time 3D ultrasound datasets of the left ventricle. Pairs of frames corresponding to the most stationary end- diastolic cardiac phase were chosen, and an initial misalignment was artificially introduced between them. The multi-function simplex optimization reduced the failure rate by a factor of two in comparison to the standard simplex optimization, while the average accuracy for the successful cases was unchanged. A more robust registration resulted form the parallel use of criterion functions. The additional computational cost was negligible, as each of the three implementations of the mutual information used the same joint histogram and required no extra spatial transformation.

  16. Biomechanics and Biotensegrity: Study Method and Frequency Response of the Simplex and 3-bar-SVD Tensegrity Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Arenas, C.; Ghersi, I.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the frequency response of 3D tensegrity structures. These are structures that have been used, since the 80’s, to model biological systems of different scales. This fact led to the origin of the field of biotensegrity, which includes biomechanics as a natural field of application. In this work: a) A simple method for the analysis of frequency response of different nodes in 3D tensegrity structures was set up and tuned. This method is based on a video-analysis algorithm, which was applied to the structures, as they were vibrated along their axis of symmetry, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 60 Hz. b) Frequency-response analyses were performed, for the simplest 3D structure, the Simplex module, as well as for two towers, formed by stacking two and three Simplex modules, respectively. Resonant frequencies were detected for the Simplex module at (19.2±0.1) Hz and (50.2±0.1) Hz (the latter being an average of frequencies between homologous nodes). For the towers with two and three modules, each selected node presented a characteristic frequency response, modulated by their spatial placement in each model. Resonances for the two-stage tower were found at: (12±0.1) Hz; (16.2±0.1) Hz; (29.4±0.1) Hz and (37.2±0.1) Hz. For the tower with three Simplex modules, the main resonant frequencies were found at (12.0±0.1) Hz and (21.0±0.1) Hz. Results show that the proposed method is adequate for the study (2D) of any 3D tensegrity structure, with the potential of being generalized to the study of oscillations in three dimensions. A growing complexity and variability in the frequency response of the nodes was observed, as modules were added to the structures. These findings were compared to those found in the available literature.

  17. A Revised Simplex Method for Test Construction Problems. Research Report 90-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adema, Jos J.

    Linear programming models with 0-1 variables are useful for the construction of tests from an item bank. Most solution strategies for these models start with solving the relaxed 0-1 linear programming model, allowing the 0-1 variables to take on values between 0 and 1. Then, a 0-1 solution is found by just rounding, optimal rounding, or a…

  18. The PIM-simplex method: an extension of the PIM-triple method to saddles with an arbitrary number of expanding directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresco, Pablo; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    1999-02-01

    The growing interest in non-attracting chaotic sets of high-dimensional dynamical systems requires the development of numerical techniques for their study. The PIM-triple method [H.E. Nusse, J.A. Yorke, Physica D 36 (1989) 137] is a very good method to obtain trajectories on saddles with one positive Lyapunov exponent. In this paper, we combine the same ideas with an algorithm for finding local extrema of multi-variable functions to develop an extension of the method (the PIM-simplex method) that is suitable for the study of sets with an arbitrary number of expanding directions.

  19. Revising Geology Labs To Explicitly Use the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Kimberly A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that content- or skill-based labs can be revised to explicitly involve the scientific method by asking students to propose hypotheses before making observations. Students' self-assessment showed they felt that they learned a great deal from this style of labs and found the labs to be fun; however, students felt that they learned little…

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  1. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  2. Optimization of preparation method for ketoprofen-loaded microspheres consisting polymeric blends using simplex lattice mixture design.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy Kumar; Khanam, Jasmina; Nanda, Arunabha

    2016-12-01

    In the present investigation, simplex lattice mixture design was applied for formulation development and optimization of a controlled release dosage form of ketoprofen microspheres consisting polymers like ethylcellulose and Eudragit(®)RL 100; when those were formed by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. The investigation was carried out to observe the effects of polymer amount, stirring speed and emulsifier concentration (% w/w) on percentage yield, average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release in 8h from the microspheres. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the significance of the models. Based on the desirability function approach numerical optimization was carried out. Optimized formulation (KTF-O) showed close match between actual and predicted responses with desirability factor 0.811. No adverse reaction between drug and polymers were observed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to show discreteness of microspheres (149.2±1.25μm) and their surface conditions during pre and post dissolution operations. The drug release pattern from KTF-O was best explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas and Higuchi models. The batch of optimized microspheres were found with maximum entrapment (~90%), minimum loss (~10%) and prolonged drug release for 8h (91.25%) which may be considered as favourable criteria of controlled release dosage form.

  3. Optimization of preparation method for ketoprofen-loaded microspheres consisting polymeric blends using simplex lattice mixture design.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy Kumar; Khanam, Jasmina; Nanda, Arunabha

    2016-12-01

    In the present investigation, simplex lattice mixture design was applied for formulation development and optimization of a controlled release dosage form of ketoprofen microspheres consisting polymers like ethylcellulose and Eudragit(®)RL 100; when those were formed by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. The investigation was carried out to observe the effects of polymer amount, stirring speed and emulsifier concentration (% w/w) on percentage yield, average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release in 8h from the microspheres. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the significance of the models. Based on the desirability function approach numerical optimization was carried out. Optimized formulation (KTF-O) showed close match between actual and predicted responses with desirability factor 0.811. No adverse reaction between drug and polymers were observed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to show discreteness of microspheres (149.2±1.25μm) and their surface conditions during pre and post dissolution operations. The drug release pattern from KTF-O was best explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas and Higuchi models. The batch of optimized microspheres were found with maximum entrapment (~90%), minimum loss (~10%) and prolonged drug release for 8h (91.25%) which may be considered as favourable criteria of controlled release dosage form. PMID:27612752

  4. Optimization of control parameters of a hot cold controller by means of Simplex type methods.

    PubMed

    Porte, C; Caron-Poussin, M; Carot, S; Couriol, C; Moreno, M M; Delacroix, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a hot/cold controller for regulating crystallization operations. The system was identified with a common method (the Broida method) and the parameters were obtained by the Ziegler-Nichols method. The paper shows that this empirical method will only allow a qualitative approach to regulation and that, in some instances, the parameters obtained are unreliable and therefore cannot be used to cancel variations between the set point and the actual values. Optimization methods were used to determine the regulation parameters and solve this identcation problem. It was found that the weighted centroid method was the best one. PMID:18924791

  5. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie; Boivin, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  6. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  7. Determination of the degree of substitution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose by potentiometric titration and use of the extended henderson-hasselbalch equation and the simplex method for the evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aggeryd, I; Olin, A

    1985-08-01

    Determination of the degree of substitution, D.S., of purified sodium carboxymethylcellulose, CMC, by potentiometric titration has been studied. Different mathematical descriptions of the acid-base properties of polyelectrolytes were tested on the titration curve. It was found that the extended Henderson-Hasselbalch equation reproduced the measured data well. It was therefore used as a basis for evaluating D.S. by the simplex method. The influence of ionic strength, I, on the shape of the titration curve was investigated and the effect of I on the precision of the titrations was evaluated. The titrations showed a precision of +/- 0.004 D.S.-units and the results were in agreement with those obtained from a dry-ashing method, within +/- 0.02 D.S.-units. The whole method, including preparation of solutions and titration, showed a precision of +/- 0.01 D.S.-units.

  8. The Revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Methods used to Establish and Validate Revised Axis I Diagnostic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Eric L.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Feng, Tai; Anderson, Gary C.; Pan, Wei; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; John, Mike T.; Sommers, Earl; List, Thomas; Velly, Ana M.; Kang, Wenjun; Look, John O.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. METHODS The multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project’s dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by 2 TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cut-offs for target validity were sensitivity ≥ 0.70 and specificity ≥ 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. RESULTS Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as “any joint pain.” Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other Group II disc displacements and Group III osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was ≥ 0.63. CONCLUSION Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements and osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis. PMID:20213032

  9. Revised one-step method for determination of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Olszowka, A J; Shykoff, B E; Pendergast, D R; Farhi, L E

    2004-04-20

    Cardiac output (Q) is a determinant of blood pressure and O(2) delivery and is critical in the maintenance of homeostasis, particularly during environmental stress and exercise. Cardiac output can be determined invasively in patients; however, indirect methods are required for other situations. Soluble gas techniques are widely used to determine (Q). Historically, measurements during a breathhold, prolonged expiration and rebreathing to CO(2) equilibrium have been used; however, with limitations, especially during stress. Farhi and co-workers developed a single-step CO(2) rebreathing method, which was subsequently revised by his group, and has been shown to be reliable and compared closely to direct, invasive measures. V(CO2), P(ACO2), and P(VCO2) are determined during a 12-25s rebreathing, using the appropriate tidal volume, and (Q) is calculated. This method can provide accurate data in laboratory and field experiments during exercise, increased or decreased gravity, water immersion, lower body pressure, head-down tilt, altered ambient pressure or changes in inspired gas composition.

  10. Fast gene transfer into the adult zebrafish brain by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and electroporation: methods and optogenetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; De Koninck, Paul; Neve, Rachael L.; Friedrich, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish has various advantages as a model organism to analyze the structure and function of neural circuits but efficient viruses or other tools for fast gene transfer are lacking. We show that transgenes can be introduced directly into the adult zebrafish brain by herpes simplex type I viruses (HSV-1) or electroporation. We developed a new procedure to target electroporation to defined brain areas and identified promoters that produced strong long-term expression. The fast workflow of electroporation was exploited to express multiple channelrhodopsin-2 variants and genetically encoded calcium indicators in telencephalic neurons for measurements of neuronal activity and synaptic connectivity. The results demonstrate that HSV-1 and targeted electroporation are efficient tools for gene delivery into the zebrafish brain, similar to adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses in other species. These methods fill an important gap in the spectrum of molecular tools for zebrafish and are likely to have a wide range of applications. PMID:24834028

  11. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  12. The "4S" Method for Helping Students Revise Their Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soles, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that basic writers are willing to edit but reluctant to revise their writing. In other words, they make surface-level changes to grammar, spelling, and punctuation but tend not to re-conceive content, structure, style, and cohesion. This paper argues that we need more instructional strategies that will help students understand…

  13. 77 FR 1129 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... published as a final rule on October 17, 2000 (65 FR 61744). Many of these needed revisions were brought to... not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR...

  14. Revision of Standard Method of Test for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this grant is to revise ASTM Standard Method of Test E-399 for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials based on users' experience, and to harmonize the Method with international standards in the interest of U. S. competitive participation in the global marketplace. Rewriting and reformatting the Method are well along. Research laboratories here and abroad have been engaged in developing technical bases for the Method's novel revision items. Close liaison is being maintained with experts in the field here and abroad to ensure consensus agreement on all substantive matters in anticipation of an eventual circulation of the document for ASTM worldwide approval.

  15. Oregon Custodial Training Program. Housekeeping Methods and Materials. (Revised 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed as an instructional aid in teaching about custodian housekeeping methods and materials, this booklet contains information on the school custodian's responsibilities and methods for maintaining the building inside and outside, including the cleaning and sanitation of classrooms, restrooms, showerrooms, lunchrooms, corridors, and special…

  16. 78 FR 25392 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program CO... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available monitoring methods to...

  17. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  18. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  19. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, Veronique E J; Stam, Edo D; Welborn, Kathleen M; Sas, Theo C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  1. Steatocystoma simplex of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Procianoy, Fernando; Golbert, Marcelo B; Golbspan, Liane; Duro, Kauê M; Bocaccio, Francisco J L

    2009-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with a nodular pretarsal tumor on her right upper eyelid that had slowly grown over 6 months. Excisional biopsy was performed through an eyelid crease approach, and histopathology evidenced the lesion to be steatocystoma simplex. Steatocystoma simplex is an uncommon benign cutaneous lesion thought to be a circumscribed malformation arising from the pilosebaceous duct junction, rarely reported to occur in the periorbital region.

  2. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk... uses and exposures not governed by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). Implementing...

  3. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  4. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328

  5. Evaluation of the prevalence of herpes simplex-1 infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens in Alzahra and Kashani Hospitals with polymerase chain reaction method in 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Mozhgan; Beiraghdar, Mozhdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tobacco, alcohol abuse are well-recognized risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), there is evidence to indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) may also play some inducing role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of HSV in Iranian patients with OSCC using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Biopsies of OSCC were obtained from 60 patients, 54 males and 6 females, aged between 36 and 80 years old. Paraffin-embedded, histologically confirmed specimens were analyzed for the presence of HSV DNA using PCR. Results: Only three samples (5%) was positive, suggesting that HSV may not play an important role in this group of patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of HSV-1 positive sample in this study was 5%. It shows that HSV-1 has no important role in OSCC. PMID:26605212

  6. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  7. Predicting a Longitudinal Guttman Simplex of Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Kimberly A.; And Others

    The longitudinal Guttman simplex (LGS), a method of modeling stage sequences or levels over time, allows for individual differences in sequence progression or development. The LGS is particularly appropriate in modeling tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use stages with adolescent subjects where relationships among drugs and degree of involvement may…

  8. Novel computer-assisted method for revision arthroplasty of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Hoffart, Hanns-Edgar; Dinges, Harald; Kolbeck, Stefan; Ritschl, Peter; Hommel, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To introduce the navigation system of software and instruments designed specifically for revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We present an imageless navigation system for revision TKA, with optical point and tracker identification to assess kinematic and anatomical landmarks. The system automatically positions the cutting guides with a motorized cutting unit. The cutting unit is placed on the distal femur with a femoral clamp and acts as a rigid body and the base for all femoral cuts. The surgical technique for using the navigation system for revision TKA is based on the technique used in primary TKA. However, there are some important differences. The most notable are: (1) differences in estimation of the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and the mechanical axes; (2) the specific possibilities the revision navigation software offers in terms of optimal joint level positioning; and (3) the suggested “best fit” position, in which the clock position, stem position and offset, femoral component size, and mediolateral position of the femoral component are taken into account to find the optimal femoral component position. We assessed the surgical technique, and accompanying software procedural steps, of the system, identifying any advantages or disadvantages that they present. RESULTS: The system aims to visualize critical steps of the procedure and is intended as a tool to support the surgeon in surgical decision-making. Combining a computer-assisted cutting device with navigation makes it possible to carry out precise cuts without pinning. Furthermore, the femoral clamp provides a stable fixation mechanism for the motorized cutting unit. A stable clamp is paramount in the presence of periarticular bony defects. The system allows the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and mechanical axes to be estimated, at which point any malalignments can be corrected. It also offers an optimal joint level position for

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  10. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Gaby, Alan R

    2006-06-01

    Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90 percent, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed. There is evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

  11. Dynamical electron diffraction simulation for non-orthogonal crystal system by a revised real space method.

    PubMed

    Lv, C L; Liu, Q B; Cai, C Y; Huang, J; Zhou, G W; Wang, Y G

    2015-01-01

    In the transmission electron microscopy, a revised real space (RRS) method has been confirmed to be a more accurate dynamical electron diffraction simulation method for low-energy electron diffraction than the conventional multislice method (CMS). However, the RRS method can be only used to calculate the dynamical electron diffraction of orthogonal crystal system. In this work, the expression of the RRS method for non-orthogonal crystal system is derived. By taking Na2 Ti3 O7 and Si as examples, the correctness of the derived RRS formula for non-orthogonal crystal system is confirmed by testing the coincidence of numerical results of both sides of Schrödinger equation; moreover, the difference between the RRS method and the CMS for non-orthogonal crystal system is compared at the accelerating voltage range from 40 to 10 kV. Our results show that the CMS method is almost the same as the RRS method for the accelerating voltage above 40 kV. However, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the CMS method introduces significant errors, not only for the higher-order Laue zone diffractions, but also for zero-order Laue zone. These indicate that the RRS method for non-orthogonal crystal system is necessary to be used for more accurate dynamical simulation when the accelerating voltage is low. Furthermore, the reason for the increase of differences between those diffraction patterns calculated by the RRS method and the CMS method with the decrease of the accelerating voltage is discussed. PMID:26461207

  12. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  13. Revision of FMM-Yukawa: An adaptive fast multipole method for screened Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai

    2010-12-01

    FMM-YUKAWA is a mathematical software package primarily for rapid evaluation of the screened Coulomb interactions of N particles in three dimensional space. Since its release, we have revised and re-organized the data structure, software architecture, and user interface, for the purpose of enabling more flexible, broader and easier use of the package. The package and its documentation are available at http://www.fastmultipole.org/, along with a few other closely related mathematical software packages. New version program summaryProgram title: FMM-Yukawa Catalogue identifier: AEEQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 854 265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90, and C. Requires gcc and gfortran version 4.4.3 or later Computer: All Operating system: Any Classification: 4.8, 4.12 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2331 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: To evaluate the screened Coulomb potential and force field of N charged particles, and to evaluate a convolution type integral where the Green's function is the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation. Solution method: The new version of fast multipole method (FMM) that diagonalizes the multipole-to-local translation operator is applied with the tree structure adaptive to sample particle locations. Reasons for new version: To handle much larger particle ensembles, to enable the iterative use of the subroutines in a solver, and to remove potential contention in assignments for parallelization. Summary of revisions: The software package FMM-Yukawa has been

  14. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  15. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  16. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing.

  17. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  18. FGD chemistry and analytical methods handbook: Volume 2, Chemical and physical test methods: Revision 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide a comprehensive guide to sampling, analytical, and physical test methods essential to the operation, maintenance, and understanding of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system chemistry. EPRI sponsored the first edition of this three-volume report in response to the needs of electric utility personnel responsible for establishing and operating commercial FGD analytical laboratories. The second, revised editions of Volumes 1 and 2 were prompted by the results of research into various non-standard aspects of FGD system chemistry. Volume 1 of the handbook explains FGD system chemistry in the detail necessary to understand how the processes operate and how process performance indicators can be used to optimize system operation. Volume 2 includes 63 physical-testing and chemical-analysis methods for reagents, slurries, and solids and information on the applicability of individual methods to specific FGD systems. Volume 3 contains instructions for an FGD solution chemistry computer program designed by EPRI as FGDLIQEQ. Executable on IBM-compatible personal computers, this program calculates the concentrations (activities) of chemical species (ions) in scrubber liquor and can calculate driving forces for important chemical reactions such as SO/sub 2/ absorption and calcium sulfite and surface precipitation. This program and selected chemical analyses will help an FGD system operator optimize system performance, prevent many potential process problems, and define solutions to existing problems.

  19. A revised method of examining fish for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-06-16

    The infection of fish with zoonotic nematodes, particularly anisakid nematodes is of great interest to many researchers who study food safety, human or animal health or who use them as biological tags for stock assessment studies. Accurate examination of fish for infection with anisakid larvae is crucial in making accurate estimates of their occurrence, abundance and prevalence in their fish hosts. Here we describe a new method of examining fish for infection with these parasites. In 2015, a total of 261 fish were purchased from a fish market in New South Wales, Australia. All fish were first examined by routine visual examination for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae and all data were recorded. Subsequently all internal organs were placed in a container and filled with water and incubated in the room temperature overnight. The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of anisakids were significantly higher (p<0.05) when the revised method of examination, i.e., combining visual examination and overnight incubation in room temperature, was employed (63.98, 8.23 and 5.27, respectively) compared to routine visual examination with or without the aid of a microscope (8.81, 3.78 and 0.33, respectively). The proposed method is effective and has several advantages, such as: not using UV or HCl for fish examination, allowing the examination of a larger number of fish in shorter time; larval specimens collected being suitable for both morphological and DNA sequencing; and being simple and inexpensive. The disadvantages would be the odour of the specimens after overnight incubation as well as not being suitable for use with frozen fish. We suggest that results, conclusions or recommendations made in studies that claim no anisakid/ascaridoid larvae were found in a fish should be approached carefully if it is only based on visual examination of the fish.

  20. Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M

    2013-04-01

    The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples.

  1. Analysis of cortical shape in children with simplex autism.

    PubMed

    Dierker, Donna L; Feczko, Eric; Pruett, John R; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Constantino, John N; Harwell, John W; Coalson, Timothy S; Van Essen, David C

    2015-04-01

    We used surface-based morphometry to test for differences in cortical shape between children with simplex autism (n = 34, mean age 11.4 years) and typical children (n = 32, mean age 11.3 years). This entailed testing for group differences in sulcal depth and in 3D coordinates after registering cortical midthickness surfaces to an atlas target using 2 independent registration methods. We identified bilateral differences in sulcal depth in restricted portions of the anterior-insula and frontal-operculum (aI/fO) and in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The aI/fO depth differences are associated with and likely to be caused by a shape difference in the inferior frontal gyrus in children with simplex autism. Comparisons of average midthickness surfaces of children with simplex autism and those of typical children suggest that the significant sulcal depth differences represent local peaks in a larger pattern of regional differences that are below statistical significance when using coordinate-based analysis methods. Cortical regions that are statistically significant before correction for multiple measures are peaks of more extended, albeit subtle regional differences that may guide hypothesis generation for studies using other imaging modalities.

  2. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  3. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  4. Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

  5. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  6. Evaluation of a revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration method for the detection of Cronobacter in powdered infant formula: a collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Noe, Kathy E; Thompson, Sandra; Elems, Carol A; Brown, Eric W; Lampel, Keith A; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-06-01

    A revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method for the isolation and detection of Cronobacter from powdered infant formula was recently developed, which combines real-time PCR, chromogenic agars, and RAPID ID 32E biochemical tests. This method provides an expedient analysis within 24 to 48 h. A collaborative validation study involving four different laboratories was conducted to compare the revised FDA method with the reference FDA method using casein- and soy-based powdered infant formula inoculated with different Cronobacter strains. Valid results from 216 test portions and controls from collaborating laboratories were obtained and showed that the revised FDA method performed significantly better than the reference FDA method. Newly revised PCR protocols and VITEK 2 were also evaluated to be integrated into the complete detection procedure.

  7. The effect of adding tobramycin to Simplex P cement on femoral stem micromotion as measured by radiostereometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous in vitro research on addition of antibiotics to bone cement has found no statistically significant deterioration in mechanical properties. However, no clinical studies have compared the performance of tobramycin-laden bone cement with that of standard bone cement (Simplex P). Patients and Methods 23 patients (25 hips) were randomized to receive an Exeter (Stryker Orthopaedics) femoral stem cemented with either Simplex P (standard) or Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) cement. There were 2 years of follow-up, with scheduled radiostereometric (RSA) examinations. Results All stems migrated distally and showed some degree of retroversion. No clinically significant differences in stem subsidence or retroversion were found between the Simplex T and Simplex P cement groups after 2 years. Overall subsidence was less than in previous studies, probably due to a postponed initial post-surgical examination. Rates of subsidence in both cement groups were consistent with those from previous studies of Exeter stems. Interpretation Subsidence of the femoral stem after 2 years was similar in the Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) and Simplex P (standard) groups. PMID:22248163

  8. Quantification of Anisakis simplex allergens in fresh, long-term frozen, and cooked fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana Isabel; González-Muñoz, Miguel; de las Heras, Cristina; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio

    2010-08-01

    Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses such as Anisakiasis were once limited to people living in countries where raw or undercooked fish is traditionally consumed. Nowadays, several factors, such as the growing international markets, the improved transportation systems, the population movements, and the expansion of ethnic ways of cooking in developed countries, have increased the population exposed to these parasites. Improved diagnosis technology and a better knowledge of the symptoms by clinicians have increased the Anisakiasis cases worldwide. Dietary recommendations to Anisakis-sensitized patients include the consumption of frozen or well-cooked fish, but these probably do not defend sensitized patients from allergen exposure. The aim of our work was to develop a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify Anisakis simplex allergens in fish muscle and its derivatives. Protein extraction was made in saline buffer followed by preparation under acid conditions. A. simplex antigens were detected by IgG immunoblot and quantified by dot blot. The allergenic properties of the extracts were assessed by IgE immunoblotting and basophil activation test. We were able to detect less than 1 ppm of A. simplex antigens, among them the allergen Ani s 4, in fish muscle with no cross-reactions and with a recovery rate of 82.5%. A. simplex antigens were detected in hakes and anchovies but not in sardines, red mullets, or shellfish. We detected A. simplex allergens in cooked hakes and also in hake stock. We proved that A. simplex allergens are preserved in long-term frozen storage (-20 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C for 11 months) of parasitized hakes. Basophil activation tests have proven the capability of the A. simplex-positive fish extracts to induce allergic symptoms.

  9. Causes of the failure and the revision methods for congenital scoliosis due to hemivertebra.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhicai; Li, Quan; Cai, Bin; Yu, Baoqing; Feng, Yuan; Wu, Jibin; Li, Ming; Ran, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the causes of failure in the first operation and the revision procedure for patients with congenital scoliosis due to hemivertebra. Nineteen patients who underwent the revision operations because of failure in the first operation were included in this study. All the malformations were identified as fully segmented hemivertebra, including 16 cases in thoracolumbar vertebra (T10: three patients; T12: seven patients; L1: six patients), and three cases in thoracic vertebra (T8). The causes of failure in the first operation and the outcome of revision procedure for patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were successfully performed the personalized revision surgeries. The failure reasons of the first operation included limitations of the first operation procedure, no or incomplete resection of the malformed hemivertebra, improper operation during surgery, improper internal fixation material, and improper internal fixation scope. The average postoperative scoliosis Cobb's angle and kyphosis Cobb's angle were corrected from 54.1° preoperatively to 23.1° postoperatively, and 59.3° preoperatively to 25.8° postoperatively, respectively. The average postoperative distance between the C7 plumb line and the center sacral vertical line was decreased from 2.5 cm preoperatively to 1.5 cm postoperatively. The average follow-up period was 2.2 years. No serious complication was observed. The cause of the failure of the first operations for the congenital scoliosis due to hemivertebra is verified. Our study may provide a basis for the treatment of congenital scoliosis due to hemivertebra.

  10. Immunological study of the aqueous humor in ocular herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Denis, J

    1976-01-01

    (1) Isolation of herpetic virus and immunological studies of the serum and aqueous humor are two complementary methods of investigation in the diagnosis of ocular herpes simplex infection, their relative value depending on the clinical situation. (2) Of the different immunological techniques that of antibody titration by the hemagglutination method is an easy, sensitive test, but only if the Goldmann-Witner ratio is calculated. By this technique, the diagnosis of herpetic infection can be made in unusual clinical presentations or old cases in which all specificity had disappeared.

  11. A revised automated proximity and conformity analysis method to compare predicted and observed spatial boundaries of geologic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingkui; Napieralski, Jacob; Harbor, Jon

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative assessment of the level of agreement between model-predicted and field-observed geologic data is crucial to calibrate and validate numerical landscape models. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides an opportunity to integrate model and field data and quantify their levels of correspondence. Napieralski et al. [Comparing predicted and observed spatial boundaries of geologic phenomena: Automated Proximity and Conformity Analysis (APCA) applied to ice sheet reconstructions. Computers and Geosciences 32, 124-134] introduced an Automated Proximity and Conformity Analysis (APCA) method to compare model-predicted and field-observed spatial boundaries and used it to quantify the level of correspondence between predicted ice margins from ice sheet models and field observations from end moraines. However, as originally formulated, APCA involves a relatively large amount of user intervention during the analysis and results in an index to quantify the level of correspondence that lacks direct statistical meaning. Here, we propose a revised APCA approach and a more automated and statistically robust way to quantify the level of correspondence between model predictions and field observations. Specifically, the mean and standard deviation of distances between model and field boundaries are used to quantify proximity and conformity, respectively. An illustration of the revised method comparing modeled ice margins of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet with observed end moraines of the Last Glacial Maximum shows that this approach provides a more automated and statistically robust means to quantify correspondence than the original APCA. The revised approach can be adopted for a wide range of geoscience issues where comparisons of model-predicted and field-observed spatial boundaries are useful, including mass movement and flood extents.

  12. A Summary of Revisions Applied to a Turbulence Response Analysis Method for Flexible Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Christie J.; Perry, Boyd, III; Silva, Walter A.; Newman, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A software program and associated methodology to study gust loading on aircraft exists for a classification of geometrically simplified flexible configurations. This program consists of a simple aircraft response model with two rigid and three flexible symmetric degrees-of - freedom and allows for the calculation of various airplane responses due to a discrete one-minus- cosine gust as well as continuous turbulence. Simplifications, assumptions, and opportunities for potential improvements pertaining to the existing software program are first identified, then a revised version of the original software tool is developed with improved methodology to include more complex geometries, additional excitation cases, and additional output data so as to provide a more useful and precise tool for gust load analysis. In order to improve the original software program to enhance usefulness, a wing control surface and horizontal tail control surface is added, an extended application of the discrete one-minus-cosine gust input is employed, a supplemental continuous turbulence spectrum is implemented, and a capability to animate the total vehicle deformation response to gust inputs is included. These revisions and enhancements are implemented and an analysis of the results is used to validate the modifications.

  13. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  14. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Nidhi; Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-05-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  15. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  16. Simplex GPS and InSAR Inversion Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Pierce, Marlon E.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the Earth's surface can be routinely measured with precisions better than centimeters. Processes below the surface often drive these changes and as a result, investigators require models with inversion methods to characterize the sources. Simplex inverts any combination of GPS (global positioning system), UAVSAR (uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar), and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) data simultaneously for elastic response from fault and fluid motions. It can be used to solve for multiple faults and parameters, all of which can be specified or allowed to vary. The software can be used to study long-term tectonic motions and the faults responsible for those motions, or can be used to invert for co-seismic slip from earthquakes. Solutions involving estimation of fault motion and changes in fluid reservoirs such as magma or water are possible. Any arbitrary number of faults or parameters can be considered. Simplex specifically solves for any of location, geometry, fault slip, and expansion/contraction of a single or multiple faults. It inverts GPS and InSAR data for elastic dislocations in a half-space. Slip parameters include strike slip, dip slip, and tensile dislocations. It includes a map interface for both setting up the models and viewing the results. Results, including faults, and observed, computed, and residual displacements, are output in text format, a map interface, and can be exported to KML. The software interfaces with the QuakeTables database allowing a user to select existing fault parameters or data. Simplex can be accessed through the QuakeSim portal graphical user interface or run from a UNIX command line.

  17. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes. PMID:24680072

  18. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  20. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Two Fatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hader, W.; Bayatpour, M.; Dempster, G.; Rozdilsky, B.

    1967-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of the first two reported cases of herpes simplex encephalitis occurring in Saskatchewan are presented. The clinical history of an acute onset, an early organic mental syndrome followed by coma, neurologic disturbances, rapid progression and death suggests the diagnosis. The acute, diffuse, inflammatory process with predominant involvement of the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and the presence of intranuclear inclusions in nerve and glial cells are illustrated. The viral particles were found in electron micrographs from the brain tissue of both patients. The definitive diagnosis was established by the isolation, from postmortem brain tissue, of the herpes simplex virus, which was grown in tissue culture and shown to be pathogenic in suckling mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 7Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4290725

  1. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    PubMed

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  2. Valacyclovir for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pouplin, Thomas; Pouplin, Julie Nguyen; Van Toi, Pham; Lindegardh, Niklas; Rogier van Doorn, H.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Török, M. Estée; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    The recommended treatment for herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains intravenous acyclovir. In resource-poor countries, however, intravenous formulations are usually unavailable or unaffordable. We report the penetration of acyclovir into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with HSE, treated with the oral prodrug valacyclovir at 1,000 mg three times daily. The oral therapy achieved adequate acyclovir concentrations in the CSF and may be an acceptable early treatment for suspected HSE in resource-limited settings. PMID:21576427

  3. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  4. [Diagnostic pitfall: herpes simplex recidivans on the finger].

    PubMed

    Weisenseel, Peter; Sander, Erika; Prinz, Jörg

    2003-11-01

    Herpes simplex recidivans is one of the most common dermatological infections. In typical (perioral, labial or genital) localization, the diagnosis is simple and often made by the patient. In atypical locations, the disease may be misdiagnosed by the physician. A 28-year-old patient presented with recurrent herpes simplex virus exacerbations on his left index finger, accompanied by neuralgic pains and lymphadenitis. He had been misdiagnosed by a variety of specialists for several years and had often been unable to work. The diagnosis of recurrent herpes simplex was made by the patient's history and the clinical symptoms and was confirmed by the detection of Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA by PCR.

  5. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. Methods InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioral, and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Results Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Conclusions Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. PMID:25246424

  6. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  7. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  8. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kestel, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  9. The CREW Method: Expanded Guidelines for Collection Evaluation and Weeding for Small and Medium-Sized Public Libraries. Revised and Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Belinda

    The method called CREW (Continuous Review, Evaluation, and Weeding) integrates material selection and acquisition, cataloging and processing, and circulation and reference into one ongoing routine that assures that all the necessary indirect services are accomplished in an effective way. This revision of the original guide, published in 1976,…

  10. Navigating Tensions in the Process of Change: An English Educator's Dilemma Management in the Revision and Implementation of a Diversity-Infused Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gort, Mileidis; Glenn, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to growing concerns among faculty regarding the lack of attention to the bilingual student population in our pre-service teacher education program, the authors engaged in a shared self-study of the process of revising and implementing a secondary English methods course with explicit attention to the special needs of…

  11. A spectrophotometric assay for quantitative determination of kcat of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Schelling, P; Folkers, G; Scapozza, L

    2001-08-01

    A simple method to determine the in vitro catalytic turnover constant of several substrates of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase is presented in this study. The method is based on a continuous spectroscopic enzyme-coupled assay and allows one to monitor the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase activity in the presence of unlabeled substrates. A clear correlation between the catalytic turnover constant and the rate of decrease in absorbance over time during the assay has been demonstrated. Exploiting this correlation, this method has been used to determine rapidly and precisely the catalytic turnover constant of antiviral lead compounds not readily available in the radioactive labeled form.

  12. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  13. [Study for the revision of analytical method for tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate with restriction in textiles].

    PubMed

    Mimura, Mayumi; Nakashima, Harunobu; Yoshida, Jin; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The official analytical method for tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (TDBPP), which is banned from use in textile products by the "Act on Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances", requires revision. This study examined an analytical method for TDBPP by GC/MS using a capillary column. Thermal decomposition of TDBPP was observed by GC/MS measurement using capillary column, unlike in the case of gas chromatography/flame photometric detector (GC/FPD) measurement based on a direct injection method using a capillary megabore column. A quadratic curve, Y=2572X(1.416), was obtained for the calibration curve of GC/FPD in the concentration range 2.0-100 μg/mL. The detection limit was 1.0 μg/mL under S/N=3. The reproducibility for repetitive injections was satisfactory. A pretreatment method was established using methanol extraction, followed by liquid-liquid partition and purification with a florisil cartridge column. The recovery rate of this method was ~100%. TDBPP was not detected in any of the five commercial products that this study analyzed. To understand the cause of TDBPP decomposition during GC/MS (electron ionization; EI) measurement using capillary column, GC/MS (chemical ionization; CI), GC/FPD, and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) measurements were conducted. It was suggested that TDBPP might thermally decompose both during GC injection, especially through a splitless injection method, and in the column or ion sources. To attempt GC/MS measurement, an injection part comprising quartz liner was used and the column length was halved (15 m); thus, only one peak could be obtained. PMID:24492228

  14. A revised version of the transfer matrix method to analyze one-dimensional structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitzsche, F.

    1983-01-01

    A new and general method to analyze both free and forced vibration characteristics of one-dimensional structures is discussed in this paper. This scheme links for the first time the classical transfer matrix method with the recently developed integrating matrix technique to integrate systems of differential equations. Two alternative approaches to the problem are presented. The first is based upon the lumped parameter model to account for the inertia properties of the structure. The second releases that constraint allowing a more precise description of the physical system. The free vibration of a straight uniform beam under different support conditions is analyzed to test the accuracy of the two models. Finally some results for the free vibration of a 12th order system representing a curved, rotating beam prove that the present method is conveniently extended to more complicated structural dynamics problems.

  15. A Variational Assimilation Method for Satellite and Conventional Data: a Revised Basic Model 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.; Scott, Robert W.; Chen, J.

    1991-01-01

    A variational objective analysis technique that modifies observations of temperature, height, and wind on the cyclone scale to satisfy the five 'primitive' model forecast equations is presented. This analysis method overcomes all of the problems that hindered previous versions, such as over-determination, time consistency, solution method, and constraint decoupling. A preliminary evaluation of the method shows that it converges rapidly, the divergent part of the wind is strongly coupled in the solution, fields of height and temperature are well-preserved, and derivative quantities such as vorticity and divergence are improved. Problem areas are systematic increases in the horizontal velocity components, and large magnitudes of the local tendencies of the horizontal velocity components. The preliminary evaluation makes note of these problems but detailed evaluations required to determine the origin of these problems await future research.

  16. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhar, Reneega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. PMID:26894083

  17. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  18. Improvement of the GRACE star camera data based on the revision of the combination method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandikova, Tamara; Flury, Jakob

    2014-11-01

    The new release of the sensor and instrument data (Level-1B release 02) of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) had a substantial impact on the improvement of the overall accuracy of the gravity field models. This has implied that improvements on the sensor data level can still significantly contribute to arriving closer to the GRACE baseline accuracy. The recent analysis of the GRACE star camera data (SCA1B RL02) revealed their unexpectedly higher noise. As the star camera (SCA) data are essential for the processing of the K-band ranging data and the accelerometer data, thorough investigation of the data set was needed. We fully reexamined the SCA data processing from Level-1A to Level-1B with focus on the combination method of the data delivered by the two SCA heads. In the first step, we produced and compared our own combined attitude solution by applying two different combination methods on the SCA Level-1A data. The first method introduces the information about the anisotropic accuracy of the star camera measurement in terms of a weighing matrix. This method was applied in the official processing as well. The alternative method merges only the well determined SCA boresight directions. This method was implemented on the GRACE SCA data for the first time. Both methods were expected to provide optimal solution characteristic by the full accuracy about all three axes, which was confirmed. In the second step, we analyzed the differences between the official SCA1B RL02 data generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and our solution. SCA1B RL02 contains systematically higher noise of about a factor 3-4. The data analysis revealed that the reason is the incorrect implementation of algorithms in the JPL processing routines. After correct implementation of the combination method, significant improvement within the whole spectrum was achieved. Based on these results, the official reprocessing of the SCA data is suggested, as the SCA attitude data

  19. A New Height Error Revision Method of Predicting Long-Term Wind Speed with MCP Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yujue; Hu, Fei

    2013-04-01

    Wind energy technology is one of the fastest in growing rate in new and renewable energy technologies. It is very important to select stronger windy sites in a country for the purpose of producing more electricity. Measure-Correlate-Predict (MCP) algorithms are used to predict the wind resource at target site for wind power development. MCP method model bases on a relationship between wind data (speed and direction) measured at the target site and concurrent wind data at reference site nearby. The model is then used with long-term data from the reference site to predict the long-term wind speed and direction distributions at the target site. MCP method is in order to be able to determine the annual energy capture of a wind farm located at the target site. Over the last 15 years well over a half dozen of MCP methods in the literature. The MCP algorithms differ in terms of overall approach, model definition, use of direction sectors, and length of the data. Such as 1)a linear regression model; 2)a model using distributions of ratios of wind speeds at two sites; 3)a vector regression method; 4)a method based on the ratio of standard deviations of two data sets, etc. Unfortunately, none of these MCP algorithms can predict wind speed from two sites at different altitudes. If the target site is much higher or lower than the reference site, the result accuracy will be much poorer. Inner Mongolia grassland is known as one of the regions that rich in wind resource in China. The data we use is from three wind measurements, consisting of nearly one year of six layers in XiLinGuoLe of Inner Mongolia . Firstly, we use the maximum likelihood method to estimate k, shape parameter and c, scale parameter of the Weibull function for different time periods. And then we find out that c has a power law function of height, and that k varies as the form of a quadratic function of height and obtains the max value in the height of 10 to100 meters. Finally, we add the height distribution

  20. 78 FR 11619 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Method Request Submission Deadline for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category AGENCY... deadline by which owners or operators of facilities subject to the petroleum and natural gas systems source... facilities subject to the petroleum and natural gas systems source category, subpart W, of the Greenhouse...

  1. Revisions to some parameters used in stochastic-method simulations of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David; Thompson, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation specifies the amplitude spectrum as a function of magnitude (M) and distance (R). The manner in which the amplitude spectrum varies with M and R depends on physical‐based parameters that are often constrained by recorded motions for a particular region (e.g., stress parameter, geometrical spreading, quality factor, and crustal amplifications), which we refer to as the seismological model. The remaining ingredient for the stochastic method is the ground‐motion duration. Although the duration obviously affects the character of the ground motion in the time domain, it also significantly affects the response of a single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator. Recently published updates to the stochastic method include a new generalized double‐corner‐frequency source model, a new finite‐fault correction, a new parameterization of duration, and a new duration model for active crustal regions. In this article, we augment these updates with a new crustal amplification model and a new duration model for stable continental regions. Random‐vibration theory (RVT) provides a computationally efficient method to compute the peak oscillator response directly from the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration. Because the correction factor used to account for the nonstationarity of the ground motion depends on the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration, we also present new RVT correction factors for both active and stable regions.

  2. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  3. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Rachel D; Wells, Audrey M; Carlezon, William A; Cowan, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery.

  4. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  5. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  6. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn.

  7. Refinement Method for Residential Area Revision Using Remote Sensing Image and GIS Data in Earthquake Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, A. X.; Yuan, X. X.; Wang, X. Q.; Li, Z. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an automatic approach for residential areas revision by means of analysing the correlation between the residential area and the topographic and geographical factors. The approach consists of four major steps: the extracting of missing residential area from the remote sensing images with high resolution; the statistic analysing on the size changes of missing residential area in each grade of the elevation, slope, distance from the road and other impact factors; modelling of residential area modification in the urban and rural region; testing the methods using 100 counties data which are located in the middle part of China North-South Seismic Belt and comparing the result to the Land Use in map scale 1:100000. The experimental results present the accuracy of urban residents by 70% increased to 89.4%, rural residents by 47% up to 81.9%, rural residents from 8% increased to 78.5%. Therefore, there is available risk exposure information in a sparsely populated area because the spatial grid distributions of population and buildings are based on the residential areas. The proposed approach in this paper will improve the accuracy of the seismic risk assessment if it is applied to the national or the whole world.

  8. Comparative methods with sampling error and within-species variation: contrasts revisited and revised.

    PubMed

    Felsenstein, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Comparative methods analyses have usually assumed that the species phenotypes are the true means for those species. In most analyses, the actual values used are means of samples of modest size. The covariances of contrasts then involve both the covariance of evolutionary changes and a fraction of the within-species phenotypic covariance, the fraction depending on the sample size for that species. Ives et al. have shown how to analyze data in this case when the within-species phenotypic covariances are known. The present model allows them to be unknown and to be estimated from the data. A multivariate normal statistical model is used for multiple characters in samples of finite size from species related by a known phylogeny, under the usual Brownian motion model of change and with equal within-species phenotypic covariances. Contrasts in each character can be obtained both between individuals within a species and between species. Each contrast can be taken for all of the characters. These sets of contrasts, each the same contrast taken for different characters, are independent. The within-set covariances are unequal and depend on the unknown true covariance matrices. An expectation-maximization algorithm is derived for making a reduced maximum likelihood estimate of the covariances of evolutionary change and the within-species phenotypic covariances. It is available in the Contrast program of the PHYLIP package. Computer simulations show that the covariances are biased when the finiteness of sample size is not taken into account and that using the present model corrects the bias. Sampling variation reduces the power of inference of covariation in evolution of different characters. An extension of this method to incorporate estimates of additive genetic covariances from a simple genetic experiment is also discussed. PMID:18419518

  9. Connecting the dots : analysis, development and applications of the SimpleX algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruip, Chael

    2011-11-01

    The SimpleX radiative transfer method is based on the interpretation of photons as particles interacting on a natural scale: the local mean free path. In our method, light is transported along the lines of an unstructured Delaunay mesh that encodes this natural distance and represents the physical medium. The SimpleX method is fast, highly adaptive and its computational cost does not scale with the number of sources. It is therefore well-suited for cosmological applications where it is essential to cover many orders of magnitude in resolution and where millions of sources can exist within a single simulation. We describe the code, its recent developments and apply it to several relevant astrophysical problems. In particular, we perform radiative transfer calculations of cosmological reionization and of the wind-wind interaction region of the Eta Carinae binary system.

  10. TBARs distillation method: revision to minimize the interference from yellow pigments in meat products.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Auqui, S M; Garrido, M D

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to study the effect of the incubation method and TBA reagent (concentration/solvent) on yellow pigment interference in meat products. Distillates from red sausage, sucrose, malondialdehyde and a mixture of sucrose-malondialdehyde were reacted with four different TBA solutions at five different temperature/time relations. Two TBA solutions were prepared at 20mM using 90% glacial acetic acid or 3.86% perchloric acid. In addition, an 80mM TBA solution was prepared using distilled water adjusted to pH4 and another using 0.8% TBA in distilled water. The temperature/time relations were: (1) 35min in a boiling water bath; (2) 70°C/30min; (3) 40°C/90min; (4) room temperature (r.t.) (24°C) in dark conditions for 20h; and (5) 60min in a boiling water bath. The results showed that aqueous or diluted acid solutions of TBA reagent and the application of 100°C for less than 1h provided the best conditions to minimize the presence of yellow pigments and maximize pink pigment formation in meat products.

  11. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated.

  12. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  13. Ethical Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  14. Studies on the constituents of seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus and their anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities.

    PubMed

    Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu

    2002-04-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus (Leguminosae) resulted in the isolation of nine known components: five rotenoids [dolineone (3), pachyrrhizone (5), 12a-hydroxydolineone (7), 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9), and 12a-hydroxyrotenone (2)], two isoflavonoids [neotenone (4) and dehydroneotenone (8)], one phenylfuranocoumarin [pachyrrhizine (6)], and a monosaccharide (dulcitol). The full 1H- and 13C-NMR assignments for the isolated products except a sugar, including revision of previous assignments in the literature, are reported. Moderate anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity was observed in 12a-hydroxydolineone (7) and 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9) among the isolated products. PMID:11964004

  15. A Revised Method of Presenting Wavenumber-Frequency Power Spectrum Diagrams That Reveals the Asymmetric Nature of Tropical Large-scale Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua

    2007-01-01

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called "convectively-coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves" are presented as existing only in the symmetric (antisymmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves," which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves" do show anti-symmetric components, and "convectively-coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)" do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves be called "chimeric Kelvin waves," "chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves," etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers a more rigorous means of comparing the General Circulation Models (GCM) output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs in correctly simulating the asymmetric characteristics of the equatorial waves.

  16. [Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis: clinical profile versus molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Giannina; Cofré, José; Torres, J Pablo; Venegas, Gerardo; Vergara, Alejandra; Farfán, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a diagnostic challenge and causes high morbidity and mortality in children. Early suspicion of the disease and a rapid, safe and useful diagnostic test are relevant because up to 70% of the cases may die. We report the case of a newborn girl aged 25 days, who presented with a clinical picture that was compatible with herpes simplex encephalitis where the confirmation of the etiological diagnosis was delayed. Only by repeated real-time polymerase chain reaction it was possible to confirm the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid.

  17. Kernel simplex growing algorithm for hyperspectral endmember extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liaoying; Zheng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaorun; Wang, Lijiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively extract endmembers for hyperspectral imagery where linear mixing model may not be appropriate due to multiple scattering effects, this paper extends the simplex growing algorithm (SGA) to its kernel version. A new simplex volume formula without dimension reduction is used in SGA to form a new simplex growing algorithm (NSGA). The original data are nonlinearly mapped into a high-dimensional space where the scatters can be ignored. To avoid determining complex nonlinear mapping, a kernel function is used to extend the NSGA to kernel NSGA (KNSGA). Experimental results of simulated and real data prove that the proposed KNSGA approach outperforms SGA and NSGA.

  18. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    PubMed Central

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA

  19. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  20. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  1. Procedural revision to the use-dilution methods: establishment of maximum log density value for test microbes on inoculated carriers.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F; Pines, Rebecca M; Hamilton, Gordon C

    2012-01-01

    (Staphylococcus aureus) and 964.02 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), were revised in 2009 to include a standardized procedure to measure the log density of the test microbe and to establish a minimum mean log density value of 6.0 (geometric mean of 1.0 x 10(6) CFU/carrier) to qualify the test results. This report proposes setting a maximum mean log density value of 7.0 (geometric mean of 1.0 x 10(7) CFU/carrier) to further standardize the procedure. The minimum value was based on carrier count data collected by four laboratories over an 8-year period (1999-2006). The data have been updated to include an additional 4 years' worth of data (2006-2010) collected by the same laboratories. A total of 512 tests were conducted on products bearing claims against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus with and without an organic soil load (OSL) added to the inoculum (as specified on the product label claim). Six carriers were assayed in each test, for a total of 3072 carriers. Mean log densities for each of the 512 tests were at least 6.0. With the exception of two tests, one for P. aeruginosa without OSL and one for S. aureus with OSL, the mean log densities did not exceed 7.5 (geometric mean of 3.2 x 10(7) CFU/carrier). Across microbes and OSL treatments, the mean log density (+/- SEM) was 6.80 (+/- 0.07) per carrier (a geometric mean of 6.32 x 10(6) CFUlcarrier) and acceptable repeatability (0.28) and reproducibility (0.31) SDs were exhibited. A maximum mean log density per carrier of 7.0 is being proposed here as a validity requirement for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. A modification to the method to allow for dilution of the final test cultures to achieve carrier counts within 6.0-7.0 logs is also being proposed. Establishing a range of 6.0-7.0 logs will help improve the reliability of the method and should allow for more consistent results within and among laboratories.

  2. GPU implementation of the simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Jorge; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging can be used for object detection and for discriminating between different objects based on their spectral characteristics. One of the main problems of hyperspectral data analysis is the presence of mixed pixels, due to the low spatial resolution of such images. This means that several spectrally pure signatures (endmembers) are combined into the same mixed pixel. Linear spectral unmixing follows an unsupervised approach which aims at inferring pure spectral signatures and their material fractions at each pixel of the scene. The huge data volumes acquired by such sensors put stringent requirements on processing and unmixing methods. This paper proposes an efficient implementation of a unsupervised linear unmixing method on GPUs using CUDA. The method finds the smallest simplex by solving a sequence of nonsmooth convex subproblems using variable splitting to obtain a constraint formulation, and then applying an augmented Lagrangian technique. The parallel implementation of SISAL presented in this work exploits the GPU architecture at low level, using shared memory and coalesced accesses to memory. The results herein presented indicate that the GPU implementation can significantly accelerate the method's execution over big datasets while maintaining the methods accuracy.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Weinberg, Adriana; Schmid, D Scott

    2016-06-01

    The most common specimens from immunocompromised patients that are analyzed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are from skin lesions. Many types of assays are applicable to these samples, but some, such as virus isolation and direct fluorescent antibody testing, are useful only in the early phases of the lesions. In contrast, nucleic acid (NA) detection methods, which generally have superior sensitivity and specificity, can be applied to skin lesions at any stage of progression. NA methods are also the best choice, and sometimes the only choice, for detecting HSV or VZV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous or vitreous humor, and from mucosal surfaces. NA methods provide the best performance when reliability and speed (within 24 hours) are considered together. They readily distinguish the type of HSV detected or the source of VZV detected (wild type or vaccine strain). Nucleic acid detection methods are constantly being improved with respect to speed and ease of performance. Broader applications are under study, such as the use of quantitative results of viral load for prognosis and to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy. PMID:27337486

  4. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-15

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC–SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers’ equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC–SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  5. Characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Jonscher, Karen R.; Dooper, Maaike M.W.B.; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Moen, Anders; Daschner, Alvaro; Egaas, Eliann; Christians, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. A. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis) and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. Protein extracts of A. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and IgE-immunostaining. In the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from A. simplex-sensitised patients and proteome data obtained by mass spectrometry. A. simplex proteins were homologous to allergens in other nematodes, insects, and shellfish indicating cross-reactivity. Characteristic marker peptides for relevant A. simplex proteins were described. PMID:27110489

  6. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  7. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  8. Sensitization to Anisakis simplex: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Estrada Rodríguez, J L; Gozalo Reques, F

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been published patients suffering from urticaria or anaphylaxia induced by nematodes usually parasitizing fishs or cephalopode, in whom, Anisakis simplex (AK) sensitization prevalence was detected up to 37%. We tried out a prospective study to evaluate the presence of AK specific-IgE in an asthmatic population, comparing to other group of patients with urticaria. Complaints related to food ingestion were recorded in both, and dietetic measures were advised. Thirteen patients (13/66; 20%) showed AK specific IgE. Nine of them were asthmatics (p < 0.01), and only 4 suffered from urticaria. Four patients, three of them asthmatics, could link symptoms after fishs, cephalopode or, surprisingly, seafood intake, including epigastralgia, rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis, hives, and dyspnea. Atopia was not a consistent status, only five AK sensitized patients also did to common inhalants (all skin prick-test positive to house dust mites). Asthmatic AK-sensitized patients were older than non AK-sensitized asthmatics (46.23 vs 30.1; p < 0.05). The way of sensitization could be inhalative or through digestive mucosa parasitization by live larvae. Possibility that an AK allergen can play a role in adult asthma, should be considered specially in countries with high fish or seafood diet content.

  9. Development of a reservoir type prolonged release system with felodipine via simplex methodology

    PubMed Central

    IOVANOV, RAREŞ IULIU; TOMUŢĂ, IOAN; LEUCUŢA, SORIN EMILIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Felodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that presents good characteristics to be formulated as prolonged release preparations. The aim of the study was the formulation and in vitro characterization of a reservoir type prolonged release system with felodipine, over a 12 hours period using the Simplex method. Methods The first step of the Simplex method was to study the influence of the granules coating method on the felodipine release. Furthermore the influence of the coating polymer type, the percent of the coating polymer and the percent of pore forming agent in the coating on the felodipine release were studied. Afterwards these two steps of the experimental design the percent of Surelease applied on the felodipine loaded granules and the percent of pore former in the polymeric coating formulation variables were studied. The in vitro dissolution of model drug was performed in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.5) with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. The released drug quantification was done using an HPLC method. The release kinetics of felodipine from the final granules was assessed using different mathematical models. Results A 12 hours release was achieved using granules with the size between 315–500 μm coated with 45% Surelease with different pore former ratios in the coating via the top-spray method. Conclusion We have prepared prolonged release coated granules with felodipine using a fluid bed system based on the Simplex method. The API from the studied final formulations was released over a 12 hours period and the release kinetics of the model drug substance from the optimized preparations fitted best the Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models. PMID:27004036

  10. Mycosis inhibits cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, a tettigonid. These behaviors have been proposed as mechanisms for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. After anecdotal observations that Melanoplus sanguinipes and A. simplex did ...

  11. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  12. Bioactive lignan derivatives from the stems of Firmiana simplex.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Suh, Won Se; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Aejung; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-01

    The CHCl3 soluble fraction of the 80% MeOH extract of the stems of Firmiana simplex strongly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 cells. A bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation yielded two new lignans, firmianols A and B (1-2) together with seventeen known lignans (3-19). The structural elucidation of the new compounds was determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-FAB-MS. All isolated lignans were evaluated for their antineuroinflammatory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-activated murine microglia BV2 cells. Among the isolated, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent inhibitory activity against NO production (IC50 1.05 and 0.929 μM, respectively) without cell toxicity in murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 11-13 and 17 also exhibited strong inhibitory effects on NO production, with IC50 values ranging from 7.07 to 15.28 μM.

  13. Position error propagation in the simplex strapdown navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an analysis of the effects of deterministic error sources on position error in the simplex strapdown navigation system were documented. Improving the long term accuracy of the system was addressed in two phases: understanding and controlling the error within the system, and defining methods of damping the net system error through the use of an external reference velocity or position. Review of the flight and ground data revealed error containing the Schuler frequency as well as non-repeatable trends. The only unbounded terms are those involving gyro bias and azimuth error coupled with velocity. All forms of Schuler-periodic position error were found to be sufficiently large to require update or damping capability unless the source coefficients can be limited to values less than those used in this analysis for misalignment and gyro and accelerometer bias. The first-order effects of the deterministic error sources were determined with a simple error propagator which provided plots of error time functions in response to various source error values.

  14. 3D radiative transfer in colliding wind binaries: Application of the SimpleX algorithm to 3D SPH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael; Icke, Vincent; Gull, Theodore

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in a massive binary system. We accomplish this by applying the SIMPLEX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the colliding winds in the binary system η Carinae. We use SIMPLEX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We show how the SIMPLEX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in η Car's extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SIMPLEX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the η Car system, such as the primary's mass-loss rate and the companion's temperature and luminosity. While we initially focus specifically on the η Car binary, the numerical methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR140, WR137, WR19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR104, WR98a) binary systems. One of the biggest remaining mysteries is how dust can form and survive in such systems that contain a hot, luminous O star. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SIMPLEX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  15. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed.

  16. Zebrafish: modeling for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S; Dale, Rodney M; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-02-01

    For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure-function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits.

  17. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  18. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  19. Peer assessment of social reputation in community samples of disruptive and nondisruptive children: utility of the revised class play method.

    PubMed

    Realmuto, G M; August, G J; Sieler, J D; Pessoa-Brandao, L

    1997-03-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Class Play (RCP), a peer assessment measure of social reputation, in epidemiological samples of disruptive (n = 220) and nondisruptive (n = 104) children in Grades 2 through 5. Principal components analyses yielded a four-factor solution that was similar for disruptive and nondisruptive children and to previous research with this instrument. Discriminative function analyses demonstrated that the four RCP dimensions were each successful in predicting group membership, with the leadership and social etiquette dimensions best able to differentiate disruptive and nondisruptive groups. Regression modeling showed that the variance accounted for by the four RCP dimensions was large and varied for specific dimensions based on the criterion variable chosen. The advantages of the RCP as a devise for tracking social competence and peer reputation in high-risk disruptive children are discussed.

  20. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  1. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  2. A pilot application of risk-informed methods to establish inservice inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.K.; Gore, B.F.; Simonen, F.A.; Doctor, S.R.

    1997-02-01

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed risk-informed approaches for inservice inspection plans of nuclear power plants. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results to identify and prioritize the most risk-important components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot application of this methodology. This report, which incorporates more recent plant-specific information and improved risk-informed methodology and tools, is Revision 1 of the earlier report (NUREG/CR-6181). The methodology discussed in the original report is no longer current and a preferred methodology is presented in this Revision. This report, NUREG/CR-6181, Rev. 1, therefore supersedes the earlier NUREG/CR-6181 published in August 1994. The specific systems addressed in this report are the auxiliary feedwater, the low-pressure injection, and the reactor coolant systems. The results provide a risk-informed ranking of components within these systems.

  3. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  4. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method.

  5. The Shortlist Method for Fast Computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and Finding Optimal Solutions to Transportation Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  6. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  7. A New Method for Revision of Encapsulated Blebs after Trabeculectomy: Combination of Standard Bleb Needling with Transconjunctival Scleral Flap Sutures Prevents Early Postoperative Hypotony

    PubMed Central

    Laspas, Panagiotis; Culmann, Philipp David; Grus, Franz Hermann; Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Poplawksi, Alicia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Hoffmann, Esther Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A simple needling procedure is the standard method for restoring the function of an encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy. However, postoperative hypotony represents a possible hazard. This study describes a new surgical approach for treating encapsulated blebs with reduced risk of early postoperative hypotony: bleb needling combined with transconjunctival sutures tightening the scleral flap directly. Methods The study included two groups of 23 patients with failing bleb following trabeculectomy: “Group 1” underwent simple needling revision of the filtering bleb and served as a control group, while “Group 2” received needling revision with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures, if intraoperatively the intraocular pressure was estimated to be very low. Intraocular pressure (IOP), postoperative management and complications were analyzed over a follow-up period of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results Adverse effects occurred with a higher frequency after sole needling of the bleb (5 cases of choroidal effusion and 1 case of choroidal hemorrhage) than after the combined method with additional scleral sutures (1 case of choroidal effusion). The IOP on the first postoperative day was significantly lower in group 1, with 9.43 ± 9.01 mm Hg vs. 16.43 ± 8.35 mm Hg in group 2 (P = 0.01). Ten patients with ocular hypotony (IOD of 5 mmHg or lower) were found in group 1 and only two in group 2. One week and one month after surgery the intraocular pressure was similar in both groups (P>0.05). Conclusions This new needling technique with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures appears to reduce postoperative hypotony, and may thus protect from further complications, such as subchoroidal hemorrhage. PMID:27314495

  8. Mollaret's meningitis and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.

    PubMed

    Farazmand, P; Woolley, P D; Kinghorn, G R

    2011-06-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis is a rare disorder described by Mollaret in 1944. When initially described, this form of aseptic meningitis had no identifiable infecting agent. New sophisticated diagnostic tools have now identified herpes simplex type 2 virus as the most commonly isolated agent. Antiviral treatment has been used successfully for prophylaxis and treatment.

  9. The Law of Cosines for an "n"-Dimensional Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yiren

    2008-01-01

    Using the divergence theorem technique of L. Eifler and N.H. Rhee, "The n-dimensional Pythagorean Theorem via the Divergence Theorem" (to appear: Amer. Math. Monthly), we extend the law of cosines for a triangle in a plane to an "n"-dimensional simplex in an "n"-dimensional space.

  10. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus disease in a professional population.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S L; Rowe, N H; Drach, J C; Shipman, C; Young, S K

    1981-01-01

    By virtue of occupation, dentists are frequently exposed to the herpes simplex virus. The risk of infection by the virus was evaluated by assessing disease experience as shown by history compared with the results of complement fixing or antibody titration tests, or both.

  11. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  12. Nonlinear and Quasi-Simplex Patterns in Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In the SEM literature, simplex and latent growth models have always been considered competing approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data, even if they are strongly connected and both of specific importance. General dynamic models, which simultaneously estimate autoregressive structures and latent curves, have been recently proposed in the…

  13. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  18. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  19. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

    2002-01-01

    Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

  20. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans.

  1. [Herpes simplex virus hepatitis; rare in immunocompetent patients].

    PubMed

    Ozokcu, Leyla; de Bruijckere, Leo M; Jansen, Jan; van den Berge, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman was referred with fever and abdominal pain with peritoneal irritation. A diagnostic laparoscopy showed hepatic lesions. Histopathological investigation of the liver biopsy showed hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). The patient was treated with acyclovir and recovered well. HSV is a rare cause of viral hepatitis and has a high mortality rate.

  2. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  3. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  4. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.

  5. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM.

  6. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  7. Laboratory development and field evaluation of a generic method for sampling and analysis of isocyanates. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, J.F.; Foster, S.C.; Merrill, R.G.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the authority of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, requires the identification and validation of sampling and analytical methods for the isocyanate compounds which are listed among the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. In all, three field tests were performed to accomplish the isocyanate field evaluation. The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the isocyanate sampling and analytical test method through field testing at operating stationary sources. The method was evaluated by collecting flue gas samples for the analysis of the individual isocyanate and evaluating the data for bias and precision. EPA Method 301, Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media, was used as the model for the experimental design of this method evaluation project.

  8. A comparison of response spectrum and direct integration analysis methods as applied to a nuclear component support structure. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, B.J.; Flanders, H.E. Jr.

    1992-12-31

    Seismic qualification of Class I nuclear components is accomplished using a variety of analytical methods. This paper compares the results of time history dynamic analyses of a heat exchanger support structure using response spectrum and time history direct integration analysis methods. Dynamic analysis is performed on the detailed component models using the two methods. A nonlinear elastic model is used for both the response spectrum and direct integration methods. A nonlinear model which includes friction and nonlinear springs, is analyzed using time history input by direct integration. The loads from the three cases are compared.

  9. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the 'EZT method') by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  10. Unexpected but Most Welcome: Mixed Methods for the Validation and Revision of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although combining methods is nothing new, more contributions about why and how to mix methods for validation purposes are needed. This article presents a case of validating the inferences drawn from the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument, an instrument that purports to measure stakeholder participation in evaluation. Although the…

  11. Revised method to detect the onset and demise dates of the rainy season in the South American Monsoon areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Kayano, Mary T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes the detection of dates for the onset and demise of the rainy season (ONR and DER, respectively) for some areas within the South American monsoon system (SAMS) region using procedures based on indices which could be easily calculated and subjected to very simple criterion. Previously, the time series of the averaged antisymmetric outgoing longwave radiation ([AOLR]) in each region of interest was used by some authors to detect ONR and DER. This method is referred to as OLD. First, it was proposed in this paper to smooth this time series with the five-pentad running mean ([RM_AOLR]). This modified method is called NEW. Then, an additional modification was adopted by smoothing the [AOLR] with the three-pentad running mean but with the [AOLR] in the most recent pentad being replaced by its climatological value ([RM_AOLRCLI]). This method is called NEW_CLI. For these methods, the criterion was that the first pentad with negative (positive) [AOLR] (or [RM_AOLR] or [RM_AOLRCLI]) is the ONR (DER) date in the region of interest. All these methods were applied for the Central Amazon (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) regions during the rainy seasons in the 2001-2013 period. The efficiency of these methods was analyzed using the precipitation estimated from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. The spatial average of the TRMM ([TRMM]) time series with threshold values, which depends on the area and season, was used to determine the ONR and DER dates. In this case, the single method based on the threshold value is called RAIN, and the method which considers the persistence of dry or wet condition is referred to as NEW_RAIN. Comparisons between the methods were performed by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) when ONR and DER dates obtained from a given method were considered as the true dates. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods were discussed here. It was previously noted that the

  12. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  13. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  14. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W.; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient’s first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified. PMID:27774355

  15. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  16. Herpes simplex virus bronchiolitis in a cannabis user

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Bocelli, Lisa; Fraire, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) lower respiratory tract infections in adults are uncommon. We present a case of HSV bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in an immunocompetent individual, likely linked to chronic habitual marijuana use and a herpetic orolabial ulcer. The case serves as a reminder to consider HSV as a potential unusual cause of lower respiratory tract infection/inflammation in individuals with chronic habitual marijuana use. PMID:26912481

  17. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  18. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  19. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  20. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

  1. Using an interlaboratory study to revise methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Soucek, Dave; Taylor, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to refine US Environmental Protection Agency, ASTM International, and Environment Canada standard methods for conducting 42-d reproduction tests with Hyalella azteca in water or in sediment. Modifications to the H. azteca method include better-defined ionic composition requirements for exposure water (i.e., >15 mg/L of chloride and >0.02 mg/L of bromide) and improved survival, growth, and reproduction with alternate diets provided as increased rations over time in water-only or whole-sediment toxicity tests. A total of 24 laboratories volunteered to participate in the present interlaboratory study evaluating the performance of H. azteca in 42-d studies in control sand or control sediment using the refined methods. Improved growth and reproduction of H. azteca was observed with 2 alternate diets of 1) ramped diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) + ramped Tetramin or 2) yeast–cerophyll–trout chow (YCT) + ramped Tetramin, especially when compared with results from the traditional diet of 1.8 mg YCT/d. Laboratories were able to meet proposed test acceptability criteria and in most cases had lower variation in growth or reproduction compared with previous interlaboratory studies using the traditional YCT diet. Laboratory success in conducting 42-d H. azteca exposures benefited from adherence to several key requirements of the detailed testing, culturing, and handling methods. Results from the present interlaboratory study are being used to help revise standard methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with H. azteca.

  2. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  3. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  4. Simplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of Herculex RW (59122) maize based on one reference molecule including separated fragments of 5' integration site and endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Shu; Shen, Kailin; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reference molecules, as positive controls and calibrators, have been recently developed in genetically modified organism analysis as a potential substitute for reference materials derived from plant raw materials. In this study, a novel reference molecule p59122, including the revealed 5' integration sequence of maize Herculex RW (59122), was constructed that was suitable for simplex and duplex event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detections. The LOD values were 10 copies both for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR when p59122 was used as the calibrator. These values were comparable to those of using genomic DNA samples with 0.01 and 0.05%, approximately 5 and 25 hyploid genomic DNA copies, respectively. The absolute LOD and LOQ values were confirmed to be as low as 10 and 25 copies of p59122 DNA both in simplex and duplex quantitative systems. Furthermore, ideal quantification data with low bias, SD and RSD values were obtained from the practical samples analyses in simplex and duplex real-time PCR systems using the reference molecule p59122 as a calibrator. All these results suggested that the developed reference molecule p59122 and the qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods are suitable for identification and quantification of GM maize 59122 and its derived products. PMID:19916386

  5. Simplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of Herculex RW (59122) maize based on one reference molecule including separated fragments of 5' integration site and endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Shu; Shen, Kailin; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reference molecules, as positive controls and calibrators, have been recently developed in genetically modified organism analysis as a potential substitute for reference materials derived from plant raw materials. In this study, a novel reference molecule p59122, including the revealed 5' integration sequence of maize Herculex RW (59122), was constructed that was suitable for simplex and duplex event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detections. The LOD values were 10 copies both for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR when p59122 was used as the calibrator. These values were comparable to those of using genomic DNA samples with 0.01 and 0.05%, approximately 5 and 25 hyploid genomic DNA copies, respectively. The absolute LOD and LOQ values were confirmed to be as low as 10 and 25 copies of p59122 DNA both in simplex and duplex quantitative systems. Furthermore, ideal quantification data with low bias, SD and RSD values were obtained from the practical samples analyses in simplex and duplex real-time PCR systems using the reference molecule p59122 as a calibrator. All these results suggested that the developed reference molecule p59122 and the qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods are suitable for identification and quantification of GM maize 59122 and its derived products.

  6. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  7. Demonstration of Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani-Khasraghi, Sahar; Ameli, Mitra; Khalily, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study sought to investigate molecular evidence for association between the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in CRC and colorectal polyp by using the PCR method in Iran. Methods: In this analytical case-control study, we selected 15 patients with CRC, 20 patients with colorectal polyp, and 35 patients without malignancy as controls. After DNA extraction, PCR was used to determine HSV, CMV, and EBV genome by specific primers. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 tests. Results: Our findings demonstrated that there is no direct molecular evidence to support the association between HSV, CMV, and EBV and human colorectal malignancies. Conclusion: The results from this study do not exclude a possible oncogenic role of these viruses in neoplastic development of colon cells. PMID:26975327

  8. Cytotoxic polyketide derivatives from the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinrong; Tang, Xuli; Li, Jing; Li, Peifeng; de Voogd, Nicole J; Ni, Xiaoqin; Jin, Xiaojie; Yao, Xiaojun; Li, Pinglin; Li, Guoqiang

    2013-04-26

    Five new polyketides, plakortoxides A (1) and B (2), simplextones C (3) and D (4), and plakorsin D (5), together with six known analogues (6-11) were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods, including NMR, MS, and IR. Experimental and calculated ECD spectra and the modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. Structurally, both plakortoxides A and B feature a butenolide coupled to an epoxide moiety, while simplextones C and D consist of γ-butyrolactone and cyclopentane moieties, and plakorsin D is a furan acetic acid polyketide. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates were tested, and compounds 8, 10, and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against both K562 and HeLa tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 5.3 μM. Compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity against c-Met kinase.

  9. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of the wild edible cruciferous: Diplotaxis simplex.

    PubMed

    Jdir, Hamida; Khemakham, Bassem; Najjaa, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Jridi, Mourad; Ben Arfa, Abdelkarim; Ben Ali, Yassine; Zouari, Nacim

    2016-10-01

    Context The present study deals with new biological properties of the wild edible Diplotaxis simplex (Viv.) Spreng (Brassicaceae). Objectives The current study evaluates the antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory and the anti-cancer properties of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from D. simplex flowers. Materials and methods The anti-proliferative activity of the extracts (10-70 μg/mL) was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of the extracts (1.5-7.5 mg/mL) on phospholipase A2 activity as well as on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Extracts (200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (50 mg/kg) as positive control were injected intraperitoneally for albino mice prior to the induction of the oedema by carrageenan. Antioxidant activities were investigated using various complementary methods. Results Flower extracts contained a high level of polyphenolics (17.10-52.70 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (74.20-100.60 mg QE/g), which correlate with its appreciable antioxidant potential in β-carotene peroxidation (IC50 value: 12.50-27.10 μg/mL), DPPH(•) radical-scavenging (IC50 value: 0.20-0.40 mg/mL), Fe(3+ )reducing (EC50 value: 0.10-0.14 mg/mL) and Fe(2+ )chelating (IC50 value: 0.20-0.60 mg/mL) assays. These extracts were effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth (IC50 value: 62.0-63.25 μg/mL). Besides, the ethyl acetate extract inhibited phospholipase A2 activity (IC50 value: 2.97 mg/mL) and reduced the paw oedema in mice (from 0.38 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 cm), 4 h post-carrageenan challenge. Conclusion These data suggest that D. simplex may be useful as a candidate in the treatment of inflammation and the colon cancer. PMID:26916801

  11. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  12. The Dynamics of HCF-1 Modulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Chromatin during Initiation of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection of herpes simplex virus is dependent upon chromatin modulation by the cellular coactivator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). This review focuses on the multiple chromatin modulation components associated with HCF-1 and the chromatin-related dynamics mediated by this coactivator that lead to the initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early gene expression. PMID:23698399

  13. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of finfish to inactivate Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Dong, Faye M; Cook, Allison R; Herwig, Russell P

    2003-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for treating food to reduce the number of pathogenic organisms and to extend shelf life. Most research in this area has focused on bacteria. However, a concern in the sashimi (raw fish) industry is that nematode worms such as Anisakis simplex occur naturally in cold-water marine fish. The objectives of this research were to perform a pilot study to determine the effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the viability of Anisakis simplex larvae, commonly found in king salmon and arrowtooth flounder, and to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the color and texture of the fish fillets. Pieces of fish (ca. 100 g per bag) containing 13 to 118 larvae were exposed to pressures of up to 80,000 lb/in2 (552 MPa) for up to 180 s. The times and pressures required to kill 100% of the larvae were as follows: 30 to 60 s at 60,000 lb/in2 (414 MPa), 90 to 180 s at 40,000 lb/in2 (276 MPa), and 180 s at 30,000 lb/in2 (207 MPa). For all salmon treatments that killed 100% of the larvae, a significant increase in the whiteness of the flesh was observed. Although high hydrostatic pressure was effective in killing A. simplex larvae in raw fish fillets, its significant effect on the color and overall appearance of the fillet may limit its application to the processing of fish for raw-fish markets.

  14. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions.

  15. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice.

  16. Rapid diagnosis and quantification of herpes simplex virus with a green fluorescent protein reporter system.

    PubMed

    Kung, S H; Wang, Y C; Lin, C H; Kuo, R L; Liu, W T

    2000-11-01

    A genetically modified cell line (Vero-ICP10-EGFP) was constructed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by a simple, rapid and direct method. The cell line was developed by stable transfection of Vero cell with a plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter of the HSV-2 ICP10 gene. As early as 6 h after infection with HSV, fluorescence-emitting cells can be observed under a fluorescence microscope. A single infected cell emitting fluorescence can be observed with soft agar overlay by inverted fluorescence microscopy. No induction of detectable fluorescence was seen following infections with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. Analysis by flow cytometry also demonstrated that intensity of the triggered fluorescence is proportional to the titer of HSV inoculated. Taken together, this novel GFP reporter system could become a useful means for rapid detection and quantification of HSV in clinical specimens.

  17. Near instrument-free, simple molecular device for rapid detection of herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Bertrand; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2012-06-01

    The first near instrument-free, inexpensive and simple molecular diagnostic device (IsoAmp HSV, BioHelix Corp., MA, USA) recently received US FDA clearance for use in the detection of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) in genital and oral lesion specimens. The IsoAmp HSV assay uses isothermal helicase-dependent amplification in combination with a disposable, hermetically-sealed, vertical-flow strip identification. The IsoAmp HSV assay has a total test-to-result time of less than 1.5 h by omitting the time-consuming nucleic acid extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are comparable to PCR and are superior to culture-based methods. The near instrument-free, rapid and simple characteristics of the IsoAmp HSV assay make it potentially suitable for point-of-care testing.

  18. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  19. Feedforward suppression of force ripple based on a simplex-optimized dither signal.

    PubMed

    Tan, K K; Chin, S J; Dou, H F

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a feedforward dither signal to reduce the force ripple in an iron-core permanent magnet linear motor (PMLM). A composite control structure is used, consisting of three components: a simple feedforward component, a PID feedback component, and a ripple compensator (RC). The first two components are designed based on a dominant linear model of the motor. The dither signal is generated based on a signal model which is identified using a multidimensional simplex downhill method. In this way, a simple approach is available to eliminate or suppress the inherent force ripple, thus facilitating smooth precise motion while uncompromising on the maximum force achievable. Real-time experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for high precision motion trajectory tracking.

  20. Manipulation of herpes simplex virus type 1 by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M P; Morgan, H; Rixon, F J; Burt, J P; Pethig, R

    1998-09-16

    The frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic behaviour of an enveloped mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 is described. It is demonstrated that over the range 10 kHz-20 MHz, these viral particles, when suspended in an aqueous medium of conductivity 5 mS m(-1), can be manipulated by both positive and negative dielectrophoresis using microfabricated electrode arrays. The observed transition from positive to negative dielectrophoresis at frequencies around 4.5 MHz is in qualitative agreement with a simple model of the virus as a conducting particle surrounded by an insulating membrane.

  1. [Virus-induced anorectal diseases. Condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Wienert, V

    2004-03-01

    Genital warts (condylomata acuminata) are very common sexually transmitted infections which may be present in perianal, anal and rarely rectal sites. Their incidence in the population is about 0.1%. As a rule, the diagnosis is simple and can be made by inspection; some variants pose a diagnostic challenge. The therapy is not uniform; it must be adjusted to the clinical manifestations and can be conservative or operative. Herpes simplex infections are also common; they too may be transferred by sexual intercourse and then commonly appear in the perianal skin and the rectal mucosa. While the clinical diagnosis is often difficult, the treatment is simple and effective.

  2. Linearized dynamics from the 4-simplex Regge action

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Bianca; Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone

    2007-11-15

    We study the relation between the Hessian matrix of the Riemannian Regge action on a 4-simplex and linearized quantum gravity. We give an explicit formula for the Hessian as a function of the geometry, and show that it has a single zero mode. We then use a 3D lattice model to show that (i) the zero mode is a remnant of the continuum diffeomorphism invariance, and (ii) we recover the complete free graviton propagator in the continuum limit. The results help clarify the structure of the boundary state needed in the recent calculations of the graviton propagator in loop quantum gravity, and, in particular, its role in fixing the gauge.

  3. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  4. A Simplex-Like Algorithm for Fisher Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsul, Bharat; Babu, Ch. Sobhan; Garg, Jugal; Mehta, Ruta; Sohoni, Milind

    We propose a new convex optimization formulation for the Fisher market problem with linear utilities. Like the Eisenberg-Gale formulation, the set of feasible points is a polyhedral convex set while the cost function is non-linear; however, unlike that, the optimum is always attained at a vertex of this polytope. The convex cost function depends only on the initial endowments of the buyers. This formulation yields an easy simplex-like pivoting algorithm which is provably strongly polynomial for many special cases.

  5. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection.

  6. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  7. Type I and Type II Error Rates and Overall Accuracy of the Revised Parallel Analysis Method for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional parallel analysis (T-PA) estimates the number of factors by sequentially comparing sample eigenvalues with eigenvalues for randomly generated data. Revised parallel analysis (R-PA) sequentially compares the "k"th eigenvalue for sample data to the "k"th eigenvalue for generated data sets, conditioned on"k"-…

  8. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sarah A.; Strickler, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy. PMID:25815228

  9. Unusual initial presentation of herpes simplex virus as inguinal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sarah A; Strickler, John G

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Biocompatible Microemulsions Against Aspergillus niger and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Mayson H; Aly, Magda M; Rahbeni, Rajaa A; Balamash, Khadijah S

    2016-01-01

    Background Microemulsions (MEs), which consist of oil, water, surfactants, and cosurfactants, have recently generated considerable interest as antimicrobial agents. Objectives To determine the antifungal and antiviral activities of three ME formulations (MEa, MEb, and MEc) that differ in their hydrophilicity. Methods The ME formulas were produced by mixing different fractions of Tween 80, Span 20, ethanol, oil, isopropyl myristate, and distilled water. The antifungal activity of the ME formulas against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Bacillus, Candida albicans, and C. glabrata were determined by the solid medium diffusion cytotoxicity test against the mitochondria, measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration, dry biomass, and leakage of potassium, and characterizing the cell morphology. The antiviral activities of the ME formulas against the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were determined using the cytopathic effect assay. Results Significant antimicrobial activities were recorded against A. niger and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) when treated with MEb that had hydrophobic nanodroplets with an average diameter of 4.7 ± 1.22 nm. A volume of 0.1 mL of MEb (10 mL of potato dextrose broth) inhibited the germination of A. niger cells, reduced their dry biomass, enhanced the leakage of potassium from the cell membranes, affected their mitochondria, and altered the shape of their conidia, in addition to enlarging them. MEb was able to destroy the HSV-2 virus at a 200-fold dilution in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium. Conclusions The water-in-oil ME with equivalent surfactant-to-oil ratio (MEb) has great potential as an antifungal and antiviral agent. PMID:27800146

  11. Automated gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning with image registration, data-mining, and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuan J.; Barber, David C.; Walton, Lee

    2006-07-15

    Gamma knife treatments are usually planned manually, requiring much expertise and time. We describe a new, fully automatic method of treatment planning. The treatment volume to be planned is first compared with a database of past treatments to find volumes closely matching in size and shape. The treatment parameters of the closest matches are used as starting points for the new treatment plan. Further optimization is performed with the Nelder-Mead simplex method: the coordinates and weight of the isocenters are allowed to vary until a maximally conformal plan specific to the new treatment volume is found. The method was tested on a randomly selected set of 10 acoustic neuromas and 10 meningiomas. Typically, matching a new volume took under 30 seconds. The time for simplex optimization, on a 3 GHz Xeon processor, ranged from under a minute for small volumes (<1000 cubic mm, 2-3 isocenters), to several tens of hours for large volumes (>30 000 cubic mm,>20 isocenters). In 8/10 acoustic neuromas and 8/10 meningiomas, the automatic method found plans with conformation number equal or better than that of the manual plan. In 4/10 acoustic neuromas and 5/10 meningiomas, both overtreatment and undertreatment ratios were equal or better in automated plans. In conclusion, data-mining of past treatments can be used to derive starting parameters for treatment planning. These parameters can then be computer optimized to give good plans automatically.

  12. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  13. Limb hypoplasia resulting from intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carola, D; Skibo, M; Cannon, S; Cam, K M; Hyde, P; Aghai, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus, although very rare, has devastating effects on multiple organ systems in the fetus and can lead to in utero fetal demise. Neonates born following intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection commonly manifest with cutaneous lesions, ocular damage and/or brain abnormalities. We describe the case of a dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation complicated by intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. This infection led to the fetal demise of twin A and a very uncommon presentation of limb hypoplasia in twin B.

  14. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  15. Haemoglobin, a new major allergen of Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Juan; Daschner, Alvaro; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L; Frutos, Consolación De; Valls, Ana; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-allergic anisakiasis and Anisakis sensitisation associated chronic urticaria are diseases which differ in their IgE and IgG4 responses against both crude extract and specific allergens. Anisakis and Ascaris are closely related nematodes that usually cause problems with specificity in immunodiagnostics. In this study we measured IgE and IgG4 antibodies against Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s. l.) and Ascaris suum haemoglobins in sera of 21 gastro-allergic anisakiasis and 23 chronic urticaria patients. We used a capture ELISA with the anti-Anisakis haemoglobin monoclonal antibody 4E8g, which also recognises Ascaris haemoglobin. In addition, we determined specific IgE and IgG4 to both nematodes by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. Anti-A. simplex s. l. haemoglobin IgE and IgG4 levels were higher in gastro-allergic anisakiasis than in chronic urticaria patients (P=0.002 and 0.026, respectively). Surprisingly, no patient had detectable IgE levels against A. suum haemoglobin. Finally, we carried out an in silico study of the B-cell epitopes of both haemoglobin molecules. Five epitopes were predicted in Anisakis pegreffii and four in A. suum haemoglobin. The epitope propensity values of Anisakis haemoglobin in the equivalent IgE binding region of the allergenic haemoglobin Chi t 1 from Chironomus thummi, were higher those of the Ascaris haemoglobin. In conclusion, we describe A. simplex haemoglobin as a new major allergen (Ani s 13), being recognised by a large number (64.3%) of sensitised patients and up to 80.9% in patients with gastro-allergic anisakiasis. The presence of a specific epitope and the different values of epitope propensity between Anisakis and Ascaris haemoglobin could explain the lack of cross-reactivity between the two molecules. The absence of IgE reactivity to Ascaris haemoglobin in Anisakis patients makes Anisakis haemoglobin (Ani s 13) a potential candidate for developing more specific diagnosis tools. PMID:25683373

  16. Photocytotoxic pheophorbide-related compounds from Aglaonema simplex.

    PubMed

    Chee, Chin-Fei; Lee, Hong Boon; Ong, Hean Chooi; Ho, Anthony Siong-Hock

    2005-12-01

    In our screening program for new photosensitizers from the Malaysian biodiversity, we found five pheophorbide-related compounds from the leaves and stems of Aglaonema simplex. Detailed spectroscopic analyses showed that compounds 1-3 and 5 are pheophorbide and hydroxy pheophorbide derivatives of chlorophyll a and b. Compound 4, identified as 15(1)-hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone ethyl methyl diester, was isolated for the first time from the Araceae family. An MTT-based short-term survival assay showed that all five compounds exhibit moderate-to-strong photocytotoxic activities towards human leukemia (HL60) and two oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2 and HSC-3). Compounds 4 and 5 showed the strongest photocytotoxicities, with IC(50) values of 0.30-0.41 muM (Table 2). Compounds 1-3 with Et chains at C(17(3)) were less photocytotoxic than the parent pheophorbide a (5).

  17. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  18. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  19. Analysis of test data on the simplex strapdown navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of test data taken on the simplex strapdown navigation system were presented. That system consisted of the following components: strapdown platform, altimeter, digital computer, tape recorder, typewriter, and power source. The objective of these tests was to isolate error sources which may cause degradation of the system's accuracy and to recommend appropriate changes to the system test procedures or computer software. The following recommendations were made: (1) addition of a gyro compassing alignment program into the navigation program, (2) addition of line drivers at the signal processor end of the transmission line, (3) need for extensive laboratory testing to determine sensor misalignments, biases, and scale factors, (4) need to stabilize the power source to prevent transients during power transfer, (5) need to isolate and eliminate the source of the large noise inputs.

  20. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  1. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  2. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  3. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  4. Transmission Disequilibrium of Small CNVs in Simplex Autism

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Niklas; O’Roak, Brian J.; Karakoc, Emre; Mohajeri, Kiana; Nelson, Ben; Vives, Laura; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphe; Eichler, Evan E.

    2013-01-01

    We searched for disruptive, genic rare copy-number variants (CNVs) among 411 families affected by sporadic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Simons Simplex Collection by using available exome sequence data and CoNIFER (Copy Number Inference from Exome Reads). Compared to high-density SNP microarrays, our approach yielded ∼2× more smaller genic rare CNVs. We found that affected probands inherited more CNVs than did their siblings (453 versus 394, p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19) and that the probands’ CNVs affected more genes (921 versus 726, p = 0.02; OR = 1.30). These smaller CNVs (median size 18 kb) were transmitted preferentially from the mother (136 maternal versus 100 paternal, p = 0.02), although this bias occurred irrespective of affected status. The excess burden of inherited CNVs among probands was driven primarily by sibling pairs with discordant social-behavior phenotypes (p < 0.0002, measured by Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS] score), which contrasts with families where the phenotypes were more closely matched or less extreme (p > 0.5). Finally, we found enrichment of brain-expressed genes unique to probands, especially in the SRS-discordant group (p = 0.0035). In a combined model, our inherited CNVs, de novo CNVs, and de novo single-nucleotide variants all independently contributed to the risk of autism (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that small transmitted rare CNVs play a role in the etiology of simplex autism. Importantly, the small size of these variants aids in the identification of specific genes as additional risk factors associated with ASD. PMID:24035194

  5. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  6. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.

  7. Gasification of Simplex briquets: briquet production. Vol. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A 7-ton/hr briquetting plant was installed at International Briquetting in Baltimore, Maryland, and used to produce 360 tons of Simplex briquets from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, Champion No. 1 mine caking coal and shredded, air-classified Baltimore County refuse. The production of these briquets was funded by the Department of Energy, through the US Bureau of Mines, and a consortium comprised of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Company. This report describes the briquetting plant and discusses the problems that were encountered in producing the briquets. The following modifications are recommended for future Simplex briquetting plants: drying equipment should be installed on the RDF feed system to ensure that the RDF moisture is below 18%; the crushed coal must be dried to less than 4% moisture to ensure its free flow in the bins; magnets should be installed above the coal and RDF feed conveyors to remove any tramp metal; a 3/4-inch screen should be installed over the coal feed bin to remove any oversize rocks or lump coal; the RDF handling system and turbulizer discharge to the press should all be enclosed for dust control (the enclosures should be vented to a baghouse); only heavy duty apron conveyors should be used where belt conveyors are needed; briquetts should be cured if they are going to be stored in containers where they might sweat; and a screen with 1 1/4-inch openings should be used to remove the fines from 2 1/4-inch briquets (this screen should be sufficiently large to prevent briquets from crowding together on the screen).

  8. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  9. Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby.

  10. Scar Revision Surgery: The Patient's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Methods Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Results Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Conclusions Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision. PMID:26618120

  11. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  12. Results of Wagner SL revision stem with impaction bone grafting in revision total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Somesh P; Bhalodiya, Haresh P

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the number of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed increases, so do the number of required revisions. Impaction bone grafting with Wagner SL Revision stem is a good option for managing bone deficiencies arising from aseptic osteolysis. We studied the results of cementless diaphyseal fixation in femoral revision after total hip arthroplasty and whether there was spontaneous regeneration of bone stock in the proximal femur after the use of Wagner SL Revision stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) with impaction bone grafting. Materials and Methods: We performed 53 hip revisions using impaction bone grafting and Wagner SL Revision stems in 48 patients; (5 cases were bilateral) for variety of indications ranging from aseptic osteolysis to preiprosthetic fractures. The average age was 59 years (range 44-68 years). There were 42 male and 6 female patients. Four patients died after surgery for reasons unrelated to surgery. 44 patients were available for complete analysis. Results: The mean Harris Hip Score was 42 before surgery and improved to 86 by the final followup evaluation at a mean point of 5.5 years. Of the 44 patients, 87% (n=39) had excellent results and 10% (n=5) had good results. The stem survival rate was 98% (n=43). Conclusion: Short term results for revision THA with impaction bone grafting and Wagner SL revision stems are encouraging. However, it is necessary to obtain long term results through periodic followup evaluation, as rate of complications may increase in future. PMID:23960279

  13. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  14. Antioxidant, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity and anthelmintic activities against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana of yakuchinone A from Alpinia oxyphylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia oxyphylla is a common remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. Yakuchinone A is a major constituent of A. oxyphylla and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and gastric protective activities. Methods Antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of yakuchinone A in skin cancer cells as well as novel mechanisms for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana adults, and nematocidal activities against Anisakis simplex larvae are investigated. Results Yakuchinone A presents the ability of the removal of DPPH·and ABTS+ free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Yakuchinone A suppresses intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells and the expressions of leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Yakuchinone A induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in skin cancer cells. The inhibition of cell growth by yakuchinone A is more significant for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells than for melanoma (A375 and B16) and noncancerous (HaCaT and BNLCL2) cells. Treatment BCC cells with yakuchinone A shows down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax, and an increase in cleavage poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This suggests that yakuchinone A induces BCC cells apoptosis through the Bcl-2-mediated signaling pathway. The anthelmintic activities of yakuchinone A for A. simplex are better than for H. nana. Conclusions In this work, yakuchinone A exhibits antioxidative properties, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity, and anthelmintic activities against A. simplex and H. nana. PMID:24070160

  15. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas.

  16. Scar revision - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery to revise scars is done while the patient is awake, sleeping (sedated), or deep asleep and pain-free (local anesthesia or general anesthesia). Massive injuries (such as burns) can cause loss of a large area of ...

  17. Anti herpes simplex-1 activity of a standard extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Ansari-Dogaheh, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Heidarbeigi, Mahnaz

    2013-02-15

    In Rosmarinic Acid (RA) is a phenolic acid which has many biological activities such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory and anti viral effects. In the present study, we have studied the anti Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) effect of methanolic extract of Zataria multiflora which has been standardized on the basis of RA content. Methanolic extract of Zatria multiflora was prepared by maceration method. RA content of plant extract was measured by spectrophotometry method using the calibration curve of RA. Maximum non Toxic Concentration (MNTC) of the plant was determined by neutral red method. MNTC and lower serial dilutions of extract were examined in vitro on vero cells for their effect against HSV-1 using a plaque reduction assay. Acyclovir was used as positive control. Time-dependent antiviral effect of Z. multiflora was studied by adding the extract to HSV-1 infected vero cells at different stages of infection. The percentage of RA was determined as 2.2% in Z. multiflora. This plant was effective in all used concentrations and significantly reduced plaque formation up to 100% at concentrations of 800 and 1000 microg mL(-1). Clearly Z. multiflora revealed both a time and concentration inhibition. It seems that the presence of rosmarinic acid would be a determining factor for anti HSV activity of Z. multiflora.

  18. Herpes simplex virus-cell interactions studied by immunogold cryosection electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    A technique is presented for high-resolution postembedding immunolocalization of one or two (or several) antigens in the same ultrathin cryosection using primary monoclonal antibodies from the same species. The optimized three-layer indirect immunogold-labeled cryosection electron microscopy described is recommended for studies of virus-cell interactions, because: (1) it is a simple and reproducible method; (2) colloidal gold markers are electron-dense, stable, and easy to recognize; (3) the membraneous ultrastructure and immunolabeling are well preserved; (4) immunolabeling is less in the two-layer method; (5) silver-enhanced gold particles vary in size and shape; (6) it is possible to demonstrate herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins gC-1 and gD-1 in the nuclear membranes and gC-1- and gD-1-labeled viral particles in the perinuclear space and to observe virions in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi area. The use of buffered 3% paraformaldehyde plus 2% glutaraldehyde for 2 h at room temperature effectively destroys free anti-IgG binding sites on the secondary antibodies in double-labeling immunogold cryosection electron microscopy and is recommended because: (1) inactivation is obtained through buffered primary fixative; (2) the method is simple and reproducible; (3) cross-labeling is effectively avoided; (4) silver-intensification, high temperature, and methyl cellulose cover of ultrathin cryosections are avoided between the staining sequences; and (5) ultrastructure and antigenicity are well preserved.

  19. Revision of failed humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Streubel, Philipp N.; Simone, Juan P.; Cofield, Robert H.; Sperling, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of a consecutive series of patients who underwent revision surgery after humeral head resurfacing (HHR). Our joint registry was queried for all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for failed HHR at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Eleven consecutive patients (average age 54 years; range 38-69 years) that underwent revision of 11 resurfacing arthroplasties were identified. The primary indication for resurfacing had been osteoarthritis in six, glenoid dysplasia in two, a chondral lesion in two, and postinstability arthropathy in one patient. The indication for revision was pain in 10 and infection in one patient. Seven patients had undergone an average of 1.9 surgeries prior to resurfacing (range 1-3). Materials and Methods: All patients were revised to stemmed arthroplasties, including one hemiarthroplasty, two reverse, and eight anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties at a mean 33 months after primary resurfacing (range 10-131 months). A deltopectoral approach was used in seven patients; four patients required an anteromedial approach due to severe scarring. Subscapularis attenuation was found in four cases, two of which required reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone grafting was required in one glenoid and three humeri. Results: At a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (range 1.6-6.9 years), modified Neer score was rated as satisfactory in five patients and unsatisfactory in six. Abduction and external rotation improved from 73° to 88° (P = 0.32) and from 23° to 32° (P = 0.28) respectively. Reoperation was required in two patients, including one hematoma and one revision for instability. Conclusion: Outcomes of revision of HHR arthroplasty in this cohort did not improve upon those reported for revision of stemmed humeral implants. A comparative study would be required to allow for definitive conclusions to be made. PMID:26980986

  20. Recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 strains with targeted mutations relevant for aciclovir susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Brunnemann, Anne-Kathrin; Liermann, Kristin; Deinhardt-Emmer, Stefanie; Maschkowitz, Gregor; Pohlmann, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Krumbholz, Andi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a novel reliable method to assess the significance of individual mutations within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to nucleoside analogue resistance. Eleven defined single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur in the TK gene of clinical HSV-1 isolates and a fluorescence reporter were introduced into the HSV-1 strain 17+ that had been cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. The susceptibility of these different strains to aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and foscarnet was determined with a modified cytopathic effect reduction assay. The strains were also tested for their aciclovir susceptibility by measuring the relative fluorescence intensity as an indicator for HSV-1 replication and by quantifying the virus yield. Our data indicate that the amino acid substitutions R41H, R106H, A118V, L139V, K219T, S276R, L298R, S345P, and V348I represent natural polymorphisms of the TK protein, whereas G61A and P84L mediate broad cross-resistance against aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and susceptibility to foscarnet. This method allows the definition of the resistance genotype of otherwise unclear mutations in the TK gene of HSV-1. Thus, it provides a scientific basis for antiviral testing in clinical isolates of patients suffering from serious diseases and will facilitate testing of new antivirals against HSV-1. PMID:27426251

  1. Homogenization with heat treatment: A cost effective alternative to nucleic acid extraction for herpes simplex virus real-time PCR from viral swabs.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jason J; Heinstein, Charles R; Hatchette, Todd F

    2012-01-01

    Most laboratories use expensive commercial kits to purify nucleic acids and remove PCR inhibitors that may be present in clinical specimens. In this study a simple homogenization with heat treatment of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) was shown to be equivalent to commercial kit-based nucleic acid extraction methods. With a cost of less than $1 USD per extraction, this method provides an economical, rapid, and effective method to recover HSV-1/2 DNA from swabs suitable for real-time HSV PCR.

  2. Simplex Factor Models for Multivariate Unordered Categorical Data

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anirban; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Gaussian latent factor models are routinely used for modeling of dependence in continuous, binary, and ordered categorical data. For unordered categorical variables, Gaussian latent factor models lead to challenging computation and complex modeling structures. As an alternative, we propose a novel class of simplex factor models. In the single-factor case, the model treats the different categorical outcomes as independent with unknown marginals. The model can characterize flexible dependence structures parsimoniously with few factors, and as factors are added, any multivariate categorical data distribution can be accurately approximated. Using a Bayesian approach for computation and inferences, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is proposed that scales well with increasing dimension, with the number of factors treated as unknown. We develop an efficient proposal for updating the base probability vector in hierarchical Dirichlet models. Theoretical properties are described, and we evaluate the approach through simulation examples. Applications are described for modeling dependence in nucleotide sequences and prediction from high-dimensional categorical features. PMID:23908561

  3. The herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed

    Kwong, A D; Frenkel, N

    1989-11-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) function of herpes simplex virus (HSV) limits the expression of genes in the infected cells by destabilizing both host and viral mRNAs. vhs function mutants have been isolated which are defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, the half-life of viral mRNAs is significantly longer in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus than in cells infected with the wild-type (wt) virus. Recent data have shown that the vhs-1 mutation resides within the open reading frame UL41. We have analyzed the shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with a mixture of the wt HSV-1 (KOS) and the vhs-1 mutant virus. The results of these experiments revealed that (i) the wt virus shutoff activity requires a threshold level of input virions per cell and (ii) the mutant vhs-1 virus protein can irreversibly block the wt virus shutoff activity. These results are consistent with a stoichiometric model in which the wt vhs protein interacts with a cellular factor which controls the half-life of cell mRNA. This wt virus interaction results in the destabilization of both host and viral mRNAs. In contrast, the mutant vhs function interacts with the cellular factor irreversibly, resulting in the increased half-life of both host and viral mRNAs.

  4. Herpes simplex virus infections in neonates and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W

    2005-10-01

    Of the commonly considered congenital infections, those caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), syphilis, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are frequently (CMV, HSV) or exclusively (syphilis) acquired sexually by the mother, with subsequent transmission to the developing fetus. Of the other commonly considered congenital infections, including rubella and toxoplasma infections, the mother is exposed to the infectious agent via interpersonal or environmental contacts. Unlike each of these other pathogens, which are transmitted transplacentally to the developing fetus following maternal infection though, HSV usually is transmitted perinatally as the neonate is exposed to the virus during passage through an infected birth canal. This difference in timing of acquisition of infection has had important consequence in the therapeutic advances achieved during the last 30 years in the management of neonatal HSV infections. Because the time period between the acquisition of infection and initiation of effective antiviral therapy is shorter in neonatal herpes than in congenital toxoplasmosis or CMV infections, the outcomes of therapy have the potential to be markedly different. This article will summarize the current state of neonatal HSV disease presentation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:16210107

  5. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  6. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200 MDa; 1,250-Å diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an α2β heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes’ departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  7. A Mucosal Vaccination Approach for Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Rebecca S.; Ace, Christopher I.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Selin, Liisa K.; Nie, Siwei; Guberski, Dennis L.; Yang, Kejian

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1 out of every 5 Americans is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Efforts in developing a potent vaccine for HSV-2 have shown limited success. Here we describe a heterologous vaccination strategy for HSV-2 based on an intramuscular DNA prime followed by a liposome-encapsulated antigen boost delivered intranasally. Both portions of the vaccine express the immunogenic HSV-2 glycoprotein D. In female Balb/c mice, this heterologous immunisation regimen stimulated high titers of serum neutralising antibodies, a DNA priming dose dependent T helper type response, enhanced mucosal immune responses and potent protective immunity at the portal of entry for the virus: the vaginal cavity. A clear synergistic effect on immune responses and protection from infection was seen using this heterologous immunisation approach. Suboptimal DNA prime (0.5 μg) followed by the liposome boost resulted in an 80% survival rate when mice were infected 2 weeks after immunisation. A higher dose of DNA priming (5 μg) followed by the liposome boost resulted in sterilising immunity in 80% of mice. The vaccine induced durable protection in mice, demonstrated by a 60% survival rate when lethal infections were performed 20 weeks after the immunization primed with 0.5μg of DNA vaccine. PMID:21134447

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 1-derived recombinant and amplicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Fraefel, Cornel; Marconi, Peggy; Epstein, Alberto L

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen whose lifestyle is based on a long-term dual interaction with the infected host, being able to establish both lytic and latent infections. The virus genome is a 153 kbp double-stranded DNA molecule encoding more than 80 genes. The interest of HSV-1 as gene transfer vector stems from its ability to infect many different cell types, both quiescent and proliferating cells, the very high packaging capacity of the virus capsid, the outstanding neurotropic adaptations that this virus has evolved, and the fact that it never integrates into the cellular chromosomes, thus avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Two types of vectors can be derived from HSV-1, recombinant vectors and amplicon vectors, and different methodologies have been developed to prepare large stocks of each type of vector. This chapter summarizes (1) the two approaches most commonly used to prepare recombinant vectors through homologous recombination, either in eukaryotic cells or in bacteria, and (2) the two methodologies currently used to generate helper-free amplicon vectors, either using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based approach or a Cre/loxP site-specific recombination strategy.

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 2 in Brazil: seroepidemiologic survey.

    PubMed

    Da Rosa-Santos, O L; Gonçalves Da Silva, A; Pereira, A C

    1996-11-01

    The incidence of genital herpes is increasing worldwide and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcerations among sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Findings are reported from an assessment of the prevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in low- and high-risk populations in Brazil. 155 voluntary blood donors and 85 HIV-seropositive homosexual and promiscuous heterosexual men were screened with ELISA for infection with HSV-2 during February-August 1994. 20 highly active prostitutes were also studied during May-July 1994. The subjects were of mean age 30 years, 70% were sexually active at the time of the study, and 6.55% used condoms. Antibodies to HSV-2 were detected in 29.1% of the blood donors, 73% of the HIV-seropositive men, and 72% of the overall high-risk group. Only 10%, however, admitted to ever having episodes of genital herpes. HSV-2 infection was significantly and independently associated with years of sexual activity, history of previous STDs, number of sex partners in the previous month, number of pregnancies, number of induced abortions, and the percentage of sex acts involving receptive anal intercourse. Routine screening for HSV-2 infection should be considered in populations at high risk for STDs.

  10. Simplex-in-cell technique for collisionless plasma simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kates-Harbeck, Julian; Totorica, Samuel; Zrake, Jonathan; Abel, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We extend the simplex-in-cell (SIC) technique recently introduced in the context of collisionless dark matter fluids [1,2] to the case of collisionless plasmas. The six-dimensional phase space distribution function f (x , v) is represented by an ensemble of three-dimensional manifolds, which we refer to as sheets. The electric potential field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation on a uniform mesh, where the charge density is evaluated by a spatial projection of the phase space sheets. The SIC representation of phase space density facilitates robust, high accuracy numerical evolution of the Vlasov-Poisson system using significantly fewer tracer particles than comparable particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches by reducing the numerical shot-noise associated with the latter. We introduce the SIC formulation and describe its implementation in a new code, which we validate using standard test problems including plasma oscillations, Landau damping, and two stream instabilities in one dimension. Merits of the new scheme are shown to include higher accuracy and faster convergence rates in the number of particles. We finally motivate and outline the efficient application of SIC to higher dimensional problems.

  11. Recent progress in herpes simplex virus immunobiology and vaccine research.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M; Corey, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause prevalent, chronic infections that have serious outcomes in some individuals. Neonatal herpes may occur when the infant traverses the cervix during maternal genital herpes. Genital herpes is a major risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Considerable efforts have been made to design and test vaccines for HSV, focusing on genital infection with HSV-2. Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials. These antigens were chosen because they are the targets of neutralizing-antibody responses and because they elicit cellular immunity. Encouraging results have been reported in studies of treatment of HSV-seronegative women with a vaccine consisting of truncated glycoprotein D of HSV-2 and a novel adjuvant. Because most sexual HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, it is important to evaluate the impact of vaccination on HSV-2 infection, clinically apparent genital herpes, and HSV shedding among vaccine recipients who acquire infection. There are several other attractive formats, including subunit vaccines that target cellular immune responses, live attenuated virus strains, and mutant strains that undergo incomplete lytic replication. HSV vaccines have also been evaluated for the immunotherapy of established HSV infection. PMID:12525427

  12. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired.

  13. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  14. Anisakis simplex allergy: a murine model of anaphylaxis induced by parasitic proteins displays a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, M L; Conejero, L; Higaki, Y; Martín, E; Pérez, C; Infante, S; Rubio, M; Zubeldia, J M

    2005-01-01

    The study of the singular hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex (A.s) proteins, may help us to undestand many of the unknown immune interactions between helmiths infections and allergy. We have developed a murine model of allergy to A. simplex, that mimics human A. simplex allergy to study the specific aspects of anaphylaxis induced by parasites. Male C3H/HeJ mice were intraperitoneally sensitized to A. simplex. Mice were then intravenous or orally challenged with A. simplex. Antigen-specific immunoglobulins, polyclonal IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, plasma histamine levels and cytokine profiles were determined. Comparative IgE immunoblot analyses were also performed. Specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were detected in sensitized mice since week 3. Polyclonal IgE raised and peaked with different kinetics. Intravenous A. simplex challenge produced anaphylaxis in mice, accompanied by plasma histamine release. Oral A. simplex challenge in similarly sensitized mice did not caused symptoms nor histamine release. Numerous A. simplex allergens were recognized by sensitized mouse sera, some of them similar to human serum. The A. simplex stimulated splenocytes released IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. We describe a new animal model of anaphylaxis. It exhibits characteristics of type I hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex similar to those observed in allergic humans. Different responses to i.v. or oral A. simplex challenges emerged, which did not reflect a window tolerization period. The cytokine profile developed (mixed Th1/Th2 pattern) differed from the observed in classical models of anaphylaxis or allergy to food antigens. This model may permit to investigate the peculiar allergic reactions to parasitic proteins. PMID:16297154

  15. Sodium Butyrate: a Chemical Inducer of In Vivo Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Ocular Mouse Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Donna M.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Hill, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have explored the chromatin structures associated with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome during latency, particularly with regard to specific histone tail modifications such as acetylation and dimethylation. The objective of our present study was to develop a rapid systemic method of in vivo HSV-1 reactivation to further explore the changes that occur in the chromatin structures associated with HSV-1 at early time points after the initiation of HSV reactivation. We present a uniform, rapid, and reliable method of in vivo HSV-1 reactivation in mice that yields high reactivation frequencies (75 to 100%) by using sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and demonstrate that the reactivating virus can be detected at the original site of infection. PMID:17360760

  16. A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.

    PubMed

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John

    2015-11-01

    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues-such as confirmation bias-further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action to maximize utility. Their judgments contradicted a utilitarian principle they otherwise strongly endorsed. Exposure to this scenario led participants to revise their belief in the utilitarian principle, and this revision persisted over several hours. This method provides a new avenue for inducing belief revision. PMID:25810137

  17. A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.

    PubMed

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John

    2015-11-01

    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues-such as confirmation bias-further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action to maximize utility. Their judgments contradicted a utilitarian principle they otherwise strongly endorsed. Exposure to this scenario led participants to revise their belief in the utilitarian principle, and this revision persisted over several hours. This method provides a new avenue for inducing belief revision.

  18. Determination of gallic acid with rhodanine by reverse flow injection analysis using simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Phakthong, Wilaiwan; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2014-12-01

    A reversed flow injection (rFI) system was designed and constructed for gallic acid determination. Gallic acid was determined based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine, resulting in a colored product with a λmax at 520 nm. The optimum conditions for determining gallic acid were also investigated. Optimizations of the experimental conditions were carried out based on the so-call univariate method. The conditions obtained were 0.6% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 0.9 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2.0 mL min(-1) flow rate, 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. Comparative optimizations of the experimental conditions were also carried out by multivariate or simplex optimization method. The conditions obtained were 1.2% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 1.2 mol L(-1) NaOH, flow rate 2.5 mL min(-1), 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. It was found that the optimum conditions obtained by the former optimization method were mostly similar to those obtained by the latter method. The linear relationship between peak height and the concentration of gallic acid was obtained over the range of 0.1-35.0 mg L(-1) with the detection limit 0.081 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations were found to be in the ranges 0.46-1.96% for 1, 10, 30 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (n=11). The method has the advantages of simplicity extremely high selectivity and high precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in longan samples without interferent effects from other common phenolic compounds that might be present in the longan samples collected in northern Thailand.

  19. Targeting the central nervous system with herpes simplex virus / Sleeping Beauty hybrid amplicon vectors.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J

    2011-10-01

    The pursuits of sustainable treatments for diseases and disorders that afflict the central nervous system (CNS) have proven challenging for the field of viral vector-based gene therapy. However, recent advances in viral vector technology coupled with efficient delivery methods have opened up new avenues that show promise at the preclinical testing stage. The development of the Herpes Simplex Virus/Sleeping Beauty (HSV/SB) hybrid vector represents such an advance for devising treatments targeting the CNS with its potential for stably integrating large transgenomic segments of DNA within the genomes of transduced cells. In utero administration of this hybrid vector into the embryonic mouse brain has revealed the capacity for widespread transgene dissemination due to the targeting of a neuronal precursor cell population. This unique feature has provided the means to stably express a transgene throughout the brain for prolonged periods, which is a prerequisite for the treatment of progressive CNS disorders. In this review we provide a comprehensive breakdown of the characteristics of the HSV/SB vector system and how it can be efficiently employed in the derivation of CNS-targeted gene therapeutic strategies.

  20. Fermentation of molasses using a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3: simplex optimisation of media supplements.

    PubMed

    Gough, S; Flynn, O; Hack, C J; Marchant, R

    1996-09-01

    The use of molasses as a substrate for ethanol production by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was investigated at 45 degrees C. A maximum ethanol concentration of 7.4% (v/v) was produced from unsupplemented molasses at a concentration of 23% (v/v). The effect on ethanol production of increasing the sucrose concentration in 23% (v/v) molasses was determined. Increased sucrose concentration had a similar detrimental effect on the final ethanol produced as the increase in molasses concentration. This indicated that the effect may be due to increased osmotic activity as opposed to other components in the molasses. The optimum concentration of the supplements nitrogen, magnesium, potassium and fatty acid for maximum ethanol production rate was determined using the Nelder and Mead (Computer J 7:308-313, 1965) simplex optimisation method. The optimum concentration of the supplements were 0.576 g1(-1) magnesium sulphate, 0.288 g1(-1) potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.36% (v/v) linseed oil. Added nitrogen in the form of ammonium sulphate did not affect the ethanol production rate.

  1. Antiviral Effects of Blackberry Extract Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Robert J.; Wang, Chunmei; Dai, Jin; Mumper, Russell J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antiviral properties of blackberry extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Methods HSV-infected oral epithelial (OKF6) cells and cell-free virus suspensions were treated with blackberry extract (2.24 to 1400 μg/mL) and virus yield and infectivity were quantified by direct plaque assay. Results Blackberry extract ≥ 56 μg/ml inhibited HSV-1 replication in oral epithelial cells by > 99% (p < 0.005). Concentrations ≥ 280 μg/ml were antiviral when the extract was added after virus adsorption and entry. Exposure of cell-free virus to ≥ 280 μg/ml blackberry extract for 15 minutes at room temperature was virucidal (p = 0.0002). The virucidal effects were not due to pH changes at concentrations up to 1500 μg/ml. Conclusions Blackberry extract inhibited the early stages of HSV-1 replication and had potent virucidal activity. These properties suggest that this natural fruit extract could provide advantage as a topical prophylactic/therapeutic agent for HSV infections. PMID:21827957

  2. N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antibodies in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Prüss, Harald; Finke, Carsten; Höltje, Markus; Hofmann, Joerg; Klingbeil, Christine; Probst, Christian; Borowski, Kathrin; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Harms, Lutz; Schwab, Jan M.; Ploner, Christoph J.; Komorowski, Lars; Stoecker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence and kinetics of antibodies against synaptic proteins in patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE). Methods Retrospective analysis of 44 patients with polymerase chain reaction-proven HSE for the presence of a large panel of onconeuronal and synaptic receptor antibodies. The effect of patients’ serum was studied in cultures of primary mouse hippocampal neurons. Results N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) subtypes IgA, IgG, or IgM were detected in 13 of 44 patients (30%) in the course of HSE, suggesting secondary autoimmune mechanisms. NMDAR antibodies were often present at hospital admission, but in some patients developed after the first week of HSE. Antibody-positive sera resulted in downregulation of synaptic marker proteins in hippocampal neurons. Interpretation Some patients with HSE develop IgA, IgG, or IgM autoantibodies against NMDAR. Sera from these patients alter the density of neuronal synaptic markers, suggesting a potential pathogenic disease-modifying effect. These findings have implications for the understanding of autoimmunity in infectious diseases, and prospective studies should reveal whether the subgroup of patients with HSE and NMDAR antibodies may benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:23280840

  3. Decreasing prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 antibodies in selected groups of women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra; Ellström, Agneta; Krantz, Ingela; Löwhagen, Gun-Britt

    2009-11-01

    High estimates of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence have been reported for women who were pregnant in Sweden in the 1980s, probably reflecting sexual risk-taking during the 1960s and 1970s. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HSV-2 seroprevalence in pregnant women and in the female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Sweden at the beginning of the 21st century and to compare the results with those of earlier Swedish studies. Sera were collected during the period 2000 to 2002 from 299 pregnant women at an antenatal clinic and from 290 female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Gothenburg. To enable comparison with earlier seroprevalence data the same test method was used; Helix pomatia antigen in an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The overall HSV-2 prevalence was 10.4% for the pregnant women and 25.2% for the female attendees at the clinic for sexually transmitted infections. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 in pregnant women appears to have decreased in Sweden during the past decade, which may reflect changes in sexual behaviour.

  4. Comparative studies of types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus infection of cultured normal keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Su, S J; Wu, H H; Lin, Y H; Lin, H Y

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the differences in biological properties, multiplication patterns, and cytopathic effects between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV) through the replication of HSV in cultured normal human keratinocytes. METHODS--Keratinocytes were obtained from surgical specimens of normal gingiva, cervix, trunk skin, and newborn foreskin. They were cultured in serum free, chemically defined, culture medium and infected with a pool of HSV collected from clinical specimens. RESULTS--The reproductive patterns of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) differed from each other regardless of the anatomical source of the cultured cells. This was made evident by the dissimilarity of their growth curves and cytopathic effects. The growth curve of HSV-2 showed a more or less continuously rising titre, whereas HSV-1 titres varied substantially at different time intervals. The cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 infection took 24 more incubation hours than those induced by HSV-2 infection to manifest. During the early stages, the cytopathic changes of the two viruses looked different. However, all cultured cells, whether cultured with HSV-1 or HSV-2, eventually became small and globular in shape. The infective titres of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 were higher in infected cultured cervix than in infected cultured normal gingiva. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that each serotype of HSV has its own unique replication pattern in human keratinocytes regardless of the cell origin. Images PMID:7706526

  5. Optimization of Carboxymethyl-Xyloglucan-Based Tramadol Matrix Tablets Using Simplex Centroid Mixture Design

    PubMed Central

    Madgulkar, Ashwini R.; Bhalekar, Mangesh R.; Padalkar, Rahul R.; Shaikh, Mohseen Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to determine the release-modifying effect of carboxymethyl xyloglucan for oral drug delivery. Sustained release matrix tablets of tramadol HCl were prepared by wet granulation method using carboxymethyl xyloglucan as matrix forming polymer. HPMC K100M was used in a small amount to control the burst effect which is most commonly seen with natural hydrophilic polymers. A simplex centroid design with three independent variables and two dependent variables was employed to systematically optimize drug release profile. Carboxymethyl xyloglucan (X1), HPMC K100M (X2), and dicalcium phosphate (X3) were taken as independent variables. The dependent variables selected were percent of drug release at 2nd hour (Y1) and at 8th hour (Y2). Response surface plots were developed, and optimum formulations were selected on the basis of desirability. The formulated tablets showed anomalous release mechanism and followed matrix drug release kinetics, resulting in regulated and complete release from the tablets within 8 to 10 hours. The polymer carboxymethyl xyloglucan and HPMC K100M had significant effect on drug release from the tablet (P > 0.05). Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables using multiple regression analysis, were found to be statistically significant (P > 0.05). The statistical models developed for optimization were found to be valid. PMID:26555977

  6. Assesment of Correlation of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 with Oral Cancer and Precancer- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most common malignant neoplasm in the oral cavity is squamous cell carcinoma. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) may enhance the development of oral carcinoma in individuals who are already at increased risk of the disease because of tobacco consumption and cigarette smoking and so must be considered as a possible etiologic agent in oral cancer and precancer. Aim To assess and compare the correlation of HSV-1 in oral cancer and precancerous lesions/conditions with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods The study comprised of 150 subjects who were divided into three groups as oral cancer, precancer and control group. Their blood samples were collected and were tested for HSV-1 IgG antibody level, using ‘Herpe Select-1’ ELISA kit. Results There was statistically insignificant difference between the HSV-1 IgG level in cancer and precancer but statistically significant difference was found between the HSV-1 IgG level among control group and cancer/precancer. Conclusion The present study clearly indicates that quantitative estimation of IgG antibody against HSV-1 in cancer/precancer patients will give the clue in the etiology of cancer or precancer. However, further studies with a large sample size should be carried out to determine the role of HSV-1 in etiology of oral cancer and precancer. PMID:27656555

  7. Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

  8. Category deficits and paradoxical dissociations in Alzheimer's disease and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2005-09-01

    Most studies examining category specificity are single-case studies of patients with living or nonliving deficits. Nevertheless, no explicit or agreed criteria exist for establishing category-specific deficits in single cases regarding the type of analyses, whether to compare with healthy controls, the number of tasks, or the type of tasks. We examined two groups of patients with neurological pathology frequently accompanied by impaired semantic memory (19 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 15 with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis). Category knowledge was examined using three tasks (picture naming, naming-to-description, and feature verification). Both patient groups were compared with age- and education-matched healthy controls. The profile in each patient was examined for consistency across tasks and across different analyses; however, both proved to be inconsistent. One striking finding was the presence of paradoxical dissociations (i.e., patients who were impaired for living things on one task and nonliving things on another task). The findings have significant implications for how we determine category effects and, more generally, for the methods used to document double dissociations across individual cases in this literature. PMID:16197698

  9. Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Associated with Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shirts, Brian H.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment in the form of decreased working memory and executive functions has been recognized as a key deficit in schizophrenia. Neurotropic viruses have been associated with focal gray matter deficits in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated whether such agents alter cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods The sample consisted of 329 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We evaluated associations between exposure to selected agents (Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2 respectively) cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii) and scores on the Trail Making Test (TMT), controlling for relevant variables. Results Serological evidence of exposure to CMV was associated with impaired performance on TMT part A time to completion (p=0.044), a measure of visual search, working memory, and psychomotor speed. Both CMV and HSV1 were significantly associated with increased errors on TMT part B (p<0.001 for both viruses). HSV2 and Toxoplasma gondii exposure measures were not associated with any of the cognitive functions evaluated using TMT. Conclusions Both CMV and HSV1 are associated with impaired cognitive function in schizophrenia as measured by the TMT. Further analyses to evaluate the impact of other illness related variables including genetic variants are warranted. PMID:18801645

  10. Phase transitions in a model for the formation of herpes simplex ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Claudia P.; Fontanari, J. F.; Zorzenon Dos Santos, Rita M.

    2001-10-01

    The critical properties of a cellular automaton model describing the spreading of infection of the herpes simplex virus in corneal tissue are investigated through the dynamic Monte Carlo method. The model takes into account different cell susceptibilities to the viral infection, as suggested by experimental findings. In a two-dimensional square lattice the sites are associated with two distinct types of cells, namely, permissive and resistant to the infection. While a permissive cell becomes infected in the presence of a single infected cell in its neighborhood, a resistant cell needs to be surrounded by at least R>1 infected or dead cells in order to become infected. The infection is followed by the death of the cells resulting in ulcers whose forms may be dendritic (self-limited clusters) or amoeboid (percolating clusters) depending on the degree of resistance R of the resistant cells as well as on the density of permissive cells in the healthy tissue. We show that a phase transition between these two regimes occurs only for R>=5 and, in addition, that the phase transition is in the universality class of the ordinary percolation.

  11. Woodylides A-C, new cytotoxic linear polyketides from the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao-Bing; Liu, Xiang-Fang; Xu, Ying; Gan, Jian-Hong; Jiao, Wei-Hua; Shen, Yang; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2012-05-01

    Three new polyketides, woodylides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS). The absolute configurations at C-3 of 1 and 3 were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and PTP1B inhibitory activities of these polyketides were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 3 showed antifungal activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with IC₅₀ values of 3.67 and 10.85 µg/mL, respectively. In the cytotoxicity test, compound 1 exhibited a moderate effect against the HeLa cell line with an IC₅₀ value of 11.2 µg/mL, and compound 3 showed cytotoxic activity against the HCT-116 human colon tumor cell line and PTP1B inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ values of 9.4 and 4.7 µg/mL, respectively.

  12. A Report of Three Cases and Review of Intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Lucila; Levy, Moise L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Palazzi, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection often is omitted from descriptions of neonatal HSV disease. Previous characterizations of intrauterine HSV infection limit manifestations to the triad of cutaneous, central nervous system (CNS), and ophthalmologic findings. We report 3 cases of intrauterine HSV infection and provide a contemporary literature review of this disease. Methods Cases published between 1963 and January 2009 were identified. Selected cases fit the clinical description of intrauterine HSV infection, had manifestations present at birth, and had virologic confirmation of infection. Results This review yielded 64 cases, 3 of which were our own, of intrauterine HSV infection. Less than one-third fit the typical triad. Of the patients with cutaneous findings at birth, 24 (44%) had manifestations other than vesicles or bullae. Confirmation of HSV infection by culture of cutaneous lesions present at birth was delayed beyond 72 hours after birth in 15 patients and occurred at a median of 10 days of age. Nine of these patients had lesions at birth that were neither vesicles nor bullae, and 14 cases were confirmed by culture of new vesicles. Conclusions More than two-thirds of reported cases do not present with the typical triad. Cutaneous findings are not limited to vesicles or bullae. A high index of suspicion and recognition of varied cutaneous manifestations is necessary to diagnose infants with intrauterine HSV infection. PMID:20811312

  13. Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Mori, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To produce a two-dimensional reconstruction map of dendritic lesions in patients with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) using in vivo confocal microscopy. Methods Four eyes of four patients (mean 65.8 years) with HSK presenting with a dendritic lesion were enrolled. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo laser confocal microscopy were performed. Acquired confocal images at the level of the epithelium were arranged and mapped into subconfluent montages. Changes in the shape and degree of light reflection of abnormal cells and deposits around dendritic lesions as well as other corneal layers were qualitatively evaluated. Results Mapping of dendritic lesion was successful in all cases, and the subconfluent montages clearly showed the larger image of dendritic lesion. In all cases, the dendritic lesion consisted of hyperreflective irregular epithelial cells, and was surrounded by distorted and elongated epithelial cells. In three cases, hyperreflective deposits were noted at the midline of the lesion. The corneal stroma showed a hyperreflective honeycomb pattern. In two cases, inflammatory cells were observed at the level of endothelial cell layer. Conclusion Mapping of dendritic lesions in patients with HSK was successful in all patients using in vivo confocal microscopy. Cellular level observation of dendritic lesion at a relatively larger magnification may help understand the in vivo morphological change of HSK. Further study in more patients with HSK and nonherpetic dendritic lesion is needed to utilize confocal microscopy images in differential diagnosis and follow-up of the epithelial lesions with dendrite. PMID:26445524

  14. The Uterus Duplex Bicollis, Vagina Simplex of Female Chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Carla L; Jarrett, Timothy R; Harvey, Stephen B; Alworth, Leanne

    2016-03-01

    The available literature describing the morphology of the female chinchilla's uterine cervix varies and includes phrases such as 'the cervical canal,' 'a single cervix,' and 'the cervix;' alternatively, some publications describe 2 cervices. In this report, we provide an anatomically correct and definitive description of the uterine cervical morphology of the laboratory chinchilla. We further propose revised, anatomically precise nomenclature to characterize the female chinchilla reproductive tract as a whole. PMID:27025806

  15. Planned revision to DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, G.J.; Williams, R.E.; Kudera, D.E.; Bailey, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    US Department of Energy Headquarters initiated efforts to revise DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management``. The purpose of the revision is to enhance DOE waste management requirements, reflect new DOE organizational responsibilities, and consolidate requirements for management of all waste, under the responsibility of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into a single order. This paper discusses the revision philosophy, objectives of the revision, and strategy for the revision. Issues being considered for inclusion in the revision and recommended methods of resolving each issue are also discussed.

  16. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity.

  17. Action of different monoterpenic compounds against Anisakis simplex s.l. L3 larvae.

    PubMed

    Hierro, I; Valero, A; Pérez, P; González, P; Cabo, M M; Montilla, M P; Navarro, M C

    2004-01-01

    Different natural monoterpenes (geraniol, citronellol, citral, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde and eugenol) are studied in vitro against Anisakis simplex s.l. L3 larvae, employing perillaldehyde as a reference substance. Final concentrations used were: 12.50, 6.25 and 3.12 microg/ml for each of the tested products. The parameters average survival, survival 50 and maximum survival were determined at 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of the experiment. All tested products, except eugenol, were active at the highest concentration (12.50 microg/ml). The damage caused to A. simplex s.l. L3 was by examining histological sections. The antioxidant activity of the tested products by DPPH free radical scavenging does not appear to be associated with their larvicide activity against A. simplex s.l. L3.

  18. Chronic active destructive herpes simplex encephalitis with recovery of viral DNA 12 years after disease onset.

    PubMed

    Asenbauer, B; McEntagart, M; King, M D; Gallagher, P; Burke, M; Farrell, M A

    1998-06-01

    Acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) carries significant morbidity and mortality even after early treatment with antiviral agents (7). As well as causing acute neurological disease, Herpes viruses are associated with relapsing--remitting (Varicella--Zoster, Epstein-Barr) and chronic (Rasmussen encephalitis) disease processes (1). A two-year-old girl developed acute HSE which was followed by a 10-year neurologic illness characterised by asymmetric spastic tetraparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, the opercular syndrome of Foix-Chavany-Marie (4) and seizures. The neurological signs remained static until the child died suddenly 12 years after disease onset. Neuropathologic examination demonstrated active chronic encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was recovered from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissue. This case provides additional evidence for the development of chronic neurological disease attributable to persistence of herpes simplex virus type 1. PMID:9706620

  19. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity. PMID:25890576

  20. Herpes simplex encephalitis in Iceland 1987-2011.

    PubMed

    Dagsdóttir, Heiður Mist; Sigurðardóttir, Bryndís; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Kristjánsson, Már; Löve, Arthur; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún Erna; Guðmundsson, Sigurður

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious disease with 10-20% mortality and high rate of neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study is a long-term, nationwide study in a single country, Iceland. Clinical data were obtained from patient records and from DNA PCR and antibody assays of CSF. Diagnosis of HSE was classified as definite, possible or rejected based on symptoms, as well as virological, laboratory and brain imaging criteria. A total of 30 definite cases of HSE were identified during the 25 year period 1987-2011 corresponding to incidence of 4.3 cases/106 inhabitants/year. Males were 57% of all patients, median age 50 years (range, 0-85). Fever (97%), cognitive deficits (79%), impaired consciousness (79% with GCS < 13), headache (55%) and seizures (55%) were the most common symptoms. Brain lesions were found in 24 patients (80%) by MRI or CT. All patients received intravenous acyclovir for a mean duration of 20 days. Three patients (10%) died within one year and 21/28 pts (75%) had a Karnofsky performance score of <70% with memory loss (59%), dysphasia (44%), frontal symptoms (44%) and seizures (30%) as the most frequent sequelae. Mean delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 6 days; this was associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, the incidence of `HSE is higher than recently reported in a national registry study from Sweden. Despite advances in rapid diagnosis and availability of treatment of HSE, approximately three of every four patients die or are left with serious neurological impairment. PMID:25279315

  1. Dynasore Disrupts Trafficking of Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Mascha B.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Wilson, Duncan W.; Gunther-Cummins, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on HSV infection. Dynasore inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primary genital tract cells and human fetal neurons and astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing dominant negative dynamin. Kinetic studies demonstrated that dynasore reduced the number of viral capsids reaching the nuclear pore if added at the time of viral entry and that, when added as late as 8 h postentry, dynasore blocked the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that treatment with dynasore prevented the colocalization of VP5 and dynamin. This resulted in a reduction in the number of viral capsids isolated from sucrose gradients. Fewer capsids were observed by electron microscopy in dynasore-treated cells than in control-treated cells. There were also reductions in infectious progeny released into culture supernatants and in cell-to-cell spread. Together, these findings suggest that targeting dynamin-HSV interactions may provide a new strategy for HSV treatment and prevention. IMPORTANCE HSV infections remain a global health problem associated with significant morbidity, particularly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, highlighting the need for novel approaches to treatment and prevention. The current studies indicate that dynamin plays a role in multiple steps in the viral life cycle and provides a new target for antiviral therapy. Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of dynamin, has pleiotropic effects on HSV-1 and HSV-2

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis. PMID:8930949

  3. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  4. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  5. Optimization and comparison of three vacuum mixing systems for porosity reduction of Simplex P cement.

    PubMed

    Davies, J P; Harris, W H

    1990-05-01

    Simplex P bone cement was prepared in three commercially available vacuum mixing systems, the Enhancement Mixer, the Mixevac II High Vacuum System, and the Mitab Vacuum System, to determine the improvement in fatigue strength associated with porosity reduction of the cement in all three systems. The results of the fatigue tests of vacuum-mixed Simplex P were also compared to the fatigue strength of Simplex P prepared by centrifugation of the cement immediately after mixing. Vacuum mixing one pack of Simplex P per syringe in all three systems was not effective in complete removal of all the large voids from the cement. Fatigue failure occurred very early in those specimens containing the large voids. There was no significant difference in fatigue life between one pack of cement per syringe mixed under vacuum in the three systems and the control cement (no vacuum, uncentrifuged). Vacuum mixing two packs of cement per syringe was more effective than one pack per syringe, and all three systems significantly increased the cycles to failure of Simplex P over the control cement. However, the Enhancement and Mitab vacuum mixing systems still produced some very weak specimens in fatigue. Two packs of cement per syringe prepared in the Mixevac II vacuum mixing system were significantly stronger in fatigue than two packs mixed in either the Enhancement or Mitab vacuum system. The Mixevac II vacuum mixing system was the most effective technique of the three vacuum mixing systems tested. Centrifugation of one or two packs of Simplex P per syringe produced a more uniform cement that was free of large voids and thus eliminated the very weak specimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2323141

  6. A rapid and automated colorimetric assay for evaluating the sensitivity of herpes simplex strains to antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Langlois, M; Allard, J P; Nugier, F; Aymard, M

    1986-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive colorimetric assay has been developed to evaluate the sensitivity of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) to antiviral agents. The chessboard titration of viruses and antiviral drugs and the automatic reading and analysis of the data allows objective and accurate results to be rapidly obtained. Virus sensitivity was expressed as an ED50 value which was the concentration of drug (micrograms/ml) reducing viral cpe by 50%. The ED50 values of antiviral drugs [acetylguanosine (ACV), idoxuridine (IDU), deoxycytidine (IDC) and bromovinyl deoxyuridine] for several HSV reference strains were determined and the method was then applied to clinical specimens. The selection of ACV and IDU resistant mutants was performed on a cloned sensitive HSV 1 ocular strain. We observed cross-resistance between ACV and IDU for the mutants isolated. The resistance to thymidine-kinase-dependent antiviral agents varied in inverse ratio to the thymidine kinase activity induced by HSV strains.

  7. Business Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of…

  8. AGRICOLA User's Guide. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilreath, Charles L.

    This document is the newest revision of the third manual documenting the National Agricultural Library database. Since it began in 1970, the AGRICOLA database has continued to grow and to change steadily; new subfiles have been added, database record formats have been expanded, and subject category code schemes have been modified several times.…

  9. Prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 and syphilis serology among young adults in a rural Gambian community

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M.; van der Sande, M.; West, B.; Paine, K.; Ceesay, S.; Bailey, R.; Walraven, G.; Morison, L.; McAdam, K.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex 2 (HSV2) positivity, syphilis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection among rural people aged 15–34 in the Gambia. Methods: Questionnaires and serum samples were collected from 1076 men and women aged 15–34 during a cross sectional prevalence survey in a rural area of the Gambia. Sera were screened for antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), and for syphilis using Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. Urine was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C trachomatis infection. Results: 28% of women and 5% of men were HSV2 ELISA positive; 10% of women and 2% of men were TPHA positive; and 7% of women and 1% of men were both RPR and TPHA positive. Out of 1030 urine sample tested only six were positive for C trachomatis. 7% of those who reported never having sex were positive for one or other of these tests. Prevalences of all STIs increased with age and were higher in women than men. Women were much less likely than men to seek treatment for STI symptoms at a health centre. Married people were at increased risk of an STI compared with single people. Jola and Fula women had a higher prevalence of HSV2 than women from other ethnic groups, and Fulas also had a higher prevalence of RPR/TPHA positivity. The limited number of sexual behaviour questions were not significantly associated with STIs after adjustment for age, marital status, and ethnic group. Conclusions: The prevalences of the ulcerative infections HSV2 and syphilis in this population are a cause for concern. In a setting where HIV1 prevalence remains low this indicates an urgent need for STI control and behaviour change programmes to prevent an HIV epidemic. Concerns about the validity of reported sexual behaviour data high light the necessity of biological markers in the evaluation of behaviour change programmes. Key Words: seroepidemiological studies; Africa; herpes simplex

  10. What Research Says about Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Larry A.

    The process, content, and effect of revision in the writing process is analyzed in light of recent writing process research. Taylor calls for an approach to English as second language composition in which students are taught how to write with an emphasis on revision. Most authorities agree that revision entails a complex set of behaviors that…

  11. Recurrent meningitis attributable to herpes simplex virus-2 in a child.

    PubMed

    Moustaki, Maria; Sharifi, Fariba; Stasinopoulou, Anastasia; Fretzayas, Andrew; Karpathios, Themistocles

    2010-05-01

    A boy manifested episodes of recurrent meningitis that were attributed to herpes simplex virus-2 infection. He presented no concurrent or previous history of involvement of the genitourinary system. He exhibited headaches, dizziness, photophobia, loss of balance, and vomiting. He underwent three episodes of aseptic meningitis. The herpes simplex virus-2 etiology was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the cerebrospinal fluid in the last two episodes. After the third occurrence, he was treated with acyclovir. Five years have elapsed since then, without the recurrence of aseptic meningitis.

  12. Herpes simplex-like infection in a bottlenose dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Esperón, F; Fernández, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2008-08-19

    A bottlenose dolphin, stranded in the Canary Islands in 2001 exhibited non-suppurative encephalitis. No molecular detection of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was found, but a herpesviral-specific band of 250 bp was detected in the lung and brain. The sequenced herpesviral PCR product was compared with GenBank sequences, obtaining 98% homology (p-distance of 0.02) with Human herpesvirus 1 (herpes simplex virus 1 or HSV-1). This is the first report of a herpes simplex-like infection in a stranded dolphin. PMID:18828564

  13. Simplex didactics: A non-linear trajectory for research in education.

    PubMed

    Sibilio, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    The concept of simplexity, as proposed by Alain Berthoz, is based on the assumption that solutions elaborated by living organisms to decipher and face complexity could be applicable to all complex adaptive systems. Within the pedagogical and didactic context the proposal of the French physiologist could provide a scientific research trajectory aiming at solving the tension between theory, praxis, descriptive approaches and practical needs. Thus, simplexity seems to be an operational strategy based on the identification of the principles that rule and guide the didactic action through patterns of adaptation, which allow to decipher complexity in terms of data elaboration and decision making among different opportunities.

  14. Simplex didactics: A non-linear trajectory for research in education.

    PubMed

    Sibilio, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    The concept of simplexity, as proposed by Alain Berthoz, is based on the assumption that solutions elaborated by living organisms to decipher and face complexity could be applicable to all complex adaptive systems. Within the pedagogical and didactic context the proposal of the French physiologist could provide a scientific research trajectory aiming at solving the tension between theory, praxis, descriptive approaches and practical needs. Thus, simplexity seems to be an operational strategy based on the identification of the principles that rule and guide the didactic action through patterns of adaptation, which allow to decipher complexity in terms of data elaboration and decision making among different opportunities. PMID:26746648

  15. [Japanese guidelines for the management of herpes simplex encephalitis; comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is still recognized as a severe sporadic encephalitis, although the mortality and morbidity rates have been decreased to 10% and 30%, respectively. This disease is diagnosed using clinical symptoms, CSF, EEG, CT, MRI, and virologic tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for HSE. However, the early symptoms of this disease are various, and the laboratory diagnostic criteria are unclear to the non-specialist. In 2005, Japanese guidelines for the management of HSE have been issued via two sets of Workshops at the Japanese Neuroinfectious Disease Congress. The diagnostic and therapeutic criteria were discussed in comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum (IMHF) in 2004. For a definitive diagnosis, CSF PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is recommended, and the detection rate has been reported to be 60 to 80% within the 7th day of the illness. In the IMHF, the PCR method has also been the primary method for early diagnosis and for monitoring the therapy. Further, quantitative real-time PCR has become available for measuring the effectiveness of aciclovir therapy. To measure HSV antibody levels, complement antibody (CF), neutralizing antibody (NT), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or EIA) are available. Significant elevation of EIA IgG or intrathecal HSV antibody production should be shown, although these antibody responses often appear two weeks after the onset of HSE. Regarding anti-herpesvirus drugs, in both Japanese and IMHF guidelines aciclovir is consistent with the first choice, and it is recommended that its administration would be started as soon as HSE is suspected on the basis of clinical pictures, CT * MRI, EEG, or CSF findings. However, antiviral therapy may be discontinued if a negative CSF HSV PCR is obtained at > 72 hours after onset. A recent Japanese study shows the efficacy of a combination

  16. Carbon Fiber Reinforced/Silicon Carbide Turbine Blisk Testing in the SIMPLEX Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genge, Gary G.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    1999-01-01

    the two blisks, however, as the test series progressed, the funding allowed additional testing to occur. The additional test time was placed on the polar weave blisk. The total test time accrued on the polar blisk was 2550 seconds with 860 seconds near the turbopump design speed of 25,000 rpm. This testing included 6 tests / 775 seconds pumping liquid nitrogen and 7 tests / 1775 seconds pumping liquid oxygen. The drive gas for all of the tests was gaseous nitrogen due to the lack of hot gas source for the Simplex turbopump. The quasi-isotropic blisk was tested for XX total tests and XXXX seconds with X tests/XXXX seconds pumping liquid nitrogen and X tests/XXXX seconds pumping liquid \\oxygen.During the test series, the blisks were inspected following each test. Inspections initially were viewed from the downstream side of the blisks only. Midway through the testing, a method of borescoping the leading edges of the blades was devised, and subsequently, both sides of the blades were inspected following each test. The leading and trailing edges of the polar blisk held up better than the quasi-isotropic blisk. This was a known possibility due to the varying fiber direction in the blades as the rectangular preform weave is cut in a circular pattern. The surprising fact about the testing was that there was no measurable performance loss due to the inaccuracies in the blade manufacturing in the C/SiC blisks, the surface roughness C/SiC of the blades, or the loss of the material in the polar blisk. A performance shift was seen in the quasi-isotropic blisk as portions of the leading and trailing edges were lost. After the testing was completed, detailed inspections of the blisks were performed. The largest surprise was the polar blisk had a obvious crack in a single blade that was located nearly midspan which was not detected in test. The crack ran completely through the blade circumferenciary and through the radial length of the blade. However, the crack does not appear to

  17. Metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Austin, Matthew S

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of bone loss encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often multifactorial and can include stress shielding, osteolysis, osteonecrosis, infection, mechanical loss due to a grossly loose implant, and iatrogenic loss at the time of implant resection. Selection of the reconstructive technique(s) to manage bone deficiency is determined by the location and magnitude of bone loss, ligament integrity, surgeon experience, and patient factors including the potential for additional revision, functional demand, and comorbidities. Smaller, contained defects are reliably managed with bone graft, cement augmented with screw fixation, or modular augments. Large metaphyseal defects require more extensive reconstruction such as impaction bone grafting with or without mesh augmentation, prosthetic augmentation, use of bulk structural allografts, or use of metaphyseal cones or sleeves. While each technique has advantages and disadvantages, the most optimal method for reconstruction of large metaphyseal bone defects during revision TKA is not clearly established. PMID:26362647

  18. The Uterus Duplex Bicollis, Vagina Simplex of Female Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Carla L; Jarrett, R Timothy; Harvey, Stephen B; Alworth, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The available literature describing the morphology of the female chinchilla's uterine cervix varies and includes phrases such as ‘the cervical canal,’ ‘a single cervix,’ and ‘the cervix;’ alternatively, some publications describe 2 cervices. In this report, we provide an anatomically correct and definitive description of the uterine cervical morphology of the laboratory chinchilla. We further propose revised, anatomically precise nomenclature to characterize the female chinchilla reproductive tract as a whole. PMID:27025806

  19. High-Risk Corneal Graft Rejection in the Setting of Previous Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuffova, Lucia; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Yu, Tian; Medina, Carlos; Amescua, Guillermo; Rowe, Alexander M.; Hendricks, Robert L.; Forrester, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The “high-risk phenotype” of corneal graft recipients is considered to be related to preexisting vascularization such as that associated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) keratitis (HSK). The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunologic mechanisms underlying accelerated corneal graft rejection using a mouse model of HSK. Methods Herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis was induced in BALB/c mice. Syngeneic and allogeneic (C57BL/6 mice) corneal grafts were performed in mice with HSK at different times after infection. Some grafts were performed on HSV-infected CD4 T cell–deficient BALB/c mice. Clinical, histologic, immunologic, and virus detection studies were performed on samples of cornea, draining lymph node (LN), and trigeminal ganglion (TG) cells. Results Corneal grafts in mice with HSK rejected with higher frequency and more rapid tempo compared with grafts in uninfected mice. In corneas with HSK and vascularization at the time of grafting, both syngeneic and allogeneic corneal grafts failed with similar frequency and tempo. However, in the absence of preexisting inflammation and vascularization, syngeneic grafts were accepted when the grafts were performed at a late time point after HSV infection (42 days), whereas allografts were rejected at this time. In contrast, syngeneic grafts in nonvascularized HSV-infected recipients failed if they were performed within 10 days of HSV infection, an effect that was dependent on CD4 T cells, as demonstrated using CD4 deficient mice. Importantly, a variably sustained but strongly positive anti-HSV T-cell response was detected in allografted HSK recipients with a similar but lesser response in syngeneic hosts. Conclusions A previous HSV-1 corneal infection predisposes donor grafts to a high risk of failure by both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in which an anti-HSV CD4 T-cell response plays a prominent role. PMID:27050878

  20. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  1. Voronoi polyhedra and Delaunay simplexes in the structural analysis of molecular-dynamics-simulated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brostow, Witold; Chybicki, Mieczyslaw; Laskowski, Robert; Rybicki, Jaroslaw

    1998-06-01

    Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations are applied to pattern recognition of atomic environments and to investigation of the nonlocal order in molecular-dynamics (MD)-simulated materials. The method is applicable also to materials generated using other computer techniques such as Monte Carlo. The pattern recognition is based on an analysis of the shapes of the Voronoi polyhedron (VP). A procedure for contraction of short edges and small faces of the polyhedron is presented. It involves contraction to vertices of all edges shorter than a certain fraction x of the average edge length, with concomitant contraction of the associated faces. Thus, effects of fluctuations are eliminated, providing ``true'' values of the geometric coordination numbers f, both local and averaged over the material. Nonlocal order analysis involves geometric relations between Delaunay simplexes. The methods proposed are used to analyze the structure of MD-simulated solid lead [J. Rybicki, W. Alda, S. Feliziani, and W. Sandowski, in Proceedings of the Conference on Intermolecular Interactions in Matter, edited by K. Sangwal, E. Jartych, and J. M. Olchowik (Technical University of Lublin, Lublin, 1995), p. 57; J. Rybicki, R. Laskowski, and S. Feliziani, Comput. Phys. Commun. 97, 185 (1997)] and germianium dioxide [T. Nanba, T. Miyaji, T. Takada, A. Osaka, Y. Minura, and I. Yosui, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 131 (1994)]. For Pb the contraction results are independent of x. For the open structure of GeO2 there is an x dependence of the contracted structure, so that using several values of x is preferable. In addition to removing effects of thermal perturbation, in open structures the procedure also cleans the resulting VP from faces contributed by the second neighbors. The analysis can be combined with that in terms of the radial distribution g(R), making possible comparison of geometric coordination numbers with structural ones [W. Brostow, Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 285 (1977)].

  2. Condoms do not cover everything: an unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, R R; van der Meijden, W I

    2007-04-01

    We report on a patient who presented with an unusual manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Furthermore, this case again shows that even the correct use of a condom has limited protecting value. We emphasize the usefulness of informing patients carefully about transmission risks of HSV. PMID:17509182

  3. [Fatal fulminating hepatitis due to Herpes simplex virus type 2 in a young immunocompetent female].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, E; Martin, J; Saliba, F; Nicolas, X; Richecoeur, M; Klotz, F

    1999-01-01

    Fulminant herpes simplex viral hepatitis is uncommon in immunocompetent subjects. A 24-year-old woman presenting hepatomegaly with fever was hospitalized after returning from a trip to southern Africa. The patient was neither pregnant nor immunocompromised. Because of recent tropical travel, differential diagnosis included alphabetic hepatotropic virus infection, yellow fever, African hemorrhagic fever, and arbovirus infection. After ruling out other common viral etiologies, a definitive diagnosis of herpes simplex viral infection was made on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings showing high fever, leukopenia, and thrombopenia; of histological examination of the native liver after transplantation showing non-inflammatory confluent focal hemorrhagic necrosis; and on serologic tests demonstrating seroconversion for herpes simplex virus type 2. Outcome after transplantation was rapidly fatal but the death was not directly related to infection. The most likely etiology of fulminant hepatitis in a young woman returning from travel in a tropical area is hepatitis virus B or hepatitis virus E in cases involving pregnancy. However herpes simplex virus should be included in differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent subjects.

  4. Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, and its predation by a coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, is a pest of ficus plant such as Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis and others. This invasive pest causes plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, wilting, and eventually, leaf drop. There is little information on the effectiveness of insect predators to contr...

  5. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J.; Fink, C. G.; Skinner, G. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Jordan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:183806

  6. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Major Allergen, Ani s 14, from Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kakemoto, Seiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Anisakis simplex is a representative parasite infecting marine animals. When third stage larvae of A. simplex infecting fish and squids are ingested by humans, individuals previously sensitized by this parasite may experience IgE-mediated allergic reactions. So far, as many as 13 kinds of proteins (Ani s 1-13) have been identified as A. simplex allergens but several more unknown allergens are suggested to exist. In this study, therefore, chemiluminescent immunoscreening of an expression cDNA library constructed from the third stage larvae was conducted to identify a new allergen. As a result, an IgE-positive clone coding for a 23.5 kDa protein (named Ani s 14) composed of 217 amino acid residues was isolated. The regions 4-147 and 34-123 of Ani s 14 share 31% identity with the region 796-940 of Ani s 7 and 32% identity with the region 2-91 of Ani s 12, respectively. Recombinant Ani s 14 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and shown to be IgE reactive to 14 (54%) of 26 sera from Anisakis-allergic patients. In conclusion, Ani s 14 is a new major allergen of A. simplex that is specific to Anisakis-allergic patients.

  7. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  8. Does the Cognitive Architecture of Simplex and Multiplex ASD Families Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX and MPX ASD probands displayed similar cognitive…

  9. Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

  10. Physically Based Modeling and Simulation with Dynamic Spherical Volumetric Simplex Splines

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yunhao; Hua, Jing; Qin, Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel computational modeling and simulation framework based on dynamic spherical volumetric simplex splines. The framework can handle the modeling and simulation of genus-zero objects with real physical properties. In this framework, we first develop an accurate and efficient algorithm to reconstruct the high-fidelity digital model of a real-world object with spherical volumetric simplex splines which can represent with accuracy geometric, material, and other properties of the object simultaneously. With the tight coupling of Lagrangian mechanics, the dynamic volumetric simplex splines representing the object can accurately simulate its physical behavior because it can unify the geometric and material properties in the simulation. The visualization can be directly computed from the object’s geometric or physical representation based on the dynamic spherical volumetric simplex splines during simulation without interpolation or resampling. We have applied the framework for biomechanic simulation of brain deformations, such as brain shifting during the surgery and brain injury under blunt impact. We have compared our simulation results with the ground truth obtained through intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging and the real biomechanic experiments. The evaluations demonstrate the excellent performance of our new technique. PMID:20161636

  11. [Postoperative therapy after penetrating keratoplasty in herpes simplex keratitis].

    PubMed

    Süveges, Ildikó; Füst, Ágnes; Imre, László

    2013-12-29

    Bevezetés: A herpes simplex vírus által okozott szaruhártya-gyulladás a leggyakoribb oka a cornea centrumában kialakuló hegnek, amely látásvesztést okozhat. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célul tűzték ki a perforáló keratoplasztika eredményességének felmérését a szisztémás antiherpeses és immunszuppresszív terápia alkalmazásának tükrében. Módszer: Perforáló keratoplasztikán átesett 12 betegen végezték a retrospektív randomizált vizsgálatot. A műtéti beavatkozásig eltelt idő az első keratitis megjelenésétől számítva átlag 18 év volt (5–40 év). A műtéti indikáció 9 esetben a látás javítása, 3 esetben a cornea perforációjának megelőzése volt. Szisztémás kezelésként 9 beteg herpeszvírus elleni (acyclovir) és immunszuppresszív (mycophenolat mofetil), 2 beteg csak herpeszvírus elleni kezelést kapott, egy betegnél nem alkalmaztak szisztémás terápiát. Az átlagos követési idő 53,1 hónap volt (16–84 hó). Eredmények: A látásjavító célú 9 műtét közül 8 esetben a transzplantátum átlátszóan, ereződés nélkül gyógyult. Mind a 8 beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil kezelésben részesült. Egy esetben – amikor a beteg szisztémás kezelést nem kapott – recidíva és rejectio is fellépett. Az akut gyulladásos tünetekben végzett műtétek közül egyben gyógyult a transzplantátum átlátszóan, recidíva- és rejectiomentesen; a beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil terápiában részesült. Két esetben recidíva és rejectio is fellépett. Ezek közül egyben a beteg acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil, egyben csak acyclovirkezelést kapott. A látóélesség minden esetben javult, 3 esetben a látást egyéb tényezők befolyásolták. Következtetések: A szisztémás acyclovir és mycophenolat mofetil terápia sikerrel alkalmazható herpes simplex keratitisben végzett perforáló keratoplasztikák után. Az acyclovir csökkenti a recidívák számát, a

  12. Much More than Model Fitting? Evidence for the Heritability of Method Effect Associated with Positively Worded Items of the Life Orientation Test Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Fagnani, Corrado; Bentler, Peter M.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Medda, Emanuela; Nistico, Lorenza; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    When a self-report instrument includes a balanced number of positively and negatively worded items, factor analysts often use method effect factors to aid model fitting. One of the most widely investigated sources of method effects stems from the respondent tendencies to agree with an item regardless of its content. The nature of these effects,…

  13. New records of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil, with description of a new species of the simplex-branch (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A; Debastiani-Júnior, José Roberto; Mugnai, Riccardo; Senna, André

    2015-11-18

    The range of geographical distribution of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil has increased by almost 2000 km to the south. New records of Anthalona verrucosa verrucosa (Sars, 1901) were also added. Populations of Anthalona brandorffi from Central Brazil showed a peculiar morphological variation, with some individuals having only a single denticle on the labral keel. A new species of the simplex-branch, Anthalona neotropica sp. nov., was described based on Brazilian material, and this is the first taxon of this branch registered in the Neotropics. It differs from Anthalona simplex Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011, a Central African species, in the morphology of underneath sack of the lateral head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of first flaming-torch seta of limb IV. It could be distinguished from Anthalona sanoamuangae Sinev & Kotov, 2012 (distributed through the South- East Asia) by the morphology of the main head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of the pecten of postabdominal claw. Anthalona neotropica sp. nov. seems to have a benthic/hyporheic habit. All studied species have a wide geographical distribution and could be confused with Anthalona verrucosa Sars, 1901, thus at least some if not all previous records of this species on the continent must be revised.

  14. New records of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil, with description of a new species of the simplex-branch (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A; Debastiani-Júnior, José Roberto; Mugnai, Riccardo; Senna, André

    2015-01-01

    The range of geographical distribution of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil has increased by almost 2000 km to the south. New records of Anthalona verrucosa verrucosa (Sars, 1901) were also added. Populations of Anthalona brandorffi from Central Brazil showed a peculiar morphological variation, with some individuals having only a single denticle on the labral keel. A new species of the simplex-branch, Anthalona neotropica sp. nov., was described based on Brazilian material, and this is the first taxon of this branch registered in the Neotropics. It differs from Anthalona simplex Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011, a Central African species, in the morphology of underneath sack of the lateral head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of first flaming-torch seta of limb IV. It could be distinguished from Anthalona sanoamuangae Sinev & Kotov, 2012 (distributed through the South- East Asia) by the morphology of the main head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of the pecten of postabdominal claw. Anthalona neotropica sp. nov. seems to have a benthic/hyporheic habit. All studied species have a wide geographical distribution and could be confused with Anthalona verrucosa Sars, 1901, thus at least some if not all previous records of this species on the continent must be revised. PMID:26624710

  15. Double encephalitis with herpes simplex virus type II and cytomegalovirus in an elder Chinese: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaobiao; Chen, Shaoxian; Lin, Qi; Zhou, Houshi; Huang, Chuming; Lin, Jiyuan; Xie, Weihang; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Dongming; Ma, Wan; Ma, Feiyu; Xu, Haiyun

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a rare disease. In adults, most of the reported cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of 67-year-old Chinese male with the coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II). He had no history of being treated with immunosuppressants, showed symptoms of psychosis and was scored 109 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. This patient presented with a rare case of coinfection of CMV and herpes simplex virus type II with psychotic symptoms. PMID:26586947

  16. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Robinson, Carlos J; Kawaguchi, So; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-02-17

    The diversity of parasites found on Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Order Euphausiacea) was compared during 10 oceanographic cruises made off both coasts of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that N. simplex has a more diverse parasitic assemblage than N. difficilis because it is a neritic species, has larger population abundance, and tends to form denser and more compact swarms than N. difficilis. These biological and behavioral features may enhance parasite transmission within swarms. We detected 6 types of ectoparasites: (1) epibiotic diatoms Licmophora sp.; (2) Ephelotidae suctorian ciliates; (3) Foettingeriidae exuviotrophic apostome ciliates; (4) an unidentified epicaridean cryptoniscus larvae (isopoda); and 2 castrators: (5) the ectoparasitic Dajidae isopod Notophryxus lateralis and (6) the ellobiopsid mesoparasite Thalassomyces fagei. We also detected 7 types of endoparasites: (1) an undescribed Collinia ciliate (Apostomatida); 3 types of Cestoda: (2) a Tetrarhynchobothruium sp. (Trypanorhyncha), (3) Echinobothrium sp. (Diphyllidea: Echinobothyriidae), and (4) unidentified metacestode; (5) a Trematoda Paronatrema-like metacercaria (Syncoeliidae); (6) the nematode Anisakis simplex (L3); and (7) Polymorphidae acantocephalan larvae (acanthor, acanthella, and cystacanth larval stages). N. simplex is affected by all types of parasites, except the isopod N. lateralis, having a considerably larger parasitic diversity and prevalence rates than N. difficilis, which is only infested with 3 types of ectoparasites and T. fagei. Euphausiid swarming is an adaptive behavior for reproduction, protection against predators, and increased efficiency in food searching, but has a negative effect due to parasitism. Although the advantages of aggregation must overcome the reduction of population and individual fitness induced by parasites, we demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex

  17. Anisakis simplex: from Obscure Infectious Worm to Inducer of Immune Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Audicana, M. Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites (“gastroallergic anisakiasis”), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive. PMID:18400801

  18. Mycosis Inhibits Cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    PubMed Central

    Jaronski, Stefan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). This behavior has been proposed as a mechanism for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. Aanecdotal observations suggested that the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius (Acrididae), and A. simplex did not eat cadavers that had been killed by insect pathogenic fungi. The hypothesis tested was that A. simplex or M. sanguinipes would not cannibalize individuals freshly killed by the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana Bals.-Criv. (Vuill.) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), or Metarhizium acridum (Driver and Milner) Bischoff, Rehner, and Humber. Cannibalism was examined in a series of no-choice tests with individual insects. Test insects included healthy adults of M. sanguinipes; the differential grasshopper, M. differentialis (Thomas); the American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana (Drury) (Acrididae); and A. simplex. Individual, starved Acrididae or A. simplex were confined in small cages with either a fungus-killed (but unsporulated) or uninfected cadaver. The insects were then observed periodically for the first 4 hr. After 24 hr, the cadavers were scored for the degree to which they had been consumed. Very few mycotic cadavers were fed upon by the healthy insects, and, at most only the tarsi were eaten. All four species generally refused to eat fungus-infected cadavers. In contrast, freeze-killed cadavers were partly or entirely consumed by most of the test insects, often within a few hours. Transmission of infection through contact in these tests was between 0–18.9%, depending upon the fungus and insect species, and was lower than the prevalence of cannibalism in all cases. PMID:24786183

  19. Comparison of a DNA probe assay with the plaque reduction assay for measuring the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus to penciclovir and acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Standring-Cox, R; Bacon, T H; Howard, B A

    1996-01-01

    A DNA probe assay was compared with the plaque reduction assay to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) to penciclovir and acyclovir in MRC-5 cells. In both assays, penciclovir and acyclovir shared comparable activity against cell-free virus (CFV) preparations of VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolates, whilst acyclovir was significantly more active than penciclovir against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) isolates in both the DNA probe assay (P < or = 0.01) and the plaque reduction assay (P < or = 0.01). However, the 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) were generally lower in the DNA probe assay and the correlation between the plaque reduction and DNA probe assays was poor for either compound. Six acyclovir-resistant strains of HSV-1 derived in cell culture were also tested for susceptibility to penciclovir and acyclovir, in the DNA probe and plaque reduction assays. The relative susceptibilities of these strains were comparable, for example, one ACV-resistant strain was susceptible to penciclovir in both assays. Further comparisons of the assay methods were made using cell-associated VZV (CAV). As with CFV the EC50s were significantly lower in the DNA probe assay than the plaque reduction assay for penciclovir (P < or = 0.01) and acyclovir (P < or = 0.01). In the DNA probe assay there was no significant difference in the EC50s for either penciclovir or acyclovir when comparing CAV with CFV. However, in the plaque reduction assay the EC50s for CAV were significantly higher than those for CFV for both penciclovir (P < or = 0.01) and acyclovir (P < or = 0.01). Overall the DNA probe assay is objective, does not require prior titration of isolates and provides opportunities for automation. It is more suitable for sensitivity testing of large numbers of clinical isolates than the well-established plaque reduction assay.

  20. Inhibition of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Herpes keratitis (HK) remains the leading cause of cornea-derived blindness in the developed world, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Treatment toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance highlight the need for additional therapeutic approaches. This study examined ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an apical kinase in the host DNA damage response, as a potential new target for the treatment of HK. Methods. Small molecule inhibitor of ATM (KU-55933) was used to treat herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in three experimental models: (1) in vitro—cultured human corneal epithelial cells, hTCEpi, (2) ex vivo—organotypically explanted human and rabbit corneas, and (3) in vivo—corneal infection in young C57BL/6J mice. Infection productivity was assayed by plaque assay, real-time PCR, Western blot, and disease scoring. Results. Robust ATM activation was detected in HSV-1-infected human corneal epithelial cells. Inhibition of ATM greatly suppressed viral replication in cultured cells and in explanted human and rabbit corneas, and reduced the severity of stromal keratitis in mice. The antiviral effect of KU-55933 in combination with acyclovir was additive, and KU-55933 suppressed replication of a drug-resistant HSV-1 strain. KU-55933 caused minimal toxicity, as monitored by clonogenic survival assay and fluorescein staining. Conclusions. This study identifies ATM as a potential target for the treatment of HK. ATM inhibition by KU-55933 reduces epithelial infection and stromal disease severity without producing appreciable toxicity. These findings warrant further investigations into the DNA damage response as an area for therapeutic intervention in herpetic ocular diseases. PMID:24370835

  1. Effect of black tea extract on herpes simplex virus-1 infection of cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine if black tea extract (BTE), consisting primarily of flavanol compounds called theaflavins, could inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection in cultured A549 (human epithelial) and Vero cells. Methods The effect of BTE both on A549 and Vero cultured cells and on HSV-1 was assessed by using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy, and cell viability and proliferation assays. After establishing the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration of BTE, A549 and Vero cells and HSV-1 virions were treated with varying concentrations of BTE, respectively. A549 and Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) insert at the UL46 gene. The effect of infectivity was determined by viral DNA extraction followed by PCR, plaque assays, adsorption assays, and electrophoresis of PCR products. Results BTE was not cytotoxic to A549 and Vero cells, as confirmed by cell viability and proliferation assays, in which BTE treated groups paralleled the positive control group. For both cell lines, plaque assays and fluorescent microscopy indicated an inverse relationship between BTE concentration (from 0.14 μM – 1.4 mM) and HSV-1 infectivity. Specifically, PCR and electrophoresis showed a reduction in the viral genome following treatment with BTE. In addition, there was a noticeable decrease in the amount of viral plaques for BTE treated samples in the adsorption assays. Conclusions BTE consisting primarily of theaflavins is not cytotoxic and can reduce or block the production of infectious HSV-1 virions in cultured A549 and Vero cells, thus inhibiting the infectivity of the virus by interfering in the attachment, penetration and viral DNA replication of HSV-1 particles. These findings indicate that BTE enriched with theaflavins has the potential to be developed as a safe, therapeutic antiviral agent to prevent the spread of HSV-1. PMID:23777309

  2. Digallate Dimers of (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivate Herpes Simplex Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Charles E.; Xu, Weimin; Merz, George; Hillier, Sharon; Rohan, Lisa; Wen, Guang Y.

    2011-01-01

    Topical microbicides are potentially an alternative method to vaccines for reducing the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We have previously shown (S. Liu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723:270–281, 2005) that the catechin (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inactivates HSV at neutral pH; however, to function in the female genital tract EGCG must also be effective at acidic pH. EGCG inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 at pH 8.0 by 3 log10 to 4 log10 but was ineffective at pH 5.7. The EGCG digallate dimers theasinensin A, P2, and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF-3) inactivated both viruses by 3 log10 to 4 log10 at pH 5.7 and as much as 5 log10 at pH 8.0. TF-3 inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 by 4 to 5 log10 in the pH range of 4.0 to 5.7. Dimers with one gallate moiety had antiviral activity intermediate between the activities of EGCG and digallate dimers. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that theasinensin A did not damage Vero cells. All EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ≅2 to 3.5 log10. Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs. PMID:21947401

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanaee, Layli; Karnauchow, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  4. Aborted genital herpes simplex virus lesions: findings from a randomised controlled trial with valaciclovir

    PubMed Central

    Strand, A; Patel, R; Wulf, H; Coates, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: In prospective trials, episodic valaciclovir significantly increased the chance of preventing or aborting the development of painful vesicular genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) lesions compared with placebo. We explored the clinical outcome of aborted lesions and its association with early treatment in a study designed to compare 3 and 5 days' treatment with valaciclovir. Methods: In a randomised controlled trial, valaciclovir 500 mg twice daily for 3 or 5 days was initiated at the first symptoms of a genital herpes outbreak. The primary end point was length of episode with pain, HSV shedding, and aborted lesions secondary end points. The effect of time from symptom recognition to treatment initiation on aborted lesions was assessed in a post hoc analysis. Results: In 531 patients, no differences were observed between 3 and 5 days' treatment in episode duration (median 4.7 v 4.6 days), loss of pain/discomfort (2.8 v 3.0 days), or lesion healing (4.9 v 4.5 days). Vesicular lesions were aborted in 27% of patients treated for 3 days v 21% of patients receiving valaciclovir for 5 days. The odds of achieving an aborted episode were 1.93 (95% CI: 1.28 to 2.90) times higher for those initiating treatment with valaciclovir within 6 hours of first sign or symptom. Conclusions: There was no difference between 3 and 5 days' treatment in reducing episode duration or lesion abortion. Prompt treatment with valaciclovir can abort genital HSV reactivation episodes, preventing a vesicular outbreak. Maximum treatment benefit depends on prompt therapy after recognition of symptoms. PMID:12473805

  5. Behavioral and Cognitive Characteristics of Females and Males With Autism in the Simons Simplex Collection

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Georgiades, Stelios; Bishop, Somer L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in behavioral symptoms and cognitive functioning between males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method We analyzed data from 2,418 probands with autism (304 females, 2,114 males) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Sex differences were evaluated across measures of autism symptoms, cognitive and motor functioning, adaptive behavior, and associated behavior problems. Measurement bias was examined using latent variable models of symptoms. Unadjusted and propensity-adjusted analyses were computed to ensure sex differences were not due to unbalanced sampling. Moderator and mediator analyses evaluated whether sex differences were modified by clinical characteristics or driven by cognitive ability. Results Females with ASD had greater social communication impairment, lower levels of restricted interests, lower cognitive ability, weaker adaptive skills, and greater externalizing problems relative to males. Symptom differences could not be accounted for by measurement differences, indicating that diagnostic instruments captured autism similarly in males and females. IQ reductions mediated greater social impairment and reduced adaptive behavior in females with ASD, but did not mediate reductions in restricted interests or increases in irritability. Conclusions A specific female ASD phenotype is emerging that cannot be accounted for by differential symptom measurement. The present data suggest that the relatively low proportion of high functioning females may reflect the effect of protective biological factors or may be due to under-identification. Additional carefully-accrued samples are needed to confirm the present pattern and to evaluate whether observed sex ratios in high functioning cases are reduced if female-specific indicators of restricted interests are included. PMID:24565360

  6. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sanaee, Layli; Taljaard, Monica; Karnauchow, Tim; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  7. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Demonstrates Bilateral Loss of Endothelial Cells in Unilateral Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Rodrigo T.; Pourmirzaie, Roxanna; Pavan-Langston, Deborah; Cavalcanti, Bernardo M.; Aggarwal, Shruti; Colón, Clara; Jamali, Arsia; Cruzat, Andrea; Hamrah, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report bilateral corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), as well as its correlation with subbasal nerve changes, in patients with unilateral herpes simplex keratitis (HSK). Methods Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients with corneal scarring caused by HSK, as well as their respective contralateral clinically unaffected eyes, were prospectively studied and compared with 26 eyes of 26 healthy volunteers. In vivo confocal microscopy and corneal sensation of the central cornea were performed bilaterally in all patients and in one random eye of controls. The ECD and subbasal corneal nerve density, including the lengths of total nerves, main trunks, and branches were evaluated and correlated to central corneal sensation. Results The ECD was significantly lower in eyes affected with HSK than in controls (2304 ± 578 vs. 2940 ± 370 cells/mm2, P < 0.0001). Surprisingly, lower ECD was also detected in contralateral clinically unaffected eyes (2548 ± 423), compared to controls (P = 0.02). Both affected and contralateral eyes showed decrease in total nerve length, compared to controls (10.0 ± 6.3 vs. 17.6 ± 6.3 vs. 21.9 ± 4.3 mm/mm2, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). The ECD correlated positively with total nerve length (r = 0.39, P = 0.0009) and with corneal sensation (r = 0.31, P = 0.009). Conclusions In vivo confocal microscopy findings demonstrated alterations in corneal ECD in both affected and clinically unaffected contralateral eyes of patients with unilateral HSK. Moreover, the positive significant correlation between the ECD and the subbasal nerve density may suggest a potential link between corneal innervation and corneal endothelial cell homeostasis. PMID:26225629

  8. Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses comparison tests for two methods of collecting vapor samples from the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces. The two sampling methods compared are the truck-mounted vapor sampling system (VSS) and the cart-mounted in-situ vapor sampling (ISVS). Three tanks were sampled by both the VSS and ISVS methods from the same access risers within the same 8-hour period. These tanks have diverse headspace compositions and they represent the highest known level of several key vapor analytes.

  9. Arthroscopic Hip Revision Surgery for Residual FAI

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher M.; Giveans, Russell; Bedi, Asheesh; Samuelson, Kathryn M.; Stone, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is a steep surgical learning curve when managing femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and residual FAI can lead to continued pain and disability. There is very limited data reporting outcomes after revision arthroscopy for residual FAI. Methods: The records of patients that underwent arthroscopic hip revision surgery for residual FAI based on plain radiographs and 3D CT scans were reviewed. Pre and post-operative structural pathomorphology, intra-operative findings, and pre and post-operative outcomes measures using Modified Harris Hip Scoring (MHHS), SF-12 scoring, and pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated. Outcomes after revision arthroscopic FAI correction were compared to a cohort that underwent primary arthroscopic FAI correction. Results: 59 patients (85 hips) underwent arthroscopic revision FAI correction (mean 20.8 months follow-up). There were 98 previous arthroscopic surgeries and 4 previous surgical dislocations. There were 39 males and 46 females with a mean age of 29.5 years (range 16 - 59). 80 hips had residual cam-type FAI, and 64 hips had residual pincer-type FAI and underwent femoral and rim resections, respectively. The labrum was debrided in 27 hips, repaired in 48 hips and reconstructed with allograft in 8 hips. Adhesions were excised for 54 hips. The results of revision arthroscopic FAI correction were compared to 154 patients (169 hips) that underwent primary arthroscopic FAI correction (mean 25.2 months follow-up). The mean improvement for outcomes scores after revision FAI correction was 18.9 points (MHHS, p<.01), 13.4 points (SF-12, p<.01), and 2.2 points (VAS, p<.01) compared to 23.7 points (MHHS, p<.01), 22.3 points (SF-12, p<.01), and 4.6 points (VAS, p<.01) after primary arthroscopic FAI correction. Most recent outcomes scores and mean improvement in outcome scores were significantly better after primary (81.1% good/ excellent results) compared to revision (69.8% good/excellent results) FAI correction (MHS

  10. Valacyclovir for the prevention of recurrent herpes simplex virus eye disease after excimer laser photokeratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Asbell, P A

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: A variety of factors have been reported as inducing the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), among them stress, trauma, and UV radiation. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a surgical procedure utilizing a 193 nm ultraviolet light to alter the curvature of the cornea and hence correct vision. Reactivation of ocular herpes simplex keratitis following such excimer laser PRK has been reported. All published cases of HSV reactivation following excimer laser treatment in humans are reviewed. The present study evaluates whether stress, trauma of the corneal de-epithelialization prior to the laser, or the excimer laser treatment itself to the stromal bed induces this ocular reactivation of the latent HSV, and whether a systemic antiviral agent, valacyclovir, would prevent such laser PRK-induced reactivation of the HSV. METHODS: Forty-three normal 1.5- to 2.5-kg New Zealand white rabbits were infected on the surface of the cornea with HSV-1, strain RE. The animals were monitored until resolution, and then all animals were divided into 5 treatment groups: (1) de-epithelialization only, intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline for 14 days; (2) de-epithelialization plus laser, i.p. saline for 14 days; (3) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 50 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (4) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 100 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (5) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days. Animals were evaluated in a masked fashion by clinical examination biweekly and viral cultures biweekly through day 28. RESULTS: The reactivation rates were as follows: group 1, 0%; group 2, 67%; group 3, 50%; group 4, 17%; and group 5, 0%. Viral titers were negative in animals that had no reactivation but persistently positive in those that had reactivation (day 6 through day 28). CONCLUSIONS: Excimer laser (193 nm) treatment can trigger reactivation of ocular herpes disease (67%) and viral

  11. Delimiting species using single-locus data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent approach: a revised method and evaluation on simulated data sets.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomochika; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2013-09-01

    DNA barcoding-type studies assemble single-locus data from large samples of individuals and species, and have provided new kinds of data for evolutionary surveys of diversity. An important goal of many such studies is to delimit evolutionarily significant species units, especially in biodiversity surveys from environmental DNA samples. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) method is a likelihood method for delimiting species by fitting within- and between-species branching models to reconstructed gene trees. Although the method has been widely used, it has not previously been described in detail or evaluated fully against simulations of alternative scenarios of true patterns of population variation and divergence between species. Here, we present important reformulations to the GMYC method as originally specified, and demonstrate its robustness to a range of departures from its simplifying assumptions. The main factor affecting the accuracy of delimitation is the mean population size of species relative to divergence times between them. Other departures from the model assumptions, such as varying population sizes among species, alternative scenarios for speciation and extinction, and population growth or subdivision within species, have relatively smaller effects. Our simulations demonstrate that support measures derived from the likelihood function provide a robust indication of when the model performs well and when it leads to inaccurate delimitations. Finally, the so-called single-threshold version of the method outperforms the multiple-threshold version of the method on simulated data: we argue that this might represent a fundamental limit due to the nature of evidence used to delimit species in this approach. Together with other studies comparing its performance relative to other methods, our findings support the robustness of GMYC as a tool for delimiting species when only single-locus information is available.

  12. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the flesh of white spotted conger by the stepwise increase of high pressure and time. The conditions required to eliminate A. simplex L3 were as follows: 200 MPa for 5 min or 300 MPa for 1 min. The flesh of the white spotted conger treated at 300 MPa for 1 min was whiter and yellower than untreated controls or that treated at 200 MPa for 5 min. No significant changes (p > 0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored < 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  13. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the flesh of white spotted conger by the stepwise increase of high pressure and time. The conditions required to eliminate A. simplex L3 were as follows: 200 MPa for 5 min or 300 MPa for 1 min. The flesh of the white spotted conger treated at 300 MPa for 1 min was whiter and yellower than untreated controls or that treated at 200 MPa for 5 min. No significant changes (p > 0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored < 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities. PMID:27117731

  14. [Should IQWiG revise its methods of cost-effectiveness analysis in order to comply with more widely accepted health economical evaluation standards?].

    PubMed

    Lübbe, W

    2010-03-01

    IQWiG, Germany's equivalent to Britain's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), has adopted an unorthodox method of cost-effectiveness analysis. The method does not use QALYs (quality adjusted life years). Its main point is that it tries to avoid comparative judgement on the relative value of treatment effects in different medical areas. The present contribution assesses the controversy that has arisen over IQWiG's methods by discussing a) whether comparative judgements will at least implicitly be made anyway as soon as the IQWiG makes reimbursement recommendations in more than one medical area, and b) whether the well-known fairness objections against QALY maximization can plausibly be dealt with by equity weigthing or, generally, by moving on to "societal value" maximization, which tries to include fairness values in addition to cost-effectiveness. It is concluded that the answer is "No" for both points, which leads to a "No" for the title question as well.

  15. Using Optimal Combination of Teaching-Learning Methods (Open Book Assignment and Group Tutorials) as Revision Exercises to Improve Learning Outcome in Low Achievers in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H.; Suryapriya, R.; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B.; Revathy, G.; Priyadarssini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Students' t Values at the 99 Percent Confidence Level Number of replicates Degrees of freedom (n-1) tcn-1... as the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence...) where: MDL = the method detection limit t(n-1,1- α=.99) = the students' t value appropriate for a...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Students' t Values at the 99 Percent Confidence Level Number of replicates Degrees of freedom (n-1) tcn-1... as the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence...) where: MDL = the method detection limit t(n-1,1- α=.99) = the students' t value appropriate for a...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Students' t Values at the 99 Percent Confidence Level Number of replicates Degrees of freedom (n-1) tcn-1... as the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence...) where: MDL = the method detection limit t(n-1,1- α=.99) = the students' t value appropriate for a...

  19. Predictors of Revision Surgery After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yabroudi, Mohammad A.; Björnsson, Haukur; Lynch, Andrew D.; Muller, Bart; Samuelsson, Kristian; Tarabichi, Majd; Karlsson, Jón; Fu, Freddie H.; Harner, Christopher D.; Irrgang, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery occurs in 5% to 15% of individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction. Identifying predictors for revision ACL surgery is of essence in the pursuit of creating adequate prevention programs and to identify individuals at risk for reinjury and revision. Purpose: To determine predictors of revision ACL surgery after failed primary ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 251 participants (mean age ± SD, 26.1 ± 9.9 years) who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction 1 to 5 years earlier completed a comprehensive survey to determine predictors of revision ACL surgery at a mean 3.4 ± 1.3 years after the primary ACL reconstruction. Potential predictors that were assessed included subject characteristics (age at the time of surgery, time from injury to surgery, sex, body mass index, preinjury activity level, return to sport status), details of the initial injury (mechanism; concomitant injury to other ligaments, menisci, and cartilage), surgical details of the primary reconstruction (Lachman and pivot shift tests under anesthesia, graft type, femoral drilling technique, reconstruction technique), and postoperative course (length of rehabilitation, complications). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that predicted the need for revision ACL surgery. Results: Overall, 21 (8.4%) subjects underwent revision ACL surgery. Univariate analysis showed that younger age at the time of surgery (P = .003), participation in sports at a competitive level (P = .023), and double-bundle ACL reconstruction (P = .024) predicted increased risk of revision ACL surgery. Allograft reconstructions also demonstrated a trend toward greater risk of revision ACL surgery (P = .076). No other variables were significantly associated with revision ACL surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed that revision ACL surgery was

  20. Single particle analysis of herpes simplex virus: comparing the dimensions of one and the same virions via atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kämmer, Evelyn; Götz, Isabell; Bocklitz, Thomas; Stöckel, Stephan; Dellith, Andrea; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Zell, Roland; Dellith, Jan; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Currently, two types of direct methods to characterize and identify single virions are available: electron microscopy (EM) and scanning probe techniques, especially atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM in particular provides morphologic information even of the ultrastructure of viral specimens without the need to cultivate the virus and to invasively alter the sample prior to the measurements. Thus, AFM can play a critical role as a frontline method in diagnostic virology. Interestingly, varying morphological parameters for virions of the same type can be found in the literature, depending on whether AFM or EM was employed and according to the respective experimental conditions during the AFM measurements. Here, an inter-methodological proof of principle is presented, in which the same single virions of herpes simplex virus 1 were probed by AFM previously and after they were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sophisticated chemometric analyses then allowed a calculation of morphological parameters of the ensemble of single virions and a comparison thereof. A distinct decrease in the virions' dimensions was found during as well as after the SEM analyses and could be attributed to the sample preparation for the SEM measurements. Graphical abstract The herpes simplex virus is investigated with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy in view of varying dimensions.

  1. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    PubMed

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2.

  2. Molecular epidemiology and risk factors for Anisakis simplex s.l. infection in blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean: Differences between A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Valero, Adela; Morales-Yuste, Manuel; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    Our study determined parameters of parasitization of Anisakis simplex s.l. in Micromesistius poutassou in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean, with a total prevalence of 82%. Also, in the three seasons analyzed, high prevalence's values were found, reaching 100% in spring; however mean intensity and abundance values were higher in winter. The use of molecular techniques to differentiate between Anisakis genotypes of the larvae characterized allowed obtaining values of 99.7% Anisakis simplex s.l. (50.1% A. simplex s.s., 42.9% A. pegreffii, 7.0% A. simplex s.s. - A. pegreffii hybrids) and 0.3% A. typica. The infections found in the fish were of both single and mixed species, in all the different possible combinations. The presence of A. simplex s.l. in the viscera varied according to genotype and season. Likewise, factors associated with the presence of the parasite in the ventral or dorsal musculature were different, where A. simplex s.s. proportion was double than that of A. pegreffii. The ecology of the two sibling species with regard to their location in fish and the influence of the season were different.

  3. Revision and Validation of the Revised Teacher Beliefs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane

    This study revised the Teacher Beliefs Survey (S. Wooley and A. Wooley, 1999; TBS), an instrument to assess teachers beliefs related to constructivist and behaviorist theories of learning, and then studied the validity of the revised TBS. Drawing on a literature review, researchers added items for the existing constructs of the TBS and added a new…

  4. Sub-categorisation of skin corrosive chemicals by the EpiSkin™ reconstructed human epidermis skin corrosion test method according to UN GHS: revision of OECD Test Guideline 431.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Grandidier, M H; Cotovio, J

    2014-03-01

    The EpiSkin™ skin corrosion test method was formally validated and adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for identifying corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (EU CLP) system requires the sub-categorisation of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS optional subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. The present study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of the validated EpiSkin™ test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS Categories 1A, 1B and 1C using the original and validated prediction model and adapted controls for direct MTT reduction. In total, 85 chemicals selected by the OECD expert group on skin corrosion were tested in three independent runs. The results obtained were highly reproducible both within (>80%) and between (>78%) laboratories when compared with historical data. Moreover the results obtained showed that the EpiSkin™ test method is highly sensitive (99%) and specific (80%) in discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive chemicals and allows reliable and relevant identification of the different skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories, with high accuracies being obtained for both UN GHS Categories 1A (83%) and 1B/1C (76%) chemicals. The overall accuracy of the test method to subcategorise corrosive chemicals into three or two UN GHS subcategories ranged from 75% to 79%. Considering those results, the revised OECD Test Guideline 431 permit the use of EpiSkin™ for subcategorising corrosive chemicals into at least two classes (Category 1A and Category 1B/1C).

  5. Revision of the standard reference data for thermocouples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Revision of the International Practical Temperature Scale requires that there be changes for all accurately tabulated thermophysical values. Revised reference data for thermocouples have been generated in a program carried out by the National Bureau of Standards. The new reference data reflect not only revisions in the temperature scale, but also slight changes in the materials themselves and improvements in data fitting methods. A new NBS monograph that contains tables, analytic expressions, various approximations, and explanatory text has been prepared. A general discussion of the project and some specific examples are given.

  6. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  7. In vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex-1 activity of three standardized medicinal plants from Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Arabzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mehni, Firoozeh; Mirtadzadini, Manosur; Iranmanesh, Zahra; Nikpour, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic acid with antioxidant and anti-viral effects. We have studied anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) effect of three medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family which have been standardized on the basis of RA content. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinopoides, and Salvia rhytidea was prepared by maceration method and RA content of the plants was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) of the extracts was determined using neutral red method. Serial dilutions of extracts up to MNTC were examined on Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 effect by plaque assay in comparison to acyclovir as a positive control. Results: Among the tested extracts, T. polium contained the highest percentage of RA (1.8%w/w) and exhibited the least toxicity (MNTC = 1000 μg/ml). The greatest anti-HSV-1 was shown by T. polium and Z. clinopoides extracts which exhibited both time and concentration-dependent plaque inhibition. Conclusion: Considering the low toxicity and significant anti-viral effect of T. polium extract, this plant would prove valuable as an active anti-viral drug. PMID:25737608

  8. Positive associations between infections of Toxoplasma gondii and seropositivity with Anisakis simplex in human patients suffering from chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, V; Rodero, M; Valls, A; De Frutos, C; Daschner, A; Cuéllar, C

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a food-borne and orofecal microorganism which produces chronic infection, and attempts have been made to prove its negative association with atopy in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite associated with chronic urticaria (CU) in endemic regions. We analysed the relationship between both infectious agents in CU. We included 42 patients with chronic urticaria (18 patients with CU associated with A. simplex sensitization and 24 not sensitized CU patients). Patients were assessed for atopy by a skin prick test (SPT) against common aeroallergens and for respiratory symptoms. Anisakis simplex sensitization was assessed by SPT and specific IgE by CAP fluoro-enzyme immunoassay (CAP-FEIA). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CU patients were analysed with respect to T. gondii seropositivity, A. simplex sensitization, atopy and immigrant status. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was 40.5% in CU patients and 42.1% in the control group. Immigrants were more frequently infected by T. gondii (41.2% versus 12%; P =0.036). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were associated with past A. simplex parasitism (odds ratio 6.73; P =0.03) and independently with atopic sensitization (odds ratio 5.85; P =0.04). In CU patients, T. gondii has no protective effect on atopic sensitization or A. simplex sensitization.

  9. 48 CFR 315.208 - Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal of proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 315.208 Submission, modification, revision, and withdrawal...

  10. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  11. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  12. Genetic simplex modeling of Eysenck's dimensions of personality in a sample of young Australian twins.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Evans, David E; Wright, Margie M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2004-12-01

    The relative stability and magnitude of genetic and environmental effects underlying major dimensions of adolescent personality across time were investigated. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was administered to over 540 twin pairs at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Their personality scores were analyzed using genetic simplex modeling which explicitly took into account the longitudinal nature of the data. With the exception of the dimension lie, multivariate model fitting results revealed that familial aggregation was entirely explained by additive genetic effects. Results from simplex model fitting suggest that large proportions of the additive genetic variance observed at ages 14 and 16 years could be explained by genetic effects present at the age of 12 years. There was also evidence for smaller but significant genetic innovations at 14 and 16 years of age for male and female neuroticism, at 14 years for male extraversion, at 14 and 16 years for female psychoticism, and at 14 years for male psychoticism.

  13. Cross-reactivity between antigens of Anisakis simplex s.l. and other ascarid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Maldonado J; Martín, Hita L; Díaz, Sáez V; Mañas, Almendros I; Valero, López A; Campos, Bueno M

    2004-06-01

    A study of the cross-reactivity among somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of the third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex s.l. and somatic antigens of other ascarid nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Toxocara canis, Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and H. fabri) was carried out by immunoblotting. It was revealed a high degree of cross-reactivity among ascarids in the 30 and > 212 kDa range by using sera against somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of A. simplex s.l. It has been revealed also specific components of the Anisakis genus (< 7.2, 9, 19 and 25 kDa) that will be interesting in diagnosis. PMID:15224584

  14. Analysis of the eclipsing binary ST Carinae using the SIMPLEX algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.L.; Chambliss, C.R. Kutztown Univ., PA )

    1990-07-01

    This work presents the analyses of two UBV data sets for the Algol binary ST Carinae, presenting a homogeneous study of all the data. The light-curve parameters for the system are derived using the Wilson-Devinney model (1917), with the SIMPLEX algorithm as an optimization procedure, and a mass ratio of q=0.54 is obtained. The primary has colors consistent with a B9.5 V primary, and the solution indicates that the secondary is an F subgiant (Te=6200 K) that fills its Roche lobe. The application of Kepler's law (using the observed period and the mass ratio determined in this investigation) indicates that the absolute dimensions for the components are normal for their respective classes. A description of SIMPLEX is given, and its advantages for the solution of eclipsing binary parameters are discussed. 19 refs.

  15. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

    1984-07-27

    Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

  16. Allergenic properties and cuticle microstructure of Anisakis simplex L3 after freezing and pepsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Moneo, Ignacio; Solas, M Teresa; Mendizábal, Angel; de las Heras, Cristina; Tejada, Margarita

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the viability of and the alterations to the larval cuticle and the pattern of the antigens released when live or frozen Anisakis simplex larvae were treated with acid and pepsin. The results showed that freezing did not greatly alter the larva body. If ruptures were observed, the antigen release to the incubation media was not enhanced, and most of the antigenic content was retained inside the bodies of the larvae. The immunoblotting assay demonstrated that most of the antigens released, including the allergen Ani s 4, were resistant to pepsin. Freezing killed the larvae, but their survival was not compromised by acid treatment or pepsin digestion when kept chilled. All these findings support recommendations about freezing fish for consumption raw or undercooked to prevent human infection by A. simplex larvae. However, our data show that the antigenicity of the larvae is preserved after freezing and may explain why some sensitized patients develop symptoms after ingestion of infested frozen fish.

  17. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  18. Revision of ISO 15859 Aerospace Fluid Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of ISO 15859 "Space Systems - Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods" was performed An approach to revising Parts 1-9 and 11-13 was developed and concurred by the NASA Technical Standards Program Office. The approach was to align them with the highest level source documents, and not to program-specific requirements. The updated documents were prepared and presented.

  19. Revision of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890 in Borneo based on molecular and morphological methods, with descriptions of four new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Devadattidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia.

  20. Revision of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890 in Borneo based on molecular and morphological methods, with descriptions of four new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Devadattidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia. PMID:26624409

  1. Cementless Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty with Ceramic Articulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jong-Hyuck; Yang, Seong-Jo; Kang, Joon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The results of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearing surfaces in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) were well known. However, it was not known in revision THA. The purpose of this study is to report the results of revision THA with ceramic articulation. Materials and Methods A total of 112 revision THAs were evaluated. The mean age at the time of surgery was 51.6 years (27.7 to 84.2 years). The mean duration of the follow-up periods was 6.3 years (2.3 to 11.4 years). Results The Harris hip scores improved from an average of 56.2 at the index surgery to an average of 93.3 at the last follow-up (P<0.001). None of hips showed osteolysis or ceramic head fracture. One hip showed aseptic loosening in the acetabular component with squeaking that caused a re-revision. There were nine cases of dislocation. The survivorship at 5 years was 94.5% (95% confidence interval, 87.9% to 97.6%) with revision for any reason as the endpoint and 100% with femoral revision. Conclusion The ceramic articulation is one of good bearing options for revision THA in patients with a long life expectancy. PMID:27536630

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus simplex DSM 1321 for Setting Up Phylogenomics in Genomic Taxonomy of the Bacillus-Like Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-hong; Wang, Jie-ping; Che, Jian-mei; Chen, Qian-qian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus simplex DSM 1321 is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. simplex DSM 1321, with 6,494,937 bp, which will provide useful information for setting up phylogenomics in genomic taxonomy of the Bacillus-like bacteria as well as for the functional gene mining and application of B. simplex DSM 1321. PMID:27340061

  3. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  4. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing.

  5. Herpes simplex virus infections. New treatment approaches make early diagnosis even more important.

    PubMed

    Nadelman, C M; Newcomer, V D

    2000-03-01

    The herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 cause problems for millions of people worldwide. Infections range from simple cold sores and fever blisters to severe central nervous system disorders. Development of effective antiviral medications has made prompt recognition important in primary care practice. Appropriate therapy can significantly reduce both medical and psychosocial ramifications of herpes infections and can greatly improve the quality of life for many patients.

  6. Detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, G; Bathelier, C; Lespiaux, V; Bali, C; Champenois, T

    1995-10-01

    A simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. It was possible to detect and type HSV using two primers pairs in a simultaneous double PCR reaction, where the type of HSV present was determined on the basis of an ethidium-bromide-stained band after agarose gel electrophoresis. This PCR assay was tested on about 500 clinical specimens.

  7. Simplex s={plus_minus}i excitations in {sup 141}Xe.

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Schulz, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Durell, J. L.; Leddy, M. J.; Jones, M. A.; Phillips, W. R.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L. R.; Warsaw Univ.; Univ. Louis Pasteur; Univ. of Manchester

    2000-05-01

    Excited levels of {sup 141}Xe, populated in spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm, were studied by means of prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, using the EUROGAMM2 array. Level scheme of {sup 141}Xe obtained in this work shows patterns characteristic of simplex symmetry with s = +i and s = -i bands present but low value of D{sub 0} moment indicates that octupole correlations in Xe isotopes are systematically lower than in Ba nuclei.

  8. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  9. Genome Sequence of the Anterograde-Spread-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain MacIntyre

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Yolanda R.; Parsons, Lance; Shreve, Jacob T.; Engel, Esteban A.; Enquist, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    We used paired-end Illumina deep sequencing and de novo assembly to determine the genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain MacIntyre (aka McIntyre). The MacIntyre strain originated from the brain of a patient with lethal HSV encephalitis and has a unique limitation in its neuronal spread, moving solely in the retrograde direction. PMID:25395637

  10. Recent Revisions to PVWATTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Anderberg, M.; Gray-Hann, P.

    2005-11-01

    PVWATTS is an Internet-accessible software program that allows the user to easily calculate the energy production and cost savings for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems located throughout the United States. To ensure that PVWATTS continues to meet its users' needs, an online survey form was provided to users to identify areas for improvement. The results of the survey were used to prioritize improvements to PVWATTS in FY2005. PVWATTS was revised by changing the PV system specification input for system size from an AC power rating to a nameplate DC power rating; adding an input for an overall DC to AC derate factor; updating the residential electric rates; adding monthly and yearly solar radiation values for the PV array; and simplifying the user interface for Version 2.

  11. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Adult: A Fatal Outcome due to Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Poley, Rachel A.; Snowdon, Jaime F.; Howes, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To present a case of a healthy 41-year-old female who developed fulminant hepatic failure leading to death. The cause of hepatic failure identified on postmortem exam was herpes simplex virus hepatitis. Design. Observation of a single patient. Setting. Intensive care unit of a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Canada. Patient. 41-year-old previously healthy female presenting with a nonspecific viral illness and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Intervention. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the second day of admission, she was found to have elevated transaminases, and, over 48 hours, she progressed to fulminant liver failure with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, refractory lactic acidosis, and shock. She progressed to respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. She was started on N-acetylcysteine, a bicarbonate infusion, hemodialysis, and multiple vasopressors and inotropes. Measurements and Main Results. Despite treatment, the patient died roughly 70 hours after her initial presentation to hospital. Her postmortem liver biopsy revealed herpes simplex virus hepatitis as her cause of death. Conclusions. Herpes simplex virus must be considered in all patients presenting with liver failure of unknown cause. If suspected, prompt treatment with acyclovir should be initiated. PMID:24826316

  13. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  14. Viability and antigenicity of anisakis simplex after conventional and microwave heating at fixed temperatures.

    PubMed

    Vidaček, Sanja; De Las Heras, Cristina; Solas, Maria Teresa; García, Maria Luisa; Mendizábal, Angel; Tejada, Margarita

    2011-12-01

    Inactivation of parasites in food by microwave treatment may vary due to differences in the characteristics of microwave ovens and food properties. Microwave treatment in standard domestic ovens results in hot and cold spots, and the microwaves do not penetrate all areas of the samples depending on the thickness, which makes it difficult to compare microwave with conventional heat treatments. The viability of Anisakis simplex (isolated larvae and infected fish muscle) heated in a microwave oven with precise temperature control was compared with that of larvae heated in a water bath to investigate any additional effect of the microwaves. At a given temperature, less time was required to kill the larvae by microwaves than by heated water. Microwave treatment killed A. simplex larvae faster than did conventional cooking when the microwaves fully penetrated the samples and resulted in fewer changes in the fish muscle. However, the heat-stable allergen Ani s 4 was detected by immunohistochemistry in the fish muscle after both heat treatments, even at 70°C, suggesting that Ani s 4 allergens were released from the larvae into the surrounding tissue and that the tissues retained their allergenicity even after the larvae were killed by both heat treatments. Thus, microwave cooking will not render fish safe for individuals already sensitized to A. simplex heat-resistant allergens. PMID:22186053

  15. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant.

  16. Developmental stages and fecundity of Lepeophtheirus simplex (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on bullseye puffer fish (Sphoeroides annulatus).

    PubMed

    Neptali Morales-Serna, Francisco; Rivas-Salas, Ana Ines; Gomez, Samuel; Fajer-Avila, Emma Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Lepeophtheirus simplex Ho, Gómez et Fajer-Avila, 2001 is a parasite of Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns), an economically important fish species, with potential for aquaculture, in northwestern Mexico. The goal of this study was to describe the developmental stages under experimental conditions and seasonal fecundity of this parasite on wild fish. There are two naupliar, one copepodid, two chalimus and two pre-adult stages preceding the adult of L. simplex. The results support previous findings, which point out that the life cycle of the caligid copepods includes only six post-naupliar stages. The generation time from egg extrusion to adult for L. simplex was approximately 10 days at 22 °C. The body length of the ovigerous females ranged between 2.2 and 4.1 mm, and its fecundity between 12 and 36 eggs per string. Fecundity was negatively correlated with the egg size and positively correlated with the egg string length. Our data did not reveal significant differences in fecundity among sampling months, but ovigerous females were significantly larger in March (when water temperature was 22 °C) than in June and July (when water temperature was 30 °C). To some extent, our fecundity results contrast with those found in species of sea lice from higher latitudes. Undoubtedly, biological information on different species of sea lice from different environmental conditions will enhance our understanding of their infection strategies and will be valuable, given the increasing interest in marine fish farming in Mexico. PMID:25960548

  17. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500 mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400 mg TDS) instead, a saving of £828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made.

  18. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  19. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples.

  20. Population and dyadic-based seroincidence of herpes simplex virus-2 and syphilis in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Chad H; Schneider, John A; Dandona, Rakhi; Lakshmi, Vemu; Kumar, G Anil; Sudha, Talasila; Akbar, Mohammed; Ahmed, G Md Mushtaq; Ramgopal, Sri P; Armbruster, Benjamin; Alary, Michel; Dandona, Lalit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis are associated with increased risk of HIV, highlighting the importance of understanding their transmission dynamics. In India, most studies of HSV-2 and syphilis incidence are in high-risk populations and may not accurately reflect infectious activity. In this study, we aim to define HSV-2/syphilis incidence and risk factors in a population sample. Methods We conducted a longitudinal population-based survey in Andhra Pradesh, India, in two rounds: 2004–2005 and 2010–2011. Sociodemographic and behavioural data were collected, and dried blood spots tested for HSV-2 and Treponema pallidum IgG. After calculating sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence, associated factors were assessed using modified Poisson regression and within-couple transmission rates modelled using seroconcordance/discordance data. Results 12 617 adults participated at baseline with 8494 at follow-up. Incidence of HSV-2 and syphilis per 1000 person-years was 25.6 (95% CI 24.1 to 27.2) and 3.00 (95% CI 2.52 to 3.54). Incidence of HSV-2 was higher in women vs men (31.1 vs 20.2) and in rural vs urban residents (31.1 vs 19.0) (p<0.05 for both). STI seroincidence increased in a step-wise fashion with age and was associated with spousal seropositivity for both sexes (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.59 to 6.78). Within couples the rate of transmission per 1000 couple-years from men to women vs women to men was higher for HSV-2 (193.3 vs 119.0) compared with syphilis (27.6 vs 198.8), p<0.05 for both. Conclusions HSV-2 has higher incidence among subpopulations such as women, rural residents and older-aged individuals, suggesting a need for more generalised STI prevention approaches among populations traditionally considered low risk. PMID:25605970

  1. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  2. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 protein IE63 affects the nuclear export of virus intron-containing transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, A; Dunlop, J; Clements, J B

    1996-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization labelling methods, we have determined that the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein IE63 (ICP27) affects the cellular localization of virus transcripts. Intronless transcripts from the IE63, UL38, and UL44 genes are rapidly exported to and accumulate in the cytoplasm throughout infection, in either the presence or absence of IE63 expression. The intron-containing transcripts from the IE110 and UL15 genes, while initially cytoplasmic, are increasingly retained in the nucleus in distinct clumps as infection proceeds, and the clumps colocalize with the redistributed small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Infections with the IE63 mutant virus 27-lacZ demonstrated that in the absence of IE63 expression, nuclear retention of intron-containing transcripts was lost. The nuclear retention of UL15 transcripts, which demonstrated both nuclear and cytoplasmic label, was not as pronounced as that of the IE110 transcripts, and we propose that this is due to the late expression of UL15. Infections with the mutant virus 110C1, in which both introns of IE110 have been precisely removed (R.D. Everett, J. Gen. Virol. 72:651-659, 1991), demonstrated IE110 transcripts in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; thus, exon definition sequences which regulate viral RNA transport are present in the IE110 transcript. By in situ hybridization a stable population of polyadenylated RNAs was found to accumulate in the nucleus in spots, most of which were separate from the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle clumps. The IE63 protein has an involvement, either direct or indirect, in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral transcripts, a function which contrasts with the recently proposed role of herpes simplex virus type 1 Us11 in promoting the nuclear export of partially spliced or unspliced transcripts (J.-J. Diaz, M. Duc Dodon, N. Schaerer-Uthurraly, D. Simonin, K. Kindbeiter, L. Gazzolo, and J.-J. Madjar, Nature [London] 379

  4. [A case of an allergic reaction due to Anisakis simplex possibly after the ingestion of squid--successful detection of four A. simplex allergens, Ani s 1, Ani s 2, Ani s 12 and troponin C-like protein].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Shigeruko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Hidetaka; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2012-08-01

    A 62-year-old man ingested dressed salmon and its roe (ikura) and grilled mackerel and one hour later further ingested raw tuna and squid as an evening meal at a bar. Soon after the ingestion of raw seafood, he showed wheals, loss of consciousness and low blood pressure. Specific serum IgE to the nematode Anisakis simplex was positive but those to some seafoods were negative. Moreover, a skin prick test using the crude extract was positive for A. simplex but negative for the seafoods, which he ingested on the day of the above episode. When the A. simplex extract was analyzed by IgE-binding immunoblot analysis using the patient serum, two highly intense protein bands were recognized at 18 and 17 kDa, one intense band at 35 kDa and two weak bands at 28 and 26 kDa. ELISA with 11 natural or recombinant A. simplex allergens (Ani s 1-6, 8, 9, 11 and 12 and troponin C-like protein) showed that the patient serum strongly reacted to Ani s 1 and Ani s 12 and weakly to Ani s 2 and troponin C-like protein. Based on these results, he was diagnosed as IgE-mediated A. simplex allergy due to four allergens (Ani s 1, Ani s 2, Ani s 12 and troponin C-like protein), possibly infested in the raw squid which he had ingested just before manifestation of allergic reactions.

  5. Annotation and Classification of Argumentative Writing Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the annotation and classification of students' revision behaviors in argumentative writing. A sentence-level revision schema is proposed to capture why and how students make revisions. Based on the proposed schema, a small corpus of student essays and revisions was annotated. Studies show that manual annotation is reliable with…

  6. OMB revises overhead rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    After pressure from university administrators, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued a new plan for saving money on research overhead costs, in place of a controversial proposal that was originally published in February 1986 (Eos, May 20, 1986, p. 481). The agency made the new plan more palatable to administrators and faculty by choosing to cap the rate of reimbursement for the activity that researchers say they find among the most difficult to document: the time they spend on administration of federally sponsored grants and contracts. An amendment to a bill signed by President Ronald Reagan on July 2 might force OMB to make additional concessions to colleges and universities.How much money the federal government would save under this policy is a matter of dispute. The agency's revisions to OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” call for fixing the reimbursement rate at 3% of modified total direct costs for departmental administration work done by “department heads, directors of divisions faculty, and professional staff.” The 3% figure represents about half of the current national average rate of reimbursement for these costs and would lead to federal government savings of $100 million a year, according to OMB.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 Infection Increases Atherosclerosis Risk: Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu peng; Wang, Yun; Liu, Wen; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection with the risk of atherosclerosis (AS). Methods. A systematic literature search was performed through three electronic databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the effect of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection on AS risk. Results. 17 studies were available for meta-analysis of HSV-1 infection and AS risk and seven studies for meta-analysis of HSV-2 infection and AS risk. Subjects exposed to HSV-1 infection exhibited an increased risk of AS (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.40–2.23; P < 0.001). And consistent elevated AS risks for HSV-1 positive subjects were found in all subgroup analysis of disease type, region, male proportion, and age. HSV-2 positive subjects demonstrated significantly increased AS risk (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13–1.67; P < 0.005). In subgroup analysis, elevated AS risks were only observed in myocardial ischemia group, male proportion >60% group, and age ≤60-year-old group. Conclusion. Our meta-analysis indicated that HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection could increase the risk of contracting AS. PMID:27195284

  8. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  9. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  10. Search for inhibitors against herpes simplex virus type-I in cell extracts derived from human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, K H

    1977-06-01

    Cell extracts obtained from KB cells and 5 human lymphoblastoid cell lines including 2 from Burkitt's lymphoma (P3HR-1 and Raji), one each from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (no.223), acute lymphatic leukemia (MOLT-4) and a healthy person (NC-37) were tested for their inhibitory effects on the growth of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in green monkey kidney (GMK) cells by the plaque titration method. The relationship between the production of HSV-1 inhibitors and the degree of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome repression in lymphoblastoid cells were also examined. Among the cell lines used P3HR-1 and no.223 cells produced a few EBV particles, Raji and NC-37 cells contained EBV genomes only, and MOLT-4 as well as KB cells were EBV genome-negative. The results revealed that P3HR-1 cell extract showed a tendency to inhibit HSV-1 growth in GMK cells but the other 4 lymphoblastoid cell lines and KB cells did not produce HSV-1 inhibitors, indicating that EBV genomes governing the formation of EBV structural antigens were not related to the production of HSV-1 growth inhibitors. The extracts from MOLT-4 cells, which are only a T lymphocyte cell line used in this study, stimulated HSV-1 growth in GMK cells significantly.

  11. Rapid determination of antiviral drug susceptibility of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Thi, Thuong Nguyen; Deback, Claire; Malet, Isabelle; Bonnafous, Pascale; Ait-Arkoub, Zaïna; Agut, Henri

    2006-03-01

    An antiviral drug susceptibility assay of herpes simplex virus (HSV) was developed using real-time PCR quantification of intracellular viral DNA load. The number of HSV DNA copies within Vero cells after 24 h infection was strongly correlated with the number of plaques obtained after 72 h infection. Antiviral drug susceptibility of HSV was determined after virus growth for 24h by measuring the reduction of intracellular HSV DNA in the presence of increasing concentrations of either acyclovir (ACV) or foscarnet (PFA). This assay required neither preliminary titration of infectious stock nor follow-up of cytopathic effect. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) obtained with 27 isolates of HSV types 1 and 2 by using this test were significantly correlated with those obtained in parallel with plaque reduction assay taken as the reference method (r=0.91, p<0.0001 and r=0.51, p=0.009 for ACV and PFA, respectively). The threshold real-time PCR IC50s for ACV and PFA resistance did not differ according to HSV type and were determined to be 1.0 and 100 microM, respectively. The real-time PCR susceptibility assay reported here is rapid, reproducible, applicable for HSV-1 as well as HSV-2, and suitable for automation.

  12. Detection of herpes simplex virus type-specific antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on glycoprotein G.

    PubMed

    Hashido, M; Lee, F K; Inouye, S; Kawana, T

    1997-12-01

    In order to develop a simple and quantitative method to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific antibodies, the usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using HSV glycoprotein G (gG) captured on a plate by monoclonal antibodies as antigen was studied. The gG1- and gG2-specific IgG antibody activities were measured by the ELISA for 54 sera which had been collected from culture-proven genital herpes patients and pre-characterized by an immunodot assay using purified gG antigens. Thirty control sera without antibodies against the HSV whole antigens were also included. In comparison with the immunodot assay as standard, the sensitivities of the ELISA were 88.9% (32/36) for HSV-1 antibody and 89.2% (33/37) for HSV-2 antibody and the specificities were both 100%. Sera taken within a few months after primary infection tended to give false negative results. The HSV type-specific ELISA based on easy-to-prepare gG antigens might be useful to help improve the serological assessment of HSV infections.

  13. A simple biological marker to differentiate the types of Herpes Simplex Viruses in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Nessa, A; Jahan, M

    2012-04-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) multiply readily on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated hen's egg and produce easily visible foci or pocks on this membrane. In the present study, pocks produced by the two antigenic types of HSV (1 & 2) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of typing HSV isolates by pock size on CAMs. A total of 57 HSV isolates from both non-genital and genital samples were typed by the pock size produced on the CAMs of fertile hen's eggs. Twenty two HSV isolates yielded visible pocks on CAM, of which 9 (40.9%) produced small pocks, while 13 (59.1%) produced large pocks. All pocks produced on CAM were confirmed by antigenic typing by the Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) method. HSV isolates which produced small pocks were in complete (100%) concordance with HSV type-1, while those producing larger pocks were in full (100%) concordance with HSV type-2. Thus, the pock size on CAM of embryonated fertile hen's egg may be used as a simple and relatively inexpensive biological marker for the differentiation of HSV types 1 & 2.

  14. A Cationic Peptide, TAT-Cd0, Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Ocular Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Gilbert G.; Larsen, Inna V.; Gauger, Joshua; Carballo, Erica; Stern, Rebecca; Brummel, Rachel; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the in vivo activity of a peptide derived from the protein transducing domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, TAT-Cd0, in a murine herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) keratitis model. Methods. The efficacy of TAT-Cd0 was assessed in a postinfection treatment model with different concentrations (1 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.01 mg/mL) of the peptide in one of four delivery vehicles: artificial tears, PBS, methylcellulose, and aquaphor cream. Treatment began within 4 or 24 hours postinfection. Viral titers in the tear film were determined by plaque assay. Results. TAT-Cd0 reduced the severity of keratitis in all of the delivery vehicles tested when treatment started, 4 hours postinfection. Peptide in the tears or PBS delivery vehicle had the most significant reduction in disease severity and delayed the onset of vascularization and stromal keratitis. The percentage of mice presenting with disease was also significantly reduced and viral titers were reduced by 1 log at 24 hours postinfection in mice treated with 1 mg/mL TAT-Cd0, suggesting that inhibiting replication early is sufficient to achieve clinical effects. Lower concentrations were not effective and delaying treatment by 24 hours was also not effective. Conclusions. This study shows that TAT-Cd0 is an effective antiviral against HSV-1 strain KOS when applied shortly postinfection and that aqueous-based formulations are more suitable. PMID:23341013

  15. Application of modified simplex on the development of a preconcentration system for cadmium determination in sediments, food and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Queila O; Moreno, Islania; Santos, Leandro Dos; Santos, Aldenor G; Souza, Valdinei S; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2016-05-13

    A modified simplex algorithm was used to optimize a system of preconcentration for cadmium determination in samples of sediments, cigarettes and food using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The preconcentration system is based on the sorption of cadmium in a minicolumn packed with Amberlite XAD-2 resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). The optimized variables were pH and sampling flow rate and the optimum conditions found for these variables were, respectively 8.7 and 8.8 mL min-1. The developed system showed a preconcentration factor of 15.3, detection limit of 0.49 µg L-1, quantification limit of 1.65 µg L-1 and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n=10) of 5.9. The accuracy of the method was checked by analysis of estuary sediment certified reference material (NIST 1646-1). The cadmium concentrations found in sediment samples ranged from 1.73 and 1.90 µg g-1. In cigarette samples the results were 0.085 and 0.193 µg g-1, and in food samples (coriander and lettuce) the concentrations found of this metal were, respectively, 0.33 and 0.12 µg g-1. PMID:27192197

  16. Safety, formulation, and in vitro antiviral activity of the antimicrobial peptide subtilosin against herpes simplex virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Nicolás I.; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Xu, Shiqi; Li, Ji; Huang, Qingrong; Sinko, Patrick J.; Wachsman, Mónica B.; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the antiviral properties of the bacteriocin subtilosin against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the safety and efficacy of a subtilosin-based nanofiber formulation were determined. High concentrations of subtilosin, the cyclical antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, were virucidal against HSV-1. Interestingly, at non-virucidal concentrations, subtilosin inhibited wild type HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent manner. Although the exact antiviral mechanism is not fully understood, time of addition experiments and western blot analysis suggest that subtilosin does not affect viral multiplication steps prior to protein synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based subtilosin nanofibers with a width of 278 nm were produced by the electrospinning process. The retained antimicrobial activity of the subtilosin-based fibers was determined via an agar well diffusion assay. The loading capacity of the fibers was 2.4 mg subtilosin/g fiber, and loading efficiency was 31.6%. Furthermore, the nanofibers with and without incorporated subtilosin were shown to be nontoxic to human epidermal tissues using an in vitro human tissue model. Taking together these results subtilosin-based nanofibers should be further studied as a novel alternative method for treatment and/or control of HSV-1 infection. PMID:23637711

  17. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  18. Rett Syndrome: Revised Diagnostic Criteria and Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Neul, Jeffrey L.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Christodoulou, John; Clarke, Angus J.; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Leonard, Helen; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Schanen, N. Carolyn; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Huppke, Peter; Percy, Alan K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is often caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Despite distinct clinical features, the accumulation of clinical and molecular information in recent years has generated considerable confusion regarding the diagnosis of RTT. The purpose of this work was revise and clarify 2002 consensus criteria for the diagnosis of RTT in anticipation of treatment trials. Method RettSearch members, representing the majority of the international clinical RTT specialists, participated in an iterative process to come to a consensus on a revised and simplified clinical diagnostic criteria for RTT. Results The clinical criteria required for the diagnosis of classic and atypical RTT were clarified and simplified. Guidelines for the diagnosis and molecular evaluation of specific variant forms of RTT were developed. Interpretation These revised criteria provide clarity regarding the key features required for the diagnosis of RTT and reinforce the concept that RTT is a clinical diagnosis based on distinct clinical criteria, independent of molecular findings. We recommend that these criteria and guidelines be utilized in any proposed clinical research. PMID:21154482

  19. Physical mapping of the herpes simplex virus type 2 nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity by using herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion clones.

    PubMed

    Wathen, M W; Hay, J

    1984-07-01

    The nuc- lesion affecting alkaline exonuclease activity in the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mutant ts1348 had previously been mapped to the EcoRI-D restriction enzyme fragment of HSV-1. Eight clones with deletions representing most of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D were selected with lambda gtWES hybrids. These clones were tested for their ability to rescue the alkaline exonuclease activity of HSV-2 nuc- ts1348 virus. The sequences colinear with the HSV-2 nuc- lesion were found to map between 0.169 and 0.174 map units on the HSV-1 Patton genome, representing an 0.8-kilobase-pair region that is 12.9 to 13.7 kilobase pairs from the left end of HSV-1 EcoRI fragment D.

  20. First description of herpes simplex virus type 1 epididymo-orchitis: A new clinical form of herpes simplex virus infection during septic shock?

    PubMed

    Fromentin, Dr Mélanie; Gauzit, Remy; Gille, Benoit; Samama, Charles Marc

    2016-01-01

    Genital herpes is increasingly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), but recurrences are less frequent than with HSV-2. Distinguishing between primary genital infection and reactivation can be difficult, but HSV-1 more often causes severe primary infections and fewer recurrences. However, as virus reactivation is common during septic shock, a severe form of HSV-1 reactivation can occur in locations other than the lungs, which remain the most common site. The case of a 79-year-old Caucasian man who presented with HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis after three episodes of severe sepsis or septic shock in the context of acute biliary necrotizing pancreatitis is described. This is the first reported case of HSV-1 epididymo-orchitis due to virus reactivation during sepsis. PMID:27672563

  1. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  2. Early migration of tibial components is associated with late revision

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed two parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of tibial components and late aseptic revision. Methods One review comprised early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined according to that of several national joint registries: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 50 studies (involving 847 total knee prostheses (TKPs)) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 TKPs) were included in the survival review. The results showed that for every mm increase in migration there was an 8% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, migration up to 0.5 mm was considered acceptable during the first postoperative year, while migration of 1.6 mm or more was unacceptable. TKPs with migration of between 0.5 and 1.6 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of TKPs and late revision for loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased, evidence-based introduction of new types of knee prostheses, since they allow early detection of high-risk TKPs while exposing only a small number of patients. PMID:23140091

  3. [Analysis of corneal pathologic changes and laboratory parameters in herpes simplex karatitis patients with ganhuo-shangyanzheng or ganshengyinxuzheng].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H N; Li, X Q; Liang, Q H

    2001-02-28

    In order to investigate the relationship between Ganhuo shangyanzheng and Can-shengyin xuzheng in herpes simplex karatitis patients, we observed corneal pathologic changes and examined blood levels of prostaglandin F2 (PGF2), prostaglandin E2 (PGF2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), norepinephrine (NR), epinephrine (E) in sixty herpes simplex karatitis patients with Ganhou shangyanzheng or Gan-shengyinxuzheng. The results showed that the corneal pathologic changes were corneal ulcer infiltrating to stroma of cornea in Ganhuo shangyanzheng patients, and refractary corneal ulcer with large amount of corneal neovascularizaton and infiltration of corneal stroma in Gan-shengyinxuzheng patients, the blood levels of PGF2, PGE2, TNF, AVP, NE, E in Ganhuo shangyanzheng patients were higher than those in Gan-shengyinxuzheng patients or healthy persons. The results suggest that these parameters may be objective parameters for differential diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine Zheng types in patients with herpes simplex karatitis.

  4. The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum.

  5. Formulation and optimization of floating matrix tablets of clarithromycin using simplex lattice design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderbir; Saini, Vikrant

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare floating matrix tablets of clarithromycin employing simplex lattice design. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) were used as matrix forming agents; sodium bicarbonate and citric acid as effervescence producing agents. Simplex lattice design was used as optimization technique employing three independent formulation variables viz. concentration of HPMC (X1), Citric Acid (X2), EC (X3) whereas floating lag time, t50%, t90%, and MDT (Mean Dissolution Time) were the response (dependent) variables. Seven formulations (F1-F7) were prepared and evaluated for dissolution studies, floating characteristics, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability.t50% of the formulations was found to be ranging from 317±2.54 to 522±2.39 minutes. The t90% and MDT of the tablets were found to be ranging between 659.65±1.89 to 967.35±1.67 minutes and 527.20±1.22 to 846.78±2.61 minutes respectively. Total floating time of the formulations was more than 12 hours and the drug content was in the range of 98.54±0.46 to 99.92±0.32. The amount of both HPMC and EC were found to play a dominating role in controlling the release of the drug from the formulation whereas ratios of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were showing significant effect on the floating lag time. The release exponent (n) from Korsmeyer-Peppas model was found to be between 0.62 and 0.75 indicating non-Fickian or anomalous drug release behavior from the formulated floating matrix tablets. Simplex lattice design was reported to be an effective optimization technique for optimizing pharmaceutical formulations against desired responses. PMID:27087096

  6. Histophagous ciliate Pseudocollinia brintoni and bacterial assemblage interaction with krill Nyctiphanes simplex. I. Transmission process.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; López-Cortés, Alejandro; Aguilar-Méndez, Mario J; Del Angel-Rodríguez, Jorge A; Tremblay, Nelly; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Robinson, Carlos J

    2015-10-27

    Histophagous ciliates of the genus Pseudocollinia cause epizootic events that kill adult female krill (Euphausiacea), but their mode of transmission is unknown. We compared 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial strains isolated from stomachs of healthy krill Nyctiphanes simplex specimens with sequences of bacterial isolates and sequences of natural bacterial communities from the hemocoel of N. simplex specimens infected with P. brintoni to determine possible transmission pathways. All P. brintoni endoparasitic life stages and the transmission tomite stage (outside the host) were associated with bacterial assemblages. 16S rRNA sequences from isolated bacterial strains showed that Photobacterium spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp. were dominant members of the bacterial assemblages during all life phases of P. brintoni and potential pathobionts. They were apparently unaffected by the krill's immune system or the histophagous activity of P. brintoni. However, other bacterial strains were found only in certain P. brintoni life phases, indicating that as the infection progressed, microhabitat conditions and microbial interactions may have become unfavorable for some strains of bacteria. Trophic infection is the most parsimonious explanation for how P. brintoni infects krill. We estimated N. simplex vulnerability to P. brintoni infection during more than three-fourths of their life span, infecting mostly adult females. The ciliates have relatively high prevalence levels (albeit at <10% of sampled stations) and a short life cycle (estimated <7 d). Histophagous ciliate-krill interactions may occur in other krill species, particularly those that form dense swarms and attain high population densities that potentially enhance trophic transmission and allow completion of the Pseudocollinia spp. life cycle. PMID:26503776

  7. Growth and nutrient removal properties of the diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex under different nitrogen sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, Panneerselvam; Manimaran, Kuppusamy; Sampathkumar, Pitchai; Rameshkumar, Lakshmanan

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of the marine diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex for the removal of macronutrients from different wastewater, the growth and nitrate-phosphate removal properties were studied with nitrate, ammonium and urea nitrogen sources. Three separate experiments were conducted using modified F/2 medium with 12.35 mg L-1 total nitrogen and 1.12 mg L-1 total phosphorous (simulating the typical concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in secondary effluent) as growth medium. The maximum cell densities of C. curvisetus and C. simplex were 7.16 ± 0.34 × 104 cells mL-1 in {{NO}}3^{ - } and 3.88 ± 0.32 × 105 cells mL-1 in urea, respectively. The maximum chlorophyll a per cell was 1.7 and 4.7 pg for C. simplex and C. curvisetus, cultured with urea and nitrate, respectively. The high protein contents of 4.7 pg cell-1 in C. simplex with urea and 19.7 pg cell-1 in C. curvisetus nitrate nitrogen sources were found. The higher cell density and protein content of both species from urea and nitrate nitrogen sources ( p < 0.05) have shown that these were utilized by microalgae and were converted to protein. The C. simplex and C. curvisetus showed maximum removal efficiencies of nitrate by 97.86 and 91.62 % and phosphate by 98.5 and 100 %, respectively when urea used as nitrogen source than ammonia. The results indicated the C. simplex was more efficient than C. curvisetus and suitable for the removal of macronutrients when cultured with urea and nitrate nitrogen sources.

  8. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  9. Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  10. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  11. [Design of a curve model for the detection of human immunoglobulin G against herpes simplex virus in ultramicroELISA from a single serum dilution].

    PubMed

    Angeles Ribas, M A; Otero, A; Alvarez, M; Marrero, M; Vázquez, S

    1994-01-01

    The use of a curve model in the application of a ultramicroELISA technique for the detection of human immunoglobulin G against herpes simplex virus is reported. Based on end point titration (linear regression) of 100 initial sera, 51 of these, with r2 > 0.98, were selected, and 4 curve models were elaborated to relate the natural fluorescence logarithm for 4 dilutions with the previously determined natural end point titration logarithm. The curve corresponding to the 1:40 (r2 = 0.9645) was selected to evaluate 39 additional serum samples whose approximate titration was known through the graphic design of the 4 dilutions. An 89% coincidence was found regarding the latter. Divergence of the other 11% was due to the lack of accuracy of the graphic method in the points near the cutline.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of AmpliVue HSV 1+2 Assay with ELVIS Culture for Detecting Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Alkins, Brenda R.; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Greene, Wallace H.; Connolly, Jessica; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The AmpliVue HSV 1+2 assay was compared to the ELVIS HSV ID and D3 Typing Culture System for the qualitative detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 DNA in 1,351 cutaneous and mucocutaneous specimens. Compared to ELVIS, AmpliVue had sensitivities of 95.7 and 97.6% for detecting HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Following arbitration of discordant results by an independent molecular method, the AmpliVue assay had a resolved sensitivity and specificity of 99.2 and 99.7%, respectively, for both HSV-1 and HSV-2, whereas ELVIS had a resolved sensitivity of 87.1% for HSV-1 and 84.5% for HSV-2. PMID:26468497

  13. Herpes simplex virus 1 counteracts viperin via its virion host shutoff protein UL41.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanghui; Wang, Kezhen; Wang, Shuai; Cai, Mingsheng; Li, Mei-li; Zheng, Chunfu

    2014-10-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible viperin protein restricts a broad range of viruses. However, whether viperin plays a role during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is poorly understood. In the present study, it was shown for the first time that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection couldn't induce viperin production, and ectopically expressed viperin inhibited the replication of UL41-null HSV-1 but not WT viruses. The underlying molecular mechanism is that UL41 counteracts viperin's antiviral activity by reducing its mRNA accumulation.

  14. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected.

  15. Prospects and Perspectives for Development of a Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and -2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future. PMID:25077372

  16. Cutaneous neonatal herpes simplex virus infection type 2: a case report*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Freitas, Lívia Karlla Marinho; Drago, Marion Guimarães; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; do Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal herpes is a serious condition. Newborns can be contaminated in utero via transplacental hematogenic transmission, upon delivery (the most frequent route), or during the postnatal period (indirect transmission). Optimal management requires prompt and accurate recognition, particularly in newborns, in order to prevent complications. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice, but its implementation is often delayed while awaiting test results, such as PCR and serology. Cytology for diagnostic purposes is rarely used in dermatology, despite the quick and reliable results. We report a case of neonatal herpes caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus diagnosed by cytology. PMID:27192523

  17. Cytotoxic T cells against herpes simplex virus in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, K; Kahan, A; Ayed, K; Hamza, M

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 36 patients with Behçet's disease (20 in remission and 16 in active phase) were stimulated in vitro with herpes simplex virus and then tested for their ability to generate cytotoxic T cell responses to the virus. Significant cytotoxic responses were found. CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations from the patients in remission generated specific cytotoxic activity against autologous target cells. These observations suggested that CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells may have an important host response in herpes virus infection in Behçet's disease. PMID:2168823

  18. A unique presentation of acute liver failure from herpes simplex virus hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C; Kebriaei, P; Turner, K A; Yemelyanova, A; Ariza-Heredia, E J; Foo, W C

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a patient, with history of myelodysplastic syndrome and recent bone marrow transplant, who developed fulminant liver failure secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis. His presentation was unique, as findings of liver microabscesses on computed tomography scan have not been described previously in this patient population. Despite initial treatment with acyclovir, he continued to deteriorate, and later sensitivities found the HSV strain to be resistant to acyclovir. HSV hepatitis with secondary liver failure is rare and, without appropriate treatment, its mortality is >80%. Early suspicion and immediate therapy are the keys to improve patient survival. PMID:27222930

  19. A simplex model of the paranoid process: implications for diagnosis and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Romney, D M

    1987-06-01

    The theory that the paranoid process is gradual and insidious was tested quantitatively by means of LISREL, a computer program designed to trace causal pathways between latent variables. The results clearly confirmed Lorr's simplex model which depicts a progressive sequence of six stages, beginning with hostile attitude and ending with delusions of influence. The model suggests that it is artificial to distinguish paranoid personality, paranoia and paranoid schizophrenia as separate diagnostic entities. Instead, paranoid schizophrenia should be regarded as a more severe form of paranoia which in turn is a more severe form of paranoid personality. The implications of this model for prognosis are also discussed.

  20. Tumour-like presentations of anogenital herpes simplex in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H; Lee, J; Chio, M; Sen, P

    2011-04-01

    Genital and perianal ulcers seen in patients with HIV are commonly due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. While it is well known that the characteristic presentation of HSV is a vesicular rash or crops of erosions, the clinical presentation of genital HSV infection in HIV is varied and can assume vegetative, hypertrophic, condyloma-like, nodular, ulcerative and tumour-like nodules or plaques. These unusual presentations often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We describe five immunocompromised HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts ranging from 114 to 326 cells/μL with unusual presentations of anogenital herpes.

  1. Oncolytic virotherapy using herpes simplex virus: how far have we come?

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Nicolas AS; Rizos, Helen; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy exploits the properties of human viruses to naturally cytolysis of cancer cells. The human pathogen herpes simplex virus (HSV) has proven particularly amenable for use in oncolytic virotherapy. The relative safety of HSV coupled with extensive knowledge on how HSV interacts with the host has provided a platform for manipulating HSV to enhance the targeting and killing of human cancer cells. This has culminated in the approval of talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma. This review focuses on the development of HSV as an oncolytic virus and where the field is likely to head in the future. PMID:27512683

  2. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  3. Survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 in saliva and tap water contaminating some common objects.

    PubMed

    Bardell, D

    1993-01-01

    Survival at room temperature (21-24 degrees C) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in saliva on plastic doorknobs and chrome-plated tap handles was investigated. There was no loss of infectious virus before 30 min. Between 30 and 60 min there was a 2-log drop in titre, and infectious virus could still be recovered after 2 h, the longest period tested. The marked drop in titre coincided with drying of the saliva. There was no decline in titre of infectious HSV-1 in a humid atmosphere in which the saliva remained liquid. Similar results were seen with HSV-1 in tap water on tap handles.

  4. Herpes simplex virus type-1: replication, latency, reactivation and its antiviral targets.

    PubMed

    Pires de Mello, Camilly P; Bloom, David C; Paixão, Izabel Cnp

    2016-01-01

    Infection by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes several diseases, ranging from cutaneous, oral and genital infections to fatal encephalitis. Despite the availability of antiviral therapies on the market, their efficacies are incomplete, and new cases of resistant strains arise, mainly in the immunocompromised, but also recently documented in immunocompetent patients. Over the last decades a lot has been discovered about the molecular basis of infection which has been of great benefit to the investigation of new anti-HSV-1 molecules. In this review we summarize replication, latency and reactivation highlighting potential antiviral targets and new molecules described in the past several years in the literature.

  5. Effect of orifice diameter on characteristics of hollow cone swirl spray emanating from simplex nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, A.; Hafiz, M.; Helmi, R.; Wisnoe, W.; Jasmi, M.

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports on experimental work to investigate the swirl spray characteristics that emanates from simplex atomizers. Main objective of the research is to investigate the effect of orifice diameter on the spray cone angle, spray breakup length and discharge coefficient at different injection pressure. Discharge coefficient is almost uninfluenced by the operating Reynolds number. This test also reveals that both breakup length and spray cone angle increases as orifice diameter is increased. Higher injection pressure leads to shorter breakup length and wider spray cone angle.

  6. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected. PMID:25728077

  7. Prospects and perspectives for development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Shane C; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future.

  8. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  9. Trends in revision hip and knee arthroplasty observations after implementation of a regional joint replacement registry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jas; Politis, Angelos; Loucks, Lynda; Hedden, David R.; Bohm, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Background National joint replacement registries outside North America have been effective in reducing revision risk. However, there is little information on the role of smaller regional registries similar to those found in Canada or the United States. We sought to understand trends in total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty revision patterns after implementation of a regional registry. Methods We reviewed our regional joint replacement registry containing all 30 252 cases of primary and revision THA and TKA performed between Jan. 1, 2005, and Dec. 31, 2013. Each revision case was stratified into early (< 2 yr), mid (2–10 yr) or late (> 10 yr), and we determined the primary reason for revision. Results The early revision rate for TKA dropped from 3.0% in 2005 to 1.3% in 2011 (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.003). Similarly, the early revision rate for THA dropped from 4.2% to 2.1% (R2 = 0.78, p = 0.008). Despite primary TKA and THA volumes increasing by 35.5% and 39.5%, respectively, there was no concomitant rise in revision volumes. The leading reasons for TKA revision were infection, instability, aseptic loosening and stiffness. The leading reasons for THA revision were infection, instability, aseptic loosening and periprosthetic fracture. There were no discernible trends over time in reasons for early, mid-term or late revision for either TKA or THA. Conclusion After implementation of a regional joint replacement registry we observed a significant reduction in early revision rates. Further work investigating the mechanism by which registry reporting reduces early revision risk is warranted. PMID:27438053

  10. Revision of Primary Series Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a 50-year effort to provide primary series map coverage of the United States. Many of these maps now need to be updated to reflect the construction of new roads and highways and other changes that have taken place over time. The USGS has formulated a graphic revision plan to help keep the primary series maps current. Primary series maps include 1:20,000-scale quadrangles of Puerto Rico, 1:24,000- or 1:25,000-scale quadrangles of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and U.S. Territories, and 1:63,360-scale quadrangles of Alaska. The revision of primary series maps from new collection sources is accomplished using a variety of processes. The raster revision process combines the scanned content of paper maps with raster updating technologies. The vector revision process involves the automated plotting of updated vector files. Traditional processes use analog stereoplotters and manual scribing instruments on specially coated map separates. The ability to select from or combine these processes increases the efficiency of the National Mapping Division map revision program.

  11. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arne; Hansen, Joyce

    2002-03-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements, (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects of the old standards that have caused problems, when they were used in practice, are addressed in the revision. Input from users of the standards is necessary in order that the standards be developed as useful tools in the documentation of radiation sterilization.

  12. Clinical Outcomes Following Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Feldheim, Terrence F.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Yanke, Adam Blair; Cole, Brian J.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder stabilization performed either via all-arthroscopic soft tissue repair or via Latarjet coracoid transfer. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 91 shoulders undergoing revision anterior shoulder stabilization was performed. All patients underwent prior soft tissue stabilization; those with prior open bone grafting procedures were excluded. For patients with 25% glenoid bone loss, Latarjet was performed (n=28). Patients were queried regarding recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using validated patient reported outcome questionnaires including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Results: A total of 63 shoulders in 62 patients (46 males, 16 females) with an average age of 23.2 ± 6.9 years were included in the revision arthroscopy group. At an average follow-up of 46.9 ± 16.8 months (range, 15 to 78), the mean WOSI score was 80.1 (range, 15.0 to 100), and there were significant improvements (p<0.001) in ASES (63.7 to 85.1), SST (6.2 to 9.1), and VAS pain scores (2.89 to 0.81). Recurrent instability occurred in 12 of 63 shoulders (19%); the number of prior surgeries and baseline hyperlaxity were significant risk factors for failure (p<0.001 and p=0.04, respectively). No patients developed clinical or radiographic evidence of arthritis. A total of 28 shoulders in 28 patients (21 male, 7 female) with an average age of 27.5 years (range 14 to 45) were included in the Latarjet group. Thirteen (46%) had more than one previous stabilization attempt. ), the average WOSI score was 71.9, and there were significant improvements (p<0.001) in ASES (65.7 to 87.0), SST (7.2 to 10.3), and VAS (3.1 to 1.1). Recurrent instability occurred in 2 of 28 shoulders

  13. Hybridisations of Variable Neighbourhood Search and Modified Simplex Elements to Harmony Search and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithms for Process Optimisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aungkulanon, P.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, the engineering problem systems are large and complicated. An effective finite sequence of instructions for solving these problems can be categorised into optimisation and meta-heuristic algorithms. Though the best decision variable levels from some sets of available alternatives cannot be done, meta-heuristics is an alternative for experience-based techniques that rapidly help in problem solving, learning and discovery in the hope of obtaining a more efficient or more robust procedure. All meta-heuristics provide auxiliary procedures in terms of their own tooled box functions. It has been shown that the effectiveness of all meta-heuristics depends almost exclusively on these auxiliary functions. In fact, the auxiliary procedure from one can be implemented into other meta-heuristics. Well-known meta-heuristics of harmony search (HSA) and shuffled frog-leaping algorithms (SFLA) are compared with their hybridisations. HSA is used to produce a near optimal solution under a consideration of the perfect state of harmony of the improvisation process of musicians. A meta-heuristic of the SFLA, based on a population, is a cooperative search metaphor inspired by natural memetics. It includes elements of local search and global information exchange. This study presents solution procedures via constrained and unconstrained problems with different natures of single and multi peak surfaces including a curved ridge surface. Both meta-heuristics are modified via variable neighbourhood search method (VNSM) philosophy including a modified simplex method (MSM). The basic idea is the change of neighbourhoods during searching for a better solution. The hybridisations proceed by a descent method to a local minimum exploring then, systematically or at random, increasingly distant neighbourhoods of this local solution. The results show that the variant of HSA with VNSM and MSM seems to be better in terms of the mean and variance of design points and yields.

  14. Evaluation and reporting of enzyme immunoassay determinations of antibody to herpes simplex virus in sera and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Cremer, N E; Cossen, C K; Hanson, C V; Shell, G R

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for evaluating and reporting enzyme immunoassay (EIA) determinations of antibody to herpes simplex virus derived from one dilution of single serum samples were studied. An EIA ratio method for serological evidence of current infection from paired serum samples was also evaluated. Optical density (OD) of the reaction at a 1:100 serum dilution and estimated titers obtained by reference of the OD of the serum dilution to a standard curve were compared to the corresponding plotted EIA titer obtained by titration to endpoint. Neither the OD per se nor the estimated titer was completely predictive of the plotted titer (correlation coefficient [r] of 0.824 and 0.817, respectively), and they provided only a semiquantitative measurement of antibody concentration. For an antibody status report, however, OD would be sufficient if related to the cutoff value as an EIA index (OD of sample divided by cutoff OD for positive specimens). The OD of the EIA reaction at a single dilution (1:5) of cerebrospinal fluid, on the other hand, correlated quite well with the titer obtained by titration (r = 0.950). For serological diagnosis of current infection, the OD ratio of convalescence-phase/acute-phase sera was determined at several dilutions. A ratio of greater than or equal to 1.54 was calculated as a reliable index for a significant rise in antibody concentration and compatible with current infection. By determining the convalescent-phase/acute-phase serum ratio at two dilutions, 1:100 and 1:1,000, the EIA ratio method appeared to be a sensitive as or more sensitive than, complement fixation in diagnosing current infection.

  15. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    Mie’s waves while sounding within coincident volumes. Being sensitive to the size of scatters, Mie’s waves can give us additional information about particle size distribution. But how about using several wavelengths corresponding to Rayleigh’s diffraction on scatters only? Can any effects be detected in such a case and what performance characteristics of the equipment are required to detect them? The deceptive simplicity of the negative answer to the first part of the question posed will disappear if one collects different definitions of Rayleigh's scattering and consider them more closely than usually. Several definitions borrowed from the introductory texts and most popular textbooks and articles can be seen as one of the reasons for the research presented in the report. Hopefully, based on the comparison of them all, anyone could easily conclude that Rayleigh's scattering has been analyzed extensively, but despite this extensive analysis made fundamental ambiguities in introductory texts are not eliminated completely to date. Moreover, there may be found unreasonably many examples on how these ambiguities have already caused an error to be foreseen, published on the one article, amplified in another one, then cited with approval in the third one, before being finally corrected. Everything indicated that in the light of all the lesions learned and based on modern experimental data, it is time to address these issues again. After the discussion of ambiguities of Rayleigh's scattering concepts, the development of the corrections to original ideas looks relatively easy. In particular, there may be distinguished at least three characteristic regions of the revised models application from the point of view of the scattered field statistical averaging. The authors of the report suggest naming them Rayleigh’s region, Einstein’s region and the region with compensations of the scattering intensity. The most important fact is that the limits of applicability of all

  16. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  17. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  18. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Sensory Ganglia of Hairless Mice Prevented by Acycloguanosine†

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard J.; Friedman-Kien, Alvin E.; DeStefano, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Acycloguanosine (ACG) was able to prevent the fatal outcome of herpes simplex virus-induced skin infections of the lumbosacral or orofacila area in hairless mice. Topical ACG treatment was more effective than systemic treatment in preventing the evolution of skin lesions. Acute ganglionic infections in the trigeminal ganglia were prevented by ACG, and latent ganglionic infections did not become established when the ACG treatment was initiated 3 h after infection. Serum antibody titers were, on the average, eight times higher in mice which developed latent ganglionic infections after ACG treatment than in mice without evidence of herpes simplex virus latency in ganglia. Reinoculation of ACG-treated mice at a site different from that of the primary inoculation did not lead to the establishment of a second latent infection with the homologous virus type when a latent infection was already present. In mice without evidence of latent infection after the primary inoculation, a latent infection at the site of reinoculation became established in 25% of the animals. PMID:230784

  19. Striated muscle involvement in experimental oral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, María Inés; Sanjuan, Norberto A

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most frequent causes of oral infection in humans, especially during early childhood. Several experimental models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of this virus but all of them employed adult animals. In this work, we developed an experimental model that uses mice younger than 4 days old, to more closely resemble human infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously with the prototype strain McIntyre of Herpes simplex-1, and the progression of infection was studied by immunoperoxidase. All animals died within 24-72 h post-infection, while viral antigens were found in the oral epithelium, nerves and brain. The most striking result was the finding of viral antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells belonging to striated muscles. Organotypic cultures of striated muscles were performed, and viral replication was observed in them by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and viral isolation. We conclude that the infection of striated muscles is present from the onset of oral infection and, eventually, could explain some clinical observations in humans.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Michael J; Venkatesan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    Herpetic infections have plagued humanity for thousands of years, but only recently have advances in antiviral medications and supportive treatments equipped physicians to combat the most severe manifestations of disease. Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Clinicians should be able to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of the infection and familiarize themselves with a rational diagnostic approach and therapeutic modalities, as early recognition and treatment are key to improving outcomes. Clinicians should also be vigilant for the development of acute complications, including cerebral edema and status epilepticus, as well as chronic complications, including the development of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and other neuronal cell surface and synaptic epitopes. Herein, we review the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and clinical and radiological features of herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults, including a discussion of the most common complications and their treatment. While great progress has been made in the treatment of this life-threatening infection, a majority of patients will not return to their previous neurologic baseline, indicating the need for further research efforts aimed at improving the long-term sequelae. PMID:27106239

  1. Larval trematodes Paronatrema mantae and Copiatestes sp. parasitize Gulf of California krill (Nyctiphanes simplex, Nematoscelis difficilis).

    PubMed

    Morales-Ávila, José Raúl; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; del Carmen Gómez del Prado-Rosas, María; Robinson, Carlos J

    2015-09-17

    During 4 quantitative-systematic oceanographic cruises at 99 sampling stations in the Gulf of California (January and July 2007, August 2012, and June 2013), we found 2 trematode species (non-encysted mesocercaria stage) parasitizing the hemocoel of 2 krill species at near-shore locations. Copiatestes sp. parasitized Nematoscelis difficilis in January 2007, and Paronatrema mantae parasitized Nyctiphanes simplex in July 2007. Both trematode species had an intensity of 1 parasite per host. This is the first endoparasite known for N. difficilis, the first record of P. mantae infecting zooplankton, and the first confirmed trematode parasitizing krill species in the Gulf of California. We provide quantitative evidence that these 2 trematode species infect krill with considerably low station prevalence (0.03-0.16%) and low population abundances (<1.2 trematodes 1000 m(-3)). A review of trematodes parasitizing krill indicates that syncoeliid trematodes also have (with few exceptions) low population densities and prevalence and lower species diversity than previously thought (suggesting a broader zoogeographic distribution range of these parasites). Due to the low host specificity of syncoeliid trematodes that typically infect more than 1 secondary intermediate host species in their complex life cycle, we propose that N. simplex and N. difficilis are intermediate hosts (although non-conspicuous) for the transmission of syncoeliid trematodes in the Gulf of California. PMID:26378405

  2. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  3. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation.

  4. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Martha C.; Patel, Eshan U.; Kirkpatrick, Allison R.; Prodger, Jessica L.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J.; Redd, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. PMID:27191006

  5. Recombination in vitro between herpes simplex virus type 1 a sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, R C; Dutch, R E; Zemelman, B V; Mocarski, E S; Lehman, I R

    1992-01-01

    We have partially purified an activity from extracts of cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 that mediates recombination between repeated copies of the 317-base-pair a sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1. Recombination leads to deletion of a lacZ indicator gene situated between two directly repeated copies of the a sequence and is scored by transformation of lacZ- Escherichia coli. The two products of the reaction can be observed directly by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blot analysis. The recombinase activity is also detectable, but at a lower level, in uninfected cell extracts. The DNA substrate must contain the two a sequences arranged in direct orientation to generate the lacZ deletion. However, when the a sequences are arranged in inverted orientation, an inversion results. A substrate with two homologous sequences of size and G + C content similar to the a sequence undergoes recombination at a much lower frequency. The reaction requires a divalent cation (Mg2+ or Mn2+) but not ATP or any other nucleoside triphosphate. The simple requirements and specificity for the a sequence suggest that the recombination may proceed by a site-specific mechanism. Images PMID:1332062

  6. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro.

  7. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex.

    PubMed

    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-11-26

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome.

  8. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  9. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome. PMID:26608752

  10. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  11. Phenotypic switching in cells transformed with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, M.; Vogel, S.; Silverstein, S.

    1982-06-01

    Biochemical transformation of Ltk/sup -/ cells with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene resulted in numerous TK/sup +/ colonies that survived selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Many of these TK/sup +/ cell lines switched phenotypes and reverted to the TK/sup -/ state. In this report, the authors describe the biological and biochemical characteristics of three TK/sup -/ revertant lines. One (K/sub 1/B/sub 5/) transiently expressed TK in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, which selects for the TK/sup -/ phenotype. Another TK/sup -/ sibling (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup n/) expressed TK only after removal from bromodeoxyuridine-containing medium. The last variant (K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/) lost the ability to switch to the TK/sup +/ phenotype, although it maintained the herpes simplex virus sequences coding for TK. Loss of the ability of K/sub 1/B/sub 6//sup me/ cells to express TK was correlated with extensive methylation of the sequence recognized by the restriction endonuclease HpaII (pCpCpGpG). After these cells were treated with 5-azacytidine, they regained the ability to clone in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium and reexpressed virus tk mRNA and enzyme. In addition, the HpaII sites that were previously shown to be refractile to enzyme digestion were converted to a sensitive state, demonstrating that they were no longer methylated.

  12. Forces and Structures of the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Entry Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Richard W

    2015-09-11

    This paper discusses physical and structural aspects of the mechanisms herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses for membrane fusion. Calculations show that herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D has such avidity for its receptors that it can hold the virion against the plasma membrane of a neuron strongly enough for glycoprotein B (gB) to disrupt both leaflets of the bilayer. The strong electric field generated by the cell potential across perforations at this disruption would break the hydrogen bonds securing the gB fusion loops, leading to fusion of the plasma and viral membranes. This mechanism agrees with the high stability of the tall trimeric spike structure of gB and is consistent with the probable existence of a more compact initial conformation that would allow it to closely approach the plasma membrane. The release of the fusion domains by disruption of hydrogen bonds is shared with the endocytotic entry pathway where, for some cell types not punctured by gB, the virus is able to induce inward forces that cause endocytosis and the fusion loops are released by acidification. The puncture-fusion mechanism requires low critical strain or high tissue strain, matching primary tropism of neural processes at the vermillion border. In support of this mechanism, this paper proposes a functional superstructure of the antigens essential to entry and reviews its consistency with experimental evidence. PMID:27617923

  13. Concurrent herpes simplex type 1 necrotizing encephalitis, cytomegalovirus ventriculoencephalitis and cerebral lymphoma in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Vital, C; Monlun, E; Vital, A; Martin-Negrier, M L; Cales, V; Leger, F; Longy-Boursier, M; Le Bras, M; Bloch, B

    1995-01-01

    Unlike cytomegalovirus (CMV) ventriculoencephalitis, herpes simplex virus type 1 necrotizing encephalitis has only rarely been observed in AIDS patients. A 40-year-old bisexual man was followed for an HIV1 infection from 1987 onwards. In June 1993 he was referred for sudden confusion, left hemiparesia and fever. The blood contained less than 10 CD4 lymphocytes/mm3. The patient remained comatose and febrile, and died 4 weeks later. In coronal sections of the brain there was necrosis of the internal parts of the left temporal lobe, necrosis of certain areas of the ventricular walls and a small tumor at the top of the right frontal lobe, which proved to be a polymorphic high-grade lymphoma. CMV ventriculoencephalitis lesions were prominent in the ventricular walls of the occipital lobes and there was a strong nuclear signal for CMV using in situ hybridization. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was shown in the nuclei and cytoplasm of certain neurons and astrocytes in the borders of the necrotized temporal lobe areas by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and electron microscopy, whereas in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for CMV were negative in such areas. Necrotizing type 1 encephalitis must not be overlooked in immunodeficient patients. PMID:7709722

  14. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  15. Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanbin; Xiao, Juan; Song, Haiqing; Wang, Ralph; Hussain, Mohammed; Song, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare case of relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis in a-37-year-old patient which was previously confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and characterized on MRI. During the first admission, he was treated with continuous acyclovir treatment for one month with clinical improvement except for residual aphasia, for which he received a course of outpatient transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A constant current of 1.2 mA was applied for 20 min twice daily. After the 4th day the patient was found to be irritable and uncooperative by staff and family members. A subsequent MRI showed significant deterioration of the lesion on comparison to the first MRI which led to discontinuation of tDCS.The relatively rapid exacerbation of HSV in only a few days is unusual. Our aim is to discuss if tDCS is related to HSV relapse and in doing so highlight possible mechanisms.

  16. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  17. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits. PMID:26871494

  18. Revised evaluations for ENDF/B-VI Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on revised cross-section evaluations for 17 nuclides that have been prepared for ENDF/B-VI Revision 2. The nuclides considered include five fission products and various isotopes of cadmium and hafnium. The previous ENDF/B-VI evaluations for these 17 nuclides were carried over from ENDF/B-V and were completed in the 1974--1980 time period. By utilizing the experimental data that have become available since 1980 the revised evaluations will result in significant improvements in the evaluated nuclear data files. The primary emphasis was placed on the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, but new experimental data were also used to improve the cross sections for energies above the unresolved resonance region. Negative elastic scattering cross sections were encountered in some of the previous evaluations; since the revised evaluations use multilevel Breit-Wigner (MLBW) parameters, rather than single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW), this problem is eliminated.

  19. 77 FR 40315 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Docket ID No. EPA-R08- OAR-2011-1025, by one of the following methods: www.regulations.gov . Follow the... revisions are commonly referred to as ``NSR Reform'' and became effective nationally in areas not covered by... revised definitions. On April 10, 2012 (77 FR 21453), EPA published a notice of final rulemaking for...

  20. Accuracy of Revised and Traditional Parallel Analyses for Assessing Dimensionality with Binary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Redell, Nickalus; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Parallel analysis (PA) is a useful empirical tool for assessing the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis. On conceptual and empirical grounds, we argue for a revision to PA that makes it more consistent with hypothesis testing. Using Monte Carlo methods, we evaluated the relative accuracy of the revised PA (R-PA) and traditional PA…

  1. An Attempt to Revise Scoring Conventions for the Token and Reporter's Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; Jordan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Revised methods of scoring the Token Test and Reporter's Test were developed to accommodate specific types of errors committed by language-disordered children during a previous standardization study. Test modifications are explained as are the results of administering the revised tests to both normal and language-disordered school-aged children.…

  2. Value of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model in selecting topical antiviral formulations for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex type 1 disease.

    PubMed

    Poli, G; Dall'Ara, P; Binda, S; Santus, G; Poli, A; Cocilovo, A; Ponti, W

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent herpes simplex labialis represents a disease still difficult to treat, despite the availability of many established antiviral drugs used in clinical research since 30 years ago. Although differences between the human disease and that obtained in experimental animal suggest caution in predicting an effective clinical response from the experimental results, some of the animal models seem to be useful in optimising the topical formulation of single antiviral drugs. In the present work the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model was used to compare 5 different topical antiviral formulations with clinical promise (active molecule: 5% w/w micronized aciclovir, CAS 59277-89-3), using both roll-on and lipstick application systems. The aim being to evaluate which vehicle (water, oil, low melting and high melting fatty base) and application system (roll-on, lipstick) enhances the skin penetration and the antiviral activity of the drug, after an experimental intradermal infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). As reference, a commercial formulation (5% aciclovir ointment) was used. The cumulative results of this study showed that the formulation A, containing 5% aciclovir in an aqueous base in a roll-on application system, has the better antiviral efficacy in reducing the severity of cutaneous lesions and the viral titer; among the lipsticks preparations, the formulation D, containing 5% aciclovir in a low melting fatty base, demonstrates a very strong antiviral activity, though slightly less than formulation A. This experimental work confirms the validity of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model as a rapid and efficient method to compare the antiviral efficacy of new formulations, with clinical promise, to optimise the topical formulation of the active antiviral drugs. PMID:11413746

  3. Value of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model in selecting topical antiviral formulations for the treatment of recurrent herpes simplex type 1 disease.

    PubMed

    Poli, G; Dall'Ara, P; Binda, S; Santus, G; Poli, A; Cocilovo, A; Ponti, W

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent herpes simplex labialis represents a disease still difficult to treat, despite the availability of many established antiviral drugs used in clinical research since 30 years ago. Although differences between the human disease and that obtained in experimental animal suggest caution in predicting an effective clinical response from the experimental results, some of the animal models seem to be useful in optimising the topical formulation of single antiviral drugs. In the present work the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model was used to compare 5 different topical antiviral formulations with clinical promise (active molecule: 5% w/w micronized aciclovir, CAS 59277-89-3), using both roll-on and lipstick application systems. The aim being to evaluate which vehicle (water, oil, low melting and high melting fatty base) and application system (roll-on, lipstick) enhances the skin penetration and the antiviral activity of the drug, after an experimental intradermal infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). As reference, a commercial formulation (5% aciclovir ointment) was used. The cumulative results of this study showed that the formulation A, containing 5% aciclovir in an aqueous base in a roll-on application system, has the better antiviral efficacy in reducing the severity of cutaneous lesions and the viral titer; among the lipsticks preparations, the formulation D, containing 5% aciclovir in a low melting fatty base, demonstrates a very strong antiviral activity, though slightly less than formulation A. This experimental work confirms the validity of the dorsal cutaneous guinea pig model as a rapid and efficient method to compare the antiviral efficacy of new formulations, with clinical promise, to optimise the topical formulation of the active antiviral drugs.

  4. The a sequence is dispensable for isomerization of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome.

    PubMed

    Martin, D W; Weber, P C

    1996-12-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome consists of two components, L (long) and S (short), that invert relative to each other during productive infection to generate four equimolar isomeric forms of viral DNA. Recent studies have indicated that this genome isomerization is the result of DNA replication-mediated homologous recombination between the large inverted repeat sequences that exist in the genome, rather than site-specific recombination through the terminal repeat a sequences present at the L-S junctions. However, there has never been an unequivocal demonstration of the dispensability of the latter element for this process using a recombinant virus whose genome lacks a sequences at its L-S junctions. This is because the genetic manipulations required to generate such a viral mutant are not possible using simple marker transfer, since the cleavage and encapsidation signals of the a sequence represent essential cis-acting elements which cannot be deleted outright from the viral DNA. To circumvent this problem, a simple two-step strategy was devised by which essential cis-acting sites like the a sequence can be readily deleted from their natural loci in large viral DNA genomes. This method involved initial duplication of the element at a neutral site in the viral DNA and subsequent deletion of the element from its native site. By using this approach, the a sequence at the L-S junction was rendered dispensable for virus replication through the insertion of a second copy into the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of the viral DNA; the original copies at the L-S junctions were then successfully deleted from this virus by conventional marker transfer. The final recombinant virus, HSV-1::L-S(delta)a, was found to be capable of undergoing normal levels of genome isomerization on the basis of the presence of equimolar concentrations of restriction fragments unique to each of the four isomeric forms of the viral DNA. Interestingly, only two of these genomic isomers

  5. Screening of herpes simplex virus type 1 isolates for acyclovir resistance using DiviTum® assay.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Vödisch, Susanne; Bohn, Kathrin; Schacke, Michael; Gronowitz, Simon

    2013-03-01

    Rapid alternative methods are required to evaluate easily acyclovir (ACV) sensitivity of clinical herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolates. The objective of this study was to screen 54 ACV-sensitive and 41 ACV-resistant clinical HSV-1 isolates, well characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, for the phosphorylation activity of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) using a commercially available and modified non-radioactive DiviTum® test on the basis of an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The ACV-sensitive HSV-1 isolates had high TK activity values between 31.5±6.4 DiviTum® Units per liter (DU/L) and 487.4±60.1 DU/L. The mean activity of all ACV-sensitive isolates was calculated as 212.3±15.7 DU/L. By contrast, the mean activity of all ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates was significantly lower at 5.5±1.3 DU/L. Out of the 41 ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates, 38 had no or very low phosphorylation activities of the viral TK between 0 DU/L and 9.3±3.2 DU/L. The remaining three ACV-resistant viral isolates had TK activities between 44.6±5.1 DU/L and 80.9±13.3D U/L. In conclusion, the modified DiviTum® test can be used to screen HSV-1 isolates for their sensitivity to ACV. Acyclovir-sensitive HSV-1 isolates show TK activities >30 DU/L and ACV-resistant isolates have activity values <10 DU/L. However, single ACV-resistant HSV-1 isolates can have TK activity values >30 DU/L. These strains are most likely ACV-resistant TK-altered mutants, but no evidence was provided for an alteration of the TK.

  6. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Cancer.gov

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  7. Revision Process and Practice: A Kindergarten Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Many educators teach students that are reluctant about the revisions process in writing. However, this longitudinal study follows a group of students from kindergarten through 8th grade who embraced the importance of the revision process. (Contains 8 figures.)

  8. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics.

  9. Automated revision of CLIPS rule-bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick M.; Pazzani, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes CLIPS-R, a theory revision system for the revision of CLIPS rule-bases. CLIPS-R may be used for a variety of knowledge-base revision tasks, such as refining a prototype system, adapting an existing system to slightly different operating conditions, or improving an operational system that makes occasional errors. We present a description of how CLIPS-R revises rule-bases, and an evaluation of the system on three rule-bases.

  10. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

    PubMed

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period.

  11. Evaluation of new transport medium for detection of herpes simplex virus by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, J R; Hoffpauir, J T; Cole, E; Hood, K; Michael, D; Nguyen, T; Raden, S; Raju, B; Reisinger, V; Oefinger, P E

    1994-12-01

    The transport medium Multi-Microbe Media (M4) was evaluated prospectively by culture and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of herpes simplex virus from 473 specimens. In addition, 377 specimens in Bartels Viral Transport Medium were evaluated. By using culture as a "gold standard," the ELISA sensitivity was approximately 85%, while the specificities exceeded 96% for both media.

  12. Herpes simplex type 1 defective interfering particles do not affect the antiviral activity of acyclovir, foscarnet and adenine arabinoside.

    PubMed

    Harmenberg, J G; Svensson, L T

    1988-03-01

    The concentration of defective interfering particles (DI-particles) of herpes simplex type 1 virus was analysed by electron microscopy and plaque titration. Fifteen consecutive passages of undiluted virus in green monkey kidney cells were followed. No relationship was found between the concentration of DI-particles and the activity of antiviral substances such as acyclovir, foscarnet and adenine arabinoside.

  13. Mutations in the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase gene can confer resistance to 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine.

    PubMed Central

    Coen, D M; Furman, P A; Gelep, P T; Schaffer, P A

    1982-01-01

    Mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant to the antiviral drug 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) have been isolated and characterized. AraA-resistant mutants can be isolated readily and appear at an appreciable frequency in low-passage stocks of wild-type virus. Of 13 newly isolated mutants, at least 11 were also resistant to phosphonoacetic acid (PAA). Of four previously described PAA-resistant mutants, two exhibited substantial araA resistance. The araA resistance phenotype of one of these mutants, PAAr5, has been mapped to the HpaI-B fragment of herpes simplex virus DNA by marker transfer, and araA resistance behaved in marker transfer experiments as if it were closely linked to PAA resistance, a recognized marker for the viral DNA polymerase locus. PAAr5 induced viral DNA polymerase activity which was much less susceptible to inhibition by the triphosphate derivative of araA than was wild-type DNA polymerase. These genetic and biochemical data indicate that the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase gene is a locus which, when mutated, can confer resistance to araA and thus that the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase is a target for this antiviral drug. PMID:6284981

  14. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  15. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  16. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration.

  17. Collaborative Revision on a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Cynthia; Newton, Robert

    A study investigated the effects of using a computer image projected on a large screen to teach revision to college students. Subjects, 19 students at DePauw University, enrolled in a writing intensive literature course in a Writing across the Curriculum program, were divided into test and control groups. It was hypothesized that the modeling of…

  18. Copyright Revision and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Pierre-Yves

    Proposed revisions of Canada's copyright law are criticized for their failure to address some basic issues of creator's rights, and the academic community's legal responsibility in the infringement of copyrights is discussed. It is argued that the writers of the proposed changes have treated copyrights as property rights without due consideration…

  19. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  20. Ethnic Awareness Through Curriculum Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Michael Joseph

    This study compared the attitudes towards ethnic groups of high school students enrolled in a standard U.S. history course with the attitudes of students enrolled in a revised U.S. history course which emphasized ethnic awareness. A review of the literature indicated a need for ethnic awareness. The experimental group consisted of 16 students; the…

  1. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistler, K.; And Others

    The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May 1986 and then revised in June 1989. First, information on the college's Curriculum Committee is provided, indicating that the committee was formed to plan credit/non-credit courses; evaluate and approve additions, modifications, or…

  2. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  3. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  4. "SOAR" to the Stars through Revising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Explains how a teacher uses the acronym SOAR (Sentences Organized and Revised) as the core of a game designed to motivate a class to revise their work through the promise of popcorn, free time, or snacks for their revision work. Describes a worksheet that forces students to pay attention to various parts of their paper. (TB)

  5. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  6. The evolution of a manual revision.

    PubMed

    Luzinski, Craig

    2012-10-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® provides an in-depth overview of the Magnet Recognition Program's Application Manual revision process. The history of the 2005 Manual revision, an evidence-based review of the literature, and revisions to the 2008 Manual are key elements of this article. PMID:22968115

  7. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  8. Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Neurological Disorders. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    We are revising the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate disability claims involving neurological disorders in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). These revisions reflect our program experience; advances in medical knowledge, treatment, and methods of evaluating neurological disorders; comments we received from medical experts and the public at an outreach policy conference; responses to an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM); and public comments we received in response to a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) and a Federal Register notice that reopened the NPRM comment period. PMID:27373016

  9. Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Neurological Disorders. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    We are revising the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate disability claims involving neurological disorders in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). These revisions reflect our program experience; advances in medical knowledge, treatment, and methods of evaluating neurological disorders; comments we received from medical experts and the public at an outreach policy conference; responses to an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM); and public comments we received in response to a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) and a Federal Register notice that reopened the NPRM comment period.

  10. Course revision: from unidirectional knowledge to dynamic application.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Schorn, Mavis N

    2011-07-01

    There is a proliferation of educational technologies. Many nursing faculty want to incorporate new methods but lack information on best practices. The authors describe the course revision of an onsite course to move all unidirectional content transmission to an online course environment, thereby freeing up onsite course time for concept application and interactive quizzes using a classroom response system. The course revision had positive student evaluations and improved test scores. Students enjoyed being able to watch lectures when they were prepared to concentrate and felt the application of the content to patient care encouraged knowledge retention and application. This revision demonstrates effective use of a variety of teaching modalities to enhance student learning. PMID:21366167

  11. Nonthermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Suppresses Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Replication in Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Donovan, Kelly; Limonnik, Vladimir; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Herpes keratitis (HK) is the leading cause of cornea-derived and infection-associated blindness in the developed world. Despite the availability of effective antivirals, some patients develop refractory disease, drug-resistant infection, and topical toxicity. A nonpharmaceutical treatment modality may offer a unique advantage in the management of such cases. This study investigated the antiviral effect of nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, a partially ionized gas that can be applied to organic substances to produce various biological effects. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells and explanted corneas were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and exposed to culture medium treated with nonthermal DBD plasma. The extent of infection was measured by plaque assay, quantitative PCR, and Western blot. Corneal toxicity assessment was performed with fluorescein staining, histologic examination, and 8-OHdG detection. Results Application of DBD plasma–treated medium to human corneal epithelial cells and explanted corneas produced a dose-dependent reduction of the cytopathic effect, viral genome replication, and the overall production of infectious viral progeny. Toxicity studies showed lack of detrimental effects in explanted human corneas. Conclusions Nonthermal DBD plasma substantially suppresses corneal HSV-1 infection in vitro and ex vivo without causing pronounced toxicity. Translational Relevance Nonthermal plasma is a versatile tool that holds great biomedical potential for ophthalmology, where it is being investigated for wound healing and sterilization and is already in use for ocular microsurgery. The anti-HSV-1 activity of DBD plasma demonstrated here could be directly translated to the clinic for use against drug-resistant herpes keratitis. PMID:24757592

  12. Inactivation of acyclovir-sensitive and -resistant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro by photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Latief, Miftahul Akhyar; Ko, Ji-Ae; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Obana, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with the new porphyrin derivative TONS 504 and a light-emitting diode (LED) against acyclovir (ACV)-sensitive and -resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods Human FL cells infected with the viral strains were subjected to PACT with TONS 504 at various concentrations (0.01 to 10 mg/l) and irradiation at various light energies (10 to 30 J/cm2) and were then incubated for 24 h before analysis. Results Immunocytofluorescence analysis with antibodies to HSV-1 revealed that PACT eliminated HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV-1 in a manner dependent on the TONS 504 concentration and light energy. Complete eradication of both viruses was apparent at a TONS 504 concentration of 10 mg/l and light energy of 10 to 30 J/cm2 as well as at a TONS 504 concentration of 1 mg/l and light energy of 20 or 30 J/cm2. No antiviral effect was apparent with TONS 504 in the absence of irradiation or with irradiation in the absence of TONS 504. Staining of cell nuclei with 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole revealed no apparent cytotoxicity of the PACT system, a finding that was confirmed by the system’s failure to induce the release of lactate dehydrogenase from the host cells. Conclusions We conclude that our PACT system based on TONS 504 and an LED is effective for eliminating HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV-1 without a harmful effect on host cells. PMID:25999680

  13. Sexually transmitted infections among married women in Dhaka, Bangladesh: unexpected high prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Bogaerts, J; Ahmed, J; Akhter, N; Begum, N; Rahman, M; Nahar, S; Van Ranst, M; Verhaegen, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To document the prevalence of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women attending a basic healthcare clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to identify risk factors associated with the diseases and to estimate the incidence of syphilis, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Methods: A cross sectional sample of 2335 consecutive women was examined during 1996–8. Women were interviewed about risk factors for RTI/STI and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection as well as vaginal candidosis and bacterial vaginosis. Women with antibodies to T pallidum were retested at regular intervals. One year after ending the study seroconversion for syphilis, HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 infection was detected among women initially negative for the respective diseases. Results: The overall prevalence rate of N gonorrhoeae, C trachomatis, T vaginalis, and T pallidum infection was 0.5%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 2.9% respectively. Overall, 35% of the women had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, 0.9% had HCV, and 12% HSV-2 infection. Risk factors for gonorrhoea/C trachomatis infection were a husband not living at home or suspected of being unfaithful. HSV-2 infection was associated with the same risk factors and with a polygamous marriage. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among women "at risk" was 23%. HIV infection was not diagnosed. Repeated serological examination indicated that only 32% of women with serological evidence of syphilis had active disease. The seroincidences of HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 were 0.03, 0.007, and 0.009 per person year. Seroconversion for syphilis was not observed. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; genital herpes; Bangladesh PMID:11287690

  14. Incidence, Prevalence and Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 in HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; McGwin, Gerald; Wilson, Craig M.; Hook, Edward; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have assessed risk factors associated with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) prevalence in adults; however, few have focused on HSV-2 incidence, particularly in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine HSV-2 prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors in a HIV-1-positive and at risk HIV-1-negative adolescent population. Methods Sera were tested for HSV-2 antibodies in 518 adolescents in the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) cohort at baseline and again at the final follow-up visit. Prevalence at baseline and incidence (per person years) of HSV-2 infection were calculated. Furthermore, among HIV-1-positive individuals, a subgroup analysis was performed to assess risk factors for HSV-2 infection. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and p-values (p) for associations between CD4+ T-cell (CD4+) count, HIV-1 viral load (VL), and HSV-2 acquisition, adjusting for antiretroviral therapy use, other sexually transmitted infections, gender, race, and number of sexual partners. Results At baseline, 179 (35%) subjects were HSV-2 positive, with an additional 47 (16%) new cases being identified during a median follow-up time of 1.95 years and an incidence rate of 7.35 cases per 100 person years (py). Several risk factors were associated with HSV-2 prevalence (being female, non-Hispanic, uncertainty of sexual preference, and HIV-1 positive) and incidence (using drugs, alcohol, and number of new sexual partners). Among HIV-1 positives, an increase in CD4+ count by 50 cell/mm3 (OR, 1.17; 95% CI 1.04–1.31, p=0.008) was associated with HSV-2 acquisition. Conclusions The high prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infection among adolescents, compared to the general population at this age group suggests a critical need for screening and preventive programs among this targeted group. PMID:22421698

  15. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 SEROPOSITIVITY AMONG EVER MARRIED WOMEN IN SOUTH AND NORTH VIETNAM: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Hoa; Schoenbach, Victor J; Herrero, Rolando; Pham, Anh Thi Hoang; Nguyen, Hieu Trong; Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Muñoz, Nubia; Franceschi, Silvia; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Parkin, Max D; Snijders, Peter JF; Ashley, Rhoda; Smith, Jennifer S

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate herpes simplex virus type–2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and associated risk factors in Vietnamese women. Methods Cross-sectional study with personal interviews and gynecological examinations among population-based samples of ever married women, aged 15–69 years, living in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi in 1997. Type-specific IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected using HerpeSelect ELISA (Focus Diagnostics). Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. Results HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher in 1,106 women from HCMC (30.8%, 95% CI: 28.1–33.4, age-standardized to 2000 world standard population) than in 1,170 women from Hanoi (8.8%, 95% CI: 7.1–10.5). In HCMC, HSV-2 seroprevalence was higher for women who were not married, HPV DNA positive, current hormonal contraceptive users, or had a history of multiple sexual partners or spontaneous abortion. HCMC seroprevalence was inversely associated with educational attainment, age at first intercourse, and age at first pregnancy. In the multivariable model for HCMC, a trend of increasing HSV-2 seroprevalence with age was observed, and prevalence ratios were nearly identical to age-adjusted prevalence ratios for marital status, age at first pregnancy, and HPV DNA positivity. Conclusion HSV-2 was notably less prevalent in Hanoi than HCMC, where it was associated with traditional HSV-2 risk factors. These results are likely explained by socio-cultural, historical, economic, and demographic factors related to urban-rural and regional differences. Future population-based studies should include men and never-married women as a next step toward obtaining a more nearly complete picture of HSV-2 epidemiology in Vietnam. PMID:19617867

  16. Self-assembled or mixed peptide amphiphile micelles from Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins as potential immunomodulatory treatment.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Antonella; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Tesauro, Diego; Galdiero, Marilena; Finamore, Emiliana; Martora, Francesca; Mansi, Rosalba; Ringhieri, Paola; Morelli, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The use of micelle aggregates formed from peptide amphiphiles (PAs) as potential synthetic self-adjuvant vaccines to treat Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are reported here. The PAs were based on epitopes gB409-505 and gD301-309, selected from HSV envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and glycoprotein D (gD), that had their N-terminus modified with hydrophobic moieties containing two C18 hydrocarbon chains. Pure and mixed micelles of gB and/or gD peptide epitopes were easily prepared after starting with the synthesis of corresponding PAs by solid phase methods. Structural characterization of the aggregates confirmed that they were sufficiently stable and compatible with in vivo use: critical micelle concentration values around 4.0 ⋅ 10(-7) mol ⋅ Kg(-1); hydrodynamic radii (RH) between 50-80 nm, and a zeta potential (ζ) around - 40 mV were found for all aggregates. The in vitro results indicate that both peptide epitopes and micelles, at 10 μM, triggered U937 and RAW 264.7 cells to release appreciable levels of cytokines. In particular, interleukin (IL)-23-, IL-6-, IL-8- or macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2-, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-release increased considerably when cells were treated with the gB-micelles or gD-micelles compared with the production of the same cytokines when the stimulus was the single gB or gD peptide. PMID:24855352

  17. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that interferons-β and -γ Interact in a multiplicative manner to disrupt herpes simplex virus replication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, William P.; Halford, Keith J.; Pierce, Amy T.

    2005-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the innate interferons (IFNs), IFN-α and IFN-β, can act in concert with IFN-γto synergistically inhibit the replication of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The significance of this observation is not yet agreed upon in large part because the nature and magnitude of the interaction between IFN-α/β and IFN-γ is not well defined. In the current study, we resolve this issue by demonstrating three points. First, the hyperbolic tangent function, tanh (x  ), can be used to describe the individual effects of IFN-β or IFN-γ on HSV-1 replication over a 320,000-fold range of IFN concentration. Second, pharmacological methods prove that IFN-β and IFN-γ interact in a greater-than-additive manner to inhibit HSV-1 replication. Finally, the potency with which combinations of IFN-β and IFN-γ inhibit HSV-1 replication is accurately predicted by multiplying the individual inhibitory effects of each cytokine. Thus, IFN-β and IFN-γ interact in a multiplicative manner. We infer that a primary antiviral function of IFN-γ lies in its capacity to multiply the potency with which IFN-α/β restricts HSV-1 replication in vivo. This hypothesis has important ramifications for understanding how T lymphocyte-secreted cytokines such as IFN-γ can force herpesviruses into a latent state without destroying the neurons or leukocytes that continue to harbor these viral infections for the lifetime of the host.

  18. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sánchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M; Cerdà, Víctor

    2010-01-25

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I(2)/I(3)(-)), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I(2)/I(3)(-) in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I(2)/I(3)(-) with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I(2)/I(3)(-). Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L(-1) DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application. PMID:20103088

  19. Combination effect of oncolytic adenovirus therapy and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir in hepatic carcinoma animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei-qun; Xu, Yin; Yang, Ren-jie; Wu, Bin; Tan, Xiao-hua; Qin, Yi-de; Zhang, Qun-wei

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Oncolytic adenovirus, also called conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD), can selectively propagate in tumor cells and cause cell lysis. The released viral progeny can infect neighboring cancer cells, initiating a cascade that can lead to the ultimate destruction of the tumor. Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) offers a potential treatment strategy for cancer and is undergoing preclinical trials for a variety of tumors. We hypothesized that HSV-TK gene therapy combined with oncolytic adenoviral therapy would have an enhanced effect compared with the individual effects of the therapies and is a potential novel therapeutic strategy to treat liver cancer. Methods: To address our hypothesis, a novel CRAD was created, which consisted of a telomerase-dependent oncolytic adenovirus engineered to express E1A and HSV-TK genes (Ad-ETK). The combined effect of Ad-ETK and GCV was assessed both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice bearing HepG2 cell-derived tumors. Expression of the therapeutic genes by the transduced tumor cells was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: We confirmed that Ad-ETK had antitumorigenic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) both in vitro and in vivo, and the TK/GCV system enhanced oncolytic adenoviral therapy. We confirmed that both E1A and HSV-TK genes were expressed in vivo. Conclusion: The Ad-ETK construct should provide a relatively safe and selective approach to killing cancer cells and should be investigated as an adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:19363518

  20. Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinant thymidine kinase and its application to a rapid antiviral sensitivity assay.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Lixin, Wang; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Iizuka, Itoe; Ogata, Momoko; Tsuji, Masanori; Nishimura, Hidekazu; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Morikawa, Shigeru; Kurane, Ichiro; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    Antiviral-resistant herpesvirus infection has become a great concern for immunocompromised patients. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are treated with viral thymidine kinase (vTK)-associated drugs such as acyclovir (ACV), and most ACV-resistance (ACV(r)) is due to mutations in the vTK. The standard drug sensitivity test is usually carried out by the plaque reduction assay-based method, which requires over 10 days. To shorten the time required, a novel system was developed by the concept, in which 293T cells transiently expressing recombinant vTK derived from the test sample by transfection of the cells with an expression vector were infected with vTK-deficient and ACV(r) HSV-1 (TAR), and then cultured in a maintenance medium with or without designated concentrations of ACV, ganciclovir (GCV) and brivudine (BVdU). The replication of TAR was strongly inhibited by ACV, GCV and BVdU in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the ACV-sensitive HSV-1, whereas replication was not or slightly inhibited in cells expressing the recombinant vTK of highly resistant or intermediately resistant HSV-1, respectively. An inverse correlation was demonstrated in the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) and inhibitory effects of these compounds on the replication of TAR among ACV(s) and ACV(r) HSV-1 clones. These results indicate that the EC(50)s of the vTK-associated drugs including ACV can be assumed by measuring the inhibitory effect of drugs in 293T cells expressing recombinant vTK of the target virus. The newly developed antiviral sensitivity assay system for HSV-1 makes it possible to estimate EC(50) for vTK-associated drugs, when whole vTK gene is available for use by gene amplification directly from lesion's samples or from virus isolates.